WorldWideScience

Sample records for based jet quenching

  1. Holographic Jet Quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficnar, Andrej

    In this dissertation we study the phenomenon of jet quenching in quark-gluon plasma using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We start with a weakly coupled, perturbative QCD approach to energy loss, and present a Monte Carlo code for computation of the DGLV radiative energy loss of quarks and gluons at an arbitrary order in opacity. We use the code to compute the radiated gluon distribution up to n=9 order in opacity, and compare it to the thin plasma (n=1) and the multiple soft scattering (n=infinity) approximations. We furthermore show that the gluon distribution at finite opacity depends in detail on the screening mass mu and the mean free path lambda. In the next part, we turn to the studies of how heavy quarks, represented as "trailing strings" in AdS/CFT, lose energy in a strongly coupled plasma. We study how the heavy quark energy loss gets modified in a "bottom-up" non-conformal holographic model, constructed to reproduce some properties of QCD at finite temperature and constrained by fitting the lattice gauge theory results. The energy loss of heavy quarks is found to be strongly sensitive to the medium properties. We use this model to compute the nuclear modification factor RAA of charm and bottom quarks in an expanding plasma with Glauber initial conditions, and comment on the range of validity of the model. The central part of this thesis is the energy loss of light quarks in a strongly coupled plasma. Using the standard model of "falling strings", we present an analytic derivation of the stopping distance of light quarks, previously available only through numerical simulations, and also apply it to the case of Gauss-Bonnet higher derivative gravity. We then present a general formula for computing the instantaneous energy loss in non-stationary string configurations. Application of this formula to the case of falling strings reveals interesting phenomenology, including a modified Bragg-like peak at late times and an approximately linear path dependence. Based

  2. Jet quenching and heavy quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Renk, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Jet quenching and more generally physics at high transverse momentum P_T scales is a cornerstone of the heavy-ion physics program at the LHC. In this work, the current understanding of jet quenching in terms of a QCD shower evolution being modified by the surrounding medium is reviewed along with the evidence for this picture from light parton high P_T observables. Conceptually, the same QCD shower description should also be relevant for heavy quarks, but with several important modifications introduced by the quark masses. Thus especially in the limit of small jet energy over quark mass E_jet/m_q, the relevant physics may be rather different from light quark jets, and several attempts to explain the observed phenomenology of heavy quarks at high P_T are discussed here.

  3. Jet-quenching and correlations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fuqiang Wang

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews recent advances in our understanding of the experimental aspects of jet-quenching and correlations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Emphasis is put on correlation measurements, namely jet-like correlations with anisotropic flow subtraction in heavy-ion collisions and long-range pseudorapidity correlations in small systems. Future path on correlation studies is envisioned which may elucidate jet–medium interactions and the properties of the hot dense medium in QCD.

  4. Jet quenching from QCD evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yang-Ting; Emerman, Alexander; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Ovanesyan, Grigory; Vitev, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in soft-collinear effective theory with Glauber gluons have led to the development of a new method that gives a unified description of inclusive hadron production in reactions with nucleons and heavy nuclei. We show how this approach, based on the generalization of the DGLAP evolution equations to include final-state medium-induced parton shower corrections for large Q2 processes, can be combined with initial-state effects for applications to jet quenching phenomenology. We demonstrate that the traditional parton energy loss calculations can be regarded as a special soft-gluon emission limit of the general QCD evolution framework. We present phenomenological comparison of the SCETG -based results on the suppression of inclusive charged hadron and neutral pion production in √{sNN }=2.76 TeV lead-lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider to experimental data. We also show theoretical predictions for the upcoming √{sNN }≃5.1 TeV Pb +Pb run at the LHC.

  5. Jet quenching and direct photon production

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fu-Ming; Hirano, Tetsufumi; Werner, Klaus; Zhu, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Jet quenching effect has been investigated in the direct photon production, based on a realistic data-constrained (3+1) dimensional hydrodynamic description of the expanding hot and dense matter, a reasonable treatment of the propagation of partons and their energy loss in the fluid, and a systematic study of the main sources of direct photons. Our resultant $\\pt$ spectra agree with recent PHENIX data in a broad $\\pt$ range. Parton energy loss in the plasma eventually effect significantly dir...

  6. Event-Shape Engineering and Jet Quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Event-Shape Engineering (ESE) is a tool that enables some control of the initial geometry in heavy-ion collisions in a similar way as the centrality enables some control of the number of participants. Utilizing ESE, the path length in and out-of plane can be varied while keeping the medium properties (centrality) fixed. In this proceeding it is argued that this provides additional experimental information about jet quenching. Finally, it is suggested that if ESE studies are done in parallel for light and heavy quarks one can determine, in a model independent way, if the path-length dependence of their quenching differs.

  7. Holographic study on the jet quenching parameter in anisotropic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Luying

    2016-01-01

    We first calculate the jet quenching parameter of an anisotropic plasma with a U(1) chemical potential via the AdS/CFT duality. The effects of charge, anisotropy parameter and quark motion direction on the jet quenching parameter are investigated. We then discuss the situation of anisotropic black brane in the IR region. We study both the jet quenching parameters along the longitudinal direction and transverse plane.

  8. The conical flow from quenched jets in sQGP

    CERN Document Server

    Shuryak, E

    2007-01-01

    Starting with a reminder of what is strongly coupled Quark-Gluon Plasma (sQGP), we proceed to recent advances in jet quenching and heavy quark diffusion, with a brief summary of various results based on AdS/CFT correspondence. The conical flow is a hydrodynamical phenomenon created by energy and entropy deposited by high energy jets propagating in matter, similar in nature to well known sonic boom from the supersonic planes. After a brief review, we discuss excitations of two hydro modes -- sound and ``diffuson'' -- which can be excited in this way. We also study expanding matter case, with a variable sped of sound, and use adiabatic invariants to show that the parameter $v/T$ ($v$ velocity in the wave, $T$ temperature) is increasing, up to a factor 3, during expansion. At the end we discuss recent results of the Princeton group which derived conical flow from AdS/CFT.

  9. Jet quenching in heavy ion collisions at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lokhtin, Igor P

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the potential information about highly excited QCD-matter provided by medium-induced partonic energy loss, known as ``jet quenching''. In particular, with its large acceptance hadronic and electromagnetic calorimetry, the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at LHC collider is a promising device to study these effects. We present physics simulations of observables such as the jet distribution with impact parameter, the azimuthal anisotropy of jet quenching, and the effects of b-quark energy loss on the high-mass dimuon continuum and secondary charmonium production.

  10. Spacelike strings and jet quenching from a Wilson loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate stationary string solutions with spacelike worldsheet in a five-dimensional AdS black hole background, and find that there are many branches of such solutions. Using a non-perturbative definition of the jet quenching parameter proposed by Liu et al, hep-ph/0605178, we take the lightlike limit of these solutions to evaluate the jet quenching parameter in an N = 4 super Yang-Mills thermal bath. We show that this proposed definition gives zero jet quenching parameter, independent of how the lightlike limit is taken. In particular, the minimum-action solution giving the dominant contribution to the Wilson loop has a leading behavior that is linear, rather than quadratic, in the quark separation

  11. Modeling the jet quenching in hot and dense QCD matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lokhtin, I P; Petrushanko, S V; Snigirev, A M; Arsene, I; Tywoniuk, K

    2009-01-01

    One of the important perturbative ("hard") probes of hot and dense QCD matter is the medium-induced energy loss of energetic partons, so called "jet quenching", which is predicted to be very different in cold nuclear matter and in QGP, and leads to a number of phenomena which are already seen in the RHIC data on the qualitative level. The inclusion of jet quenching and other important collective effects, such as radial and elliptic flows, in the existing Monte-Carlo models of relativistic heavy ion collisions is discussed. Some issues on the corresponding physical observables at RHIC and LHC energies obtained with HYDJET++ model are presented.

  12. Modeling the jet quenching in hot and dense QCD matter

    OpenAIRE

    Lokhtin, I. P.; Malinina, L. V.; Petrushanko, S. V.; Snigirev, A. M.; Arsene, I.; Tywoniuk, K.

    2009-01-01

    One of the important perturbative ("hard") probes of hot and dense QCD matter is the medium-induced energy loss of energetic partons, so called "jet quenching", which is predicted to be very different in cold nuclear matter and in QGP, and leads to a number of phenomena which are already seen in the RHIC data on the qualitative level. The inclusion of jet quenching and other important collective effects, such as radial and elliptic flows, in the existing Monte-Carlo models of relativistic hea...

  13. From jet quenching to wave turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Iancu, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    We discuss average properties of the gluon cascade generated by an energetic parton propagating through a dense QCD medium. The cascade is mostly made with relatively soft gluons, whose production is not suppressed by the LPM effect. Unlike for usual QCD cascades in the vacuum, where the typical splittings are very asymmetric (soft and collinear), the medium-induced branchings are quasi-democratic and lead to wave turbulence. This results in a very efficient mechanism for the transport of energy at large angles with respect to the jet axis, which might explain the di-jet asymmetry observed in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC.

  14. Azimuthal anisotropy of jet quenching at LHC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I P Lokhtin; S V Petrushanko; L I Sarycheva; A M Snigirev

    2003-05-01

    We analyze the azimuthal anisotropy of jet spectra due to energy loss of hard partons in quark–gluon plasma, created initially in nuclear overlap zone in collisions with non-zero impact parameter. The calculations are performed for semi-central Pb–Pb collisions at LHC energy.

  15. Jet quenching in strongly coupled plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Chesler, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    We present calculations in which an energetic light quark shoots through a finite slab of strongly coupled ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) plasma, with thickness $L$, focussing on what comes out on the other side. We find that even when the "jets" that emerge from the plasma have lost a substantial fraction of their energy they look in almost all respects like "jets" in vacuum with the same reduced energy. The one possible exception is that the opening angle of the "jet" is larger after passage through the slab of plasma than before. Along the way, we obtain a fully geometric characterization of energy loss in the strongly coupled plasma and show that $dE_{\\rm out}/dL \\propto L^2/\\sqrt{x^2_{\\rm stop}-L^2}$, where $E_{\\rm out}$ is the energy of the "jet" that emerges from the slab of plasma and $x_{\\rm stop}$ is the (previously known) stopping distance for the light quark in an infinite volume of plasma.

  16. On Drag Forces and Jet Quenching in Strongly Coupled Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Caceres, E; Caceres, Elena; Guijosa, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    We compute the drag force experienced by a heavy quark that moves through plasma in a gauge theory whose dual description involves arbitrary metric and dilaton fields. As a concrete application, we consider the cascading gauge theory at temperatures high above the deconfining scale, where we obtain a drag force with a non-trivial velocity dependence. We compare our results with the jet-quenching parameter for the same theory, and find qualitative agreement between the two approaches. Conversely, we calculate the jet-quenching parameter for N=4 super-Yang-Mills with an R-charge density (or equivalently, a chemical potential), and compare our result with the corresponding drag force.

  17. Jet quenching and high-pt azimuthal asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Lokhtin, Igor P; Vitev, I

    2002-01-01

    The azimuthal anisotropy of high-pt particle production in non-central heavy ion collisions is among the most promising observables of partonic energy loss in an azimuthally non-symmetric volume of quark-gluon plasma. We discuss the implications of nuclear geometry for the models of partonic energy loss in the context of recent RHIC data and consequences for observation of jet quenching at the LHC.

  18. Measurements of jet quenching with semi-inclusive charged jet distributions in $Au+Au$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, P M

    2015-01-01

    We report measurements of jet quenching in $Au+Au$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=200 GeV, based on the semi-inclusive distribution of reconstructed charged particle jets recoiling from a high $p_T$ hadron trigger. Jets are reconstructed with the anti-k$_T$ algorithm ($R$=0.2 to 0.5), with low IR-cutoff of track constituents ($p_{T}>0.2$ GeV/c). Uncorrelated background is corrected using a novel mixed-event technique, with no fragmentation bias imposed by the correction procedure on the accepted recoil jet population. Corrected recoil jet distributions, reported in the range $0jet}^{ch}<30$ GeV/c, are used to measure jet yield suppression, jet energy loss, and intra-jet broadening. The first search for QCD Moli\\`ere scattering of jets in hot QCD matter at RHIC is reported.

  19. Where are jets quenched in relativistic heavy ion collisions?

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Jinfeng

    2009-01-01

    We study dependence of jet quenching on matter density, using ``tomography'' of the fireball provided by RHIC data on azimuthal anisotropy $v_2$ of high $p_t$ hadron yield at different centralities. Slicing the fireball into shells with constant (entropy) density, we derive an ``onionized geometrical limit'' $v_2^{max}$ which is indeed above the data $v_2T_c$. One possible reason for that may be recent indications that the near-$T_c$ region is a magnetic plasma of relatively light color-magnetic monopoles.

  20. A Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Approach to Jet Quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    We propose and explore a new hybrid approach to jet quenching in a strongly coupled medium. The basis of this phenomenological approach is to treat physics processes at different energy scales differently. The high-$Q^2$ processes associated with the QCD evolution of the jet from production as a single hard parton through its fragmentation, up to but not including hadronization, are treated perturbatively. The interactions between the partons in the shower and the deconfined matter within which they find themselves lead to energy loss. The momentum scales associated with the medium (of the order of the temperature) and with typical interactions between partons in the shower and the medium are sufficiently soft that strongly coupled physics plays an important role in energy loss. We model these interactions using qualitative insights from holographic calculations of the energy loss of energetic light quarks and gluons in a strongly coupled plasma, obtained via gauge/gravity duality. We embed this hybrid model ...

  1. Perturbative and nonperturbative aspects of jet quenching in near-critical quark-gluon plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiechen

    In this thesis, we construct two QCD based energy loss models to perform quantitative analysis of jet quenching observables in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and the LHC. We first build up a perturbative QCD based CUJET2.0 jet flavor tomography model that couples the dynamical running coupling DGLV opacity series to bulk data constrained relativistic viscous hydrodynamic backgrounds. It solves the strong heavy quark energy loss puzzle at RHIC and explains the surprising transparency of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at the LHC. The observed azimuthal anisotropy of hard leading hadrons requires a path dependent jet-medium coupling in CUJET2.0 that implies physics of nonperturbative origin. To explore the nonperturbative chromo-electric and chromo-magnetic structure of the strongly-coupled QGP through jet probes, we build up a new CUJET3.0 framework that includes in CUJET2.0 both Polyakov loop suppressed semi-QGP chromo-electric charges and emergent chromo-magnetic monopoles in the critical transition regime. CUJET3.0 quantitatively describes the anisotropic hadron suppression at RHIC and the LHC. More significantly, it provides a robust connection between the long wavelength ``perfect fluidity'' of the QGP and the short distance jet transport in the QGP. This framework paves the way for ``measuring'' both perturbative and nonperturbative properties of the QGP, and more importantly for probing color confinement through jet quenching.

  2. Jet Quenching and Holographic Thermalization with a Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Caceres, Elena; Yang, Di-Lun

    2012-01-01

    We investigate jet quenching of virtual gluons and thermalization of a strongly-coupled plasma with a non-zero chemical potential via the gauge/gravity duality. By tracking a charged shell falling in an asymptotic AdS$_{d+1}$ background for $d=3$ and $d=4$, which is characterized by the AdS-Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-Vaidya (AdS-RN-Vaidya) geometry, we extract a thermalization time of the medium with a non-zero chemical potential. In addition, we study the falling string as the holographic dual of a virtual gluon in the AdS-RN-Vaidya spacetime. The stopping distance of the massless particle representing the tip of the falling string in such a spacetime could reveal the jet quenching of an energetic light probe traversing the medium in the presence of a chemical potential. We find that the stopping distance decreases when the chemical potential is increased in both AdS-RN and AdS-RN-Vaidya spacetimes, which correspond to the thermalized and thermalizing media respectively. Moreover, we find that the soft gluon with ...

  3. Jet quenching and holographic thermalization with a chemical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Elena [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima,Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico); Theory Group, Department of Physics,University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kundu, Arnab [Theory Group, Department of Physics,University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Yang, Di-Lun [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2014-03-17

    We investigate jet quenching of virtual gluons and thermalization of a strongly-coupled plasma with a non-zero chemical potential via the gauge/gravity duality. By tracking a charged shell falling in an asymptotic AdS{sub d+1} background for d=3 and d=4, which is characterized by the AdS-Reissner-Nordström-Vaidya (AdS-RN-Vaidya) geometry, we extract a thermalization time of the medium with a non-zero chemical potential. In addition, we study the falling string as the holographic dual of a virtual gluon in the AdS-RN-Vaidya spacetime. The stopping distance of the massless particle representing the tip of the falling string in such a spacetime could reveal the jet quenching of an energetic light probe traversing the medium in the presence of a chemical potential. We find that the stopping distance decreases when the chemical potential is increased in both AdS-RN and AdS-RN-Vaidya spacetimes, which correspond to the thermalized and thermalizing media respectively. Moreover, we find that the soft gluon with an energy comparable to the thermalization temperature and chemical potential in the medium travels further in the non-equilibrium plasma. The thermalization time obtained here by tracking a falling charged shell does not exhibit, generically, the same qualitative features as the one obtained studying non-local observables. This indicates that — holographically — the definition of thermalization time is observer dependent and there is no unambiguos definition.

  4. Angular Structure of Jet Quenching Within a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of a hybrid strong/weak coupling model of jet quenching, we study the modification of the angular distribution of the energy within jets in heavy ion collisions, as partons within jet showers lose energy and get kicked as they traverse the strongly coupled plasma produced in the collision. To describe the dynamics transverse to the jet axis, we add the effects of transverse momentum broadening into our hybrid construction, introducing a parameter $K\\equiv \\hat q/T^3$ that governs its magnitude. We show that, because of the quenching of the energy of partons within a jet, even when $K\

  5. The non-linear evolution of jet quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Iancu, Edmond

    2014-01-01

    We construct a generalization of the JIMWLK Hamiltonian, going beyond the eikonal approximation, which governs the high-energy evolution of the scattering between a dilute projectile and a dense target with an arbitrary longitudinal extent (a nucleus, or a slice of quark-gluon plasma). Different physical regimes refer to the ratio $L/\\tau$ between the longitudinal size $L$ of the target and the lifetime $\\tau$ of the gluon fluctuations. When $L/\\tau \\ll 1$, meaning that the target can be effectively treated as a shockwave, we recover the JIMWLK Hamiltonian, as expected. When $L/\\tau \\gg 1$, meaning that the fluctuations live inside the target, the new Hamiltonian governs phenomena like the transverse momentum broadening and the radiative energy loss, which accompany the propagation of an energetic parton through a dense QCD medium. Using this Hamiltonian, we derive a non-linear equation for the dipole amplitude (a generalization of the BK equation), which describes the high-energy evolution of jet quenching. ...

  6. Heavy quark potential and jet quenching parameter in a D-instanton background

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Applying the AdS/CFT correspondence, two important quantities, heavy quark potential and jet quenching parameter, are calculated in a D-instanton background. This dual gravitational theory is related to a near horizon limit of stack of black D3-branes with homogeneously distributed D-instantons. It is shown that the presence of instantons affects heavy quark potential and jet quenching parameter.

  7. Supergravity and the jet quenching parameter in the presence of R-charge densities

    CERN Document Server

    Avramis, S D; Avramis, Spyros D.; Sfetsos, Konstadinos

    2007-01-01

    We employ the AdS/CFT correspondence to compute the jet quenching parameter for N=4 Yang-Mills theory at nonzero R-charge densities. Using as dual supergravity backgrounds non-extremal rotating branes, we find that the presence of the R-charges generically enhances the jet quenching phenomenon. However, at fixed temperature, this enhancement might or might not be a monotonically increasing function of the R-charge density and depends on the number of independent angular momenta describing the solution. We perform our analysis for the canonical as well as for the grand canonical ensemble which give qualitatively similar results.

  8. Dissecting the role of initial collision geometry for jet quenching observables in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Jiangyong

    2010-01-01

    The observation of large azimuthal anisotropy or $v_2$ for hadrons above $p_T>5$ GeV/$c$ in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm nn}}=200$ GeV has been a longstanding challenge for jet quenching models based on perturbative QCD (pQCD). Using a simple jet absorption model, we seek to clarify the situation by exploring in detail how the calculated $v_2$ varies with choices of the collision geometry as well as choices of the path length dependence and thermalization time $\\tau_0$ in the energy loss formula. Besides the change of eccentricity due to distortion from gluon saturation or event-by-event fluctuation, we find that the $v_2$ is also sensitive to the centrality dependence of multiplicity and the relative size between the matter profile and the jet profile. We find that the $v_2$ calculated for the naive quadratic path length dependence of energy loss, even including eccentricity fluctuation and the gluon saturation, is not enough to describe the experimental data at high $p_T$ ($\\sim$ 6 GeV/$c$) in Au+Au co...

  9. Study of jet quenching in heavy ion collisions at LHC using ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Štefko, Pavol

    2015-01-01

    Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is one of the most extreme states of matter which exists only in extraordinary conditions of heavy-ion collisions that can be achieved at particle accelerators. Interactions between the partons and the hot, dense QGP are expected to cause the loss of the jet energy, which is phenomenon called jet quenching. In this talk we provide an introduction to the problematics of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions and we show how the jet quenching can be used to analyze the properties of QGP. We also present some “work in progress” results of the jet analysis done on the data taken by the ATLAS detector during the 2011 heavy-ion run at the LHC. Jets are studied as a function of collision centrality and dijet energy imbalance. Dijets are observed to be increasingly asymmetric with increasing centrality. The study of charged particles indicates an increase of yields of low- p T tracks in events with strongly quenched jets

  10. Holographic light quark jet quenching at RHIC and LHC via the shooting strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new shooting string holographic model of jet quenching of light quarks in strongly coupled plasmas is presented to overcome the phenomenological incompatibilities of previous falling string holographic scenarios that emerged when confronted with the recent LHC data. This model is based on strings with finite momentum endpoints that start close to the horizon and lose energy as they approach the boundary. This framework is applied to compute the nuclear modification factor RAA of light hadrons at RHIC and LHC, showing that this model improves greatly the comparison with the recent light hadron suppression data. The effects of the Gauss–Bonnet quadratic curvature corrections to the AdS5 geometry further improve the agreement with the data

  11. Jet quenching effects on the anisotropic flow at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, R.P.G. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, SP, 09210-170 (Brazil); Noronha, J. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Denicol, Gabriel S. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2014-12-15

    In this article we investigate how the energy and momentum deposited by partonic dijets in the quark–gluon plasma may perturb the geometry-induced hydrodynamic expansion of the bulk nuclear matter created in heavy ion collisions at the RHIC. The coupling between the jets and the medium is done through a source term in the energy–momentum conservation equations for ideal hydrodynamics. We concentrate our attention at mid-rapidity and solve the equations event-by-event imposing boost-invariance. For p{sub T}≳1 GeV the anisotropic flow is found to be considerably enhanced, if the dijets deposit on average more than 12 GeV in the medium (or equivalently 6 GeV for each jet of the pair), which corresponds, in our model, to an average suppression greater than 65% of the initial jet transverse energy.

  12. Jet quenching effects on the anisotropic flow at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we investigate how the energy and momentum deposited by partonic dijets in the quark–gluon plasma may perturb the geometry-induced hydrodynamic expansion of the bulk nuclear matter created in heavy ion collisions at the RHIC. The coupling between the jets and the medium is done through a source term in the energy–momentum conservation equations for ideal hydrodynamics. We concentrate our attention at mid-rapidity and solve the equations event-by-event imposing boost-invariance. For pT≳1 GeV the anisotropic flow is found to be considerably enhanced, if the dijets deposit on average more than 12 GeV in the medium (or equivalently 6 GeV for each jet of the pair), which corresponds, in our model, to an average suppression greater than 65% of the initial jet transverse energy

  13. Maximum heat flux propagation velocity during quenching by water jet impingement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozumder, Aloke Kumar; Woodfield, Peter Lloyd; Ashraful Islam, Md.; Monde, Masanori [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    Maximum heat flux propagation characteristics during quenching of hot cylindrical blocks with initial temperature 250-600 C have been investigated experimentally using a subcooled water jet. When the wetted area starts moving towards the circumferential region, the heat flux reaches its maximum value and the position of maximum heat flux follows the visible leading edge of the wetting front. If wetting starts immediately after the jet strikes the surface, the velocity of this maximum heat flux point increases with the increase of jet velocity and subcooling and decreases with the increase of block initial temperature. These trends are opposite if there is a long delay before movement of the front. (author)

  14. Rapidity distribution of jet quenching effects on global observables

    CERN Document Server

    Lokhtin, Igor P; Zarubin, P I

    2002-01-01

    We discuss modification in the rapidity distribution of the transverse energy flow as a signal of medium-induced partonic energy loss in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. A scan of the global energy flow and jet rates in the wide rapidity region might provide the important information about the pseudo-rapidity size of a dense medium created in heavy ion collisions at the LHC.

  15. An analysis of the influence of background subtraction and quenching on jet observables in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Apolinario, Liliana; Cunqueiro, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Subtraction of the large background in reconstruction is a key ingredient in jet studies in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and the LHC. Here we address the question to which extent the most commonly used subtraction techniques are able to eliminate the effects of the background on the most commonly discussed observables at present: single inclusive jet distributions, dijet asymmetry and azimuthal distributions. We consider two different background subtraction methods, an area-based one implemented through the FastJet pack- age and a pedestal subtraction method, that resemble the ones used by the experimental collaborations at the LHC. We also analyze different ways of defining the optimal parame- ters in the second method. We use a toy model that easily allows variations of the background characteristics: average background level and fluctuations and azimuthal structure, but cross- checks are also done with a Monte Carlo simulator. Furthermore, we consider the influence of quenching using Q-PYTHIA o...

  16. On drag forces and jet quenching in strongly-coupled plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Elena [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Gueijosa, Alberto [Departamento de Fisica de Altas Energias, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-543, Mexico D.F.04510 (Mexico)

    2006-12-15

    We compute the drag force experienced by a heavy quark that moves through plasma in a gauge theory whose dual description involves arbitrary metric and dilaton fields. As a concrete application, we consider the cascading gauge theory at temperatures high above the deconfining scale, where we obtain a drag force with a non-trivial velocity dependence. We compare our results with the jet-quenching parameter for the same theory, and find qualitative agreement between the two approaches. Conversely, we calculate the jet-quenching parameter for N = 4 super-Yang-Mills with an R-charge density (or equivalently, a chemical potential), and compare our result with the corresponding drag force.

  17. Quenching of inclusive and tagged b-jets at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Hongxi; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vitev, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We present theoretical predictions for the nuclear-induced attenuation of the differential cross sections for inclusive and tagged b-jet production in heavy ion collisions at the LHC. We find that for inclusive b-jet production at high transverse momentum the mass effects are negligible, and that the attenuation is comparable to the one observed for light jets. On the other hand, for isolated-photon and B-meson-tagged b-jets the sample of events with heavy quarks produced at the early stages of the collision is greatly enhanced. Thus, these tagged b-jet final-states have a much more direct connection to the physics of b-quark energy loss. We present theoretical predictions for the quenching of such tagged b-jet events at the LHC and the QGP-induced modification of the related momentum imbalance and asymmetry. We demonstrate that these tagged processes can be used to accurately study the physics of heavy quark production and propagation in dense QCD matter.

  18. Disk-Jet quenching of the Galactic Black Hole Swift J1753.5-0127

    CERN Document Server

    Rushton, A P; Fender, R P; Altamirano, D; Gandhi, P; Uttley, P; Charles, P A; Kolehmainen, M; Anderson, G E; Rumsey, C; Titterington, D J

    2016-01-01

    We report on radio and X-ray monitoring observations of the BHC Swift J1753.5-0127 taken over a ~10 year period. Presented are daily radio observations at 15 GHz with the AMI-LA and X-ray data from Swift XRT and BAT. Also presented is a deep 2hr JVLA observation taken in an unusually low-luminosity soft-state (with a low disk temperature). We show that although the source has remained relatively radio-quiet compared to XRBs with a similar X-ray luminosity in the hard-state, the power-law relationship scales as $\\zeta=0.96\\pm0.06$ i.e. slightly closer to what has been considered for radiatively inefficient accretion disks. We also place the most stringent limit to date on the radio-jet quenching in an XRB soft-state, showing the connection of the jet quenching to the X-ray power-law component; the radio flux in the soft-state was found to be $<21~\\mu$Jy, which is a quenching factor of $\\gtrsim25$

  19. Gauge invariant definition of the jet quenching parameter $\\hat{q}$

    CERN Document Server

    Benzke, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We use the framework of Glauber extended Soft-Collinear Effective Theory to explicitly derive a gauge invariant expression of the jet quenching parameter $\\hat{q}$. The effective theory approach offers a systematic power counting scheme at the Lagrangian level and allows for a consistent treatment of the relevant scales in the problem. Employing this approach in a covariant gauge scenario lead to an expression for $\\hat{q}$ containing the expectation value of two light-cone Wilson lines. We find that in a general gauge, additional interaction terms in the Lagrangian have to be considered, leading to the introduction of transverse gauge links.

  20. Calculating the Jet Quenching Parameter $\\hat{q}$ in Lattice Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Majumder, Abhijit

    2012-01-01

    We present a framework where first principles calculations of jet modification may be carried out in a non-perturbative thermal environment. As an example of this approach, we compute the leading order contribution to the transverse momentum broadening of a high energy (near on-shell) quark in a thermal medium. This involves a factorization of a non-perturbative operator product from the perturbative process of scattering of the quark. An operator product expansion of the non-perturbative operator product is carried out and related via dispersion relations to the expectation of local operators. These local operators are then evaluated in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory.

  1. Measurement of jet quenching with semi-inclusive hadron-jet distributions in central Pb-Pb collisions at ${\\sqrt{\\bf{s}_{\\mathrm {\\bf{NN}}}}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Almaraz, Jesus Roberto Millan; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Zhang, Chunhui; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Hartmann, Helvi; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hilden, Timo Eero; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Kamal; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobayashi, Taiyo; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Lokesh, Kumar; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Legrand, Iosif; Lehas, Fatiha; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Masui, Hiroshi; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Minervini, Lazzaro Manlio; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Pant, Divyash; Papcun, Peter; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rivetti, Angelo; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Seeder, Karin Soraya; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Symons, Timothy; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tanaka, Naoto; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Vargas Trevino, Aurora Diozcora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2015-01-01

    We report the measurement of a new observable of jet quenching in central Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV, based on the semi-inclusive rate of charged jets recoiling from a high transverse momentum (high-$p_{\\rm T}$) charged hadron trigger. Jets are measured using collinear-safe jet reconstruction with infrared cutoff for jet constituents of 0.15 GeV/$c$, for jet resolution parameters $R = 0.2$, 0.4 and 0.5. Underlying event background is corrected at the event-ensemble level, without imposing bias on the jet population. Recoil jet spectra are reported in the range $20 < p_\\mathrm{T,jet}^\\mathrm{ch} < 100$ GeV/$c$. Reference distributions for pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 2.76$ TeV are calculated using Monte Carlo and NLO pQCD methods, which are validated by comparing with measurements in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV. The recoil jet yield in central Pb-Pb collisions is found to be suppressed relative to that in pp collisions. No significant medium-induced broadening of the intra...

  2. Extracting jet transport coefficient from jet quenching at RHIC and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Burke, Karen M; Chang, Ningbo; Gale, Charles; Gyulassy, Miklos; Heinz, Ulrich; Jeon, Sangyong; Majumder, Abhijit; Muller, Berndt; Qin, Guanyou; Schenke, Bjorn; Shen, Chun; Wang, Xin-Nian; Xu, Jiechen; Young, Clint; Zhang, Hanzhong

    2013-01-01

    Within five different approaches to parton propagation and energy loss in dense matter, a phenomenological study of experimental data on suppression of large $p_T$ single inclusive hadrons in heavy-ion collisions at both RHIC and LHC was carried out. The evolution of bulk medium used in the study for parton propagation was given by 2+1D or 3+1D hydrodynamic models which are also constrained by experimental data on bulk hadron spectra. Values for the jet transport parameter $\\hat q$ at the center of the most central heavy-ion collisions are extracted or calculated within each model, with parameters for the medium properties that are constrained by experimental data on the hadron suppression factor $R_{AA}$. For a quark with initial energy of 10 GeV we find that $\\hat q\\approx 1.1 \\pm 0.3$ GeV$^2$/fm at an initial time $\\tau_0=0.6$ fm/$c$ in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV/n and $\\hat q\\approx 1.9 \\pm 0.7 $ GeV$^2$/fm in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=2.76 $ TeV/n. Compared to earlier studies, these repre...

  3. Towards a hybrid strong/weak coupling approach to jet quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    We explore a novel hybrid model containing both strong and weak coupling physics for high energy jets traversing a deconfined medium. This model is based on supplementing a perturbative DGLAP shower with strongly coupled energy loss rate. We embed this system into a realistic hydrodynamic evolution of hot QCD plasma. We confront our results with LHC data, obtaining good agreement for jet RAARAA, dijet imbalance AJAJ and fragmentation functions.

  4. Predictions for Boson-Jet Observables and Fragmentation Function Ratios from a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet Quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We have previously introduced a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jet quenching in heavy ion collisions that describes the production and fragmentation of jets at weak coupling, using PYTHIA, and describes the rate at which each parton in the jet shower loses energy as it propagates through the strongly coupled plasma, dE/dx, using an expression computed holographically at strong coupling. The model has a single free parameter that we fit to a single experimental measurement. We then confront our model with experimental data on many other jet observables, focusing here on boson-jet observables, finding that it provides a good description of present jet data. Next, we provide the predictions of our hybrid model for many measurements to come, including those for inclusive jet, dijet, photon-jet and Z-jet observables in heavy ion collisions with energy $\\sqrt{s}=5.02$ ATeV coming soon at the LHC. As the statistical uncertainties on near-future measurements of photon-jet observables are expected to be much sm...

  5. Launching and Quenching of Black Hole Relativistic Jets at Low Accretion Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Pu, Hung-Yi; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic jets are launched from black hole (BH) X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei when the disk accretion rate is below a certain limit (i.e., when the ratio of the accretion rate to the Eddingtion accretion rate, $\\dot{m}$, is below about 0.01) but quenched when above. We propose a new paradigm to explain this observed coupling between the jet and the accretion disk by investigating the extraction of the rotational energy of a BH when it is surrounded by different types of accretion disk. At low accretion rates (e.g., when $\\dot{m}\\lesssim0.1$), the accretion near the event horizon is quasi-spherical. The accreting plasmas fall onto the event horizon in a wide range of latitudes, breaking down the force-free approximation near the horizon. To incorporate the plasma inertia effect, we consider the magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) extraction of the rotational energy from BHs by the accreting MHD fluid, as described by the MHD Penrose process. It is found that the energy extraction operates, and hence a ...

  6. Jet momentum dependence of jet quenching in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Siguang; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Dijet production in PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV is studied with the CMS detector at the LHC. A data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 150 inverse microbarns is analyzed. Jets are reconstructed using combined information from tracking and calorimetry. The dijet momentum balance and angular correlations are studied as a function of collision centrality and leading jet transverse momentum. For the most peripheral PbPb collisions, good agreement of the dijet momentum balance distributions with pp data and reference calculations at the same collision energy is found, while more central collisions show a strong imbalance of leading and subleading jet transverse momenta attributed to the jet-quenching effect. The dijet momentum imbalance in central collisions is found to persist for leading jet transverse momenta up to the highest values studied.

  7. The sign of active galactic nucleus quenching in a merger remnant with radio jets

    CERN Document Server

    Ichikawa, Kohei; Shidatsu, Megumi; Kawamuro, Taiki; Matsuoka, Kenta

    2015-01-01

    We investigate optical, infrared, and radio active galactic nucleus (AGN) signs in the merger remnant Arp 187, which hosts luminous jets launched in the order of $10^5$ yr ago but whose present-day AGN activity is still unknown. We find AGN signs from the optical BPT diagram and infrared [OIV]25.89 $\\mu$m line, originating from the narrow line regions of AGN. On the other hand, Spitzer/IRS show the host galaxy dominated spectra, suggesting that the thermal emission from the AGN torus is considerably small or already diminished. Combining the black hole mass, the upper limit of radio luminosity of the core, and the fundamental plane of the black hole enable us to estimate X-ray luminosity, which gives $<10^{40}$ erg s$^{-1}$. Those results suggest that the AGN activity of Arp 187 has already been quenched, but the narrow line region is still alive owing to the time delay of emission from the past AGN activity.

  8. Oxygen quenching in LAB based liquid scintillator and nitrogen bubbling

    CERN Document Server

    Hua-Lin, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen quenching effect in Linear Alkl Benzne (LAB) based liquid scintillator (LAB+3g/L POPOP+ 15 mg Bis--MSB) was studied by measuring the light yield as the function of nitrogen bubbling time. it shows that the light yield of fully purged liquid scintillator would increase of nearly 11% in room temperature and room atmosphere pressure. A simple model of nitrogen bubbling was built to describe the relationship between relative light yield (oxygen quenching factor) and bubbling time.

  9. The evolution of jet quenching form RHIC to the highest LHC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitev, Ivan

    2015-10-01

    Effective field theory (EFT) is a powerful framework based on exploiting symmetries and controlled expansions for problems with a natural separation of energy or distance scales. EFTs are particularly important in QCD and nuclear physics. An effective theory of QCD, ideally suited to jet applications, is Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET). Recently, first steps were taken to extend SCET and describe jet evolution in strongly-interacting matter. In this talk I will demonstrate that the newly constructed theory, called SCETG, allows us for the first time in more than a decade to go beyond the traditional energy loss approximation in heavy ion collisions and unify the treatment of vacuum and medium-induced parton showers. It provides quantitative control over the uncertainties associated with the implementation of the in-medium modification of hadron production cross sections and allows us to accurately constrain the coupling between the jet and the medium. I will further show how SCETG is implemented to present predictions for inclusive hadron suppression in Pb+Pb collisions at the highest LHC energies of 5.1 ATeV and discuss the relative significance of cold and hot nuclear matter effects.

  10. Jet momentum dependence of jet quenching in PbPb collisions at √(sNN)=2.76 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijet production in PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV is studied with the CMS detector at the LHC. A data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 150 μb-1 is analyzed. Jets are reconstructed using combined information from tracking and calorimetry, using the anti-kT algorithm with R=0.3. The dijet momentum balance and angular correlations are studied as a function of collision centrality and leading jet transverse momentum. For the most peripheral PbPb collisions, good agreement of the dijet momentum balance distributions with pp data and reference calculations at the same collision energy is found, while more central collisions show a strong imbalance of leading and subleading jet transverse momenta attributed to the jet-quenching effect. The dijets in central collisions are found to be more unbalanced than the reference, for leading jet transverse momenta up to the highest values studied.

  11. Jet momentum dependence of jet quenching in PbPb collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A.M.; Tumasyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Eroe, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Fruehwirth, R.; Ghete, V.M.; Hammer, J.; Hoermann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Krammer, M.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der OeAW, Wien (Austria); and others

    2012-06-06

    Dijet production in PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV is studied with the CMS detector at the LHC. A data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 150 {mu}b{sup -1} is analyzed. Jets are reconstructed using combined information from tracking and calorimetry, using the anti-k{sub T} algorithm with R=0.3. The dijet momentum balance and angular correlations are studied as a function of collision centrality and leading jet transverse momentum. For the most peripheral PbPb collisions, good agreement of the dijet momentum balance distributions with pp data and reference calculations at the same collision energy is found, while more central collisions show a strong imbalance of leading and subleading jet transverse momenta attributed to the jet-quenching effect. The dijets in central collisions are found to be more unbalanced than the reference, for leading jet transverse momenta up to the highest values studied.

  12. Jet quenching parameter of quark-gluon plasma in strong magnetic field: perturbative QCD and AdS/CFT correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shiyong; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2016-01-01

    We compute the jet quenching parameter $\\hat q$ of QCD plasma in the presence of strong magnetic field in both weakly and strongly coupled regimes. In weakly coupled regime, we compute $\\hat q$ in perturbative QCD at complete leading order (that is, leading log as well as the constant under the log) in QCD coupling constant $\\alpha_s$, assuming the hierarchy of scales $\\alpha_s eB\\ll T^2\\ll eB$. We consider two cases of jet orientations with respect to the magnetic field: 1) the case of jet moving parallel to the magnetic field, 2) the case jet moving perpendicular to the magnetic field. In the former case, we find $\\hat q\\sim \\alpha_s^2 (eB)T\\log(1/\\alpha_s)$, while in the latter we have $\\hat q\\sim \\alpha_s^2 (eB)T\\log(T^2/\\alpha_seB)$. In both cases, this leading order result arises from the scatterings with thermally populated lowest Landau level quarks. In strongly coupled regime described by AdS/CFT correspondence, we find $\\hat q\\sim \\sqrt{\\lambda}(eB)T$ or $\\hat q\\sim\\sqrt{\\lambda}\\sqrt{eB}T^2$ in the...

  13. Energy versus centrality dependence of the jet quenching parameter hat{q} at RHIC and LHC: a new puzzle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Carlota; Armesto, Néstor; Luzum, Matthew; Salgado, Carlos A.; Zurita, Pía

    2016-09-01

    The central goal of jet quenching studies in high-energy nuclear collisions is the characterization of those QCD medium properties that are accessible by these probes. Most of the discussion in the last years has been focused on the determination of the jet quenching parameter, hat{q}. We present here an extraction of this parameter using data of inclusive particle suppression at RHIC and LHC energies for different centralities. Our approach consists in fitting a K factor that quantifies the departure of this parameter from an ideal estimate, K≡ hat{q}/(2ɛ ^{3/4}), where hat{q} is determined by the local medium quantities as provided by hydrodynamical calculations. We find that this K factor is larger at RHIC than at the LHC, as obtained already in previous analyses, but, surprisingly, it is almost independent of the centrality of the collision. Taken at face value, the K factor would not depend on the local properties of the medium as energy density or temperature, but on global collision quantities such as the center of mass energy. This is a very intriguing, unexpected possibility for which we cannot yet provide a clear interpretation. We also comment on the limitations of the formalism that may affect this conclusion.

  14. Thermodynamics and jet-quenching in the quark-gluon plasma from an AdS/QCD model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilleskov, Elias; Bartz, Sean

    2015-10-01

    The Anti-de Sitter Space/Conformal Field Theory Correspondence (AdS/CFT) has been used to study both hadronic dynamics and the thermodynamics and jet quenching behavior of the quark-gluon plasma created in heavy ion collisions. We attempt to connect the two regimes by adapting an AdS/QCD model previously used to study meson spectra to apply to the quark-gluon plasma. The model includes three fields: a dilaton to introduce confinement, and chiral and glueball condensates to reflect the zero-temperature dynamics. We dynamically solve the Einstein field equations to numerically determine the metric, which asymptotically describes an anti-de Sitter-Schwarzschild black hole solution. We then numerically calculate the temperature as a function of the black hole horizon location. Next, we determine the behavior of the entropy density, the speed of sound, and the jet quenching parameter as functions of the temperature. These quantities approach the behavior of a conformal plasma in the high temperature limit. The minimum of the temperature-horizon plot is interpreted as the plasma's deconfinement temperature, found to be 104 MeV.

  15. Energy versus centrality dependence of the jet quenching parameter $\\hat q$ at RHIC and LHC: a new puzzle?

    CERN Document Server

    Andrés, Carlota; Luzum, Matthew; Salgado, Carlos A; Zurita, Pía

    2016-01-01

    The central goal of jet quenching studies in high-energy nuclear collisions is the characterization of those QCD medium properties that are accessible by these probes. Most of the discussion in the last years has been focused on the determination of the jet quenching parameter, $\\hat q$. We present here an extraction of this parameter using data of inclusive particle suppression at RHIC and LHC energies for different centralities. Our approach consists of fitting a $K$ factor that quantifies the departure of this parameter from an ideal estimate, $K\\equiv \\hat q/(2\\epsilon^{3/4})$, where $\\hat q$ is determined by the local medium quantities as provided by hydrodynamical calculations. We find that this $K$ factor is larger at RHIC than at the LHC, as obtained already in previous analyses, but, surprisingly, it is almost independent of the centrality of the collision. Taken at face value, the $K$ factor would not depend on the local properties of the medium as energy density or temperature, but on global collis...

  16. The Tricky Azimuthal Dependence of Jet Quenching at RHIC and LHC via CUJET2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiechen; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2014-01-01

    High transverse momentum neutral pion and charged hadron suppression pattern with respect to reaction plane at RHIC and LHC energy in central and semi-peripheral AA collisions are studied in perturbative QCD based CUJET2.0 model. CUJET2.0 has dynamical DGLV radiation kernel and Thoma-Gyulassy elastic energy loss, with both being generalized to including multi-scale running strong coupling as well as probability fluctuation, and full jet path integration is performed in low $p_T$ flow data constrained medium which has 2+1D viscous hydrodynamical expanding profile. We find that in CUJET2.0, with only one control parameter, $\\alpha_{max}$, the maximum coupling strength, fixed, the results of averaged nuclear modification factor $R_{AA}$ in all four AA collisions are consistent with corresponding experimental measurements. Simultaneous agreements with high $p_T$ azimuthal anisotropy $v_2$ data are reached given average $\\alpha_{max}$ over in and out of plane paths varying as less as 10%, which magnitude is allowe...

  17. The tricky azimuthal dependence of jet quenching at RHIC and LHC via CUJET2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jiechen [Department of Physics, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street, New York, NY (United States); Buzzatti, Alessandro [Department of Physics, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street, New York, NY (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gyulassy, Miklos [Department of Physics, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street, New York, NY (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA (United States); Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner RCP, HAS, 1121 Budapest, XII, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 29 (Hungary)

    2014-12-15

    High transverse momentum neutral pion and charged hadron suppression pattern with respect to reaction plane at RHIC and LHC energies in central and semi-peripheral AA collisions are studied in a perturbative QCD based model, CUJET2.0. CUJET2.0 has dynamical DGLV radiation kernel and Thoma–Gyulassy elastic energy loss, with both being generalized to including multi-scale running strong coupling as well as energy loss probability fluctuations, and the full jet path integration is performed in a low p{sub T} flow data constrained medium which has 2+1D viscous hydrodynamical expanding profile. We find that in CUJET2.0, with only one control parameter, α{sub max}, the maximum coupling strength, fixed to be 0.26, the computed nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in central and semi-peripheral AA collisions are consistent with RHIC and LHC data at average χ{sup 2}/d.o.f.<1.5 level. Simultaneous agreements with high p{sub T} azimuthal anisotropy v{sub 2} data are acquired given average α{sub max} over in-plane and out-of-plane paths varying as little as 10%, suggesting a non-trivial dependence of the high p{sub T} single particle v{sub 2} on the azimuthally varied strong coupling.

  18. Evidence of b-jet quenching in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Heracleous, Natalie; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Keaveney, James; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Dildick, Sven; Garcia, Guillaume; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Tikvica, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Elkafrawy, Tamer; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brochet, Sébastien; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Calpas, Betty; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Friederike; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Stein, Matthias; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Gosselink, Martijn; Haller, Johannes; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sibille, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Zeise, Manuel; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Ntomari, Eleni; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Gouskos, Loukas; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Anil; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Musenich, Riccardo; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Butt, Jamila; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; 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Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Lacroix, Florent; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; 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Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sakharov, Alexandre; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H

    2014-01-01

    The production of jets associated to bottom quarks is measured for the first time in PbPb collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon pair. Jet spectra are reported in the transverse momentum ($p_T$) range of 80-250 GeV, and within pseudorapidity abs($\\eta \\lt 2$). The nuclear modification factor ($R_{AA}$) calculated from these spectra shows a strong suppression in the b-jet yield in PbPb collisions relative to the yield observed in pp collisions at the same energy. The suppression persists to the largest values of $p_T$ studied, and is centrality dependent. The $R_{AA}$ is about 0.4 in the most central events, similar to previous observations for inclusive jets. This implies that jet quenching does not have a strong dependence on parton mass and flavor in the jet $p_T$ range studied.

  19. Experimental investigation of 150-KG-scale corium melt jet quenching in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magallon, D.; Hohmann, H.

    1995-09-01

    This paper compares and discusses the results of two large scale FARO quenching tests known as L-11 and L-14, which involved, respectively, 151 kg of W% 76.7 UO{sub 2} + 19.2 ZrO{sub 2} + 4.1 Zr and 125 kg of W% 80 UO{sub 2} + 20 ZrO{sub 2} melts poured into 600-kg, 2-m-depth water at saturation at 5.0 MPa. The results are further compared with those of two previous tests performed using a pure oxidic melt, respectively 18 and 44 kg of W% 80 UO{sub 2} + 20 ZrO{sub 2} melt quenched in 1-m-depth water at saturation at 5.0 MPa. In all the tests, significant breakup and quenching took place during the melt fall through the water. No steam explosion occurred. In the tests performed with a pure oxide UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt, part of the corium (from 1/6 to 1/3) did not breakup and reached the bottom plate still molten whatever the water depth was. Test L-11 data suggest that full oxidation and complete breakup of the melt occurred during the melt fall through the water. A proportion of 64% of the total energy content of the melt was released to the water during this phase ({approximately}1.5 s), against 44% for L-14. The maximum temperature increase of the bottom plate was 330 K (L-14). The mean particle size of the debris ranged between 2.5 and 4.8mm.

  20. Renormalization of the jet-quenching parameter [QUARK MATTER 2014: 24. international conference on ultrarelativisitc nucleus-nucleus collisions, Darmstadt, Germany, 19-24 May 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Mehtar-Tani, Yacine, E-mail: yacine.mehtar-tani@cea.fr

    2014-11-15

    In the context of the recently derived probabilistic picture of in-medium jet evolution, we study radiative corrections which yield potentially large double logarithms, α{sub s}ln{sup 2}⁡L, for large enough medium length L. We show that these large corrections are universal and can be reabsorbed in a renormalization of the jet quenching parameter controlling both momentum broadening and energy loss. We argue that the probabilistic description of these phenomena remains valid, in spite of the large non-locality in time of the radiative corrections. The renormalized jet-quenching parameter is enhanced compared to its standard perturbative estimate. As a particular consequence, the radiative energy loss scales with medium size L as L{sup 2+γ}, with γ=2√(α{sub s}N{sub c}/π), as compared to the standard scaling in L{sup 2}.

  1. Evidence of b-jet quenching in PbPb collisions at √(s(NN))=2.76  TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

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    2014-09-26

    The production of jets associated to bottom quarks is measured for the first time in PbPb collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon pair. Jet spectra are reported in the transverse momentum (p(T)) range of 80-250  GeV/c, and within pseudorapidity |η|same energy. The suppression persists to the largest values of p(T) studied, and is centrality dependent. The R(AA) is about 0.4 in the most central events, similar to previous observations for inclusive jets. This implies that jet quenching does not have a strong dependence on parton mass and flavor in the jet p(T) range studied. PMID:25302881

  2. Residual Stress Improved by Water Jet Peening for A Quenched Gear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Ying Ju; H. Tsuda; Vincent Ji; T. Uchiyama; R. Oba

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a running cost is cheap from the thing used for harmless peening treatment to the environment,health which an influence is rare in toward processing material like heat being only water fundamentally, and economical,and the characteristics is hard to get are given. There is some research about the residual stress improvement by water-jet peening during the high-speed water. In this study, a big bubble cloud ceremony water-jet peening which dissolves the problem of the form of the applicable thing by exposing the whole of the applicable thing in the big bubble cloud as the way of dealing with peening efficiently in a short time is proposed by this research. Moreover, the uniform compression residual stress is added around the surface of the processing side, and connected with the remarkable improvement of the fatigue strength of the part. Furthermore, and safety processing is very possible, and it thinks about the thing which has possible high practical use, and writers to get rid of the problems of the way of processing it with peening until now. Water-jet peening was given by this research during high-speed water with big bubble cloud-type water toward tooth gear manufactured by SCr420H3V2 to open the effect of water-jet peening during the high-speed water. A change was measured at the time as the sutra of the residual stress on the surface of the test settlement by the X-ray method, and the validity of this law was verified.

  3. Observation and studies of jet quenching in PbPb collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy = 2.76 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2011-08-01

    Jet production in PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV was studied with the CMS detector at the LHC, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6.7 inverse microbarns. Jets are reconstructed using the energy deposited in the CMS calorimeters and studied as a function of collision centrality. With increasing collision centrality, a striking imbalance in dijet transverse momentum is observed, consistent with jet quenching. The observed effect extends from the lower cut-off used in this study (jet transverse momentum = 120 GeV/c) up to the statistical limit of the available data sample (jet transverse momentum approximately 210 GeV/c). Correlations of charged particle tracks with jets indicate that the momentum imbalance is accompanied by a softening of the fragmentation pattern of the second most energetic, away-side jet. The dijet momentum balance is recovered when integrating low transverse momentum particles distributed over a wide angular range relative to the direction of the away-side jet.

  4. Observation and studies of jet quenching in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M.; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hartl, Christian; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; De Wolf, Eddi A.; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Beauceron, Stephanie; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Maes, Michael; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Ceard, Ludivine; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G.; Novaes, Sergio F.; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dyulendarova, Milena; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Marinova, Evelina; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A.; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr., Michael; Assran, Yasser; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J.; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Roxlo, Thomas; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Xiao, Hong; Megrelidze, Luka; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Masetti, Gianni; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Tonutti, Manfred; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Raval, Amita; Rosin, Michele; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Bauer, Julia; Buege, Volker; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Karafasoulis, Konstantinos; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A.; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Sikler, Ferenc; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Choudhary, Brajesh C.; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Dimitrov, Anton; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Marcellini, Stefano; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; Cimmino, Anna; De Cosa, Annapaola; De Gruttola, Michele; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Noli, Pasquale; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Berzano, Umberto; Ratti, Sergio P.; Riccardi, Cristina; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Volpe, Roberta; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Palma, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Seo, Eunsung; Shin, Seungsu; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A.; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H.; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R.; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Proskuryakov, Alexander; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Bona, Marcella; Breuker, Horst; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gennai, Simone; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiropulu, Maria; Stöckli, Fabian; Stoye, Markus; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguiló, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, E Augustine; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Wan-Ting; Dutta, Suchandra; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Demir, Zahide; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Halu, Arda; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bell, Peter; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Hartley, Dominic; Heath, Greg P.; Heath, Helen F.; Huckvale, Benedickt; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J.A.; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; MacEvoy, Barry C.; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Chandra, Avdhesh; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T.; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Cassel, David; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cooper, William; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Limon, Peter; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Quertenmont, Loic; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M.; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J.; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Issah, Michael; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Flood, Kevin; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Jet production in PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV was studied with the CMS detector at the LHC, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6.7 inverse microbarns. Jets are reconstructed using the energy deposited in the CMS calorimeters and studied as a function of collision centrality. With increasing collision centrality, a striking imbalance in dijet transverse momentum is observed, consistent with jet quenching. The observed effect extends from the lower cut-off used in this study (jet transverse momentum = 120 GeV/c) up to the statistical limit of the available data sample (jet transverse momentum approximately 210 GeV/c). Correlations of charged particle tracks with jets indicate that the momentum imbalance is accompanied by a softening of the fragmentation pattern of the second most energetic, away-side jet. The dijet momentum balance is recovered when integrating low transverse momentum particles distributed over a wide angular range relativ...

  5. Robustness and Consistency of Jet Quenching and Perfect Fluidity in semi Quark Gluon Monopole Plasmas (sQGMP) Produced at RHIC and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiechen; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2015-01-01

    A new model (CUJET3.0) of jet quenching in nuclear collisions coupled to bulk data constrained (VISH2+1D) viscous hydrodynamic backgrounds is constructed by generalizing the perturbative QCD based (CUJET2.0) model to include possible non-perturbative chromodynamical features of the QCD confinement transition near $T_c\\approx 160$ MeV. Two competing mechanisms are considered: (1) the suppression of quark and gluon chromo-electric-charged (cec) degrees of freedom (aka the semi-QGP model of Pisarski et al) and (2) the emergence of chromo-magnetic-monopole (cmm) degrees of freedom (aka the magnetic scenario of Shuryak-Liao). This semi Quark Gluon Monopole Plasma (sQGMP) model depends on two free parameters: (1) the saturating value of the QCD running coupling $\\alpha_c$ below $T_c$ and (2) the ratio $c_m$ of color electric to magnetic screening scales. The value of $\\alpha_c$ is fixed by fitting to a $single$ LHC reference datum, $R^{ch}_{PbPb}(p_T=12{\\rm GeV/c})\\approx 0.3$ for 20-30% centrality. Consistency is ...

  6. Optical quenching of X-ray photoconductor based on GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray photoconductor based on GaN have been made by using advanced semiconductor microfabrication technology. Optical quenching phenomenon of GaN X-ray detector was presented. The photocurrent had a mutation when the fluorescent light was turned on and off. Experiments have been carried out to analyze the optical quenching and current mutation phenomenons. The results have indicated that optical quenching effect associates with a hole trap and recombination centers, while the current mutation results from a UV light which excited the electron from valence band to conduction band. (authors)

  7. Decomposing energy balance contributions for quenched jets in PbPb versus pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The angular distribution of charged particle momenta in relative pseudorapidity ($\\Delta \\eta$) and relative azimuth ($\\Delta \\phi$) with respect to a sample of high transverse momentum dijets is utilized to study the momentum balance of jet fragments in heavy-ion collisions, which is potentially modified due to jet quenching in the Quark Gluon Plasma. This analysis compares the contributions of charged particles of different transverse momenta to study the overall event energy balance in PbPb versus pp collisions using data collected in 2011 and 2013, respectively, at collision energies $\\sqrt{\\rm s_{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV with integrated luminosities of 166 $\\mu \\rm{b}^{-1}$ and 5.3 pb$^{-1}$. Distributions of momentum with respect to leading and subleading transverse momentum jets are studied individually, and are decomposed into contributions from jet cones and a long range event-wise azimuthal asymmetry in particle momenta. Results are presented as a function of PbPb collision centrality, track transverse mome...

  8. Dissolved oxygen sensing based on fluorescence quenching of ceria nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Nader; Meehan, Kathleen; Leber, Donald

    2012-10-01

    The development of oxygen sensors has positively impacted the fields of medical science, bioengineering, environmental monitoring, solar cells, industrial process control, and a number of military applications. Fluorescent quenching sensors have an inherent high sensitivity, chemical selectivity, and stability when compared to other types of sensors. While cerium oxide thin films have been used to monitor oxygen in the gas phase, the potential of cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles as the active material in sensor for oxygen gas has only recently been investigated. Ceria nanoparticles are one of the most unique nanomaterials that are being studied today due to the diffusion and reactivity of its oxygen vacancies, which contributes to its high oxygen storage capability. The reactivity of the oxygen vacancies, which is also related to conversion of cerium ion from the Ce+4 to Ce+3 state, affects the fluorescence properties of the ceria nanoparticles. Our research demonstrates that the ceria nanoparticles (~7 nm in diameter) have application as a fluorescence quenching sensor to measure dissolved oxygen in water. We have found a strong inverse correlation between the amplitude of the fluorescence emission (λexcitation = 430 nm and λpeak = 520 nm) and the dissolved oxygen concentration between 5 - 13 mg/L. The Stern-Volmer constant, which is an indication of the sensitivity of gas sensing is 184 M-1 for the ceria nanoparticles. The results show that ceria nanoparticles can be used in an improved, robust fluorescence sensor for dissolved oxygen in a liquid medium.

  9. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles (TiO 2 ) Quenching Based Aptasensing Platform: Application to Ochratoxin A Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Sharma; Akhtar Hayat; Mishra, Rupesh K.; Gaëlle Catanante; Sunil Bhand; Jean Louis Marty

    2015-01-01

    International audience We demonstrate for the first time, the development of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) quenching based aptasensing platform for detection of target molecules. TiO2 quench the fluorescence of FAM-labeled aptamer (fluorescein labeled aptamer) upon the non-covalent adsorption of fluorescent labeled aptamer on TiO2 surface. When OTA interacts with the aptamer, it induced aptamer G-quadruplex complex formation, weakens the interaction between FAM-labeled aptamer and ...

  10. Characteristics on Bi-Pb Based Alloys Quenched from Melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rizk Mostafa Shalaby

    2009-01-01

    Three different bismuth-lead systems namely, Wood's alloy (Bi50Pb25Sn12.5Cd12.5), Newton's alloy (Bi50Pb31.2Sn18.8) and Rose's alloy (Bi50Pb28Sn22), with one used as fusible alloys were quenched from melt by melt spinning technique. Thermal analysis, structure and mechanical properties of all alloys have been studied and analyzed. From X-ray diffraction analysis, an intermetallic compound phase, designated Pb7Bi3 is detected. The formation of an intermetallic compound phase causes a pronounced increase in the electrical resistivity. The Wood's alloy containing-cadmium exhibits mechanical properties superior to both the Newton's and Rose's alloys. The presence of cadmium in Wood's alloy decreases its melting point. Wood's alloy has better properties, which make it useful in various applications such as in protection shields for radiotherapy, locking of mechanical devices and welding at low temperature.

  11. Jet-Based Local Image Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo; Darkner, Sune; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg;

    2012-01-01

    We present a general novel image descriptor based on higherorder differential geometry and investigate the effect of common descriptor choices. Our investigation is twofold in that we develop a jet-based descriptor and perform a comparative evaluation with current state-of-the-art descriptors...... on the recently released DTU Robot dataset. We demonstrate how the use of higher-order image structures enables us to reduce the descriptor dimensionality while still achieving very good performance. The descriptors are tested in a variety of scenarios including large changes in scale, viewing angle and lighting...

  12. Fluorescence Quenching Study on the Interaction of Some Schiff Base Complexes with Bovine Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI,Ping; ZHANG,Li-Xia; LIU,Yi; CAI,Li-Hua; HU,Pei-Zhi

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of Schiff base ligand A and its three metal complexes[A-Fe(Ⅱ), A-Cu(Ⅱ), and A-Zn(Ⅱ)] with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using a tryptophan fluorescence quenching method. The Schiff base ligand A and its three metal complexes all showed quenching of BSA fluorescence in a Tris-HCl buffer. Quenching constants were determined for quenching BSA by the Schiff base ligand A and its metal complexes in a Tris-HCl buffer (pH=7.4) at different temperatures. The experimental results show that the dynamic quenching constant (KSV) was increased with increasing temperature, whereas the association constant (K) was decreased with the in crease of temperature. The thermodynamic parameters ΔH, ΔG and ΔS at different temperatures were calculated.The ionic strength of the Tris-HCl buffer had a great influence on the wavelength of maximum emission of BSA.Under low ionic strength, the emission spectra of BSA influenced by A-Zn(Ⅱ) had a small blue shift. Compared to A-Zn(Ⅱ), the emission spectra of BSA in the presence of the Schiff base ligand A and A-Cu(Ⅱ) had no significant λem shift. At high ionic strength, the emission spectra of BSA upon addition of the Schiff base A, A-Fe(Ⅱ), and A-Zn(Ⅱ) all had a red shift, but the emission spectra of BSA had λem shift neither at low ionic strength, nor at high ionic strength in the presence of A-Cu(Ⅱ). Furthermore, the temperature did not affect the λem shift of BSA emission spectra.

  13. Novel Spectrofluorimetric Method for the Determination of Perindopril Erbumine Based on Fluorescence Quenching of Rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fael, Hanan; Sakur, Amir Al-Haj

    2015-11-01

    A novel, simple and specific spectrofluorimetric method was developed and validated for the determination of perindopril erbumine (PDE). The method is based on the fluorescence quenching of Rhodamine B upon adding perindopril erbumine. The quenched fluorescence was monitored at 578 nm after excitation at 500 nm. The optimization of the reaction conditions such as the solvent, reagent concentration, and reaction time were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the fluorescence quenching was linear over a concentration range of 1.0-6.0 μg/mL. The proposed method was fully validated and successfully applied to the analysis of perindopril erbumine in pure form and tablets. Statistical comparison of the results obtained by the developed and reference methods revealed no significant differences between the methods compared in terms of accuracy and precision. The method was shown to be highly specific in the presence of indapamide, a diuretic that is commonly combined with perindopril erbumine. The mechanism of rhodamine B quenching was also discussed. PMID:26438658

  14. Probing the inner jet of M87; from the jet base to HST-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hada Kazuhiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The giant radio galaxy M87 accompanies one of the nearest Active-Galactic-Nuclei jets showing the intense radiation through radio to TeV gamma-ray. Its proximity and the large mass of the central black hole provide an excellent advantage to probe the sites of jet formation and gamma-ray production. Here we review some of our recent studies for the inner jet of M87 based on the multi-frequency and multi-epoch VLBI observations, especially focusing on the two remarkable regions i.e., the jet base near the black hole and the peculiar feature HST-1. Our multi-frequency observations with the phase-referencing technique revealed the detailed structure of the jet base region regarding the location of the central engine and the collimation profile. In terms of HST-1, the intense multi-epoch VLBI monitoring constrained the accurate kinematic properties and the structural variations in this complicated feature, together with a possible connection to the gamma-ray activities. At the end of this contribution, we briefly describe our new monitoring project for M87 with VERA, which permits a detailed study on the structural evolution in the jet base region.

  15. Luminescence Quenching Behavior of Oxygen Sensing ORMOSIL Films Based on Ruthenium Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) based optical sensor response to gaseous O2 or O2 dissolved in water is presented. The oxygen sensing film mechanism is based on the principle of fluorescence quenching of tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium ( Ⅱ )([Ru(dpp)3]2+), which has been entrapped in a porous ORMOSIL film. In order to establish optimum film-processing parameters, comprehensive investigations, including the effects of the polarity and the hydrophobicity of the sensing film on oxygen quenching response and response time, were carried out. The film hydrophobicity increased as a function of dimethyldimethoxysilane (DiMe-DMOS) content, which is correlated with enhanced oxygen sensor performance. The sensor developed in the present work exhibits the advantages of fast response time and good reversibility. The detection limits are 0. 50% and 0. 3μg/Ml for O2 in the gaseous and the aqueous phases, respectively.

  16. An FPGA-based quench detection and protection system for superconducting accelerator magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carcagno, R.H.; Feher, S.; Lamm, M.; Makulski, A.; Nehring, R.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Tartaglia, M.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    A new quench detection and protection system for superconducting accelerator magnets was developed for the Fermilab's Magnet Test Facility (MTF). This system is based on a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) module, and it is made of mostly commercially available, integrated hardware and software components. It provides all the functions of our existing VME-based quench detection and protection system, but in addition the new system is easily scalable to protect multiple magnets powered independently and a more powerful user interface and analysis tools. The new system has been used successfully for testing LHC Interaction Region Quadrupoles correctors and High Field Magnet HFDM04. In this paper we describe the system and present results.

  17. Microtiterplate phosphate assay based on luminescence quenching of a terbium complex amenable to decay time detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a terbium-ligand complex (TbL) for a microtiterplate assay for phosphate (P) in the 0.3-100 μmol L-1 range based on luminescence quenching. As the pH optimum is at neutral pH (7.4) the probe is quenched by both, primary (H2PO4-) and secondary phosphate (HPO42-). The LOD is 110 nmol L-1. A Stern-Volmer study revealed that quenching is mostly static. Due to the ms-decay time of TbL, the first luminescence lifetime assay for phosphate could also be developed. The lifetime-based calibration plot is linear between 0.5 and 5 μmol L-1 of P. The effect of various surfactants on assay performance and a study on interferents are presented. The probe was successfully applied to determination of P in commercial plant fertilizers and validated against the molybdenum blue test. The probe is the most sensitive lanthanide-based probe for phosphate.

  18. Thermal and Rheological Properties of Water-based Ferrofluids and Their Applicability as Quenching Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Župan, Josip; Renjo, Marijana Majić

    Water-based ferrofluids present a new energy transfer fluid with tunable properties. Previous research has shown the increase in thermal conductivity of water-based nanofluids with the addition of iron oxide. Such increased thermal properties show great potential for use in heat transfer. In this paper, several nanofluids were prepared with two step method. Iron (II, III) oxide nanoparticles with average paerticle size less than 50 nm were added to deionized water in following concentration: 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 g/L. Their thermal and rheological properties were measured at 20, 40 and 60 °C. Results showed increase in thermal conductivity and viscosity with increase in the addition of nanoparticles at all three temperature levels. The biggest increase was observed at 20 °C. For this research, all of the prepared nanofluids were tested as immersion quenching liquid according to ISO 9950 standard. Besides still conditions, quenching experiments were conducted under the magnetic field at two levels, 500 and 1000 Gauss. The magnetic field effect was least present at 60 °C with almost no influence on the cooling curve and cooling rates. At lower temperature levels quenching under the magnetic field shortened the full film boiling phase and increased the maximum cooling rate.

  19. Self-quenching DNA probes based on aggregation of fluorescent dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Gabriela; Muller, Matthias; Hafner, Bernhard; Habl, Gregor; Nolte, Oliver; Marme, Nicole; Knemeyer, Jens-Peter

    2005-04-01

    Here we present a novel class of self-quenching, double-labeled DNA probes based on the formation of non fluorescent H-type dye dimers. We therefore investigated the aggregation behavior of the red-absorbing oxazine derivative MR121 and found a dimerization constant of about 3000 M-1. This dye was successfully used to develop hairpin-structured as well as linear self-quenching DNA probes that report the presence of the target DNA by an increase of the fluorescence intensity by a factor of 3 to 12. Generally fluorescence quenching of the hairpin-structure probes is more efficient compared to the linear probes, whereas the kinetic of the fluorescence increase is significantly slower. The new probes were used for the identification of different mycobacteria and their antibiotic resistant species. As a test system a probe for the identification of a DNA sequence specific for the Mycobacterium xenopi was synthesized differing from the sequence of the Mycobacterium fortuitum by 6 nucleotides. Furthermore we developed a method for the discrimination between the sequences of the wild type and an antibiotic resistant species of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Both sequences differ by just 2 nucleotides and were detected specifically by the use of competing olignonucleotides.

  20. Modelisation of γ' precipitation during the quench of Ni base PM superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel base alloys used in turbine disks have a good thermal mechanical resistance to precipitation of the ordered phase (Ni3Al) in the austenitic matrix γ. Precipitation of the intragranular γ' phase is studied on quenched samples by dilatometry and particles size distribution by TEM on the super alloy N18 (Co15.5Cr11.4Al4.3Ti4.3 Mo6.4). Experimental results are compared to a model based on nucleation and coalescence classical equations. (A.B.). 7 refs

  1. Quench limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With thirteen beam induced quenches and numerous Machine Development tests, the current knowledge of LHC magnets quench limits still contains a lot of unknowns. Various approaches to determine the quench limits are reviewed and results of the tests are presented. Attempt to reconstruct a coherent picture emerging from these results is taken. The available methods of computation of the quench levels are presented together with dedicated particle shower simulations which are necessary to understand the tests. The future experiments, needed to reach better understanding of quench limits as well as limits for the machine operation are investigated. The possible strategies to set BLM (Beam Loss Monitor) thresholds are discussed. (author)

  2. New numerical model for thermal quenching mechanism in quartz based on two-stage thermal stimulation of thermoluminescence model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kadari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal quenching plays an important role in the thermoluminescence (TL of quartz on which many applications of TL are based. The studies of the stability and kinetics of the 325 °C thermoluminescence peak in quartz are described by Wintle (1975, which show the occurrence of thermal quenching, the decrease in luminescence efficiency with rise in temperature. The thermal quenching of thermoluminescence in quartz was studied experimentally by several authors. The simulations work presented in the literature is based on the single-stage thermal stimulation model of thermoluminescence, in spite of that the mechanisms of this effect remain incomplete. This paper presents a new numerical model for thermal quenching in quartz, using the previously published two-stage thermal stimulation of thermoluminescence model.

  3. Modelling the thermal quenching mechanism in quartz based on time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagonis, V.; Ankjærgaard, Christina; Murray, Andrew;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new numerical model for thermal quenching in quartz, based on the previously suggested Mott–Seitz mechanism. In the model electrons from a dosimetric trap are raised by optical or thermal stimulation into the conduction band, followed by an electronic transition from the...... conduction band into an excited state of the recombination center. Subsequently electrons in this excited state undergo either a direct radiative transition into a recombination center, or a competing thermally assisted non-radiative process into the ground state of the recombination center. As the...

  4. Superplastic solid state welding steel and copper alloy based on laser quenching of steel surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ke-ke; HAN Cai-xia; QUAN Shu-li; CHENG Guang-hui; YANG Jie; YANG Yun-lin

    2005-01-01

    Based on the feasibility of isothermal superplastic solid state welding of steel and copper alloy, the welded surface of steel surface was ultra-fined through laser quenching, and then the welding process tests between different base metals of 40Cr and QCr0.5 were made under the condition of non vacuum and non shield gas. The experimental results show that, with the sample surface of steel after laser quenching and that of copper alloy carefully cleaned, and under the pre-pressed stress of 56.6 -84.9 MPa, at the welding temperature of 750 -800 ℃ and at initial strain rate of (2.5 - 7.5) × 10-4 s-1 , the solid state welding can be finished in 120 - 180 s so that the strength of the joint is up to that of QCr0.5 base metal and the expansion rate of the joint does not exceed 6%. The plastic deformation of the joint was further analysed. The superplastic deformation of the copper alloy occurs in welding process and the deformation of steel are little.

  5. Application of BW Water Base Quenching Liquid in Aluminum-ally Sheet Metal Component Quenching%BW水基淬火液在铝合金钣金件淬火中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    绳小龙

    2012-01-01

    The research of application of BW water base quenching liquid in aluminum-ally was complicated,the aspects such as mechanical property,quenching deformation,intercrystalline corrosion when BW water base quenching liquid was did to aluminum-alloy were discussed.%介绍了BW水基淬火液在铝合金钣金件中的应用研究,对铝舍金采用BW水基淬火液淬火并时效后的力学性能、淬火变形、晶间腐蚀等方面进行了探讨.

  6. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles (TiO₂) Quenching Based Aptasensing Platform: Application to Ochratoxin A Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Atul; Hayat, Akhtar; Mishra, Rupesh K; Catanante, Gaëlle; Bhand, Sunil; Marty, Jean Louis

    2015-09-22

    We demonstrate for the first time, the development of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO₂) quenching based aptasensing platform for detection of target molecules. TiO₂ quench the fluorescence of FAM-labeled aptamer (fluorescein labeled aptamer) upon the non-covalent adsorption of fluorescent labeled aptamer on TiO₂ surface. When OTA interacts with the aptamer, it induced aptamer G-quadruplex complex formation, weakens the interaction between FAM-labeled aptamer and TiO₂, resulting in fluorescence recovery. As a proof of concept, an assay was employed for detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA). At optimized experimental condition, the obtained limit of detection (LOD) was 1.5 nM with a good linearity in the range 1.5 nM to 1.0 µM for OTA. The obtained results showed the high selectivity of assay towards OTA without interference to structurally similar analogue Ochratoxin B (OTB). The developed aptamer assay was evaluated for detection of OTA in beer sample and recoveries were recorded in the range from 94.30%-99.20%. Analytical figures of the merits of the developed aptasensing platform confirmed its applicability to real samples analysis. However, this is a generic aptasensing platform and can be extended for detection of other toxins or target analyte.

  7. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles (TiO2 Quenching Based Aptasensing Platform: Application to Ochratoxin A Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate for the first time, the development of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 quenching based aptasensing platform for detection of target molecules. TiO2 quench the fluorescence of FAM-labeled aptamer (fluorescein labeled aptamer upon the non-covalent adsorption of fluorescent labeled aptamer on TiO2 surface. When OTA interacts with the aptamer, it induced aptamer G-quadruplex complex formation, weakens the interaction between FAM-labeled aptamer and TiO2, resulting in fluorescence recovery. As a proof of concept, an assay was employed for detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA. At optimized experimental condition, the obtained limit of detection (LOD was 1.5 nM with a good linearity in the range 1.5 nM to 1.0 µM for OTA. The obtained results showed the high selectivity of assay towards OTA without interference to structurally similar analogue Ochratoxin B (OTB. The developed aptamer assay was evaluated for detection of OTA in beer sample and recoveries were recorded in the range from 94.30%–99.20%. Analytical figures of the merits of the developed aptasensing platform confirmed its applicability to real samples analysis. However, this is a generic aptasensing platform and can be extended for detection of other toxins or target analyte.

  8. Specific detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by fluorescence quenching immunoassay based on quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Zhang, Junxian; Bai, Haili; Li, Xuan; Lv, Pintian; Guo, Ailing

    2014-07-01

    In this study, anti-Vibrio parahaemolyticus polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were prepared through intradermal injection immune and lymphocyte hybridoma technique respectively. CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized at pH 9.3, 98 °C for 1 h with stabilizer of 2.7:1. The fluorescence intensity was 586.499, and the yield was 62.43%. QD probes were successfully prepared under the optimized conditions of pH 7.4, 37 °C for 1 h, 250 μL of 50 mg/mL EDC · HCl, 150 μL of 4 mg/mL NHS, buffer system of Na2HPO4-citric acid, and 8 μL of 2.48 mg/mL polyclonal antibodies. As gold nanoparticles could quench fluorescence of quantum dots, the concentration of V. parahaemolyticus could be detected through measuring the reduction of fluorescence intensity in immune sandwich reaction composed of quantum dot probe, gold-labeled antibody, and the sample. For pure culture, fluorescence intensity of the system was proportional with logarithm concentration of antigen, and the correlation coefficient was 99.764%. The fluorescence quenching immunoassay based on quantum dots is established for the first time to detect Vibrio parahaemolyticus. This method may be used as rapid testing procedure due to its high simplicity and sensitivity. PMID:24756606

  9. Transverse momentum and centrality dependence of dihadron correlations in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV: Jet-quenching and the response of partonic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Al-Jamel, A; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, Alberto; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Bjorndal, M T; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bucher, D; Büsching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Chai, J S; Chang, B S; Charvet, J L; Chernichenko, S; Chiba, J; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Cianciolo, V; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; Constantin, P; Csanad, M; Csörgö, T; Dahms, T; Das, K; Dávid, G; Deaton, M B; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; D'Enterria, D G; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Dubey, A K; Durum, A; Dzhordzhadze, V; Efremenko, Yu V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Enokizono, A; Enyo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fraenkel, Zeev; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fung, S Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Hachiya, T; Hadj Henni, A; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hamagaki, H; Han, R; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Heuser, J M; He, X; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kanou, H; Kawagishi, T; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, Y S; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E P; Kiyomichi, A; Klay, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kral, A; Kravitz, A; Kroon, P J; Kubart, J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Le Bornec, Y; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, M K; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lenzi, B; Lim, H; Liska, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Li, X; Li, X H; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Man'ko, V I; Mao, Y; Masek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCain, M C; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Miake, Y; Mikes, P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, M; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Norman, B E; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, H; Okada, K; Oka, M; Omiwade, O O; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Rykov, V L; Ryu, S S; Sahlmueller, B; Saitô, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Sakata, H; Samsonov, V; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shevel, A; Shibata, T A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shohjoh, T; Shoji, K; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Skutnik, S; Slunecka, M; Smith, W C; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sørensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sullivan, J P; Sziklai, J; Tabaru, T; Takagi, S; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Taranenko, A; Tarjan, P; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tojo, J; Tomasek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tram, V N; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsuchimoto, Y; Tuli, S K; Tydesjo, H; Tyurin, N; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Vertesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wagner, M; Walker, D; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; Wessels, J; White, S N; Willis, N; Winter, D

    2007-01-01

    Azimuthal angle \\Delta\\phi correlations are presented for charged hadrons from dijets for 0.4 < p_T < 10 GeV/c in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. With increasing p_T, the away-side distribution evolves from a broad to a concave shape, then to a convex shape. Comparisons to p+p data suggest that the away-side can be divided into a partially suppressed "head" region centered at Delta\\phi ~ \\pi, and an enhanced "shoulder" region centered at Delta\\phi ~ \\pi +/- 1.1. The p_T spectrum for the "head" region softens toward central collisions, consistent with the onset of jet quenching. The spectral slope for the "shoulder" region is independent of centrality and trigger p_T, which offers constraints on energy transport mechanisms and suggests that the "shoulder" region contains the medium response to energetic jets.

  10. Fabrication of organically modified oxygen sensing film based on fluorescent quenching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN LingLing; XIAO LaiLong; ZHAO Li; CHEN Xi; WANG XiaoRu

    2007-01-01

    An organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) as a matrix for oxygen-sensitive sensor, in which dimethyldimethoxysilane was selected as an organic modifier in the precursor, is described. The sensing film with tris-(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) as an indicator developed in this paper was characterized by efficient quenching by oxygen. Blue light-emitting diodes ((max = 475 nm) were employed as light excitation source. The linear range of the dissolved oxygen was from 0.5 to 16 (g/mL. The measured RSD was 2%, the response time (t95) was 60 s, and the determination limit was 0.2 (g/mL. A portable and inexpensive luminescence-based sensor was established and applied to the determination of dissolved oxygen in the surface water.

  11. LES based POD analysis of Jet in Cross Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavar, Dalibor; Meyer, Knud Erik; Jakirlic, S.;

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results of a POD investigation of the LES based numerical simulation of the jet-in-crossflow (JICF) flowfield. LES results are firstly compared to the pointwise LDA measurements. 2D POD analysis is then used as a comparison basis for PIV measurements and LES, and finally 3D POD...

  12. Which model based on fluorescence quenching is suitable to study the interaction between trans-resveratrol and BSA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin Lin; Xiao, Jian Bo; Wang, Yuanfeng; Bai, Yalong

    2010-01-01

    There are several models by means of quenching fluorescence of BSA to determine the binding parameters. The binding parameters obtained from different models are quite different from each other. Which model is suitable to study the interaction between trans-resveratrol and BSA? Herein, twelve models based fluorescence quenching of BSA were compared. The number of binding sites increasing with increased binding constant for similar compounds binding to BSA maybe one approach to resolve this question. For example, here eleven flavonoids were tested to illustrate that the double logarithm regression curve is suitable to study binding polyphenols to BSA.

  13. A priority based noise tolerant jet framework and algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Duffty, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new framework for jet definitions called p-jets that matches the computational speed of the currently used anti-k_T jet algorithm, but avoids combining much of the energy from background pileup events with signal jets. As a first illustration of the p-jet framework, we compare the effectiveness of a p-jet algorithm to the anti-k_T algorithm in reconstructing low energy jets from resonant Z boson production and 50 pileup events.

  14. Quenching methods for background reduction in luminescence-based probe-target binding assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Goodwin, Peter M; Keller, Richard A.; Nolan, Rhiannon L.

    2007-04-10

    Background luminescence is reduced from a solution containing unbound luminescent probes, each having a first molecule that attaches to a target molecule and having an attached luminescent moiety, and luminescent probe/target adducts. Quenching capture reagent molecules are formed that are capable of forming an adduct with the unbound luminescent probes and having an attached quencher material effective to quench luminescence of the luminescent moiety. The quencher material of the capture reagent molecules is added to a solution of the luminescent probe/target adducts and binds in a proximity to the luminescent moiety of the unbound luminescent probes to quench luminescence from the luminescent moiety when the luminescent moiety is exposed to exciting illumination. The quencher capture reagent does not bind to probe molecules that are bound to target molecules and the probe/target adduct emission is not quenched.

  15. Effect of Quenching Parameters on Mechanical Property of Ultra High Strength Steel BR1500HS Based on Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Zhou; Zhi-Yong Huang; Lei Lin; Shi-Yun Li

    2014-01-01

    Hot stamping of high strength steels is defined as a process in which blank is heated to the temperature of the austenite stabilization region for a definite time and then formed and quenched simultaneously in a mold with cooling channels. During this process, the processing parameters of austenite temperature and soaking time have strong effects on the mechanical properties such as quenching hardness, tensile strength and elongation. Hence, it is necessary to investigate the relationship between the mechanical properties and the two processing parameters. In this paper, the orthogonal experiment with two factors and five levels was applied, and the experimental data based on the orthogonal experiment was acquired. Based on the data, regression models were set up and the results of the analysis of variance ( ANOVA) showed that it is reliable to predict the quenching hardness, tensile strength and elongation by the regression models. Besides, the optimal results of each single object were obtained based on response surface methodology ( RSM ) , and global optimums was gained by employing ideal point method in which the quenching hardness, and tensile strength and elongation were considered simultaneously.

  16. Numerical simulation of base flow with hot base bleed for two jet models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-jie YU; Yong-gang YU; Bin NI

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the benefits of base bleed in base flow field, the base flow with hot base bleed for two jet models is studied. Two-dimensional axisymmetric NaviereStokes equations are computed by using a finite volume scheme. The base flow of a cylinder afterbody with base bleed is simulated. The simulation results are validated with the experimental data, and the experimental results are well reproduced. On this basis, the base flow fields with base bleed for a circular jet model and an annulus jet model are investigated by selecting the injection temperature from 830 K to 2200 K. The results show that the base pressure of the annular jet model is higher than that of the circular jet model with the changes of the injection parameter and the injection temperature. For the circular jet model, the hot gases are concentrated in the vicinity of the base. For the annular jet model, the bleed gases flow into the shear layer directly so that the hot gases are concentrated in the shear layer. The latter temperature distribution is better for the increase of base pressure.

  17. Modelling the thermal quenching mechanism in quartz based on time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new numerical model for thermal quenching in quartz, based on the previously suggested Mott-Seitz mechanism. In the model electrons from a dosimetric trap are raised by optical or thermal stimulation into the conduction band, followed by an electronic transition from the conduction band into an excited state of the recombination center. Subsequently electrons in this excited state undergo either a direct radiative transition into a recombination center, or a competing thermally assisted non-radiative process into the ground state of the recombination center. As the temperature of the sample is increased, more electrons are removed from the excited state via the non-radiative pathway. This reduction in the number of available electrons leads to both a decrease of the intensity of the luminescence signal and to a simultaneous decrease of the luminescence lifetime. Several simulations are carried out of time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence (TR-OSL) experiments, in which the temperature dependence of luminescence lifetimes in quartz is studied as a function of the stimulation temperature. Good quantitative agreement is found between the simulation results and new experimental data obtained using a single-aliquot procedure on a sedimentary quartz sample.

  18. A MARTe based simulator for the JET Vertical Stabilization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellizio, Teresa, E-mail: teresa.bellizio@unina.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, University di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); De Tommasi, Gianmaria; Risoli, Nicola; Albanese, Raffaele [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, University di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Neto, Andre [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Inst. de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior, Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    Validation by means of simulation is a crucial step when developing real-time control systems. Modeling and simulation are an essential tool since the early design phase, when the control algorithms are designed and tested. This phase is commonly carried out in off-line environments such as Matlab and Simulink. A MARTe-based simulator has been recently developed to validate the new JET Vertical Stabilization (VS) system. MARTe is the multi-thread framework used at JET to deploy hard real-time control systems. This paper presents the software architecture of the MARTe-based simulator and it shows how this tool has been effectively used to evaluate the effects of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) on the VS system. By using the simulator it is possible to analyze different plasma configurations, extrapolating the limit of the new vertical amplifier in terms of the energy of the largest rejectable ELM.

  19. Jet observables without jet algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a new class of event shapes to characterize the jet-like structure of an event. Like traditional event shapes, our observables are infrared/collinear safe and involve a sum over all hadrons in an event, but like a jet clustering algorithm, they incorporate a jet radius parameter and a transverse momentum cut. Three of the ubiquitous jet-based observables — jet multiplicity, summed scalar transverse momentum, and missing transverse momentum — have event shape counterparts that are closely correlated with their jet-based cousins. Due to their “local” computational structure, these jet-like event shapes could potentially be used for trigger-level event selection at the LHC. Intriguingly, the jet multiplicity event shape typically takes on non-integer values, highlighting the inherent ambiguity in defining jets. By inverting jet multiplicity, we show how to characterize the transverse momentum of the n-th hardest jet without actually finding the constituents of that jet. Since many physics applications do require knowledge about the jet constituents, we also build a hybrid event shape that incorporates (local) jet clustering information. As a straightforward application of our general technique, we derive an event-shape version of jet trimming, allowing event-wide jet grooming without explicit jet identification. Finally, we briefly mention possible applications of our method for jet substructure studies

  20. Jet observables without jet algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Daniele; Chan, Tucker; Thaler, Jesse [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-04-02

    We introduce a new class of event shapes to characterize the jet-like structure of an event. Like traditional event shapes, our observables are infrared/collinear safe and involve a sum over all hadrons in an event, but like a jet clustering algorithm, they incorporate a jet radius parameter and a transverse momentum cut. Three of the ubiquitous jet-based observables — jet multiplicity, summed scalar transverse momentum, and missing transverse momentum — have event shape counterparts that are closely correlated with their jet-based cousins. Due to their “local” computational structure, these jet-like event shapes could potentially be used for trigger-level event selection at the LHC. Intriguingly, the jet multiplicity event shape typically takes on non-integer values, highlighting the inherent ambiguity in defining jets. By inverting jet multiplicity, we show how to characterize the transverse momentum of the n-th hardest jet without actually finding the constituents of that jet. Since many physics applications do require knowledge about the jet constituents, we also build a hybrid event shape that incorporates (local) jet clustering information. As a straightforward application of our general technique, we derive an event-shape version of jet trimming, allowing event-wide jet grooming without explicit jet identification. Finally, we briefly mention possible applications of our method for jet substructure studies.

  1. Aqueous biological graphene based formulations for ink-jet printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybowska-Sarapuk Łucja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to produce heterophasic graphene nanoplatelets based formulation designed for ink-jet printing and biomedical applications. The compositions should meet two conditions: should be cytocompatible and have the rheological properties that allow to apply it with ink-jet printing technique. In view of the above conditions, the selection of suspensions components, such as binder, solvent and surfactants was performed. In the first stage of the research the homogeneity of the dispersion of nanoplatelets and their sedimentation behaviour in diverse solutions were tested. Subsequently, the cytotoxicity of each ink on human mesenchymal stem cells was examined using the Alamar Blue Test. At the same time the rheology of the resulting suspensions was tested. As a result of these tests the best ink composition was elaborated: water, polyethylene glycol, graphene nanoplatelets and the surfactant from DuPont company.

  2. Determination of abscisic acid based on the fluorescent quenching of quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The quenching mechanism of the fluorescence of quantum dots by abscisic acid has been systematically investigated.The quenching constant KSV = 5.1 × 1011 / M was obtained under the optimized condition.On the basis of that,a very sensitive method for the determination of abscisic acid has been developed.The linear equation was F0/F = 0.9309 + 0.5072 C(pmol/L) and its linear range was 0.2-3.0 pmol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9939.The limit of detection was 0.09 pmol/L.

  3. A novel solid-state electrochemiluminescence quenching sensor for detection of aniline based on luminescent composite nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoying, E-mail: wxy@seu.edu.cn; Yang, Yu; Gao, Huiwen

    2014-12-15

    A novel solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) quenching sensor based on the luminescent composite nanofibers for detection of aniline has been developed. The gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and Ruthenium (II) tris-(bipyridine) (Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}) doped nylon 6 (PA6) luminescent composite nanofibers (Ru–AuNPs–PA6) were successfully deposited to the bare glassy carbon (GC) electrode by a one-step electrospinning technique. The Ru–AuNPs–PA6 nanofibers maintained the photoelectric properties of the Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} ions completely and exhibited excellent ECL behaviors. A high quenching effect on the ECL signal of the Ru–AuNPs–PA6/C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2−} system was obtained with the presence of low concentration aniline compounds. The potential of analytical application was explored by use of the inhibited ECL. The quenching efficiencies of the five kinds of aniline compounds were compared by monitoring the aniline-dependent ECL intensity change. The magnitude of quenching depended linearly upon the concentration of aniline in the investigated concentration range of 10–10 µM. The detection limit for aniline is 5.0 nM, which is comparable or better than that in the reported assays. The solid-state ECL quenching sensor exhibited high sensitivity and good stability. This study may provide new insight into the design of advanced electrospun nanofibers-based ECL sensors for detection and analysis of a variety of active molecules. - Highlights: • The Ru–AuNPs–PA6 nanofibers were first prepared by one-step electrospinning technique. • The Ru–AuNPs–PA6 nanofibers exhibited excellent ECL behaviors on GC electrodes. • It is the first solid-state ECL sensor based on nanofibers for aniline detection. • The quenching efficiencies of the five kinds of aniline compounds were compared. • The strategy could be extended to develop various nanofibers-based ECL sensors.

  4. Decomposing transverse momentum balance contributions for quenched jets in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = $ 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; CMS Collaboration; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Forthomme, Laurent; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Susa, Tatjana; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Peltola, Timo; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sabes, David; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schomakers, Christian; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Zhukov, Valery; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Filipovic, Nicolas; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bahinipati, Seema; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Kole, Gouranga; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Behnamian, Hadi; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; La Licata, Chiara; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Oh, Sung Bin; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Korenkov, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Mitsyn, Valeri Valentinovitch; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Tikhonenko, Elena; Yuldashev, Bekhzod S; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chistov, Ruslan; Danilov, Mikhail; Rusinov, Vladimir; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Rusakov, Sergey V; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Demiyanov, Andrey; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Soares, Mara Senghi; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krammer, Manfred; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; 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Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Barducci, Daniele; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; 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Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Berry, Edmund; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Jesus, Orduna; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Spencer, Eric; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Shchutska, Lesya; Sperka, David; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Diamond, Brendan; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Trauger, Hallie; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Bowen, James; Bruner, Christopher; Castle, James; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bartek, Rachel; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Malta Rodrigues, Alan; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Knapp, Benjamin; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Kumar, Ajay; Low, Jia Fu; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mei, Kelvin; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between jets and the quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy ion collisions are studied via the angular distributions of summed charged-particle transverse momenta ($p_{\\mathrm{T}}$) with respect to both the leading and subleading jet axes in high-$p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ dijet events. The contributions of charged particles in different momentum ranges to the overall event $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ balance are decomposed into short-range jet peaks and a long-range azimuthal asymmetry in charged-particle $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$. The results for PbPb collisions are compared to those in pp collisions using data collected in 2011 and 2013, at collision energy $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} =$ 2.76 TeV with integrated luminosities of 166 $\\mu$b$^{-1}$ and 5.3 pb$^{-1}$, respectively, by the CMS experiment at the LHC. Measurements are presented as functions of PbPb collision centrality, charged-particle $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$, relative azimuth, and radial distance from the jet axis for balanced and unbalanced dijets.

  5. Characterization and application of PBA fiber optic chemical film sensor based on fluorescence multiple quenching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坚; 李伟; 阎超; 袁立懋; 郭炬亮; 周新继

    1997-01-01

    The three types of structure of the pyrenebutyric acid of fiber optic chemical film sensor were stud-ied by fluorescence multiple quenching. They are, for different test samples and purposes, respectively general, three-way and combined. A tri-cup method was designed to demonstrate the multiple quenching of response mechanism, and a relationship formula of mathematical approach was established. The response mechanism was shown to include the dynamic quenching , inner-filter effects and/or resonance energy transfer. To show the response characterization in a series of organic and inorganic quenchers, a new concept of apparent quenching coefficient Kq was advanced. This kind of sensor has been used in continuous and in situ monitoring of the dissolution rate of drug tablets, on line and in situ monitoring of some organic therapeutic drugs in biological fluid and Cr( VI ) in industrial waste water. The measured data were examined and compared with HPLC or HPTLCS. Test results show that the sensors and appa

  6. Studies of jet quenching using isolated-photon + jet correlations in PbPb and pp collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A.M.; Tumasyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Eroe, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Fruehwirth, R.; Ghete, V.M.; Hammer, J.; Hoermann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knuenz, V.; Krammer, M.; Liko, D. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der OeAW, Wien (Austria); and others

    2013-01-08

    Results from the first study of isolated-photon + jet correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions are reported. The analysis uses data from PbPb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon pair corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 150 {mu}b{sup -1} recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. For events containing an isolated photon with transverse momentum p{sub T}{sup {gamma}}>60 GeV/c and an associated jet with p{sub T}{sup Jet}>30 GeV/c, the photon + jet p{sub T} imbalance is studied as a function of collision centrality and compared to pp data and PYTHIA calculations at the same collision energy. Using the p{sub T}{sup {gamma}} of the isolated photon as an estimate of the momentum of the associated parton at production, this measurement allows an unbiased characterisation of the in-medium parton energy loss. For more central PbPb collisions, a significant decrease in the ratio p{sub T}{sup Jet}/p{sub T}{sup {gamma}} relative to that in the PYTHIA reference is observed. Furthermore, significantly more p{sub T}{sup {gamma}}>60 GeV/c photons in PbPb are observed not to have an associated p{sub T}{sup Jet}>30 GeV/c jet, compared to the reference. However, no significant broadening of the photon + jet azimuthal correlation is observed.

  7. Numerical Simulation and Technological Parameter Optimization for Quenching Process of a Gas Turbine Compressor Disk Based on Metallo-Thermo-Mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng L(U); Liwen ZHANG; Qing'an TAI; Quying ZHENG; Zhaokun WANG

    2006-01-01

    Thermal, mechanical and microstructural phenomena are involved in the process of steel quenching. Based on the coupled metallo-thermo-mechanics theory, a calculation model has been developed in this study to simulate the quenching process of a gas turbine compressor disk by finite element method. The thermal physical and mechanical properties were treated as a functions of temperature. Moreover, a series of subroutines were developed on the MARC software platform. Consequently, simulated results on temperature, internal stress and distortion during the quenching were illustrated. With the aid of the simulated results, an optimum quenching scheme was proposed. The quenching process simulated in this study appears to be a promising tool in design of heat-treatment processing parameters for gas turbine compressor disks.

  8. Study of electron-vibrational interaction and concentration quenching effect of Cu+ ions in lithium based sulphate phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoyar, Priyanka D.; Choithrani, Renu; Dhoble, S. J.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study electron-vibrational interaction (EVI) and concentration quenching and their manifestation in experimental photoluminescence spectra of Cu+ ion in various lithium based phosphors namely, Li2SO4, LiNaSO4 and LiKSO4. The main parameters of EVI, such as the Stokes shift, Huang-Rhys factor and zero-phonon line positions, were estimated. The studied systems shows strong electron lattice coupling. The validity of results was established by modeling the shape of the emission spectra, which was found to be in good agreement with experimental photoluminescence spectra. The concentration quenching study is also carried out for these compounds. The studied systems correspond to the nearest neighbor energy transfer mechanism.

  9. Using synthetic bacterial enhancers to reveal a looping-based mechanism for quenching-like repression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunwasser-Meirom, Michal; Pollak, Yaroslav; Goldberg, Sarah; Levy, Lior; Atar, Orna; Amit, Roee

    2016-02-01

    We explore a model for `quenching-like' repression by studying synthetic bacterial enhancers, each characterized by a different binding site architecture. To do so, we take a three-pronged approach: first, we compute the probability that a protein-bound dsDNA molecule will loop. Second, we use hundreds of synthetic enhancers to test the model's predictions in bacteria. Finally, we verify the mechanism bioinformatically in native genomes. Here we show that excluded volume effects generated by DNA-bound proteins can generate substantial quenching. Moreover, the type and extent of the regulatory effect depend strongly on the relative arrangement of the binding sites. The implications of these results are that enhancers should be insensitive to 10-11 bp insertions or deletions (INDELs) and sensitive to 5-6 bp INDELs. We test this prediction on 61 σ54-regulated qrr genes from the Vibrio genus and confirm the tolerance of these enhancers' sequences to the DNA's helical repeat.

  10. Label-Free MicroRNA Detection Based on Fluorescence Quenching of Gold Nanoparticles with a Competitive Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Kong, Tao; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Jinan; Cheng, Guosheng

    2015-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), critical biomarkers of acute and chronic diseases, play key regulatory roles in many biological processes. As a result, there is great demand for robust assay platforms to enable an accurate and efficient detection of low-level miRNAs in complex biological samples. In this work, a label-free and Au nanoparticles (NPs) quenching-based competition assay system was developed. In the designed system, Au NPs with diameter sizes of 10 and 20 nm displayed fluorescence quenching efficiencies of 84% and 82% for Cy3 dye on slide surface, whereas the quenching efficiency of commercial BHQ2 quencher was roughly 50%. Assay conditions were optimized for miRNA-205 detection. A limit of detection of 3.8 pM and a detection range covering from 3.8 pM to 10 nM were achieved. Furthermore, the proposed system was capable of specifically discriminating miRNAs with slight variations in their nucleotide sequence and was also qualified for assessing miRNA levels in human serum. Our strategy has the potential to provide new perspectives in profiling the pattern of miRNA expression and biomedical utilizations.

  11. Modeling of mechanical behavior of quenched zirconium-based nuclear fuel claddings after a high temperature oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the second stage of Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) zirconium-based fuel claddings undergo a high temperature oxidation (up to 1200 C), then a water quench. After a single-side steam oxidation followed by a direct quench, the cladding is composed of three layers: an oxide (Zirconia) outer layer (formed at HT), always brittle at Room Temperature (RT), an intermediate oxygen stabilized alpha layer, always brittle at RT, called alpha(O), and an inner 'prior-beta' layer, which is the only layer able to keep some significant Post Quench (PQ) ductility at RT. However, hydrogen absorbed because of service exposure or during the LOCA transient, concentrates in this layer and may leads to its embrittlement. To estimate the PQ mechanical properties of these materials, Ring Compression Tests (RCT) are widely used because of their simplicity. Small sample size makes RCTs advantageous when a comparison with irradiated samples is required. Despite their good reproducibility, these tests are difficult to interpret as they often present two or more load drops on the engineering load-displacement curve. Laboratories disagree about their interpretation. This study proposes an original fracture scenario for a stratified PQ cladding tested by RCT, and its associated FE model. Strong oxygen content gradient effect on layers mechanical properties is taken into account in the model. PQ thermal stresses resulting from water quench of HT oxidized cladding are investigated, as well as progressive damage of three layers during an RCT. The proposed scenario is based on interrupted RCT analysis, post- RCT sample's outer layers observation for damage evaluation, RCTs of prior-beta single-layer rings, and mechanical behavior of especially chemically adjusted samples. The force displacement curves appearance is correctly reproduced using the obtained FE model. The proposed fracture scenario elucidates RCTs of quenched zirconium-based nuclear fuel

  12. Tevatron quench pressure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upcoming lower temperature/higher energy upgrade to the Fermilab Tevatron accelerator has raised questions concerning peak pressures during magnet system quenches. An experiment was performed to measure the pressure versus time at various quench energies in several devices in the Tevatron. A smaller study also looked at the temperature and mass flow rate versus time. Data was captured in a PC based circular buffer. The buffer captured ten seconds of data at 250 Hz for up to eight channels. Quenches ranging from 400 GeV to 1000 GeV were investigated. Peak pressures of 1.24 MPa (180 psia) were measured at 1000 GeV. Peak pressure increased linearly with quench energy up to 950 GeV, where it flattened off. Likewise, the time to reach peak pressure decreased linearly until 900 GeV, where it flattened off at 280 ms. The process appears to become heat transfer limited at about 900 GeV. This results in reasonable peak quench pressures at the expense of the coil reaching higher peak temperatures (not measured). The existing cryostats and relieving systems in the Tevatron will be sufficient for the new low temperature upgrade

  13. Simulating V+jet processes in heavy ion collisions with JEWEL

    CERN Document Server

    Elayavalli, Raghav Kunnawalkam

    2016-01-01

    Processes in which a jet recoils against an electroweak boson complement studies of jet quenching in heavy ion collisions at the LHC. As the boson does not interact strongly it escapes the dense medium unmodified and thus provides a more direct access to the hard scattering kinematics than can be obtained in di-jet events. First measurements of jet modification in these processes are now available from the LHC experiments and will improve greatly with better statistics in the future. We present an extension of JEWEL to boson-jet processes. JEWEL is a dynamical framework for jet evolution in a dense background based on perturbative QCD, that is in agreement with a large variety of jet observables. We also obtain a good description of the CMS and ATLAS data for y+jet and Z+jet processes at 2.76 TeV and 5.02 TeV.

  14. Numerical simulation on micromixer based on synthetic jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minghou Liu; Chen Xie; Xiangfeng Zhang; Yiliang Chen

    2008-01-01

    This paper studied a concept of micromixer with a synthetic jet placed at the bottom of a rectangular channel. Due to periodic ejections from and suctions into the chan-nel, the fluids are mixed effectively. To study the effects of the inlet velocity, the jet intensity and frequency, and the jet location on the mixing efficiency, 3-D numerical simulations of the micromixer have been carried out. It has been found that when the jet intensity and the frequency are fixed, the mixing efficiency increases when Re 50 with the best mixing efficiency achieved at Re = 50. When the ratio of the jet velocity magnitude to the inlet velocity is taken as 10 and the jet frequency is 100 Hz, the mixing index reaches the highest value. It has also been found that to get better mixing efficiency, the orifice of the synthetic jet should be asymmetrically located away from the channel's centerline.

  15. Quench anaylsis of MICE spectrometer superconducting solenoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashikhin, Vladimir; Bross, Alan; /Fermilab; Prestemon, Soren; / /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-09-01

    MICE superconducting spectrometer solenoids fabrication and tests are in progress now. First tests of the Spectrometer Solenoid discovered some issues which could be related to the chosen passive quench protection system. Both solenoids do not have heaters and quench propagation relied on the 'quench back' effect, cold diodes, and shunt resistors. The solenoids have very large inductances and stored energy which is 100% dissipated in the cold mass during a quench. This makes their protection a challenging task. The paper presents the quench analysis of these solenoids based on 3D FEA solution of coupled transient electromagnetic and thermal problems. The simulations used the Vector Fields QUENCH code. It is shown that in some quench scenarios, the quench propagation is relatively slow and some areas can be overheated. They describe ways of improving the solenoids quench protection in order to reduce the risk of possible failure.

  16. Homogeneous DNA Detection Based on Fluorescence Quenching by Nanoparticles in Single-step Format :Target-Induced Configuration Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Songbai; WU,Zaisheng; XIE,Ming; SHEN,Guoli; YU,Ruqin

    2009-01-01

    A new strategy for homogeneous detection of DNA hybridization in single-step format was developed based on fluorescence quenching by gold nanoparticles.The gold nanoparticle is functionalized with 5'-thiolated 48-base oligonucleotide(probe sequence),whose 3'-terminus is labeled with fluorescein(FAM),a negatively charged fluo-rescencc dye.The oligonucleotide adopts all extended configuration due to the electrostatic repulsion between nega-tively charged gold nanoparticle and the FAM-attached probe sequence.After addition of the complementary target sequence,specific DNA hybridization induces a conformation change of the probe from an extended stmcture to an arch.1ike configuration,which brings the fluorophore and the gold nanoparticle in close proximity.The fluorescence is efficiently quenched by gold nanoparticles.The fluorescence quenching efficiency is related to the target concen.tration,which allows the quantitative detection for target sequence in a sample.A linear detection range from 1.6 to 209.4 nmoI/L Was obtained under the optimized experimental conditions with a detection limit of 0.1 nmol,L.In the assay system,the gold nanoparticles act as both nanoscaffolds and nanoquenchers.Furthermore,the proposed strategy.in which only two DNA sequences arc involved,is not only different from the traditional molecular bea-cons or reverse molecular beacons but also different from the commonly used sandwich hybridization methods.In addition,the DNA hybridization detection was achieved in homogenous solution in a single-step format,which al-lows real.time detection and quantification with other advantages such as easy operation and elimination of washing steps.

  17. Numerical thermal analysis of water's boiling heat transfer based on a turbulent jet impingement on heated surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toghraie, D.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a numerical method for simulation of flow boiling through subcooled jet on a hot surface with 800 °C has been presented. Volume fraction (VOF) has been used to simulate boiling heat transfer and investigation of the quench phenomena through fluid jet on a hot horizontal surface. Simulation has been done in a fixed Tsub=55 °C, Re=5000 to Re=50,000 and also in different Tsub =Tsat -Tf between 10 °C and 95 °C. The effect of fluid jet velocity and subcooled temperature on the rewetting temperature, wet zone propagation, cooling rate and maximum heat flux has been investigated. The results of this study show that by increasing the velocity of fluid jet of water, convective heat transfer coefficient at stagnation point increases. More ever, by decreasing the temperature of the fluid jet, convective heat transfer coefficient increases.

  18. Metal shell technology based upon hollow jet instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spherical shells of submillimeter size are sought as ICF targets. Such shells must be dimensionally precise, smooth, of high strength, and composed of a high atomic number material. We describe a technology for the production of shells based upon the hydrodynamic instability of an annular jet of molten metal. We have produced shells in the 0.7--2.0 mm size range using tin as a test material. Specimens exhibit good sphericity, fair concentricity, and excellent finish over most of the surface. Work involving a gold--lead--antimony alloy is in progress. Droplets of this are amorphous and possess superior surface finish. The flow of tin models that of the alloy well; experiments on both metals show that the technique holds considerable promise

  19. Searches for physics beyond the Standard Model using jet-based resonances with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Frate, Meghan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run2 of the LHC, with its increased center-of-mass energy, is an unprecedented opportunity to discover physics beyond the Standard Model. One interesting possibility to conduct such searches is to use resonances based on jets. The latest search results from the ATLAS experiment, based on either inclusive or heavy-flavour jets, will be presented.

  20. Determination of sunset yellow in soft drinks based on fluorescence quenching of carbon dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yusheng; Zhao, Xin; Qiao, Man; Zhu, Jinghui; Liu, Shaopu; Yang, Jidong; Hu, Xiaoli

    2016-10-01

    Fluorescent carbon dots was prepared by heating N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylene diaminetriacetic acid in air. The carbon dots were not only highly soluble in water but also uniform in size, and possessed strong blue fluorescence and excitation wavelength-dependent emission properties with the maximum excitation and emission wavelength at 366nm and 423nm, respectively. Food colorant sunset yellow whose excitation and emission wavelength at 303nm and 430nm could selectively quench the fluorescence of carbon dots, efficient fluorescent resonance energy transfer between the carbon dots and sunset yellow is achieved. This was exploited to design a method for the determination of sunset yellow in the concentration range from 0.3 to 8.0μmolL(-1), with a limit of detection (3σ/k) of 79.6nmolL(-1). Furthermore the fluorimetric detection method was established and validated for sunset yellow in soft drinks samples with satisfactory results. PMID:27262658

  1. Determination of sunset yellow in soft drinks based on fluorescence quenching of carbon dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yusheng; Zhao, Xin; Qiao, Man; Zhu, Jinghui; Liu, Shaopu; Yang, Jidong; Hu, Xiaoli

    2016-10-01

    Fluorescent carbon dots was prepared by heating N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylene diaminetriacetic acid in air. The carbon dots were not only highly soluble in water but also uniform in size, and possessed strong blue fluorescence and excitation wavelength-dependent emission properties with the maximum excitation and emission wavelength at 366 nm and 423 nm, respectively. Food colorant sunset yellow whose excitation and emission wavelength at 303 nm and 430 nm could selectively quench the fluorescence of carbon dots, efficient fluorescent resonance energy transfer between the carbon dots and sunset yellow is achieved. This was exploited to design a method for the determination of sunset yellow in the concentration range from 0.3 to 8.0 μmol L- 1, with a limit of detection (3 σ/k) of 79.6 nmol L- 1. Furthermore the fluorimetric detection method was established and validated for sunset yellow in soft drinks samples with satisfactory results.

  2. Reduction of Photoluminescence Quenching by Deuteration of Ytterbium-Doped Amorphous Carbon-Based Photonic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Lin Hsu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In situ Yb-doped amorphous carbon thin films were grown on Si substrates at low temperatures (<200 °C by a simple one-step RF-PEMOCVD system as a potential photonic material for direct integration with Si CMOS back end-of-line processing. Room temperature photoluminescence around 1 µm was observed via direct incorporation of optically active Yb3+ ions from the selected Yb(fod3 metal-organic compound. The partially fluorinated Yb(fod3 compound assists the suppression of photoluminescence quenching by substitution of C–H with C–F bonds. A four-fold enhancement of Yb photoluminescence was demonstrated via deuteration of the a-C host. The substrate temperature greatly influences the relative deposition rate of the plasma dissociated metal-organic species, and hence the concentration of the various elements. Yb and F incorporation are promoted at lower substrate temperatures, and suppressed at higher substrate temperatures. O concentration is slightly elevated at higher substrate temperatures. Photoluminescence was limited by the concentration of Yb within the film, the concentration of Yb ions in the +3 state, and the relative amount of quenching due to the various de-excitation pathways associated with the vibrational modes of the host a-C network. The observed wide full-width-at-half-maximum photoluminescence signal is a result of the variety of local bonding environments due to the a-C matrix, and the bonding of the Yb3+ ions to O and/or F ions as observed in the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses.

  3. Nozzle and needle during high viscosity adhesive jetting based on piezoelectric jet dispensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Song; Jiang, Hai; Li, Minjiao; Liu, Jianfang; Gu, Shoudong; Jiao, Xiaoyang; Liu, Xiaolun

    2015-10-01

    A piezoelectric impinging jet valve is used as a study object to investigate the effect of the ball needle in the existing impinging jet and nozzle structure of the valve on the performance of the jet. First, FLUENT software is used under different ball needle and nozzle structural parameters to simulate the pressure distribution that the ball needle and nozzle in the pressure cavity form when the ball needle hits the nozzle, by arranging the structure model of the ball needle and impact valve nozzle. The piezoelectric impact injection valve and the experiment test system are then designed. Test results show that the ball needle and nozzle structural parameters are closely related to the injection performance of the impact valve. Under certain conditions, a greater needle radius corresponds to a smaller nozzle aperture and taper. Moreover, high-viscosity liquid jetting is easily achieved. By using a ball needle with a radius of 1.5 mm, a taper angle of 60°, and a nozzle diameter of 0.1 mm, we can realize the industrial viscosity of 58 000 cps in glue spray, and the injection plastic fluid volume is 0.62 μl.

  4. Tetramethyl-6-carboxyrhodamine quenching-based aptasensing platform for aflatoxin B1: Analytical performance comparison of two aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, K Yugender; Sharma, Atul; Hayat, Akhtar; Catanante, Gaëlle; Gobi, K Vengatajalabathy; Gurban, Ana Maria; Marty, Jean Louis

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a simple TAMRA (tetramethyl-6-carboxyrhodamine) quenching-based aptasensing platform was designed for the detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Here, we compared the analytical performance of two aptamer sequences: seqA and seqB. The AFB1 detection was based on the interactions of FAM (carboxyfluorescein)-labeled aptamer with TAMRA-labeled DNA complementary strand in the presence and absence of target analyte. Under optimized experimental conditions, TAMRA-labeled strand quenched the fluorescence response of FAM-labeled aptamer due to the noncovalent interaction between the two DNA strands. The binding of AFB1 induced the complex formation and weakened the interaction between FAM-labeled aptamer and TAMRA-labeled complementary strand, resulting in the fluorescence recovery. By using this principle concept, an assay was constructed for the detection of AFB1. The method exhibited good sensitivity, good selectivity with a limit of detection of 0.2 ng ml(-1), and a wide linear range from 0.25 to 32 ng ml(-1). For real sample application, the aptasensors were tested in beer and wine samples, with good recovery rates obtained for AFB1 detection. PMID:27251432

  5. Discharge quenching circuit for counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A circuit for quenching discharges in gas-discharge detectors with working voltage of 3-5 kV based on transistors operating in the avalanche mode is described. The quenching circuit consists of a coordinating emitter follower, amplifier-shaper for avalanche key cascade control which changes potential on the counter electrodes and a shaper of discharge quenching duration. The emitter follower is assembled according to a widely used flowsheet with two transistors. The circuit permits to obtain a rectangular quenching pulse with front of 100 ns and an amplitude of up to 3.2 kV at duration of 500 μm-8 ms. Application of the quenching circuit described permits to obtain countering characteristics with the slope less than or equal to 0.02%/V and plateau extent greater than or equal to 300 V

  6. High Frequency VLBI Imaging of the Jet Base of M87

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Chun; Walker, R. Craig; Junor, William

    2007-01-01

    VLBA and Global VLBI observations of M87 at 43 GHz, some new and some previously published, are used to study the structural evolution of the jet with a spatial resolution of under 100 Schwarzschild radii. The images, taken between 1999 and 2004, have an angular resolution of 0.00043" x 0.00021". An edge-brightened jet structure and an indication of a large opening angle at the jet base are seen in all five epochs. In addition, a probable counter-jet is seen in the latter three epochs. A 22 G...

  7. Fuzzy jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Lester; Nachman, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Ariel; Stansbury, Conrad

    2016-06-01

    Collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets. To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets, are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet tagging variables in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.

  8. Development of rapidly quenched nickel-based non-boron filler metals for brazing corrosion resistant steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikov, A.; Kalin, B.; Suchkov, A.; Penyaz, M.; Yurlova, M.

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion-resistant steels are stably applied in modern rocket and nuclear technology. Creating of permanent joints of these steels is a difficult task that can be solved by means of welding or brazing. Recently, the use rapidly quenched boron-containing filler metals is perspective. However, the use of such alloys leads to the formation of brittle borides in brazing zone, which degrades the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the compounds. Therefore, the development of non-boron alloys for brazing stainless steels is important task. The study of binary systems Ni-Be and Ni-Si revealed the perspective of replacing boron in Ni-based filler metals by beryllium, so there was the objective of studying of phase equilibrium in the system Ni-Be-Si. The alloys of the Ni-Si-Be with different contents of Si and Be are considered in this paper. The presence of two low-melting components is revealed during of their studying by methods of metallography analysis and DTA. Microhardness is measured and X-ray diffraction analysis is conducted for a number of alloys of Ni-Si-Be. The compositions are developed on the basis of these data. Rapidly quenched brazing alloys can be prepared from these compositions, and they are suitable for high temperature brazing of steels.

  9. Detection of Ag(+) using graphite carbon nitride nanosheets based on fluorescence quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Wei; Zhang, Hao; Yu, Qing; Shi, Meijuan; Shuang, Shaomin; Cai, Zongwei; Choi, Martin M F

    2016-12-01

    The graphite carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets were synthesized and applied for the detection of Ag(+) ion in aqueous solutions. Transmission electron microscopy, Fourier infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, ultraviolet/visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used for characterization of g-C3N4 nanosheets. The fluorescence intensity of g-C3N4 nanosheets decreases with the increase in the concentration of Ag(+). The fluorescence probe can be applied for detection of Ag(+). The results show that it has high selectivity to Ag(+) and exhibits a good linearity over the concentration range 0.020-2.0μM with a detection limit of 27nM. Most cations do not have any interference on the detection of Ag(+). The quenching process is assessed and discussed. Finally, the g-C3N4 nanosheets have been successfully used for the detection of Ag(+) in real water samples. The recoveries of spiked water samples are >97%. PMID:27348047

  10. Jet Observables Without Jet Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolini, Daniele; Thaler, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new class of event shapes to characterize the jet-like structure of an event. Like traditional event shapes, our observables are infrared/collinear safe and involve a sum over all hadrons in an event, but like a jet clustering algorithm, they incorporate a jet radius parameter and a transverse momentum cut. Three of the ubiquitous jet-based observables---jet multiplicity, summed scalar transverse momentum, and missing transverse momentum---have event shape counterparts that are closely correlated with their jet-based cousins. Due to their "local" computational structure, these jet-like event shapes could potentially be used for trigger-level event selection at the LHC. Intriguingly, the jet multiplicity event shape typically takes on non-integer values, highlighting the inherent ambiguity in defining jets. By inverting jet multiplicity, we show how to characterize the transverse momentum of the n-th hardest jet without actually finding the constituents of that jet. Since many physics applicatio...

  11. Multivariable temperature measurement and control system of large-scaled vertical quench furnace based on temperature field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan ZHOU; Shouyi YU; Jiang YU; Liequan LIANG

    2004-01-01

    A temperature control system of 31m vertical forced air-circulation quench furnace is proposed,which is a kind of equipment critical for thermal treatment of aluminum alloy components that are widely used in aerospace industry.For the effective operation of the furnace,it is essential to analyze the radial temperature distribution of the furnace.A set of thermodynamic balance equations modeling is established firstly.By utilizing the numerical analysis result to modify the temperature measurements,the control accuracy and precision of the temperature are truly guaranteed.Furthermore,the multivariable decoupling self-learning PID control algorithm based on the characteristics of strong coupling between the multi-zones in the large-scaled furnace is implemented to ensure the true homogeneity of the axial temperature distribution.Finally,the redundant structure composed of industrial control computers and touch panels leads to great improvement of system reliability.

  12. Lessons learnt from FARO/TERMOS corium melt quenching experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magallon, D.; Huhtiniemi, I.; Hohmann, H. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Center

    1998-01-01

    The influence of melt quantity, melt composition, water depth and initial pressure on quenching is assessed on the basis of seven tests performed in various conditions in the TERMOS vessel of the FARO facility at JRC-Ispra. Tests involved UO{sub 2}-based melt quantities in the range 18-176 kg at a temperature of approximately 3000 K poured into saturated water. The results suggest that erosion of the melt jet column is an efficient contributor to the amount of break-up, and thus quenching, for large pours of corium melt. The presence of Zr metal in the melt induced a much more efficient quenching than in a similar test with no Zr metal, attributed to the oxidation of the Zr. Significant amounts of H{sub 2} were produced also in tests with pure oxidic melts (e.g. about 300 g for 157 kg melt). In the tests at 5.0 and 2.0 MPa good mixing with significant melt break-up and quenching was obtained during the penetration in the water. At 0.5 MPa, good penetration of the melt into the water could still be achieved, but a jump in the vessel pressurisation occurred when the melt contacted the bottom and part (5 kg) of the debris was re-ejected from the water. (author)

  13. Lessons learnt from FARO/TERMOS corium melt quenching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of melt quantity and composition, water depth and initial pressure on quenching is assessed on the basis of seven tests performed under various conditions in the TERMOS vessel of the FARO facility at JRC-Ispra. Tests involved UO2-based melt quantities in the range 18-176 kg at a temperature of approximately 3000 K poured into saturated water. The results suggest that erosion of the melt jet column is an efficient contributor to the amount of breakup, and thus quenching, for large pours of corium melt. The presence of Zr metal in the melt induced much more efficient quenching than in a similar test with no Zr metal, which can be attributed to oxidation of the Zr. Significant amounts of H2 were also produced in tests using pure oxidic melts (e.g. about 300 g for 157 kg melt). In tests at 5.0 and 2.0 MPa, good mixing with significant melt breakup and quenching was obtained during the penetration in the water. At 0.5 MPa, good penetration of the melt into the water could still be achieved, but a jump in the vessel pressurisation occurred when the melt contacted the bottom and part of the debris (5 kg) was re-ejected from the water. (orig.)

  14. An Investigation of the Behavior of Solvent based Polycaprolactone ink for Material Jetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yinfeng; Wildman, Ricky D; Tuck, Chris J; Christie, Steven D R; Edmondson, Steven

    2016-02-12

    An initial study of processing bioresorbable polycaprolactone (PCL) through material jetting was conducted using a Fujifilm Dimatix DMP-2830 material printer. The aim of this work was to investigate a potential solvent based method of jetting polycaprolactone. Several solvents were used to prepare a PCL solvent based ink and 1, 4-dioxane was chosen with the consideration of both solubility and safety. The morphology of PCL formed under different substrate temperatures, droplet spacings were investigated. Multi-layer PCL structures were printed and characterized. This work shows that biodegradable polycaprolactone can be processed through material jetting.

  15. An Investigation of the Behavior of Solvent based Polycaprolactone ink for Material Jetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yinfeng; Wildman, Ricky D.; Tuck, Chris J.; Christie, Steven D. R.; Edmondson, Steven

    2016-02-01

    An initial study of processing bioresorbable polycaprolactone (PCL) through material jetting was conducted using a Fujifilm Dimatix DMP-2830 material printer. The aim of this work was to investigate a potential solvent based method of jetting polycaprolactone. Several solvents were used to prepare a PCL solvent based ink and 1, 4-dioxane was chosen with the consideration of both solubility and safety. The morphology of PCL formed under different substrate temperatures, droplet spacings were investigated. Multi-layer PCL structures were printed and characterized. This work shows that biodegradable polycaprolactone can be processed through material jetting.

  16. Selective Detection of Mercury(Ⅱ) and Copper(Ⅱ) Based on the Opposite Size-dependent Fluorescence Quenching of CdTe Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Yun-Sheng; CAO Chun; ZHU Chang-Qing

    2007-01-01

    Three different size CdTe quantum dots (QDs) capped by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) have been prepared in aqueous solutions,and their interactions with Cu2+ and Hg2+ have been investigated.The opposite size-dependent fluorescence quenching of CdTe QDs by Hg2+ and Cu2+ was observed: Hg2+ quenched smaller particles more efficiently than larger ones while larger particles were more markedly quenched by Cu2+.Based on the different size responses,Hg2+ and Cu2+ were respectively detected with high sensitivity and selectivity,for the first time,using the QDs with different sizes but the same components and capping ligands.

  17. An Investigation of the Behavior of Solvent based Polycaprolactone ink for Material Jetting

    OpenAIRE

    Yinfeng He; Ricky D. Wildman; Chris J. Tuck; Steven D. R. Christie; Steven Edmondson

    2016-01-01

    An initial study of processing bioresorbable polycaprolactone (PCL) through material jetting was conducted using a Fujifilm Dimatix DMP-2830 material printer. The aim of this work was to investigate a potential solvent based method of jetting polycaprolactone. Several solvents were attempt to prepared PCL solvent based ink and 1, 4-dioxane was chosen with the consideration of both solubility and safety. The morphology of PCL formed under different substrate temperatures, droplet spacings were...

  18. Coherent detection of THz waves based on THz-induced time-resolved luminescence quenching in bulk gallium arsenide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zheng; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Kejia

    2012-05-01

    A kind of photoluminescence quenching, in which the time-resolved photoluminescence is modulated by a THz pulse, has been theoretically investigated by performing the ensemble Monte Carlo method in bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) at room temperature. The quenching ratio could reach up to 50% under a strong THz field (100  kV/cm). The range in which luminescence quenching is linearly proportional to the THz field could be over 60  kV/cm. On the basis of these results, a principle for THz modulation and coherent detection is proposed. PMID:22555695

  19. An ultrasensitive "on-off-on" photoelectrochemical aptasensor based on signal amplification of a fullerene/CdTe quantum dots sensitized structure and efficient quenching by manganese porphyrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengjie; Zheng, Yingning; Liang, Wenbin; Yuan, Yali; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2016-06-21

    In this work, an ultrasensitive "on-off-on" photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensor was proposed based on the signal amplification of a fullerene/CdTe quantum dot (nano-C60/CdTe QDs) sensitized structure and efficient signal quenching of nano-C60/CdTe QDs by a manganese porphyrin (MnPP). PMID:27272457

  20. A real time S1 assay at neutral pH based on graphene oxide quenched fluorescence probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As the extracellular nuclease of Aspergillus, S1 nuclease can split single and double-stranded DNA into oligo- or mononucleotides, while preferentially digests single-stranded nucleic acids. Furthermore, the existence of S1 can be the standard to identify Aspergillus and used to evaluate the severity of Aspergillosis. Herein, a simple and sensitive fluorescent sensing platform for S1 assay was developed based on the S1-induced DNA strand scission and the difference in affinity of graphene oxide (GO for single-stranded DNA containing different bases. This platform was applied to monitor S1 activity and study the kinetics in real time. Results indicated that the detection limit is 0.5 U/mL. The Km and kcat at 45 °C, are 1.4 ± 0.12 μM and 0.6 min−1, respectively. Moreover, by monitoring the effect of chemical drugs on S1 activity, we found that 2 mM of erythromycin, sodium penicillin, carbenicillin disodium and ampicillin can inhibit S1 activity about 8%, 60%, 61% and 66%, respectively, while gentamycin sulfate is a stimulator. Overall, the assay platform based on graphene oxide quenched fluorescence probe is successfully constructed to study the enzymatic activity of S1 and used for screening antibiotics.

  1. Glass forming ability of Zr-and Fe-based alloys at quenching from melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The master alloy ingots(MAI)with the nominal composition Zr52.5 Ti5Cu17.9 Ni14.6Al10 and Fe61Co7Zr10Mo5W2B15(at%)were prepared by arc-melting in Ti-gettered Ar atmosphere.The Zr-based buttons of 6 mm and 9 mm in diameter were fully amorphous,but those of 13 mm in diameter experienced crystallization.The glass forming ability(GFA)of Fe-based alloys was relatively lower,and the buttons obtained were fully crystallized.The microhardness of the Zr-based buttons was about 500(Hv),and the Fe-based rod obtained by injection technique exhibited a high Vickers hardness of 1329.In addition,an amorphous-crystalline transition layers were observed in both the buttons and the rods.

  2. Gas Quenching Small Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Stratton

    2004-01-01

    Gas quenching is an environmentally friendly and effective way of quenching components. However it has not been possible to apply it to small components because of the difficulties of jigging. A method of gas quenching such small components is described in which they are levitated in a confined gas stream. The method is suitable for quenching low alloy steel components that weigh between 1 and 10g.

  3. Quenches after LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper I will give an overview of the different types of quenches that occur in the LHC, followed by an estimate of the number of quenches that we can expect after LS1. Beam-induced quenches and false triggering of the QPS will be the main cause of those quenches that cause a beam dump. Possibly in total up to 10-20 per year. After consolidation of the 13 kA joints, the approach for the BLM settings can be less conservative than in 2010-2012 in order to maximize beam time. This will cause some quenches but, anyhow, a beam.induced quench is not more risky than a quench provoked by false triggering. It is not easy to predict the number of BLM triggered beam dumps, needed to avoid magnet quenches, because it is not sure how to scale beam losses and UFO's from 3.5 TeV to 6.5 TeV, and it is not sure if the thresholds at 3.5 TeV are correct. Quench events will be much more massive (ex: RB quench at 6 kA → 2 MJ, RB quench at 11 kA → 6-20 MJ), and as a result cryo recuperation much longer. There will also be more ramp induced quenches after a FPA in other circuits due to higher ramp rates and smaller temperature margins (mutual coupling)

  4. The LHC quench protection system

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The new quench protection system (QPS) has the crucial roles of providing an early warning for any part of the superconducting coils and busbars that develop high resistance, as well as triggering the switch-off of the machine. Over 2000 new detectors will be installed around the LHC to make sure every busbar segment between magnets is monitored and protected. One of the major consolidation activities for the LHC is the addition of two new detectors to the quench protection system. A magnet quench occurs when part of the superconducting cable becomes normally-conducting. When the protection system detects an increased resistance the huge amount of energy stored in the magnet chains is safely extracted and ‘dumped’ into specially designed resistors. In the case of the main dipole chain, the stored energy in a single LHC sector is roughly the same as the kinetic energy of a passenger jet at cruising speed. The first new detector is designed to monitor the superconducting...

  5. A comparative study of oxygen transmission rates through polymer films based on fluorescence quenching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siró, Istvan; Plackett, David; Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Information on oxygen permeability through polymer films is essential for some applications, especially in food packaging where the control of oxygen levels can be critical in avoiding food spoilage. A permeability testing device using fluorescence-based optical oxygen sensing was developed...... as a potential new instrument for measuring the oxygen permeability of packaging films. The fluorescence-based permeability tester was validated against two existing commercial oxygen permeability measuring devices, the Mocon Ox-Tran 2/20 and PBI-Dansensor OPT-5000. Oxygen transmission rates (OTR) of polylactide...... (PLA) and nanoclay-reinforced PLA films, as well as polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PE/PET) and polypropylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PP/PET) laminated films were determined at 23°C and 50% relative humidity using each of these instruments. No significant differences were observed...

  6. Measurement of α-particle quenching in LAB based scintillator in independent small-scale experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The α-particle light response of liquid scintillators based on linear alkylbenzene (LAB) has been measured with three different experimental approaches. In the first approach, α-particles were produced in the scintillator via 12C(n,α)9Be reactions. In the second approach, the scintillator was loaded with 2 % of natSm providing an α-emitter, 147Sm, as an internal source. In the third approach, a scintillator flask was deployed into the water-filled SNO+ detector and the radioactive contaminants 222Rn, 218Po and 214Po provided the α-particle signal. The behavior of the observed α-particle light outputs are in agreement with each case successfully described by Birks' law. The resulting Birks parameter kB ranges from (0.0066 ± 0.0016) to (0.0076 ± 0.0003) cm/MeV. In the first approach, the α-particle light response was measured simultaneously with the light response of recoil protons produced via neutron- proton elastic scattering. This enabled a first time a direct comparison of kB describing the proton and the α-particle response of LAB based scintillator. The observed kB values describing the two light response functions deviate by more than 5σ. The presented results are valuable for all current and future detectors, using LAB based scintillator as target, since they depend on an accurate knowledge of the scintillator response to different particles. (orig.)

  7. Measurement of α -particle quenching in LAB based scintillator in independent small-scale experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Krosigk, B.; Chen, M.; Hans, S.; Junghans, A. R.; Kögler, T.; Kraus, C.; Kuckert, L.; Liu, X.; Nolte, R.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Tseung, H. Wan Chan; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zuber, K.

    2016-03-01

    The α -particle light response of liquid scintillators based on linear alkylbenzene (LAB) has been measured with three different experimental approaches. In the first approach, α -particles were produced in the scintillator via ^{12}C( n,α )^9Be reactions. In the second approach, the scintillator was loaded with 2 % of ^{nat}Sm providing an α -emitter, ^{147}Sm, as an internal source. In the third approach, a scintillator flask was deployed into the water-filled SNO+ detector and the radioactive contaminants ^{222}Rn, ^{218}Po and ^{214}Po provided the α -particle signal. The behavior of the observed α -particle light outputs are in agreement with each case successfully described by Birks' law. The resulting Birks parameter kB ranges from (0.0066± 0.0016) to (0.0076± 0.0003) cm/MeV. In the first approach, the α -particle light response was measured simultaneously with the light response of recoil protons produced via neutron-proton elastic scattering. This enabled a first time a direct comparison of kB describing the proton and the α -particle response of LAB based scintillator. The observed kB values describing the two light response functions deviate by more than 5σ . The presented results are valuable for all current and future detectors, using LAB based scintillator as target, since they depend on an accurate knowledge of the scintillator response to different particles.

  8. Thermo - hydraulic analysis of a cryogenic jet: application to helium recovery following resistive transitions in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chorowski, M; Konopka, G

    1999-01-01

    A resistive transition (quench) of the LHC sector magnets will be followed by cold helium venting to a quench buffer volume of 2000 m3 at ambient temperature. The volume will be composed of eight medium-pressure (2 MPa) gas storage tanks made of carbon steel, which constrains the temperature of the wall to be higher than -50 oC (223 K). Possible spot cooling intensity and thermo-mechanical stresses in the tank wall following helium injection have been analysed previously and the aim of the present study is experimental verification of basic assumptions concerning cryogenic jet parameters and heat transfer between jet crown and tank wall. For this purpose jet diameter, velocity profile and convective heat transfer between jet and steel plate have been measured. A simple jet model description based on momentum conservation has been proposed. Then, the lowest possible temperature of the tank wall which may occur has been assessed.

  9. A Signal-On Fluorosensor Based on Quench-Release Principle for Sensitive Detection of Antibiotic Rapamycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jin Jeong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An antibiotic rapamycin is one of the most commonly used immunosuppressive drugs, and also implicated for its anti-cancer activity. Hence, the determination of its blood level after organ transplantation or tumor treatment is of great concern in medicine. Although there are several rapamycin detection methods, many of them have limited sensitivity, and/or need complicated procedures and long assay time. As a novel fluorescent biosensor for rapamycin, here we propose “Q’-body”, which works on the fluorescence quench-release principle inspired by the antibody-based quenchbody (Q-body technology. We constructed rapamycin Q’-bodies by linking the two interacting domains FKBP12 and FRB, whose association is triggered by rapamycin. The fusion proteins were each incorporated position-specifically with one of fluorescence dyes ATTO520, tetramethylrhodamine, or ATTO590 using a cell-free translation system. As a result, rapid rapamycin dose-dependent fluorescence increase derived of Q’-bodies was observed, especially for those with ATTO520 with a lowest detection limit of 0.65 nM, which indicates its utility as a novel fluorescent biosensor for rapamycin.

  10. Application of quantitative structure-activity relationship to the determination of binding constant based on fluorescence quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Yingying [Department of Applied Chemistry, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China); Liu Huitao, E-mail: liuht-ytu@163.co [Department of Applied Chemistry, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China); Luan Feng; Gao Yuan [Department of Applied Chemistry, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was used to predict and explain binding constant (log K) determined by fluorescence quenching. This method allowed us to predict binding constants of a variety of compounds with human serum albumin (HSA) based on their structures alone. Stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) and nonlinear radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) were performed to build the models. The statistical parameters provided by the MLR model (R{sup 2}=0.8521, RMS=0.2678) indicated satisfactory stability and predictive ability while the RBFNN predictive ability is somewhat superior (R{sup 2}=0.9245, RMS=0.1736). The proposed models were used to predict the binding constants of two bioactive components in traditional Chinese medicines (isoimperatorin and chrysophanol) whose experimental results were obtained in our laboratory and the predicted results were in good agreement with the experimental results. This QSAR approach can contribute to a better understanding of structural factors of the compounds responsible for drug-protein interactions, and can be useful in predicting the binding constants of other compounds. - Research Highlights: QSAR models for binding constants of some compounds to HSA were developed. The models provide a simple and straightforward way to predict binding constant. QSAR can give some insight into structural features related to binding behavior.

  11. Measurement of α-particle quenching in LAB based scintillator in independent small-scale experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krosigk, B. von [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Chen, M.; Liu, X.; Wright, A. [Queen' s University, Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Kingston, ON (Canada); Hans, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Bronx Community College, Bronx, NY (United States); Junghans, A.R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Koegler, T. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Kraus, C. [Queen' s University, Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Kingston, ON (Canada); Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON (Canada); Kuckert, L. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Nolte, R. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); O' Keeffe, H.M. [Queen' s University, Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Kingston, ON (Canada); Lancaster University, Physics Department, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Tseung, H.W.C. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, Seattle, WA (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rochester, MN (United States); Wilson, J.R. [Queen Mary, University of London, School of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Yeh, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    The α-particle light response of liquid scintillators based on linear alkylbenzene (LAB) has been measured with three different experimental approaches. In the first approach, α-particles were produced in the scintillator via {sup 12}C(n,α){sup 9}Be reactions. In the second approach, the scintillator was loaded with 2 % of {sup nat}Sm providing an α-emitter, {sup 147}Sm, as an internal source. In the third approach, a scintillator flask was deployed into the water-filled SNO+ detector and the radioactive contaminants {sup 222}Rn, {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po provided the α-particle signal. The behavior of the observed α-particle light outputs are in agreement with each case successfully described by Birks' law. The resulting Birks parameter kB ranges from (0.0066 ± 0.0016) to (0.0076 ± 0.0003) cm/MeV. In the first approach, the α-particle light response was measured simultaneously with the light response of recoil protons produced via neutron- proton elastic scattering. This enabled a first time a direct comparison of kB describing the proton and the α-particle response of LAB based scintillator. The observed kB values describing the two light response functions deviate by more than 5σ. The presented results are valuable for all current and future detectors, using LAB based scintillator as target, since they depend on an accurate knowledge of the scintillator response to different particles. (orig.)

  12. YBCO laminated bundle conductor quench detection based on the FEM%基于FEM的YBCO层压成束导体的失超检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢艳; 陈士龙; 郑仕林

    2012-01-01

    由于高温超导线圈的正常区传播速度比低温超线圈要慢得多,因此,一旦高温超导线圈发生失超,很难进行失超检测.采用FEM法研究YBCO层压成束导体的正常区传播特征,并利用失超期间传输电流重新分配的特征进行失超检测,该检测方法与传统的电压检测法相比较结果表明,当正常区的层压成束导体中发生局部失超时,能够很快的探测出来.%Because normal -zone propagation velocities of the HTS coil is much slower than that of LTS tapes, once normal — zone breakout occurs, quench detection is expected to be difficult. In this study, we focused on the coil wound with YBCO laminated bundle conductor supposing SMES application and investigated the characteristics of normal - zone propagation and the thermal behavior within the coil during a quench by using a newly developed computer code based on the finite element method. And we also proposed a quench detection method using observation of nonuniform current in YBCO laminated bundle conductor and discussed the validity of the detection method comparing with conventional quench - voltage detection.

  13. Measurement of $\\alpha$-particle quenching in LAB based scintillator in independent small-scale experiments

    CERN Document Server

    von Krosigk, B; Hans, S; Junghans, A R; Kögler, T; Kraus, C; Kuckert, L; Liu, X; Nolte, R; O'Keeffe, H M; Tseung, H S Wan Chan; Wilson, J R; Wright, A; Yeh, M; Zuber, K

    2015-01-01

    The $\\alpha$-particle light response of liquid scintillators based on linear alkylbenzene (LAB) has been measured with three different experimental approaches. In the first approach, $\\alpha$-particles were produced in the scintillator via $^{12}$C($n$,$\\alpha$)$^9$Be reactions. In the second approach, the scintillator was loaded with 2% of $^{\\mathrm{nat}}$Sm providing an $\\alpha$-emitter, $^{147}$Sm, as an internal source. In the third approach, a scintillator flask was deployed into the water-filled SNO+ detector and the radioactive contaminants $^{222}$Rn, $^{218}$Po and $^{214}$Po provided the $\\alpha$-particle signal. The behavior of the observed $\\alpha$-particle light outputs are in agreement with each case successfully described by Birks' law. The resulting Birks parameter $kB$ ranges from $(0.0071\\pm0.0003)$ cm/MeV to $(0.0076\\pm0.0003)$ cm/MeV. In the first approach, the $\\alpha$-particle light response was measured simultaneously with the light response of recoil protons produced via neutron-proto...

  14. A Homogenous Fluorescence Quenching Based Assay for Specific and Sensitive Detection of Influenza Virus A Hemagglutinin Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longyan Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza pandemics cause millions of deaths worldwide. Effective surveillance is required to prevent their spread and facilitate the development of appropriate vaccines. In this study, we report the fabrication of a homogenous fluorescence-quenching-based assay for specific and sensitive detection of influenza virus surface antigen hemagglutinins (HAs. The core of the assay is composed of two nanoprobes namely the glycan-conjugated highly luminescent quantum dots (Gly-QDs, and the HA-specific antibody-modified gold nanoparticle (Ab-Au NPs. When exposed to strain-specific HA, a binding event between the HA and the two nanoprobes takes place, resulting in the formation of a sandwich complex which subsequently brings the two nanoprobes closer together. This causes a decrease in QDs fluorescence intensity due to a non-radiative energy transfer from QDs to Au NPs. A resulting correlation between the targets HA concentrations and fluorescence changes can be observed. Furthermore, by utilizing the specific interaction between HA and glycan with sialic acid residues, the assay is able to distinguish HAs originated from viral subtypes H1 (human and H5 (avian. The detection limits in solution are found to be low nanomolar and picomolar level for sensing H1-HA and H5-HA, respectively. Slight increase in assay sensitivity was found in terms of detection limit while exposing the assay in the HA spiked in human sera solution. We believe that the developed assay could serve as a feasible and sensitive diagnostic tool for influenza virus detection and discrimination, with further improvement on the architectures.

  15. Using radiative energy losses to constrain the magnetisation and magnetic reconnection rate at the base of black hole jets

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, William J

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the severe radiative energy losses which occur at the base of black hole jets using a relativistic fluid jet model, including in-situ acceleration of non-thermal leptons by magnetic reconnection. Our results demonstrate that including a self-consistent treatment of radiative energy losses is necessary to perform accurate MHD simulations of powerful jets and that jet spectra calculated via post-processing are liable to vastly overestimate the amount of non-thermal emission. If no more than 95% of the initial total jet power is radiated away by the plasma travels as it travels along the length of the jet, we can place a lower bound on the magnetisation of the jet plasma at the base of the jet. For typical powerful jets, we find that the plasma at the jet base is required to be highly magnetised, with at least 10,000 times more energy contained in magnetic fields than in non-thermal leptons. Using a simple power-law model of magnetic reconnection, motivated by simulations of collisionless reconnecti...

  16. Feasibility of Producing and Using Biomass-Based Diesel and Jet Fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The study summarizes the best available public data on the production, capacity, cost, market demand, and feedstock availability for the production of biomass-based diesel and jet fuel. It includes an overview of the current conversion processes and current state-of-development for the production of biomass-based jet and diesel fuel, as well as the key companies pursuing this effort. Thediscussion analyzes all this information in the context of meeting the RFS mandate, highlights uncertainties for the future industry development, and key business opportunities.

  17. Closed-loop enhancement of jet mixing with extremum-seeking and physics-based strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z.; Zhou, Y.; Cao, H. L.; Li, W. J.

    2016-06-01

    The closed-loop control of a turbulent round air jet is experimentally investigated based on two unsteady minijets, with a view to enhancing jet mixing. The two minijets are placed at diametrically opposite locations upstream of the nozzle exit. The open-loop control experiments are first performed. Given the mass flow rate ratio C m of the minijets to that of the main jet, the decay rate overline{K} of jet centerline mean velocity exhibits a maximum at the frequency ratio f e/ f 0 ≈ 1.0, where f e and f 0 are the excitation frequency of minijets and the preferred mode frequency of the natural main jet, respectively. An extremum-seeking feedback control has been developed to achieve autonomously the optimal control performance. It has been found that, given C m, this closed-loop control technique may obtain automatically and rapidly the optimal value of f e and the desired or maximum overline{K}, as achieved in the open-loop control. This control technique is robust and adaptable when the Reynolds number and initial excitation frequency are changed separately. A flow-physics-based feedback control strategy has also been investigated, which could achieve the optimal control performance automatically with a shorter convergence time than the extremum-seeking control, not robust though.

  18. A Highly Magnetized Twin-Jet Base Pinpoints a Supermassive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Baczko, A -K; Kadler, M; Ros, E; Perucho, M; Krichbaum, T P; Böck, M; Bremer, M; Grossberger, C; Lindqvist, M; Lobanov, A P; Mannheim, K; Mart, I; Müller, C; Wilms, J; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBH) are essential for the production of jets in radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). Theoretical models based on Blandford & Znajek extract the rotational energy from a Kerr black hole, which could be the case for NGC1052, to launch these jets. This requires magnetic fields of the order of $10^3\\,$G to $10^4\\,$G. We imaged the vicinity of the SMBH of the AGN NGC1052 with the Global Millimetre VLBI Array and found a bright and compact central feature, smaller than 1.9 light days (100 Schwarzschild radii) in radius. Interpreting this as a blend of the unresolved jet bases, we derive the magnetic field at 1 Schwarzschild radius to lie between 200 G and ~80000 G consistent with Blandford & Znajek models.

  19. Inclusive Jets in PHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, P.

    Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

  20. The physical properties of the HH 30 jet from HST and ground-based data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciotti, Francesca; Eislöffel, Jochen; Ray, Thomas P.

    1999-10-01

    We investigate the physical properties of the HH 30 jet by applying the spectroscopic diagnostic technique described in Bacciotti & Eislöffel (\\cite{be99}) to ground-based spectra and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) calibrated emission-line images. We derive the variation along the beam of the ionization fraction xe, of the total hydrogen density n_H and of the average excitation temperature Te, with a spatial sampling of 0.1" to 0.6" (depending on the dataset used) near the source of the flow and of 1.8" further out. In the jet xe rapidly rises from 0.065 at 0.2" to 0.1 at 0.4", and then slowly increases up to 0.140 within 2'' from the source. From 2.4" to 12.5", xe decreases very slowly down to a value of 0.04. The slow recombination in the outermost collimated part is consistent with a flow opening angle of about 2(deg) . At the beginning of the jet n_H is at least ~ 10(5) cm(-3) , but it decreases to 5 10(4) cm(-3) within the first arcsecond and then slowly falls to 10(4) cm(-3) at large distance from the source. On average Te decreases from ~ 2 10(4) K to 10(4) K within the first arcsecond of the jet, then it slowly decays to 6000-7000 K. In the faint counter-jet, which appears to be substantially more excited than the jet, xe rises from 0.07 up to 0.35 at 2-3 arcsec from the source, n_H decreases from about 8 10(4) cm(-3) to a few 10(3) cm(-3) , while Te is scattered around 1.2-1.3 10(4) K. A comparison between the observed and calculated line fluxes shows that the filling factor is of order unity in this flow. The emission-weighted jet width calculated with the parameters that we derive is in good agreement with the observed FWHM; we find, however, that the jet radius apparently goes to zero at the source location, defining an initial full opening angle of about 10(deg) . The intensity peaks, i.e. the knots, are clearly correlated with local temperature maxima. The ionization fraction and the electron and total densities do not show any evident increase at

  1. Corium quench in deep pool mixing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of two recent corium-water thermal interaction (CWTI) tests are described in which a stream of molten corium was poured into a deep pool of water in order to determine the mixing behavior, the corium-to-water heat transfer rates, and the characteristic sizes of the quenched debris. The corium composition was 60% UO2, 16% ZrO2, and 24% stainless steel by weight; its initial temperature was 3080 K, approx.160 K above the oxide phase liquidus temperature. The corium pour stream was a single-phase 2.2 cm dia liquid column which entered the water pool in film boiling at approx.4 m/s. The water subcooling was 6 and 75C in the two tests. Test results showed that with low subcooling, rapid steam generation caused the pool to boil up into a high void fraction regime. In contrast, with large subcooling no net steam generation occurred, and the pool remained relatively quiescent. Breakup of the jet appeared to occur by surface stripping. In neither test was the breakup complete during transit through the 32 cm deep water pool, and molten corium channeled to the base where it formed a melt layer. The characteristic heat transfer rates measured 3.5 MJ/s and 2.7 MJ/s during the fall stage for small and large subcooling, respectively; during the initial stage of bed quench, the surface heat fluxes measured 2.4 MW/m2 and 3.7 MW/m2, respectively. A small mass of particles was formed in each test, measuring typically 0.1 to 1 mm and 1 to 5 mm dia for the large and small subcooling conditions, respectively. 9 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  2. Fluorescence quenching of TMR by guanosine in oligonucleotides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Peng; CHEN XuDong; ZHOU XiaoXue; LI Xun; ZHAO XinSheng

    2009-01-01

    Nucleotide-specific fluorescence quenching in fluorescently labeled DNA has many applications in biotechnology. We have studied the inter- and intra-molecular quenching of tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) by nucleotides to better understand their quenching mechanism and influencing factors. In agreement with previous work, dGMP can effectively quench TMR, while the quenching of TMR by other nucleotides is negligible. The Stern-Volmer plot between TMR and dGMP delivers a bimolecular quenching constant of Ks= 52.3 M~(-1). The fluorescence of TMR in labeled oligonucleotides decreases efficiently through photoinduced electron transfer by guanosine. The quenching rate constant between TMR and guanosine was measured using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). In addition, our data show that the steric hindrance by bases around guanosine has significant effect on the G-quenching. The availability of these data should be useful in designing fluorescent oligonucleotides and understanding the G-quenching process.

  3. Fluorescence quenching of TMR by guanosine in oligonucleotides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Nucleotide-specific fluorescence quenching in fluorescently labeled DNA has many applications in biotechnology. We have studied the inter-and intra-molecular quenching of tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) by nucleotides to better understand their quenching mechanism and influencing factors. In agreement with previous work, dGMP can effectively quench TMR, while the quenching of TMR by other nucleotides is negligible. The Stern-Volmer plot between TMR and dGMP delivers a bimolecular quenching constant of Ks=52.3 M-1. The fluorescence of TMR in labeled oligonucleotides decreases efficiently through photoinduced electron transfer by guanosine. The quenching rate constant between TMR and guanosine was measured using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). In addition, our data show that the steric hindrance by bases around guanosine has significant effect on the G-quenching. The availability of these data should be useful in designing fluorescent oligonucleotides and understanding the G-quenching process.

  4. Development of piezoelectric-based membranes for synthetic jet actuators: experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, Kevin W.; Clingman, Dan J.; Amitay, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A mathematical model was developed to represent the behavior of circular piezoelectric bimorphs in a synthetic jet actuator. Synthetic jet actuators are popular active flow control devices whose application is being widely explored in aerodynamics. The material properties were matched to those of PZT-5A mounted on a substrate. The actuator's geometry consisted of a cylindrical cavity of low height to diameter aspect ratio. A bimorph formed one of the cylinder's bases. The ingestion/expulsion orifice for the synthetic jet actuator was placed in the edge of the cavity so as to allow for either the present single bimorph or future dual bimorph configurations. Simply supported and rigidly supported boundary conditions were assessed around the circumference of the bimorph. The potential of alternate mode shapes occurring in the bimorphs during operation of the synthetic jet was evaluated. A limited parametric study was conducted varying the thickness of the piezoelectric wafers used in the bimorphs and the geometry of the cavity and orifice. Results were obtained for the displacement of the center of the bimorph's surface and the peak velocity of the air being ingested and expulsed through the orifice. These results were compared to values obtained through a mathematical model. Experimental data present in literature were also compared. The mathematical model was seen to have considerable potential for predicting the performance of synthetic jet actuators and their resonant frequencies but failed to capture the effects of acoustic coupling with the cavity, which is a topic of future research.

  5. Global Mode-Based Control of Supersonic Jet Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Mahesh; Freund, Jonathan; Bodony, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The loudest source of high-speed jet noise appears to be describable by unsteady wavepackets that resemble instabilities. We seek to reduce their acoustic impact by developing a novel control strategy that uses global modes to model their dynamics and structural sensitivity of the linearized compressible Navier-Stokes operator to determine effective linear feedback control. Using co-located actuators and sensors we demonstrate the method on an axisymmetric Mach 1.5 fitted with a nozzle. Direct numerical simulations using this control show significant noise reduction, with additional reduction with increase in control gain. Eigenanalysis of the uncontrolled and controlled mean flows reveal fundamental changes in the spectrum at frequencies lower than that used by the control. The non-normality of the global modes is shown to enable this control to affect a wide range of frequencies. The low-frequency wavepacket components are made less acoustically efficient, which is reflected in the far-field noise spectrum. Mean flow alterations are minor near the nozzle and only become apparent further downstream. Office of Naval Research and National Science Foundation.

  6. Ultrasensitive fluorescence-quenched chemosensor for Hg(II) in aqueous solution based on mercaptothiadiazole capped silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Spectrofluorimetric determination of Hg(II) was carried out by using DMT-AgNPs. ► The emission intensity of DMT-AgNPs was decreased after addition of Hg(II). ► A detection limit of 1.0 pg L−1 was achieved for the first time. ► Quantum yield, association constant and Gibbs free energy changes were calculated. ► The results obtained in the present study were validated with ICP-AES method. - Abstract: This manuscript describes a highly selective and ultra sensitive determination of Hg(II) in aqueous solution using functionalized mercaptothiadiazole capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by spectrofluorimetry. We have synthesized 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMT), 2-mercapto-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MMT) and 2-mercapto-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (AMT) capped AgNPs by wet chemical method. Among these AgNPs, DMT capped AgNPs (DMT-AgNPs) were more stable and highly fluorescent than the other two AgNPs. DMT-AgNPs show the emission maximum at 677 nm while exciting at 400 nm. After the addition of Hg(II), the emission intensity was decreased at 677 nm. The observed decreased emission intensity was ascribed to the aggregation of AgNPs and it was confirmed by TEM. Based on the decrease in emission intensity, the concentration of Hg(II) was determined. The lowest detection limit (LOD = 3 S/m) of 1.0 pg L−1 was achieved for the first time using DMT-AgNPs by spectrofluorimetry. The quantum yield (φF), Stern–Volmer constant (KSV), Gibbs free energy changes (ΔG°), association constant (Kf) were calculated and the quenching mechanism also was discussed. Finally, the proposed method was successfully utilized for the determination of Hg(II) in river water, industrial effluent water and tap water samples. The obtained results were fairly matches with the ICP-AES method.

  7. A novel electrochemiluminescent immunosensor based on the quenching effect of aminated graphene on nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jing; Han, Tongqian; Ma, Hongmin; Yan, Tao; Pang, Xuehui [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Li, Yueyun [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Wei, Qin, E-mail: sdjndxwq@163.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2015-08-19

    Nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) with an average diameter of 2 nm were synthesized by carbonization of diethylene triamine pentacetate acid (DTPA). The simple prepared N-CQDs showed excellent electrochemiluminescence (ECL) property and were used as luminophors to fabricate a sandwich-type ECL immunosensor. Aminated graphene (NH{sub 2}-G) was also synthesized and used as a label of secondary antibody. The labeled NH{sub 2}-G could effectively quench the ECL of N-CQDs modified on electrodes due to ECL resonance energy transfer (ERET). Immunological recognition which induced ECL quenching enabled the quantitative determination of biomarkers. Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) was selected as a model analyte to investigate the analytical performance of the proposed immunosensor. Under optimal conditions, a good linear relationship between ECL intensity and the logarithm of AFP concentration was obtained in the range of 0.01–100 ng mL{sup −1} with the detection limit of 3.3 pg mL{sup −1}. The proposed ECL immunosensor showed good stability, acceptable selectivity and reproducibility. - Highlights: • ECL behavior of N-CQDs was investigated. • NH{sub 2}-G for quenching N-CQDs emission was investigated. • The linearly range of the immunosensor for AFP was 0.01 ng/mL–100 ng/mL.

  8. A High-Performance Fluorescence Immunoassay Based on the Relaxation of Quenching, Exemplified by Detection of Cardiac Troponin I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Wan Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The intramolecular fluorescence self-quenching phenomenon is a major drawback in developing high-performance fluorometric biosensors which use common fluorophores as signal generators. We propose two strategies involving liberation of the fluorescent molecules by means of enzymatic fragmentation of protein or dehybridization of double-stranded DNA. In the former, bovine serum albumin (BSA was coupled with the fluorescent BODIPY dye (Red BSA, and then immobilized on a solid surface. When the insolubilized Red BSA was treated with proteinase K (10 units/mL for 30 min, the fluorescent signal was significantly increased (3.5-fold compared to the untreated control. In the second case, fluorophore-tagged DNA probes were linked to gold nanoparticles by hybridization with capture DNA strands densely immobilized on the surface. The quenched fluorescence signal was recovered (3.7-fold by thermal dehybridization, which was induced with light of a specific wavelength (e.g., 530 nm for less than 1 min. We next applied the Red BSA self-quenching relaxation technique employing enzymatic fragmentation to a high-performance immunoassay of cardiac troponin I (cTnI in a microtiter plate format. The detection limit was 0.19 ng/mL cTnI, and the fluorescent signal was enhanced approximately 4.1-fold compared with the conventional method of direct measurement of the fluorescent signal from a non-fragmented fluorophore-labeled antibody.

  9. A High-Performance Fluorescence Immunoassay Based on the Relaxation of Quenching, Exemplified by Detection of Cardiac Troponin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Wan; Cho, Il-Hoon; Park, Ji-Na; Seo, Sung-Min; Paek, Se-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The intramolecular fluorescence self-quenching phenomenon is a major drawback in developing high-performance fluorometric biosensors which use common fluorophores as signal generators. We propose two strategies involving liberation of the fluorescent molecules by means of enzymatic fragmentation of protein or dehybridization of double-stranded DNA. In the former, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was coupled with the fluorescent BODIPY dye (Red BSA), and then immobilized on a solid surface. When the insolubilized Red BSA was treated with proteinase K (10 units/mL) for 30 min, the fluorescent signal was significantly increased (3.5-fold) compared to the untreated control. In the second case, fluorophore-tagged DNA probes were linked to gold nanoparticles by hybridization with capture DNA strands densely immobilized on the surface. The quenched fluorescence signal was recovered (3.7-fold) by thermal dehybridization, which was induced with light of a specific wavelength (e.g., 530 nm) for less than 1 min. We next applied the Red BSA self-quenching relaxation technique employing enzymatic fragmentation to a high-performance immunoassay of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in a microtiter plate format. The detection limit was 0.19 ng/mL cTnI, and the fluorescent signal was enhanced approximately 4.1-fold compared with the conventional method of direct measurement of the fluorescent signal from a non-fragmented fluorophore-labeled antibody.

  10. A dendrimer-based highly sensitive and selective fluorescence-quenching sensor for Fe(3+) both in solution and as film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Ming; Sun, Xueke; Guan, Shuwen; Zhang, Guang; Baumgarten, Martin; Müllen, Klaus

    2016-11-15

    A novel fluorescent dendrimer PYTPAG2, with pyrene as the interior core and triphenylamine (TPA) as the exterior periphery, is studied as a fluorescence-quenching sensor for iron (ш) ions (Fe(3+)), both in solution and as a film. This dendrimer-based sensor possesses preferential detection of Fe(3+) by a very strong fluorescence quenching not found for other metal ions. The fluorescent detection limits of this PYTPAG2 sensor for Fe(3+) in solution and thin-film are 6.5×10(-7)M and 5.0×10(-7)M, respectively. The possible mechanism of this process is explained by the complexation between the peripheral TPA units of PYTPAG2 and Fe(3+) ions, which may disrupt the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the TPA groups to the pyrene core (intramolecular of PYTPAG2) and results in the fluorescence quenching. Moreover, this striking performance could not be disturbed by pH, the interference with other metal ions, counter anions, or surrounding environment. In addition, biological fluorescence imaging studies of Fe(3+) in living roundworms demonstrate its valuable practical application. PMID:27281108

  11. High Performance Computation of a Jet in Crossflow by Lattice Boltzmann Based Parallel Direct Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct numerical simulation (DNS of a round jet in crossflow based on lattice Boltzmann method (LBM is carried out on multi-GPU cluster. Data parallel SIMT (single instruction multiple thread characteristic of GPU matches the parallelism of LBM well, which leads to the high efficiency of GPU on the LBM solver. With present GPU settings (6 Nvidia Tesla K20M, the present DNS simulation can be completed in several hours. A grid system of 1.5 × 108 is adopted and largest jet Reynolds number reaches 3000. The jet-to-free-stream velocity ratio is set as 3.3. The jet is orthogonal to the mainstream flow direction. The validated code shows good agreement with experiments. Vortical structures of CRVP, shear-layer vortices and horseshoe vortices, are presented and analyzed based on velocity fields and vorticity distributions. Turbulent statistical quantities of Reynolds stress are also displayed. Coherent structures are revealed in a very fine resolution based on the second invariant of the velocity gradients.

  12. Finite Element Simulation of Metal Quenching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方刚; 曾攀

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of the phase transformation and the resulting internal stresses and strains in metallic parts during quenching were modeled numerically. The numerical simulation of the metal quenching process was based on the metallo-thermo-mechanical theory using the finite element method to couple the temperature, phase transformation, and stress-strain fields. The numerical models are presented for the heat treatment and kinetics of the phase transformation. The finite element models and the phase transition kinetics accurately predict the distribution of the microstructure volume fractions, the temperature, the distortion, and the stress-strain relation during quenching. The two examples used to validate the models are the quenching of a small gear and of a large turbine rotor. The simulation results for the martensite phase volume fraction, the stresses, and the distortion in the gear agree well with the experimental data. The models can be used to optimize the quenching conditions to ensure product quality.

  13. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet

  14. TASI Lectures on Jet Substructure

    CERN Document Server

    Shelton, Jessie

    2013-01-01

    Jet physics is a rich and rapidly evolving field, with many applications to physics in and beyond the Standard Model. These notes, based on lectures delivered at the June 2012 Theoretical Advanced Study Institute, provide an introduction to jets at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics covered include sequential jet algorithms, jet shapes, jet grooming, and boosted Higgs and top tagging.

  15. Acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing and quorum quenching hold promise to determine the performance of biological wastewater treatments: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhui; Shi, Yahui; Zeng, Guangming; Gu, Yanling; Chen, Guiqiu; Shi, Lixiu; Hu, Yi; Tang, Bi; Zhou, Jianxin

    2016-08-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a communication process between cells, in which bacteria secrete and sense the specific chemicals, and regulate gene expression in response to population density. Quorum quenching (QQ) blocks QS system, and inhibits gene expression mediating bacterial behaviors. Given the extensive research of acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, existences and effects of AHL-based QS and QQ in biological wastewater treatments are being subject to high concern. This review summarizes AHL structure, synthesis mode, degradation mechanisms, analytical methods, environmental factors, AHL-based QS and QQ mechanisms. The existences and roles of AHL-based QS and QQ in biomembrane processes, activated sludge processes and membrane bioreactors are summarized and discussed, and corresponding exogenous regulation strategy by selective enhancement of AHL-based QS or QQ coexisting in biological wastewater treatments is suggested. Such strategies including the addition of AHL signals, AHL-producing bacteria as well as quorum quenching enzyme or bacteria can effectively improve wastewater treatment performance without killing or limiting bacterial survival and growth. This review will present the theoretical and practical cognition for bacterial AHL-based QS and QQ, suggest the feasibility of exogenous regulation strategies in biological wastewater treatments, and provide useful information to scientists and engineers who work in this field. PMID:27213243

  16. Enhanced fuel efficiency on tractor-trailers using synthetic jet-based active flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Michael; Menicovich, David; Gallardo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    The application of piezo-electrically-driven synthetic-jet-based active flow control to reduce drag on tractor-trailers was explored experimentally in wind tunnel testing as well as full-scale road tests. Aerodynamic drag accounts for more than 50% of the usable energy at highway speeds, a problem that applies primarily to trailer trucks. Therefore, a reduction in aerodynamic drag results in large saving of fuel and reduction in CO2 emissions. The active flow control technique that is being used relies on a modular system comprised of distributed, small, highly efficient actuators. These actuators, called synthetic jets, are jets that are synthesized at the edge of an orifice by a periodic motion of a piezoelectric diaphragm(s) mounted on one (or more) walls of a sealed cavity. The synthetic jet is zero net mass flux (ZNMF), but it allows momentum transfer to flow. It is typically driven near diaphragm and/or cavity resonance, and therefore, small electric input [O(10W)] is required. Another advantage of this actuator is that no plumbing is required. The system doesn't require changes to the body of the truck, can be easily reconfigured to various types of vehicles, and consumes small amounts of electrical power from the existing electrical system of the truck. Preliminary wind tunnel results showed up to 18% reduction in fuel consumption, whereas road tests also showed very promising results.

  17. Preparation and cooling characteristic of a new formula water-based quenching medium%新配方水基淬火介质的制备及冷却特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗宇媛; 揭晓华; 卢国辉; 张留艳

    2016-01-01

    配制出一种新配方水基淬火介质,该淬火介质由聚烷撑乙二醇( PAG)、冷速调整添加剂、防锈剂、消泡剂、防腐剂和水组成;研究了新配方水基淬火介质的冷却特性并与水、淬火油和UCON E淬火介质进行了对比。结果表明,新配方水基淬火介质的冷却特性介于水和油之间,3%PAG淬火介质的最大冷却速度为322.5℃· s-1,300℃下的冷却速度为112.4℃· s-1,与5%UCON E淬火介质相当。%A new prescription of water-based quenching medium consisting of polyalkylene glycol( PAG) , cooling rate adjustment additive, rust preventive, antifoam, preservative and water was developed.The cooling characteristic of the water-based quenching medium was analyzed by comparing with that of water, quenching oil and UCON E quenching medium.The results show that the cooling characteristic of the water-based quenching medium is intermediate between water and quenching oil.The maximum cooling speed of the quenching medium with 3%PAG concentration is 322.5℃· s-1 , and the cooling speed at 300℃is 112.4℃· s-1 , which is comparable to that of 5%UCON E quenching medium.

  18. Fluorescence ELISA for sensitive detection of ochratoxin A based on glucose oxidase-mediated fluorescence quenching of CdTe QDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Huang, Xiaolin; Yu, Ruijin; Zhou, Yaofeng; Xiong, Yonghua

    2016-09-14

    The present study described a novel fluorescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) by using the glucose oxidase (GOx)-mediated fluorescence quenching of mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe quantum dots (MPA-QDs), in which GOx was used as an alternative to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) for the oxidization of glucose into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and gluconic acid. The MPA-QDs were used as a fluorescent signal output, whose fluorescence variation was extremely sensitive to the presence of H2O2 or hydrogen ions in the solution. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed fluorescence ELISA demonstrated a good linear detection of OTA in corn extract from 2.4 pg mL(-1) to 625 pg mL(-1) with a limit of detection of 2.2 pg mL(-1), which was approximately 15-fold lower than that of conventional HRP-based ELISA. Our developed fluorescence immunoassay was also similar to HRP-based ELISA in terms of selectivity, accuracy, and reproducibility. In summary, this study was the first to use the GOx-mediated fluorescence quenching of QDs in immunoassay to detect OTA, offering a new possibility for the analysis of other mycotoxins and biomolecules. PMID:27566355

  19. Mini-Jet Controlled Turbulent Round Air Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜诚; 米建春; 周裕; 詹杰

    2011-01-01

    We report an investigation of the active control of a round air jet by multiple radial blowing mini-jets.The Reynolds number based on the jet exit velocity and diameter is 8000.It is found that once the continuous minijets are replaced with pulsed ones,the centerline velocity decay rate K can be greatly increased as the pulsing frequency of mini-jets approaches the natural vortex frequency of the main jet.For example,the K value is amplified by more than 50% with two(or four)pulsed mini-jets blowing,compared with the continuous mini-jets at the same ratio of the mass flow rate of the mini-jets to that of the main jet.%We report an investigation of the active control of a round air jet by multiple radial blowing mini-jets. The Reynolds number based on the jet exit velocity and diameter is 8000. It is found that once the continuous mini-jets are replaced with pulsed ones, the centerline velocity decay rate K can be greatly increased as the pulsing frequency of mini-jets approaches the natural vortex frequency of the main jet. For example, the K value is amplified by more than 50% with two (or four) pulsed mini-jets blowing, compared with the continuous mini-jets at the same ratio of the mass Sow rate of the mini-jets to that of the main jet.

  20. A Novel Bearing Lubricating Device Based on the Piezoelectric Micro-Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel bearing lubricating device, which is embedded in gyroscope’s bearing system and based on the theory of the piezoelectric micro-jet, was designed for this study. The embedded structure of a bearing lubricating system can make effective use of the limited space of bearing systems without increasing the whole mass of the system. The drop-on-demand (DOD lubrication can be realized by the piezoelectric micro-jet system to implement the long acting lubrication of the bearing system. A mathematical model of inlet boundary conditions was established to carry on the numerical simulation based on CFD. The motion states of the droplets with different voltage excitations were analyzed via numerical simulations, and the injection performances of the piezoelectric micro-jet lubricating device were tested in accordance with past experiments. The influences of different parameters of voltage excitation on injection performance were obtained, and the methods of adjusting the injection performance to meet different requirements are given according to the analyses of the results. The mathematical model and numerical simulation method were confirmed by comparing the results of past simulations and experiments.

  1. A highly magnetized twin-jet base pinpoints a supermassive black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczko, A.-K.; Schulz, R.; Kadler, M.; Ros, E.; Perucho, M.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Böck, M.; Bremer, M.; Grossberger, C.; Lindqvist, M.; Lobanov, A. P.; Mannheim, K.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Müller, C.; Wilms, J.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBH) are essential for the production of jets in radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). Theoretical models based on (Blandford & Znajek 1977, MNRAS, 179, 433) extract the rotational energy from a Kerr black hole, which could be the case for NGC 1052, to launch these jets. This requires magnetic fields on the order of 103G to 104G. We imaged the vicinity of the SMBH of the AGN NGC 1052 with the Global Millimetre VLBI Array and found a bright and compact central feature that is smaller than 1.9 light days (100 Schwarzschild radii) in radius. Interpreting this as a blend of the unresolved jet bases, we derive the magnetic field at 1 Schwarzschild radius to lie between 200 G and ~ 8.3 × 104 G consistent with Blandford & Znajek models. The VLBI images shown in Figs. 3 and 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/593/A47

  2. The Quench Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caux, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to the methodology of the Quench Action, which is an effective representation for the calculation of time-dependent expectation values of physical operators following a generic out-of-equilibrium state preparation protocol (for example a quantum quench). The representation, originally introduced in Caux and Essler (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 257203), is founded on a mixture of exact data for overlaps together with variational reasonings. It is argued to be quite generally valid and thermodynamically exact for arbitrary times after the quench (from short times all the way up to the steady state), and applicable to a wide class of physically relevant observables. Here, we introduce the method and its language, give an overview of some recent results, suggest a roadmap and offer some perspectives on possible future research directions.

  3. Simple and sensitive synchronous- fluorescence method for the determination of trace bisphenol S based on its inhibitory effect on the fluorescence quenching reaction of rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gui-ping; Chen, Ting; Zhuang, Ya-feng

    2013-07-01

    An inhibitory kinetic fluorimetric method is reported for the determination of trace bisphenol S (BPS). The proposed method is based on the inhibitory effect of BPS on the fluorescence quenching of rhodamine B (RhB) caused by potassium bromate in a dilute phosphoric acid medium. Under the optimal conditions of the experiment, the detection limit for BPS was 0.021 mg/L, and the linear range of determination was from 0.035 mg/L to 0.750 mg/L. The relative standard deviations of 11 measurements for 0.20 mg/L and 0.40 mg/L BPS solutions were 2.74 % and 1.87 %, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of bisphenol S derived from commercially available plastic film samples in hot water. A possible reaction mechanism of the inhibitory effect of BPS on the fluorescence quenching of RhB was proposed.

  4. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-09-30

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual

  5. Dynamics of Water Jet in Water Jet Looms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克让; 陈明

    2001-01-01

    On the base of the study on dynamics of water jet in water jet looms, the parameters of water jet mechanism which affect the speed of water jet are analyzed and optimized. So the stability of the water jet can be improved to raise the speed of water jet as well as weft insertion rate and to enlarge the width of woven fabrics a lot. At the same time it also points out that to increase water jet speed and to prolong its affective jet time depend mainly on the accretion of spring rate (constant)of stiffness and the diminution of plunger's cross sectional area respectively.

  6. Probing supersymmetry based on precise jet measurements at the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for new physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is one of the main goals of the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Many theories, for instance supersymmetry, involve the possible production of new coloured particles which feature jets as their experimental signature. Thus, it is important to have a good understanding of jet-related properties in order to allow such searches. In the first part of this thesis, a measurement of the jet transverse-momentum resolution is presented. This is based on the analysis of proton-proton collision data recorded at a centre-of-mass energy of √(s)=8 TeV by the CMS experiment. The measurement utilizes the transverse momentum balance of dijet events at particle level. The main focus is on the determination of the data-to-simulation ratio of the jet transverse-momentum resolution which can be used to correct the jet resolution in simulated events to match the one observed in data. This ratio has been determined with a significantly improved precision compared to previous analyses for the pseudorapidity range 0.0≤ vertical stroke η vertical stroke ≤5.0. The second part of the thesis focuses on searches for supersymmetry in final states with several jets, missing transverse momentum and no isolated leptons. A search performed with collision data recorded at √(s)=8 TeV is presented which is mainly sensitive to the production of light-flavour squarks and gluinos as well as the gluino-mediated production of third generation particles. In this analysis, the main challenge arises from a precise determination of background contributions from standard model processes as the analysis is performed in an extreme kinematic phase space. In this thesis, a method to estimate QCD background contributions relying on the jet-pT response is presented and necessary modifications for a correct prediction of high jet multiplicity events are introduced. In the analysis, results consistent with standard model

  7. Torus CLAS12-Superconducting Magnet Quench Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashikhin, V. S. [Fermilab; Elouadhiri, L. [Jefferson Lab; Ghoshal, P. K. [Jefferson Lab; Kashy, D. [Jefferson Lab; Makarov, A. [Fermilab; Pastor, O. [Jefferson Lab; Quettier, L. [Jefferson Lab; Velev, G. [Fermilab; Wiseman, M. [Jefferson Lab

    2014-01-01

    The JLAB Torus magnet system consists of six superconducting trapezoidal racetrack-type coils assembled in a toroidal configuration. These coils are wound with SSC-36 Nb-Ti superconductor and have the peak magnetic field of 3.6 T. The first coil manufacturing based on the JLAB design began at FNAL. The large magnet system dimensions (8 m diameter and 14 MJ of stored energy) dictate the need for quench protection. Each coil is placed in an aluminum case mounted inside a cryostat and cooled by 4.6 K supercritical helium gas flowing through a copper tube attached to the coil ID. The large coil dimensions and small cryostat thickness drove the design to challenging technical solutions, suggesting that Lorentz forces due to transport currents and eddy currents during quench and various failure scenarios are analyzed. The paper covers the magnet system quench analysis using the OPERA3d Quench code.

  8. Dynamics and geometry of developing planar jets based on the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴楠楠

    2015-01-01

    Based on the direct numerical simulation (DNS), the developing planar jets under different initial conditions, e.g., the con- ditions of the exit Reynolds number and the exit mean velocity profile, are investigated. We mainly focus on the characteristics of the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor, which provides insights into the evolution of the dynamics and the geometry of the planar jets along with the flow transition. The results show that the initial flow near the jet exit is strongly predominated by the dissipation over the enstrophy, the flow transition is accompanied by a severe rotation and straining of the flow elements, where the vortex structure evolves faster than the fluid element deformation,in the fully-developed state, the irrotational dissipation is dominant and the most probable geometry of the fluid elements should remain between the biaxial stretching and the axisymmetric stretching. In addition, with a small exit Re and a parabolic profile for the exit mean streamwise velocity, the decay of the mean flow field and the magnitude of the turbulent variables will be strengthened in the process of the flow transition, however, a large exitRe will promote the flow transition to the fully-developed state. The cross-impact between the exitRe and the exit mean velocity profile is also observed in the present study.

  9. Active galaxies. A strong magnetic field in the jet base of a supermassive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Vidal, Ivan; Muller, Sébastien; Vlemmings, Wouter; Horellou, Cathy; Aalto, Susanne

    2015-04-17

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) host some of the most energetic phenomena in the universe. AGN are thought to be powered by accretion of matter onto a rotating disk that surrounds a supermassive black hole. Jet streams can be boosted in energy near the event horizon of the black hole and then flow outward along the rotation axis of the disk. The mechanism that forms such a jet and guides it over scales from a few light-days up to millions of light-years remains uncertain, but magnetic fields are thought to play a critical role. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), we have detected a polarization signal (Faraday rotation) related to the strong magnetic field at the jet base of a distant AGN, PKS 1830-211. The amount of Faraday rotation (rotation measure) is proportional to the integral of the magnetic field strength along the line of sight times the density of electrons. The high rotation measures derived suggest magnetic fields of at least tens of Gauss (and possibly considerably higher) on scales of the order of light-days (0.01 parsec) from the black hole.

  10. Quench propagation and protection analysis of the ATLAS Toroids

    CERN Document Server

    Dudarev, A; ten Kate, H H J; Baynham, D Elwyn; Courthold, M J D; Lesmond, C

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS superconducting magnet system consists of the Barrel Toroid, two End Cap Toroids and the Central Solenoid. However, the Toroids of eight coils each are magnetically separate systems to the Central Solenoid. The Toroids are electrically connected in series and energized by a single power supply. The quench protection system is based on the use of relatively small external dump resistances in combination with quench-heaters activated after a quench event detection to initiate the internal dump of stored energy in all the coils. A rather strong quench-back effect due to eddy-currents in the coil casings at the transport current decay is beneficial for the quench protection efficiency in the event of heater failures. The quench behaviour of the ATLAS Toroids was computer simulated for normal operation of the quench protection system and its complete non-operation (failure) mode. (3 refs).

  11. Thermal lens study of thermo-optical properties and concentration quenching of Er{sup 3+}-doped lead pyrophosphate-based glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, C. C. [Departamento de Fisica, CCET, Universidade Federal do Maranhao, 65085-580 Sao Luis-MA (Brazil); Rocha, U.; Vermelho, M. V. D.; Jacinto, C. [Grupo de Fotonica e Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceio, AL (Brazil); Guedes, I. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do PICI, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Boatner, L. A. [ORNL Center for Radiation Detection Materials and Systems and ORNL Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6044 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    In this work, we have used the thermal lens technique combined with conventional spectroscopy to characterize the thermo-optical properties of Er{sup 3+}-doped lead pyrophosphate-based glasses. More precisely, we have investigated and quantified experimentally the fluorescence quantum efficiencies of the Er{sup 3+} levels, and we describe the role of concentration quenching effects. The fluorescence quantum efficiency of the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} level is very high when compared to other phosphate glasses, while that of the green-coupled levels is very small. Other important photonic materials parameters, such as the thermal diffusivity and temperature coefficient of the optical path length change, were obtained and compared with those of other glass systems. The cumulative results obtained here for the Er-doped lead pyrophosphate glass show that this material is a good candidate for photonic applications with a characteristic Er{sup 3+} infrared emission around 1550 nm.

  12. Jet-photon conversion with energy loss in heavy ion collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li-Juan; ZHANG Ben-Wei; ZHANG Han-Zhong; WANG En-Ke

    2009-01-01

    The rate of high energy photons produced from energetic jets during their propagation through the QGP at RHIC and LHC is studied by taking into account the contribution of jet quenching in the medium. It is shown that the jet quenching effect reduces the rate of jet-photon conversion at large transverse momemtum by about 40% at RHIC with √S= 200 AGeV, and by about 80% at LHC with √S = 5500 AGeV.

  13. A Global Image Feature Construction Metho d Based on Local Jet Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jin; CAI Zi-Xing

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a novel and robust feature descriptor called the multi-scale autoconvolution on local jet structure (MSALJS), which is quasi-invariant to affine transformation. The MSALJS, a global image feature descriptor, is based on the deriva-tives that describe the image local structure to compute the multi-scale autoconvolution moment. Experimental data demonstrate that the MSALJS can be used in practical applications in which the object is deformed in various ways, such as particular occlusion, view angle change, and so on.

  14. Quench detection and behaviour in case of quench in the ITER magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quench of one of the ITER magnet system is an irreversible transition from superconducting to normal resistive state, of a conductor. This normal zone propagates along the cable in conduit conductor dissipating a large power. The detection has to be fast enough to dump out the magnetic energy and avoid irreversible damage of the systems. The primary quench detection in ITER is based on voltage detection, which is the most rapid detection. The very magnetically disturbed environment during the plasma scenario makes the voltage detection particularly difficult, inducing large inductive components in the coils and voltage compensations have to be designed to discriminate the resistive voltage associated with the quench. A conceptual design of the quench detection based on voltage measurements is proposed for the three majors magnet systems of ITER. For this, a clear methodology was developed. It includes the classical hot spot criterion, the quench propagation study using the commercial code Gandalf and the careful estimation of the inductive disturbances by developing the TrapsAV code. Specific solutions have been proposed for the compensation in the three ITER magnet systems and for the quench detection parameters, which are the voltage threshold (in the range of 0.1 V - 0.55 V) and the holding time (in the range of 1-1.4 s). The selected values, in particular the holding time, are sufficiently high to ensure the reliability of the system and avoid fast safety discharges not induced by a quench, which is a classical problem. (author)

  15. QUENCHING VERSUS BLOW-UP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Keng; Zhao Chenglin

    2000-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the semilinear heat equation ut = Δu -u-q in Ω × (0, T) under the nonlinear boundary condition × (0, T).Criteria for finite time quenching and blow-up are established, quenching and blow-up sets are discussed, and the rates of quenching and blow-up are obtained.

  16. Quenched effective population size

    CERN Document Server

    Sagitov, Serik; Vatutin, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    We study the genealogy of a geographically - or otherwise - structured version of the Wright-Fisher population model with fast migration. The new feature is that migration probabilities may change in a random fashion. Applying Takahashi's results on Markov chains with random transition matrices, we establish convergence to the Kingman coalescent, as the population size goes to infinity. This brings a novel formula for the coalescent effective population size (EPS). We call it a quenched EPS to emphasize the key feature of our model - random environment. The quenched EPS is compared with an annealed (mean-field) EPS which describes the case of constant migration probabilities obtained by averaging the random migration probabilities over possible environments.

  17. All-carbon-based field effect transistors fabricated by aerosol jet printing on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An all-carbon-based field effect transistor (FET) was fabricated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates by the aerosol jet printing method described in this paper. Three different types of homogeneous conductive inks were made and then printed layer-by-layer to form the FET chips. The conducting-reduced graphene oxide was used as electrodes (source and drain) and channel, respectively. Graphene oxide was used as dielectrics while multi-walled carbon nanotubes acted as the gate electrode. The all-carbon-based FET shows a good mobility of 350 cm2 (V s)–1 at a drain bias of −1 V. This simple and novel method explores a promising way to fabricate all-carbon-based, flexible and low-cost electronic devices. (paper)

  18. Jet pumps for thermoacoustic applications: design guidelines based on a numerical parameter study

    CERN Document Server

    Oosterhuis, Joris P; Wilcox, Douglas; van der Meer, Theo H

    2015-01-01

    The oscillatory flow through tapered cylindrical tube sections (jet pumps) is characterized by a numerical parameter study. The shape of a jet pump results in asymmetric hydrodynamic end effects which cause a time-averaged pressure drop to occur under oscillatory flow conditions. Hence, jet pumps are used as streaming suppressors in closed-loop thermoacoustic devices. A two-dimensional axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics model is used to calculate the performance of a large number of conical jet pump geometries in terms of time-averaged pressure drop and acoustic power dissipation. The investigated geometrical parameters include the jet pump length, taper angle, waist diameter and waist curvature. In correspondence with previous work, four flow regimes are observed which characterize the jet pump performance and dimensionless parameters are introduced to scale the performance of the various jet pump geometries. The simulation results are compared to an existing quasi-steady theory and it is shown that t...

  19. Pinpointing the base of the AGN jets through general relativistic X-ray reverberation studies

    CERN Document Server

    Emmanoulopoulos, D

    2014-01-01

    Many theoretical models of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) predict that the X-ray corona, lying above the black hole, constitutes the base of the X-ray jet. Thus, by studying the exact geometry of the close black hole environment, we can pinpoint the launching site of the jet. Detection of negative X-ray reverberation time delays (i.e. soft band X-ray variations lagging behind the corresponding hard band X-ray variations) can yield significant information about the geometrical properties of the AGN, such as the location of the X-ray source, as well as the physical properties of the the black hole, such as its mass and spin. In the frame-work of the lamp-post geometry, I present the first systematic X-ray time-lag modelling results of an ensemble of 12 AGN, using a fully general relativistic (GR) ray tracing approach for the estimation of the systems' response functions. By combing these state-of-the art GR response models with statistically innovative fitting routines, I derive the geometrical layout of the clos...

  20. Degradation of carbon-based materials under ablative conditions produced by a high enthalpy plasma jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Petraconi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A stationary experiment was performed to study the degradation of carbon-based materials by immersion in a plasma jet. In the experiment, graphite and C/C composite were chosen as the target materials, and the reactive plasma jet was generated by an air plasma torch. For macroscopic study of the material degradation, the sample’s mass losses were measured as function of the exposure time under various temperatures on the sample surface. A microscopic analysis was then carried out for the study of microscopic aspects of the erosion of material surface. These experiments showed that the mass loss per unit area is approximately proportional to the exposure time and strongly depends on the temperature of the material surface. The mass erosion rate of graphite was appreciably higher than the C/C composite. The ablation rate in the carbon matrix region in C/C composite was also noticeably higher than that in the fiber region. In addition, the latter varied according to the orientation of fibers relatively to the flow direction. These tests indicated an excellent ablation resistance of the C/C composite, thus being a reliable material for rocket nozzles and heat shielding elements of the protection systems of hypersonic apparatuses from aerodynamic heating.

  1. Modified Methodology for the Quench Temperature Selection in Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) Processing of Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun Jung; Cho, Lawrence; De Cooman, Bruno C.

    2016-08-01

    The original method to select the optimum quench temperature for quenching and partitioning (Q&P) processing aims to determine the quench temperature which yields a maximum volume fraction of retained austenite. In the present study, the original method was reviewed and refined by comparison with experimental results. The proposed methodology is based on the use of a modified Koistinen-Marburger equation for the kinetics of the athermal martensite transformation of steels containing C, Mn, Si, Cr, and B.

  2. System and method for quench protection of a superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianrui; Sivasubramaniam, Kiruba Haran; Bray, James William; Ryan, David Thomas

    2008-03-11

    A system and method for protecting a superconductor from a quench condition. A quench protection system is provided to protect the superconductor from damage due to a quench condition. The quench protection system comprises a voltage detector operable to detect voltage across the superconductor. The system also comprises a frequency filter coupled to the voltage detector. The frequency filter is operable to couple voltage signals to a control circuit that are representative of a rise in superconductor voltage caused by a quench condition and to block voltage signals that are not. The system is operable to detect whether a quench condition exists in the superconductor based on the voltage signal received via the frequency filter and to initiate a protective action in response.

  3. The structure of rapidly quenched Fe–Co–B–Si based systems and the influence of addition of Cu and P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janotová, I., E-mail: irena.janotova@savba.sk; Švec, P.; Mat’ko, I.; Janičkovič, D.; Švec, P.

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Amorphous materials in form of ribbons were prepared by planar flow casting. • Kinetics of crystallization was investigated by DSC and TGA. • Samples were annealed at 773 K, bcc-Fe(Si) and t-Fe{sub 2}B were determined by XRD. • In situ XRD using linear heating confirmed two-stage transformation. • Cu and P addition into base composition leads to changes of transformation parameters. - Abstract: Rapidly quenched systems based on Fe–Co–B–Si with addition of Cu and P are very interesting for their excellent soft magnetic and mechanical properties. These physical properties are given by the structure formed from amorphous state after controlled annealing. Selected amorphous systems of this type have been prepared by planar flow casting in form of thin ribbons. Materials after heat treatment exhibit fine-grains of bcc-Fe in amorphous matrix and subsequently borides. The influence of the substitution of Fe for Co, the substitution of B for Si and the additions of P and Cu on structure in nanocrystalline state was investigated. Transformations were detected using the methods of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction (ED) analyses on samples heat-treated at selected temperatures were performed to obtain information about the structure, morphology, size and distribution of transformed grains in amorphous matrix of the investigated system.

  4. A statistical state dynamics based theory for the formation and equilibration of Saturn's North Polar Jet

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, Brian F

    2016-01-01

    Coherent jets containing most of the kinetic energy of the flow are a common feature in observations of atmospheric turbulence. In the gaseous planets these jets are maintained by incoherent turbulence excited by small scale convection. Large scale coherent waves are sometimes observed to coexist with the jets; a prominent example being Saturns hexagonal north polar jet (NPJ). Observations of the large scale jet/wave coexistence regime raises the question of identifying the mechanism responsible for forming and maintaining this turbulent state. The coherent planetary scale component of the turbulence arises and is maintained by interaction with the incoherent small-scale turbulence component. It follows that theoretical understanding of the dynamics of the jet/wave/turbulence coexistence regime is facilitated by employing a statistical state dynamics (SSD) model in which the interaction between coherent and incoherent components is explicitly represented. In this work a second order closure implementation of ...

  5. Interpreting single jet measurements in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spousta, Martin [Charles University, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Cole, Brian [Columbia University, Physics Department and Nevis Laboratories, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Results are presented from a phenomenological analysis of recent measurements of jet suppression and modifications of jet fragmentation functions in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact of the differences between quark and gluon jet quenching on the transverse momentum (p{sub T}{sup jet}) dependence of the jet R{sub AA} and on the fragmentation functions, D(z). Primordial quark and gluon parton distributions were obtained from PYTHIA8 and were parameterized using simple power-law functions and extensions to the power-law function which were found to better describe the PYTHIA8 parton spectra.Asimple model for the quark energy loss based on the shift formalism is used to model R{sub AA} and D(z) using both analytic results and using direct Monte-Carlo sampling of the PYTHIA parton spectra. The model is capable of describing the full p{sub T}{sup jet}, rapidity, and centrality dependence of the measured jet R{sub AA} using three effective parameters. A key result from the analysis is that the D(z) modifications observed in the data, excluding the enhancement at low-z, may result primarily from the different quenching of the quarks and gluons. The model is also capable of reproducing the charged hadron R{sub AA} at high transverse momentum. Predictions are made for the jet R{sub AA} at large rapidities where it has not yet been measured and for the rapidity dependence of D(z). (orig.)

  6. Dynamical quenching of tunneling in molecular magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    José Santander, María, E-mail: maria.jose.noemi@gmail.com [Recursos Educativos Quántica, Santiago (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Nunez, Alvaro S., E-mail: alnunez@dfi.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago (Chile); Roldán-Molina, A. [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Universidad 330, Curauma, Valparaíso (Chile); Troncoso, Roberto E., E-mail: r.troncoso.c@gmail.com [Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago 9170124 (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-12-15

    It is shown that a single molecular magnet placed in a rapidly oscillating magnetic field displays the phenomenon of quenching of tunneling processes. The results open a way to manipulate the quantum states of molecular magnets by means of radiation in the terahertz range. Our analysis separates the time evolution into slow and fast components thereby obtaining an effective theory for the slow dynamics. This effective theory presents quenching of the tunnel effect, in particular, stands out its difference with the so-called coherent destruction of tunneling. We support our prediction with numerical evidence based on an exact solution of Schrödinger's equation. - Highlights: • Single molecular magnets under rapidly oscillating magnetic fields is studied. • It is shown that this system displays the quenching of tunneling processes. • Our findings provide a control of quantum molecular magnets via terahertz radiation.

  7. Soliton splitting in quenched classical integrable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayun, O.; Semenyakin, M.

    2016-08-01

    We take a soliton solution of a classical non-linear integrable equation and quench (suddenly change) its non-linearity parameter. For that we multiply the amplitude or the width of a soliton by a numerical factor η and take the obtained profile as a new initial condition. We find the values of η for which the post-quench solution consists of only a finite number of solitons. The parameters of these solitons are found explicitly. Our approach is based on solving the direct scattering problem analytically. We demonstrate how it works for Korteweg–de Vries, sine-Gordon and non-linear Schrödinger integrable equations.

  8. Computer simulation of quenched and tempered steel properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Smoljan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The algorithm of estimation of mechanical properties based on steel hardness has been established.Design/methodology/approach: Numerical modelling of hardness distribution in as-quenched steel specimen was performed by involving the results of simple experimental test, i.e., Jominy-test. Hardness of quenched and tempered steel has been expressed as function of maximal hardness of actual steel and hardness of actual steel with 50% of martensite in microstructure, according to the time and temperature of tempering. After that distribution of other relevant mechanical properties was predicted based on predicted as-quenched and tempered hardness of steel. Experimental investigation has been performed on low alloy steel. The established procedure for estimation of quenched and tempered properties of steel has been applied in computer simulation of mechanical properties of quenched and tempered steel workpiece of complex form.Findings: Algorithm of estimation of hardness of quenched and tempered steel was improved. It can be concluded that working stress of quenched and tempered shaft can be successfully predicted by proposed method. The proposed computer simulation method could be applied in failure prevention.Research limitations/implications: The research was focused only on carbon and low alloyed heat treatable steels.Practical implications: The established algorithms can be used for prediction of mechanical properties in heat treating practice. Estimation of as-quenched hardness distribution is based on time, relevant for structure transformation, i.e., time of cooling from 800 to 500°C (t8/5. The hardness in the quenched and tempered state is estimated from the as-quenched hardness. The prediction of yield strength and toughness of steel is based on steel hardness.Originality/value: Hardness distribution is predicted by involving the results of simple experimental test, i.e., Jominy-test in numerical modelling of steel quenching.

  9. Design of Industrial Quenching Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolai. I. KOBASKO; George .E. TOTTEN

    2004-01-01

    The method of designing industrial processes of quench cooling, in particular, the speed of the conveyor movement with regard to shape and sizes of parts to be quenched, thermal and physical properties of material and cooling capacity of quenchants has been developed. The suggested designing method and databases are the basis for the complete automation of industrial processes of quench cooling, especially for continuous conveyor lines, with the purpose of making high-strength materials. The process is controlled by infrared technique.

  10. Python based integration of GEM detector electronics with JET data acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabołotny, Wojciech M.; Byszuk, Adrian; Chernyshova, Maryna; Cieszewski, Radosław; Czarski, Tomasz; Dalley, Simon; Hogben, Colin; Jakubowska, Katarzyna L.; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Poźniak, Krzysztof; Rzadkiewicz, Jacek; Scholz, Marek; Shumack, Amy

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the system integrating the dedicated measurement and control electronic systems for Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors with the Control and Data Acquisition system (CODAS) in the JET facility in Culham, England. The presented system performs the high level procedures necessary to calibrate the GEM detector and to protect it against possible malfunctions or dangerous changes in operating conditions. The system also allows control of the GEM detectors from CODAS, setting of their parameters, checking their state, starting the plasma measurement and to reading the results. The system has been implemented using the Python language, using the advanced libraries for implementation of network communication protocols, for object based hardware management and for data processing.

  11. Reaction jet and aerodynamics compound control missile autopilot design based on adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenhui; Dong, Chaoyang

    2006-11-01

    Because of nonlinearity and strong coupling of reaction-jet and aerodynamics compound control missile, a missile autopilot design method based on adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control (AFSMC) is proposed in this paper. The universal approximation ability of adaptive fuzzy system is used to approximate the nonlinear function in missile dynamics equation during the flight of high angle of attack. And because the sliding mode control is robustness to external disturbance strongly, the sliding mode surface of the error system is constructed to overcome the influence of approximation error and external disturbance so that the actual overload can track the maneuvering command with high precision. Simulation results show that the missile autopilot designed in this paper not only can track large overload command with higher precision than traditional method, but also is robust to model uncertainty and external disturbance strongly.

  12. Maximization of integral outlet quantities of an axisymmetric synthetic jet actuator based on a loudspeaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordík J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to find an optimal nozzle size of an axisymmetric synthetic jet actuator based on a loudspeaker. The desirable maximized output quantities are: volumetric flow, momentum flux, and kinetic energy flux. To evaluate these quantities velocity profiles were measured using a hot-wire probe at the actuator nozzle exit. Six different nozzle diameters and three supplied real power levels were tested to find the maxima of the quantities. The actuator operated always at resonance during experiments. It was found out that the momentum flux and the kinetic energy flux reach distinguishable local maxima at particular diameters of the nozzle. Besides, the maxima of the particular quantities do not coincide and the best nozzle size slightly increases with the supplied real power to the actuator.

  13. High performance jet-engine flight test data base for HSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    The primary acoustic priority of the flight test data base for HSR is the validation of the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) and other source noise codes. Also, the noise measurements are an important support function for the High Lift Program devoted to HSR. Another concern that will be addressed is a possible noise problem 7-20 miles from take-off during climbout. The attention arises from the higher speeds envisioned for the HSCT compared to conventional aircraft causing levels to increase because of Doppler amplification in conjunction with high source levels due to jet noise. An attempt may be made to measure airframe noise for the F-16XL test which would provide an assessment of this noise component for delta wing aircraft.

  14. CLIQ Based Quench Protection of 16 [T] Nb3Sn Block-Coil Dipole Magnets for a Future Circular Collider

    OpenAIRE

    Ghini, Jonas Blomberg

    2015-01-01

    Protection of large high-field, high-energy accelerator magnets is very challenging with current technology. To avoid damage to the magnet coil by local or global overheating, the maximum temperature in the hot-spot of the magnet coil must be kept under certain levels depending on the materials used in the coil construction. The current state of the art technology seems unable to do so. A novel protection system for large superconducting magnets based on generating Inter Filament Coupling...

  15. Jet Signatures in the Spectra of Accreting Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Michael O'; McKinney, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    Jets are observed as radio emission in active galactic nuclei (AGN) and during the low/hard state in X-ray binaries (XRBs), but their contribution at higher frequencies has been uncertain. We study the dynamics of jets in XRBs using the general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) code HARM. We calculate the high-energy spectra and variability properties using a general-relativistic radiative transport code based on grmonty. We find the following signatures of jet emission (i) a significant gamma-ray peak above ~ 10^22 Hz, (ii) a break in the optical/UV spectrum, with a change in luminosity from L ~ nu^0 to L ~ nu, followed by another break at higher frequencies where the spectrum roughly returns to L ~ nu^0 , and (iii) a pronounced synchrotron peak below ~ 10^15 Hz indicates that all higher energy emission originates in the jet. We investigate the variability during a large-scale magnetic field inversion in which the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) jet is quenched and a new transient is launched by the reconnectin...

  16. Subtask 3.11 - Production of CBTL-Based Jet Fuels from Biomass-Based Feedstocks and Montana Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ramesh

    2014-06-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from Exxon Mobil, undertook Subtask 3.11 to use a recently installed bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. The process involves liquefaction of Rosebud mine coal (Montana coal) coupled with an upgrading scheme to produce a naphthenic fuel. The upgrading comprises catalytic hydrotreating and saturation to produce naphthenic fuel. A synthetic jet fuel was prepared by blending equal volumes of naphthenic fuel with similar aliphatic fuel derived from biomass and 11 volume % of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthetic fuel was tested using standard ASTM International techniques to determine compliance with JP-8 fuel. The composite fuel thus produced not only meets but exceeds the military aviation fuel-screening criteria. A 500-milliliter synthetic jet fuel sample which met internal screening criteria was submitted to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria. The results show that this fuel meets or exceeds the key specification parameters for JP-8, a petroleum-based jet fuel widely used by the U.S. military. JP-8 specifications include parameters such as freeze point, density, flash point, and others; all of which were met by the EERC fuel sample. The fuel also exceeds the thermal stability specification of JP-8 fuel as determined by the quartz crystalline microbalance (QCM) test also performed at an independent laboratory as well as AFRL. This means that the EERC fuel looks and acts identically to petroleum-derived jet fuel and can be used

  17. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Richard B.; Muyskens, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Clock reactions based upon competing oxidation and reduction reactions of iodine and starch as the most popular type of chemistry example is presented to illustrate the redox phenomena, reaction kinetics, and principles of chemical titration. The examination of the photophysical principles underlying the iodine fluorescence quenching clock…

  18. Hardness-based plasticity and fracture model for quench-hardenable boron steel (22MnB5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greve, L., E-mail: lars.greve@volkswagen.de; Medricky, M., E-mail: miloslav.medricky@volkswagen.de; Andres, M., E-mail: miloslav.medricky@volkswagen.de [Volkswagen AG, Letter Box 1777, Wolfsburg, 38436 (Germany); Eller, T. K., E-mail: tom.karl.eller@volkswagen.de [Volkswagen AG, Letter Box 1777, Wolfsburg, 38436, Germany, and University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2013-12-16

    A comprehensive strain hardening and fracture characterization of different grades of boron steel blanks has been performed, providing the foundation for the implementation into the modular material model (MMM) framework developed by Volkswagen Group Research for an explicit crash code. Due to the introduction of hardness-based interpolation rules for the characterized main grades, the hardening and fracture behavior is solely described by the underlying Vickers hardness. In other words, knowledge of the hardness distribution within a hot-formed component is enough to set up the newly developed computational model. The hardness distribution can be easily introduced via an experimentally measured hardness curve or via hardness mapping from a corresponding hot-forming simulation. For industrial application using rather coarse and computationally inexpensive shell element meshes, the user material model has been extended by a necking/post-necking model with reduced mesh-dependency as an additional failure mode. The present paper mainly addresses the necking/post-necking model.

  19. Distance Measures for Gabor Jets-based Face Authentication: A Comparative Evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Jimenez, Daniel; Bicego, Manuele; Tangelder, Hans; Schouten, Ben; Ambekar, Onkar; Alba Castro,; Grosso,; Tistarelli,

    2007-01-01

    Local Gabor features (jets) have been widely used in face recognition systems. Once the sets of jets have been extracted from the two faces to be compared, a proper measure of similarity (or distance) between corresponding features should be chosen. For instance, in the well known Elastic Bunch Grap

  20. Interpreting Single Jet Measurements in Pb+Pb Collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Spousta, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented from a phenomenological analysis of recent measurements of jet suppression and modifications of jet fragmentation functions in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact of the differences between quark and gluon jet quenching on the transverse momentum ($p_{T}^{jet}$) dependence of the jet $R_{AA}$ and on the fragmentation functions, $D(z)$. Primordial quark and gluon parton distributions were obtained from PYTHIA8 and were parameterized using simple power-law functions and extensions to the power-law function which were found to better describe the PYTHIA8 parton spectra. A simple model for the quark energy loss based on the shift formalism is used to model $R_{AA}$ and $D(z)$ using both analytic results and using direct Monte-Carlo sampling of the PYTHIA parton spectra. The model is capable of describing the full $p_{T}^{jet}$ , rapidity, and centrality dependence of the measured jet $R_{AA}$ using three effective parameters. A key result from the analysi...

  1. Structural Model for Jet Engine Configuration Using Knowledge-Based Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Tenllado Cunillera, Albert

    2009-01-01

    The overall goal is to develop a structural model that enables configuration of different jet engine concepts and used as input to the research project where dynamic and stress analysis will be performed. The specific goal is to: use the KBE-module of Siemens PLM NX5 called Knowledge Fusion to implement a simplified turbofan jet engine containing accordin to Figure 1. Although the focus is on the structural (i.e the parts that create the stiffness of the jet engine and mostly are static) part...

  2. Signal-Amplified Near-Infrared Ratiometric Electrochemiluminescence Aptasensor Based on Multiple Quenching and Enhancement Effect of Graphene/Gold Nanorods/G-Quadruplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kang; Wang, Biru; Ye, Shiyi; Zuo, Yunpeng; Wu, Long; Li, Qin; Lu, Zhicheng; Tan, XueCai; Han, Heyou

    2016-08-16

    Dual-signaling ratiometric electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technology has attracted particular attention in analytical science due to its precise measurement to normalize variation in environmental changes. Creating new mated ECL report units with two emitting states and improving the detection sensitivity are major challenges for ratiometric ECL measurement. Here, we fabricate an ultrasensitive near-infrared ratiometric ECL aptasensor based on a dual-potential signal amplification strategy triggered by the quencher/enhancer [graphene/hemin/gold nanorods/G-quadruplex-hemin (rGO-H-AuNRs-G4H) composite]. The composite was initially prepared through three consecutive steps: the π-π stacking interaction between hemin and graphene, in-site growth of AuNRs, and surface ligand exchange. Dual ECL quenching of quantum dots (QDs) and multiple signal enhancement of luminol can be achieved simultaneously by the fabrication of the sandwich "thrombin aptamer I (TBA1)-TB-TBA2 (rGO-H-AuNRs-G4H)" mode: (i) the formation of three-dimensional G-quadruplex between aptamer and thrombin not only shortens the distance between the donor (QDs) and receptor (rGO-H and AuNRs) to trigger electrochemiluminescence energy transfer but also provides the place for intercalating hemin; (ii) the hemin intercalated into G4 structure and hemin connected onto rGO together with AuNRs/rGO nanomaterials can achieve the multiple peroxidase-like catalysis of H2O2 to greatly enhance the ECL of luminol. The ratiometric ECL aptasensor self-calibrated by the internal reference (luminol or QDs) exhibits ultrasensitive and accurate analytical performance toward thrombin (TB) with a linear detection range from 100 ng/mL to 0.5 pg/mL and a detection limit of 4.2 fg/mL [defined as signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) = 3]. PMID:27435830

  3. Performance evaluation of bipolar and tripolar excitations during nozzle-jetting-based alginate microsphere fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microspheres, small spherical (polymeric) particles with or without second phase materials embedded or encapsulated, are important for many biomedical applications such as drug delivery and organ printing. Scale-up fabrication with the ability to precisely control the microsphere size and morphology has always been of great manufacturing interest. The objective of this work is to experimentally study the performance differences of bipolar and tripolar excitation waveforms in using drop-on-demand (DOD)-based single nozzle jetting for alginate microsphere fabrication. The fabrication performance has been evaluated based on the formability of alginate microspheres as a function of materials properties (sodium alginate and calcium chloride concentrations) and operating conditions. The operating conditions for each excitation include voltage rise/fall times, dwell times and excitation voltage amplitudes. Overall, the bipolar excitation is more robust in making spherical, monodispersed alginate microspheres as good microspheres for its wide working range of material properties and operating conditions, especially during the fabrication of highly viscous materials such as the 2% sodium alginate solution. For both bipolar and tripolar excitations, the sodium alginate concentration and the voltage dwell times should be carefully selected to achieve good microsphere formability. (paper)

  4. The hydrogen laminar jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Sanz, M. [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidomecanica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rosales, M. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain); Instituto de Innovacion en Mineria y Metalurgia, Avenida del Valle 738, Santiago (Chile); Sanchez, A.L. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Numerical and asymptotic methods are used to investigate the structure of the hydrogen jet discharging into a quiescent air atmosphere. The analysis accounts in particular for the variation of the density and transport properties with composition. The Reynolds number of the flow R{sub j}, based on the initial jet radius a, the density {rho}{sub j} and viscosity {mu}{sub j} of the jet and the characteristic jet velocity u{sub j}, is assumed to take moderately large values, so that the jet remains slender and stable, and can be correspondingly described by numerical integration of the continuity, momentum and species conservation equations written in the boundary-layer approximation. The solution for the velocity and composition in the jet development region of planar and round jets, corresponding to streamwise distances of order R{sub j}a, is computed numerically, along with the solutions that emerge both in the near field and in the far field. The small value of the hydrogen-to-air molecular weight ratio is used to simplify the solution by considering the asymptotic limit of vanishing jet density. The development provides at leading-order explicit analytical expressions for the far-field velocity and hydrogen mass fraction that describe accurately the hydrogen jet near the axis. The information provided can be useful in particular to characterize hydrogen discharge processes from holes and cracks. (author)

  5. Feasible voltage-tap based quench detection in a Ag/Bi-2212 coil enabled by fast 3D normal zone propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tengming; Ye, Liyang; Li, Pei

    2016-08-01

    Small insert solenoids have been built using a commercial Ag/Bi-2212 multifilamentary round wire, insulated with a new thin TiO2–polymer coating insulation (thickness of ∼20 μm versus ∼100 μm for a commonly used mullite braided sleeve insulation), and characterized in a background magnetic field up to 14 T at 4.2 K to explore the high-field performance and quench detection of Bi-2212 magnets. The coil has no visible leakage and no electrical shorts after reaction, and it carries 280 A mm‑2 in a background field of 14 T and generates an additional 1.7 T. A notable result is that, despite normal zones propagating slowly along the conductor, the hot spot temperature upon detection increases only from 40 K to 60 K when the resistive quench detection voltage threshold increases from 0.1 V to 1 V for all operating current density investigated, showing that quench detection using voltage taps is feasible for this coil. This is in strong contrast to a coil we have previously built to the same specifications but from wires insulated with mullite braided sleeve insulation, for which the hot spot temperature upon detection increases from ∼80 K to ∼140 K while increasing the detection voltage threshold from 0.1 V to 1 V, and thus for which quench detection using voltage taps presents significant risks, consistent with the common belief that the effectiveness of quench detection using voltage taps for superconducting magnets built using high-temperature superconductors is seriously compromised by their slow normal zone propagation. This striking difference is ascribed to the fast transverse quench propagation enabled by thin insulation and the improved thermal coupling between conductor turns. This work demonstrates that quench detection for high-temperature superconducting magnets highly depends on the design and construction of the coils such as the insulation materials used and this dependence should be factored into the overall magnet design.

  6. Unconditional jetting

    CERN Document Server

    Ganan-Calvo, Alfonso M

    2008-01-01

    Capillary jetting of a fluid dispersed into another immiscible phase is usually limited by a critical Capillary number, a function of the Reynolds number and the fluid properties ratios. Critical conditions are set when the minimum spreading velocity of small perturbations $v^*_-$ along the jet (marginal stability velocity) is zero. Here we identify and describe parametrical regions of high technological relevance, where $v^*_-> 0$ and the jet is always supercritical independently of the dispersed liquid flow rate: within these relatively broad regions, the jet does not undergo the usual dripping-jetting transition, so that either the jet can be made arbitrarily thin (yielding droplets of arbitrarily small size), or its bulk speed can be made zero. In this latter case, requiring a non-zero jet surface velocity and a thin boundary layer, axisymmetric perturbation waves ``surf'' downstream for all given wave numbers, while in the former case (implying small Reynolds flow) we found that the jet profile small slo...

  7. Research on the Injection Performance of a Novel Lubricating Device Based on Piezoelectric Micro-Jet Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Liu, Jun-kao; Chen, Wei-shan; Ye, Le; Zhang, Lu

    2016-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of lubrication failure in bearing systems, a novel lubricating device which can achieve drop-on-demand lubrication is proposed based on piezoelectric micro-jet technology. The injection performance of the novel piezoelectric micro-jet lubricating device are analyzed in this paper. The influences of the fluid-structure interaction to the working frequency are studied by comparing the results of tests with simulations. A method used to forecast the working frequency of the micro-jet is proved to be available. A velocity inlet boundary model at the nozzle is derived under the assumption that the lubricating oil cannot be pressed. Combined with this model, the influences of density, dynamic viscosity and surface tension of the lubricating oil on the injection performance are discussed according to the simulation results. An experiment on the injection performance of the micro-jet for ejecting lubricating oil with different dilution ratios is performed. The recommended excitations are given for ejecting lubricating oil with different properties by analyzing the results.

  8. Stream-coordinate structure of oceanic jets based on merged altimeter data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Che; ZHANG Linlin; YAN Xiaomei

    2011-01-01

    The jet structure of the Southern Ocean front south of Australia is studied in stream-coordinate with a new altimeter product--Absolute Dynamic Topography (ADT) from AVISO. The accuracy of the ADT data is validated with the mooring data from a two-year subantarctic-front experiment. It is demonstrated that the ADT is consistent with in-situ measurements and captures the meso-scale activity of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Stream-coordinate analysis of ADT surface geostrophic flows finds that ACC jets exhibit large spatio-temporal variability and do not correspond to particular streamfunction values. In the circumpolar scope ACC jets display a transient fragmented pattern controlled by topographic features. The poleward shift of jet in streamfunction space, as revealed by a streamwise correlation method, indicates the presence of meridional fluxes of zonal momentum. Such cross-stream eddy fluxes concentrate the broad ACC baroclinic flow into narrow jets. Combined with a recent discovery of gravest empirical mode (GEM) in the thermohaline fields, the study clarifies the interrelationship among front, jet and streamfunction in the Southern Ocean.

  9. A protection system for the JET ITER-like wall based on imaging diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux, G; Devaux, S; Alves, D; Balboa, I; Balorin, C; Balshaw, N; Beldishevski, M; Carvalho, P; Clever, M; Cramp, S; de Pablos, J-L; de la Cal, E; Falie, D; Garcia-Sanchez, P; Felton, R; Gervaise, V; Goodyear, A; Horton, A; Jachmich, S; Huber, A; Jouve, M; Kinna, D; Kruezi, U; Manzanares, A; Martin, V; McCullen, P; Moncada, V; Obrejan, K; Patel, K; Lomas, P J; Neto, A; Rimini, F; Ruset, C; Schweer, B; Sergienko, G; Sieglin, B; Soleto, A; Stamp, M; Stephen, A; Thomas, P D; Valcárcel, D F; Williams, J; Wilson, J; Zastrow, K-D

    2012-10-01

    The new JET ITER-like wall (made of beryllium and tungsten) is more fragile than the former carbon fiber composite wall and requires active protection to prevent excessive heat loads on the plasma facing components (PFC). Analog CCD cameras operating in the near infrared wavelength are used to measure surface temperature of the PFCs. Region of interest (ROI) analysis is performed in real time and the maximum temperature measured in each ROI is sent to the vessel thermal map. The protection of the ITER-like wall system started in October 2011 and has already successfully led to a safe landing of the plasma when hot spots were observed on the Be main chamber PFCs. Divertor protection is more of a challenge due to dust deposits that often generate false hot spots. In this contribution we describe the camera, data capture and real time processing systems. We discuss the calibration strategy for the temperature measurements with cross validation with thermal IR cameras and bi-color pyrometers. Most importantly, we demonstrate that a protection system based on CCD cameras can work and show examples of hot spot detections that stop the plasma pulse. The limits of such a design and the associated constraints on the operations are also presented.

  10. A Conceptual Model of Somali Jet Based on the Biot-Savart Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Shi-De; DONG Ping; ZHONG Lin-Hao

    2008-01-01

    @@ We study the relationship between thermal conditions on the earth bottom boundary and the formation of Somali jet based on the Biot-Savart law and the data from National Centres for Environmental Prediction (NCEP).As the radiation from the Sun gradually moves from the southern meridian, the temperature on the surface of Somali Peninsular and Arabic Peninsular gradually increases.During the same period the surface temperature of the Northern Indian Ocean increases much slower.It is shown that this increase of the temperature difference between the land and sea is inductive to the formation and development of Rayleigh-Benard convection and leads to the increasing relative vorticity strength between positive and negative vertical vortices over the land and sea.According to the Biot-Savart law, increase of vorticity strength will correspondingly induce the horizontal velocity.A pair of positive and negative vorticity fields over the two Peninsulars and the sea surface is effective in forming and maintaining this current.This mechanism is referred to as the 'Somali suction pump'.It draws air continually from the Southern hemisphere and releases it at the coastal area of Somali.

  11. A Conceptual Model of Somali Jet Based on the Biot–Savart Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the relationship between thermal conditions on the earth bottom boundary and the formation of Somali jet based on the Biot–Savart law and the data from National Centres for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). As the radiation from the Sun gradually moves from the southern meridian, the temperature on the surface of Somali Peninsular and Arabic Peninsular gradually increases. During the same period the surface temperature of the Northern Indian Ocean increases much slower. It is shown that this increase of the temperature difference between the land and sea is inductive to the formation and development of Rayleigh–Benard convection and leads to the increasing relative vorticity strength between positive and negative vertical vortices over the land and sea. According to the Biot–Savart law, increase of vorticity strength will correspondingly induce the horizontal velocity. A pair of positive and negative vorticity fields over the two Peninsulars and the sea surface is effective in forming and maintaining this current. This mechanism is referred to as the 'Somali suction pump'. It draws air continually from the Southern hemisphere and releases it at the coastal area of Somali

  12. Jet Physics in Heavy Ion Collisions with Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lokhtin, I P

    2006-01-01

    The status of CMS jet simulations and physics analysis in heavy ion collisions is presented. Jet reconstruction and high transverse momentum particle tracking in the high multiplicity environment of heavy ion collisions at the LHC using the CMS calorimetry and tracking system are described. The Monte Carlo tools used to simulate jet quenching are discussed.

  13. Determination of trace silver by solid substrate-room temperature phosphorescence quenching method based on double catalytic system of meta-nitrophenyfluorone-polyoxyethylene-chromium-potassium bromate-β-cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaming, Liu; Xuan, Lin; Aihong, Wu; Li-Xiang, Hu; Hangxia, HE; Honghua, Huang; Longdi, Li; Shaoqin, Lin

    2006-09-01

    A new solid substrate-room temperature phosphorescence (SS-RTP) quenching method for the determination of trace silver has been established. It is based on the fact that when using Mg 2+ as ion perturber and β-CD as surfactant, the system of meta-nitrophenyfluorone (R)-polyoxyethylene-Cr(III) can emit strong and stable room temperature phosphorescence signal on filter paper whose surface is modified by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-H 3BO 3-NaOH. Ag(I) can catalyze KBrO 3 oxidizing R-PEO-Cr(III) system which causes the quenching of SS-RTP. The reducing value of phosphorescence intensity (Δ Ip) is directly proportional to the concentration of Ag(I) in the range of 3.2-160 ag spot -1 (corresponding concentration: 2.43 fg ml -1, the sample volume: 0.40 μl spot -1) with a detection limit (LD) of 0.97 ag spot -1. The regression equation of working curve can be expressed as Δ Ip = 13.92 + 0.3089 m (ag spot -1) ( r = 0.9983, n = 6). This method has many advantages, such as a wide linear dynamic range, high sensitivity, good repeatability and selectivity. It has been applied to the determination of trace silver in real samples with satisfactory results. What is more, the mechanism of SS-RTP quenching method based on Ag(I) catalyzing KBrO 3 oxidizing meta-nitrophenyfluorone has also been discussed.

  14. Holographic Quenches with a Gap

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Emilia; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    In order to holographically model quenches with a gapped final hamiltonian, we consider a gravity-scalar theory in anti-de Sitter space with an infrared hard wall. We allow a time dependent profile for the scalar field at the wall. This induces an energy exchange between bulk and wall and generates an oscillating scalar pulse. We argue that such backgrounds are the counterpart of quantum revivals in the dual field theory. We perform a qualitative comparison with the quench dynamics of the massive Schwinger model, which has been recently analyzed using tensor network techniques. Agreement is found provided the width of the oscillating scalar pulse is inversely linked to the energy density communicated by the quench. We propose this to be a general feature of holographic quenches.

  15. Holographic quenches with a gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Emilia; Lopez, Esperanza; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    In order to holographically model quenches with a gapped final hamiltonian, we consider a gravity-scalar theory in anti-de Sitter space with an infrared hard wall. We allow a time dependent profile for the scalar field at the wall. This induces an energy exchange between bulk and wall and generates an oscillating scalar pulse. We argue that such backgrounds are the counterpart of quantum revivals in the dual field theory. We perform a qualitative comparison with the quench dynamics of the massive Schwinger model, which has been recently analyzed using tensor network techniques. Agreement is found provided the width of the oscillating scalar pulse is inversely linked to the energy density communicated by the quench. We propose this to be a general feature of holographic quenches.

  16. A New Quenching Process and Tower to Improve the Recovery of Acrylonitrile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘永胜; 顾军民; 方永成

    2004-01-01

    Quenching process and design of the quenching tower in acrylonitrile production in China were studied in order to decrease the polymerization loss of acrylonitrile in the quenching tower. Based on the research of acrylonitrile polymerization in the quenching tower, a new quenching process was proposed to avoid the disadvantages of the original process. Two kinds of internals were installed to improve the performance of the quenching tower. Through a series of air-flow and real-flow model experiments, the new quenching process and new design were showed to be successful in enhancing the mass and heat transfer in the vapor-liquid system and decreasing the loss of acrylonitrile.Industrial application showed satisfactory results of decrease of the acrylonitrile loss in the quenching tower by about 4.5% and increase of the acrylonitrile recovery of the whole plant by more than 4%.

  17. Improvements in quench factor modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Rometsch, P.A.; Starink, M.J.; Gregson, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution, the validity of a number of key quench factor analysis (QFA) assumptions is discussed. It is shown that the incorporation of a square root dependency of yield strength on precipitate volume fraction provides a sounder physical basis for quench factor modelling. Peak-aged strength/hardness prediction accuracies are not affected, but C-curve positions are. It is also demonstrated that transformation kinetics are described more correctly by a modified Starink–Zahra equation...

  18. Quenched moderate deviations principle for random walk in random environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We derive a quenched moderate deviations principle for the one-dimensional nearest random walk in random environment,where the environment is assumed to be stationary and ergodic.The approach is based on hitting time decomposition.

  19. Jet propulsion without inertia

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolie, Saverio E

    2010-01-01

    A body immersed in a highly viscous fluid can locomote by drawing in and expelling fluid through pores at its surface. We consider this mechanism of jet propulsion without inertia in the case of spheroidal bodies, and derive both the swimming velocity and the hydrodynamic efficiency. Elementary examples are presented, and exact axisymmetric solutions for spherical, prolate spheroidal, and oblate spheroidal body shapes are provided. In each case, entirely and partially porous (i.e. jetting) surfaces are considered, and the optimal jetting flow profiles at the surface for maximizing the hydrodynamic efficiency are determined computationally. The maximal efficiency which may be achieved by a sphere using such jet propulsion is 12.5%, a significant improvement upon traditional flagella-based means of locomotion at zero Reynolds number. Unlike other swimming mechanisms which rely on the presentation of a small cross section in the direction of motion, the efficiency of a jetting body at low Reynolds number increas...

  20. Effect of concentration quenching on the spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped AlF3-based glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junjie Zhang(张军杰); Shixun Dai(戴世勋); Shiqing Xu(徐时清); Guonian Wang(汪国年); Liyan Zhang(张丽艳); Lili Hu(胡丽丽)

    2004-01-01

    A series of highly Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped fluoroaluminate glasses have been investigated in order to develop a microchip laser at 1.54 μm under 980 nm excitation. Measurements of absorption, emission and upconversion spectra have been performed to examine the effect of Er3+/Yb3+ concentration quenching on spectroscopic properties. In the glasses with Er3+ concentrations below 10 mol%, concentration quenching is very low and the Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped fluoroaluminate glasses have stronger fluorescence of 1.54 μm due to the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition than that of Er3+ singly-doped glasses. As Er3+ concentrations above 10 mol% in the Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped samples, concentration quenching of 1.54 μm does obviously occur as a result of the back energy transfer from Er3+ to Yb3+. To obtain the highest emission efficiency at 1.54 μm, the optimum doping-concentration ratio of Er3+/Yb3+ was found to be approximately 1:1 in mol fraction when the Er3+ concentration is less than 10 mol%.

  1. Rapid Determination of Trace Copper Ions in Natural Water Based on the Fluorescence Quenched of 2-Salicyloylhydrazone Propionic Acid%荧光猝灭法快速测定天然水中的痕量铜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马飞; 李芳; 刘伟; 范耀耀; 周日照; 冯选妮; 贾文平

    2011-01-01

    A new fluorescence quenching method for rapid determination of trace copper ions in natural water is developed based on the fluorescence quenched of 2-salicyloylhydrazone propionic acid (SHPA) by Cu2+. The experimental results showed that the linear relationship between the fluorescence quenching effect of SHPA and the concentration of Cu2 + is good in neutral aqueous solution. The correlation coefficient ( r) and the linear range are 0. 997 4 and (0.7 -9. 3) |xmol/L respectively with the detection limit of 0. 36 |xmol/L. The method has been applied to determination of Cu2+ in the simulated natural water samples with 2.41% RSD.%利用Cu2+对2-水杨酰腙丙酸(SHPA)荧光的猝灭作用,建立了快速测定天然水中痕量铜的新方法.实验结果表明,在中性介质中,SHPA的荧光强度与Cu2+的浓度呈良好的线性关系,相关系数(r)为0.997 4,Cu2+的检出限为0.36 μmol/L,线性范围为(0.7-9.3) μmol/L.本方法用于模拟天然水水样中Cu2+的测定,RSD =2.41%.

  2. Metal-mesh based transparent electrode on a 3-D curved surface by electrohydrodynamic jet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Baekhoon; Yoo, Hyunwoong; Dat Nguyen, Vu; Jang, Yonghee; Ryu, Changkook; Byun, Doyoung

    2014-09-01

    Invisible Ag mesh transparent electrodes (TEs), with a width of 7 μm, were prepared on a curved glass surface by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing. With a 100 μm pitch, the EHD jet printed the Ag mesh on the convex glass which had a sheet resistance of 1.49 Ω/□. The printing speed was 30 cm s-1 using Ag ink, which had a 10 000 cPs viscosity and a 70 wt% Ag nanoparticle concentration. We further showed the performance of a 3-D transparent heater using the Ag mesh transparent electrode. The EHD jet printed an invisible Ag grid transparent electrode with good electrical and optical properties with promising applications on printed optoelectronic devices.

  3. The quenching time scale and quenching rate of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lian, Jianhui; Zhang, Kai; Kong, Xu

    2016-01-01

    The average star formation rate (SFR) in galaxies has been declining since redshift of 2. A fraction of galaxies quench and become quiescent. We constrain two key properties of the quenching process: the quenching time scale and the quenching rate among galaxies. We achieve this by analyzing the galaxy number density profile in NUV-u color space and the distribution in NUV-u v.s. u-i color-color diagram with a simple toy-model framework. We focus on galaxies in three mass bins between 10 to 10 and 10 to 10.6 solar mass. In the NUV-u v.s. u-i color-color diagram, the red u-i galaxies exhibit a different slope from the slope traced by the star-forming galaxies. This angled distribution and the number density profile of galaxies in NUV-u space strongly suggest that the decline of the SFR in galaxies has to accelerate before they turn quiescent. We model this color-color distribution with a two-phase exponential decline star formation history. The models with an e-folding time in the second phase (the quenching p...

  4. Magnetization degree at the jet base of M87 derived from the event horizon telescope data: Testing magnetically driven jet paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Kino, M; Hada, K; Akiyama, K; Nagai, H; Sohn, B W

    2015-01-01

    We explore the degree of magnetization at the jet base of M87 by using the observational data of the event horizon telescope (EHT) at 230~GHz obtained by Doeleman et al. By utilizing the method in Kino et al., we derive the energy densities of magnetic fields ($U_{B}$) and electrons and positrons ($U_{\\pm}$) in the compact region detected by EHT (EHT-region) with its full-width-half-maximum size $40~{\\rm \\mu as}$. First, we assume that an optically-thick region for synchrotron self absorption (SSA) exists in the EHT-region. Then, we find that the SSA-thick region should not be too large not to overproduce the Poynting power at the EHT-region. The allowed ranges of the angular size and the magnetic field strength of the SSA-thick region are $21~{\\rm \\mu as} \\le \\theta_{\\rm thick}\\le 26.3~{\\rm \\mu as}$ and $50~{\\rm G}\\le B_{\\rm tot}\\le 124~{\\rm G}$, respectively. Correspondingly $U_{B}\\gg U_{\\pm} $ is realized in this case. We further examine the composition of plasma and energy density of protons by utilizing ...

  5. Twist in a polar blowout jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Chao Hong; Yun-Chun Jiang; Jia-Yan Yang; Rui-Sheng Zheng; Yi Bi; Hai-Dong Li; Bo Yang

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that some coronal jets exhibit helical structures and untwisting.We attempt to inspect the origin of twist in a blowout jet.By means of multiwavelength and multi-angle observations from Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-Ahead (STEREO-A),we firstly report a polar untwisting jet that is a blowout jet which leads to a jet-like coronal mass ejection.From the viewpoint of SDO,the jet shows clear untwisting behavior and two jet-spires.However,from the viewpoint of STEREO-A the jet actually comes from the whiplike prominence eruption and is followed by a white-light jet.Our observations indicate that twist in blowout jets may result from the erupting mini-prominences/minifilaments in the jet base.

  6. Microchip-based electrochemical detection using a 3-D printed wall-jet electrode device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Akash S; Martin, R Scott

    2016-02-01

    Three dimensional (3-D) printing technology has evolved dramatically in the last few years, offering the capability of printing objects with a variety of materials. Printing microfluidic devices using this technology offers various advantages such as ease and uniformity of fabrication, file sharing between laboratories, and increased device-to-device reproducibility. One unique aspect of this technology, when used with electrochemical detection, is the ability to produce a microfluidic device as one unit while also allowing the reuse of the device and electrode for multiple analyses. Here we present an alternate electrode configuration for microfluidic devices, a wall-jet electrode (WJE) approach, created by 3-D printing. Using microchip-based flow injection analysis, we compared the WJE design with the conventionally used thin-layer electrode (TLE) design. It was found that the optimized WJE system enhances analytical performance (as compared to the TLE design), with improvements in sensitivity and the limit of detection. Experiments were conducted using two working electrodes - 500 μm platinum and 1 mm glassy carbon. Using the 500 μm platinum electrode the calibration sensitivity was 16 times higher for the WJE device (as compared to the TLE design). In addition, use of the 1 mm glassy carbon electrode led to limit of detection of 500 nM for catechol, as compared to 6 μM for the TLE device. Finally, to demonstrate the versatility and applicability of the 3-D printed WJE approach, the device was used as an inexpensive electrochemical detector for HPLC. The number of theoretical plates was comparable to the use of commercially available UV and MS detectors, with the WJE device being inexpensive to utilize. These results show that 3-D-printing can be a powerful tool to fabricate reusable and integrated microfluidic detectors in configurations that are not easily achieved with more traditional lithographic methods. PMID:26649363

  7. The elastic and radiative energy loss contributions for the quenching factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackedanz, Luiz Fernando [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. High Energy Phenomenology Group (GFPAE)], e-mail: luiz.mackedanz@ufrgs.br; Ducati, M.B. Gay [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Goncalves, V.P. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The discovery of jet quenching in central Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-ion Collider (RHIC) has provided evidences for formation of a strongly interacting dense matter - the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). Basically, the high parton density produced in heavy ion collisions could induce a large amount of energy loss while hard partons produced in the initial stage of the collision propagate through the fireball, due to the parton interaction with the medium. The total energy loss of a particle in a medium can be decomposed into an elastic and a radiative contribution. At large energies one expects that radiative energy loss becomes much larger than the elastic one, as in the electromagnetic case. This assumption is characteristic of the current works on jet quenching phenomenology in the RHIC kinematical region. However, as the elastic contribution can dominate at lower energies, an open question is magnitude of each contribution. In this work, we analyze the behavior of the quenching factor when the contributions of elastic and radiative energy loss are considered. We compute the radiative loss using the light cone path integral (LCPI) approach and compare with the HTL theory predictions for the elastic energy loss. It allow us to estimate the relevance of the elastic energy loss for the quenching factor. Our study shows that the elastic mechanism is relevant in RHIC kinematical regime and cannot be disregarded in the analysis of the jet quenching. (author)

  8. High-Sensitivity 86GHz (3.5mm) VLBI Observations of M87: Deep Imaging of the Jet Base at a 10 Schwarzschild-Radius Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Hada, Kazuhiro; Doi, Akihiro; Nagai, Hiroshi; Honma, Mareki; Akiyama, Kazunori; Tazaki, Fumie; Lico, Rocco; Giroletti, Marcello; Giovannini, Gabriele; Orienti, Monica; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    We report on results from new high-sensitivity, high-resolution 86GHz (3.5 millimeter) observations of the jet base in the nearby radio galaxy M87, obtained by the Very Long Baseline Array in conjunction with the Green Bank Telescope. The resulting image has a dynamic range exceeding 1500 to 1, the highest ever achieved for this jet at this frequency, resolving and imaging a detailed jet formation/collimation structure down to ~10 Schwarzschild radii (Rs). The obtained 86GHz image clearly confirms some important jet features known at lower frequencies, i.e., a wide-opening angle jet base, a limb-brightened intensity profile, a parabola-shape collimation profile and a counter jet. The limb-brightened structure is already well developed at < 0.2mas (< 28Rs, projected) from the core, where the corresponding apparent opening angle becomes as wide as ~100 degrees. The subsequent jet collimation near the black hole evolves in a complicated manner; there is a "constricted" structure at tens Rs from the core, w...

  9. Synthesis of ZnO particles in a quench-cooled flame reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Peter; Jensen, Joakim Reimer; Livbjerg, Hans;

    2001-01-01

    The quench cooling of a flame by injection of cold air was studied in a flame reactor for the formation of ZnO particles in a premixed flame with a precursor jet. A rapid temperature drop downstream from the temperature peak is advantageous for the attainment of a large specific surface area...

  10. Carbonated aqueous media for quench heat treatment of steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, U. Vignesh; Rao, K. M. Pranesh; Pai, M. Ashwin; Prabhu, K. Narayan

    2016-07-01

    Distilled water and polyalkylene glycol (PAG)-based aqueous quenchants of 5 and 10 vol.% with and without carbonation were prepared and used as heat transfer media during immersion quenching. Cooling curves were recorded during quenching of an inconel 600 cylindrical probe instrumented with multiple thermocouples. It was observed that the vapor stage duration was prolonged and the wetting front ascended uniformly for quenching with carbonated media. The cooling data were analyzed by determining the critical cooling parameters and by estimating the spatially dependent probe/quenchant interfacial heat flux transients. The study showed significantly reduced values of heat transfer rate for carbonated quenchants compared to quenchants without carbonation. Further, the reduction was more pronounced in the case of PAG-based carbonated quenchants than carbonated distilled water. The results also showed the dependence of heat transfer characteristics of the carbonated media on polymer concentration. The effect of quench uniformity on the microstructure of the material was assessed.

  11. Carbonated aqueous media for quench heat treatment of steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, U. Vignesh; Rao, K. M. Pranesh; Pai, M. Ashwin; Prabhu, K. Narayan

    2016-09-01

    Distilled water and polyalkylene glycol (PAG)-based aqueous quenchants of 5 and 10 vol.% with and without carbonation were prepared and used as heat transfer media during immersion quenching. Cooling curves were recorded during quenching of an inconel 600 cylindrical probe instrumented with multiple thermocouples. It was observed that the vapor stage duration was prolonged and the wetting front ascended uniformly for quenching with carbonated media. The cooling data were analyzed by determining the critical cooling parameters and by estimating the spatially dependent probe/quenchant interfacial heat flux transients. The study showed significantly reduced values of heat transfer rate for carbonated quenchants compared to quenchants without carbonation. Further, the reduction was more pronounced in the case of PAG-based carbonated quenchants than carbonated distilled water. The results also showed the dependence of heat transfer characteristics of the carbonated media on polymer concentration. The effect of quench uniformity on the microstructure of the material was assessed.

  12. Universality in fast quantum quenches

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Sumit R; Myers, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    We expand on the investigation of the universal scaling properties in the early time behaviour of fast but smooth quantum quenches in a general $d$-dimensional conformal field theory deformed by a relevant operator of dimension $\\Delta$ with a time-dependent coupling. The quench consists of changing the coupling from an initial constant value $\\lambda_1$ by an amount of the order of $\\delta \\lambda$ to some other final value $\\lambda_2$, over a time scale $\\delta t$. In the fast quench limit where $\\delta t$ is smaller than all other length scales in the problem, $ \\delta t \\ll \\lambda_1^{1/(\\Delta-d)}, \\lambda_2^{1/(\\Delta-d)}, \\delta \\lambda^{1/(\\Delta-d)}$, the energy (density) injected into the system scales as $\\delta{\\cal E} \\sim (\\delta \\lambda)^2 (\\delta t)^{d-2\\Delta}$. Similarly, the change in the expectation value of the quenched operator at times earlier than the endpoint of the quench scales as $\\langle {\\cal O}_\\Delta\\rangle \\sim \\delta \\lambda\\, (\\delta t)^{d-2\\Delta}$, with further logarithmic...

  13. Influence of the quenching rate and step-wise cooling temperatures on microstructural and tensile properties of PER72 ® Ni-based superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Baillif Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The PER72® grade is used as a wrought engine turbine disk, which is a critical high temperature component. During the heat treatment process, residual stresses are generated during the quench, which may lead to irreversible damages on the workpiece. The aim of this study is to better understand the mechanisms involved in the residual stress generation. Therefore, the influence of quenching conditions on the high temperature tensile properties and the multi-scale microstructure evolutions are investigated after cooling. PER72® specimens are annealed above the solvus temperature, directly on the servo-hydraulic testing machine. Three quenching rates are used: 30 ∘C/min, 120 ∘C/min, and 300 ∘C/min. For each condition, the cooling is interrupted at 1000 ∘C, 850 ∘C, 600 ∘C and 20 ∘C to perform isothermal tensile test. Specimens are post-mortem analysed. On one hand the fracture surface is investigated using SEM. On the other hand the microstructure evolution was observed and quantified at different scales using SEM directly on the bulk or after the chemical extraction of precipitation. The precipitation size and volume fraction statistics, X-Ray diffraction for the crystallography and composition of the different phases are investigated. It was shown that the testing temperature does not significantly influence the γ′ distribution of particles. Conversely, the γ′ precipitation is strongly influenced by the cooling rate. Notably, the average size, the distance between particles as well as the number density of γ′ precipitates are significantly modified by the cooling rate. Changes in tensile properties are related to microstructural.

  14. Measurement of proton and α-particle quenching in LAB based scintillators and determination of spectral sensitivities to supernova neutrinos in the SNO+ detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krosigk, Belina von

    2015-06-26

    SNO+, the successor of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, is an upcoming low energy neutrino experiment, located in the 2 km deep laboratory SNOLAB, Canada. The spheric acrylic vessel in the detector center will contain 780 t of LAB. The main goal of SNO+ is the search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te, using a novel scintillator in which {sup nat}Te is bound with an initial loading of 0.3% via water and a surfactant. Within this thesis, the first measurement of the α-particle and proton quenching parameters of loaded and unloaded LAB is described. These parameters are crucial for an efficient background suppression, necessary to reach a sensitivity above the current limit in {sup 76}Ge of T{sub 1/2}{sup 0ν}>2.1 x 10{sup 25} y (90% C.L.). For 0.3% Te-loading, the quenching parameter obtained is kB=(0.0070±0.0004) cm/MeV for α-particles and kB=(0.0090±0.0003) cm/MeV for protons. Additionally, the spectral sensitivity of SNO+ to supernova anti ν{sub e}'s and anti ν{sub μ,τ}'s is determined for the first time, using inverse beta decay and ν-p elastic scattering with the measured quenching parameters. The obtained sensitivity to the mean energy anti ν{sub e}'s is left angle E right angle =15.47{sup +1.54}{sub -2.43} MeV and of anti ν{sub μ,τ}'s is left angle E right angle =17.81{sup +3.49}{sub -3.09} MeV.

  15. Prediction Of Mechanical Properties Of Quench Hardening Steel*

    OpenAIRE

    Chotěborský R.; Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the application of finite element method for prediction of mechanical properties of quench hardening steel. Based on the experimental results obtained, a numerical model for simulation of continuous cooling of quench hardening steel was developed. For the simulation of the kinetics of diffusion phase transformations, the Avrami equation and additive rule were applied. A new model was also developed for martensitic transformation which was validated using metallo...

  16. Numerical Methods for Safeguarding the Performance of the Quenching Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I. FELDE; T. RETI; S. Segerberg; J. Bodin; G. S. Sarmiento; G. E. Totten; J. GU

    2004-01-01

    A new numerical technique for testing and evaluation of quenching media and quenching systems is outlined. The measured time-temperature samples as a result of cooling curve test are analyzed by the new software developed, in order to characterize quantitatively the quenchants. The method applied is based on Fourier analysis. Examples for evaluation and comparison of cooling performance of quenchants are presented the applicability of the computational technique.

  17. The structural basis of non-photochemical quenching is revealed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Richard J

    2006-02-01

    Light-harvesting complex II (LHCII, the major plant light-harvesting pigment-protein complex, efficiently harvests light-energy. However, if the incident light intensity is too high and photosynthesis becomes saturated, LHCII can switch into a quenching state that prevents photodamage. This important process is called non-photochemical quenching, or NPQ, and represents feedback control. Andrew Pascal et al. have recently proposed a detailed model of NPQ based upon the crystal structure of LHCII from spinach.

  18. Quark and gluon jet properties in symmetric three-jet events

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    Quark and gluon jets with the same energy, 24GeV, are compared in symmetric three-jet configurations from hadronic Z decays observed by the ALEPH detector. Jets are defined using the Durham algorithm. Gluon jets are identified using an anti-tag on b jets, based on either a track impact parameter method or a high transverse momentum lepton tag. The comparison of gluon and mixed flavour quark jets shows that gluon jets have a softer fragmentation function, a larger angular width and a higher particle multiplicity. Evidence is also presented which shows that the corresponding differences between gluon and heavy flavour jets are significantly smaller.

  19. Jet substructure using semi-inclusive jet functions within SCET

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vitev, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new method to evaluate jet substructure observables in inclusive jet measurements based upon semi-inclusive jet functions within the framework of Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET). In this work we consider the jet fragmentation function, where a hadron $h$ is identified inside a fully reconstructed jet as a first example. We introduce a new semi-inclusive fragmenting jet function ${\\mathcal G}^h_i(z= \\omega_J/\\omega,z_h=\\omega_h/\\omega_J,\\omega_J, R,\\mu)$ which depends on the jet radius $R$ and the large light-cone momenta of the parton '$i$' initiating the jet ($\\omega$), the jet ($\\omega_J$), and the hadron $h$ ($\\omega_h$). We are then able to express the jet fragmentation function as a semi-inclusive jet observable rather than as an exclusive one, which is closer to the actual experimental measurements. We demonstrate the consistency of the effective field theory treatment and standard perturbative QCD calculations at next-to-leading order (NLO). We further derive the renormalization gro...

  20. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sivapragasam; M D Deshpande; S Ramamurthy; P White

    2014-06-01

    The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct limit of linear growth of the jet penetration length for the unconfined case when the momentum flux ratio is small. However, for the high momentum flux ratio case corresponding to the confinement, the jet penetration length is shown to reach an asymptotic limit of about 3.57 times the confining duct diameter. This conclusion is contrary to the existing results which predict indefinite growth. A simple modification of an existing similarity solution for the jet in an unconfined counterflow provides a convenient framework for presenting the results of the flowfield and jet penetration length.

  1. Jet shapes in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Cunqueiro, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore possible medium modifications to the substructure of inclusive charged jets in Pb-Pb relative to proton-proton collisions by measuring a set of jet shapes. The set of shapes includes the radial moment, $g$, and the momentum dispersion $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$D. They provide complementary information on the fragmentation and can help to discriminate between two different scenarios: intra-jet broadening or collimation as a result of jet quenching. \

  2. Effect of component substitution on the magnetic properties of Zr2Co11 phase and rapidly quenched Zr2Co11 - based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic properties of homogenized ingots and rapidly quenched ribbons of (Zr1-xMx)16.4Co83.6 with M=Ti, Nb, Y, Gd and Zr16.4(Co1-yM*y)83.6 with M*= Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Al, Ga, Si are studied. The phase composition of the alloys is determined with the help of thermomagnetic analysis and, in specific cases, with the use of X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopical data. It is ascertained that a part of zirconium in a phase Zr2Co11 can be replaced by titanium and niobium. The solubility of rare earth elements is noted to be not revealed. Cobalt is partially replaced by Al, Cu, Ga, Si, Ni and Fe in a 2:11 phase, and Mn stabilizes the structure of a Laves phase with unexpectedly strong ferromagnetic properties. For magnetic hardness of the rapidly quenched alloys the introduction of Ti is appeared to be most beneficial. This element enhances noticeably the coercive force and hysteresis loop rectangularity and, as it takes place, it does not change practically magnetic properties of a 2:11 phase but suppresses the formation of dendrites on its crystallization. A small increase of the coercive force is also observed on addition of Cu and Al

  3. Simulating Zeno physics by a quantum quench with superconducting circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qing-Jun; An, Jun-Hong; Kwek, L. C.; Luo, Hong-Gang; Oh, C. H.

    2014-06-01

    Studying out-of-equilibrium physics in quantum systems under quantum quench is of vast experimental and theoretical interest. Using periodic quantum quenches, we present an experimentally accessible scheme to simulate the quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects in an open quantum system of a single superconducting qubit interacting with an array of transmission line resonators. The scheme is based on the following two observations: First, compared with conventional systems, the short-time nonexponential decay in our superconducting circuit system is readily observed; and second, a quench-off process mimics an ideal projective measurement when its time duration is sufficiently long. Our results show the active role of quantum quench in quantum simulation and control.

  4. Properties of gluon jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the expected properties of gluon jets in a model based on the KUV jet calculus and recombination. Emphasis is placed on: a) the production of baryons, and b) the question of whether hadrons produced by the decays of Zweig rule stable quarkonia (e.g. the upsilon) in e+e- have markedly different energy spectra from those produced by the adjacent quark-antiquark continuum. (orig.)

  5. Neural networks based neutron emissivity tomography at JET with real-time capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomographic reconstruction techniques typically require computationally intensive algorithms which are not suitable for real-time application. This paper describes a framework to perform neutron emissivity tomography at the Joint European Torus (JET) using neural networks with successful results over a broad range of magnetic configurations, heating and fueling schemes. Application times in the μs time scale allows for real-time applicability of the method.

  6. Neural networks based neutron emissivity tomography at JET with real-time capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronchi, E., E-mail: emanuele.ronchi@tsl.uu.s [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Association EURATOM-VR, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Conroy, S.; Andersson Sunden, E.; Ericsson, G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Hellesen, C.; Sjoestrand, H.; Weiszflog, M. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Association EURATOM-VR, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-02-01

    Tomographic reconstruction techniques typically require computationally intensive algorithms which are not suitable for real-time application. This paper describes a framework to perform neutron emissivity tomography at the Joint European Torus (JET) using neural networks with successful results over a broad range of magnetic configurations, heating and fueling schemes. Application times in the mus time scale allows for real-time applicability of the method.

  7. Cryogenic Quenching Process for Electronic Part Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.; Cressler, John

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic parts at cryogenic temperatures (less than 100 C) for extreme environments is not well controlled or developed from a product quality and reliability point of view. This is in contrast to the very rigorous and well-documented procedures to qualify electronic parts for mission use in the 55 to 125 C temperature range. A similarly rigorous methodology for screening and evaluating electronic parts needs to be developed so that mission planners can expect the same level of high reliability performance for parts operated at cryogenic temperatures. A formal methodology for screening and qualifying electronic parts at cryogenic temperatures has been proposed. The methodology focuses on the base physics of failure of the devices at cryogenic temperatures. All electronic part reliability is based on the bathtub curve, high amounts of initial failures (infant mortals), a long period of normal use (random failures), and then an increasing number of failures (end of life). Unique to this is the development of custom screening procedures to eliminate early failures at cold temperatures. The ability to screen out defects will specifically impact reliability at cold temperatures. Cryogenic reliability is limited by electron trap creation in the oxide and defect sites at conductor interfaces. Non-uniform conduction processes due to process marginalities will be magnified at cryogenic temperatures. Carrier mobilities change by orders of magnitude at cryogenic temperatures, significantly enhancing the effects of electric field. Marginal contacts, impurities in oxides, and defects in conductor/conductor interfaces can all be magnified at low temperatures. The novelty is the use of an ultra-low temperature, short-duration quenching process for defect screening. The quenching process is designed to identify those defects that will precisely (and negatively) affect long-term, cryogenic part operation. This quenching process occurs at a temperature that is at least

  8. Fabrication of a flexible Ag-grid transparent electrode using ac based electrohydrodynamic Jet printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the dc voltage-applied electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing of metal nanoparticles, the residual charge of droplets deposited on a substrate changes the electrostatic field distribution and interrupts the subsequent printing behaviour, especially for insulating substrates that have slow charge decay rates. In this paper, a sinusoidal ac voltage was used in the EHD jet printing process to switch the charge polarity of droplets containing Ag nanoparticles, thereby neutralizing the charge on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Printed Ag lines with a width of 10 µm were invisible to the naked eye. After sintering lines with 500 µm of line pitch at 180 °C, a grid-type transparent electrode (TE) with a sheet resistance of ∼7 Ω sq−1 and a dc to optical conductivity ratio of ∼300 at ∼84.2% optical transmittance was obtained, values that were superior to previously reported results. In order to evaluate the durability of the TE under bending stresses, the sheet resistance was measured as the number of bending cycles was increased. The sheet resistance of the Ag grid electrode increased only slightly, by less than 20% from its original value, even after 500 cycles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Ag (invisible) grid TEs have been fabricated on PET substrates by ac voltage applied EHD jet printing. (paper)

  9. Study of the triton-burnup process in different JET scenarios using neutron monitor based on CVD diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtsev, G.; Amosov, V.; Meshchaninov, S.; Popovichev, S.; Rodionov, R.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of analysis of triton burn-up process using the data from diamond detector. Neutron monitor based on CVD diamond was installed in JET torus hall close to the plasma center. We measure the part of 14 MeV neutrons in scenarios where plasma current varies in a range of 1-3 MA. In this experiment diamond neutron monitor was also able to detect strong gamma bursts produced by runaway electrons arising during the disruptions. We can conclude that CVD diamond detector will contribute to the study of fast particles confinement and help predict the disruption events in future tokamaks.

  10. Erosion of wind turbine blade coatings - Design and analysis of jet-based laboratory equipment for performance evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shizhong; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Nørkjær, Sten;

    2015-01-01

    of the blades in such equipment. To reduce expensive blade maintenance repairs and to avoid out-of-service periods, energy-absorbing blade coatings are required to protect rotor blades from rain erosion. In this work we describe the design, construction and evaluation of a laboratory setup for fast screening...... of up to 22 coating samples that is based on water jet slugs. Our objective is to study the effect of the parameters involved in the rain erosion process and to correlate our experimental results with data obtained with the complex and expensive whirling arm rig, which has become the industry standard...

  11. Determination of trace molybdenum by solid substrate-room temperature phosphorescence quenching method based on catalytic effect of H2O2 on formation of ion association complex [Rhod.B]+.B[(C6H6)4]-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new solid substrate-room temperature phosphorescence (SS-RTP) quenching method for the determination of trace molybdenum has been established. The SS-RTP can be quenched by H2O2 oxidizing [Rhod.B]+.B[(C6H6)4]- ion association complex, which is formed of Rhod.B reacting with NaB(C6H6)4 and [Rhod.B]+.B[(C6H6)4]- ion association complex can emit strong and stable room temperature phosphorescence on filter paper substrate, while molybdenum can catalyze H2O2 to oxidize [Rhod.B]+.B[(C6H6)4]- ion association complex to quench the SS-RTP sharply in HCl medium, heated at 90 deg. C for 10 min. Based on the facts above, a new method for the determination of trace molybdenum has been proposed. When using PVA-H3BO3-NaOH to modify the surface of filter, the results showed that ΔI p of the system enhanced 1.5 times than that of unmodified. The linear range of this method is 1.6-160 ag spot-1 (the sample volume: 0.40 μl spot-1), and the regression equation of working curve is ΔI p = 18.23 + 0.8935m Mo(VI) ag spot-1, n = 6, r = 0.9980. The detection limit is 0.34 ag spot-1 (corresponding concentration: 8.5 x 10-16 g ml-1). This method has been successfully applied to the determination of trace molybdenum in actual samples with special feature such as wide linear range, high sensitivity, good repeatability, high selectivity and so on. Meanwhile, the mechanism of catalysis reaction is also discussed

  12. Thermal quenching of thermoluminescence in quartz samples of various origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subedi, B. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124-Thessaloniki (Greece); Oniya, E. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute (C.E.T.I.), R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Physics and Electronics Department, Adekunle Ajasin University, PMB 01, Akungba Akoko (Nigeria); Polymeris, G.S. [ISIK University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Arts, 34980-Sile, Istanbul (Turkey); Afouxenidis, D.; Tsirliganis, N.C. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute (C.E.T.I.), R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kitis, G., E-mail: gkitis@auth.g [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124-Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    The effect of thermal quenching stands among the most important properties in the thermoluminescence (TL) of quartz on which many applications of TL are based. Since the quartz samples used in various applications are all of different origin it is useful to investigate whether the values of the thermal quenching parameters, i.e. the activation energy for thermal quenching W and a parameter C which describes the ratio of non-radiative to radiative luminescence transitions, evaluated mainly in specific quartz samples can be extrapolated to quartz samples of unknown origin as well as to quartz samples which are annealed at high temperatures. In the present work the TL glow curve of a series of un-annealed and annealed natural and synthetic quartz samples were studied as a function of the heating rate between 0.25 K/s and 16 K/s. Using an indirect fitting method it was found that the thermal quenching parameters W and C in most of the quartz samples are very similar to the values accepted in the literature. Furthermore, in some cases the thermal quenching parameters W and C are not the same for all TL glow-peaks in the same glow-curve. Finally, the strong external treatment of annealing the quartz samples at very high temperature can also influence at least one of the thermal quenching parameters.

  13. Thermal quenching of thermoluminescence in quartz samples of various origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of thermal quenching stands among the most important properties in the thermoluminescence (TL) of quartz on which many applications of TL are based. Since the quartz samples used in various applications are all of different origin it is useful to investigate whether the values of the thermal quenching parameters, i.e. the activation energy for thermal quenching W and a parameter C which describes the ratio of non-radiative to radiative luminescence transitions, evaluated mainly in specific quartz samples can be extrapolated to quartz samples of unknown origin as well as to quartz samples which are annealed at high temperatures. In the present work the TL glow curve of a series of un-annealed and annealed natural and synthetic quartz samples were studied as a function of the heating rate between 0.25 K/s and 16 K/s. Using an indirect fitting method it was found that the thermal quenching parameters W and C in most of the quartz samples are very similar to the values accepted in the literature. Furthermore, in some cases the thermal quenching parameters W and C are not the same for all TL glow-peaks in the same glow-curve. Finally, the strong external treatment of annealing the quartz samples at very high temperature can also influence at least one of the thermal quenching parameters.

  14. Quench Simulation Studies: Program documentation of SPQR

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnemann, F

    2001-01-01

    Quench experiments are being performed on prototypes of the superconducting magnets and busbars to determine the adequate design and protection. Many tests can only be understood correctly with the help of quench simulations that model the thermo-hydraulic and electrodynamic processes during a quench. In some cases simulations are the only method to scale the experimental results of prototype measurements to match the situation of quenching superconducting elements in the LHC. This note introduces the theoretical quench model and the use of the simulation program SPQR (Simulation Program for Quench Research), which has been developed to compute the quench process in superconducting magnets and busbars. The model approximates the heat balance equation with the finite difference method including the temperature dependence of the material parameters. SPQR allows the simulation of longitudinal quench propagation along a superconducting cable, the transverse propagation between adjacent conductors, heat transfer i...

  15. Maintaining persistence and adherence with subcutaneous growth-hormone therapy in children: comparing jet-delivery and needle-based devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spoudeas HA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Helen A Spoudeas,1 Priti Bajaj,2 Nathan Sommerford3 1London Centre for Paediatric Endocrinology, University College London, London, 2Ferring Pharmaceuticals, London, 3Health Informatics Research, Sciensus Ltd, Brighton, UK Purpose: Persistence and adherence with subcutaneous growth hormone (GH; somatropin therapy in children is widely acknowledged to be suboptimal. This study aimed to investigate how the use of a jet-delivery device, ZomaJet®, impacts on medication-taking behaviors compared to needle-based devices.Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study of children aged ≤18 years was conducted using a UK-based, nationwide database of GH home-delivery schedules. Data were evaluated for the period between January 2010 and December 2012 for 6,061 children receiving either Zomacton® (somatropin via the ZomaJet jet-delivery device or one of six brands of GH all administered via needle-based devices. Persistence was analyzed for patients with appropriate data, measured as the time interval between first and last home deliveries. An analysis of adherence was conducted only for patients using ZomaJet who had appropriate data, measured by proportion of days covered. Brand switches were identified for all patients.Results: Persistence with GH therapy was significantly longer in patients using ZomaJet compared to needle-based devices (599 days versus 535 days, respectively, n=4,093; P<0.001; this association was observed in both sexes and across age subgroups (≤10 and 11–16 years. The majority (58% of patients using ZomaJet were classed as adherent (n=728. Only 297 patients (5% switched GH brand (n=6,061, and patients tended to use ZomaJet for longer than other devices before switching.Conclusion: It appears important that the choice of a jet-delivery device is offered to children prescribed daily GH therapy. These devices may represent a much-needed effective strategy for maintaining persistence with subcutaneous GH administration in

  16. Automatic Parallelization of Classification Systems Based on Support Vector Machines: Comparison and Application to the JET Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The use of learning systems for data analysis in Fusion is growing. In learning machines, the larger is the training dataset the better model can be obtained. Therefore, the training phase can demand a lot of computational time in mono-processor computers (hours or even days of Cpu time). To overcome this situation, codes should be parallelized. This article describes two general purpose parallelization techniques of a classification system based on Support Vector Machines (SVM): 1) Spread-Kernel Optimization and 2) Cascade SVM. Both of them have been applied to the recognition of the L-H confinement transition in JET. The parallel programming has been developed with MPI (Message Passing Interface) using the library LibSVM and it allows the use of different kernels. Both methods have been analyzed and validated in three parallel architectures with an arbitrary number of processors. The efficiency of parallel applications is maximized when the workload is evenly distributed among processors and the overhead introduced in the parallel processing is minimized: the cost of communication and synchronization operations must be kept as low as possible. The parallel performance based on scalability factor and processing time are shown with a benchmark dataset. Success rate for the L-H transition in JET is about 99% and the computation time has been decreased by a factor 1000. (authors)

  17. Quenching simulation of steel grinding balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Hernandez, O.; Reyes, L. A.; Camurri, C.; Carrasco, C.; Garza-Monte-de-Oca, F.; Colas, R.

    2015-07-01

    The phase transformations of high carbon steel during quenching and equalizing were modelled using commercial computer packages based on the finite element method and the kinetic transformation of steel. The model was used to predict the temperature and microstructural changes taking place within balls of two different sizes that are used for grinding mineral ores. A good correlation between the temperatures measured by inserted thermocouples and those predicted by the model was obtained after modifying the thermal conductivity of the steel within the temperature domain at which mixed phases are present. The phase transformations predicted were confirmed by metallographic analyses. (Author)

  18. Holographic quenches and anomalous transport

    CERN Document Server

    Ammon, Martin; Jimenez-Alba, Amadeo; Macedo, Rodrigo P; Melgar, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We study the response of the chiral magnetic effect due to continuous quenches induced by time dependent electric fields within holography. Concretely, we consider a holographic model with dual chiral anomaly and compute the electric current parallel to a constant, homogeneous magnetic field and a time dependent electric field in the probe approximation. We explicitly solve the PDEs by means of pseudospectral methods in spatial and time directions and study the transition to an universal "fast" quench response. Moreover, we compute the amplitudes, i.e.,~residues of the quasi normal modes, by solving the (ODE) Laplace transformed equations. We investigate the possibility of considering the asymptotic growth rate of the amplitudes as a well defined notion of initial time scale for linearized systems. Finally, we highlight the existence of Landau level resonances in the electrical conductivity parallel to a magnetic field at finite frequency and show explicitly that these only appear in presence of the anomaly. ...

  19. Emerging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Weiler, Andreas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  20. Desulfurization of jet fuel for fuel cell-based APU systems in aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Pasel, J.; Peters, R.; Stolten, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    To prevent the catalysts in fuel cell systems from poisoning by sulfur containing substances the fuel to be used must be desulfurized to a maximum of 10 ppmw of sulfur. Since the conventional hydrodesulfurization process employed in the refinery industry is not suitable for mobile fuel cell applications (e.g. auxiliary power units, APUs), the present study aims at developing an alternative process and determining its technical feasibility. A large number of processes were assessed with respect to their application in fuel cell APUs. The results revealed that a two-step process combining pervaporation and adsorption is a suitable process for the on-board desulfurization of jet fuel. The investigations to evaluate this process are presented in this paper. Seven different membrane materials and ten sorbent materials were screened to choose the most suitable candidates. Further laboratory experiments were conducted to optimize the operating conditions and to collect data for a pilot plant design. Different jet fuel qualities with up to 1650 ppmw of sulfur can be desulfurized to a level of 10 ppmw. (orig.)

  1. Time dependent approach of TeV blazars based on a model of inhomogeneous stratified jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the emission and variability mechanisms of TeV blazars has been the subject of intensive research for years. The homogeneous one-zone model commonly used is puzzling since it yields very high Lorentz factor, in contradiction with other observational evidences. In this work, I describe a new time dependent multi-zone approach, in the framework of the two-flow model. I compute the emission of a full jet, where relativistic electron-positron pairs distributed in pileup propagate. The evolution and the emission of the plasma is computed taking into account a turbulent heating term, some radiative cooling, and a pair production term due to photo-annihilation process. Applied to PKS 2155-304, the model allows the reproduction of the full spectra, as well as the simultaneous multi wavelength variability, with a relatively small Lorentz factor. The variability is explained by the instability of the pair creation process. Nonetheless, the value is still high to agree with other observational evidences in radio. Hence, I show in the last part of this work how to conciliate high Lorentz factor with the absence of apparent superluminal movement in radio, by taking into account the effect of the opening angle on the appearance of relativistic jets. (author)

  2. Experiments in axisymmetric supersonic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cyrille Dennis

    data do not collapse onto the 2-d curve. However, the density ratio scaling used for the 2-d shear layer appears to work well for the axisymmetric jet, based on the available data.The data appear to indicate that the initial development of the jet is dominated by instability modes of the jet as a whole, rather than the shear layers.One anomaly noted was that there were long period variations in the centerline total pressure, with times on the order of 3000 jet time scales. The fluctuations did not appear to be experimental artifacts.

  3. Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Idealized data are derived for the tensile strength of quenched and tempered prestressing steel and of quenched and self-tempered reinforcing bars for fire safety design. 0.2% stresses are derived as a function of the maximum temperature and in addition, 2.0% stresses are provided. A strain of 2.......0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a fire...... after a fire, and therefore data for the reinforcement are needed in this phase as well as in a HOT condition in order to assess the minimum of the load bearing capacity of a structure. Quenched and self-tempered steel is widely used, but its properties at fire exposure are almost not investigated...

  4. How to quench a galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Pontzen, Andrew; Roth, Nina; Peiris, Hiranya V; Saintonge, Amélie; Volonteri, Marta; Quinn, Tom; Governato, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    We show how the interplay between active galactic nuclei (AGN) and merger history determines whether a galaxy quenches star formation at high redshift. We first simulate, in a full cosmological context, a galaxy of total dynamical mass $10^{12}\\,M_{\\odot}$ at $z=2$. Then we systematically alter the accretion history of the galaxy by minimally changing the linear overdensity in the initial conditions. This "genetic modification" approach allows the generation of three sets of $\\Lambda$CDM initial conditions leading to maximum merger ratios of 1:10, 1:5 and 2:3 respectively. The changes leave the final halo mass, large scale structure and local environment unchanged, providing a controlled numerical experiment. Interaction between the AGN physics and mergers in the three cases lead respectively to a star-forming, temporarily-quenched and permanently-quenched galaxy. However the differences do not primarily lie in the black hole accretion rates, but in the kinetic effects of the merger: the galaxy is resilient a...

  5. Angular distributions of the quenched energy flow from dijets with different radius parameters in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Mcginn, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The flow of the quenched energy in imbalanced dijet events has been previously studied by transverse vector sum of charged particles with the CMS detector, namely the missing $p_{\\rm T}$ measurement. The results have led to new theoretical insights to order to explain the wide angle radiation. The missing $p_{\\rm T}$ technique has been improved so that it allows the study of angular distribution of the energy flow with respect to the dijet axis. The measurements are performed using different distance parameters $R$ with the anti-$k_{\\rm T}$ clustering algorithm, which provide information about how the angular distribution of the quenched energy depends on the jet width.

  6. Steady State Analytical Equation of Motion of Linear Shaped Charges Jet Based on the Modification of Birkhoff Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokbin Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Birkhoff theory exhibits an analytical steady state liner collapse model of shaped charges followed by jetting process. It also provides the fundamental idea in study of shaped charges and has widened its application in many areas, including a configuration where the detonation front strikes the entire liner surface at the same time providing the α = β (liner apex angle α, and the liner collapse point angle β condition in the literature. Upon consideration of the detonation front propagation along the lateral length of the core charge in LSCs (linear shaped charges, a further modification of the Birkhoff theory motivated by the unique geometrical condition of LSCs and the α = β condition is necessary to correctly describe the jetting behavior of LSCs which is different than that of CSCs (conical shaped charges. Based on such unique geometrical properties of LSCs, the original Birkhoff theory was modified and an analytical steady state LSCs model was built. The analytical model was then compared to the numerical simulation results created from Autodyn™ in terms of M/C ratio and apex angles in three different sized LSCs, and it exhibits favorable results in a limited range.

  7. Bulge-like asymmetric heterodye clustering in DNA duplex results in efficient quenching of background emission based on the maximized excitonic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Taiga; Hara, Yuichi; Osawa, Takuya; Kashida, Hiromu; Liang, Xingguo; Yoshida, Yasuko; Asanuma, Hiroyuki

    2012-08-27

    Asymmetric dye clusters with a single fluorophore (Cy3) and multiple quenchers (4'-methylthioazobenzene-4-carboxylate, methyl red, and 4'-dimethylamino-2-nitroazobenzene-4-carboxylate) were prepared. The dye and one-to-five quenchers were tethered through D-threoninol to opposite strands of a DNA duplex. NMR analysis revealed that the clusters with a single fluorophore and two quenchers formed a sandwich-like structure (antiparallel H-aggregates). The melting temperatures of all the heteroclusters were almost the same, although structural distortion should become larger, as the number of quenchers increased. An asymmetric heterocluster of a single fluorophore and two quenchers showed larger excitonic interaction (i.e., hypochromicity of Cy3), than did a single Cy3 and a single quencher. Due to the larger exciton coupling between the dyes, the 1:2 heterocluster suppressed the background emission more efficiently than the 1:1 cluster. However, more quenchers did not enhance quenching efficiency due to the saturation of exciton coupling with two quenchers. Finally, this asymmetric 1:2 heterocluster was introduced into the stem region of a molecular beacon (MB; also known as an in-stem MB) targeting the fusion site in the L6 BCR-ABL fusion gene. With this MB design, the signal/background ratio was as high as 68 due to efficient suppression of background emission resulting from the maximized excitonic interaction. PMID:22829252

  8. Rational Design of an Ultrasensitive and Highly Selective Chemodosimeter by a Dual Quenching Mechanism for Cysteine Based on a Facile Michael-Transcyclization Cascade Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangmin; Zheng, Yongjun; Tong, Hongjuan; Qian, Rui; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Guixia; Tang, Yun; Li, Hao; Lou, Kaiyan; Wang, Wei

    2016-06-27

    Differentiation of biologically important thiols, such as cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (Hcy), and glutathione (GSH) is still a challenging task. Herein, we present a novel fluorescent chemodosimeter capable of selectively detecting Cys over other biothiols including Hcy and GSH and other amino acids by a facile thiol-Michael addition/transcyclization rearrangement cascade click process. The unique transcyclization step is critical for the selectivity as a result of the kinetically favorable formation of a six-membered ring with the Cys Michael adduct. Moreover, the probe adopts a distinctive dual quenching mechanism-photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) to deliver a drastic turn-on fluorescence response only at the Cys-selective transcylization step. The judicious selection of strong electron-withdrawing naphthalimide fluorophore with maleimide group enhances the electrophilicity and thus reactivity for the cascade process leading to fast detection and ultrasensitivity with a detection limit of 2.0 nm (S/N=3). The probe has demonstrated its practical utility potential in Cys imaging in live cells.

  9. Installing an additional emission quenching pathway in the design of iridium(III)-based phosphorogenic biomaterials for bioorthogonal labelling and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Steve Po-Yam; Yip, Alex Man-Hei; Liu, Hua-Wei; Lo, Kenneth Kam-Wing

    2016-10-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization, photophysical and electrochemical behaviour and biological labelling applications of new phosphorogenic bioorthogonal probes derived from iridium(III) polypyridine complexes containing a 1,2,4,5-tetrazine moiety. In contrast to common luminescent cyclometallated iridium(III) polypyridine complexes, these tetrazine complexes are almost non-emissive due to effective Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and/or photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from the excited iridium(III) polypyridine unit to the appended tetrazine moiety. However, they exhibited significant emission enhancement upon reacting with (1R,8S,9s)-bicyclo[6.1.0]non-4-yn-9-ylmethanol (BCN-OH) (ca. 19.5-121.9 fold) and BCN-modified bovine serum albumin (BCN-BSA) (ca. 140.8-1133.7 fold) as a result of the conversion of the tetrazine unit to a non-quenching pyridazine derivative. The complexes were applied to image azide-modified glycans in live cells using a homobifunctional crosslinker, 1,13-bis((1R,8S,9s)-bicyclo[6.1.0]non-4-yn-9-ylmethyloxycarbonylamino)-4,7,10-trioxatridecane (bis-BCN). PMID:27429251

  10. A parameter map of synthetic jet regimes based on the Reynolds and Stokes numbers: Commentary on the article by Rimasauskiene et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broučková, Z.; Šafařík, P.; Trávníček, Z.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, Rimasauskiene et al. ([1] Mech. Syst. Signal Process. (2015) 50-51) presented an experimental study focusing on synthetic jets. Their paper presented a parameter map based on the Reynolds number. However, the map was shown without an adequate explanation, without definition of the horizontal axis, and without cross-connections with previous literature. This commentary attempts (A) to elucidate the unnecessary misunderstanding for readers and (B) to reveal that the parameter map, based on the Reynolds and Stokes numbers, can be a useful tool in the study of synthetic jets.

  11. Inductive heating and quenching of planetary shafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kosec

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: High mechanical and temperature cyclic loading of the final products for automotive, construction, transport and agriculture mechanization industry, demands sufficient mechanical properties of all of their components during its exploitation. Majority of the components is made from steel, by different cold forming processes. Their main demanded characteristics are surface wear resistance and fatigue strength under pulsating stress in combination with cyclic temperature loading, which could be achieved only by appropriate heat treatment.Design/methodology/approach: In the experimental part of our work, the efficiency of the combined inductive heating and water quenching heat treatment and quality of the planetary shafts were analyzed, with the use of thermographic analysis, hardness measurements, and metallographic examination.Findings: Combination of inductive heating and water quenching is the most effective heat treatment process of carbon steel planetary shafts for the diesel engine starters.Research limitations/implications: Long life span of carbon steel planetary shafts it's essential for their economical production. The replacement of starter is expensive from both: money and working time point of view.Practical implications: Surface temperature measurements during the inductive heating process were realized in the industrial environment. The intensity and homogeneity of the planetary shaft surface temperature field was measured by thermographic camera.Originality/value: On the base of theoretical knowledge and measurements, a mathematical model for temperature conditions determination in the shaft during the entire process of heating and quenching was carried out. On the basis of developed mathematical model a computer program was worked out, and used for analyses and optimization of planetary shafts induction hardening process.

  12. Study on Quench Protection of a Coil Wound of YBCO Coated Conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FUYoukun

    2003-01-01

    Owing to recent progress of long YBCO coated conductors, coils wound of YBCO conductors will be developed in near future.Compared with coils wound of LTS conductom, coils wound of HTS conductors operated at higher temperature are hard to be quenched. However, measures for quench protection are still necessary. Especially YBCO coated conductors that are made by deposition of thin YBCO film on Ni based alloy substrates such as Hastelloy tapes are highly resistive when they are quenched, Therefore,

  13. Optimization of the quenching method for metabolomics analysis of Lactobacillus bulgaricus *

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ming-ming; Li, Ai-Li; Sun, Mao-cheng; Feng, Zhen; Meng, Xiang-chen; Ying WANG

    2014-01-01

    This study proposed a quenching protocol for metabolite analysis of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Microbial cells were quenched with 60% methanol/water, 80% methanol/glycerol, or 80% methanol/water. The effect of the quenching process was assessed by the optical density (OD)-based method, flow cytometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were employed for ...

  14. Enhanced Liquid Metal Micro Droplet Generation by Pneumatic Actuation Based on the StarJet Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Koltay

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel pneumatic actuation system for generation of liquid metal droplets according to the so-called StarJet method. In contrast to our previous work, the performance of the device has been significantly improved: the maximum droplet generation frequency in continuous mode has been increased to fmax = 11 kHz (formerly fmax = 4 kHz. In addition, the droplet diameter has been reduced to 60 μm. Therefore, a new fabrication process for the silicon nozzle chips has been developed enabling the production of smaller nozzle chips with higher surface quality. The size of the metal reservoir has been increased to hold up to 22 mL liquid metal and the performance and durability of the actuator has been improved by using stainless steel and a second pneumatic connection to control the sheath flow. Experimental results are presented regarding the characterization of the droplet generation, as well as printed metal structures.

  15. Model-based radiation scalings for the ITER-like divertors of JET and ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho-Mantila, L., E-mail: leena.aho-mantila@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Bonnin, X. [LSPM – CNRS, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Coster, D.P. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lowry, C. [EFDA JET CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Wischmeier, M. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Brezinsek, S. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Federici, G. [EFDA PPP& T Department, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Effects of N-seeding in L-mode experiments in ASDEX Upgrade and JET are analysed numerically with the SOLPS5.0 code package. The modelling yields 3 qualitatively different radiative regimes with increasing N concentration, when initially attached outer divertor conditions are studied. The radiation pattern is observed to evolve asymmetrically, with radiation increasing first in the inner divertor, then in the outer divertor, and finally on closed field lines above the X-point. The properties of these radiative regimes are observed to be sensitive to cross-field drifts and they differ between the two devices. The modelled scaling of the divertor radiated power with the divertor neutral pressure is similar to an experimental scaling law for H-mode radiation. The same parametric dependencies are not observed in simulations without drifts.

  16. Physical factors of primary jet vectoring control using synthetic jet actuators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Zhi-xun; LUO Zhen-bing

    2007-01-01

    A primary jet vectoring using synthetic jet actuators with different exit configurations was investigated, and the main physical factors influencing jet vectoring were analyzed and summarized. The physical factors of the pressure difference, the location and area of the lower pressure region, the component of the synthetic jet momentum and the entrainment ratio of the synthetic jet flow to primary jet flow directly control the vectoring force and the vectoring angle. Three characteristic parameters of the synthetic jet contribute to the pressure difference and the area of the lower pressure region Both the extension step and slope angle of the actuator exit have functions of regulating the location of the lower pressure region, the area of the lower pressure region, and the entrainment ratio of the synthetic jet flow to primary jet flow. The slope angle of the actuator exit has additional functions of regulating the component of the synthetic jet momentum. Based upon analyzing the physical factors of jet vectoring control with synthetic jets, the source variables of the physical factors were established. A preparatory control model of jet vectoring using synthetic jet actuator was presented, and it has the benefit of explaining the efficiency of jet vectoring using synthetic jet actuator with source variables at different values, and it indicates the optimal actuator is taking full advantage of the regulating function.

  17. Analysis of superconducting cavity quench events at SSRF%Analysis of superconducting cavity quench events at SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Hong-Tao; LI Zheng; LIU Jian-Fei; ZHAO Yu-Bin; ZHAO Shen-Jie; ZHANG Zhi-Gang; LUO Chen; FENG Zi-Qiang; MAO Dong-Qing; ZHENG Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Quench is important and dangerous to superconducting RF cavities. This paper illustrates the mechanism of quench and how a quench detector works, and analyzes the quench events happening during beam operations and cavity conditioning. We find that the que

  18. APPLICATION OF TWO VERSIONS OF A RNG BASED k-ε MODEL TO NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF TURBULENT IMPINGING JET FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qing-guang; Xu Zhong; Zhang Yong-jian

    2003-01-01

    Two independent versions of the RNG based k-ε turbulence model in conjunction with the law of the wall have been applied to the numerical simulation of an axisymmetric turbulent impinging jet flow field. The two model predictions are compared with those of the standard k-ε model and with the experimental data measured by LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry). It shows that the original version of the RNG k-ε model with the choice of Cε1=1.063 can not yield good results, among them the predicted turbulent kinetic energy profiles in the vicinity of the stagnation region are even worse than those predicted by the standard k-ε model. However, the new version of RNG k-ε model behaves well. This is mainly due to the corrections to the constants Cε1 and Cε2 along with a modification of the production term to account for non-equilibrium strain rates in the flow.

  19. Discovery of a wandering radio jet base after a large X-ray flare in the blazar Markarian 421

    CERN Document Server

    Niinuma, K; Doi, A; Hada, K; Nagai, H; Koyama, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the location of the radio jet bases ("radio cores") of blazars in radio images, and their stationarity by means of dense very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. In order to measure the position of a radio core, we conducted 12 epoch astrometric observation of the blazar Markarian 421 with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry at 22 GHz immediately after a large X-ray flare, which occurred in the middle of 2011 September. For the first time, we find that the radio core is not stationary but rather changes its location toward 0.5 mas downstream. This angular scale corresponds to the de-projected length of a scale of $10^5$ Schwarzschild radii (Rs) at the distance of Markarian~421. This radio-core wandering may be a new type of manifestation associated with the phenomena of large X-ray flares.

  20. Heat transfer model for quenching by submerging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarella, D N; Varas, F [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada II, E.T.S. de Ing. de Telecomunicacion, Universidad de Vigo, Campus Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain); MartIn, E B, E-mail: diego@dma.uvigo.es, E-mail: fvaras@uvigo.es, E-mail: emortega@uvigo.es [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, E.T.S. de Ing. Industriales, Universidad de Vigo, Campus Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-05-01

    In quenching by submerging the workpiece is cooled due to vaporization, convective flow and interaction of both mechanisms. The dynamics of these phenomena is very complex and the corresponding heat fluxes are strongly dependent on local flow variables such as velocity of fluid and vapor fraction. This local dependence may produce very different cooling rates along the piece, responsible for inappropriate metallurgical transformations, variability of material properties and residual stresses. In order to obtain an accurate description of cooling during quenching, a mathematical model of heat transfer is presented here. The model is based on the drift-flux mixture-model for multiphase flows, including an equation of conservation of energy for the liquid phase and specific boundary conditions that account for evaporation and presence of vapor phase on the surface of the piece. The model was implemented on Comsol Multiphysics software. Generation of appropriate initial and boundary conditions, as well as numerical resolution details, is briefly discussed. To test the model, a simple flow condition was analyzed. The effect of vapor fraction on heat transfer is assessed. The presence of the typical vapor blanket and its collapse can be recovered by the model, and its effect on the cooling rates on different parts of the piece is analyzed. Comparisons between numerical results and data from literature are made.

  1. Development of a mirror-based endoscope for divertor spectroscopy on JET with the new ITER-like wall (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, A; Brezinsek, S; Mertens, Ph; Schweer, B; Sergienko, G; Terra, A; Arnoux, G; Balshaw, N; Clever, M; Edlingdon, T; Egner, S; Farthing, J; Hartl, M; Horton, L; Kampf, D; Klammer, J; Lambertz, H T; Matthews, G F; Morlock, C; Murari, A; Reindl, M; Riccardo, V; Samm, U; Sanders, S; Stamp, M; Williams, J; Zastrow, K D; Zauner, C

    2012-10-01

    A new endoscope with optimised divertor view has been developed in order to survey and monitor the emission of specific impurities such as tungsten and the remaining carbon as well as beryllium in the tungsten divertor of JET after the implementation of the ITER-like wall in 2011. The endoscope is a prototype for testing an ITER relevant design concept based on reflective optics only. It may be subject to high neutron fluxes as expected in ITER. The operating wavelength range, from 390 nm to 2500 nm, allows the measurements of the emission of all expected impurities (W I, Be II, C I, C II, C III) with high optical transmittance (≥ 30% in the designed wavelength range) as well as high spatial resolution that is ≤ 2 mm at the object plane and ≤ 3 mm for the full depth of field (± 0.7 m). The new optical design includes options for in situ calibration of the endoscope transmittance during the experimental campaign, which allows the continuous tracing of possible transmittance degradation with time due to impurity deposition and erosion by fast neutral particles. In parallel to the new optical design, a new type of possibly ITER relevant shutter system based on pneumatic techniques has been developed and integrated into the endoscope head. The endoscope is equipped with four digital CCD cameras, each combined with two filter wheels for narrow band interference and neutral density filters. Additionally, two protection cameras in the λ > 0.95 μm range have been integrated in the optical design for the real time wall protection during the plasma operation of JET.

  2. Jet maximization, axis minimization, and stable cone finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Jesse

    2015-10-01

    Jet finding is a type of optimization problem, where hadrons from a high-energy collision event are grouped into jets based on a clustering criterion. As three interesting examples, one can form a jet cluster that (i) optimizes the overall jet four-vector, (ii) optimizes the jet axis, or (iii) aligns the jet axis with the jet four-vector. In this paper, we show that these three approaches to jet finding, despite being philosophically quite different, can be regarded as descendants of a mother optimization problem. For the special case of finding a single cone jet of fixed opening angle, the three approaches are genuinely identical when defined appropriately, and the result is a stable cone jet with the largest value of a quantity J . This relationship is only approximate for cone jets in the rapidity-azimuth plane, as used at the Large Hadron Collider, though the differences are mild for small radius jets.

  3. Thermal driven chilled water generation based on steam jet ejector chillers. Concepts and experiences; Thermische Kaelteerzeugung mit Dampfstrahlkaeltemaschinen. Konzepte und Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noeres, P. [Fraunhofer UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    The following report is based on the studies within the joint research project 'Combined Heat, Cold, and Power Production with Steam Jet Ejector Chiller', funded by the German Ministry of Economy and Technology. Within the project the possibilities of further development, for applications with large changes in demand and high requests for control quality were studied. At the moment further tasks for the erection of a container plant with steam jet ejector technique are running (joint project 0327205E, funded by the BMWA). (orig.)

  4. Inclusive jet production at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2006-08-01

    Preliminary results on inclusive jet production in proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV based on 1 fb{sup -1} of CDF Run II data are presented. Measurements are preformed using different jet algorithms in a wide range of jet transverse momentum and jet rapidity. The measured cross sections are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations

  5. Determination of tetracycline based on fluorescence quenching of CdTe quantum dots%CdTe量子点荧光猝灭法测定四环素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 李卓然; 刘聪; 毛永强

    2015-01-01

    The CdTe quantum dots( QDs)were prepared using thiogIycoIic acid as stabiIizer by hydro-thermaI synthesis method. The fIuorescence quenching of tetracycIine to CdTe QDs has been systematicaIIy investigated. On the basis of that,a new fIuorescence method for the determination of tetracycIine was de-veIoped. The obtained Iinear regression equation wasΔF﹦2. 308 2+9. 679 3c(μg/mL),and its Iinear range was 1. 0~20. 0 μg/mL. The correIation coefficient was 0. 999 5 and the detection Iimit was 0. 025 μg/mL. The method was used in the determination of tetracycIine in sampIes,and the reIative standard deviations of resuIts were Iess than 2 . 3%. The spiked recoveries were in the range of 97 . 5% ~103 . 3%.%以巯基乙酸为稳定剂水热法制备CdTe量子点,考察不同条件下四环素对CdTe量子点的荧光猝灭作用,建立一种荧光测定四环素含量的新方法。该方法的线性范围为1.0~20.0 μg/mL,工作曲线为ΔF﹦2.3082+9.6793c (μg/mL),相关系数r为0.9995,检出限(3SD/斜率)为0.025μg/mL。该方法应用于实际样品中四环素含量的测定,相对标准偏差﹤2.3%,回收率在97.5%~103.3%。

  6. A Portable, Air-Jet-Actuator-Based Device for System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Wayne; Belden, Jesse; Mazumdar, Anirban; Hunter, Ian

    2010-11-01

    System identification (ID) of human and robotic limbs could help in diagnosis of ailments and aid in optimization of control parameters and future redesigns. We present a self-contained actuator, which uses the Coanda effect to rapidly switch the direction of a high speed air jet to create a binary stochastic force input to a limb for system ID. The design of the actuator is approached with the goal of creating a portable device, which could deployed on robot or human limbs for in situ identification. The viability of the device is demonstrated by performing stochastic system ID on an underdamped elastic beam system with fixed inertia and stiffness, and variable damping. The non-parametric impulse response yielded from the stochastic system ID is modeled as a second order system, and the resultant parameters are found to be in excellent agreement with those found using more traditional system ID techniques. The current design could be further miniaturized and developed as a portable, wireless, on-site multi-axis system identification system for less intrusive and more widespread use.

  7. Holographic quenches and anomalous transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, Martin; Grieninger, Sebastian; Jimenez-Alba, Amadeo; Macedo, Rodrigo P.; Melgar, Luis

    2016-09-01

    We study the response of the chiral magnetic effect due to continuous quenches induced by time dependent electric fields within holography. Concretely, we consider a holographic model with dual chiral anomaly and compute the electric current parallel to a constant, homogeneous magnetic field and a time dependent electric field in the probe approximation. We explicitly solve the PDEs by means of pseudospectral methods in spatial and time directions and study the transition to an universal "fast" quench response. Moreover, we compute the amplitudes, i.e., residues of the quasi normal modes, by solving the (ODE) Laplace transformed equations. We investigate the possibility of considering the asymptotic growth rate of the amplitudes as a well defined notion of initial time scale for linearized systems. Finally, we highlight the existence of Landau level resonances in the electrical conductivity parallel to a magnetic field at finite frequency and show explicitly that these only appear in presence of the anomaly. We show that the existence of these resonances induces, among others, a long-lived AC electric current once the electric field is switched off.

  8. Quench dynamics in confined 1 + 1-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a framework for investigating the response of conformally invariant confined 1 + 1-dimensional systems to a quantum quench. While conformal invariance is generally destroyed in a global quantum quench, systems that can be described as or mapped to integrable deformations of a CFT may present special instances where a conformal field theory-based analysis could provide useful insight into the non-equilibrium dynamics. We investigate this possibility by considering a quench analogous to that of the quantum Newton’s Cradle experiment (Kinoshita et al 2006 Nature 440 900) and demonstrating qualitative agreement between observables derived in the CFT framework and those of the experimental system. We propose that this agreement may be a feature of the proximity of the experimental system to an integrable deformation of a c = 1 CFT. (letter)

  9. Hamiltonian truncation approach to quenches in the Ising field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rakovszky, Tibor; Collura, Mario; Kormos, Márton; Takács, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to lattice systems where powerful numerical techniques such as matrix product state based methods are available to study the non-equilibrium dynamics, the non-equilibrium behaviour of continuum systems is much harder to simulate. We demonstrate here that Hamiltonian truncation methods can be efficiently applied to this problem, by studying the quantum quench dynamics of the 1+1 dimensional Ising field theory using a truncated free fermionic space approach. After benchmarking the method with integrable quenches corresponding to changing the mass in a free Majorana fermion field theory, we study the effect of an integrability breaking perturbation by the longitudinal magnetic field. In both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of the model we find persistent oscillations with frequencies set by the low-lying particle excitations even for moderate size quenches. In the ferromagnetic phase these particles are the various non-perturbative confined bound states of the domain wall excitations, while...

  10. Quench tank in-leakage diagnosis at St. Lucie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, J.E.; Au-Yang, M.K.; Beckner, D.A.; Vickery, A.N.

    1996-12-01

    In February 1995, leakage into the quench tank of the St. Lucie Nuclear Station Unit 1 was becoming an operational concern. This internal leak resulted in measurable increases in both the temperature and level of the quench tank water, and was so severe that, if the trend continued, plant shut down would be necessary. Preliminary diagnosis based on in-plant instrumentation indicated that any one of 11 valves might be leaking into the quench tank. This paper describes the joint effort by two teams of engineers--one from Florida Power & Light, the other from Framatome Technologies--to identify the sources of the leak, using the latest technology developed for valve diagnosis.

  11. Numerical analysis of quench in coated conductors with defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When the superconductor is subjected to local thermal perturbations, a large amount of joule heat may be generated in the conductor, which may lead to a quench. In a quench event, a normal zone irreversibly spreads throughout the conductor leading to failure of the superconducting device. In this paper, we will discuss the one-dimensional quench behavior in the coated conductors with internal defects or interface defects. Based on the numerical procedure given in the previous works, the normal zone propagation is studied by using the finite difference method. The numerical results are presented to discuss the normal zone propagation. We consider the effect of internal defect on the nonuniform temperature propagation. For the conductor with interface defects, it can be found that the normal zone propagation velocity is increased by defects.

  12. Characterization of plasma current quench during disruption in EAST tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大龙; 沈飙; 杨飞; 钱金平; 肖炳甲

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of plasma current quench is presented in this paper based on the disruption database. It demon-strates that 26.8%discharges have disrupted in the last 2012 campaign, in addition, plasma disruptive rate grows with the increase of plasma current. Best-fit linear and instantaneous plasma current quench rate is extracted from the recent EAST disruptions, showing that 80%–30%interval of the maximum plasma current is well fit for EAST device. The lowest area-normalized current quench time is 3.33 ms/m2 with the estimated plasma electron temperature being 7.3 eV∼9.5 eV. In the disruption case the maximum eddy current goes up to 400 kA, and a fraction of currents are respectively driven on upper and lower outer plate with nearly 100 MPa–200 MPa stress in the leg.

  13. Overconsumption, outflows and the quenching of satellite galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    McGee, Sean L; Balogh, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    The baryon cycle of galaxies is a dynamic process involving the intake, consumption and ejection of vast quantities of gas. In contrast, the conventional picture of satellite galaxies has them methodically turning a large gas reservoir into stars until this reservoir is forcibly removed due to external ram pressure. This picture needs revision. Our modern understanding of the baryon cycle suggests that in some regimes the simple interruption of the fresh gas supply may quench satellite galaxies long before stripping events occur, a process we call overconsumption. We compile measurements from the literature of observed satellite quenching times at a range of redshifts to determine if satellites are principally quenched through orbit-based gas stripping events -- either direct stripping of the disk (ram pressure stripping) or the extended gas halo (strangulation) -- or from internally-driven star formation outflows via overconsumption. The observed timescales show significant deviation from the evolution expec...

  14. Rapid Quench in an Electrostatic Levitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Matson, Douglas M.

    2016-01-01

    The Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Laboratory at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The ESL laboratory's main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy, as a quench medium. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to eight quench vessels can be loaded into a wheel inside the chamber that is indexed with control software. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and a silicon-cobalt alloy. This new rapid quench system will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. In this presentation, the system is described and some initial results are presented.

  15. Jet fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on jet fragmentation, in particular recent results from e+e- and anti pp collisions, are presented in the framework of phenomenological models. The Lund string model and the Webber QCD cluster model turn out to describe the data quite well. Shortcomings of both models are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Application of CO2 Snow Jet Cleaning in Conjunction with Laboratory Based Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, M.; Burnett, D. S.; Allton, J. H.; Rodriquez, M.; Tripa, C. E.; Veryovkin, I. V.

    2013-01-01

    The Genesis mission was the first mission returning solar material to Earth since the Apollo program [1,2]. Unfortunately the return of the space craft on September 8, 2004 resulted in a crash landing, which shattered the samples into small fragments and exposed them to desert soil and other debris. Thus only small fragments of the original collectors are available, each having different degrees of surface contamination. Thorough surface cleaning is required to allow for subsequent analysis of solar wind material embedded within. An initial cleaning procedure was developed in coordination with Johnson Space Center which focused on removing larger sized particulates and a thin film organic contamination acquired during collection in space [3]. However, many of the samples have additional residues and more rigorous and/or innovative cleaning steps might be necessary. These cleaning steps must affect only the surface to avoid leaching and re-distribution of solar wind material from the bulk of the collectors. To aid in development and identification of the most appropriate cleaning procedures each sample has to be thoroughly inspected before and after each cleaning step. Laboratory based total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry lends itself to this task as it is a non-destructive and surface sensitive analytical method permitting analysis of elements from aluminum onward present at and near the surface of a flat substrate [4]. The suitability of TXRF has been demonstrated for several Genesis solar wind samples before and after various cleaning methods including acid treatment, gas cluster ion beam, and CO2 snow jet [5 - 7]. The latter one is non-invasive and did show some promise on one sample [5]. To investigate the feasibility of CO2 snow jet cleaning further, several flown Genesis samples were selected to be characterized before and after CO2 snow application with sample 61052 being discussed below.

  17. Taking the lag out of jet lag through model-based schedule design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis A Dean

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Travel across multiple time zones results in desynchronization of environmental time cues and the sleep-wake schedule from their normal phase relationships with the endogenous circadian system. Circadian misalignment can result in poor neurobehavioral performance, decreased sleep efficiency, and inappropriately timed physiological signals including gastrointestinal activity and hormone release. Frequent and repeated transmeridian travel is associated with long-term cognitive deficits, and rodents experimentally exposed to repeated schedule shifts have increased death rates. One approach to reduce the short-term circadian, sleep-wake, and performance problems is to use mathematical models of the circadian pacemaker to design countermeasures that rapidly shift the circadian pacemaker to align with the new schedule. In this paper, the use of mathematical models to design sleep-wake and countermeasure schedules for improved performance is demonstrated. We present an approach to designing interventions that combines an algorithm for optimal placement of countermeasures with a novel mode of schedule representation. With these methods, rapid circadian resynchrony and the resulting improvement in neurobehavioral performance can be quickly achieved even after moderate to large shifts in the sleep-wake schedule. The key schedule design inputs are endogenous circadian period length, desired sleep-wake schedule, length of intervention, background light level, and countermeasure strength. The new schedule representation facilitates schedule design, simulation studies, and experiment design and significantly decreases the amount of time to design an appropriate intervention. The method presented in this paper has direct implications for designing jet lag, shift-work, and non-24-hour schedules, including scheduling for extreme environments, such as in space, undersea, or in polar regions.

  18. The possibility of tribopair lifetime extending by welding of quenched and tempered stainless steel with quenched and tempered carbon steel

    OpenAIRE

    V. Marušić; I. Samardžić; Budić, I.; Marušić, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the conditions of tribocorrosion wear, extending of parts lifetime could be achieved by using stainless steel,which is hardened to sufficiently high hardness. In the tribosystem bolt/ bushing shell/link plate of the bucket elevator transporter conveyor machine, the previously quenched and tempered martensitic stainless steel for bolts is hardened at ≈47 HRC and welded with the quenched and tempered high yield carbon steel for bolts. Additional material, based on Cr-Ni-Mo (18/8/6) is used. ...

  19. A study on Main Breaker for Quench Protection of HT—7U Toroidal Superconducting Tokammak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许留伟; 刘小宁

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a quench protection project of HT-7U toroidal superconducting tokamak through a forced commutation analysis of DC circuit breaker(DCCB) paralleling fuse.Based on the requirement of quench protection.Amin parameters are selected.Experimental results demonstrate the validity of this proposed project.

  20. A Study on Main Breaker for Quench Protection of HT-7U Toroidal Superconducting Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许留伟; 刘小宁

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a quench protection project of HT-7U toroidal superconducting tokamak through a forced commutation analysis of DC circuit breaker (DCCB) paralleling fuse.Based on the requirement of quench protection, main parameters are selected. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of this proposed project.

  1. Optical quenching and recovery of photoconductivity in single-crystal diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jeson; Rezai, Kristine; Hoelzer, Tobias; Lake, Michael; Nesladek, Milos; Bouchard, Louis-S; Hemmer, Philip; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    We study the photocurrent induced by pulsed-light illumination (pulse duration is several nanoseconds) of single-crystal diamond containing nitrogen impurities. Application of additional continuous-wave light of the same wavelength quenches pulsed photocurrent. Characterization of the optically quenched photocurrent and its recovery is important for the development of diamond based electronics and sensing.

  2. Performance of large-R jets and jet substructure reconstruction with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the application of techniques to study jet substructure. The performance of modified jet algorithms for a variety of jet types and event topologies is investigated. Properties of jets subjected to the mass-drop filtering, trimming and pruning algorithms are found to have a reduced sensitivity to multiple proton-proton interactions and exhibit improved stability at high luminosity. Monte Carlo studies of the signal-background discrimination with jet grooming in new physics searches based on jet invariant mass and jet substructure properties are also presented. The application of jet trimming is shown to improve the robustness of large-R jet measurements, reduce sensitivity to the superfluous effects due to the intense environment of the high luminosity LHC, and improve the physics potential of searches for heavy boosted objects. The analyses presented in this note use the full 2011 ATLAS dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 \\pm 0.2 fb−1 .

  3. Core shifts in blazar jets

    CERN Document Server

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A; Pjanka, Patryk; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of core shift in jets, which is the dependence of the position of the jet radio core on the frequency. We derive a new method to measure the jet magnetic field based on both the value of the shift and the observed flux, which compliments the standard method assuming equipartition. Using both methods, we re-analyse the blazar sample of Zamaninasab et al. We find that equipartition is satisfied only if the jet opening angle in the radio core region is close to the values found observationally, $\\simeq$0.1--0.2 divided by the bulk Lorentz factor, $\\Gamma_{\\rm j}$. Larger values, e.g., $1/\\Gamma_{\\rm j}$, would imply very strong departures from equipartition. A small jet opening angle implies in turn the magnetization parameter of $\\ll 1$. We determine the jet magnetic flux taking this effect into account. We find that the average jet magnetic flux is compatible with the model of jet formation due to black-hole spin energy extraction and accretion being magnetically arrested. We calculate the ...

  4. Quenching Simulation of PM Coated Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AxelHoftert; WernerTheisen; ChristophBroeckmann

    2004-01-01

    HIP cladding is a powder metallurgical coating technique used in the production of wear parts and tools. In many cases the composite components consist of carbide-free hot-work steel as base material and wear resistant carbide-rich PM cold-work steel as coating material. To ensure operativeness a heat tleatment matched to the substrate and coating material is required. Dissimilar phase tlansformation behaviour and different thermal expansion coefficients of layer and substrate entail inner stresses affecting the tlansformation kinetics in tam. In order to get a deeper insight into these effects Finite Element simulation tools are used. On the one hand, the tlansient heat conduction problem of the quenching process has to be solved. Non-linear boundary conditions and phase transformation of both, substrate and layer are considered. On the other hand, the mechanical response is calculated. The overall aim of the investigation is an improvement of common heat treatment techniques used for HIP cladded wear parts.

  5. Quenching Simulation of PM Coated Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Axel H(o)fter; Werner Theisen; Christoph Broeckmann

    2004-01-01

    HIP cladding is a powder metallurgical coating technique used in the production of wear parts and tools. In many cases the composite components consist of carbide-free hot-work steel as base material and wear resistant carbide-rich PM cold-work steel as coating material. To ensure operativeness a heat treatment matched to the substrate and coating material is required. Dissimilar phase transformation behaviour and different thermal expansion coefficients of layer and substrate entail inner stresses affecting the transformation kinetics in turn. In order to get a deeper insight into these effects Finite Element simulation tools are used. On the one hand, the transient heat conduction problem of the quenching process has to be solved. Non-linear boundary conditions and phase transformation of both, substrate and layer are considered. On the other hand, the mechanical response is calculated. The overall aim of the investigation is an improvement of common heat treatment techniques used for HIP cladded wear parts.

  6. Modeling the nucleus and jets of comet 81P/Wild 2 based on the Stardust encounter data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Zdenek; Brownlee, Donald E; Economou, Thanasis E; Tuzzolino, Anthony J; Green, Simon F

    2004-06-18

    We interpret the nucleus properties and jet activity from the Stardust spacecraft imaging and the onboard dust monitoring system data. Triangulation of 20 jets shows that 2 emanate from the nucleus dark side and 16 emanate from sources that are on slopes where the Sun's elevation is greater than predicted from the fitted triaxial ellipsoid. Seven sources, including five in the Mayo depression, coincide with relatively bright surface spots. Fitting the imaged jets, the spikelike temporal distribution of dust impacts indicates that the spacecraft crossed thin, densely populated sheets of particulate ejecta extending from small sources on the rotating nucleus, consistent with an emission cone model.

  7. Enthalpy Distributions of Arc Jet Flow Based on Measured Laser Induced Fluorescence, Heat Flux and Stagnation Pressure Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Leonard E.; Milhoan, James D.; Oelke, Lance; Godfrey, Dennis; Larin, Maksim Y.; Scott, Carl D.; Grinstead, Jay H.; DelPapa, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The centerline total enthalpy of arc jet flow is determined using laser induced fluorescence of oxygen and nitrogen atoms. Each component of the energy, kinetic, thermal, and chemical can be determined from LIF measurements. Additionally, enthalpy distributions are inferred from heat flux and pressure probe distribution measurements using an engineering formula. Average enthalpies are determined by integration over the radius of the jet flow, assuming constant mass flux and a mass flux distribution estimated from computational fluid dynamics calculations at similar arc jet conditions. The trends show favorable agreement, but there is an uncertainty that relates to the multiple individual measurements and assumptions inherent in LIF measurements.

  8. Heavy flavored jet modification in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavor of the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function of flavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factors of the heavy-flavor-tagged jets (from charm and bottom quarks) in both PbPb and pPb collisions can quantify such energy loss effects. Specifically, pPb measurements provide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter effect, which is required to fully understand the hot and dense medium effects on jets in PbPb collisions. In this talk, we present the heavy flavor jet spectra and measurements of the nuclear modification factors in both PbPb and pPb as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, using the high statistics pp, pPb and PbPb data taken in 2011 and 2013. Finally, we also will present a proposal for c-jet tagging methodology to be used for the upcoming hi...

  9. Quenched Chiral Perturbation Theory to one loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colangelo, G.; Pallante, E.

    1998-01-01

    The divergences of the generating functional of quenched Chiral Perturbation theory (qCHPT) to one loop are computed in closed form. We show how the quenched chiral logarithms can be reabsorbed in the renormalization of the B0 parameter of the leading order Lagrangian. Finally, we do the chiral powe

  10. Quenched QCD near the chiral limit

    CERN Document Server

    Göckeler, M; Petters, D; Pleiter, D; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G

    2000-01-01

    A numerical study of quenched QCD for light quarks is presented using O(a)improved fermions. Particular attention is paid to the possible existence anddetermination of quenched chiral logarithms. A `safe' region to use for chiralextrapolations appears to be at and above the strange quark mass.

  11. MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Laboratory is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified, all without the interference of a container or data-gathering instrument. The ESL main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to 8 quench vessels can be loaded into the quench wheel, which is indexed with LabVIEW control software. This allows up to 8 samples to be rapidly quenched before having to open the chamber. The system has been tested successfully on several zirconium samples. Future work will be done with other materials using different quench mediums. Microstructural analysis will also be done on successfully quench samples.

  12. QUENCHING ON BOUNDARY TO THE NEWTON FILTRATION EQUATION (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段志文; 谢春红; 卢伟明

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the global existence and quenching of the solution to the Newton filtration equation with the nonlinear boundary condition.The authors also discuss the profile of the quenching solution in the quenching time and obtain the quenching rate of the quenching solution.

  13. Quench Heater Studies for the LHC Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Mateos, F

    2001-01-01

    About 2000 LHC (CERN's Large Hadron Collider) superconducting magnets will be protected with quench heaters against development of excessive voltage and overheating after a resistive transition. The quench heater strips are powered by capacitor bank discharge power supplies. The strips are made of stainless steel partially plated with copper to reduce their resistance and to allow for the connection of quench heaters in series. The strips are embedded in between two polyimide foils. The initial power density and the current decay time determine the quench heater effectiveness. Since only one type of heater power supply will be available, the copper plating cycle is adapted for the various magnet types to keep the resistance of the heater circuit constant. Different quench heater designs have been tested on various prototype magnets to optimise the copper-plating cycle and the electric insulation of the heater strip. This paper summarises the experimental results and computations that allowed to finalise the h...

  14. Transient Loschmidt echo in quenched Ising chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Carla; Schiró, Marco

    2016-07-01

    We study the response to sudden local perturbations of highly excited quantum Ising spin chains. The key quantity encoding this response is the overlap between time-dependent wave functions, which we write as a transient Loschmidt Echo. Its asymptotics at long time differences contain crucial information about the structure of the highly excited nonequilibrium environment induced by the quench. We compute the echo perturbatively for a weak local quench but for arbitrarily large global quench, using a cumulant expansion. Our perturbative results suggest that the echo decays exponentially, rather than power law as in the low-energy orthogonality catastrophe, a further example of quench-induced decoherence already found in the case of quenched Luttinger liquids. The emerging decoherence scale is set by the strength of the local potential and the bulk excitation energy.

  15. QUENCH STUDIES AND PREHEATING ANALYSIS OF SEAMLESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palczewski, Ari [JLAB; Geng, Rongli [JLAB; Eremeev, Grigory [JLAB

    2013-09-01

    One of the alternative manufacturing technologies for SRF cavities is hydroforming from seamless tubes. Although this technology has produced cavities with gradient and Q-values comparable to standard EBW/EP cavities, a few questions remain. One of these questions is whether the quench mechanism in hydroformed cavities is the same as in standard electron beam welded cavities. Towards this effort Jefferson Lab performed quench studies on 2 9 cell seamless hydroformed cavities. These cavities include DESY's - Z163 and Z164 nine-cell cavities hydroformed at DESY. Initial Rf test results Z163 were published in SRF2011. In this report we will present post JLAB surface re-treatment quench studies for each cavity. The data will include OST and T-mapping quench localization as well as quench location preheating analysis comparing them to the observations in standard electron beam welded cavities.

  16. Hamiltonian truncation approach to quenches in the Ising field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovszky, T.; Mestyán, M.; Collura, M.; Kormos, M.; Takács, G.

    2016-10-01

    In contrast to lattice systems where powerful numerical techniques such as matrix product state based methods are available to study the non-equilibrium dynamics, the non-equilibrium behaviour of continuum systems is much harder to simulate. We demonstrate here that Hamiltonian truncation methods can be efficiently applied to this problem, by studying the quantum quench dynamics of the 1 + 1 dimensional Ising field theory using a truncated free fermionic space approach. After benchmarking the method with integrable quenches corresponding to changing the mass in a free Majorana fermion field theory, we study the effect of an integrability breaking perturbation by the longitudinal magnetic field. In both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of the model we find persistent oscillations with frequencies set by the low-lying particle excitations not only for small, but even for moderate size quenches. In the ferromagnetic phase these particles are the various non-perturbative confined bound states of the domain wall excitations, while in the paramagnetic phase the single magnon excitation governs the dynamics, allowing us to capture the time evolution of the magnetisation using a combination of known results from perturbation theory and form factor based methods. We point out that the dominance of low lying excitations allows for the numerical or experimental determination of the mass spectra through the study of the quench dynamics.

  17. Hydrodynamic loads of sea waves on horizontal elements of berths with wave quenching chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leshchenko Sergey Vladimirovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the process of hydraulic structures design, in particular berths with wave cancelling structures, which serve to decrease the wave impact on structures, there appears a problem of vertical wave hydrodynamic loads calculation on floor slabs. In the existing normative documents there are no requirements on calculating vertical wave loads on the horizontal floor slabs of open-type structures (enveloping, mooring, approach trestles, etc. and stairs of sloping-staired open-type structures. A mathematical model is proposed for calculation of the vertical wave loads on the floor slab through moorings. The model is based on the theory of jet impact on a solid surface. The width of the wave crest, striking in the overlap of the pier, and its vertical velocity is determined by the linear wave theory. The coefficient of transmission of waves through wave quenching chambers is calculated according to the previously developed methods. Vertical wave loading is adjusted based on the ratio of the wave length and width of the overlay. Model validation is performed according to the hydraulic modelling interaction of waves with through berths in the port of Tuapse. 7 variants of their design were considered. Data mapping mathematical and hydraulic modeling showed them a close match.

  18. Investigation of the performance characteristics of a plasma synthetic jet actuator based on a quantitative Schlieren method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative Schlieren method is developed to calculate the density field of axisymmetric flows. With this method, the flow field structures of plasma synthetic jets are analysed in detail. Major performance parameters, including the maximum density increase behind the shock wave, the expelled mass per pulse and the impulse, are obtained to evaluate the intensity of the shock wave and the jet. A high-density but low-velocity jet issues out of the cavity after the precursor shock wave, with a vortex ring at the wave front. The vortex ring gradually lags behind the center jet during the propagation, and its profile resembles a pair of kidneys in shape. After the jet terminates, the vortex ring breaks down and the whole density field is separated into two regions. In one period, the jet front velocity first increases and then decreases, with a maximum value of 270 m s−1. The precursor shock wave velocity decays quickly from 370 m s−1 to 340 m s−1 in the first 50 μs. The variation in the maximum density rise behind the precursor shock wave is similar to that of the jet front velocity. The averaged exit density drops sharply at around 50 μs and then gradually rises. The maximum mass flow rate is about 0.35 g s−1, and the total expelled mass in one period occupies 26% of the initial cavity gas mass. The impulse produced in the jet stage is estimated to be 5 μN s–1. The quantitative Schlieren method developed can also be used in the research of other compressible axisymmetric flows. (paper)

  19. Jet mass reconstruction with the ATLAS Detector in early Run 2 data

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This note presents the details of the ATLAS jet mass reconstruction for groomed large-radius jets. The jet mass scale calibrations are determined from Monte Carlo simulation. An alternative jet mass definition that incorporates tracking information called the track-assisted jet mass is introduced and its performance is compared to the traditional calorimeter-based jet mass definition. Events enriched in boosted $W$, $Z$ boson and top quark jets are used to directly compare the jet mass scale and jet mass resolution between data and simulation. This in-situ technique is also extended to constrain the jet energy scale and resolution.

  20. MOJAVE XIII. Parsec-Scale AGN Jet Kinematics Analysis Based on 19 years of VLBA Observations at 15 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Lister, M L; Aller, H D; Homan, D C; Kellermann, K I; Kovalev, Y Y; Pushkarev, A B; Richards, J L; Ros, E; Savolainen, T

    2016-01-01

    We present 1625 new 15 GHz (2 cm) VLBA images of 295 jets associated with active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the MOJAVE and 2 cm VLBA surveys, spanning observations between 1994 Aug 31 and 2013 Aug 20. For 274 AGNs with at least 5 VLBA epochs, we have analyzed the kinematics of 961 individual bright features in their parsec-scale jets. A total of 122 of these jets have not been previously analyzed by the MOJAVE program. In the case of 451 jet features that had at least 10 epochs, we also examined their kinematics for possible accelerations. At least half of the well-sampled features have non-radial and/or accelerating trajectories, indicating that non-ballistic motion is common in AGN jets. Since it is impossible to extrapolate any accelerations that occurred before our monitoring period, we could only determine reliable ejection dates for about 24% of those features that had significant proper motions. The distribution of maximum apparent jet speeds in all 295 AGNs measured by our program to date is peaked b...

  1. Testing and Analysis of the Speed of Water Jet in Water Jet Looms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克让; 麻伟巍; 陈明

    2003-01-01

    In the water jet looms, the distribution of the speed of water jet at the axis of the shed and its regularity are obtained by the Laser Doppler Tester. Based on the above, the water jet system is analyzed and the main effective approaches to increase the filling insertion rate and to widen the reed space of the loom are pointed out.

  2. Jet energy scale setting with 'γ+Jet' events at LHC energies. Generalities, selection rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'γ+Jet' events, based on the qq bar → g+γ and qg → q+γ subprocesses, are proposed for jet energy scale setting and hadron calorimeter calibration at LHC energies. General features and selection criteria of 'γ+Jet' events that would provide a good Ptγ-PtJet balance are described. CMS detector geometry is taken as the basement

  3. Jet vectoring through nozzle asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Chris; Rosakis, Alexandros; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    Previously, we explored the functionality of a tri-leaflet anal valve of a dragonfly larva. We saw that the dragonfly larva is capable of controlling the three leaflets independently to asymmetrically open the nozzle. Such control resulted in vectoring of the jet in various directions. To further understand the effect of asymmetric nozzle orifice, we tested jet flow through circular asymmetric nozzles. We report the relationship between nozzle asymmetry and redirecting of the jet at various Reynolds numbers. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1511414; additional support by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469.

  4. Entanglement Growth after a Global Quench in Free Scalar Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cotler, Jordan S; Mezei, Márk; Mueller, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    We compute the entanglement and R\\'enyi entropy growth after a global quench in various dimensions in free scalar field theory. We study two types of quenches: a boundary state quench and a global mass quench. Both of these quenches are investigated for a strip geometry in 1, 2, and 3 spatial dimensions, and for a spherical geometry in 2 and 3 spatial dimensions. We compare the numerical results for massless free scalars in these geometries with the predictions of the analytical quasiparticle model based on EPR pairs, and find excellent agreement in the limit of large region sizes. At subleading order in the region size, we observe an anomalous logarithmic growth of entanglement coming from the zero mode of the scalar.

  5. Aspect ratio dependent fluorescence quenching of eosin Y by gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Guojun; Li, Jianjun; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Junwu

    2014-06-01

    Gold nanorods of different aspect ratios had been synthesized using seed mediated growth method. The formed gold nanorods had been characterized by the absorption and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. The obtained gold nanorods were used to study the quenched effect on fluorescence of Eosin Y. Experimental results revealed that Eosin Y molecules adsorbed on the metallic surfaces, suffering strong quenching of their fluorescence and the quenching efficiency was different for different aspect ratio. Using dielectric coated gold nanorods model, the probable mechanism of aspect ratio dependent quenching efficiency was obtained by numerical calculation based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer and quasi-static theory. The calculation results showed that the non-monotonic changing of fluorescence quenching was attributed to competing effects of aspect ratio and the dielectric constant of coated shell on surface plasmon resonance.

  6. Determination of epristeride by its quenching effect on the fluorescence of L-tryptophan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Qin Gong; Xia-Shi Zhu

    2013-01-01

    A rapid, novel spectrofluorimetric method to determine epristeride (EP) in biological fluids and a pharmaceutical formulation was developed, based on the fact that fluorescence intensity of L-tryptophan could be quenched by EP in the medium of pH ¼ 9.0. The various factors influencing fluorescence quenching were discussed. The quenching mechanism was investigated with the quenching type, synchronous fluorescence spectra and quantum efficiency. Under the optimized conditions, fluorescence quenching value (ΔF ¼ FL-tryptophan-FEP-L-tryptophan) showed a good linear relationship with the EP concentration ranging from 0.4 to 12.0μg/mL. The linearity, recovery and limit of detection demonstrated that the proposed method was suitable for EP determination in biological fluids and EP tablets. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of EP in real samples and the obtained results were in good agreement with the results of the official method.

  7. The effect of drainage configuration on heat transfer under an impinging liquid jet array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, K.; Webb, B.W.

    1999-11-01

    Impinging jets provide high transport coefficients which make them attractive for use in applications such as paper drying, quenching of metals, turbine blade cooling, and thermal control of a variety of high heat flux devices (electronics, X-ray optics, etc.). Here, the heat transfer characteristics of single and dual-exit drainage configurations for arrays of liquid jets impinging normal to a heated isoflux plate has been studied experimentally. The interaction of drainage channel crossflow from upstream jets and the stagnation jets and its impact on heat transfer was the focus of the investigation. Infrared thermography was used to measure the local temperature distribution on the heated plate, from which local heat transfer coefficients were determined. A single jet diameter was used, and jet arrays with jet-to-jet spacings of 4.8, 6, 9, and 12 jet diameters were studied. Average jet Reynolds numbers in the range 400--5,000 were investigated for jet nozzle-to-impingement plate spacings of 1, 2, and 4 jet diameters for fully flooded (submerged) drainage flow. A single jet-to-plate spacing large enough to yield free-surface jets was also studied. The data reveal a complex dependence of local and average Nusselt numbers on the geometric parameters which describe the problem configuration.

  8. Overconsumption, outflows and the quenching of satellite galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Sean L.; Bower, Richard G.; Balogh, Michael L.

    2014-07-01

    The baryon cycle of galaxies is a dynamic process involving the intake, consumption and ejection of vast quantities of gas. In contrast, the conventional picture of satellite galaxies has them methodically turning a large gas reservoir into stars until this reservoir is forcibly removed due to external ram pressure. This picture needs revision. Our modern understanding of the baryon cycle suggests that in some regimes the simple interruption of the fresh gas supply may quench satellite galaxies long before stripping events occur, a process we call overconsumption. We compile measurements from the literature of observed satellite quenching times at a range of redshifts to determine if satellites are principally quenched through orbit-based gas stripping events - either direct stripping of the disc (ram pressure stripping) or the extended gas halo (strangulation) - or from internally driven star formation outflows via overconsumption. These time-scales show significant deviations from the evolution expected for gas stripping mechanisms and suggest that either ram pressure stripping is much more efficient at high redshift, or that secular outflows quench satellites before orbit-based stripping occurs. Given the strong redshift evolution of star formation rates, at high redshift even moderate outflow rates will lead to extremely short delay times with the expectation that high-redshift (z > 1.5) satellites will be quenched almost immediately following the cessation of cosmological inflow. Observations of high-redshift satellites give an indirect but sensitive measure of the outflow rate, with current measurements suggesting that outflows are no larger than 2.5 times the star formation rate for galaxies with a stellar mass of 1010.5 M⊙.

  9. Jet Fragmentation in Medium and Vacuum with the PHENIX Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    One of the most active areas of investigation in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is the study of the jet quenching phenomenon whereby hard partons lose their energy as they traverse the hot, dense matter created in such collisions. Strong parton energy loss has been observed in central nucleus-nucleus collisions as evidenced by the a large suppression of the yield of high pT hadrons as compared to the expected yield based on measurements in p+p collisions. Moreover, measurements of back-to-back correlations of charged hadrons suggest that jet shapes are strongly modified modified by the medium. The quantitative interpretation of single and di-hadron measurements is, however, complicated by the fact that the initial parton energy is unknown. A more informative measurement would be one in which the initial parton energy is known, allowing the determination of the fragmentation function, which may be effectively modified from its vacuum form by the presence of the medium. Two measurements in which the initial ...

  10. Tagging and suppression of pileup jets

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The suppression of pileup jets has been a crucial component of many physics analyses using 2012 LHC proton-proton collisions. In ATLAS, tracking information has been used to calculate a variable called the jet-vertex-fraction, which is the fraction of the total mo- mentum of tracks in the jet which is associated to the primary vertex. Imposing a minimum on this variable rejects the majority of pileup jets, but leads to hard-scatter jet efficiencies that depend on the number of reconstructed primary vertices in the event ($N_{Vtx}$). In this note, new track-based variables to suppress pileup jets are developed in such a way that the resulting hard-scatter jet efficiency is stable as a function of $N_{Vtx}$. A multivariate combina- tion of two such variables called the jet-vertex-tagger is constructed. In addition, it is shown that jet-vertex association can be applied to large-R jets, providing a track-based grooming technique that is as powerful as calorimeter-based trimming but based on complementary trackin...

  11. Resolving the Base of the Relativistic Jet in M87 at 6Rsch Resolution with Global mm-VLBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Young Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available M87 is one of the nearest radio galaxies with a central Super-Massive Black Hole (SMBH and a prominent relativistic jet. Due to its close distance to the observer and the large SMBH mass, the source is one of the best laboratories to obtain strong observational constraints on the theoretical models for the formation and evolution of the AGN jets. In this article, we present preliminary results from our ongoing observational study about the innermost jet of M87 at an ultra-high resolution of ∼50 μ as achieved by the Global Millimeter-Very Long Baseline Interferometry Array (GMVA. The data obtained between 2004 and 2015 clearly show limb-brightened jets at extreme resolution and sensitivity. Our preliminary analysis reveals that the innermost jet expands in an edge-brightened cone structure (parabolic shape but with the jet expansion profile slightly different from the outer regions of the jet. Brightness temperatures of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI core obtained from cm- to mm-wavelengths show a systematic evolution, which can be interpreted as the evolution as a function of distance from the BH. We also adopt an alternative imaging algorithm, Bi-Spectrum Maximum Entropy Method (BSMEM, to test reliable imaging at higher angular resolution than provided by the standard CLEAN method (i.e., super-resolution. A demonstration with a VLBA 7 mm example data set shows consistent results with a near-in-time 3 mm VLBI image. Application of the method to the 2009 GMVA data yields an image with remarkable fine-scale structures that have been never imaged before. We present a brief interpretation of the complexity in the structure.

  12. The dominance of quenching through cosmic times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzini, Alvio

    2016-07-01

    The evolution with cosmic time of the star formation rate density (SFRD) and of the main-sequence star formation rate-stellar mass relations are two well-established observational facts. In this Letter, the implications of these two relations combined are analytically explored, showing that quenching of star formation must start already at very early cosmic times and the quenched fraction then dominates ever since over the star-forming one. Thus, a simple picture of the cosmic evolution of the global SFRD is derived, in terms of the interplay between star formation and its quenching.

  13. Quenching phenomena in natural circulation loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umekawa, Hisashi; Ozawa, Mamoru [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan); Ishida, Naoki [Daihatsu Motor Company, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Quenching phenomena has been investigated experimentally using circulation loop of liquid nitrogen. During the quenching under natural circulation, the heat transfer mode changes from film boiling to nucleate boiling, and at the same time flux changes with time depending on the vapor generation rate and related two-phase flow characteristics. Moreover, density wave oscillations occur under a certain operating condition, which is closely related to the dynamic behavior of the cooling curve. The experimental results indicates that the occurrence of the density wave oscillation induces the deterioration of effective cooling of the heat surface in the film and the transition boiling regions, which results in the decrease in the quenching velocity.

  14. Runaway beam studies during disruptions at JET-ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Runaway electrons (RE) have been obtained at JET-ILW using massive argon injection. • The runaway electron domain entry points are similar between JET-C and JET-ILW. • Inside the runaway electron domain, higher RE currents are observed with JET-ILW. • RE impact has been observed without material melting up to 100 kA RE current. • Heat deposition of 2 ± 1 mm is confirmed by measurements and simulations. - Abstract: Runaway electrons (RE) during disruptions are a concern for future tokamaks including ITER with its metallic wall. Although RE are rare in spontaneous disruptions with the JET ITER-like Wall (JET-ILW), RE beams up to 380 kA were obtained using massive injection (MGI) of argon in JET-ILW divertor discharges. Entry points into the RE domain defined by operational parameters (toroidal field, argon fraction in MGI) are unchanged but higher RE currents have been obtained inside the JET-ILW MGI-generated RE domain when compared to JET-C. This might be due to the influence of the metallic wall on the current quench plasma. Temperatures of 900 °C have been observed following RE impacts on beryllium tiles. Heat deposition depth of ∼2 mm has to be assumed to match the tile cooling time. 3D simulations of the RE energy deposition using the ENDEP/MEMOS codes show that material melting is unlikely with 100 kA RE beams

  15. Runaway beam studies during disruptions at JET-ILW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reux, C., E-mail: cedric.reux@cea.fr [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Plyusnin, V. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Instituto de Plasmas e Fuso Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Alper, B. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Alves, D. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Instituto de Plasmas e Fuso Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Bazylev, B. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Institut für Hochleistungsimpuls und Mikrowellentechnik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Campus Nord, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Belonohy, E. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); EFDA-CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Brezinsek, S. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie-und Klimaforschung-Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Decker, J. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Devaux, S. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Vries, P. de [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Fil, A. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Runaway electrons (RE) have been obtained at JET-ILW using massive argon injection. • The runaway electron domain entry points are similar between JET-C and JET-ILW. • Inside the runaway electron domain, higher RE currents are observed with JET-ILW. • RE impact has been observed without material melting up to 100 kA RE current. • Heat deposition of 2 ± 1 mm is confirmed by measurements and simulations. - Abstract: Runaway electrons (RE) during disruptions are a concern for future tokamaks including ITER with its metallic wall. Although RE are rare in spontaneous disruptions with the JET ITER-like Wall (JET-ILW), RE beams up to 380 kA were obtained using massive injection (MGI) of argon in JET-ILW divertor discharges. Entry points into the RE domain defined by operational parameters (toroidal field, argon fraction in MGI) are unchanged but higher RE currents have been obtained inside the JET-ILW MGI-generated RE domain when compared to JET-C. This might be due to the influence of the metallic wall on the current quench plasma. Temperatures of 900 °C have been observed following RE impacts on beryllium tiles. Heat deposition depth of ∼2 mm has to be assumed to match the tile cooling time. 3D simulations of the RE energy deposition using the ENDEP/MEMOS codes show that material melting is unlikely with 100 kA RE beams.

  16. Jet milling from a particle perspective: predicting particle fracture based on mechanical material properties

    OpenAIRE

    Vegt, Onno Martinus

    2007-01-01

    Milling is a very old discipline originated in milling agricultural products to flour. Despite the enormous literature on size reduction, milling is a unit operation which has no sound underlying theory comparable to those existing for other unit operations. The design of milling equipment for a given application is based on accumulated experiences of the manufactures. It is not for lack of either interest or investigation that a quantitative theory of milling does not exist. In contrast, the...

  17. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swierkowski, S.; Ciarlo, D.

    1996-05-13

    Goal is to develop a multi-channel micromachined chemical fluid jet dispenser that is applicable to prototype tests with biological samples that demonstrate its utility for molecular biology experiments. Objective is to demonstrate a new device capable of ultrasonically ejecting droplets from 10-200 {mu}m diameter capillaries that are arranged in an array that is linear or focused. The device is based on several common fabrication procedures used in MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems) technology: piezoelectric actuators, silicon, etc.

  18. Numerical simulation on influence of jet angle on jets characteristics in flowing ambient fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feng; SUN Zhao-chen; LIANG Shu-xiu

    2008-01-01

    Based on the stress-algebraic model, the turbulent buoyant jet with variable density was studied by the relation between density and concentration. A simple expression for buoyancy coefficient was proposed. The governing equations of turbulent buoyant jet with variable density were closed by introducing the expression of?and the relation between density and concentration. Numerical results for the jet axis with density difference a-gree well with experimental ones. By finite volume method, the 2 - D vertical jet's flow field with different jet angles was studied. The analysis of the relation among the vortex center, the position of separation point and jet angles shows that the circumfluence field is the largest when the jet angle is 90? The area turbulent kinetic en-ergy kA is proposed and the relationship between mixing intensity and jet angles is analyzed based on it. Results show that the jet angle of is the optimum condition for jet water mixing with environment water;and the reduced rate of difference between the centerline density of jet and the density of ambient water is the largest at the jet angle of 90?

  19. Resonant quenching of Rydberg atomic states by highly polar molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narits, A. A.; Mironchuk, E. S.; Lebedev, V. S.

    2016-06-01

    The results of theoretical studies of the resonant quenching and ion-pair formation processes induced by collisions of Rydberg atoms with highly polar molecules possessing small electron affinities are reported. We elaborate an approach for describing collisional dynamics of both processes and demonstrate the predominant role of resonant quenching channel of reaction for the destruction of Rydberg states by electron-attaching molecules. The approach is based on the solution of the coupled differential equations for the transition amplitudes between the ionic and Rydberg covalent terms of a quasimolecule formed during a collision of particles. It takes into account the possibility of the dipole-bound anion decay in the Coulomb field of the positive ionic core and generalizes previous models of charge-transfer processes involving Rydberg atoms to the cases, when the multistate Landau–Zener approaches become inapplicable. Our calculations for {{Rb}}({nl}) atom perturbed by {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}4{{SO}}3, {{CH}}2{CHCN}, {{CH}}3{{NO}}2, {{CH}}3{CN}, {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}2{{{O}}}3, and {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}4{{{O}}}3 molecules show that the curves representing the dependence of the resonant quenching cross sections on the principal quantum number n are bell-shaped with the positions of maxima being shifted towards lower values of n and the peak values, {σ }{max}({{q})}, several times higher than those for the ion-pair formation, {σ }{max}({{i})}. We obtain a simple power relation between the energy of electron affinity of a molecule and the position of maximum in n-dependence of the resonant quenching cross section. It can be used as an additional means for determining small binding energies of dipole-bound anions from the experimental data on resonant quenching of Rydberg states by highly polar molecules.

  20. Self-quenching of nitrobenzoxadiazole labeled phospholipids in lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. Stephen; Brennan, John D.; Krull, Ulrich J.

    1994-04-01

    The emission intensity, wavelength, and lifetime of the fluorophore nitrobenzoxadiazole dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (NBD-PE) are sensitive to the local environmental structure when this species is present as a component of an amphiphilic membrane. Alterations of the physical and electrostatic structure of a membrane can result in changes in the fluorescence signal owing to changes in the extent of self-quenching of the probe. To investigate self-quenching, NBD-PE was incorporated into monolayers and vesicles composed of Egg phosphatidylcholine at concentrations of 0.1 to 50 mol %. Monolayer samples were dipcast onto glass slides at a pressure of 35 mN m-1. Both the integrated intensity per fluorophore (quantum yield) from vesicles and dipcast monolayers, and the mean fluorescence lifetime from vesicles decreased as the concentration of fluorophore in the membranes was increased. At all concentrations studied the decay of NBD-PE fluorescence was fitted to two discrete exponentials, and both lifetime components were observed to change with concentration. The complexity of the fluorescence decay did not permit the use of standard theoretical models such as the Klafter-Blumen or Stern-Volmer equations which are normally employed to describe changes in fluorescence lifetime with changes in quencher concentration. Instead, a phenomenological approach was used to develop an empirical model of fluorescence self-quenching which could describe the observed alterations in the fluorescence lifetime and intensity. The model was based on a combination of Perrin quenching and Förster energy transfer. The fluorescence data was fit by a model wherein NBD-PE formed nonemissive trap sites with a critical radius of Rc=1.0±0.1 nm (Perrin quenching), with Förster energy transfer occurring to the trap sites with an R0 value of 2.55±0.10 nm as determined from spectral overlap integrals.

  1. Hypersonic Buckshot: Astrophysical Jets as Heterogeneous Collimated Plasmoids

    CERN Document Server

    Yirak, Kristopher; Cunningham, Andrew J; Mitran, Sorin

    2008-01-01

    Herbig-Haro (HH) jets are commonly thought of as homogeneous beams of plasma traveling at hypersonic velocities. Structure within jet beams is often attributed to periodic or ``pulsed'' variations of conditions at the jet source. Simulations based on this scenario result in knots extending across the jet diameter. Observations and recent high energy density laboratory experiments shed new light on structures below this scale and indicate they may be important for understanding the fundamentals of jet dynamics. In this paper we offer an alternative to ``pulsed'' models of protostellar jets. Using direct numerical simulations we explore the possibility that jets are chains of sub-radial clumps propagating through a moving inter-clump medium. Our models explore an idealization of this scenario by injecting small ($r\\rho_{jet}$) spheres embedded in an otherwise smooth inter-clump jet flow. The spheres are initialized with velocities differing from the jet velocity by $\\sim15$%. We find the consequences of shiftin...

  2. High volume nanoscale roll-based imprinting using jet and flash imprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Se Hyun; Miller, Mike; Yang, Shuqiang; Ganapathisubramanian, Maha; Menezes, Marlon; Singh, Vik; Choi, Jin; Xu, Frank; LaBrake, Dwayne; Resnick, Douglas J.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2013-09-01

    Extremely large-area roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacturing on flexible substrates is ubiquitous for applications such as paper and plastic processing. It combines the benefits of high speed and inexpensive substrates to deliver a commodity product at low cost. The challenge is to extend this approach to the realm of nanopatterning and realize similar benefits. In order to achieve low-cost nanopatterning, it is imperative to move toward high-speed imprinting, less complex tools, near zero waste of consumables, and low-cost substrates. We have developed a roll-based J-FIL process and applied it to a technology demonstrator tool, the LithoFlex 100, to fabricate large-area flexible bilayer wire-grid polarizers (WGPs) and high-performance WGPs on rigid glass substrates. Extinction ratios of better than 10,000 are obtained for the glass-based WGPs. Two simulation packages are also employed to understand the effects of pitch, aluminum thickness, and pattern defectivity on the optical performance of the WGP devices. It is determined that the WGPs can be influenced by both clear and opaque defects in the gratings; however, the defect densities are relaxed relative to the requirements of a high-density semiconductor device.

  3. Recycling of heat discharged from bearing quenching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xin-lin; CI Tie-jun; WEN Peng; ZHANG Rong-ying

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,the technical method of cooling quench medium with air-cooler in the process of bearing quenching is introduced.The exhausted hot air is directly used to dry bearing balls.It is a novel approach for full utilization of heat energy during heat treatment,which increased 30% of the heat efficiency when compared with normal air-cooler methods that directly put exhaust air into atmosphere.

  4. History of Giant Resonances and Quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Arima, A

    1999-01-01

    The history of nuclear magnetic moments and Gamow-Teller transitions is reviewed. The importance of configuration mixing and core polarization to explain the quenching phenomena is shown, and discussed in the context of the recent measurement of the Gamow-Teller strength in sup 9 sup 0 Nb. It is confirmed that the contribution of the DELTA-hole excitation to the quenching of spin matrix elements is small.

  5. 2D Analysis of Thermomechanical Response to Unbalanced Currents in Quenching Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2140986

    The thesis aims at studying coupling between electromagneticthermal and mechanical phenomena occurring after a quench in the superconducting magnets. For this reason, two models representing both domains are coupled by means of area-based coupling.

  6. A strong radio brightening at the jet base of M87 in the period of the elevated TeV gamma-ray state in 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Hada, K; Kino, M; Giovannini, G; D'Ammando, F; Cheung, C C; Beilicke, M; Nagai, H; Doi, A; Akiyama, K; Honma, M; Niinuma, K; Casadio, C; Orienti, M; Krawczynski, H; Gomez, J L; Sawada-Satoh, S; Koyama, S; Cesarini, A; Nakahara, S; Gurwell, M A

    2015-01-01

    The nearby radio galaxy M87 offers a unique opportunity for exploring the connection between gamma-ray production and jet formation at an unprecedented linear resolution. However, the origin and location of the gamma-rays in this source is still elusive. Based on previous radio/TeV correlation events, the unresolved jet base (radio core) and the peculiar knot HST-1 at 120 pc from the nucleus are proposed as candidate site(s) of gamma-ray production. Here we report our intensive, high-resolution radio monitoring observations of the M87 jet with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) and the European VLBI Network (EVN) from February 2011 to October 2012, together with contemporaneous high-energy gamma-ray light curves obtained by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. During this period, an elevated level of the M87 flux is reported at TeV with VERITAS. We detected a remarkable flux increase in the radio core with VERA at 22/43 GHz coincident with the VHE activity. Meanwhile, HST-1 remained quiescent in terms...

  7. A strong radio brightening at the jet base of M87 during the elevated very-high-energy gamma-ray state in 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Hada, K; Kino, M; Giovannini, G; D'Ammando, F; Cheung, C C; Beilicke, M; Nagai, H; Doi, A; Akiyama, K; Honma, M; Niinuma, K; Casadio, C; Orienti, M; Krawczynski, H; Gomez, J L; Sawada-Satoh, S; Koyama, S; Cesarini, A; Nakahara, S; Gurwell, M A

    2014-01-01

    The nearby radio galaxy M87 offers a unique opportunity for exploring the connection between gamma-ray production and jet formation at an unprecedented linear resolution. However, the origin and location of the gamma-rays in this source is still elusive. Based on previous radio/TeV correlation events, the unresolved jet base (radio core) and the peculiar knot HST-1 at >120 pc from the nucleus are proposed as candidate site(s) of gamma-ray production. Here we report our intensive, high-resolution radio monitoring observations of the M87 jet with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) and the European VLBI Network (EVN) from February 2011 to October 2012. During this period, an elevated level of the M87 flux is reported at TeV with VERITAS. We detected a remarkable flux increase in the radio core with VERA at 22/43 GHz coincident with the VHE activity. Meanwhile, HST-1 remained quiescent in terms of its flux density and structure at radio. These results strongly suggest that the TeV gamma-ray activity ...

  8. A strong radio brightening at the jet base of M87 during the elevated very-high-energy gamma-ray state in 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Hada, K; Kino, M; Giovannini, G; D'Ammando, F; Cheung, C C; Beilicke, M; Nagai, H; Doi, A; Akiyama, K; Honma, M; Niinuma, K; Casadio, C; Orienti, M; Krawczynski, H; Gomez, J L; Sawada-Satoh, S; Koyama, S; Cesarini, A; Nakahara, S; Gurwell, M A

    2014-01-01

    We report our intensive radio monitoring observations of the jet in M87 with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) and the European VLBI Network (EVN) from February 2011 to October 2012, together with contemporaneous high-energy gamma-ray light curves obtained by the Fermi-LAT. During this period, an elevated level of the M87 flux is reported at VHE gamma rays. We detected a remarkable increase of the radio flux density from the unresolved jet base (radio core) with VERA at 22 and 43GHz coincident with the VHE activity. Meanwhile, we confirmed with EVN at 5GHz that HST-1 (an alternative gamma-ray production candidate site) remained quiescent in terms of its flux density and structure. These results in the radio bands strongly suggest that the VHE gamma-ray activity in 2012 originates in the jet base within 0.03pc or 56 Schwarzschild radii from the central supermassive black hole. We further conducted VERA astrometry for the M87 core during the flaring period, and detected core shifts between 22 and ...

  9. The surprising inefficiency of dwarf satellite quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Wheeler, Coral; Cooper, Michael C; Boylan-Kolchin, Mike; Bullock, James S

    2014-01-01

    We study dwarf satellite galaxy quenching using observations from the Geha et al. (2012) NSA/SDSS catalog together with LCDM cosmological simulations to facilitate selection and interpretation. We show that fewer than 30% of dwarfs (M* ~ 10^8.5-10^9.5 Msun) identified as satellites within massive host halos (Mhost ~ 10^12.5-10^14 Msun) are quenched, in spite of the expectation from simulations that half of them should have been accreted more than 6 Gyr ago. We conclude that whatever the action triggering environmental quenching of dwarf satellites, the process must be highly inefficient. We investigate a series of simple, one-parameter quenching models in order understand what is required to explain the low quenched fraction and conclude that either the quenching timescale is very long (> 9.5 Gyr, a "slow starvation" scenario) or that the environmental trigger is not well matched to accretion within the virial volume. We discuss these results in light of the fact that most of the low mass dwarf satellites in ...

  10. Temperature Dependence of Nitro-Quenching by Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Masaki; Ichiki, Ryuta; Iwakiri, Yutaro; Akamine, Shuichi; Kanazawa, Seiji

    2015-09-01

    A lot of techniques exist as the hardening method of steels, such as nitriding, carburizing and quenching. However, low-alloy steels cannot be hardened by nitriding because hardening by nitriding requires nitride precipitates of special alloy elements such as rare metals. Recently, nitro-quenching (NQ) was developed as a new hardening process, where nitrogen invokes martensitic transformation instead of carbon. NQ is adaptable to hardening low-alloy steels because it does not require alloy elements. In industrial NQ, nitrogen diffusion into steel surface is operated in high temperature ammonia gas. As a new technology, we have developed surface hardening of low-alloy steel by NQ using an atmospheric-pressure plasma. Here the pulsed-arc plasma jet with nitrogen/hydrogen gas mixture is sprayed onto steel surface and then water quench the sample. As a result, the surface of low-alloy steel was partially hardened up to 800 Hv by producing iron-nitrogen martensite. However, the hardness profile is considerably non-uniform. We found that the non-uniform hardness profile can be controlled by changing the treatment gap, the gap between the jet nozzle and the sample surface. Eventually, we succeeded in hardening a targeted part of steel by optimizing the treatment gap. Moreover, we propose the mechanism of non-uniform hardness.

  11. Quantifying jet transport properties via large p{sub T} hadron production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhi-Quan; Zhang, Hanzhong; Zhang, Ben-Wei; Wang, Enke [Central China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE), Institute of Particle Physics, Wuhan (China)

    2016-01-15

    Nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} for large p{sub T} single hadron is studied in a next-to-leading order perturbative QCD parton model with medium-modified fragmentation functions (mFFs) due to jet quenching in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The energy loss of the hard partons in the quark-gluon plasma is incorporated in the mFFs which utilize two most important parameters to characterize the transport properties of the hard parton jets: the jet transport parameter q{sub 0} and the mean free path λ{sub 0}, both at the initial time τ{sub 0}. A phenomenological study of the experimental data for R{sub AA}(p{sub T}) is performed to constrain the two parameters with simultaneous χ{sup 2}/d.o.f. fits to Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider as well as Large Hadron Collider data. We obtain for energetic quarks q{sub 0} ∼ 1.1±0.2 GeV{sup 2}/fm and λ{sub 0} ∼ 0.4±0.03 fm in central Au + Au collisions at √(S{sub NN}) = 200 GeV, while q{sub 0} ∼ 1.7±0.3 GeV{sup 2}/fm, and λ{sub 0} ∼ 0.5±0.05 fm in central Pb+Pb collisions at √(S{sub NN}) = 2.76 TeV. Numerical analysis shows that the best fit favors a multiple scattering picture for the energetic jets propagating through the bulk medium, with a moderate averaged number of gluon emissions. Based on the best constraints for λ{sub 0} and τ{sub 0}, the estimated value for the mean-squared transverse momentum broadening is moderate which implies that the hard jets go through the medium with small reflection. (orig.)

  12. Numerical analysis of jet impingement heat transfer at high jet Reynolds number and large temperature difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Vincent; Walther, Jens Honore

    2013-01-01

    was investigated at a jet Reynolds number of 1.66 × 105 and a temperature difference between jet inlet and wall of 1600 K. The focus was on the convective heat transfer contribution as thermal radiation was not included in the investigation. A considerable influence of the turbulence intensity at the jet inlet...... to about 100% were observed. Furthermore, the variation in stagnation point heat transfer was examined for jet Reynolds numbers in the range from 1.10 × 105 to 6.64 × 105. Based on the investigations, a correlation is suggested between the stagnation point Nusselt number, the jet Reynolds number...

  13. Digital decoration by continuous ink jet system for ceramic products based in water inks; Decoracion digital sostenible de productos ceramicos mediante chorro de tinta continuo y tintas en base agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colores Ceramicos, S. A.; Talleres Foro, S. L.

    2010-07-01

    A new continuous ink jet system for digital ceramic decoration using water based dispersed ceramic pigment has been developed, that increases drastically the sustainability of the process. During the development of this work, different equipment for any application and the consumables and design tools have been also developed. (Author)

  14. The Research and Application of Non-quenched and Tempered Steel 12Mn2VBS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xian-liang; DONG Ying-hu; HUA Xiao-zheng; ZHANG Jian-yun; YE Zhi-guo

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the study group has researched the comprehensive performance and application of the content of sulfur properly. Based on the research such a conclusion can be d non-quenched and tempered steel 12Mn2VBS made of 12Mn2VB by increasing the rawn: 12Mn2VBS the non-quenched and tempered steel has superior comprehensive performance to traditional quenched and tempered steel such as 45 and 40Cr,and it is the best material to manufacture automobile parts.

  15. Experimental Study of Microstructure Evolution during Tempering of Quenched Steel and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIWei; YAOKe-fu; CHENNan; WANGHong-peng

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure evolution during tempering of quenched steel was studied via dilatometric experiments.Temperature ranges of transformation were determined by a relative dilation curve. The thermal expansion coefficient of quenched steel was defined as a function of temperature. The transformation expansion is determined by subtracting thermal expansion from a measured diameter dilation curve. A kinetic equation based on tempering parameter was proposed to predict the microstructure evolution fraction of martensite and bainite of Ni3.SCrMoV and C45 steel. The kinetic equation was used in an in-house FEM code. The internal stress evolution of a quenched generator rotor was investigated.

  16. Experimental Study of Microstructure Evolution during Tempering of Quenched Steel and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei; YAO Ke-fu; CHEN Nan; WANG Hong-peng

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure evolution during tempering of quenched steel was studied via dilatometric experiments.Temperature ranges of transformation were determined by a relative dilation curve. The thermal expansion coefficient of quenched steel was defined as a function of temperature. The transformation expansion is determined by subtracting thermal expansion from a measured diameter dilation curve. A kinetic equation based on tempering parameter was proposed to predict the microstructure evolution fraction of martensite and bainite of Ni3.5CrMoV and C45 steel. The kinetic equation was used in an in-house FEM code. The internal stress evolution of a quenched generator rotor was investigated.

  17. Influence of Surface Quenching Effects on Luminescent Dynamics of ZnS:Mn2+ Nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chang-Cheng; HUANG Shi-Hua; YOU Fang-Tian; KANG Kai; FENG Ying

    2008-01-01

    A model describing surface quenching of isolated ion centres in nanocrystaJs is proposed based on the energy transfer between the doped ions and the nanocrystalline surface quenching centres.The quenching rate depends on the position of the ions in the nanocrystal,hence the decay curve under non-selective excitation is generally nonexponential.The decay curve calculated with this model is in good agreement with that of the 4T1→6A1 emission in ZnS:Mn2+ nanocrystals.

  18. 40 CFR 86.327-79 - Quench checks; NOX analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quench checks; NOX analyzer. 86.327-79... Quench checks; NOX analyzer. (a) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each model of high vacuum... capillary, and if used, dilution capillary. (c) Quench check as follows: (1) Calibrate the NOX analyzer...

  19. The lund Monte Carlo for jet fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a Monte Carlo program based on the Lund model for jet fragmentation. Quark, gluon, diquark and hadron jets are considered. Special emphasis is put on the fragmentation of colour singlet jet systems, for which energy, momentum and flavour are conserved explicitly. The model for decays of unstable particles, in particular the weak decay of heavy hadrons, is described. The central part of the paper is a detailed description on how to use the FORTRAN 77 program. (Author)

  20. Jet Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the Jet Joint Undertaking annual report 1987. A description is given of the JET and Euratom and International Fusion Programmes. The technical status of JET is outlined, including the development and improvements made to the system in 1987. The results of JET Operation in 1987 are described within the areas of: density effects, temperature improvements, energy confinement studies and other material effects. The contents also contain a summary of the future programme of JET. (U.K.)

  1. The Giant Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, T.; Chanrion, O.; Arnone, E.; Zanotti, F.; Cummer, S.; Li, J.; Füllekrug, M.; van der Velde, O.

    2012-04-01

    Thunderstorm clouds may discharge directly to the ionosphere in spectacular luminous jets - the longest electric discharges on our planet. The electric properties of jets, such as their polarity, conductivity, and currents, have been predicted by models, but are poorly characterized by measurements. Here we present an analysis of the first gigantic jet that with certainty has a positive polarity. The jet region in the mesosphere was illuminated by an unusual sprite discharge generated by a positive cloud-to-ground lightning flash shortly after the onset of the jet. The sprite appeared with elements in a ring at ~40 km distance around the jet, the elements pointing curving away from the jet. This suggests that the field close the jet partially cancels the field driving the sprite. From a simple model of the event we conclude that a substantial portion of the positive cloud potential must be carried to ~50 km altitude, which is also consistent with the observed channel expansion and the electromagnetic radiation associated with the jet. It is further shown that blue jets are likely to substantially modify the free electron content in the lower ionosphere because of increased electron attachment driven by the jet electric field. The model further makes clear the relationship between jets, gigantic jets, and sprites. This is the first time that sprites are used for sounding the properties of the mesosphere. The observations presented here will allow evaluation of theories for jet and gigantic jet generation and of their influence on the atmosphere-ionosphere system.

  2. Quench dynamics near a quantum critical point: Application to the sine-Gordon model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grandi, C.; Gritsev, V.; Polkovnikov, A.

    2010-06-01

    We discuss the quench dynamics near a quantum critical point focusing on the sine-Gordon model as a primary example. We suggest a unified approach to sudden and slow quenches, where the tuning parameter λ(t) changes in time as λ(t)˜υtr , based on the adiabatic expansion of the excitation probability in powers of υ . We show that the universal scaling of the excitation probability can be understood through the singularity of the generalized adiabatic susceptibility χ2r+2(λ) , which for sudden quenches (r=0) reduces to the fidelity susceptibility. In turn this class of susceptibilities is expressed through the moments of the connected correlation function of the quench operator. We analyze the excitations created after a sudden quench of the cosine potential using a combined approach of form-factors expansion and conformal perturbation theory for the low-energy and high-energy sector, respectively. We find the general scaling laws for the probability of exciting the system, the density of excited quasiparticles, the entropy and the heat generated after the quench. In the two limits where the sine-Gordon model maps to hard-core bosons and free massive fermions we provide the exact solutions for the quench dynamics and discuss the finite temperature generalizations.

  3. Photoprotection in the lichen Parmelia sulcata: the origins of desiccation-induced fluorescence quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, John; Vasil'ev, Sergej; Paton, Gavin D; Ramanauskas, Justin; Bruce, Doug

    2007-11-01

    Lichens, a symbiotic relationship between a fungus (mycobiont) and a photosynthetic green algae or cyanobacteria (photobiont), belong to an elite group of survivalist organisms termed resurrection species. When lichens are desiccated, they are photosynthetically inactive, but upon rehydration they can perform photosynthesis within seconds. Desiccation is correlated with both a loss of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence and a decrease in overall fluorescence yield. The fluorescence quenching likely reflects photoprotection mechanisms that may be based on desiccation-induced changes in lichen structure that limit light exposure to the photobiont (sunshade effect) and/or active quenching of excitation energy absorbed by the photosynthetic apparatus. To separate and quantify these possible mechanisms, we have investigated the origins of fluorescence quenching in desiccated lichens with steady-state, low temperature, and time-resolved chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy. We found the most dramatic target of quenching to be photosystem II (PSII), which produces negligible levels of fluorescence in desiccated lichens. We show that fluorescence decay in desiccated lichens was dominated by a short lifetime, long-wavelength component energetically coupled to PSII. Remaining fluorescence was primarily from PSI and although diminished in amplitude, PSI decay kinetics were unaffected by desiccation. The long-wavelength-quenching species was responsible for most (about 80%) of the fluorescence quenching observed in desiccated lichens; the rest of the quenching was attributed to the sunshade effect induced by structural changes in the lichen thallus. PMID:17827268

  4. Photoprotection in the Lichen Parmelia sulcata: The Origins of Desiccation-Induced Fluorescence Quenching1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, John; Vasil'ev, Sergej; Paton, Gavin D.; Ramanauskas, Justin; Bruce, Doug

    2007-01-01

    Lichens, a symbiotic relationship between a fungus (mycobiont) and a photosynthetic green algae or cyanobacteria (photobiont), belong to an elite group of survivalist organisms termed resurrection species. When lichens are desiccated, they are photosynthetically inactive, but upon rehydration they can perform photosynthesis within seconds. Desiccation is correlated with both a loss of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence and a decrease in overall fluorescence yield. The fluorescence quenching likely reflects photoprotection mechanisms that may be based on desiccation-induced changes in lichen structure that limit light exposure to the photobiont (sunshade effect) and/or active quenching of excitation energy absorbed by the photosynthetic apparatus. To separate and quantify these possible mechanisms, we have investigated the origins of fluorescence quenching in desiccated lichens with steady-state, low temperature, and time-resolved chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy. We found the most dramatic target of quenching to be photosystem II (PSII), which produces negligible levels of fluorescence in desiccated lichens. We show that fluorescence decay in desiccated lichens was dominated by a short lifetime, long-wavelength component energetically coupled to PSII. Remaining fluorescence was primarily from PSI and although diminished in amplitude, PSI decay kinetics were unaffected by desiccation. The long-wavelength-quenching species was responsible for most (about 80%) of the fluorescence quenching observed in desiccated lichens; the rest of the quenching was attributed to the sunshade effect induced by structural changes in the lichen thallus. PMID:17827268

  5. Top Jets at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, L.G.; Lee, S.J.; Perez, G.; Sung, I.; Virzi, J.

    2008-10-06

    We investigatethe reconstruction of high pT hadronically-decaying top quarksat the Large Hadron Collider. One of the main challenges in identifying energetictop quarks is that the decay products become increasingly collimated. This reducesthe efficacy of conventional reconstruction methods that exploit the topology of thetop quark decay chain. We focus on the cases where the decay products of the topquark are reconstructed as a single jet, a"top-jet." The most basic"top-tag" methodbased on jet mass measurement is considered in detail. To analyze the feasibility ofthe top-tagging method, both theoretical and experimental aspects of the large QCDjet background contribution are examined. Based on a factorization approach, wederive a simple analytic approximation for the shape of the QCD jet mass spectrum.We observe very good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation. We consider high pT tt bar production in the Standard Model as an example, and show that our theoretical QCD jet mass distributions can efficiently characterize the background via sideband analyses. We show that with 25 fb-1 of data, our approach allows us to resolve top-jets with pT _> 1 TeV, from the QCD background, and about 1.5 TeV top-jets with 100 fb-1, without relying on b-tagging. To further improve the significancewe consider jet shapes (recently analyzed in 0807.0234 [hep-ph]), which resolve thesubstructure of energy flow inside cone jets. A method of measuring the top quarkpolarization by using the transverse momentum of the bottom quark is also presented.The main advantages of our approach are: (i) the mass distributions are driven byfirst principle calculations, instead of relying solely on Monte Carlo simulation; (ii) for high pT jets (pT _> 1 TeV), IR-safe jet shape variables are robust against detectorresolution effects. Our analysis can be applied to other boosted massive particlessuch as the electroweak gauge bosons and the Higgs.

  6. Stationary Relativistic Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Komissarov, S S; Lyutikov, M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe a simple numerical approach which allows to study the structure of steady-state axisymmetric relativistic jets using one-dimensional time-dependent simulations. It is based on the fact that for narrow jets with v~c the steady-state equations of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics can be accurately approximated by the one-dimensional time-dependent equations after the substitution z=ct. Since only the time-dependent codes are now publicly available this is a valuable and efficient alternative to the development of a high-specialized code for the time-independent equations. The approach is also much cheaper and more robust compared to the relaxation method. We tested this technique against numerical and analytical solutions found in literature as well as solutions we obtained using the relaxation method and found it sufficiently accurate. In the process, we discovered the reason for the failure of the self-similar analytical model of the jet reconfinement in relatively flat atmospheres a...

  7. Jet measurements in ATLAS Detector for making evident the deconfinement in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the two kinds of works encountered in the preparation of a big experiment at LHC are considered: R and D on the optimization of the light collection from the hadronic tile calorimeter of ATLAS, using new photomultipliers (PM), and physical simulations of the search for nuclear matter deconfinement in heavy ion collisions. The interest of using LHC is to obtain thermodynamical conditions better than those offered for the present or future experiments, by the SPS and RHIC accelerators, respectively. ATLAS is a general purpose p-p experiment that offers the additional possibility of studying the behaviour of heavy quarkonia and jets as deconfinement external probes, in terms of the global variables characterizing the collision geometry and thermodynamics. The definition of a proper strategy for ATLAS requires a comparison with the other experiments (ALICE and CMS) at LHC. It is shown that the search of the jet quenching at a reduced luminosity is the most promising approach for ATLAS. The experiment is described, and in particular the hadronic tile calorimeter, especially designed for the jet studies. The produced light is readout by a new PM the optimisation of which is described in order to design the PM blocks containing the light mixing, the PM itself, the divider bridge and associated electronics. Special attention is paid to the PM gains, the optimisation of the light guides and magnetic shielding. That is retained by ATLAS as the base line solution. (author)

  8. Prediction Of Mechanical Properties Of Quench Hardening Steel*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotěborský R.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the application of finite element method for prediction of mechanical properties of quench hardening steel. Based on the experimental results obtained, a numerical model for simulation of continuous cooling of quench hardening steel was developed. For the simulation of the kinetics of diffusion phase transformations, the Avrami equation and additive rule were applied. A new model was also developed for martensitic transformation which was validated using metallographic analysis and hardness tests. Experimental and simulation results indicated a good agreement. The developed model information provided here could be used for simulation of continuous cooling and kinetics phase transformation as well as for prediction of final distribution of microstructures and hardness of alloy steels.

  9. Measuring oxygen pressures using triplet quenching of Pd-porphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaasappel, Michiel; Ince, C.; Sanderse, E. A.; Bruining, Hajo A.

    1994-02-01

    A non-invasive optical method for measuring free oxygen in vivo is described. The method, introduced by Wilson and co-workers, is based on the quenching of the triplet state of Pd- porphine by oxygen and is described by the Stern-Volmer relation. The quenching of the triplet state is determined by measurement of the phosphorescence decay following excitation by a pulse of light. Measuring decay times has the advantage that they are independent of the changing optical properties of tissue and concentration of the dye. We describe a setup to measure the phosphorescence decay and present the values of Kq and (tau) o as a function of pH and temperature. Furthermore, some experiments on a rat liver and gut are presented.

  10. Effects of quenching and partial quenching on QCD penguin matrix elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golterman, Maarten; Pallante, Elisabetta

    2002-01-01

    We point out that chiral transformation properties of penguin operators change in the transition from unquenched to (partially) quenched QCD. The way in which this affects the lattice determination of weak matrix elements can be understood in the framework of (partially) quenched chiral perturbation

  11. Effect of Jet Injection Angle and Number of Jets on Mixing and Emissions From a Reacting Crossflow at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.John, D.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    2000-01-01

    The mixing of air jets into hot, fuel-rich products of a gas turbine primary zone is an important step in staged combustion. Often referred to as "quick quench," the mixing occurs with chemical conversion and substantial heat release. An experiment has been designed to simulate and study this process, and the effect of varying the entry angle (0 deg, 22.5 deg and 45 deg from normal) and number of the air jets (7, 9, and 11) into the main flow, while holding the jet-to-crossflow mass-low ratio, MR, and momentum-flux ratio, J, constant (MR = 2.5;J = 25). The geometry is a crossflow confined in a cylindrical duct with side-wall injection of jets issuing from orifices equally spaced around the perimeter. A specially designed reactor, operating on propane, presents a uniform mixture to a module containing air jet injection tubes that can be changed to vary orifice geometry. Species concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, NO(x) and HC were obtained one duct diameter upstream (in the rich zone), and primarily one duct radius downstream. From this information, penetration of the jet, the spatial extent of chemical reaction, mixing, and the optimum jet injection angle and number of jets can be deduced.

  12. The quenched spectrum with staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present results for the hadron spectrum in the quenched approximation using staggered fermions. Pinning down the quenched spectrum is an important step in the program of using lattice calculations to extract physically useful quantities. If we cannot extract the masses of the lightest few states with small errors, and make reliable extrapolations to zero quark mass, then calculations of more complicated quantities are suspect. Furthermore, we would like to know how well the quenched approximation reproduces the physical spectrum, for this gives us some indication of the trustworthiness of other quenched calculations. We present results for the spectrum of QCD in the quenched approximation using staggered fermions at β = 5.7, 6.0 and 6.2. We use extended wall sources, which give a better projection onto the ground state, and allow us to study many non-local pion and rho states, as well as the Delta baryon. Staggered flavor symmetry breaking reduces dramatically from β = 5.7 to 6.2. For β = 6, the ratio mN/mp lies significantly below 1.5 for mq s. At β = 6 we study finite volume effects using 163 x 40 and 243 x 40 lattices. We reanalyze our old data at β = 6.2 and resolve the problem of the anomalously light scalar state. 20 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs

  13. Formation of thermal fatigue cracks in periodic rapid quenching of metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ots, A. [Tallinn Technical University, Thermal Engineering Department, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    Water lancing is an effective technique for cleaning boiler heating surfaces from ash deposits by burning low-grade fuels with complicated composition of mineral matter. In water cleaning cycles of boiler`s heat transfer surfaces due to rapid quenching destruction of corrosion protective oxide film and formation of thermal fatigue cracks on the outer surface of the tube`s metal occur. The criterion of the thermal fatigue cracks` formation and their growth intensity depend on the character of temperature field in the tube`s metal outer layer. The solution of non-stationary heat conductivity equation for metal rapid quenching conditions is given. The convective heat transfer coefficients from hot metal surface to water jet were established experimentally. Thermal fatigue crack growth intensity was investigated in real boilers` heat transfer surfaces` tubes as well as in laboratory conditions. The formula for predicting thermal fatigue cracks` depth depending on the number of cleaning cycles. (orig.) 5 refs.

  14. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Gopalan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment.

  15. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Gopalan; Prabhu, Narayan Kotekar

    2011-04-14

    The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment.

  16. ATLAS jet and missing-ET reconstruction, calibration, and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Berta, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has achieved a very high precision on jet and missing transverse energy performance by the use of advanced calorimeter-based topological clustering and local cluster calibration, event-by-event pile-up subtraction methods, and in situ techniques to correct for the residual jet energy response difference between data and simulation. Tracking information is being combined with calorimeter to further improve the jet and missing transverse energy performance. ATLAS has also commissioned several new powerful tools for the analysis and interpretation of hadronic final states at the LHC such as jet substructure, jet mass, quark-gluon discrimination, and jet tagging tools for the identification of boosted heavy particles. An overview of the reconstruction, calibration, and performance of jets, missing transverse energy, jet substructure, and jet tagging at ATLAS is presented.

  17. The possibility of tribopair lifetime extending by welding of quenched and tempered stainless steel with quenched and tempered carbon steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marušić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of tribocorrosion wear, extending of parts lifetime could be achieved by using stainless steel,which is hardened to sufficiently high hardness. In the tribosystem bolt/ bushing shell/link plate of the bucket elevator transporter conveyor machine, the previously quenched and tempered martensitic stainless steel for bolts is hardened at ≈47 HRC and welded with the quenched and tempered high yield carbon steel for bolts. Additional material, based on Cr-Ni-Mo (18/8/6 is used. The microstructure and hardness of welded samples are tested. On the tensile tester, resistance of the welded joint is tested with a simulated experiment. Dimensional control of worn tribosystem elements was performed after six months of service.

  18. γ-jets physics with the EMCal calorimeter in ALICE experiment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy ion collisions at LHC will produce a new state of matter: the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Photons are not sensible to the strong interaction which dominates the nuclear medium, and hence are a valuable tool to explore QGP. Gamma-jets are rare hard processes: a photon and a parton are emitted back-to-back. The parton hadronises and produces a jet of particles. These jets are quenched due to the strong interaction of the parton with the QGP. This quenching, or more precisely the re-distribution of the energy in the jet, can be measured by the modification of the distribution of the particle energy in the jet, comparing p-p and Pb-Pb collisions (fragmentation functions or hump-backed plateau distributions). For this purpose, jet energy is needed, and can be provided precisely by gamma-jet measurement. Our goal is to use EMCal to detect a photon correlated with a jet reconstructed in ALICE tracking system. Then, the jet energy distribution are compared for p-p an Pb-Pb collisions. Gamma-jet physics is first addressed, the particle identification with EMCal is introduced to isolate the direct photon, i.e. a photon and a jet emitted back-to-back. Methods of jet identification and reconstruction are developed to determine hump-backed plateau distributions. Finally, these methods are tested to evaluate ALICE and particularly EMCal capabilities for gamma-jet study at LHC and to quantify the sensibility of this probe to explore the QGP. (author)

  19. Accretion flows govern black hole jet properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koljonen, K.; Russell, D.; Fernández Ontiveros, J.; Miller-Jones, J.; Russell, T.; Curran, P.; Soria, R.; Markoff, S.; van der Horst, A.; Casella, P.

    2015-07-01

    The process of jet formation in accreting black holes, and the conditions under which it occurs is currently hotly debated, with competing models predicting the jet power to be governed by black hole spin, the magnetic field strength, the location of the jet base, the mass accretion rate and/or the properties of the inner accretion flow. We present new results that show empirical correlations between the accretion flow properties and the spectral energy distribution of the jets launched from accreting black holes. The X-ray power law is directly related to the particle energy distribution in the hot accretion flow. We find that the photon index of this power law correlates with the characteristic break frequency in the jet spectrum emitted near the jet base, and the jet luminosity up to the break frequency. The observed correlations can be explained by the energy distribution of electrons in the hot accretion flow being subsequently channeled into the jet. These correlations represent a new inflow--outflow connection in accreting black holes, and demonstrate that the spectral properties of the jet rely most critically on the conditions in the inner accretion flow, rather than other parameters such as the black hole mass or spin.

  20. b-Jet Identification in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Beluffi, Camille

    2014-01-01

    A large fraction of the CMS physics program relies on the identification of jets containing the decay of a B hadron (b jets). The b jets can be discriminated from jets produced by the hadronization of light quarks based on characteristic properties of B hadrons, such as the long lifetime or the presence of soft leptons produced during their decay.An overview of the large variety of b-tagging algorithms and the measurement of their performance with data collected in 2011 and 2012 are presented in this talk. A special focus lies on new methods of b-tagging in jet substructure.As the excluded mass regions for new physics beyond the Standard Model continue to increase, searches often focus on boosted final states characterized by particles with large transverse momenta. In the boosted regime the resulting decay products for hadronic decays of heavy particles tend to be collimated and can fall within a single jet, known as fat-jet. In this case, selections based on multiple jets cannot be applied and jet substruct...

  1. Axisymmetric instability in a thinning electrified jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmansh; Chokshi, Paresh

    2016-04-01

    The axisymmetric stability of an electrified jet is analyzed under electrospinning conditions using the linear stability theory. The fluid is considered Newtonian with a finite electrical conductivity, modeled as a leaky dielectric medium. While the previous studies impose axisymmetric disturbances on a cylindrical jet of uniform radius, referred to as the base state, in the present study the actual thinning jet profile, obtained as the steady-state solution of the one-dimensional slender filament model, is treated as the base state. The analysis takes into account the role of variation in the jet variables like radius, velocity, electric field, and surface charge density along the thinning jet in the stability behavior. The eigenspectrum of the axisymmetric disturbance growth rate is constructed from the linearized disturbance equations discretized using the Chebyshev collocation method. The most unstable growth rate for the thinning jet is significantly different from that for the uniform radius jet. For the same electrospinning conditions, while the uniform radius jet is predicted to be highly unstable, the thinning jet profile is found to be unstable but with a relatively very low growth rate. The stabilizing role of the thinning jet is attributed to the variation in the surface charge density as well as the extensional deformation rate in the fluid ignored in the uniform radius jet analysis. The dominant mode for the thinning jet is an oscillatory conducting mode driven by the field-charge coupling. The disturbance energy balance finds the electric force to be the dominant force responsible for the disturbance growth, potentially leading to bead formation along the fiber. The role of various material and process parameters in the stability behavior is also investigated. PMID:27176407

  2. Thermal quench at finite 't Hooft coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ebrahim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using holography we have studied thermal electric field quench for infinite and finite 't Hooft coupling constant. The set-up we consider here is D7-brane embedded in (α′ corrected AdS-black hole background. It is well-known that due to a time-dependent electric field on the probe brane, a time-dependent current will be produced and it will finally relax to its equilibrium value. We have studied the effect of different parameters of the system on equilibration time. As the most important results, for massless fundamental matter, we have observed a universal behaviour in the rescaled equilibration time in the very fast quench regime for different values of the temperature and α′ correction parameter. It seems that in the slow quench regime the system behaves adiabatically. We have also observed that the equilibration time decreases in finite 't Hooft coupling limit.

  3. Influence of quench rates on the properties of rapidly solidified FeNbCuSiB alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Panda; I Chattoraj; S Basu; A Mitra

    2002-11-01

    FeNbCuSiB based materials were produced in the form of ribbons by rapid solidification techniques. The crystallization, magnetic, mechanical and corrosion behaviour were studied for the prepared materials as a function of quenching rate from liquid to the solid state. Higher quench rates produced a more amorphous structure exhibiting superior soft magnetic properties with improved corrosion resistance.

  4. Fluorescence quenching of flavins by reductive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany)], E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de; Bansal, A.K. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Song, S.-H.; Dick, B. [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany)

    2007-07-09

    The fluorescence behaviour of the flavins riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide (FMN), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and lumiflavin in aqueous solution at pH 8 in the presence of the reducing agents {beta}-mercaptoethanol ({beta}-ME), dithiothreitol (DTT), and sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) is studied under aerobic conditions. The fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes are determined as a function of the reducing agent concentration. For all three reducing agents diffusion controlled dynamic fluorescence quenching is observed which is thought to be due to photo-induced reductive electron transfer. For DTT additionally static fluorescence quenching occurs.

  5. Reconstruction of thermally quenched glow curves in quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimentally measured thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of quartz samples are influenced by the presence of the thermal quenching effect, which involves a variation of the luminescence efficiency as a function of temperature. The real shape of the thermally unquenched TL glow curves is completely unknown. In the present work an attempt is made to reconstruct these unquenched glow curves from the quenched experimental data, and for two different types of quartz samples. The reconstruction is based on the values of the thermal quenching parameter W (activation energy) and C (a dimensionless constant), which are known from recent experimental work on these two samples. A computerized glow-curve deconvolution (CGCD) analysis was performed twice for both the reconstructed and the experimental TL glow curves. Special attention was paid to check for consistency between the results of these two independent CGCD analyses. The investigation showed that the reconstruction attempt was successful, and it is concluded that the analysis of reconstructed TL glow curves can provide improved values of the kinetic parameters E, s for the glow peaks of quartz. This also leads to a better evaluation of the half-lives of electron trapping levels used for dosimetry and luminescence dating.

  6. Impinging Jets and Droplet Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaodong; Ma, Dongjun; Yang, Vigor

    2011-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, results from high fidelity numerical simulations are presented, which have been carried out to study the flow and droplet dynamics of liquid sheets formed by two impinging jets. A three-dimensional Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) based on octree meshes [1] is used to simulate the various flow patterns associated with impinging jets, secondary breakup and binary collision of droplets. In addition to AMR, a thickness based refinement algorithm is also developed and implemented to efficiently resolve the various scales of surface tension driven interfacial flows.

  7. Refolding dynamics of stretched biopolymers upon force quench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeon, Changbong; Morrison, Greg; Pincus, David L.; Thirumalai, D.

    2009-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy methods can be used to generate folding trajectories of biopolymers from arbitrary regions of the folding landscape. We illustrate the complexity of the folding kinetics and generic aspects of the collapse of RNA and proteins upon force quench by using simulations of an RNA hairpin and theory based on the de Gennes model for homopolymer collapse. The folding time, τF, depends asymmetrically on δfS = f S − f m and δf Q = f m − f Q where f S (f Q) is the stretch (quench) force and f m is the transition midforce of the RNA hairpin. In accord with experiments, the relaxation kinetics of the molecular extension, R(t), occurs in three stages: A rapid initial decrease in the extension is followed by a plateau and finally, an abrupt reduction in R(t) occurs as the native state is approached. The duration of the plateau increases as λ = τ Q/τ F decreases (where τ Q is the time in which the force is reduced from f S to f Q). Variations in the mechanisms of force-quench relaxation as λ is altered are reflected in the experimentally measurable time-dependent entropy, which is computed directly from the folding trajectories. An analytical solution of the de Gennes model under tension reproduces the multistage stage kinetics in R(t). The prediction that the initial stages of collapse should also be a generic feature of polymers is validated by simulation of the kinetics of toroid (globule) formation in semiflexible (flexible) homopolymers in poor solvents upon quenching the force from a fully stretched state. Our findings give a unified explanation for multiple disparate experimental observations of protein folding. PMID:19915145

  8. Jet-track correlations with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Velicanu, Dragos Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    Jet quenching is one of the established signatures of the Quark Gluon Plasma, and this phenomenon has been studied extensively in high energy heavy ion experiments over the last decade. Despite significant progress made in those studies, the specifics of the energy loss mechanisms and the details of jet-medium interactions require further quantitative understanding. Studies of two-dimensional angular correlations of charged hadrons with respect to reconstructed jets make it possible to experimentally assess the energy radiation patterns of an energetic parton traversing the medium as well as its fragmentation function. In this talk, we will present new differential measurements of charged particle densities and energy flow about the jet direction as a function of relative azimuth and relative pseudorapidity from 2.76 TeV PbPb and pp collisions recorded by the CMS Collaboration. With a sample of back-to-back dijets, previously used to reconstruct the event-wise momentum imbalance (missing pT), we explore modif...

  9. Investigation of non-symmetric jets in cross flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fan-Ming

    1987-05-01

    Non-symmetric jets in crossflow were studied with various jet geometries, jet orientations, jet characteristics, and jet to crossflow velocity ratios. Four different cross-section geometry jets were studied and compared with a circular jet with identical jet port cross-sectional area. Standard dye and laser induced fluorescent flow visualization techniques were used to identify the existence of various vortices in the flow field. Among the many forms of secondary vortices produced, three major vortex systems were identified: main jet vortices, wake vortices, and spinoff vortices. A reconstruction of the asymmetric flow field based on observations and its evolution and relationships with established symmetric jets in the crossflow were made. The large scale rolled-up vortex structure which was found at low jet to crossflow velocity ratio is very similar to the hair-pin vortex structure. This observation provides a potential research tool on the study of the structure of turbulent boundary layers. Unsteady jets created by pulsation of the jet flow at low pulsation frequencies give the increase of the depth of penetration. However, the introducing of swirl into jets by passive methods reduces the depth of penetration.

  10. On the afterglow from the receding jet of gamma-ray burst

    OpenAIRE

    Xin WANG; Huang, Y.F.; Kong, Si-Wei

    2009-01-01

    According to popular progenitor models of gamma-ray bursts, twin jets should be launched by the central engine, with a forward jet moving toward the observer and a receding jet (or the counter jet) moving backwardly. However, in calculating the afterglows, usually only the emission from the forward jet is considered. Here we present a detailed numerical study on the afterglow from the receding jet. Our calculation is based on a generic dynamical description, and includes some delicate ingredi...

  11. Temperature profile evolution in quenching high-c superconducting composite tape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ziauddin Khan; Subrata Pradhan; Irfan Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    Irreversible normal zones leading to quench is an important aspect of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) in all practical applications. As a consequence of quench, transport current gets diverted to the matrix stabilizer material of the high-c composite and causes Joule heating till the original conditions are restored. The nature of growth of the resistive zone in the superconductor greatly influences the temperature evolution of the quenched zone. In this investigation, a complete mathematical analysis of the temperature profile evolution following a quench in a HTS has been carried out. Such prediction in temperature profile would aid the design of HTS tape-based practical applications in limiting the thermal stress-induced damages in off-normal scenarios.

  12. Effect of Quenching on the Grain Boundary Relaxation in PM2000 ODS Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhan-Yong; WU Jie; HAN Fu-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Grain boundary relaxation in a Fe-based ODS alloy is studied by internal friction measurements. It is found that a grain-boundary peak appears at a lower temperature in the quenched specimens than that in the annealed specimens. The activation energy of the peak is H = 2.82 ± 0.11 eV for the former while H = 2.53 ± 0.08 eV for the latter. In addition, a new relaxation peak is observed at the high temperature side of the grain boundary peak in the quenched specimens with an activation energy of 4.41 ± 0.25 eV. The height of the peak increases with increasing quenching temperature. The results suggest that both the shift of the grain-boundary peak and the appearance of the new peak are due to increasing vacancies by quenching that are favourable for the motion of the grain boundaries.

  13. Study of Water Jet Impulse in Water-Jet Looms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-rang; MA Wei-wei; CHEN Ming

    2005-01-01

    The water jet impulse is brought forward to study the traction force of the water jet to the flying weft in water-jet looms. The distribution of the water jet impulse in the shed is tested by a sensor, and the influence of water jet parameters on the water jet impulse is analyzed.

  14. Interplay between Mach cone and radial expansion and its signal in gamma-jet events

    CERN Document Server

    Tachibana, Yasuki

    2015-01-01

    We study the hydrodynamic response to jet quenching in the expanding QGP and its signal in the resulting particle distribution. The ideal hydrodynamic simulations of the gamma-jet events in heavy-ion collisions are performed in a full (3 + 1)-dimensional setup. The jet-induced Mach cone and the radial expansion of the background mutually push and distort each other. As the result, the particle emission is suppressed in the direction in which the radial flow is pushed back by the Mach cone when the jet passage is off-central one. This is the direct signal of hydrodynamic response to jet and, moreover, includes the information about the jet passage in the expanding QGP fluid.

  15. Interplay between Mach cone and radial expansion and its signal in γ -jet events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Yasuki; Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2016-05-01

    We study the hydrodynamic response to jet quenching in expanding quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and its signal in the resulting particle distribution. The ideal hydrodynamic simulations of the γ -jet events in heavy-ion collisions are performed in a full (3 + 1)-dimensional setup. The jet-induced Mach cone and the radial expansion of the background mutually push and distort each other. As a result, the particle emission is suppressed in the direction in which the radial flow is pushed back by the Mach cone when the jet path is an off-central one. This is the direct signal of hydrodynamic response to the jet and, moreover, includes information about the jet path in the expanding QGP fluid.

  16. Quenching simulation of steel grinding balls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapata-Hernández, Oscar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The phase transformations of high carbon steel during quenching and equalizing were modelled using commercial computer packages based on the finite element method and the kinetic transformation of steel. The model was used to predict the temperature and microstructural changes taking place within balls of two different sizes that are used for grinding mineral ores. A good correlation between the temperatures measured by inserted thermocouples and those predicted by the model was obtained after modifying the thermal conductivity of the steel within the temperature domain at which mixed phases are present. The phase transformations predicted were confirmed by metallographic analyses.Las transformaciones de fase en aceros de alto carbono durante su temple y un posterior periodo de estabilización fueron modelizadas por medio del uso de paquetes computacionales basados en el método del elemento finito y de la transformación cinética de los aceros. El modelo se usó para predecir los cambios de temperatura y microestructura que se presentan en bolas de dos diferentes tamaños empleadas en estaciones de molienda de minerales. Se encontró una buena correlación entre las temperaturas medidas mediante la inserción de termopares y aquellas predichas por el modelo una vez que se modificó la conductividad térmica del acero en el intervalo mixto de fases. La predicción de las transformaciones de fase se confirmó a través del análisis metalográfico.

  17. A Fast Optimization Algorithm of Arc-quenching Chambers Based on RBFEM%基于缩减基有限元法的灭弧室快速优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马爱清; 张周胜; 江秀臣

    2012-01-01

    针对高压电气设备电场逆问题的快速求解,将缩减基技术和有限元法有效结合,提出了一种用于快速求解电气设备电场逆问题的新方法,即缩减基有限元方法(reducedbasisfiniteelementmeod,RBFEM),分析了RBFEM的基本原理,并以气体绝缘开关设备(gasinsulatedswitchgear,GIS)灭弧室的触头优化为例,详细介绍了基于RBFEM的快速优化算法的实现过程,包括建立数学模型、目标函数和设计变量的选定、给出优化策略、样本参数采样策略的选择、子域的分解以及样本参数Ⅳ值的取值等关键问题。并对优化后的灭弧室触头形状利用ANSYS求解计算,得到的计算结果与RBFEM求得的计算结果相比误差为1.3%,可知RBFEM算法是有效的。%In order to fast solve the electric field inverse problem for high voltage electric apparatus, a new algorithm called reduced basis finite element method (RBFEM) was proposed in this paper. The reduced basis technology and the finite element method were integrated effectively. Firstly, the principle of RBFEM was analyzed. Secondly, as an optimization design example for gas insulated switchgear (GIS) arc-quenching chamber, the fast optimization algorithm implementation process based on RBFEM program, including modeling, setting objective function and design variable, optimization strategy given, sample strategy, sub-domain decomposition and Determination of sample parameters N, were introduced in detail. Finally, electric field distribution of the optimized contact shape was solved by using ANSYS and the solution was compared by using RBFEM. The computational result shows that the computational error is 1.3%, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  18. 基于正交试验的端帽激光淬火工艺研究%Laser Quenching Process Research of End Cap Based on Orthogonal Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺敬地; 王斌修

    2011-01-01

    In laser quenching research for automatic balancing valve over-current end cap surface, the factors of influence are studied on laser quenching by using orthogonal experiment. The best parameters of laser quenching and the influence law on the surface hardness and hardening layer depth of layer machined by laser duing to pulse current, scanning velocity and from focal quantity are drawn. The experimental results show that as long as the appropriate laser parameters be chosen, good surface hardening quality can be obtained. These provide theoretical guidance for laser processing.%对自动流量平衡阀过流端帽的表面进行激光淬火研究,利用正交试验对影响激光淬火的因素进行了研究,得出激光淬火的最佳参数以及脉冲电流、扫描速度和离焦量对激光表面硬度和淬硬层深度的影响规律.试验结果表明,只要工艺参数选择适当,可获得很好的表面淬火质量,为激光加工提供了理论指导.

  19. Validation of Quench Simulation and Simulation of the TWIN Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Pots, Rosalinde Hendrika

    2015-01-01

    For the Future Circular Collider at CERN a multi-purpose detector is proposed. The 6T TWIN Solenoid, a very large magnet system with a stored energy of 53 GJ, is being designed. It is important to protect the magnet against quenches in the system. Therefore several existing quench protection systems are evaluated and simulations have be performed on quenches in the TWIN Solenoid. The simulations on quenches in the TWIN Solenoid have been performed with promising results; the hotspot temperatures do not exceed 120 K and layer to layer voltages stay below 500 V. Adding quench heaters to the system might improve the quench protection system further.

  20. Partial quenching and chiral symmetry breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Creutz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Partially quenched chiral perturbation theory assumes that valence quarks propagating on gauge configurations prepared with sea quarks of different masses will form a chiral condensate as the valence quark mass goes to zero. I present a counterexample involving non-degenerate sea quarks where the valence condensate does not form.

  1. LHC BFPP Quench Test with Ions (2015)

    CERN Document Server

    Schaumann, Michaela; Bahamonde Castro, Cristina; Auchmann, Bernhard; Chetvertkova, Vera; Giachino, Rossano; Jowett, John; Kalliokoski, Matti; Lechner, Anton; Mertens, Tom; Ponce, Laurette; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 Pb-Pb collision run of the LHC operated at a beam energy of 6.37Z TeV. The power of the secondary beams emitted from the interaction point by the bound-free pair production (BFPP) process reached new levels while the propensity of the bending magnets to quench is higher at the new magnetic field levels. This beam power is about 70 times greater than that contained in the luminosity debris and is focussed on a specific location. As long foreseen, orbit bumps were introduced in the dispersion suppressors around the highest luminosity experiments to mitigate the risk of quenches by displacing and spreading out these losses. Because the impact position and intensity of these secondary beams is well known and can be tracked easily with the Beam Loss Monitors (BLMs), the BFPP1 beam (208Pb81+ ions), which is the most intense, provides a tool to accurately measure the steady state quench limit of the LHC main dipoles. At the moment the exact quench limit is not known, but this knowledge is important to asses...

  2. Study of high-$p_T$ hadron-jet correlations in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Křížek, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Jets provide unique probes of the medium created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. Here, the observed jet quenching phenomena in central collisions prove that jets are sensitive to interesting properties of strongly-coupled matter. In addition, jet production in elementary processes, such as pp collisions, is well understood within the framework of perturbative QCD, providing a rigorous theoretical basis for jet quenching calculations. We report the measurement of semi-inclusive p T spectra of charged particle jets that recoil from a high- p T hadron trigger in Pb–Pb and pp collisions at √ s NN = 2 : 76 TeV and √ s = 7 TeV, respectively. In this analysis, the copious yield of uncorrelated trigger hadron-jet matchings in central Pb–Pb collisions is removed by calculating the difference between two spectra corresponding to disjoint trigger hadron p T ranges. This procedure does not impose any fragmentation bias on the recoil jet population, which is thus collinear and infrared safe

  3. Jets of incipient liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, A. V.; Mazheiko, N. A.; Skripov, V. P.

    2000-05-01

    Jets of incipient water escaping into the atmosphere through a short channel are photographed. In some experiments. complete disintegration of the jet is observed. The relationship of this phenomenon with intense volume incipience is considered. The role of the Coanda effect upon complete opening of the jet is revealed. Measurement results of the recoil force R of the jets of incipient liquids are presented. Cases of negative thrust caused by the Coanda effect are noted. Generalization of experimental data is proposed.

  4. In-medium jet evolution: interplay between broadening and decoherence effects

    CERN Document Server

    Apolinário, Liliana; Milhano, Guilherme; Salgado, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    The description of the modifications of the coherence pattern in a parton shower, in the presence of a QGP, has been actively addressed in recent studies. Among the several achievements, finite energy corrections, transverse momentum broadening due to medium interactions and interference effects between successive emissions have been extensively improved as they seem to be essential features for a correct description of the results obtained in heavy-ion collisions. In this work, based on the insights of our previous work [1], we explore the physical interplay between broadening and decoherence, by generalising previous studies of medium-modifications of the antenna spectrum [2, 3, 4] - so far restricted to the case where transverse motion is neglected. The result allow us to identify two quantities controlling the decoherence of a medium modified shower that can be used as building blocks for a successful future generation of jet quenching Monte Carlo simulators: a generalisation of the $\\Delta_{med}$ paramet...

  5. Study of b-jet tagging performance in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Feldkamp, Linus

    2014-01-01

    We present the current status and Monte Carlo study based performance estimates of b-jet tagging using ALICE, as obtained using both impact parameter as well as secondary vertex methods. We also address the prospects of the identification of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays to obtain b-jet enhanced jet samples.

  6. Two computational approaches for Monte Carlo based shutdown dose rate calculation with applications to the JET fusion machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion plasmas neutrons are produced causing activation of JET machine components. For safe operation and maintenance it is important to be able to predict the induced activation and the resulting shut down dose rates. This requires a suitable system of codes which is capable of simulating both the neutron induced material activation during operation and the decay gamma radiation transport after shut-down in the proper 3-D geometry. Two methodologies to calculate the dose rate in fusion devices have been developed recently and applied to fusion machines, both using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. FZK has developed a more classical approach, the rigorous 2-step (R2S) system in which MCNP is coupled to the FISPACT inventory code with an automated routing. ENEA, in collaboration with the ITER Team, has developed an alternative approach, the direct 1 step method (D1S). Neutron and decay gamma transport are handled in one single MCNP run, using an ad hoc cross section library. The intention was to tightly couple the neutron induced production of a radio-isotope and the emission of its decay gammas for an accurate spatial distribution and a reliable calculated statistical error. The two methods have been used by the two Associations to calculate the dose rate in five positions of JET machine, two inside the vacuum chamber and three outside, at cooling times between 1 second and 1 year after shutdown. The same MCNP model and irradiation conditions have been assumed. The exercise has been proposed and financed in the frame of the Fusion Technological Program of the JET machine. The scope is to supply the designers with the most reliable tool and data to calculate the dose rate on fusion machines. Results showed that there is a good agreement: the differences range between 5-35%. The next step to be considered in 2003 will be an exercise in which the comparison will be done with dose-rate data from JET taken during and

  7. Quench simulation of SMES consisting of some superconducting coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, S., E-mail: noguchi@ssi.ist.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita 14 Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan); Oga, Y.; Igarashi, H. [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita 14 Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    A chain of quenches may be caused by a quench of one element coil when SMES is consists of many element coils. To avoid the chain of quenches, the energy stored in element coil has to be quickly discharged. The cause of the chain of the quenches is the short time constant of the decreasing current of the quenched coil. In recent years, many HTS superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS-SMES) systems are investigated and designed. They usually consist of some superconducting element coils due to storing excessively high energy. If one of them was quenched, the storage energy of the superconducting element coil quenched has to be immediately dispersed to protect the HTS-SMES system. As the result, the current of the other element coils, which do not reach to quench, increases since the magnetic coupling between the quenched element coil and the others are excessively strong. The increase of the current may cause the quench of the other element coils. If the energy dispersion of the element coil quenched was failed, the other superconducting element coil would be quenched in series. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the behavior of the HTS-SMES after quenching one or more element coils. To protect a chain of quenches, it is also important to investigate the time constant of the coils. We have developed a simulation code to investigate the behavior of the HTS-SMES. By the quench simulation, it is indicated that a chain of quenches is caused by a quench of one element coil.

  8. Effect of Irradiation with DC Plasma Jet on the Structure Phase Compositions and Properties of Powder Ni and Co – based Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya ALONTSEVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM investigation of the structure-phase compositions of coatings on the base of Ni and Co deposited by plasma-detonation on steel substrates after their modification by DC plasma jet irradiation. The phase structures and morphology of precipitation of strengthening phases from solid solution are defined. The irradiation of the coatings leads to the evolution of the structural-phase state of coatings: an increase in the size of the diffusion zone between the coating and the substrate, an increase in the volume fraction of hardening intermetallic phases, the formation of sufficiently homogeneous fine-grained structure in the irradiated coatings and, consequently, a significant increase of hardness, corrosion and wear resistance of modified coatings. There is a mutual penetration of the substrate main element Fe in the coating and base coating elements (Ni and Co correspondingly into the substrate as a result of the coating treatment by a pulse DC plasma jet.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.7699

  9. The Effect of the Free Surface on a Round Jet

    OpenAIRE

    Liepmann, D.; Gharib, M.

    1990-01-01

    The images shown above are sequential cross sections of a round jet at 3.5 diameters downstream of the nozzle visualized using laser-induced fluorescence. Figures 1 and 2 show the flow field of the jet 1 diameter below the free surface, while Figs. 3 and 4 are images of the submerged jet. Except for the presence of the free surface, the flow conditions are identical with a Reynolds number of 4000 based on the jet diameter and exit velocity.

  10. Simulation of the Quench-06 experiment with Scdapsim; Simulacion del experimento Quench-06 con Scdapsim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel M, E. del; Nunez C, A.; Amador G, R. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan No. 779, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: edangelm@cnsns.gob.mx

    2003-07-01

    The present work describes the pattern of the called Quench installation developed and used by the National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards (CNSNS) for their participation in the International Standard Problem 45 (ISP), organized by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). The exercise consisted on the simulation of the denominated experiment Quench-06 carried out in the experimental installation Quench located in the Forschungszentrum laboratory in Karlsruhe, Germany. The experiment Quench-06 consisted on simulating the sudden and late injection of water in a fuel assemble for a pressurized reactor (PWR). The CNSNS uses the version bd of the SCDAPSIM code developed by the company Innovative Software Systems (ISS) to simulate this experiment. The obtained results showed that the code is able to predict the experiment partially when overestimating the hydrogen production and of the partial fused of some fuel pellets, but predicting correctly the damage in the shroud. (Author)

  11. Advanced active quenching circuits for single-photon avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipčević, M.; Christensen, B. G.; Kwiat, P. G.; Gauthier, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    Commercial photon-counting modules, often based on actively quenched solid-state avalanche photodiode sensors, are used in wide variety of applications. Manufacturers characterize their detectors by specifying a small set of parameters, such as detection efficiency, dead time, dark counts rate, afterpulsing probability and single photon arrival time resolution (jitter), however they usually do not specify the conditions under which these parameters are constant or present a sufficient description. In this work, we present an in-depth analysis of the active quenching process and identify intrinsic limitations and engineering challenges. Based on that, we investigate the range of validity of the typical parameters used by two commercial detectors. We identify an additional set of imperfections that must be specified in order to sufficiently characterize the behavior of single-photon counting detectors in realistic applications. The additional imperfections include rate-dependence of the dead time, jitter, detection delay shift, and "twilighting." Also, the temporal distribution of afterpulsing and various artifacts of the electronics are important. We find that these additional non-ideal behaviors can lead to unexpected effects or strong deterioration of the system's performance. Specifically, we discuss implications of these new findings in a few applications in which single-photon detectors play a major role: the security of a quantum cryptographic protocol, the quality of single-photon-based random number generators and a few other applications. Finally, we describe an example of an optimized avalanche quenching circuit for a high-rate quantum key distribution system based on time-bin entangled photons.

  12. Diamond Film Synthesis with a DC Plasma Jet:Effect of the Contacting Interface between Substrate and Base on the Substrate Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The contacting interface between the substrate and water-cooled base is vital to the substrate temperature during diamond films deposition by a DC (direct current) plasma jet. The effects of the solid contacting area,conductive materials and fixing between the substrate and the base were investigated without affecting the other parameters. Experimental results indicated that the preferable solid contacting area was more than 60% of total contacting areal; the particular Sn-Pb alloy was more suitable for conducting heat and the concentric fixing ring was a better setting for controlling the substrate temperature. The result was explained in terms of the variable thermal contact resistance at the interface between substrate and base. The diamond films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology, X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the intensity of characteristic spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy for structure.

  13. A quench detection/logging system for the SSCL Magnet Test Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quench in a magnet describes a process which occurs while the superconductivity state goes to the normal resistive state. The consequence of a quench is the conversion of the stored electromagnetic energy into heat. During this process the initiating point will reach a high temperature, which will char the insulation or melt the conductor and thereby destroy the magnet. To prevent the magnet from being lost, it is standard practice to observe several resistance and/or inductance voltages across the magnet as quench signatures -- detection. When a quench symptom is detected, protection operations are initiated: proper shutdown of the magnet excitation systems and treatment to dilute the heat energy at a spot -- protection. The temperature rise is diluted by firing heaters along the length of the magnet to insure that the dissipated energy is spread. To develop a reliable quench detection system, two distinct approaches have been tried in the past: (i) Understanding of the Noise Mechanism and Sub-system Optimization, and (ii) Escaping from the Known Electromagnetic Noises by Observing Optical Waves or Acoustic Waves. The MTL of SSCL confronts a mass-measurement of about 10,000 production magnets. To meet the testing schedule, the false quench detection rate needs to be further optimized while the true quench detection rate remains secure for the magnet measurement safety. To meet these requirements, we followed an iterative top-down approach. First we defined the signal and noise characteristics of the quench phenomena by using existing software tools to build a rapid prototype system incorporating all proven functionality of the existing system. Then we further optimize the system through iterative upgrading based on our signal and noise character findings

  14. Optimization of the quenching method for metabolomics analysis of Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-ming; Li, Ai-li; Sun, Mao-cheng; Feng, Zhen; Meng, Xiang-chen; Wang, Ying

    2014-04-01

    This study proposed a quenching protocol for metabolite analysis of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Microbial cells were quenched with 60% methanol/water, 80% methanol/glycerol, or 80% methanol/water. The effect of the quenching process was assessed by the optical density (OD)-based method, flow cytometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were employed for metabolite identification. The results indicated that quenching with 80% methanol/water solution led to less damage to the L. bulgaricus cells, characterized by the lower relative fraction of prodium iodide (PI)-labeled cells and the higher OD recovery ratio. Through GC-MS analysis, higher levels of intracellular metabolites (including focal glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, and AMP) and a lower leakage rate were detected in the sample quenched with 80% methanol/water compared with the others. In conclusion, we suggested a higher concentration of cold methanol quenching for L. bulgaricus metabolomics due to its decreasing metabolite leakage. PMID:24711354

  15. Satellite quenching timescales in clusters from projected phase space measurements matched to simulated orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Kyle A.; Hudson, Michael J.

    2016-09-01

    We measure the star formation quenching efficiency and timescale in cluster environments. Our method uses N-body simulations to estimate the probability distribution of possible orbits for a sample of observed SDSS galaxies in and around clusters based on their position and velocity offsets from their host cluster. We study the relationship between their star formation rates and their likely orbital histories via a simple model in which star formation is quenched once a delay time after infall has elapsed. Our orbit library method is designed to isolate the environmental effect on the star formation rate due to a galaxy's present-day host cluster from `pre-processing' in previous group hosts. We find that quenching of satellite galaxies of all stellar masses in our sample (109 - 1011.5 M⊙) by massive (> 1013 M⊙) clusters is essentially 100 per cent efficient. Our fits show that all galaxies quench on their first infall, approximately at or within a Gyr of their first pericentric passage. There is little variation in the onset of quenching from galaxy-to-galaxy: the spread in this time is at most ˜2 Gyr at fixed M★. Higher mass satellites quench earlier, with very little dependence on host cluster mass in the range probed by our sample.

  16. Quenching Combustible Dust Mixtures Using Electric Particulate Suspensions (EPS): A New Testing Method For Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colver, Gerald M.; Greene, Nathanael; Shoemaker, David; Xu, Hua

    2003-01-01

    The Electric Particulate Suspension (EPS) is a combustion ignition system being developed at Iowa State University for evaluating quenching effects of powders in microgravity (quenching distance, ignition energy, flammability limits). Because of the high cloud uniformity possible and its simplicity, the EPS method has potential for "benchmark" design of quenching flames that would provide NASA and the scientific community with a new fire standard. Microgravity is expected to increase suspension uniformity even further and extend combustion testing to higher concentrations (rich fuel limit) than is possible at normal gravity. Two new combustion parameters are being investigated with this new method: (1) the particle velocity distribution and (2) particle-oxidant slip velocity. Both walls and (inert) particles can be tested as quenching media. The EPS method supports combustion modeling by providing accurate measurement of flame-quenching distance as a parameter in laminar flame theory as it closely relates to characteristic flame thickness and flame structure. Because of its design simplicity, EPS is suitable for testing on the International Space Station (ISS). Laser scans showing stratification effects at 1-g have been studied for different materials, aluminum, glass, and copper. PTV/PIV and a leak hole sampling rig give particle velocity distribution with particle slip velocity evaluated using LDA. Sample quenching and ignition energy curves are given for aluminum powder. Testing is planned for the KC-135 and NASA s two second drop tower. Only 1-g ground-based data have been reported to date.

  17. The Propulsive Force of the Water-jet to the Flying Weft in Water-jet Looms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the propulsive force on the water-jet to the flying weft in water-jet looms, a dynamic model has been established. Based on the analysis and example testing, an experiential formula of the propulsive force of the water-jet to the flying weft is obtained for the first time. The formula will profit the further research of the water-jet weft insertion and the production of textile.

  18. ON THE STRUCTURE AND STABILITY OF MAGNETIC TOWER JETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern theoretical models of astrophysical jets combine accretion, rotation, and magnetic fields to launch and collimate supersonic flows from a central source. Near the source, magnetic field strengths must be large enough to collimate the jet requiring that the Poynting flux exceeds the kinetic energy flux. The extent to which the Poynting flux dominates kinetic energy flux at large distances from the engine distinguishes two classes of models. In magneto-centrifugal launch models, magnetic fields dominate only at scales ∼< 100 engine radii, after which the jets become hydrodynamically dominated (HD). By contrast, in Poynting flux dominated (PFD) magnetic tower models, the field dominates even out to much larger scales. To compare the large distance propagation differences of these two paradigms, we perform three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulations of both HD and PFD stellar jets formed via the same energy flux. We also compare how thermal energy losses and rotation of the jet base affects the stability in these jets. For the conditions described, we show that PFD and HD exhibit observationally distinguishable features: PFD jets are lighter, slower, and less stable than HD jets. Unlike HD jets, PFD jets develop current-driven instabilities that are exacerbated as cooling and rotation increase, resulting in jets that are clumpier than those in the HD limit. Our PFD jet simulations also resemble the magnetic towers that have been recently created in laboratory astrophysical jet experiments.

  19. Simulation of bundle test Quench-12 with integral code MELCOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past NRI analyses cover the Quench-01, Quench-03 and Quench-06 with version MELCOR 1.8.5 (including reflood model), and Quench-01 and Quench-11 tests with the latest version MELCOR 1.8.6. The Quench-12 test is specific, because it has different bundle configuration related to the VVER bundle configuration with hexagonal grid of pins and also used E110 cladding material. Specificity of Quench-12 test is also in the used material of fuel rod cladding - E110. The test specificities are a reason for the highest concern, because the VVER reactors are operated in the Czech Republic. The new input model was developed with the taking into account all experience from previous simulations of the Quench bundle tests. The recent version MELCOR 1.8.6 YU2911 was used for the simulation with slightly modified ELHEAT package. Sensitivity studies on input parameters and oxidation kinetics were performed. (author)

  20. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  1. Substructure of Boosted Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Duchovni, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    Jets with transverse energy of few TeV are becoming now common in LHC data. Most of these jets are produced by QCD processes and some from the collimated decay of highly boosted objects like W, Z, H0 and top-quark. The study of such QCD jets may shed light on QCD showering processes and the identification of the jets coming from decays may test the Standard Model under extreme conditions and may also provide the first hints for Physics Beyond the Standard Model. A short review of jet algorithms, Correction procedures for pile-up effects and commonly used substructure observables are described.

  2. Forward Jet Production in Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A; Anthonis, T; Aplin, S; Asmone, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Babaev, A; Backovic, S; Bähr, J; Baghdasaryan, A; Baranov, P; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Baudrand, S; Baumgartner, S; Becker, J; Beckingham, M; Behnke, O; Behrendt, O; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Berger, N; Bizot, J C; Boenig, M O; Boudry, V; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brisson, V; Bruncko, Dusan; Büsser, F W; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Caron, S; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cox, B E; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; De Boer, Y; Delcourt, B; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, F; Ellerbrock, M; Elsen, E; Erdmann, W; Essenov, S; Falkewicz, A; Faulkner, P J W; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Ferencei, J; Finke, L; Fleischer, M; Fleischmann, P; Flucke, G; Fomenko, A; Foresti, I; Franke, G; Frisson, T; Gabathuler, E; Garutti, E; Gayler, J; Gerlich, C; Ghazaryan, S; Ginzburgskaya, S; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Görlich, L; Göttlich, M; Gogitidze, N; Gorbounov, S; Goyon, C; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Gregori, M; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Gwilliam, C; Haidt, D; Hajduk, L; Hansson, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Henshaw, O; Herrera-Corral, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R P; Hovhannisyan, A; Hreus, T; Hussain, S; Ibbotson, M; Ismail, M; Jacquet, M; Janauschek, L; Janssen, X; Jemanov, V; Jönsson, L B; Johnson, D P; Jung, A W; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Klimkovich, T; Kluge, T; Knies, G; Knutsson, A; Korbel, V; Kostka, P; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Krüger, K; Kuckens, J; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastoviicka, T; Lastoviicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leibenguth, G; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Lindfeld, L; Lipka, K; Liptaj, A; List, B; List, J; Lobodzinska, E; Loktionova, N; López-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lucaci-Timoce, A I; Lüders, H; Lüke, D; Lux, T; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malden, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mangano, S; Marage, P; Marshall, R; Martisikova, M; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Meer, D; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Milstead, D; Mladenov, D; Mohamed, A; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Müller, K; Murn, P; Nankov, K; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nikitin, D; Nowak, G; Nozicka, M; Oganezov, R; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Papadopoulou, T D; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peez, M; Pérez, E; Perez-Astudillo, D; Perieanu, A; Petrukhin, A; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Portheault, B; Povh, B; Prideaux, P; Rahmat, A J; Raicevic, N; Reimer, P; Rimmer, A; Risler, C; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S; Salvaire, F; Sankey, D P C; Sauvan, E; Schatzel, S; Schilling, F P; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, C; Schoeffel, L; Schöning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sedlak, K; Sefkow, F; Shaw-West, R N; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Sloan, T; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Yu; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Stella, B; Stiewe, J; Strauch, I; Straumann, U; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Tomasz, F; Traynor, D; Truöl, P; Tsakov, I; Tsipolitis, G; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Tzamariudaki, E; Urban, M; Usik, A; Utkin, D; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas-Trevino, A; Vazdik, Ya A; Veelken, C; Vest, A; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; Vujicic, B; Wacker, K; Wagner, J; Weber, G; Weber, R; Wegener, D; Werner, C; Wessels, M; Wessling, B; Wigmore, C; Wissing, C; Wolf, R; Wünsch, E; Xella, S M; Yan, W; Yeganov, V; Zácek, J; Zaleisak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhelezov, A; Zhokin, A; Zhu, Y C; Zimmermann, J; Zimmermann, T; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F

    2006-01-01

    The production of forward jets has been measured in deep inelastic ep collisions at HERA. The results are presented in terms of single differential cross sections as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable (x_{Bj}) and as triple differential cross sections d^3 \\sigma / dx_{Bj} dQ^2 dp_{t,jet}^2, where Q^2 is the four momentum transfer squared and p_{t,jet}^2 is the squared transverse momentum of the forward jet. Also cross sections for events with a di-jet system in addition to the forward jet are measured as a function of the rapidity separation between the forward jet and the two additional jets. The measurements are compared with next-to-leading order QCD calculations and with the predictions of various QCD-based models.

  3. ATLAS jet and missing ET reconstruction, calibration, and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Berta, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS has achieved a very high precision on jet and missing transverse energy performance by the use of advanced calorimeter-based topological clustering and local cluster calibration, event-by-event pile-up subtraction methods, and in situ techniques to correct for the residual jet energy response difference between data and simulation. Tracking information is being combined with calorimeter to further improve the jet and missing ET performance. ATLAS has also commissioned several new powerful tools for for the analysis and interpretation of hadronic final states at the LHC such as jet substructure, jet mass, quark-gluon discrimination, and jet tagging tools for the identification of boosted heavy particles. An overview of the reconstruction, calibration and performance of jets, missing ET, and jet substructure and tagging at ATLAS is presented.

  4. Single photon detection with self-quenching multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A photoelectronic device and an avalanche self-quenching process for a photoelectronic device are described. The photoelectronic device comprises a nanoscale semiconductor multiplication region and a nanoscale doped semiconductor quenching structure including a depletion region and an undepletion region. The photoelectronic device can act as a single photon detector or a single carrier multiplier. The avalanche self-quenching process allows electrical field reduction in the multiplication region by movement of the multiplication carriers, thus quenching the avalanche.

  5. Methods for the Evaluation of Quench Temperature Profiles and their Application for LHC Superconducting Short Dipole Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Sanfilippo, S

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the thermal effects on quench performance for several Large Hadron Collider single aperture short dipole models. The analysis is based on the temperature profile in a superconducting magnet evaluated after a quench. Peak temperatures and temperature gradients in the magnet coil are estimated for different thicknesses of insulation layer between the quench heaters and the coil and different powering and protection parameters. The results show clear correlation between the thermo-mechanical response of the magnet and quench performance. They also display that the optimisation of the position of quench heaters can reduce the decrease of training performance caused by the coexistence of a mechanical weak region and of a local temperature rise.

  6. Numerical calculation of temperature and phase change during the process of atomizing spray quenching on drilling pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A finite element method (FEM) procedure was developed in order to simulate the quenching process for drilling pipe (DP).The calculating model was based on time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams, and incorporated with material properties de-pendent on temperature. The procedure was used to calculate the temperature-time histories, describe the phase transformations ofatomizing spray quenching for DP in the welding zone, and predict the hardness distribution in radius direction after quenching in thezone. The calculated results met well with that of experiments. It was easy to determine the parameters such as volume and pressureof the cooling water and compressed gas by use of the numerical calculation and experiments, because the value of convection coef-ficient was decided greatly by the mixture of the cooling water and compressed gas. Moreover, the simulating results were helpfulnot only to design the quenching equipment, but also to optimize the quenching process for DP's welding zone.

  7. Fiber optic quench detection via optimized Rayleigh Scattering in high-field YBCO accelerator magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, Gene [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) coated conductors are known for their ability to operate in the superconducting state at relatively high temperatures, even above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K). When these same conductors are operated at lower temperatures, they are able to operate in much higher magnetic fields than traditional superconductors like NiTi or Nb3Sn. Thus, YBCO superconducting magnets are one of the primary options for generating the high magnetic fields needed for future high energy physics devices. Due to slow quench propagation, quench detection remains one of the primary limitations to YBCO magnets. Fiber optic sensing, based upon Rayleigh scattering, has the potential for spatial resolution approaching the wavelength of light, or very fast temporal resolution at low spatial resolution, and a continuum of combinations in between. This project has studied, theoretically and experimentally, YBCO magnets and Rayleigh scattering quench detection systems to demonstrate feasibility of the systems for YBCO quench protection systems. Under this grant an experimentally validated 3D quench propagation model was used to accurately define the acceptable range of spatial and temporal resolutions for effective quench detection in YBCO magnets and to evaluate present-day and potentially improved YBCO conductors. The data volume and speed requirements for quench detection via Rayleigh scattering required the development of a high performance fiber optic based quench detection/data acquisition system and its integration with an existing voltage tap/thermo-couple based system. In this project, optical fibers are tightly co-wound into YBCO magnet coils, with the fiber on top of the conductor as turn-to-turn insulation. Local changes in the temperature or strain of the conductor are sensed by the optical fiber, which is in close thermal and mechanical contact with the conductor. Intrinsic imperfections in the fiber reflect Rayleigh

  8. Timescale and magnitude of plasma thermal energy loss before and during disruptions in JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardo, V.; Loarte, A.; JET EFDA Contributors

    2005-11-01

    In this paper we analyse and discuss the thermal energy loss dynamics before and during JET disruptions that occurred between 2002 and 2004 in discharges which reached >4.5 MJ of thermal energy. We observe the slow thermal energy transients with diamagnetic loops and the fast ones with electron cyclotron emission and soft x-ray diagnostics. For most disruption types in JET, the plasma thermal energy at the time of the thermal quench is substantially less than that of the full performance plasma, typically in the range of 10-50% depending on plasma conditions and disruption type. The exceptions to this observation are disruptions in plasmas with a strong internal transport barrier (ITB) and in discharges terminating in a pure vertical displacement event, in which the plasma conserves a very high energy content up to the thermal quench. These disruption types are very sudden, leaving little scope for the combined action of soft plasma landing strategies and intrinsic performance degradation, both requiring >500 ms to be effective, to decrease the available thermal energy. The characteristic time for the loss of energy from the main plasma towards the PFCs in the thermal quench of JET disruptions is in the range 0.05-3.0 ms. The shortest timescales are typical of disruptions caused by excessive pressure peaking in ITB discharges. The available thermal energy fraction and thermal quench duration observed in JET can be processed (with due caution) into estimates for the projected PFC lifetime of the ITER target.

  9. Timescale and magnitude of plasma thermal energy loss before and during disruptions in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we analyse and discuss the thermal energy loss dynamics before and during JET disruptions that occurred between 2002 and 2004 in discharges which reached >4.5 MJ of thermal energy. We observe the slow thermal energy transients with diamagnetic loops and the fast ones with electron cyclotron emission and soft x-ray diagnostics. For most disruption types in JET, the plasma thermal energy at the time of the thermal quench is substantially less than that of the full performance plasma, typically in the range of 10-50% depending on plasma conditions and disruption type. The exceptions to this observation are disruptions in plasmas with a strong internal transport barrier (ITB) and in discharges terminating in a pure vertical displacement event, in which the plasma conserves a very high energy content up to the thermal quench. These disruption types are very sudden, leaving little scope for the combined action of soft plasma landing strategies and intrinsic performance degradation, both requiring >500 ms to be effective, to decrease the available thermal energy. The characteristic time for the loss of energy from the main plasma towards the PFCs in the thermal quench of JET disruptions is in the range 0.05-3.0 ms. The shortest timescales are typical of disruptions caused by excessive pressure peaking in ITB discharges. The available thermal energy fraction and thermal quench duration observed in JET can be processed (with due caution) into estimates for the projected PFC lifetime of the ITER target

  10. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the annual report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report is divided into two parts: a part on the scientific and technical programme of the project, and a part setting out the administration and organisation of the Project. The first part includes: a summary of the main features of the JET apparatus, the JET experimental programme, the position of the Project in the overall Euratom programme, and how JET relates to other large fusion devices throughout the world. In addition, the technical status of JET is described, as well as the results of the JET operations in 1986. The final section of the first part outlines the proposed future programme of JET. (U.K.)

  11. Forward central jets correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The azimuthal correlation between forward and central jets has been measured in pp collisions with the CMS detector at the LHC at the centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The forward jet is required to be reconstructed in the hadronic forward calorimeter, within the pseudo-rapidity 3.2t>35 GeV. The measurement of the azimuthal angle between the jets is performed for different separations in pseudo-rapidity between the jets, with the largest separation being 7.5 units. The measurement is repeated for two subsamples of events, one in which an additional jet is required between the forward and the central jet, and one where the additional jet is vetoed. The measurement is compared to several different Monte Carlo models and tunes.

  12. Jet substructure in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, David W

    2011-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the jet invariant mass and substructure in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 37 pb$^{-1}$. These results exercise the tools for distinguishing the signatures of new boosted massive particles in the hadronic final state. Two "fat" jet algorithms are used, along with the filtering jet grooming technique that was pioneered in ATLAS. New jet substructure observables are compared for the first time to data at the LHC. Finally, a sample of candidate boosted top quark events collected in the 2010 data is analyzed in detail for the jet substructure properties of hadronic "top-jets" in the final state. These measurements demonstrate not only our excellent understanding of QCD in a new energy regime but open the path to using complex jet substructure observables in the search for new physics.

  13. The formation of nuggets of highly siderophile elements in quenched silicate melts at high temperatures: Before or during the silicate quench?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavergne, V.; Charon, E.; Jones, J.; Cordier, P.; Righter, K.; Deldicque, D.; Hennet, L.

    2016-01-01

    The Highly Siderophile Elements (HSE) are powerful tracers of planetary differentiation. Despite the importance of their partitioning between silicate and metal for the understanding of planetary core formation, especially for the Earth and Mars, there is still a huge discrepancy between conclusions based on different high temperature (HT) experimental studies. These disagreements may be due to the presence of HSE micro and nanonuggets in HT experiments. The formation of these nuggets is still interpreted in different ways. One hypothesis is that these HSE nuggets formed during the quench of the silicate melt, while another hypothesis supposes that these nuggets formed before the quench and represented artefacts of HT experiments. The goal of this work is to clarify whether the presence of HSE nuggets in silicate melts is linked to a quench effect or not. Understanding the formation of these HSE nuggets represents thus a necessary step towards the resolution of the Earth's core formation scenarios. We performed new HT experiments (1275-2000 °C) at different oxygen fugacities (fO2), between ambient air up to ∼5 log units below the Iron-Wüstite buffer [IW-5], for two different silicate compositions (synthetic martian and terrestrial basalts) mixed with a metallic mixture of Pt-Au-Pd-Ru. Our 1275-1600 °C experiments were contained in either olivine, diopside or graphite crucible; experiments at 2000 °C were performed using a levitation method, so no capsule was necessary. Our samples contained quenched silicate melts, minerals (olivine, pyroxene, spinel depending on the run), a two-phase metallic bead and nano and micro-nuggets of HSE. Our samples underwent fine textural, structural and analytical characterizations. The distribution of the nuggets was not homogeneous throughout the quenched silicate melt. HSE nuggets were present within crystals. Dendritic textures from the quenched silicate melt formed around HSE nuggets, which could be crystallized, showing

  14. Concentration Quenching in Erbium Doped Bismuth Silicate Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Shi-Xun; XU Tie-Feng; NIE Qiu-Hua; SHEN Xiang; WANG Xun-Si

    2006-01-01

    @@ Er2 O3-doped bismuth silicate glasses are prepared by the conventional melt-quenching method, and the Er3+ : 4 I13/2 → 4I15/2 fluorescence properties are studied for different Er3+ concentrations. Infrared spectra are measured to estimate the exact content of OH- groups in the samples. Based on the electric dipole-dipole interaction theory,the interaction parameter CEr,Er for the migration rate of Er3+ :4 I13/2 → 4 I13/2 in proposed glasses is calculated.

  15. Analytical tool development for coarse break-up of a molten jet in a deep water pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Kiyofumi [Thermohydraulic Safety Research Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: moriyama.kiyofumi@jaea.go.jp; Nakamura, Hideo [Thermohydraulic Safety Research Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Maruyama, Yu [Thermohydraulic Safety Research Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    A computer code JASMINE-pre was developed for the prediction of premixing conditions of fuel-coolant interactions and debris bed formation behavior relevant to severe accidents of light water reactors. In JASMINE-pre code, a melt model which consists of three components of sub-models for melt jet, melt particles and melt pool, is coupled with a two-phase flow model derived from ACE-3D code developed at JAERI. The melt jet and melt pool models are one-dimensional representations of a molten core stream falling into a water pool and a continuous melt body agglomerated on the bottom, respectively. The melt particles generated by the melt jet break-up are modeled based on a Lagrangian grouped particle concept. Additionally, a simplified model pmjet was developed which considers only steady state break-up of the melt jet, cooling and settlement of particles in a stationary water pool. The FARO corium quenching experiments with a saturation temperature water pool and a subcooled water pool were simulated with JASMINE-pre and pmjet. JASMINE-pre reproduced the pressurization and fragmentation behavior observed in the experiments with a reasonable accuracy. Also, the influences of model parameters on the pressurization and fragmentation were examined. The calculation results showed a quasi-steady state phase of melt jet break-up during which the amount of molten mass contained in the premixture was kept almost constant, and the steady state molten premixed masses evaluated by JASMINE-pre and pmjet agreed well.

  16. Quench simulation of SMES consisting of some superconducting coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, S.; Oga, Y.; Igarashi, H.

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, many HTS superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS-SMES) systems are investigated and designed. They usually consist of some superconducting element coils due to storing excessively high energy. If one of them was quenched, the storage energy of the superconducting element coil quenched has to be immediately dispersed to protect the HTS-SMES system. As the result, the current of the other element coils, which do not reach to quench, increases since the magnetic coupling between the quenched element coil and the others are excessively strong. The increase of the current may cause the quench of the other element coils. If the energy dispersion of the element coil quenched was failed, the other superconducting element coil would be quenched in series. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the behavior of the HTS-SMES after quenching one or more element coils. To protect a chain of quenches, it is also important to investigate the time constant of the coils. We have developed a simulation code to investigate the behavior of the HTS-SMES. By the quench simulation, it is indicated that a chain of quenches is caused by a quench of one element coil.

  17. First experience with the new coupling loss induced quench system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravaioli, E.; Datskov, V.I.; Dudarev, A.V.; Kirby, G.; Sperin, K.A.; Kate, ten H.H.J.; Verweij, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    New-generation high-field superconducting magnets pose a challenge relating to the protection of the coil winding pack in the case of a quench. The high stored energy per unit volume calls for a very efficient quench detection and fast quench propagation in order to avoid damage due to overheating. A

  18. Jet-induced star formation in gas-rich galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gaibler, Volker; Krause, Martin; Silk, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) has become a major component in simulations of galaxy evolution, in particular for massive galaxies. AGN jets have been shown to provide a large amount of energy and are capable to quench cooling flows. Their impact on the host galaxy, however, is still not understood. Subgrid models of AGN activity in a galaxy evolution context so far have been mostly focused on the quenching of star formation. To shed more light on the actual physics of the "radio mode" part of AGN activity, we have performed simulations of the interaction of a powerful AGN jet with the massive gaseous disc (10^11 solar masses) of a high-redshift galaxy. We spatially resolve both the jet and the clumpy, multi-phase interstellar medium (ISM) and include an explicit star formation model in the simulation. Following the system over more than 10^7 years, we find that the jet activity excavates the central region, but overall causes a significant change to the shape of the density probability distributi...

  19. Jet-evolution in the quark-gluon plasma from RHIC to the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domdey, S. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Kopeliovich, B.Z. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Instituto de Estudios Avanzados en Ciencias e Ingenieria, Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Pirner, H.J., E-mail: pir@tphys.uni-heidelberg.d [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The observed suppression of high{sub pperpendicular} hadrons allows different explanations. We discuss two possible scenarios: In scenario 1, parton energy loss from scattering in the hot medium is complemented by final state interactions in the resonance matter. Scenario 2 has an enhanced transport parameter q-hat which is fitted to RHIC data. For LHC, the two scenarios lead to very different predictions for the nuclear modification factor of hadrons. In addition, jet reconstruction allows more specific tests of the mechanisms responsible for jet quenching. We calculate the distribution of partons inside a jet and find different results for the two scenarios.

  20. Jet Propagation and Mach Cones in (3+1)d Ideal Hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Betz, Barbara; Gyulassy, Miklos; Rischke, Dirk H.; Stöcker, Horst; Torrieri, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    The observation of jet quenching and associated away--side Mach cone--like correlations at RHIC provide powerful ``external'' probes of the sQGP produced in A+A reactions, but it simultaneously raises the question where the jet energy was deposited. The nearly perfect bulk fluidity observed via elliptic flow suggests that Mach cone--like correlations may also be due to rapid local equilibration in the wake of penetrating jets. Multi-particle correlations lend further support to this possibili...

  1. Interplay between Mach cone and radial expansion and its signal in $\\gamma$-jet events

    OpenAIRE

    Tachibana, Yasuki; Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2015-01-01

    We study the hydrodynamic response to jet quenching in expanding quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and its signal in the resulting particle distribution. The ideal hydrodynamic simulations of the $\\gamma$-jet events in heavy-ion collisions are performed in a full (3 + 1)-dimensional setup. The jet-induced Mach cone and the radial expansion of the background mutually push and distort each other. As a result, the particle emission is suppressed in the direction in which the radial flow is pushed back by...

  2. Experimental investigation of the influence of the air jet trajectory on convective heat transfer in buildings equipped with air-based and radiant cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2015-01-01

    -state and dynamic conditions. With the air-based cooling system, a dependency of the convective heat transfer on the air jet trajectory has been observed. New correlations have been developed, introducing a modified Archimedes number to account for the air flow pattern. The accuracy of the new correlations has been......The complexity and diversity of airflow in buildings make the accurate definition of convective heat transfer coefficients (CHTCs) difficult. In a full-scale test facility, the convective heat transfer of two cooling systems (active chilled beam and radiant wall) has been investigated under steady...... evaluated to±15%. Besides the study with an air-based cooling system, the convective heat transfer with a radiant cooling system has also been investigated. The convective flow at the activated surface is mainly driven by natural convection. For other surfaces, the complexity of the flow and the large...

  3. Hadron Fragmentation Inside Jets in Hadronic Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Tom; Vogelsang, Werner

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytical next-to-leading order QCD calculation of the partonic cross sections for the process $pp\\rightarrow ({\\text{jet}} \\,h)X$, for which a specific hadron is observed inside a fully reconstructed jet. In order to obtain the analytical results, we assume the jet to be relatively narrow. We show that the results can be cast into a simple and systematic form based on suitable universal jet functions for the process. We confirm the validity of our calculation by comparing to previous results in the literature for which the next-to-leading order cross section was treated entirely numerically by Monte-Carlo integration techniques. We present phenomenological results for experiments at the LHC and at RHIC. These suggest that $pp\\rightarrow ({\\text{jet}} \\,h)X$ should enable very sensitive probes of fragmentation functions, especially of the one for gluons.

  4. The different energy loss mechanisms of inclusive and b-tagged reconstructed jets within ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Senzel, Florian; Xu, Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of jet quenching provides essential information about the properties of hot and dense matter created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Recent results from experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) show evidence for an unexpectedly similar suppression of both light and heavy flavor jets. Furthermore, the role of radiative energy loss of heavy quarks is still under active discussion within the theoretical community. By employing the parton cascade BAMPS (Boltzmann Approach to Multi-Parton Scatterings), which numerically solves the 3+1D Boltzmann equation both for light and heavy flavor partons, we calculate the nuclear modification factor of inclusive and b-tagged reconstructed jets in 0-10% central $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76 ATeV Pb+Pb collisions. Based on perturbative QCD cross sections we find a rather similar suppression of light and heavy flavor jets. To further investigate light and heavy flavor energy loss we predict a different $R$ dependence of the suppression of inclusive and b-ta...

  5. Energy upgrade as regards quench performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKay, W.W.; Tepikian, S.

    2011-01-01

    Since the cross section for W production increases rapidly with energy, we consider the possibility of increasing the collision energy of polarized protons at RHIC. The limits of present hardware are examined with a particular emphasis on the quench training performance of magnets. Ignoring the limits of the DX magnets, the short-sample currents for the main arc (8 cm) dipoles could allow an increase of more than 30%, however we estimate 400 to 500 training quenches for the just 8 cm dipoles to reach this level. We propose that a 10% increase in energy might be achieved with the present hardware configuration. Raising the beam energy to 275 GeV ({radical}s = 550 GeV) should increase the W production rate by almost 50% from the 250 GeV level for the same optics with identical {beta}*'s at the collision points.

  6. Quench from Mott Insulator to Superfluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurek, Wojciech H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dziarmaga, Jacek [Instytut Fizyki Uniwersytetu Jagiello´nskiego; Tylutki, Marek [Instytut Fizyki Uniwersytetu Jagiello´nskiego

    2012-06-01

    We study a linear ramp of the nearest-neighbor tunneling rate in the Bose-Hubbard model driving the system from the Mott insulator state into the superfluid phase. We employ the truncated Wigner approximation to simulate linear quenches of a uniform system in 1...3 dimensions, and in a harmonic trap in 3 dimensions. In all these setups the excitation energy decays like one over third root of the quench time. The -1/3 scaling is explained by an impulse-adiabatic approximation - a variant of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism - describing a crossover from non-adiabatic to adiabatic evolution when the system begins to keep pace with the increasing tunneling rate.

  7. Light emission in nanogaps: overcoming quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jianji; Lalanne, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Very large spontaneous-emission-rate enhancements (~1000) are obtained for quantum emitters coupled with tiny plasmonic resonance, especially when emitters are placed in the mouth of nanogaps formed by metal nanoparticles that are nearly in contact. This fundamental effect of light emission at subwavelength scales is well documented and understood as resulting from the smallness of nanogap modes. In contrasts, it is much less obvious to figure out whether the radiation efficiency is high in these gaps, or if the emission is quenched by metal absorption especially for tiny gaps a few nanometers wide; the whole literature only contains scattered electromagnetic calculations on the subject, which suggest that absorption and quenching can be kept at a small level despite the emitter proximity to metal. Thus through analytical derivations in the limit of small gap thickness, it is our objective to clarify why quantum emitters in nanogap antennas offer good efficiencies, what are the circumstances in which high eff...

  8. Production of jet fuel from alternative source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Zoltan; Papp, Anita; Hancsok, Jenoe [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing

    2013-06-01

    Recent demands for low aromatic content jet fuels have shown significant increase in the last 20 years. This was generated by the growing of aviation. Furthermore, the quality requirements have become more aggravated for jet fuels. Nowadays reduced aromatic hydrocarbon fractions are necessary for the production of jet fuels with good burning properties, which contribute to less harmful material emission. In the recent past the properties of gasolines and diesel gas oils were continuously severed, and the properties of jet fuels will be more severe, too. Furthermore, it can become obligatory to blend alternative components into jet fuels. With the aromatic content reduction there is a possibility to produce high energy content jet fuels with the desirable properties. One of the possibilities is the blending of biocomponents from catalytic hydrogenation of triglycerides. Our aim was to study the possibilities of producing low sulphur and aromatic content jet fuels in a catalytic way. On a CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst we studied the possibilities of quality improving of a kerosene fraction and coconut oil mixture depending on the change of the process parameters (temperature, pressure, liquid hourly space velocity, volume ratio). Based on the quality parameters of the liquid products we found that we made from the feedstock in the adequate technological