WorldWideScience

Sample records for based hydrogeological vulnerability

  1. Index-based groundwater vulnerability mapping models using hydrogeological settings: A critical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Bansod, Baban K.S.; Debnath, Sanjit K.; Thakur, Praveen Kumar; Ghanshyam, C.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater vulnerability maps are useful for decision making in land use planning and water resource management. This paper reviews the various groundwater vulnerability assessment models developed across the world. Each model has been evaluated in terms of its pros and cons and the environmental conditions of its application. The paper further discusses the validation techniques used for the generated vulnerability maps by various models. Implicit challenges associated with the development of the groundwater vulnerability assessment models have also been identified with scientific considerations to the parameter relations and their selections. - Highlights: • Various index-based groundwater vulnerability assessment models have been discussed. • A comparative analysis of the models and its applicability in different hydrogeological settings has been discussed. • Research problems of underlying vulnerability assessment models are also reported in this review paper

  2. GIS based Hydrogeological Vulnerability Mapping of Groundwater Resources in Jerash Area-Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammouri, N [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Hashemite University, Zarqa (Jordan); El-Naqa, A [Department of Water Management and Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Hashemite University, Zarqa (Jordan)

    2008-04-15

    This paper presents groundwater vulnerability mapping for Jerash area, north Jordan generated using EPIK and DRASTIC models. These models have been implemented using GIS to delineate groundwater protection zones and to suggest a protection plan to improve groundwater quality of the major springs and wells. Most of the groundwater resources in the study area are polluted and bacteria and nitrate levels are high. Different sources of groundwater pollution have been identified. Domestic wastewater is considered as a major source of pollution. Urban runoff, fertilizers from agricultural return flows and solid waste disposal appear to be secondary sources. The most relevant vulnerability class of EPIK map is very high which accounts for about 41 % of the total area. While in the DRASTIC vulnerability map, areas with high vulnerability were only about 23 % of the total area. There is a good correlation between vulnerability maps obtained from both models with microbiological and chemical pollution evidences. There is also a good agreement between the areas classified as highly vulnerable and those that have high levels of pollution. [Spanish] El estudio de vulnerabilidad de aguas subterraneas en la region de Yerash, Jordania fue obtenido mediante las metodologias de EPIK y DRASTIC. Se uso GIS para mapear las zonas protegidas y para sugerir un plan de proteccion para mejorar la calidad del agua subterranea en los principales manantiales y pozos. Los niveles de contaminacion bacteriana y de nitratos son elevados. El efluente domestico es la fuente mas importante de contaminacion; vienen en segundo lugar la precipitacion en zonas urbanas, los fertilizantes agricolas y los desechos solidos. En el mapa de EPIK, la vulnerabilidad extrema abarca hasta 41% del area total; en cambio, en el mapa de DRASTIC las areas de alta vulnerabilidad ocupan solo un 23% del area. La correlacion de los datos de contaminacion microbiana y quimica con ambos mapas der vulnerabilidad es buena

  3. Using GA-Ridge regression to select hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae Joon; Kim, Young Min; Yoo, Keunje; Park, Joonhong; Oh, Kyong Joo

    2012-11-01

    For groundwater conservation and management, it is important to accurately assess groundwater pollution vulnerability. This study proposed an integrated model using ridge regression and a genetic algorithm (GA) to effectively select the major hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability in an aquifer. The GA-Ridge regression method determined that depth to water, net recharge, topography, and the impact of vadose zone media were the hydro-geological parameters that influenced trichloroethene pollution vulnerability in a Korean aquifer. When using these selected hydro-geological parameters, the accuracy was improved for various statistical nonlinear and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as multinomial logistic regression, decision trees, artificial neural networks, and case-based reasoning. These results provide a proof of concept that the GA-Ridge regression is effective at determining influential hydro-geological parameters for the pollution vulnerability of an aquifer, and in turn, improves the AI performance in assessing groundwater pollution vulnerability.

  4. Economic and hydrogeologic disparities govern the vulnerability of shared groundwater to strategic overdraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, C.; Muller, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater resources are depleting globally at an alarming rate. When the resource is shared, exploitation by individual users affects groundwater levels and increases pumping costs to all users. This incentivizes individual users to strategically over-pump, an effect that is challenging to keep in check because the underground nature of the resource often precludes regulations from being effectively implemented. As a result, shared groundwater resources are prone to tragedies of the commons that exacerbate their rapid depletion. However, we showed in a recent study that the vulnerability of aquifer systems to strategic overuse is strongly affected by local economic and physical characteristics, which suggests that not all shared aquifers are subject to tragedies of the commons. Building on these findings, we develop a vulnerability index based on coupled game theoretical and groundwater flow models. We show that vulnerability to strategic overdraft is driven by four intuitively interpretable adimensional parameters that describe economic and hydrogeologic disparities between the agents exploiting the aquifer. This suggests a scale-independent relation between the vulnerability of groundwater systems to common-pool overdraft and their economic and physical characteristics. We investigate this relation for a sample of existing aquifer systems and explore implications for enforceable groundwater agreements that would effectively mitigate strategic overdraft.

  5. Evaluation of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to pollution: COP method for pilot area of Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, B.; Guastaldi, E.; Rossetto, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the characterization of the Apuan Alps groundwater body ( "Corpo Idrico Sotterraneo Significativo", briefly CISS) (Regione Toscana, 2007) the intrinsic vulnerability has been evaluated for Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy) by means of COP method, developed within COST 620 European Action (Zwalhlen, 2003). This system is both characterized by large data availability and it is considered an highly risky zone since groundwater protection problems (turbidity of the tapped spring waters and hydrocarbons contamination) and anthropic activity (marble quarries). The study area, 20 Km2large, has high relief energy, with elevations ranging from 5 to 1700 m amsl in almost 5 km. Runoff is scarce except during heavy rainfall; due to the presence of carbonate rocks infiltration is high: groundwater discharge at 155-255 m amsl. The area is located in the north-western part of Apuan Alps Metamorphic Complex, characterized by carbonate and non-carbonate rocks belonging to the non-metamorphic Tuscan Units (Carnic-Oligocene), Mesozoic Succession, Middle-Triassic Succession, and metamorphic Paleozoic rocks. The main geological structure of the area is the Carrara Syncline, constituted prevalently by dolostones, marbles and cherty limestones. These carbonate formations define several moderately to highly productive hydrogeological units, characterized by fissured and karst flow. Hydrogeological system may be subdivided in two different subsets, because of both geo-structural set up and area conformation. However, these are hydrogeologically connected since anisotropy and fractures of karst groundwater. The southern boundary of Carrara hydrogeological system shows important dammed springs, defined by low productive units of Massa Unit (Cambriano?-Carnic). COP methodology for evaluating intrinsic vulnerability of karst groundwater is based on three main factors for the definition of vulnerability itself: COPIndex = C (flow Concentration) *O (Overlying layers

  6. Python-Based Applications for Hydrogeological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambhammettu, P.

    2013-12-01

    Python is a general-purpose, high-level programming language whose design philosophy emphasizes code readability. Add-on packages supporting fast array computation (numpy), plotting (matplotlib), scientific /mathematical Functions (scipy), have resulted in a powerful ecosystem for scientists interested in exploratory data analysis, high-performance computing and data visualization. Three examples are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the Python environment in hydrogeological applications. Python programs were used to model an aquifer test and estimate aquifer parameters at a Superfund site. The aquifer test conducted at a Groundwater Circulation Well was modeled with the Python/FORTRAN-based TTIM Analytic Element Code. The aquifer parameters were estimated with PEST such that a good match was produced between the simulated and observed drawdowns. Python scripts were written to interface with PEST and visualize the results. A convolution-based approach was used to estimate source concentration histories based on observed concentrations at receptor locations. Unit Response Functions (URFs) that relate the receptor concentrations to a unit release at the source were derived with the ATRANS code. The impact of any releases at the source could then be estimated by convolving the source release history with the URFs. Python scripts were written to compute and visualize receptor concentrations for user-specified source histories. The framework provided a simple and elegant way to test various hypotheses about the site. A Python/FORTRAN-based program TYPECURVEGRID-Py was developed to compute and visualize groundwater elevations and drawdown through time in response to a regional uniform hydraulic gradient and the influence of pumping wells using either the Theis solution for a fully-confined aquifer or the Hantush-Jacob solution for a leaky confined aquifer. The program supports an arbitrary number of wells that can operate according to arbitrary schedules. The

  7. Vulnerability and Hydrogeologic Risk of the Guarani Aquifer System in the outcropping area located in Rivera Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montano, J.; Collazo, P.; Auge, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Project named Vulnerability and Hydrogeologic Risk of the Guarani Aquifer System in the outcropping area located in Rivera, Uruguay is developed by the Faculty of Science University of the Republic, together with the Faculty of Natural and Exact Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires, and it is financed by the Guarani Fund of Universities - Project for the Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development of the Guarani Aquifer System. This project has the aim of researching the characteristics and the hydrogeologic behavior of the Guarani Aquifer in the North portion of Uruguay, Department of Rivera (outcropping area). Moreover, to propose measures directed to their preservation through their sustainable use. The Hydrogeologic Study of the Guarani Aquifer System in this area will contribute not only with the best knowledge in its dynamics, but also helping to take measures in the water management and to avoid potential risks of contamination [es

  8. An holistic view on aquifer vulnerability based on a distinction of different types of vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela; Franchino, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    AN HOLISTIC VIEW ON AQUIFER VULNERABILITY BASED ON A DISTINCTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF VULNERABILITY D.A. De Luca1 , M. Lasagna1, E. Franchino1 1Department of Earth Sciences, University of Turin The concept of vulnerability is certainly useful in the field of groundwater protection. Nevertheless, within the scientific community, the definition of groundwater vulnerability is still debatable and not clear and conclusive. This is probably due to the fact that researchers often have very different experiences and education. A positive effect of it is a constant exchange of ideas, but there are also negative consequences and difficulties in deepening the issue. The different approaches are very important but they are usable only if the concept of vulnerability is standardized: thus, for the sake of clarity, a number of definitions should be laid down, based on the different types of vulnerability. These definitions can then provide the necessary holistic view for the aquifer vulnerability assessment. Nowadays vulnerability methods focus on the degree of vulnerability and the parameters needed for its evaluation, often neglecting to clarify what is the type of vulnerability the proposed methods are referred. The type of vulnerability, indeed, is both logically and hierarchically superior to the degree of vulnerability. More specifically the type of vulnerability represents the evaluation of the hydrogeological conditions considered in the vulnerability assessment and able to influence the way in which the contamination can take place. Currently the only distinction, based on of the type of vulnerability, is referred to intrinsic and specific vulnerability. Intrinsic vulnerability assesses the susceptibility of the receptor based on the natural properties of the land and subsurface; specific vulnerability also includes properties of the analyzed contaminant. This distinction is useful but not exhaustive. In addition to this, e.g., a distinction of vertical vulnerability

  9. GIS-based hydrogeological databases and groundwater modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogu, Radu Constantin; Carabin, Guy; Hallet, Vincent; Peters, Valerie; Dassargues, Alain

    2001-12-01

    Reliability and validity of groundwater analysis strongly depend on the availability of large volumes of high-quality data. Putting all data into a coherent and logical structure supported by a computing environment helps ensure validity and availability and provides a powerful tool for hydrogeological studies. A hydrogeological geographic information system (GIS) database that offers facilities for groundwater-vulnerability analysis and hydrogeological modelling has been designed in Belgium for the Walloon region. Data from five river basins, chosen for their contrasting hydrogeological characteristics, have been included in the database, and a set of applications that have been developed now allow further advances. Interest is growing in the potential for integrating GIS technology and groundwater simulation models. A "loose-coupling" tool was created between the spatial-database scheme and the groundwater numerical model interface GMS (Groundwater Modelling System). Following time and spatial queries, the hydrogeological data stored in the database can be easily used within different groundwater numerical models. Résumé. La validité et la reproductibilité de l'analyse d'un aquifère dépend étroitement de la disponibilité de grandes quantités de données de très bonne qualité. Le fait de mettre toutes les données dans une structure cohérente et logique soutenue par les logiciels nécessaires aide à assurer la validité et la disponibilité et fournit un outil puissant pour les études hydrogéologiques. Une base de données pour un système d'information géographique (SIG) hydrogéologique qui offre toutes les facilités pour l'analyse de la vulnérabilité des eaux souterraines et la modélisation hydrogéologique a été établi en Belgique pour la région Wallonne. Les données de cinq bassins de rivières, choisis pour leurs caractéristiques hydrogéologiques différentes, ont été introduites dans la base de données, et un ensemble d

  10. Use of stratigraphic, petrographic, hydrogeologic and geochemical information for hydrogeologic modelling based on geostatistical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohlig, K.J.; Fischer, H.; Poltl, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the stepwise utilization of geologic information from various sources for the construction of hydrogeological models of a sedimentary site by means of geostatistical simulation. It presents a practical application of aquifer characterisation by firstly simulating hydrogeological units and then the hydrogeological parameters. Due to the availability of a large amount of hydrogeological, geophysical and other data and information, the Gorleben site (Northern Germany) has been used for a case study in order to demonstrate the approach. The study, which has not yet been completed, tries to incorporate as much as possible of the available information and to characterise the remaining uncertainties. (author)

  11. The Vulnerability of People to Damaging Hydrogeological Events in the Calabria Region (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Olga; Salvati, Paola; Aceto, Luigi; Bianchi, Cinzia; Pasqua, Angela Aurora; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2017-12-29

    Background: Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHEs) are severe weather periods during which floods, landslides, lightning, windstorms, hail or storm surges can harm people. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency/intensity of DHEs and, consequently, the potential harm to people. Method: We investigated the impacts of DHEs on people in Calabria (Italy) over 37 years (1980-2016). Data on 7288 people physically affected by DHEs were gathered from the systematic analysis of regional newspapers and collected in the database named PEOPLE. The damage was codified in three severity levels as follows: fatalities (people who were killed), injured (people who suffered physical harm) and involved (people who were present at the place where an accident occurred but survived and were not harmed). During the study period, we recorded 68 fatalities, 566 injured and 6654 people involved in the events. Results: Males were more frequently killed, injured and involved than females, and females who suffered fatalities were older than males who suffered fatalities, perhaps indicating that younger females tended to be more cautious than same-aged males, while older females showed an intrinsic greater vulnerability. Involved people were younger than injured people and fatalities, suggesting that younger people show greater promptness in reacting to dangerous situations. Floods caused the majority of the fatalities, injured and involved people, followed by landslides. Lightning was the most dangerous phenomenon, and it affected a relatively low number of people, killing 11.63% of them and causing injuries to 37.2%. Fatalities and injuries mainly occurred outdoors, largely along roads. In contrast, people indoors, essentially in public or private buildings, were more frequently involved without suffering harm. Being "dragged by water/mud" and "surrounded by water/mud", respectively, represented the two extremes of dynamic dangerousness. The dragging effect of rapid-flowing water

  12. The Vulnerability of People to Damaging Hydrogeological Events in the Calabria Region (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Petrucci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHEs are severe weather periods during which floods, landslides, lightning, windstorms, hail or storm surges can harm people. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency/intensity of DHEs and, consequently, the potential harm to people. Method: We investigated the impacts of DHEs on people in Calabria (Italy over 37 years (1980–2016. Data on 7288 people physically affected by DHEs were gathered from the systematic analysis of regional newspapers and collected in the database named PEOPLE. The damage was codified in three severity levels as follows: fatalities (people who were killed, injured (people who suffered physical harm and involved (people who were present at the place where an accident occurred but survived and were not harmed. During the study period, we recorded 68 fatalities, 566 injured and 6654 people involved in the events. Results: Males were more frequently killed, injured and involved than females, and females who suffered fatalities were older than males who suffered fatalities, perhaps indicating that younger females tended to be more cautious than same-aged males, while older females showed an intrinsic greater vulnerability. Involved people were younger than injured people and fatalities, suggesting that younger people show greater promptness in reacting to dangerous situations. Floods caused the majority of the fatalities, injured and involved people, followed by landslides. Lightning was the most dangerous phenomenon, and it affected a relatively low number of people, killing 11.63% of them and causing injuries to 37.2%. Fatalities and injuries mainly occurred outdoors, largely along roads. In contrast, people indoors, essentially in public or private buildings, were more frequently involved without suffering harm. Being “dragged by water/mud” and “surrounded by water/mud”, respectively, represented the two extremes of dynamic dangerousness. The dragging

  13. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  14. Hydrogeological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, E.; Heinzen, W.; Santana, J.

    1987-01-01

    This work shows the hydrogeological study and well drilling carried out in the Teaching Formation Institute San Jose de Mayo Province Uruguay. It was developed a geological review in the National Directorate of Geology and Mining data base as well as field working, geology and hydrogeology recognition and area well drilling inventory.

  15. Groundwater vulnerability assessment using hydrogeologic and geoelectric layer susceptibility indexing at Igbara Oke, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.E. Oni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater vulnerability assessment was carried out at Igbara Oke Southwestern Nigeria, with a view to classify the area into vulnerability zones, by applying the electrical resistivity method, using Schlumberger electrode arrays with maximum electrode separation (AB/2 of 65 m in (41 different locations for data acquisition. Geoelectric parameters (layer resistivity and thickness were determined from the interpreted data. The study area comprises four geoelectric layers (topsoil, lateritic layer, weathered/fractured layer and fresh basement. The geoelectric parameters of the overlying layers across the area were used to assess the vulnerability of the underlying aquifers to near-surface contaminants with the aid of vulnerability maps generated. Three models were compared by maps using geo-electrically derived models; longitudinal conductance, GOD (groundwater occurrence, overlying lithology and depth to the aquifer and GLSI (geoelectric layer susceptibility indexing. The total longitudinal conductance map shows the north central part of the study area as a weakly protected (0.1–0.19 area, while the northern and southern parts have poor protective capacity (<0.1; this is in agreement with the GOD method which shows the northern part of the study area as less vulnerable (0–0.1 while the southern part has low/moderate (0.1–0.3 vulnerability to contamination. The longitudinal conductance exaggerates the degree of susceptibility to contamination than the GOD and GLSI models. From the models, vulnerability to contamination can be considered higher at the southern part than the northern part and therefore, sources of contamination like septic tank, refuse dump should be cited far from groundwater development area. Keywords: Aquifer vulnerability, Longitudinal conductance, GOD and GLSI

  16. Vulnerability and hydrogeologic risk of SAG in the outcroupping zone of Rivera Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collazo, P.; Montano, J.; Auge, M.; jmont@fcien.edu.uy mpauge@ciudad.com.ar

    2007-01-01

    The studied area belongs to the outcroupping zone of the Guarani Aquifer in the Department of Rivera, Uruguay. It comprises an approximate area of 2900 Km2. The outcropping Guarani Aquifer (AGa) is formed by two sections, an upper one corresponding to the Rivera Unit (UR) and a lower one corresponding to the Tacuarembo Unit (UT), both with vertical hydraulic continuity. The Rivera Unit is entirely represented by the homonymous formation and it consists of medium to fine sandstones with a mean effective porosity of 14% and mean Transmissivity of 88 m2/dia. The Tacuarembo Unit is constituted by fine to very fine sandstone levels interbedded with pelitic sandstone and shales. This unit behaves like unconfined aquifer in the upper section, where it contains the phreatic layer and it passes to semi-confined as the depth increases. The effective porosity is approximatelly of 9% and mean T 24 m2/dia. Chemically, both units are classified as calcicbicarbonated and magnesic-bicarbonated. To determine the vulnerability, it was applied the GOD method yielding high vulnerability for levels lower than 10m and moderate for levels of water larger than 10m. From the study of risk the conclusions are: high risk of groundwater contamination due to the lack of sewage systems and to the rubbish dump leakage. The industrial activity, cemeteries and mining activity represents moderated risks in most of the cases

  17. Evaluation of Groundwater Vulnerability to Contamination Based on DRASTIC Model and GIS in Tianjin Plain Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaofei; Ma, Shuai; Yu, Ping; Li, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to contamination is the basement approaches for preserving the quality of groundwater. Based on DRASTIC model containing seven hydrogeological parameters and GIS techniques, groundwater vulnerability assessment was carried out in the plain area of Tianjin City, China. The results indicate that the studied area can be divided into five zones: low, slightly lower, middle, slightly higher, and high groundwater vulnerability zones, with coverage area of 1.8%, 24.8%, 53%, 19.6% and 0.8%, respectively. Low vulnerability zone locates in downtown, where the ground is covered by impervious surface. High and slightly higher vulnerability zones mainly locate in the groundwater recharge areas and the suburban areas surrounding downtown. Medium vulnerability zone covers most parts of the plain areas in the south of Baodi fraction. The result is consistent with the actual situation.

  18. Groundwater protection in fractured media: a vulnerability-based approach for delineating protection zones in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Alain; Tripet, Jean-Pierre; Kozel, Ronald; Meylan, Benjamin; Sinreich, Michael; Zwahlen, François

    2008-11-01

    A vulnerability-based approach for delineating groundwater protection zones around springs in fractured media has been developed to implement Swiss water-protection regulations. It takes into consideration the diversity of hydrogeological conditions observed in fractured aquifers and provides individual solutions for each type of setting. A decision process allows for selecting one of three methods, depending on the spring vulnerability and the heterogeneity of the aquifer. At the first stage, an evaluation of spring vulnerability is required, which is essentially based on spring hydrographs and groundwater quality monitoring. In case of a low vulnerability of the spring, a simplified method using a fixed radius approach (“distance method”) is applied. For vulnerable springs, additional investigations must be completed during a second stage to better characterize the aquifer properties, especially in terms of heterogeneity. This second stage includes a detailed hydrogeological survey and tracer testing. If the aquifer is assessed as slightly heterogeneous, the delineation of protection zones is performed using a calculated radius approach based on tracer test results (“isochrone method”). If the heterogeneity is high, a groundwater vulnerability mapping method is applied (“DISCO method”), based on evaluating discontinuities, protective cover and runoff parameters. Each method is illustrated by a case study.

  19. Development of hydrogeological modelling tools based on NAMMU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsic, N.; Hartley, L.; Jackson, P.; Poole, M.; Morvik, A.

    2001-09-01

    A number of relatively sophisticated hydrogeological models were developed within the SR 97 project to handle issues such as nesting of scales and the effects of salinity. However, these issues and others are considered of significant importance and generality to warrant further development of the hydrogeological methodology. Several such developments based on the NAMMU package are reported here: - Embedded grid: nesting of the regional- and site-scale models within the same numerical model has given greater consistency in the structural model representation and in the flow between scales. Since there is a continuous representation of the regional- and site-scales the modelling of pathways from the repository no longer has to be contained wholly by the site-scale region. This allows greater choice in the size of the site-scale. - Implicit Fracture Zones (IFZ): this method of incorporating the structural model is very efficient and allows changes to either the mesh or fracture zones to be implemented quickly. It also supports great flexibility in the properties of the structures and rock mass. - Stochastic fractures: new functionality has been added to IFZ to allow arbitrary combinations of stochastic or deterministic fracture zones with the rock-mass. Whether a fracture zone is modelled deterministically or stochastically its statistical properties can be defined independently. - Stochastic modelling: efficient methods for Monte-Carlo simulation of stochastic permeability fields have been implemented and tested on SKB's computers. - Visualisation: the visualisation tool Avizier for NAMMU has been enhanced such that it is efficient for checking models and presentation. - PROPER interface: NAMMU outputs pathlines in PROPER format so that it can be included in PA workflow. The developed methods are illustrated by application to stochastic nested modelling of the Beberg site using data from SR 97. The model properties were in accordance with the regional- and site

  20. Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taback, I.

    1979-01-01

    The discussion of vulnerability begins with a description of some of the electrical characteristics of fibers before definiting how vulnerability calculations are done. The vulnerability results secured to date are presented. The discussion touches on post exposure vulnerability. After a description of some shock hazard work now underway, the discussion leads into a description of the planned effort and some preliminary conclusions are presented.

  1. Teaching and learning hydrogeology using a physically-based modelling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Andrew; Dessirier, Benoit; Pannetier, Romain

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogeology involves studying the occurrence, distribution, movement and quality of water in geological formations. Hydrogeology typically enters in the curriculum of physical geography as well as civil and environmental engineering courses, is a multidisciplinary subject which encompasses several scientific areas including mathematics, physics, geology, geochemistry and numerical analysis. For applications such as resource management, decision and policy making, and an understanding and interpretation of uncertainty and risk assessment is also necessary. Teaching hydrogeology is not only challenged by its multidisciplinary nature, but also since groundwater occurrence and movement is hidden from view in the subsurface, and is generally inaccessible to direct observation. Field experiments are often costly and time consuming, and laboratory experiments limited in scale. However, suitably designed computational systems can help address such issues by providing numerical modelling investigations of field conditions. This contribution presents results from a recent project dedicated to develop an open-source, interactive, visual numerical modelling tool for teaching/learning hydrogeology, based on current pedagogical understanding of learning in higher education. It provides physically-based groundwater flow solutions within an intuitive user-friendly interface, which does not require advanced technical skills to operate. The aim is to be able to improve student's learning by providing immediate and visual feedback on groundwater flow and contaminant transport problems. The development and implementation of the tool as part of a teaching framework to address subsurface flow concepts and phenomena is presented, discussed and evaluated. By linking theoretical problem-solving exercises with modelling tasks in a learn-by-doing approach, we further discuss how student's learning experiences can be enhanced.

  2. Development and implementation of a Bayesian-based aquifer vulnerability assessment in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, J.D.; Wood, H.A.R.; Baker, A.E.; Cichon, J.R.; Raines, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) was designed to provide a tool for environmental, regulatory, resource management, and planning professionals to facilitate protection of groundwater resources from surface sources of contamination. The FAVA project implements weights-of-evidence (WofE), a data-driven, Bayesian-probabilistic model to generate a series of maps reflecting relative aquifer vulnerability of Florida's principal aquifer systems. The vulnerability assessment process, from project design to map implementation is described herein in reference to the Floridan aquifer system (FAS). The WofE model calculates weighted relationships between hydrogeologic data layers that influence aquifer vulnerability and ambient groundwater parameters in wells that reflect relative degrees of vulnerability. Statewide model input data layers (evidential themes) include soil hydraulic conductivity, density of karst features, thickness of aquifer confinement, and hydraulic head difference between the FAS and the watertable. Wells with median dissolved nitrogen concentrations exceeding statistically established thresholds serve as training points in the WofE model. The resulting vulnerability map (response theme) reflects classified posterior probabilities based on spatial relationships between the evidential themes and training points. The response theme is subjected to extensive sensitivity and validation testing. Among the model validation techniques is calculation of a response theme based on a different water-quality indicator of relative recharge or vulnerability: dissolved oxygen. Successful implementation of the FAVA maps was facilitated by the overall project design, which included a needs assessment and iterative technical advisory committee input and review. Ongoing programs to protect Florida's springsheds have led to development of larger-scale WofE-based vulnerability assessments. Additional applications of the maps include land-use planning

  3. Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, Irna; Stel, Nora

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on vulnerability. Together with Chapter 3, that offers a literature review specifically focused on resilience, it lays the conceptual foundations for the empirical chapters in this edited volume. Vulnerability symbolizes the susceptibility of a certain system to

  4. Hydrogeological characterization on surface-based investigation phase in the Mizunami underground research laboratory project, in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Shinji; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Ohyama, Takuya

    2007-01-01

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project is being carried out by Japan Atomic Energy Agency in the Cretaceous Toki granite in the Tono area, central Japan. The MIU project is a purpose-built generic underground research laboratory project that is planned for a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of nuclear wastes. One of the main goals of the MIU project is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment. The MIU project has three overlapping phases: Surface-based Investigation (Phase I), Construction (Phase II) and Operation (Phase III). Hydrogeological investigations using a stepwise process in Phase I have been carried out in order to obtain information on important properties such as, location of water conducting features, hydraulic conductivity and so on. Hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow simulations in Phase I have been carried out in order to synthesize these investigation results, to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrogeological model and to identify the main issues for further investigations. Using the stepwise hydrogeological characterization approach and combining the investigation with modeling and simulation, understanding of the hydrogeological environment has been progressively improved. (authors)

  5. Physically-Based Assessment of Intrinsic Groundwater Resource Vulnerability in AN Urban Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, T.; Therrien, R.; Lemieux, J.; Molson, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Several methods exist to assess intrinsic groundwater (re)source vulnerability for the purpose of sustainable groundwater management and protection. However, several methods are empirical and limited in their application to specific types of hydrogeological systems. Recent studies suggest that a physically-based approach could be better suited to provide a general, conceptual and operational basis for groundwater vulnerability assessment. A novel method for physically-based assessment of intrinsic aquifer vulnerability is currently under development and tested to explore the potential of an integrated modelling approach, combining groundwater travel time probability and future scenario modelling in conjunction with the fully integrated HydroGeoSphere model. To determine the intrinsic groundwater resource vulnerability, a fully coupled 2D surface water and 3D variably-saturated groundwater flow model in conjunction with a 3D geological model (GoCAD) has been developed for a case study of the Rivière Saint-Charles (Québec/Canada) regional scale, urban watershed. The model has been calibrated under transient flow conditions for the hydrogeological, variably-saturated subsurface system, coupled with the overland flow zone by taking into account monthly recharge variation and evapotranspiration. To better determine the intrinsic groundwater vulnerability, two independent approaches are considered and subsequently combined in a simple, holistic multi-criteria-decision analyse. Most data for the model comes from an extensive hydrogeological database for the watershed, whereas data gaps have been complemented via field tests and literature review. The subsurface is composed of nine hydrofacies, ranging from unconsolidated fluvioglacial sediments to low permeability bedrock. The overland flow zone is divided into five major zones (Urban, Rural, Forest, River and Lake) to simulate the differences in landuse, whereas the unsaturated zone is represented via the model

  6. An approach for classification of hydrogeological systems at the regional scale based on groundwater hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaf, Ezra; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    When assessing hydrogeological conditions at the regional scale, the analyst is often confronted with uncertainty of structures, inputs and processes while having to base inference on scarce and patchy data. Haaf and Barthel (2015) proposed a concept for handling this predicament by developing a groundwater systems classification framework, where information is transferred from similar, but well-explored and better understood to poorly described systems. The concept is based on the central hypothesis that similar systems react similarly to the same inputs and vice versa. It is conceptually related to PUB (Prediction in ungauged basins) where organization of systems and processes by quantitative methods is intended and used to improve understanding and prediction. Furthermore, using the framework it is expected that regional conceptual and numerical models can be checked or enriched by ensemble generated data from neighborhood-based estimators. In a first step, groundwater hydrographs from a large dataset in Southern Germany are compared in an effort to identify structural similarity in groundwater dynamics. A number of approaches to group hydrographs, mostly based on a similarity measure - which have previously only been used in local-scale studies, can be found in the literature. These are tested alongside different global feature extraction techniques. The resulting classifications are then compared to a visual "expert assessment"-based classification which serves as a reference. A ranking of the classification methods is carried out and differences shown. Selected groups from the classifications are related to geological descriptors. Here we present the most promising results from a comparison of classifications based on series correlation, different series distances and series features, such as the coefficients of the discrete Fourier transform and the intrinsic mode functions of empirical mode decomposition. Additionally, we show examples of classes

  7. Assessing flood vulnerability using a rule-based fuzzy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, J; Neyshabouri, S A A S

    2012-01-01

    Population growth and urbanization in the last decades have increased the vulnerability of properties and societies in flood-prone areas. Vulnerability analysis is one of the main factors used to determine the necessary measures of flood risk reduction in floodplains. At present, the vulnerability of natural disasters is analyzed by defining the various physical and social indices. This study presents a model based on a fuzzy rule-based system to address various ambiguities and uncertainties from natural variability, and human knowledge and preferences in vulnerability analysis. The proposed method is applied for a small watershed as a case study and the obtained results are compared with one of the index approaches. Both approaches present the same ranking for the sub-basin's vulnerability in the watershed. Finally, using the scores of vulnerability in different sub-basins, a vulnerability map of the watershed is presented.

  8. Survey of geomorphological and hydrogeological data for mapping groundwater vulnerability of the Guarani Aquifer in Portão and Estância Velha/RS using the DRASTIC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar G. Wöhl Coelho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerability mapping of groundwater contamination has been widely developed and included in municipal plans to guide environmental management policies and it is recommended in CONAMA 396 Resolution (Brasil, 2008. Portão and Estância Velha, RS regions present potencial risk of contamination due to industrial activities. The Guarani Aquifer System (SAG in the study area is composed by the Pirambóia and Botucatu Formations. Both formations are formed by sandstones and they are partially confined by the basalts of the Serra Geral Aquifer. The method DRASTIC was chosen to build the vulnerability map. The shallow water table and the sedimentary lithology are indicative factors of intermediate to high vulnerability. The soils were divided in domains according to their texture. The first domain of claysoil has an impermeable behavior. The infiltration tests and thick layers of clay confirm a low hydraulic conductivity of this pedological unit, providing a natural protection of the aquifer. However, in the study area, the second claysoil domain is dominant and has more diffuse sand in the profile. The restricted presence of expansive clay minerals increases the vulnerability. Occupancy of areas of high vulnerability is directly related to the contamination of the aquifer. The efficiency of the map is related to the interdependence of parameters involving hydrogeological and geomorphological aspects. Thus, it has been observed a high degree of vulnerability to groundwater contamination in 25% of the area, an intermediate vulnerability in 72.4%, and a low degree in only 2.6% of the area.

  9. Environmental Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment in Urban Water Mines (Porto, NW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Afonso

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary approach was developed to estimate urban groundwater vulnerability to contamination combining hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, subterranean hydrogeotechnics, groundwater ecotoxicology and isotope tracers. Paranhos and Salgueiros spring waters in Porto City were used as a case study. Historical and current vulnerability scenarios were compared using hydrogeological GIS-based modelling. Potential contamination sources were mapped around the spring galleries. Most of these were point sources and their potential contamination load was moderate. The ecotoxicological assessment indicated a low acute toxicity potential. Groundwater radionuclides appeared to be mainly controlled by geological factors and biomineralisation. Vulnerability maps suggest that most of the area has a moderate to low vulnerability to contamination. However, some surface sources such as sewage systems cause contamination and contribute to increased vulnerability. This integrated approach was demonstrated to be adequate for a better knowledge of urban hydrogeological processes and their dynamics, and highlighted the importance of a vulnerability assessment in urban areas.

  10. Scenario-based Storm Surge Vulnerability Assessment of Catanduanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, J. K. B.

    2015-12-01

    After the devastating storm surge effect of Typhoon Haiyan, the public recognized an improved communication about risks, vulnerabilities and what is threatened by storm surge. This can be provided by vulnerability maps which allow better visual presentations and understanding of the risks and vulnerabilities. Local implementers can direct the resources needed for protection of these areas. Moreover, vulnerability and hazard maps are relevant in all phases of disaster management designed by the National Disaster Risk Reduction Council (NDRRMC) - disaster preparedness, prevention and mitigation and response and recovery and rehabilitation. This paper aims to analyze the vulnerability of Catanduanes, a coastal province in the Philippines, to storm surges in terms of four parameters: population, built environment, natural environment and agricultural production. The vulnerability study relies on the storm surge inundation maps based on the Department of Science and Technology Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards' (DOST-Project NOAH) proposed four Storm Surge Advisory (SSA) scenarios (1-2, 3, 4, and 5 meters) for predicting storm surge heights. To determine total percent affected for each parameter elements, an overlay analysis was performed in ArcGIS Desktop. Moreover, vulnerability and hazard maps are generated as a final output and a tool for visualizing the impacts of storm surge event at different surge heights. The result of this study would help the selected province to know their present condition and adapt strategies to strengthen areas where they are found to be most vulnerable in order to prepare better for the future.

  11. Impact of hydrogeological factors on groundwater salinization due to ocean-surge inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Huichen; Yu, Xuan; Graf, Thomas; Michael, Holly A.

    2018-01-01

    Ocean surges cause seawater inundation of coastal inland areas. Subsequently, seawater infiltrates into coastal aquifers and threatens the fresh groundwater resource. The severity of resulting salinization can be affected by hydrogeological factors including aquifer properties and hydrologic conditions, however, little research has been done to assess these effects. To understand the impacts of hydrogeological factors on groundwater salinization, we numerically simulated an ocean-surge inundation event on a two-dimensional conceptual coastal aquifer using a coupled surface-subsurface approach. We varied model permeability (including anisotropy), inland hydraulic gradient, and recharge rate. Three salinization-assessment indicators were developed, based on flushing time, depth of salt penetration, and a combination of the two, weighted flushing time, with which the impact of hydrogeological factors on groundwater vulnerability to salinization were quantitatively assessed. The vulnerability of coastal aquifers increases with increasing isotropic permeability. Low horizontal permeability (kx) and high vertical permeability (kz) lead to high aquifer vulnerability, and high kx and low kz lead to low aquifer vulnerability. Vulnerability decreases with increasing groundwater hydraulic gradient and increasing recharge rate. Additionally, coastal aquifers with a low recharge rate (R ≤ 300 mm yr-1) may be highly vulnerable to ocean-surge inundation. This study shows how the newly introduced indicators can be used to quantitatively assess coastal aquifer vulnerability. The results are important for global vulnerability assessment of coastal aquifers to ocean-surge inundation.

  12. A compressed sensing based 3D resistivity inversion algorithm for hydrogeological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Shashi; Kambhammettu, B. V. N. P.; Peddinti, Srinivasa Rao; Adinarayana, J.

    2018-04-01

    Image reconstruction from discrete electrical responses pose a number of computational and mathematical challenges. Application of smoothness constrained regularized inversion from limited measurements may fail to detect resistivity anomalies and sharp interfaces separated by hydro stratigraphic units. Under favourable conditions, compressed sensing (CS) can be thought of an alternative to reconstruct the image features by finding sparse solutions to highly underdetermined linear systems. This paper deals with the development of a CS assisted, 3-D resistivity inversion algorithm for use with hydrogeologists and groundwater scientists. CS based l1-regularized least square algorithm was applied to solve the resistivity inversion problem. Sparseness in the model update vector is introduced through block oriented discrete cosine transformation, with recovery of the signal achieved through convex optimization. The equivalent quadratic program was solved using primal-dual interior point method. Applicability of the proposed algorithm was demonstrated using synthetic and field examples drawn from hydrogeology. The proposed algorithm has outperformed the conventional (smoothness constrained) least square method in recovering the model parameters with much fewer data, yet preserving the sharp resistivity fronts separated by geologic layers. Resistivity anomalies represented by discrete homogeneous blocks embedded in contrasting geologic layers were better imaged using the proposed algorithm. In comparison to conventional algorithm, CS has resulted in an efficient (an increase in R2 from 0.62 to 0.78; a decrease in RMSE from 125.14 Ω-m to 72.46 Ω-m), reliable, and fast converging (run time decreased by about 25%) solution.

  13. The typology of Irish hard-rock aquifers based on an integrated hydrogeological and geophysical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Jean-Christophe; Cassidy, Rachel; Nitsche, Janka; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Pilatova, Katarina; Flynn, Raymond

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater flow in hard-rock aquifers is strongly controlled by the characteristics and distribution of structural heterogeneity. A methodology for catchment-scale characterisation is presented, based on the integration of complementary, multi-scale hydrogeological, geophysical and geological approaches. This was applied to three contrasting catchments underlain by metamorphic rocks in the northern parts of Ireland (Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, UK). Cross-validated surface and borehole geophysical investigations confirm the discontinuous overburden, lithological compartmentalisation of the bedrock and important spatial variations of the weathered bedrock profiles at macro-scale. Fracture analysis suggests that the recent (Alpine) tectonic fabric exerts strong control on the internal aquifer structure at meso-scale, which is likely to impact on the anisotropy of aquifer properties. The combination of the interpretation of depth-specific hydraulic-test data with the structural information provided by geophysical tests allows characterisation of the hydrodynamic properties of the identified aquifer units. Regionally, the distribution of hydraulic conductivities can be described by inverse power laws specific to the aquifer litho-type. Observed groundwater flow directions reflect this multi-scale structure. The proposed integrated approach applies widely available investigative tools to identify key dominant structures controlling groundwater flow, characterising the aquifer type for each catchment and resolving the spatial distribution of relevant aquifer units and associated hydrodynamic parameters.

  14. Summary of vulnerability related technologies based on machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Chen, Zhihao; Jia, Qiong

    2018-04-01

    As the scale of information system increases by an order of magnitude, the complexity of system software is getting higher. The vulnerability interaction from design, development and deployment to implementation stages greatly increases the risk of the entire information system being attacked successfully. Considering the limitations and lags of the existing mainstream security vulnerability detection techniques, this paper summarizes the development and current status of related technologies based on the machine learning methods applied to deal with massive and irregular data, and handling security vulnerabilities.

  15. Water balance in the Guarani Aquifer outcrop zone based on hydrogeologic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, E.; Barreto, C.; Gomes, L. H.

    2007-09-01

    SummaryMain objective of this work was the study of the infiltration and recharge mechanisms in the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) outcrop zone. The study was based on hydrogeologic monitoring, evapotranspiration and water balance in a pilot watershed. The pilot watershed (Ribeirão da Onça) is situated in the outcrop zone of the Guarani Aquifer between parallels 22°10' and 22°15' (south latitude) and meridians 47°55' and 48°00' (west longitude). For the execution of the research project, a monitoring network (wells, rain gauge and linigraph) was installed in the watershed. Data have been systematically collected during the period of a hydrological year. Water level fluctuation has been used to estimate deep recharge and subsurface storage variation. The method used to estimate the direct recharge adopted the hypothesis that the recession of the groundwater level obeys a function of power law type. Direct recharge is obtained through the difference between the actual level of an unconfined aquifer and the level indicated by extrapolation of the recession curve, in a given period. Base outflow is estimated through a mixed function (linear and exponential). Outflow in the creek has been measured with current meter and monitored continuously with a linigraph. The annual infiltration in 2005 was estimated to be 350 mm, while the deep recharge, based on water balance, appears to be 3.5% of the precipitation (1410 mm). These results indicate that the estimated long term water availability of the Guarani Aquifer System should be studied more carefully.

  16. GIS Based Measurement and Regulatory Zoning of Urban Ecological Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecological vulnerability is measured on the basis of ecological sensitivity and resilience based on the concept analysis of vulnerability. GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis (GIS-MCDA methods are used, supported by the spatial analysis tools of GIS, to define different levels of vulnerability for areas of the urban ecology. These areas are further classified into different types of regulatory zones. Taking the city of Hefei in China as the empirical research site, this study uses GIS-MCDA, including the index system, index weights and overlay rules, to measure the degree of its ecological vulnerability on the GIS platform. There are eight indices in the system. Raking and analytical hierarchy process (AHP methods are used to calculate index weights according to the characteristics of the index system. The integrated overlay rule, including selection of the maximum value, and weighted linear combination (WLC are applied as the overlay rules. In this way, five types of vulnerability areas have been classified as follows: very low vulnerability, low vulnerability, medium vulnerability, high vulnerability and very high vulnerability. They can be further grouped into three types of regulatory zone of ecological green line, ecological grey line and ecological red line. The study demonstrates that ecological green line areas are the largest (53.61% of the total study area and can be intensively developed; ecological grey line areas (19.59% of the total area can serve as the ecological buffer zone, and ecological red line areas (26.80% cannot be developed and must be protected. The results indicate that ecological green line areas may provide sufficient room for future urban development in Hefei city. Finally, the respective regulatory countermeasures are put forward. This research provides a scientific basis for decision-making around urban ecological protection, construction and sustainable development. It also provides theoretical method

  17. Detailed hydrogeological investigation and conceptual modelling of an Alpine Main Valley crossed by the Brenner Bases tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Ulrich; San Nicolo, Lorenz; Zurlo, Raffaele

    2014-05-01

    The Brenner Base Tunnel (BBT) will cross the Isarco Valley near the village of Fortezza (BZ) at a depth of approximately 20 m below the riverbed of the Isarco river. The design of this roughly 1 km long stretch through alluvial sediments and below groundwater level required detailed knowledge of the prevailing hydrogeological conditions. In particular, it was necessary to determine if dewatering procedures were feasible and what the impacts on natural water flows in the aquifer after completion of the infrastructure will be. The study area is a typical Alpine valley, filled with alluvial sediments to a maximum depth of approximately 120m. The valley is bounded by granitic rocks with regional, water saturated main fault zones. In addition to the Isarco River, the area is shaped by two lateral rivers. The deposits of these lateral rivers form main alluvial fans. The aim of the study was to study the geological structure and the hydrogeological behaviour of this alpine valley. Therefor a detailed geological and hydrogeological investigation program was carried out, including a geological detailed mapping, construction of 40 boreholes (max. depth 120m; 35 are equipped to groundwater monitoring wells) and 5 large wells (55m - 87m). In order to determine the hydrodynamic characteristics of the aquifer in the valley, several pumping tests were carried out in different study stages: Stage 1: preliminary hydrogeological characterization of the area based on a pumping test carried out in the first well (100l/s pumping for 14 days). Stage 2: individual step tests and constant rate tests in additional four wells Stage 3: main pumping test including all the five wells with a maximum pumping rate of 450l/s for 14 days. The main topics oh the presentation are: - Overview of the BBT-project, the investigation area and investigation program - Description of the validated geological model of the main alpine valley - Results of the various hydraulic tests performed in the individual

  18. Incorporating a Watershed-Based Summary Field Exercise into an Introductory Hydrogeology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryar, Alan E.; Thompson, Karen E.; Hendricks, Susan P.; White, David S.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and implemented a summary field exercise for an introductory hydrogeology course without a laboratory section. This exercise builds on lectures and problem sets that use pre-existing field data. During one day in April, students measure hydraulic heads, stream and spring flow, and stream-bed seepage within the rural watershed of…

  19. Road Network Vulnerability Analysis Based on Improved Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an improved ant colony algorithm-based approach to assess the vulnerability of a road network and identify the critical infrastructures. This approach improves computational efficiency and allows for its applications in large-scale road networks. This research involves defining the vulnerability conception, modeling the traffic utility index and the vulnerability of the road network, and identifying the critical infrastructures of the road network. We apply the approach to a simple test road network and a real road network to verify the methodology. The results show that vulnerability is directly related to traffic demand and increases significantly when the demand approaches capacity. The proposed approach reduces the computational burden and may be applied in large-scale road network analysis. It can be used as a decision-supporting tool for identifying critical infrastructures in transportation planning and management.

  20. Vulnerability assessment of groundwater-dependent ecosystems based on integrated groundwater flow modell construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Ádám; Simon, Szilvia; Galsa, Attila; Havril, Timea; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Müller, Imre; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) are highly influenced by the amount of groundwater, seasonal variation of precipitation and consequent water table fluctuation and also the anthropogenic activities. They can be regarded as natural surface manifestations of the flowing groundwater. The preservation of environment and biodiversity of these GDEs is an important issue worldwide, however, the water management policy and action plan could not be constructed in absense of proper hydrogeological knowledge. The concept of gravity-driven regional groundwater flow could aid the understanding of flow pattern and interpretation of environmental processes and conditions. Unless the required well data are available, the geological-hydrogeological numerical model of the study area cannot be constructed based only on borehole information. In this case, spatially continuous geophysical data can support groundwater flow model building: systematically combined geophysical methods can provide model input. Integration of lithostratigraphic, electrostratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic information could aid groundwater flow model construction: hydrostratigraphic units and their hydraulic behaviour, boundaries and geometry can be obtained. Groundwater-related natural manifestations, such as GDEs, can be explained with the help of the revealed flow pattern and field mapping of features. Integrated groundwater flow model construction for assessing the vulnerability of GDEs was presented via the case study of the geologically complex area of Tihany Peninsula, Hungary, with the aims of understanding the background and occurrence of groundwater-related environmental phenomena, surface water-groundwater interaction, and revealing the potential effect of anthropogenic activity and climate change. In spite of its important and protected status, fluid flow model of the area, which could support water management and natural protection policy, had not been constructed previously. The 3D

  1. Update of the hydrogeologic model of the Cerro Prieto field based on recent well data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfman, S.E.; Manon, A.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The hydrogeologic model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in Baja California, Mexico has been updated and modified on the basis of geologic and reservoir engineering data from 21 newly completed wells. Previously, only two reservoirs had been discovered: the shallow ..cap alpha.. reservoir and the deeper ..beta.. reservoir. Recently, three deep wells drilled east of the main wellfield penetrated a third geothermal reservoir (called the ..gamma.. reservoir) below the sandstones corresponding to the ..beta.. reservoir in the main part of the field. The new well data delimit the ..beta.. reservoir, confirm the important role of Fault H in controlling the flow of geothermal fluids, and enable us to refine the hydrogeologic model of the field.

  2. Grid Transmission Expansion Planning Model Based on Grid Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Quan; Wang, Xi; Li, Ting; Zhang, Quanming; Zhang, Hongli; Li, Huaqiang

    2018-03-01

    Based on grid vulnerability and uniformity theory, proposed global network structure and state vulnerability factor model used to measure different grid models. established a multi-objective power grid planning model which considering the global power network vulnerability, economy and grid security constraint. Using improved chaos crossover and mutation genetic algorithm to optimize the optimal plan. For the problem of multi-objective optimization, dimension is not uniform, the weight is not easy given. Using principal component analysis (PCA) method to comprehensive assessment of the population every generation, make the results more objective and credible assessment. the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model are validated by simulation results of Garver-6 bus system and Garver-18 bus.

  3. Security Vulnerabilities of the Web Based Open Source Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper exposes security vulnerabilities of the web based Open Source Information Systems (OSIS) from both system angle and human perspectives.It shows the extent of risk that can likely hinder adopting organization from attaning full intended benefits of using OSIS software. To undertake this study, a case study ...

  4. Environmental vulnerability assessment using Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Satiprasad; Dhar, Anirban; Kar, Amlanjyoti

    2016-01-01

    Environmental management of an area describes a policy for its systematic and sustainable environmental protection. In the present study, regional environmental vulnerability assessment in Hirakud command area of Odisha, India is envisaged based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process method (Grey–AHP) using integrated remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Grey–AHP combines the advantages of classical analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and grey clustering method for accurate estimation of weight coefficients. It is a new method for environmental vulnerability assessment. Environmental vulnerability index (EVI) uses natural, environmental and human impact related factors, e.g., soil, geology, elevation, slope, rainfall, temperature, wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index, drainage density, crop intensity, agricultural DRASTIC value, population density and road density. EVI map has been classified into four environmental vulnerability zones (EVZs) namely: ‘low’, ‘moderate’ ‘high’, and ‘extreme’ encompassing 17.87%, 44.44%, 27.81% and 9.88% of the study area, respectively. EVI map indicates that the northern part of the study area is more vulnerable from an environmental point of view. EVI map shows close correlation with elevation. Effectiveness of the zone classification is evaluated by using grey clustering method. General effectiveness is in between “better” and “common classes”. This analysis demonstrates the potential applicability of the methodology. - Highlights: • Environmental vulnerability zone identification based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) • The effectiveness evaluation by means of a grey clustering method with support from AHP • Use of grey approach eliminates the excessive dependency on the experience of experts.

  5. Undergraduate Education in Hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, John Richard, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a course at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire which improved instruction in physical hydrogeology, chemical hydrogeology, and water resources. Describes 14 laboratory activities including objectives, methods, and a list of equipment needed. (Author/MVL)

  6. Computed tomography scan based prediction of the vulnerable carotid plaque

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diab, Hadi Mahmoud Haider; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Duvnjak, Stevo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary to validate a commercial semi-automated computed tomography angiography (CTA) -software for vulnerable plaque detection compared to histology of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) specimens and secondary validating calcifications scores by in vivo CTA with ex vivo non-contrast enhan......BACKGROUND: Primary to validate a commercial semi-automated computed tomography angiography (CTA) -software for vulnerable plaque detection compared to histology of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) specimens and secondary validating calcifications scores by in vivo CTA with ex vivo non...... using different HU values defining plaque components. The predictive values of CTA based detection of vulnerable plaques were calculated. Quantification of calcifications on CTA using region of interest (ROI)-function and mathematical equations was done manually, and validated by NCCT of the CEA...... in vivo CTA and ex vivo NCCT in quantification of calcification was observed, but CTA systematically underestimated calcificationsscore (CALS) with increasing calcification. CONCLUSION: The CTA-software cannot be used in risk assessment of patients, due to poor specificity and NPV. The correlation between...

  7. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M.E.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas.

  8. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas

  9. Spatial vulnerability units - expert-based spatial modelling of socio-economic vulnerability in the Salzach catchment, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienberger, S.; Lang, S.; Zeil, P.

    2009-05-01

    The assessment of vulnerability has moved to centre-stage of the debate between different scientific disciplines related to climate change and disaster risk management. Composed by a combination of social, economical, physical and environmental factors the assessment implies combining different domains as well as quantitative with qualitative data and makes it therefore a challenge to identify an integrated metric for vulnerability. In this paper we define vulnerability in the context of climate change, targeting the hazard "flood". The developed methodology is being tested in the Salzach river catchment in Austria, which is largely prone to floods. The proposed methodology allows the spatial quantification of vulnerability and the identification of vulnerability units. These units build upon the geon concept which acts as a framework for the regionalization of continuous spatial information according to defined parameters of homogeneity. Using geons, we are capable of transforming singular domains of information on specific systemic components to policy-relevant, conditioned information. Considering the fact that vulnerability is not directly measurable and due to its complex dimension and social construction an expert-based approach has been chosen. Established methodologies such as Multicriteria Decision Analysis, Delphi exercises and regionalization approaches are being integrated. The method not only enables the assessment of vulnerability independent from administrative boundaries, but also applies an aggregation mode which reflects homogenous vulnerability units. This supports decision makers to reflect on complex issues such as vulnerability. Next to that, the advantage is to decompose the units to their underlying domains. Feedback from disaster management experts indicates that the approach helps to improve the design of measures aimed at strengthening preparedness and mitigation. From this point of view, we reach a step closer towards validation of the

  10. Numerical modelling of levee stability based on coupled mechanical, thermal and hydrogeological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwornik Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical modelling of coupled mechanical, thermal and hydrogeological processes for a soil levee is presented in the paper. The modelling was performed for a real levee that was built in Poland as a part of the ISMOP project. Only four parameters were changed to build different flood waves: the water level, period of water increase, period of water decrease, and period of low water level after the experiment. Results of numerical modelling shows that it is possible and advisable to calculate simultaneously changes of thermal and hydro-mechanical fields. The presented results show that it is also possible to use thermal sensors in place of more expensive pore pressure sensors, with some limitations. The results of stability analysis show that the levee is less stable when the water level decreases, after which factor of safety decreases significantly. For all flooding wave parameters described in the paper, the levee is very stable and factor of safety variations for any particular stage were not very large.

  11. Riparian erosion vulnerability model based on environmental features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero-Acosta, Alejandra; Chu, Maria L; Guzman, Jorge A; Starks, Patrick J; Moriasi, Daniel N

    2017-12-01

    Riparian erosion is one of the major causes of sediment and contaminant load to streams, degradation of riparian wildlife habitats, and land loss hazards. Land and soil management practices are implemented as conservation and restoration measures to mitigate the environmental problems brought about by riparian erosion. This, however, requires the identification of vulnerable areas to soil erosion. Because of the complex interactions between the different mechanisms that govern soil erosion and the inherent uncertainties involved in quantifying these processes, assessing erosion vulnerability at the watershed scale is challenging. The main objective of this study was to develop a methodology to identify areas along the riparian zone that are susceptible to erosion. The methodology was developed by integrating the physically-based watershed model MIKE-SHE, to simulate water movement, and a habitat suitability model, MaxEnt, to quantify the probability of presences of elevation changes (i.e., erosion) across the watershed. The presences of elevation changes were estimated based on two LiDAR-based elevation datasets taken in 2009 and 2012. The changes in elevation were grouped into four categories: low (0.5 - 0.7 m), medium (0.7 - 1.0 m), high (1.0 - 1.7 m) and very high (1.7 - 5.9 m), considering each category as a studied "species". The categories' locations were then used as "species location" map in MaxEnt. The environmental features used as constraints to the presence of erosion were land cover, soil, stream power index, overland flow, lateral inflow, and discharge. The modeling framework was evaluated in the Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental watershed in southcentral Oklahoma. Results showed that the most vulnerable areas for erosion were located at the upper riparian zones of the Cobb and Lake sub-watersheds. The main waterways of these sub-watersheds were also found to be prone to streambank erosion. Approximatively 80% of the riparian zone (streambank

  12. Novel Kinds of Random Access Memory and New Vulnerabilities of Computer Aids based on Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mihaylovich Korotin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses vulnerabilities of computer aids based on existing RAM and mechanisms for restricting exploitation of such vulnerabilities. In addition, the article discusses features and work methods of different RAM.

  13. A user exposure based approach for non-structural road network vulnerability analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Lei; Wang, Haizhong; Xie, Binglei; Yu, Le; Liu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Aiming at the dense urban road network vulnerability without structural negative consequences, this paper proposes a novel non-structural road network vulnerability analysis framework. Three aspects of the framework are mainly described: (i) the rationality of non-structural road network vulnerability, (ii) the metrics for negative consequences accounting for variant road conditions, and (iii) the introduction of a new vulnerability index based on user exposure. Based on the proposed methodol...

  14. Groundwater protection and unconventional gas extraction: the critical need for field-based hydrogeological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R E; Gorody, A W; Mayer, B; Roy, J W; Ryan, M C; Van Stempvoort, D R

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas extraction from tight sandstones, shales, and some coal-beds is typically accomplished by horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing that is necessary for economic development of these new hydrocarbon resources. Concerns have been raised regarding the potential for contamination of shallow groundwater by stray gases, formation waters, and fracturing chemicals associated with unconventional gas exploration. A lack of sound scientific hydrogeological field observations and a scarcity of published peer-reviewed articles on the effects of both conventional and unconventional oil and gas activities on shallow groundwater make it difficult to address these issues. Here, we discuss several case studies related to both conventional and unconventional oil and gas activities illustrating how under some circumstances stray or fugitive gas from deep gas-rich formations has migrated from the subsurface into shallow aquifers and how it has affected groundwater quality. Examples include impacts of uncemented well annuli in areas of historic drilling operations, effects related to poor cement bonding in both new and old hydrocarbon wells, and ineffective cementing practices. We also summarize studies describing how structural features influence the role of natural and induced fractures as contaminant fluid migration pathways. On the basis of these studies, we identify two areas where field-focused research is urgently needed to fill current science gaps related to unconventional gas extraction: (1) baseline geochemical mapping (with time series sampling from a sufficient network of groundwater monitoring wells) and (2) field testing of potential mechanisms and pathways by which hydrocarbon gases, reservoir fluids, and fracturing chemicals might potentially invade and contaminate useable groundwater. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  15. GIS BASED AQUIFER VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT IN HANGZHOU-JIAXINGHUZHOU PLAIN, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean de Dieu Bazimenyera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou plain is among the regions which faces the shortage of water due to its increasing population, industrialization, agriculture and domestic use; hence the high dependence on groundwater. In China, the exploitation of aquifers has been historically undertaken without proper concern for environmental impacts or even the concept of sustainable yield. In order to maintain basin aquifer as a source of water for the area, it is necessary to find out whether certain locations in this groundwater basin are susceptible to receive and transmit pollution, this is why the main objective of this research is to find out the groundwater vulnerable zones using Geographical Information System (GIS model in Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou plain. GIS was used to create groundwater vulnerability map by overlaying hydro-geological data. The input of the model was provided by the following seven data layers: Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone and hydraulic Conductivity. This study showed that Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou area is grouped into three categories: High vulnerable zone with 27.4% of the total area, moderate vulnerable zone which occupy the great part of that area 60.5% and low vulnerable zone with 12.1%. This research suggests first the prioritization of high vulnerable areas in order to prevent the further pollution to already polluted areas; next the frequent monitoring of vulnerable zones to monitor the changing level of pollutants; and finally suggests that this model can be an effective tool for local authorities who are responsible for managing groundwater resources in that area.

  16. GIS-based groundwater vulnerability modelling: A case study of the Witbank, Ermelo and Highveld Coalfields in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakala, E.; Fourie, F.; Gomo, M.; Coetzee, H.

    2018-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the popular mineral systems approach has been used successfully for the exploration of various mineral commodities at various scales owing to its scientific soundness, cost effectiveness and simplicity in mapping the critical processes required for the formation of deposits. In the present study this approach was modified for the assessment of groundwater vulnerability. In terms of the modified approach, water drives the pollution migration processes, with various analogies having been derived from the mineral systems approach. The modified approach is illustrated here by the discussion of a case study of acid mine drainage (AMD) pollution in the Witbank, Ermelo and Highveld coalfields of the Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal Provinces in South Africa. Many AMD cases have been reported in these provinces in recent years and are a cause of concern for local municipalities, mining and environmental agencies. In the Witbank, Ermelo and Highveld coalfields, several areas have been mined out while mining has not yet started in others, hence the need to identify groundwater regions prone to AMD pollution in order to avoid further impacts on the groundwater resources. A knowledge-based fuzzy expert system was built using vulnerability factors (energy sources, ligands sources, pollutant sources, transportation pathways and traps) to generate a groundwater vulnerability model of the coalfields. Highly vulnerable areas were identified in Witbank coalfield and the eastern part of the Ermelo coalfield which are characterised by the presence of AMD sources, good subsurface transport coupled with poor AMD pollution trapping properties. The results from the analysis indicate significant correlations between model values and both groundwater sulphate concentrations as well as pH. This shows that the proposed approach can indeed be used as an alternative to traditional methods of groundwater vulnerability assessment. The methodology only considers the AMD pollution

  17. Seismic Vulnerability Evaluations Within The Structural And Functional Survey Activities Of The COM Bases In Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuccaro, G.; Cacace, F.; Albanese, V.; Mercuri, C.; Papa, F.; Pizza, A. G.; Sergio, S.; Severino, M.

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes technical and functional surveys on COM buildings (Mixed Operative Centre). This activity started since 2005, with the contribution of both Italian Civil Protection Department and the Regions involved. The project aims to evaluate the efficiency of COM buildings, checking not only structural, architectonic and functional characteristics but also paying attention to surrounding real estate vulnerability, road network, railways, harbours, airports, area morphological and hydro-geological characteristics, hazardous activities, etc. The first survey was performed in eastern Sicily, before the European Civil Protection Exercise ''EUROSOT 2005''. Then, since 2006, a new survey campaign started in Abruzzo, Molise, Calabria and Puglia Regions. The more important issue of the activity was the vulnerability assessment. So this paper deals with a more refined vulnerability evaluation technique by means of the SAVE methodology, developed in the 1st task of SAVE project within the GNDT-DPC programme 2000-2002 (Zuccaro, 2005); the SAVE methodology has been already successfully employed in previous studies (i.e. school buildings intervention programme at national scale; list of strategic public buildings in Campania, Sicilia and Basilicata). In this paper, data elaborated by SAVE methodology are compared with expert evaluations derived from the direct inspections on COM buildings. This represents a useful exercise for the improvement either of the survey forms or of the methodology for the quick assessment of the vulnerability

  18. Seismic Vulnerability Evaluations Within The Structural And Functional Survey Activities Of The COM Bases In Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro, G.; Albanese, V.; Cacace, F.; Mercuri, C.; Papa, F.; Pizza, A. G.; Sergio, S.; Severino, M.

    2008-07-01

    The paper describes technical and functional surveys on COM buildings (Mixed Operative Centre). This activity started since 2005, with the contribution of both Italian Civil Protection Department and the Regions involved. The project aims to evaluate the efficiency of COM buildings, checking not only structural, architectonic and functional characteristics but also paying attention to surrounding real estate vulnerability, road network, railways, harbours, airports, area morphological and hydro-geological characteristics, hazardous activities, etc. The first survey was performed in eastern Sicily, before the European Civil Protection Exercise "EUROSOT 2005". Then, since 2006, a new survey campaign started in Abruzzo, Molise, Calabria and Puglia Regions. The more important issue of the activity was the vulnerability assessment. So this paper deals with a more refined vulnerability evaluation technique by means of the SAVE methodology, developed in the 1st task of SAVE project within the GNDT-DPC programme 2000-2002 (Zuccaro, 2005); the SAVE methodology has been already successfully employed in previous studies (i.e. school buildings intervention programme at national scale; list of strategic public buildings in Campania, Sicilia and Basilicata). In this paper, data elaborated by SAVE methodology are compared with expert evaluations derived from the direct inspections on COM buildings. This represents a useful exercise for the improvement either of the survey forms or of the methodology for the quick assessment of the vulnerability.

  19. Development of a summer field-based hydrogeology research experience for undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, K.

    2011-12-01

    A critical problem in motivating and training the next generation of environmental scientists is providing them with an integrated scientific experience that fosters a depth of understanding and helps them build a network of colleagues for their future. As the education part of an NSF-funded CAREER proposal, I have developed a three-week summer research experience for undergraduate students that links their classroom education with field campaigns aiming to make partial differential equations come "alive" in a practical, applied setting focused on hydrogeologic processes. This course has been offered to freshman- to junior-level undergraduate students from Penn State and also the three co-operating Historically Black Universities (HBUs)--Jackson State University, Fort Valley State University, and Elizabeth City State University-since 2009. Broad learning objectives include applying their knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering to flow and transport processes in the field and communicating science effectively in poster and oral format. In conjunction with ongoing research about solute transport, students collected field data in the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory in Central Pennsylvania, including slug and pumping tests, ground-penetrating radar, electrical resistivity imaging, wireline logging, and optical televiewers, among other instruments. Students conducted tracer tests, where conservative solutes are introduced into a local stream and monitored. Students also constructed numerical models using COMSOL Multiphysics, a research-grade code that can be used to model any physical system; with COMSOL, students create models without needing to be trained in computer coding. With guidance, students built basic models of fluid flow and transport to visualize how heterogeneity of hydraulic and transport properties or variations in forcing functions impact their results. The development of numerical models promoted confidence in predicting flow and

  20. Geological investigations and hydrogeologic model development in support of DoD and DOE environmental programs on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.D.; Pratt, G.; Davidson, H.; DeWitt, C.; Hitchcock, C.; Kelson, K.; Noller, J.; Sawyer, T.; Thomas, E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents results of preliminary geologic site characterization and hydrogeologic conceptual model development for the 250-km 2 Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) and associated lands in central New Mexico. The research, development, and other operational activities of the Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) on KAFB over the last 50 years have resulted in diverse hazardous, radioactive, and mixed-waste environmental concerns. Because multiple federal, state, and local agencies are responsible for administrating the involved lands and because of the nature of many U.S. environmental regulations, individual contaminated and potentially contaminated DoD and DOE environmental restoration (ER) sites on KAFB are commonly handled as distinct entities with little consideration for the cumulative environmental and health risk from all sites. A site-wide characterization program has been undertaken at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM), under the auspices of the DOE, to construct a conceptual hydrogeologic model for the base. This conceptual model serves as the basis for placing each ER site into a broader context for evaluating background (i.e., non-contaminated) conditions and for modeling of possible contaminant pathways and travel-times. Regional and local hydrogeologic investigations from KAFB can be used as models for characterizing and evaluating other sites around the world where combined civilian and military environmental programs must work together to resolve environmental problems that may present health risks to workers and the general public

  1. Hydrogeology of Gypsum formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimchouk A.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed explanation of hydrogeological characteristics of gypsum aquifers is given in various situations: deep-seated karst-confined conditions, subjacent, entrenched and denuded karst types-semi-confined, phreatic and vadose conditions. The hydrogeological evolution of barren exposed gypsum karst and flow velocities in gypsum karst aquifers is also discussed.

  2. Implementation of Similarity Based Kriging in Open Source Software and Application to Uncertainty Quantification and Reduction in Hydrogeological Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komara, R.; Ginsbourger, D.

    2014-12-01

    We present the implementation of Similarity Based Kriging (SBK). This approach extends Gaussian process regression (GPR) methods, typically restricted to Euclidean spaces, to spaces that are non-Euclidean or perhaps even non-metric. SBK was inspired by problems in aquifer modeling, where inputs of numerical simulations are typically curves and parameter fields, and predicting scalar or vector outputs by Kriging with such very high-dimensional inputs may seem not feasible at first. SBK combines ideas from the distance-based set-up of Scheidt and Caers (2009) with GPR and allows calculating Kriging predictions based only on similarities between inputs rather than on their high-dimensional representation. Written in open source code, this proposed approach includes automated construction of SBK models and provides diagnostics to assess model quality both in terms of covariance fitting and internal/external prediction validation. Covariance hyperparameters can be estimated both by maximum likelihood and leave-one-out cross validation relying in both cases on efficient formulas and a hybrid genetic optimization algorithm using derivatives. The determination of the best dimension for Classical multidimensional scaling (MDS) and non-metric MDS of the data will be investigated. Application of this software to real life data examples in Euclidean and non-Euclidean (dis)similarity settings will be covered and touch on aquifer modeling, hydrogeological forecasting, and sequential inverse problem solving. In the last case, a novel approach where a variant of the expected improvement criterion is used for choosing several points at a time will be presented. This part of the method and the previous covariance hyperparameter estimation parallelize naturally and we demonstrate how to save computation time by optimally distributing function evaluations over multiple cores or processors.

  3. Multiple flood vulnerability assessment approach based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method and coordinated development degree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weichao; Xu, Kui; Lian, Jijian; Bin, Lingling; Ma, Chao

    2018-05-01

    Flood is a serious challenge that increasingly affects the residents as well as policymakers. Flood vulnerability assessment is becoming gradually relevant in the world. The purpose of this study is to develop an approach to reveal the relationship between exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity for better flood vulnerability assessment, based on the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method (FCEM) and coordinated development degree model (CDDM). The approach is organized into three parts: establishment of index system, assessment of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity, and multiple flood vulnerability assessment. Hydrodynamic model and statistical data are employed for the establishment of index system; FCEM is used to evaluate exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity; and CDDM is applied to express the relationship of the three components of vulnerability. Six multiple flood vulnerability types and four levels are proposed to assess flood vulnerability from multiple perspectives. Then the approach is applied to assess the spatiality of flood vulnerability in Hainan's eastern area, China. Based on the results of multiple flood vulnerability, a decision-making process for rational allocation of limited resources is proposed and applied to the study area. The study shows that multiple flood vulnerability assessment can evaluate vulnerability more completely, and help decision makers learn more information about making decisions in a more comprehensive way. In summary, this study provides a new way for flood vulnerability assessment and disaster prevention decision. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vulnerability Analysis of CSP Based on Stochastic Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrial informatization, the industrial control network has gradually become much accessible for attackers. A series of vulnerabilities will therefore be exposed, especially the vulnerability of exclusive industrial communication protocols (ICPs, which has not yet been attached with enough emphasis. In this paper, stochastic game theory is applied on the vulnerability analysis of clock synchronization protocol (CSP, one of the pivotal ICPs. The stochastic game model is built strictly according to the protocol with both Man-in-the-Middle (MIM attack and dependability failures being taken into account. The situation of multiple attack routes is considered for depicting the practical attack scenarios, and the introduction of time aspect characterizes the success probabilities of attackers actions. The vulnerability analysis is then realized through determining the optimal strategies of attacker under different states of system, respectively.

  5. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at Arnold Air Force Base, Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force at Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB), in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee, is investigating ground-water contamination in selected areas of the base. This report documents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the regional hydrogeology of the AAFB area. Three aquifers within the Highland Rim aquifer system, the shallow aquifer, the Manchester aquifer, and the Fort Payne aquifer, have been identified in the study area. Of these, the Manchester aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic use. Drilling and water- quality data indicate that the Chattanooga Shale is an effective confining unit, isolating the Highland Rim aquifer system from the deeper, upper Central Basin aquifer system. A regional ground-water divide, approximately coinciding with the Duck River-Elk River drainage divide, underlies AAFB and runs from southwest to northeast. The general direction of most ground-water flow is to the north- west or to the northwest or to the southeast from the divide towards tributary streams that drain the area. Recharge estimates range from 4 to 11 inches per year. Digital computer modeling was used to simulate and provide a better understanding of the ground-water flow system. The model indicates that most of the ground-water flow occurs in the shallow and Manchester aquifers. The model was most sensitive to increases in hydraulic conductivity and changes in recharge rates. Particle-tracking analysis from selected sites of ground-water contamination indicates a potential for contami- nants to be transported beyond the boundary of AAFB.

  6. Vulnerable Genders, Vulnerable Loves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    on gathering knowledge and its often unpremeditated effect of recognition and inclusion, and Judith Butler on cultural intelligibility and subversion from within. With these theories as a departing point for the analysis, the chapter links the vulnerability of complex identities with the vulnerability...... in the 20th and 21st century, including Judith Butler, who consider human vulnerability an ideal platform for co-existence. Given Butler’s own point that subversion has to come from within, a culture cannot acknowledge the vulnerability of others, if these others constitute a threat. Instead, and based...... on insights from the history of religion, I see hope for tolerance and respect of variant genders and loves on the verge of cultural intelligibility lying in the fact that cultural violence is reduced to a far larger extent by investing in the gathering of knowledge about complex identities inside and outside...

  7. Hydrogeology of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, David L.; Harlow, George; Bruce, T. Scott; Bailey, Christopher M.; Sherwood, W. Cullen; Eaton, L. Scott; Powars, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogeology of Virginia documented herein is in two parts. Part 1 consists of an overview and description of the hydrogeology within each regional aquifer system in the Commonwealth. Part 2 includes discussions of hydrogeologic research topics of current relevance including: 1. the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, 2. subsidence/compaction in the Coastal Plain, 3. groundwater age and aquifer susceptibility, 4. the occurrence of groundwater at depth in fractured-rock and karst terrains, and 5. hydrologic response of wells to earthquakes around the world.

  8. Construction of road network vulnerability evaluation index based on general travel cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jun-qiang; Zhai, Jing; Li, Qian-wen; Zhao, Lin

    2018-03-01

    With the development of China's economy and the continuous improvement of her urban road network, the vulnerability of the urban road network has attracted increasing attention. Based on general travel cost, this work constructs the vulnerability evaluation index for the urban road network, and evaluates the vulnerability of the urban road network from the perspective of user generalised travel cost. Firstly, the generalised travel cost model is constructed based on vehicle cost, travel time, and traveller comfort. Then, the network efficiency index is selected as an evaluation index of vulnerability: the network efficiency index is composed of the traffic volume and the generalised travel cost, which are obtained from the equilibrium state of the network. In addition, the research analyses the influence of traffic capacity decrease, road section attribute value, and location of road section, on vulnerability. Finally, the vulnerability index is used to analyse the local area network of Harbin and verify its applicability.

  9. Vulnerability curves vs. vulnerability indicators: application of an indicator-based methodology for debris-flow hazards

    OpenAIRE

    M. Papathoma-Köhle

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of the physical vulnerability of elements at risk as part of the risk analysis is an essential aspect for the development of strategies and structural measures for risk reduction. Understanding, analysing and, if possible, quantifying physical vulnerability is a prerequisite for designing strategies and adopting tools for its reduction. The most common methods for assessing physical vulnerability are vulnerability matrices, vulnerability curves and vulnerab...

  10. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  11. Comparison analysis on vulnerability of metro networks based on complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Shuliang; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2018-04-01

    This paper analyzes the networked characteristics of three metro networks, and two malicious attacks are employed to investigate the vulnerability of metro networks based on connectivity vulnerability and functionality vulnerability. Meanwhile, the networked characteristics and vulnerability of three metro networks are compared with each other. The results show that Shanghai metro network has the largest transport capacity, Beijing metro network has the best local connectivity and Guangzhou metro network has the best global connectivity, moreover Beijing metro network has the best homogeneous degree distribution. Furthermore, we find that metro networks are very vulnerable subjected to malicious attacks, and Guangzhou metro network has the best topological structure and reliability among three metro networks. The results indicate that the proposed methodology is feasible and effective to investigate the vulnerability and to explore better topological structure of metro networks.

  12. AVQS: attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme for smart grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jongbin; Lim, Hyunwoo; Lee, Seokjun; Shon, Taeshik

    2014-01-01

    A smart grid is a large, consolidated electrical grid system that includes heterogeneous networks and systems. Based on the data, a smart grid system has a potential security threat in its network connectivity. To solve this problem, we develop and apply a novel scheme to measure the vulnerability in a smart grid domain. Vulnerability quantification can be the first step in security analysis because it can help prioritize the security problems. However, existing vulnerability quantification schemes are not suitable for smart grid because they do not consider network vulnerabilities. We propose a novel attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme using a network vulnerability score and an end-to-end security score, depending on the specific smart grid network environment to calculate the vulnerability score for a particular attack route. To evaluate the proposed approach, we derive several attack scenarios from the advanced metering infrastructure domain. The experimental results of the proposed approach and the existing common vulnerability scoring system clearly show that we need to consider network connectivity for more optimized vulnerability quantification.

  13. Regional hydrogeological conceptual model of candidate Beishan area for high level radioactive waste disposal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hailong; Guo Yonghai

    2014-01-01

    The numerical modeling of groundwater flow is an important aspect of hydrogeological assessment in siting of a high level radioactive waste disposal repository. Hydrogeological conceptual model is the basic and premise of numerical modeling of groundwater flow. Based on the hydrogeological analysis of candidate Beishan area, surface water system was created by using DEM data and the modeling area is determined. Three-dimensional hydrogeological structure model was created through GMS software. On the basis of analysis and description of boundary condition, flow field, groundwater budget and hydrogeological parameters, hydrogeological conceptual model was set up for the Beishan area. (authors)

  14. A user exposure based approach for non-structural road network vulnerability analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jin

    Full Text Available Aiming at the dense urban road network vulnerability without structural negative consequences, this paper proposes a novel non-structural road network vulnerability analysis framework. Three aspects of the framework are mainly described: (i the rationality of non-structural road network vulnerability, (ii the metrics for negative consequences accounting for variant road conditions, and (iii the introduction of a new vulnerability index based on user exposure. Based on the proposed methodology, a case study in the Sioux Falls network which was usually threatened by regular heavy snow during wintertime is detailedly discussed. The vulnerability ranking of links of Sioux Falls network with respect to heavy snow scenario is identified. As a result of non-structural consequences accompanied by conceivable degeneration of network, there are significant increases in generalized travel time costs which are measurements for "emotionally hurt" of topological road network.

  15. Hydrogeology of Mors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    The covering layers protect the salt in the dome. Ground water velocities are small and the chalk exhibits good retention properties for the radionuclides. As ground water velocities below 500 m are small, knowledge of hydrogeology over only a small area over the dome is necessary (1 km horizontal transport takes about 15 mill. years). Additionally if the retention properties of the chalk together with radioactive decay are taken into account, it becomes obvious that the nuclides can travel only a few metres into the chalk, before they have decayed to safe radioactive levels. Therefore it does not appear to be necessary to investigate the hydrogeology beyond a few metres from the disposal area. The hydrogeological investigations that have been carried out, although they cover only a limited area, thus give an excellent and sufficient basis for a safety evaluation for determining the suitability of the Mors salt dome for waste disposal. (EG)

  16. An atmospheric vulnerability assessment framework for environment management and protection based on CAMx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Li, Yu

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an atmospheric vulnerability assessment framework based on CAMx that should be helpful to assess potential impacts of changes in human, atmospheric environment, and social economic elements of atmospheric vulnerability. It is also a useful and effective tool that can provide policy-guidance for environmental protection and management to reduce the atmospheric vulnerability. The developed framework was applied to evaluate the atmospheric environment vulnerability of 13 cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region for verification. The results indicated that regional disparity of the atmospheric vulnerability existed in the study site. More specifically, the central and southern regions show more atmospheric environment vulnerability than the northern regions. The impact factors of atmospheric environment vulnerability in the BTH region mainly derived from increasing population press, frequently unfavorable meteorological conditions, extensive economic growth of secondary industry, increased environmental pollution, and accelerating population aging. The framework shown in this paper is an interpretative and heuristic tool for a better understanding of atmospheric vulnerability. This framework can also be replicated at different spatial and temporal scales using context-specific datasets to straightly support environmental managers with decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Network Forensics Method Based on Evidence Graph and Vulnerability Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingsha He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the Internet becomes larger in scale, more complex in structure and more diversified in traffic, the number of crimes that utilize computer technologies is also increasing at a phenomenal rate. To react to the increasing number of computer crimes, the field of computer and network forensics has emerged. The general purpose of network forensics is to find malicious users or activities by gathering and dissecting firm evidences about computer crimes, e.g., hacking. However, due to the large volume of Internet traffic, not all the traffic captured and analyzed is valuable for investigation or confirmation. After analyzing some existing network forensics methods to identify common shortcomings, we propose in this paper a new network forensics method that uses a combination of network vulnerability and network evidence graph. In our proposed method, we use vulnerability evidence and reasoning algorithm to reconstruct attack scenarios and then backtrack the network packets to find the original evidences. Our proposed method can reconstruct attack scenarios effectively and then identify multi-staged attacks through evidential reasoning. Results of experiments show that the evidence graph constructed using our method is more complete and credible while possessing the reasoning capability.

  18. On the combination of isotope hydrogeology with regional flow and transport modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmen, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Many different methods and tools can be used when trying to improve the information basis on which decisions are made for maintaining a quantitatively and qualitatively safe, long-term use of groundwater resources. In this thesis, classical hydrogeological examinations, hydrochemical investigations, environmental isotope studies, computerized groundwater flow modelling and radioisotope transport modelling have been applied to the large system of reservoirs in the sedimentary deposits of southwestern Scania, Sweden. The stable isotopes 2 H, 18 O and 13 C and the radioactive 3 H and 14 C have been measured and the results obtained can improve the estimations of the periods of recharge and the average circulation times of the groundwater reservoirs studied. A groundwater flow model based on finite difference techniques and a continuum approach has been modified by data from traditional hydrogeological studies. The computer code, NEWSAM, has been used to simulate steady-state and transient isotope transport in the area studied, taking into account advective transport with radioactive decay. The interacting groundwater resevoirs studied have been represented by a three-dimensional system of grids in the numerical model. A major merit of this combination of isotope hydrogeology and regional flow and transport modelling is that the isotope transport simulations help to demonstrate where zones particularly vulnerable to pollution are situated. These locations are chiefly the results of the hydrogeological characteristics traditionally examined, but they are revealed by means of the transport model. Subsequent, more detailed investigations can then be focussed primarily on these vulnerable zones. High contents of radioisotopes in the main aquifer of southwestern Scania may indicate that groundwater withdrawals have stimulated recharge from shallow aquifers and surface waters and that the risk of pollution has increased. (196 refs.) (au)

  19. Model based on diffuse logic for the construction of indicators of urban vulnerability in natural phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia L, Carlos Eduardo; Hurtado G, Jorge Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Upon considering the vulnerability of a urban system in a holistic way and taking into account some natural, technological and social factors, a model based upon a system of fuzzy logic, allowing to estimate the vulnerability of any system under natural phenomena potentially catastrophic is proposed. The model incorporates quantitative and qualitative variables in a dynamic system, in which variations in one of them have a positive or negative impact over the rest. An urban system model and an indicator model to determine the vulnerability due to natural phenomena were designed

  20. Flow-based vulnerability measures for network component importance: Experimentation with preparedness planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, Charles D.; Barker, Kash; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.

    2016-01-01

    This work develops and compares several flow-based vulnerability measures to prioritize important network edges for the implementation of preparedness options. These network vulnerability measures quantify different characteristics and perspectives on enabling maximum flow, creating bottlenecks, and partitioning into cutsets, among others. The efficacy of these vulnerability measures to motivate preparedness options against experimental geographically located disruption simulations is measured. Results suggest that a weighted flow capacity rate, which accounts for both (i) the contribution of an edge to maximum network flow and (ii) the extent to which the edge is a bottleneck in the network, shows most promise across four instances of varying network sizes and densities. - Highlights: • We develop new flow-based measures of network vulnerability. • We apply these measures to determine the importance of edges after disruptions. • Networks of varying size and density are explored.

  1. Karst development of an evaporitic system and its hydrogeological implications inferred from GIS-based analysis and tracing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Gil-Márquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The geomorphological characteristics and hydrogeological functioning of a geologically heterogeneous evaporitic karst plateau in Southern Spain were studied. Land surface information (LiDAR data was used to analyze the shape and distribution of closed depressions. An artificial tracer test and monitoring of the natural responses of the main spring have allowed to infer the karstic development of the studied system. Three dyes were injected in selected swallow holes to trace the main groundwater flowpaths and to estimate the dimension of the conduit network. Discharge, electrical conductivity and temperature were monitored in the groundwater that drains the evaporitic plateau during an individual and intense recharge pulse. Tracing techniques were adapted to high salinity environments by using specific calibration standards (NaCl + dye. The hydrological connection detected between two of the swallow holes and the outlet, and the deduced orientation pattern for closed areas, would suggest that the karst evolution (internal and external is related to fault orientation. The rapid tracer detection (16-20 h and high estimated maximum flow velocities (125-192 m/h, together with the fast impulsional response of the controlled physical-chemical parameters in spring waters (~15-16 h demonstrate the existence of quick flows under recharge conditions with well-defined system drainage, indicating a high degree of internal karstification (estimated master conduit diameter ~1.5 m. However, flooding of the depressions feeding swallow holes and analysis of the spring response times from natural and artificial tracers point to a restriction of the system´s drainage, most likely due to the constrained morphology of the karst conduits. This results in sustained recharge periods and delayed spring responses of some parameters, highlighting the relevant role of concentrated recharge in the hydrogeological behavior of the studied evaporitic karst.

  2. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH TO ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF INFORMATION PROTECTION IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS BASED ON VULNERABILITY DANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Krotiuk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a methodological approach to an analysis and estimation of information security in the information systems which is based on the analysis of vulnerabilities and an extent of their hazard. By vulnerability hazard it is meant a complexity of its operation as a part of an information system. The required and sufficient vulnerability operational conditions  have  been  determined in the paper. The paper proposes a generalized model for attack realization which is used as a basis for construction of an attack realization model for an operation of a particular vulnerability. A criterion for estimation of information protection in the information systems which is based on the estimation of vulnerability hazard is formulated in the paper. The proposed approach allows to obtain a quantitative estimation of the information system security on the basis of the proposed schemes on realization of typical attacks for the distinguished classes of vulnerabilities.The methodical approach is used for choosing variants to be applied for realization of protection mechanisms in the information systems as well as for estimation of information safety in the operating information systems.

  3. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process

  4. Hydrogeology of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mazza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the hydrogeological setting of Rome is figured out. This setting has been strongly influenced by different factors as tectonic activity, volcanism and seal level variations. The conceptual model of the groundwater flow in the roman area is represented by four aquifers, three of which being overlappingones. These aquifers flow from peripheral sectors of the study area toward Tiber and Aniene Rivers and the Sea.

  5. Assessing socioeconomic vulnerability to dengue fever in Cali, Colombia: statistical vs expert-based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background As a result of changes in climatic conditions and greater resistance to insecticides, many regions across the globe, including Colombia, have been facing a resurgence of vector-borne diseases, and dengue fever in particular. Timely information on both (1) the spatial distribution of the disease, and (2) prevailing vulnerabilities of the population are needed to adequately plan targeted preventive intervention. We propose a methodology for the spatial assessment of current socioeconomic vulnerabilities to dengue fever in Cali, a tropical urban environment of Colombia. Methods Based on a set of socioeconomic and demographic indicators derived from census data and ancillary geospatial datasets, we develop a spatial approach for both expert-based and purely statistical-based modeling of current vulnerability levels across 340 neighborhoods of the city using a Geographic Information System (GIS). The results of both approaches are comparatively evaluated by means of spatial statistics. A web-based approach is proposed to facilitate the visualization and the dissemination of the output vulnerability index to the community. Results The statistical and the expert-based modeling approach exhibit a high concordance, globally, and spatially. The expert-based approach indicates a slightly higher vulnerability mean (0.53) and vulnerability median (0.56) across all neighborhoods, compared to the purely statistical approach (mean = 0.48; median = 0.49). Both approaches reveal that high values of vulnerability tend to cluster in the eastern, north-eastern, and western part of the city. These are poor neighborhoods with high percentages of young (i.e., < 15 years) and illiterate residents, as well as a high proportion of individuals being either unemployed or doing housework. Conclusions Both modeling approaches reveal similar outputs, indicating that in the absence of local expertise, statistical approaches could be used, with caution. By decomposing identified

  6. Assessing socioeconomic vulnerability to dengue fever in Cali, Colombia: statistical vs expert-based modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenlocher, Michael; Delmelle, Eric; Casas, Irene; Kienberger, Stefan

    2013-08-14

    As a result of changes in climatic conditions and greater resistance to insecticides, many regions across the globe, including Colombia, have been facing a resurgence of vector-borne diseases, and dengue fever in particular. Timely information on both (1) the spatial distribution of the disease, and (2) prevailing vulnerabilities of the population are needed to adequately plan targeted preventive intervention. We propose a methodology for the spatial assessment of current socioeconomic vulnerabilities to dengue fever in Cali, a tropical urban environment of Colombia. Based on a set of socioeconomic and demographic indicators derived from census data and ancillary geospatial datasets, we develop a spatial approach for both expert-based and purely statistical-based modeling of current vulnerability levels across 340 neighborhoods of the city using a Geographic Information System (GIS). The results of both approaches are comparatively evaluated by means of spatial statistics. A web-based approach is proposed to facilitate the visualization and the dissemination of the output vulnerability index to the community. The statistical and the expert-based modeling approach exhibit a high concordance, globally, and spatially. The expert-based approach indicates a slightly higher vulnerability mean (0.53) and vulnerability median (0.56) across all neighborhoods, compared to the purely statistical approach (mean = 0.48; median = 0.49). Both approaches reveal that high values of vulnerability tend to cluster in the eastern, north-eastern, and western part of the city. These are poor neighborhoods with high percentages of young (i.e., local expertise, statistical approaches could be used, with caution. By decomposing identified vulnerability "hotspots" into their underlying factors, our approach provides valuable information on both (1) the location of neighborhoods, and (2) vulnerability factors that should be given priority in the context of targeted intervention

  7. The Assessment of Comprehensive Vulnerability of Chemical Industrial Park Based on Entropy Method and Matter-element Extension Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jingyi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on studying connotative meaning, evaluation methods and models for chemical industry park based on in-depth analysis of relevant research results in China and abroad, it summarizes and states the feature of menacing vulnerability and structural vulnerability and submits detailed influence factors such as personnel vulnerability, infrastructural vulnerability, environmental vulnerability and the vulnerability of safety managerial defeat. Using vulnerability scoping diagram establishes 21 evaluation indexes and an index system for the vulnerability evaluation of chemical industrial park. The comprehensive weights are calculated with entropy method, combining matter-element extension model to make the quantitative evaluation, then apply to evaluate some chemical industrial park successfully. This method provides a new ideas and ways for enhancing overall safety of the chemical industrial park.

  8. HYDROGEOLOGICAL AND HYDROCHEMICAL FEATURES OF KALNIK MASSIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Mraz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Kalničko gorje consists of Cretaceous – Holocene sediments, which can be in hydrogeological sense classified in three hydrogeological units: (1 northern area from central massive of Kalnik, consists of Cretaceous and low Miocene impermeable and low permeable sediments which are hydrogeological barrier and low permeable Cretaceous eruptive sediments ; (2 Kalnik massive consists of Paleogen and Baden permeable carbonate – clastic sediments, which are aquifer; (3 southern Kalnik area consists of Neogene low permeable sediments and Quaternary medium permeable unconsolidated deposits. In the hydrogelogical units are several aquifers types: (i Paleogen carbonate aquifer consists of limestone – dolomite breccia and this is the most important aquifer in the Kalnik area; (ii Baden carbonate aquifer consists of lithothamnium, lithothamnium limestone, sandstone and breccia-conglomerate and it has high permeability, especially through the karst morphological features; (iii Quaternary alluvial aquifers – the most important is in the valley of the Kamešnica river and it’s permeability varies from poor to good depending on granulometric properties; (iv Cretaceous eruptive aquifer from which in the Apatovac area is abstraction of mineral water. The aquifers of the Kalnik area are very vulnerable considering the hydrogeological properties of the area. Nevertheless, physical, physicalchemical, and chemical properties of groundwater in the Kalnik area are showing that waters are of very good quality. The reasons of good quality of waters are that the area is poorly populated and there is no potential pollutant. The area is very valuable and important natural resource for water supply of whole region. In the future it is necessary to provide good protection and sustainable water management to obtain today’s good quality and quantity of groundwater (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. Enhancement of global flood damage assessments using building material based vulnerability curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englhardt, Johanna; de Ruiter, Marleen; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    This study discusses the development of an enhanced approach for flood damage and risk assessments using vulnerability curves that are based on building material information. The approach draws upon common practices in earthquake vulnerability assessments, and is an alternative for land-use or building occupancy approach in flood risk assessment models. The approach is of particular importance for studies where there is a large variation in building material, such as large scale studies or studies in developing countries. A case study of Ethiopia is used to demonstrate the impact of the different methodological approaches on direct damage assessments due to flooding. Generally, flood damage assessments use damage curves for different land-use or occupancy types (i.e. urban or residential and commercial classes). However, these categories do not necessarily relate directly to vulnerability of damage by flood waters. For this, the construction type and building material may be more important, as is used in earthquake risk assessments. For this study, we use building material classification data of the PAGER1 project to define new building material based vulnerability classes for flood damage. This approach will be compared to the widely applied land-use based vulnerability curves such as used by De Moel et al. (2011). The case of Ethiopia demonstrates and compares the feasibility of this novel flood vulnerability method on a country level which holds the potential to be scaled up to a global level. The study shows that flood vulnerability based on building material also allows for better differentiation between flood damage in urban and rural settings, opening doors to better link to poverty studies when such exposure data is available. Furthermore, this new approach paves the road to the enhancement of multi-risk assessments as the method enables the comparison of vulnerability across different natural hazard types that also use material-based vulnerability curves

  10. ESB-based Sensor Web integration for the prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoimenov, Leonid; Bogdanovic, Milos; Bogdanovic-Dinic, Sanja

    2013-08-15

    Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application.

  11. Comparative studies of groundwater vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Rizka

    2018-02-01

    Pollution of groundwater is a primary issue because aquifers are susceptible to contamination from land use and anthropogenic impacts. Groundwater susceptibility is intrinsic and specific. Intrinsic vulnerability refers to an aquifer that is susceptible to pollution and to the geological and hydrogeological features. Vulnerability assessment is an essential step in assessing groundwater contamination. This approach provides a visual analysis for helping planners and decision makers to achieve the sustainable management of water resources. Comparative studies are applying different methodologies to result in the basic evaluation of the groundwater vulnerability. Based on the comparison of methods, there are several advantages and disadvantages. SI can be overlaid on DRASTIC and Pesticide DRASTIC to extract the divergence in sensitivity. DRASTIC identifies low susceptibility and underestimates the pollution risk while Pesticide DRASTIC and SI represents better risk and is recommended for the future. SINTACS method generates very high vulnerability zones with surface waters and aquifer interactions. GOD method could be adequate for vulnerability mapping in karstified carbonate aquifers at small-moderate scales, and EPIK method can be used for large scale. GOD method is suitable for designing large area such as land management while DRASTIC has good accuracy and more real use in geoenvironmental detailed studies.

  12. Vulnerability of OFDR-based distributed sensors to radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzolo, S.; Boukenter, A.; Marin, E.; Ouerdane, Y.; Girard, S.; Cannas, M.; Perisse, J.; Bauer, S.; Mace, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Silica-based optical fibers have recently attracted much interest for their use in harsh environments such as the ones encountered in space, military or high energy physics applications. Small size, fast response, light weight and immunity to electromagnetic fields are favorable advantages that often become decisive for fiber sensing to be chosen over other conventional sensing technologies. As an important and representative example, Fukushima's accident highlighted weaknesses in the safety of nuclear power plants. Since, one of the strategic research axis of the nuclear industry is devoted to the development of novel technologies and sensors to enhance and reinforce the safety in nuclear power plants, especially in the case of accidental conditions associated with a strong increase of the constraints applied to the fiber-based system. The objective of this research field is to develop classes of distributed fiber-based sensors using scattering-based techniques, powerful solutions for various measurands measurement. Optical fiber properties, indeed, depend on several external parameters such as temperature, strain and therefore the fiber itself can be used as the sensitive element. Different classes of fiber-based sensing techniques have been recently investigated such as Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) for discrete measurements and Brillouin, Raman and Rayleigh [8,9] scattering based techniques for distributed measurements of various environmental parameters. Whereas Brillouin and Raman sensor resolutions remain in the range of one meter, the advantage of Rayleigh scattering based technique is that it offers very high spatial resolution from 1 cm down to few μm over several hundred meters of fiber length down to few meters respectively. For nuclear industry, integrating fibers-based sensors has to improve the performances (resolution, operating range,...) of security systems in current nuclear power plants (NPPs) and offers new alternative technologies that may

  13. Bedrock hydrogeology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling, SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin, Sven

    2008-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 concept. Site characterisation should provide all data required for an integrated evaluation of the suitability of the investigated site and an important component in the characterisation work is the development of a hydrogeological model. The hydrogeological model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It also provides input to the safety assessment. Another important use of the hydrogeological model is in the environmental impact assessment. This report presents the understanding of the hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at Forsmark reached following the completion of the surface-based investigations and provides a summary of the bedrock hydrogeological model and the underlying data supporting its development. It constitutes the main reference on bedrock hydrogeology for the site descriptive model concluding the surface-based investigations at Forsmark, SDM-site, and is intended to describe the hydraulic properties and hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at the site and to give the information essential for demonstrating understanding

  14. Aquifer sensitivity to pesticide leaching: Testing a soils and hydrogeologic index method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, E.; Keefer, D.A.; Dey, W.S.; Wehrmann, H.A.; Wilson, S.D.; Ray, C.

    2005-01-01

    For years, researchers have sought index and other methods to predict aquifer sensitivity and vulnerability to nonpoint pesticide contamination. In 1995, an index method and map were developed to define aquifer sensitivity to pesticide leaching based on a combination of soil and hydrogeologic factors. The soil factor incorporated three soil properties: hydraulic conductivity, amount of organic matter within individual soil layers, and drainage class. These properties were obtained from a digital soil association map. The hydrogeologic factor was depth to uppermost aquifer material. To test this index method, a shallow ground water monitoring well network was designed, installed, and sampled in Illinois. The monitoring wells had a median depth of 7.6 m and were located adjacent to corn and soybean fields where the only known sources of pesticides were those used in normal agricultural production. From September 1998 through February 2001, 159 monitoring wells were sampled for 14 pesticides but no pesticide metabolites. Samples were collected and analyzed to assess the distribution of pesticide occurrence across three units of aquifer sensitivity. Pesticides were detected in 18% of all samples and nearly uniformly from samples from the three units of aquifer sensitivity. The new index method did not predict pesticide occurrence because occurrence was not dependent on the combined soil and hydrogeologic factors. However, pesticide occurrence was dependent on the tested hydrogeologic factor and was three times higher in areas where the depth to the uppermost aquifer was <6 m than in areas where the depth to the uppermost aquifer was 6 to <15 m. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  15. A Real-Life Based Evaluation Method of Deployable Vulnerable Road User Protection Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredriksson, R.; Dahlgren, M.; Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de; Montfort, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a real-life-based evaluation method, incorporating vulnerable road user (VRU) full-body loading to a vehicle with a deployable protection system in relevant test setups, and use this method to evaluate a prototype pedestrian and cyclist protection

  16. Identifying novel phenotypes of vulnerability and resistance to activity-based anorexia in adolescent female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C; Underwood, Mark D; Foltin, Richard W; Myers, Michael M; Walsh, B Timothy; Barrett, Jeffrey S; Marsteller, Douglas A

    2013-11-01

    Activity-based anorexia is a translational rodent model that results in severe weight loss, hyperactivity, and voluntary self-starvation. The goal of our investigation was to identify vulnerable and resistant phenotypes of activity-based anorexia in adolescent female rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained under conditions of restricted access to food (N = 64; or unlimited access, N = 16) until experimental exit, predefined as a target weight loss of 30-35% or meeting predefined criteria for animal health. Nonlinear mixed effects statistical modeling was used to describe wheel running behavior, time to event analysis was used to assess experimental exit, and a regressive partitioning algorithm was used to classify phenotypes. Objective criteria were identified for distinguishing novel phenotypes of activity-based anorexia, including a vulnerable phenotype that conferred maximal hyperactivity, minimal food intake, and the shortest time to experimental exit, and a resistant phenotype that conferred minimal activity and the longest time to experimental exit. The identification of objective criteria for defining vulnerable and resistant phenotypes of activity-based anorexia in adolescent female rats provides an important framework for studying the neural mechanisms that promote vulnerability to or protection against the development of self-starvation and hyperactivity during adolescence. Ultimately, future studies using these novel phenotypes may provide important translational insights into the mechanisms that promote these maladaptive behaviors characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Goat-based aid programme in Central Java: An effective intervention for the poor and vulnerable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budisatria, I.G.S.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated a goat-based aid programme developed to facilitate the recovery of vulnerable people in an earthquake affected area in Central Java, Indonesia. Farmers, organised in farmers’ groups, received a package of one male and four female goats. In total, 72 farmers from 6 farmers’

  18. Education and Employment in Hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Darryll T.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study of position descriptions in the field of hydrogeology appearing in want ads, published studies describing the working professional, and published descriptions of hydrogeology programs. Results indicate an increase in positions of ten times that of five years ago. Suggests basic training requirements for beginning…

  19. GIS Approach for Preventive Evaluation of Roads Loss of Efficiency in Hydrogeological Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiameli, M.; Mussumeci, G.

    2013-01-01

    The theme of the simulation of hydrogeological risk with GIS technology is analyzed with focus on the modeling of the architecture of a Spatial Data Base to support risk analysis and on the construction of a specialized frame with free and open source software. For this purpose a model of analysis of the vulnerability of roads developed by (Cafiso et al., 2002) has been adopted. The case of study is represented by a seismic land characterized by steep slopes and frequent instability phenomena. In detail, the area of interest is a mountainous land in Sicily with a city, Enna (about 30 000 people), that lies on the top. The access to the city is assured by few and very winding roads which are also highly vulnerable to seismic and hydrogeological hazards. The loss of efficiency of these roads for exceptional rainfall events should compromise timeliness and effectiveness of rescue operations. The data of the sample area have been implemented in the specialized GIS appositely constructed in order to forecast the possible damage to roads and the results of some simulations have been related to the effects registered after some extreme events, obtaining useful indications for the validation of the approach.

  20. Project for study of seismic-hydrogeological phenomena in Balkan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matova, M.; Frangov, G.; Ivanov, P.

    2007-01-01

    The International Project of UNESCO - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences has the title 'Seismic - hydrogeological vulnerability of the geoenvironment and the population in the Balkan area'. The Project has a responsible task to make a study of the seismic-hydrogeological phenomena in seven Balkan countries. The study includes the collection of information for these phenomena, its analysis, documentation and comparison. The primary information will contribute also to solving several transboundary problems in the area. The obtained data will be applied for the creation of a database about the studied seismic-hydrogeological phenomena. It will be used for the primary mapping of established seismic-hydrogeological manifestations and supposed ones. On the basis of the obtained information we will go to the assessment of the seismic-hydrogeological vulnerability of the geological environment and the population in the investigated territories. The Project investigations could be used also for several recommendations related to the reduction of negative effects of the seismic-hydrogeological phenomena in seven Balkan countries. The Balkan experts will try to propose also more rational exploration of the rare positive effects of the seismic-hydrogeological manifestations. (authors)

  1. An evaluation of hydrogeologic data of crystalline rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raven, K.G.; Lafleur, D.W.

    1986-12-01

    This report presents a detailed review of hydrogeologic data collected as part of various research programs investigating fractured crystalline rock around the world. Based on the available information describing the test equipment, test methods and analytical techniques, the data have been assessed in terms of their reliability and representativeness, and likely error ranges have been assigned. The data reviewed include both hydrogeologic parameters, such as permeability, storage coefficient components (principally porosity), and fracture characteristic data

  2. Research and application of ARP protocol vulnerability attack and defense technology based on trusted network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Huixing

    2017-03-01

    With the continuous development of network technology and the rapid spread of the Internet, computer networks have been around the world every corner. However, the network attacks frequently occur. The ARP protocol vulnerability is one of the most common vulnerabilities in the TCP / IP four-layer architecture. The network protocol vulnerabilities can lead to the intrusion and attack of the information system, and disable or disable the normal defense function of the system [1]. At present, ARP spoofing Trojans spread widely in the LAN, the network security to run a huge hidden danger, is the primary threat to LAN security. In this paper, the author summarizes the research status and the key technologies involved in ARP protocol, analyzes the formation mechanism of ARP protocol vulnerability, and analyzes the feasibility of the attack technique. Based on the summary of the common defensive methods, the advantages and disadvantages of each defense method. At the same time, the current defense method is improved, and the advantage of the improved defense algorithm is given. At the end of this paper, the appropriate test method is selected and the test environment is set up. Experiment and test are carried out for each proposed improved defense algorithm.

  3. Estimation of groundwater vulnerability to pollution based on DRASTIC in the Niipele sub-basin of the Cuvelai Etosha Basin, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamutoko, J. T.; Wanke, H.; Voigt, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    Surface water is a scarce resource in Namibia with about sixty percent of Namibia's population dependent on groundwater for drinking purposes. With increasing population, the country faces water challenges and thus groundwater resources need to be managed properly. One important aspect of Integrated Water Resources Management is the protection of water resources, including protection of groundwater from contamination and over-exploitation. This study explores vulnerability mapping as a basic tool for protecting groundwater resources from pollution. It estimates groundwater vulnerability to pollution in the upper Niipele sub-basin of the Cuvelai-Etosha in Northern Namibia using the DRASTIC index. The DRASTIC index uses GIS to estimate groundwater vulnerability by overlaying different spatially referenced hydrogeological parameters that affect groundwater contamination. The study assesses the discontinuous perched aquifer (KDP) and the Ohangwena multi-layered aquifer 1 (KOH-1). For perched aquifers, point data was regionalized by a hydrotope approach whereas for KOH-1 aquifer, inverse distance weighting was used. The hydrotope approach categorized different parts of the hydrogeological system with similar properties into five hydrotopes. The result suggests that the discontinuous perched aquifers are more vulnerable than Ohangwena multi-layered aquifer 1. This implies that vulnerability increases with decreasing depth to water table because contaminants have short travel time to reach the aquifer when they are introduced on land surface. The nitrate concentration ranges between 2 and 288 mg/l in perched aquifers while in Ohangwena multi-layered aquifer 1, it ranges between 1 and 133 mg/l. It was observed that perched aquifers have high nitrate concentrations than Ohangwena 1 aquifer, which correlates well with the vulnerability results.

  4. A rainfall risk analysis thanks to an GIS based estimation of urban vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Florent; Pierre-Marie, Chapon

    2010-05-01

    heavy rains, to locate areas of risk in the urban area. The targets that share the same rank of this vulnerability index do not possess the same importance, or the same sensitivity to the flood hazard. Therefore, the second part of this work is to define the priorities and sensitivities of different targets based on the judgments of experts. Multicriteria decision methods are used to prioritize elements and are therefore adapted to the modelling of the sensitivity of the issues of greater Lyon (Griot, 2008). The purpose of these methods is the assessment of priorities between the different components of the situation. Thomas Saaty's analytic hierarchy process (1980) is the most frequently used because of its many advantages. On this basis, the formal calculations of priorities and sensitivities of the elements have been conducted. These calculations are based on the judgments of experts. Indeed, during semi-structured interview, the 38 experts in our sample delivered a verdict on issues that seem relatively more important than others by binary comparison. They carry the same manner to determine sensitivity's stakes to hazard flooding. Finally, the consistency of answers given by experts is validated by calculating a ratio of coherence, and their results are aggregated to provide functions of priority (based on the relative importance of each stakes), and functions of sensitivity (based on the relative sensitivity of each stakes). From these functions of priority and sensitivity is obtained the general function of vulnerability. The vulnerability functions allow defining the importance of the stakes of Greater Lyon and their sensitivity to hydrological hazards. The global vulnerability function is obtained from sensitivity and priority functions and shows the great importance of human issues (75 %). The vulnerability factor of environmental targets represents 12 % of the global vulnerability function, as much as the materials issues. However, it can be seen that the

  5. The hydrological vulnerability of western North American boreal tree species based on ground-based observations of tree mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hember, R. A.; Kurz, W. A.; Coops, N. C.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies indicate that climate change has increased rates of tree mortality, adversely affecting timber supply and carbon storage in western North American boreal forests. Statistical models of tree mortality can play a complimentary role in detecting and diagnosing forest change. Yet, such models struggle to address real-world complexity, including expectations that hydrological vulnerability arises from both drought stress and excess-water stress, and that these effects vary by species, tree size, and competitive status. Here, we describe models that predict annual probability of tree mortality (Pm) of common boreal tree species based on tree height (H), biomass of larger trees (BLT), soil water content (W), reference evapotranspiration (E), and two-way interactions. We show that interactions among H and hydrological variables are consistently significant. Vulnerability to extreme droughts consistently increases as H approaches maximum observed values of each species, while some species additionally show increasing vulnerability at low H. Some species additionally show increasing vulnerability to low W under high BLT, or increasing drought vulnerability under low BLT. These results suggest that vulnerability of trees to increasingly severe droughts depends on the hydraulic efficiency, competitive status, and microclimate of individual trees. Static simulations of Pm across a 1-km grid (i.e., with time-independent inputs of H, BLT, and species composition) indicate complex spatial patterns in the time trends during 1965-2014 and a mean change in Pm of 42 %. Lastly, we discuss how the size-dependence of hydrological vulnerability, in concert with increasingly severe drought events, may shape future responses of stand-level biomass production to continued warming and increasing carbon dioxide concentration in the region.

  6. Delineating Groundwater Vulnerability and Protection Zone Mapping in Fractured Rock Masses: Focus on the DISCO Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Meerkhan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hard-rock catchments are considered to be source of valuable water resources for water supply to inhabitants and ecosystems. The present work aims to develop a groundwater vulnerability approach in the Caldas da Cavaca hydromineral system (Aguiar da Beira, Central Portugal in order to improve the hydrogeological conceptual site model. Different types of information were overlaid, generating several thematic maps to achieve an integrated framework of key sectors in the study site. Thus, a multi-technical approach was used, encompassing field and laboratory techniques, whereby different types of data were collected from fields such as geology, hydrogeology, applied geomorphology and geophysics and hydrogeomechanics, with the fundamental aim of applying the so-called DISCO index method. All of these techniques were successfully performed and an intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to contamination assessment, based on the multicriteria methodology of GOD-S, DRASTIC-Fm, SINTACS, SI and DISCO indexes, was delineated. Geographic Information Systems (GIS provided the basis on which to organize and integrate the databases and to produce all the thematic maps. This multi-technical approach highlights the importance of groundwater vulnerability to contamination mapping as a tool to support hydrogeological conceptualization, contributing to improving the decision-making process regarding water resources management and sustainability.

  7. Seismic vulnerability assessment of school buildings in Tehran city based on AHP and GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Panahi, M.; Rezaie, F.; Meshkani, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current study is to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of school buildings in Tehran city based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and geographical information system (GIS). To this end, the peak ground acceleration, slope, and soil liquefaction layers were utilized for developing a geotechnical map. Also, the construction materials of structures, age of construction, the quality, and the seismic resonance coefficient layers were defined as major fa...

  8. Cyber and Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment for IoT-Based Smart Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Bako; Awad, Ali Ismail

    2018-03-08

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging paradigm focusing on the connection of devices, objects, or "things" to each other, to the Internet, and to users. IoT technology is anticipated to become an essential requirement in the development of smart homes, as it offers convenience and efficiency to home residents so that they can achieve better quality of life. Application of the IoT model to smart homes, by connecting objects to the Internet, poses new security and privacy challenges in terms of the confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity of the data sensed, collected, and exchanged by the IoT objects. These challenges make smart homes extremely vulnerable to different types of security attacks, resulting in IoT-based smart homes being insecure. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the possible security risks to develop a complete picture of the security status of smart homes. This article applies the operationally critical threat, asset, and vulnerability evaluation (OCTAVE) methodology, known as OCTAVE Allegro, to assess the security risks of smart homes. The OCTAVE Allegro method focuses on information assets and considers different information containers such as databases, physical papers, and humans. The key goals of this study are to highlight the various security vulnerabilities of IoT-based smart homes, to present the risks on home inhabitants, and to propose approaches to mitigating the identified risks. The research findings can be used as a foundation for improving the security requirements of IoT-based smart homes.

  9. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (DENVER PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  10. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (CHICAGO, IL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  11. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  12. Drilling technologies in hydrogeological survey

    OpenAIRE

    Vorlíček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the drilling technologies used in hydrogeology. The main aim of the work is to explore types of drilling technologies used at hydrogeological drilling wells and modern technologies that could potentially be used in the future. The work also summarizes a historical development of drilling techniques, a drilling process procedure, information obtained from boreholes and the most common types of drilling fluids.

  13. The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin

    2011-08-01

    The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology are summarized and interpreted, along with records of some related matters, like groundwater exploration and utilization, karst springs, water circulation, water conservation and saline-land transformation, mine drainage, and environmental hydrogeology. The report focuses only on the earliest recorded notes, mostly up until the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 25). Besides the references cited, the discussion in this report is based mainly on archaeological material, the preserved written classic literature, and some assumptions and/or conclusions that have been handed down in legends to later ages. Although most material relates to ancient China, the lessons learned may have practical significance worldwide. Compared to other contemporary parts of the world, ancient China, without doubt, took the lead in the field of groundwater hydrology. The great achievements and experience of the Chinese ancestors should provide motivation and inspiration for hydrogeologists to carry out their scientific research and exploration passionately and actively.

  14. Bedrock Hydrogeology-Groundwater flow modelling. Site investigation SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehman, Johan; Follin, Sven; Oden, Magnus

    2013-05-01

    The hydrogeological model developed for the SFR extension project (PSU) consists of 40 geologically modelled deformation zones (DZ) and 8 sub-horizontal structural-hydraulic features, called SBAstructures, not defined in the geological model. However, some of the SBA-structures coincide with what is defined as unresolved possible deformation zones (Unresolved PDZ) in the geological modelling. In addition, the hydrogeological model consists of a stochastic discrete fracture network (DFN) model intended for the less fractured rock mass volumes (fracture domains) between the zones and the SBA-structures, and a stochastic fracture model intended to handle remaining Unresolved PDZs in the geological modelling not modelled as SBA-structures in the hydrogeological modelling. The four structural components of the bedrock in the hydrogeological model, i.e. DZ, SBA, Unresolved PDZ and DFN, are assigned hydraulic properties in the hydrogeological model based on the transmissivities interpreted from single-hole hydraulic tests. The main objective of the present work is to present the characteristics of the hydrogeological model with regard to the needs of the forthcoming safety assessment SR-PSU. In concrete words, simulated data are compared with measured data, i.e. hydraulic heads in boreholes and tunnel inflow to the existing repository (SFR). The calculations suggest that the available data for flow model calibration cannot be used to motivate a substantial adjustment of the initial hydraulic parameterisation (assignment of hydraulic properties) of the hydrogeological model. It is suggested that uncertainties in the hydrogeological model are studied in the safety assessment SR-PSU by means of a large number of calculation cases. These should address hydraulic heterogeneity of deterministic structures (DZ and SBA) and realisations of stochastic fractures/fracture networks (Unresolved PDZ and DFN) within the entire SFR Regional model domain

  15. Bedrock Hydrogeology - Groundwater flow modelling. Site investigation SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, Johan [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden); Oden, Magnus [SKB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-05-15

    The hydrogeological model developed for the SFR extension project (PSU) consists of 40 geologically modelled deformation zones (DZ) and 8 sub-horizontal structural-hydraulic features, called SBAstructures, not defined in the geological model. However, some of the SBA-structures coincide with what is defined as unresolved possible deformation zones (Unresolved PDZ) in the geological modelling. In addition, the hydrogeological model consists of a stochastic discrete fracture network (DFN) model intended for the less fractured rock mass volumes (fracture domains) between the zones and the SBA-structures, and a stochastic fracture model intended to handle remaining Unresolved PDZs in the geological modelling not modelled as SBA-structures in the hydrogeological modelling. The four structural components of the bedrock in the hydrogeological model, i.e. DZ, SBA, Unresolved PDZ and DFN, are assigned hydraulic properties in the hydrogeological model based on the transmissivities interpreted from single-hole hydraulic tests. The main objective of the present work is to present the characteristics of the hydrogeological model with regard to the needs of the forthcoming safety assessment SR-PSU. In concrete words, simulated data are compared with measured data, i.e. hydraulic heads in boreholes and tunnel inflow to the existing repository (SFR). The calculations suggest that the available data for flow model calibration cannot be used to motivate a substantial adjustment of the initial hydraulic parameterisation (assignment of hydraulic properties) of the hydrogeological model. It is suggested that uncertainties in the hydrogeological model are studied in the safety assessment SR-PSU by means of a large number of calculation cases. These should address hydraulic heterogeneity of deterministic structures (DZ and SBA) and realisations of stochastic fractures/fracture networks (Unresolved PDZ and DFN) within the entire SFR Regional model domain.

  16. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shameng; Meng, Qingkun; Feng, Chao; Tang, Chaojing

    2017-01-01

    Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  17. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameng Wen

    Full Text Available Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  18. Remote Sensing Based Vulnerability Assessment of Desertification in Mongolia and Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C. H.; Lee, E. J.; Song, C.; Lee, W. K.; Jeon, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Desertification is one of the global threatening problems in respect of society, economy, and environment, and the assessment of desertification is essential for land planning and management. However desertification is a process that encompasses various factors in various aspects, having difficulties to assess qualitatively. The main purpose of the research is to qualitatively assess sensitivity of land to desertification, and detect the most vulnerable land to desertification in Mongolia and Myanmar using the Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use (MEDALUS) approach. MEDALUS approach aims to provide a manual on key indicators of desertification and mapping environmentally sensitive areas to desertification in the Mediterranean countries. However in this research, MEDALUS approach is implemented and reviewed on the countries located in the Middle Asia; Mongolia and Myanmar. MEDALUS approach identifies regions with the highest risk of desertification with 4 quality index; climate, soil, vegetation, management. Within the four quality index are several regional scale indicators for Mongolia and Myanmar, which gives effect with increasing or decreasing risk of desertification. MODIS satellite images, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and climatic and geographical data were used to calculate the indicators. The weighting of each indicator ranged from 1 to 2; the higher weight the more vulnerable to desertification. The weighted indicators were allocated to 4 quality index, and the four quality index was summed to calculate Environmentally Sensitive Area Index (ESAI) representing the vulnerability of land degradation to desertification. As a result, the Middle East region of Mongolia showed the highest sensitivity, thus the most vulnerable to desertification. Based on the result of this study, it is useful to identify the current state of affairs and the necessity of land planning in Mongolia and Myanmar, one tool that can be utilized for combating desertification. The

  19. Hydrogeological challenges through gender approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Maria Rosaria; Saltari, Davide; Di Giacomo, Tullia Valeria

    2017-04-01

    Women and Men play a different role in the society, tied from the differences (physical, biological, somatic, etc…) typical of each one. In the last decades, more gender approach has been introduced in a number of fields including the hydrogeological risk. Experiences, needs and potential of each one, women and men, covers both the risk reduction before the occurrence of extreme events (vulnerability assessment and prediction of the expected risk), then in the next emergency and intervention in follow-up actions to the overcoming of the event for the return to everyday life. The response of the extreme hydrological events are also subordinated from gender participation and it is closely related from other aspects, as natural disasters (flood events), gender inequalities and urban floodings. These aspects are also scheduled by the different approaches: a woman focuses different primary and social aspects than a man. How women can help organizations offering new 'policies' and government is the main aspect to be considered and how a gender approach can mitigate disasters to hydrological risk. It depends on some factors: gender inequalities (gender perception and sensibility), importance of natural disasters and urban floodings. Gender inequalities can match both in the natural disasters and urban floodings in a relevant way. ICT solutions can also give a helpful framework to accelerate and focus the quicker condition to get the better approach and solution. Gender has a particular significant, explanatory variable in disaster research. Many studies, show how women have higher mortality and morbidity rates than men during natural disasters, especially in lower income countries. In the aftermath disasters, at the same time, specific responsibilities on women are imposed from the gendered division of labour. Furthermore gender differences are sometimes attributed to traditional women's roles, discrimination, lower physical strength, nutritional deficiencies, etc. as

  20. On uncertainty quantification in hydrogeology and hydrogeophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Niklas; Ginsbourger, David; Irving, James; Nobile, Fabio; Doucet, Arnaud

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in sensor technologies, field methodologies, numerical modeling, and inversion approaches have contributed to unprecedented imaging of hydrogeological properties and detailed predictions at multiple temporal and spatial scales. Nevertheless, imaging results and predictions will always remain imprecise, which calls for appropriate uncertainty quantification (UQ). In this paper, we outline selected methodological developments together with pioneering UQ applications in hydrogeology and hydrogeophysics. The applied mathematics and statistics literature is not easy to penetrate and this review aims at helping hydrogeologists and hydrogeophysicists to identify suitable approaches for UQ that can be applied and further developed to their specific needs. To bypass the tremendous computational costs associated with forward UQ based on full-physics simulations, we discuss proxy-modeling strategies and multi-resolution (Multi-level Monte Carlo) methods. We consider Bayesian inversion for non-linear and non-Gaussian state-space problems and discuss how Sequential Monte Carlo may become a practical alternative. We also describe strategies to account for forward modeling errors in Bayesian inversion. Finally, we consider hydrogeophysical inversion, where petrophysical uncertainty is often ignored leading to overconfident parameter estimation. The high parameter and data dimensions encountered in hydrogeological and geophysical problems make UQ a complicated and important challenge that has only been partially addressed to date.

  1. Tono regional hydrogeological study project. Annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Teruki; Ota, Kunio; Takeuchi, Shinji; Amano, Kenji; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Osawa, Hideaki

    2005-09-01

    Tono Geoscience Center, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute has been conducting a wide range of geoscientific research in order to build firm scientific and technological basis for the research and development of geological disposal. One of the geoscientific research programme is a Regional Hydrogeological Study (RHS) project in the Tono region, central Japan. This report mainly summarizes the results of research in DH-14 and DH-15 boreholes at Toki city and Mizunami city in fiscal year 2004 which were carried out to support and improve the results in fiscal year 2003. The research in the regional scale area shows the reliability of conceptual hydrogeological model and numerical simulation for the evaluation of regional hydrogeology. On the other hand, the geological and geophysical investigation, and borehole investigation during the surface-based investigations in the local scale area provide the pragmatic distribution of hydrogeological structure that may control regional groundwater hydrology. Hydrogeological simulations regarding the geological structure such as fault and hydrogeological property demonstrate the priority of investigation of geological structure for the evaluation of hydrogeology. The fault perpendicular to groundwater flow direction crucially affects on regional hydrology. Such fault is necessary to be investigated by priority. Hydrochemical investigation shows that chemical evolution process in this groundwater illustrated is mixing between groundwaters with different salinities. Principal component analysis and mass balance calculation reveal reliable chemistry of end-member waters for mixing. Regarding methodology development, the strategy and procedure of investigations are summarized based on the results of surface-based investigation. Moreover the multi interval monitoring system for water pressure and temperature has developed and started to monitor the in-situ condition of groundwater. The geology, geological structure, hydraulic

  2. Hydrogeologic barriers to the infiltration of treated wastewater at the Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst Land Application Site, Burlington County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Alex R.

    2016-09-02

    For the final phase of wastewater treatment operations at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst in Burlington County, New Jersey, treated effluent is pumped to 12 infiltration basins on a Land Application Site to recharge the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. Two of the 12 infiltration basins are operationally ineffective because discharged effluent fails to percolate and remains ponded on the basin surfaces. A study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense, investigated the potential hydrogeologic conditions preventing infiltration in these basins by testing the geophysical, lithological, and hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer material underlying the site. Saturated sand, sandy clay, and unsaturated sand were encountered in succession through the upper 4 feet of sediment below land surface at the two ineffective basins. Water levels in auger borings penetrating the clay and underlying dry sand were measured as deeper than water levels in nested auger borings in the saturated sand overlying the clay, which indicates a downward vertical gradient was established after removal of the clay in the deeper borings created a conduit for drainage from the surficial saturated sands. Ground-penetrating radar surveys and additional water levels measured in piezometer wells adjacent to the infiltration basins indicated a lack of connectivity between the ponded basin water and the regional water table, and demonstrated that perched conditions were not present in native formation materials outside the inoperable basins. Therefore, the near-surface low permeability clay is likely preventing infiltration from the basin surface and causes the ineffectiveness of the two basins for wastewater land application operations.

  3. Vulnerability assessment of archaeological sites to earthquake hazard: An indicator based method integrating spatial and temporal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Minos-Minopoulos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Across the world, numerous sites of cultural heritage value are at risk from a variety of human-induced and natural hazards such as war and earthquakes. Here we present and test a novel indicator-based method for assessing the vulnerability of archaeological sites to earthquakes. Vulnerability is approached as a dynamic element assessed through a combination of spatial and temporal parameters. The spatial parameters examine the susceptibility of the sites to the secondary Earthquake Environmental Effects of ground liquefaction, landslides and tsunami and are expressed through the Spatial Susceptibility Index (SSi. Parameters of physical vulnerability, economic importance and visitors density examine the temporal vulnerability of the sites expressed through the Temporal Vulnerability Index (TVi. The equally weighted sum of the spatial and temporal indexes represents the total Archaeological Site Vulnerability Index (A.S.V.I.. The A.S.V.I method is applied at 16 archaeological sites across Greece, allowing an assessment of their vulnerability. This then allows the establishment of a regional and national priority list for considering future risk mitigation. Results indicate that i the majority of the sites have low to moderate vulnerability to earthquake hazard, ii Neratzia Fortress on Kos and Heraion on Samos are characterised as highly vulnerable and should be prioritised for further studies and mitigation measures, and iii the majority of the sites are susceptible to at least one Earthquake Environmental Effect and present relatively high physical vulnerability attributed to the existing limited conservation works. This approach highlights the necessity for an effective vulnerability assessment methodology within the existing framework of disaster risk management for cultural heritage.

  4. Cyber and Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment for IoT-Based Smart Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging paradigm focusing on the connection of devices, objects, or “things” to each other, to the Internet, and to users. IoT technology is anticipated to become an essential requirement in the development of smart homes, as it offers convenience and efficiency to home residents so that they can achieve better quality of life. Application of the IoT model to smart homes, by connecting objects to the Internet, poses new security and privacy challenges in terms of the confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity of the data sensed, collected, and exchanged by the IoT objects. These challenges make smart homes extremely vulnerable to different types of security attacks, resulting in IoT-based smart homes being insecure. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the possible security risks to develop a complete picture of the security status of smart homes. This article applies the operationally critical threat, asset, and vulnerability evaluation (OCTAVE) methodology, known as OCTAVE Allegro, to assess the security risks of smart homes. The OCTAVE Allegro method focuses on information assets and considers different information containers such as databases, physical papers, and humans. The key goals of this study are to highlight the various security vulnerabilities of IoT-based smart homes, to present the risks on home inhabitants, and to propose approaches to mitigating the identified risks. The research findings can be used as a foundation for improving the security requirements of IoT-based smart homes. PMID:29518023

  5. Cyber and Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment for IoT-Based Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bako Ali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is an emerging paradigm focusing on the connection of devices, objects, or “things” to each other, to the Internet, and to users. IoT technology is anticipated to become an essential requirement in the development of smart homes, as it offers convenience and efficiency to home residents so that they can achieve better quality of life. Application of the IoT model to smart homes, by connecting objects to the Internet, poses new security and privacy challenges in terms of the confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity of the data sensed, collected, and exchanged by the IoT objects. These challenges make smart homes extremely vulnerable to different types of security attacks, resulting in IoT-based smart homes being insecure. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the possible security risks to develop a complete picture of the security status of smart homes. This article applies the operationally critical threat, asset, and vulnerability evaluation (OCTAVE methodology, known as OCTAVE Allegro, to assess the security risks of smart homes. The OCTAVE Allegro method focuses on information assets and considers different information containers such as databases, physical papers, and humans. The key goals of this study are to highlight the various security vulnerabilities of IoT-based smart homes, to present the risks on home inhabitants, and to propose approaches to mitigating the identified risks. The research findings can be used as a foundation for improving the security requirements of IoT-based smart homes.

  6. Role of Hydrogeology in Professional Environmental Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this presentation is to acquaint hydrogeology students how hydrogeological principles are applied in environmental engineering projects. This presentation outlines EPA's Superfund processes of site characterization, feasibility studies, and remediation processes.

  7. A GIS-based methodology for drought vulnerability modelling: application at the region of el Hodna, central Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Boultif

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Boultif, M. and Benmessaoud, H. 2017. A GIS-based methodology for drought vulnerability modelling: application at the region of el Hodna, central Algeria. Lebanese Science Journal, 18(1: 53-72. Desert covers 80% of the Algerian territory, while the remaining area is covered by Mediterranean forests and arid climate steppe that are characterized by severe vulnerability to different stresses such as drought, especially with the increase of nefarious human impact and the overuse of natural resources. The objective of this study is to analyse and assess drought vulnerability in the area of El Hodna in central Algeria. The methodology was based on the use of GIS tools and multi-criteria analysis (Analytical hierarchy process to develop a model of vulnerability mapping. The results showed that 35.67% of the study area was very vulnerable, 32.77% in fragile situation, 19.72% are potentially vulnerable, and only 11.83% of the surface is not affected. The drought-vulnerability map provides a basis from which it will be possible to prevent and prepare for a drought response.

  8. Retooling CalEnviroScreen: Cumulative Pollution Burden and Race-Based Environmental Health Vulnerabilities in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul S. Liévanos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The California Community Environmental Health Screening Tool (CalEnviroScreen advances research and policy pertaining to environmental health vulnerability. However, CalEnviroScreen departs from its historical foundations and comparable screening tools by no longer considering racial status as an indicator of environmental health vulnerability and predictor of cumulative pollution burden. This study used conceptual frameworks and analytical techniques from environmental health and inequality literature to address the limitations of CalEnviroScreen, especially its inattention to race-based environmental health vulnerabilities. It developed an adjusted measure of cumulative pollution burden from the CalEnviroScreen 2.0 data that facilitates multivariate analyses of the effect of neighborhood racial composition on cumulative pollution burden, net of other indicators of population vulnerability, traffic density, industrial zoning, and local and regional clustering of pollution burden. Principal component analyses produced three new measures of population vulnerability, including Latina/o cumulative disadvantage that represents the spatial concentration of Latinas/os, economic disadvantage, limited English-speaking ability, and health vulnerability. Spatial error regression analyses demonstrated that concentrations of Latinas/os, followed by Latina/o cumulative disadvantage, are the strongest demographic determinants of adjusted cumulative pollution burden. Findings have implications for research and policy pertaining to cumulative impacts and race-based environmental health vulnerabilities within and beyond California.

  9. Retooling CalEnviroScreen: Cumulative Pollution Burden and Race-Based Environmental Health Vulnerabilities in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévanos, Raoul S

    2018-04-16

    The California Community Environmental Health Screening Tool (CalEnviroScreen) advances research and policy pertaining to environmental health vulnerability. However, CalEnviroScreen departs from its historical foundations and comparable screening tools by no longer considering racial status as an indicator of environmental health vulnerability and predictor of cumulative pollution burden. This study used conceptual frameworks and analytical techniques from environmental health and inequality literature to address the limitations of CalEnviroScreen, especially its inattention to race-based environmental health vulnerabilities. It developed an adjusted measure of cumulative pollution burden from the CalEnviroScreen 2.0 data that facilitates multivariate analyses of the effect of neighborhood racial composition on cumulative pollution burden, net of other indicators of population vulnerability, traffic density, industrial zoning, and local and regional clustering of pollution burden. Principal component analyses produced three new measures of population vulnerability, including Latina/o cumulative disadvantage that represents the spatial concentration of Latinas/os, economic disadvantage, limited English-speaking ability, and health vulnerability. Spatial error regression analyses demonstrated that concentrations of Latinas/os, followed by Latina/o cumulative disadvantage, are the strongest demographic determinants of adjusted cumulative pollution burden. Findings have implications for research and policy pertaining to cumulative impacts and race-based environmental health vulnerabilities within and beyond California.

  10. Vulnerability assessment of chemical industry facilities in South Korea based on the chemical accident history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, S.; Lee, W. K.; Jong-Ryeul, S.; Kim, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    The use of chemical compounds are keep increasing because of their use in manufacturing industry. Chemical accident is growing as the consequence of the chemical use increment. Devastating damages from chemical accidents are far enough to aware people's cautious about the risk of the chemical accident. In South Korea, Gumi Hydrofluoric acid leaking accident triggered the importance of risk management and emphasized the preventing the accident over the damage reducing process after the accident occurs. Gumi accident encouraged the government data base construction relate to the chemical accident. As the result of this effort Chemical Safety-Clearing-house (CSC) have started to record the chemical accident information and damages according to the Harmful Chemical Substance Control Act (HCSC). CSC provide details information about the chemical accidents from 2002 to present. The detail informations are including title of company, address, business type, accident dates, accident types, accident chemical compounds, human damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, human damage outside of the chemical industry facilities, financial damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, and financial damages outside of the chemical industry facilities, environmental damages and response to the chemical accident. Collected the chemical accident history of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and provide the spatial information to the each accident records based on their address. With the spatial information, compute the data on ArcGIS for the spatial-temporal analysis. The spatial-temporal information of chemical accident is organized by the chemical accident types, damages, and damages on environment and conduct the spatial proximity with local community and environmental receptors. Find the chemical accident vulnerable area of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and add the vulnerable area of total period to examine the historically vulnerable area from the chemical accident in

  11. Treatment Strategy Based on Plaque Vulnerability and the Treatment Risk Evaluation for Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshiro; Tsuruta, Wataro; Nakai, Yasunobu; Takigawa, Tomoji; Marushima, Aiki; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Matsumaru, Yuji; Ishikawa, Eiichi; Matsumura, Akira

    2018-03-03

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) are not appropriate treatment procedure for internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS) in some patients. The importance of plaque vulnerability and the treatment risk evaluation has been reported. We analyzed whether treatment selection contributes to the outcome. We retrospectively examined 121 patients who underwent CEA or CAS. Treatment was selected based on plaque vulnerability and the treatment risk evaluation. We selected CAS for patients with stable plaques and CEA for patients with unstable plaques, and considered the other treatment for high-risk patients. The patients were classified as the stable plaque (Stable: n = 42), the unstable plaque and CEA low risk (Unstable/Low: n = 30), and the CEA high-risk (Unstable/High: n = 49). Frequency of perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction, death, and systemic complications was examined. CEA and CAS were performed in 35 and 86 patients, respectively. One patient (2.9%) had a stroke in CEA and five patients (5.8%) in CAS (P = 0.50). Systemic complications were observed in two patients (5.7%) in CEA and six (7.1%) in CAS (P = 0.80). There were no differences in stroke (Stable; 2.4%, Unstable/Low; 3.2%, and Unstable/High; 8.2%) and systemic complications (Stable; 9.5%, Unstable/Low; 3.3%, and Unstable/High; 6.1%) among three groups (P = 0.44 and P = 0.59, respectively). The treatment selection based on plaque vulnerability and the treatment risk evaluation could provide good treatment outcome for high-risk patients. It is ideal to select an appropriate treatment for ICAS by one neurovascular team.

  12. Hydrogeologic Factors Affecting Base-Flow Yields in the Jefferson County Area, West Virginia, October-November 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaldi, Ronald D.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Base-flow yields at approximately the annual 75-percent-duration flow were determined for watersheds in the Jefferson County area, WV, from stream-discharge measurements made during October 31 to November 2, 2007. Five discharge measurements of Opequon Creek defined increased flow from 29,000,000 gallons per day (gal/d) at Carters Ford to 51,400,000 gal/d near Vanville. No flow was observed at 45 of 110 additional stream sites inspected, and discharge at the 65 flowing stream sites ranged from 1,940 to 17,100,000 gallons per day (gal/d). Discharge at 28 springs ranged from no flow to 2,430,000 gal/d. Base-flow yields were computed as the change in stream-channel discharge between measurement sites divided by the change in drainage area between the sites. Yields were negative for losing (influent) channel reaches and positive for gaining (effluent) reaches. Channels in 14 watersheds were determined to have lost flow ranging from -9.6 to -1,770 gallons per day per acre (gal/d/acre). Channels in 51 watersheds were determined to have gained flow ranging from 3.4 to 235,000 gal/d/acre. Water temperature at the stream sites ranged from 5.0 to 16.3 deg C (quarry pumpage), and specific conductance ranged from 51 to 881 microsiemens per centimeter (uS/cm). Water temperature at the springs ranged from 11.5 to 15.0 deg C, and specific conductance ranged from 22 to 958 uS/cm. Large springs in some watersheds in western Jefferson County are adjacent to other watersheds with little or no surface-water discharge; this is probably the result of interbasin transfer of groundwater along faults that dissect the area. Most watersheds located adjacent to the Potomac River in northeastern Jefferson County were not flowing during this study; this is most likely because the Potomac River is deeply incised, and groundwater flows directly to it rather than to the local stream systems in these areas. Except for one watershed with a yield of 651 gal/d/acre, no watersheds in northeastern

  13. Vulnerable Plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center > Vulnerable Plaque Menu Topics Topics FAQs Vulnerable Plaque Article Info En español Swelling (inflammation) is your ... aging, including coronary artery disease . What is vulnerable plaque? For many years, doctors have thought that the ...

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities in resilience and vulnerability among older adults: a population-based birth cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, T D; Cooper, R; Kuh, D; Stafford, M

    2017-11-08

    Aging is associated with declines in physical capability; however, some individuals demonstrate high well-being despite this decline, i.e. they are "resilient." We examined socioeconomic position (SEP) and resilience and the influence of potentially modifiable behavioral resources, i.e. social support and leisure time physical activity (LTPA), on these relationships. Data came from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally-representative birth cohort study. Resilience-vulnerability at age 60-64 years (n = 1,756) was operationalized as the difference between observed and expected levels of well-being, captured by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS), given the level of performance-based physical capability. SEP was assessed by father's and own social class, parental education, and intergenerational social mobility. PA and structural/functional social support were reported at ages 53 years and 60-64 years. Path analysis was used to examine mediation of SEP and resilience-vulnerability through LTPA and social support. Participants in the highest social class had scores on the resilience to vulnerability continuum that were an average of 2.3 units (β = 0.46, 95% CI 0.17, 0.75) higher than those in the lowest social class. Greater LTPA (β = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31, 0.85) and social support (β = 3.27, 95% CI 2.90, 3.63) were associated with greater resilience; LTPA partly mediated participant social class and resilience (23.4% of variance). Adult socioeconomic advantage was associated with greater resilience. Initiatives to increase LTPA may contribute to reducing socioeconomic inequalities in this form of resilience in later life.

  15. Hydrogeological investigation for sitting disposal repository for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Lv Chuanhe

    2005-01-01

    Based on the research experiences of our country and some developed countries in the world, the purpose, process and methods, as well as the function of hydrogeological investigation for sitting disposal repository for high radioactive waste are discussed. Meanwhile, the topic related to the acquisition of hydrogeological parameters is described as well, aiming at providing reference for the future study. (authors)

  16. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analyzed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analyzed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area of endemic waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to conduct water collection from wel...

  17. Preliminary survey of the vulnerability to the contamination of the aquifers of Morondava river catchments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randrianasolo, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work is to make a preliminary survey of the vulnerability to the contamination of the aquifers of Morondava river catchments. The methods used are the geological and hydrogeological surveys, the hydrochemistry and isotopic techniques. This survey allows us to have an overview of the chemical features of groundwaters, conditions of recharge, and especially to determine the potential and active zone of nitrate pollution. Two field works have been carried out within the frame of MAG/8/003 project. The first one is focused on groundwater sampling and surface water sampling, and the second one is based on the geological and hydrogeological surveys. The samples were sent for isotope ( 18 O, 2 H, 15 N, 87 Sr, 3 H) and chemical analysis to the I.A.E.A laboratories. The survey gave the following conclusions: the groundwaters are affected by evaporation before or during infiltration and saline intrusion. The region of Morondava is submitted to a regime of simple oceanic precipitation (excess in deuterium). The boreholes waters is of sodic-bicarbonate chemical type, whereas well waters belong to the calcic-bicarbonate. The superficial aquifers (subsurface water) trapped by the wells are more vulnerable than deep aquifers (homogeneous aquifers) trapped by boreholes. These hypotheses are proven by geological and hydrogeological investigations, by the groundwaters nitrate analyses results, and are confirmed by radioactive isotope. [fr

  18. Hydrogeological structure model of the Olkiluoto Site. Update in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaittinen, T.; Ahokas, H.; Nummela, J.; Paulamaeki, S.

    2011-09-01

    As part of the programme for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, a hydrogeological structure model containing the hydraulically significant zones on Olkiluoto Island has been compiled. The structure model describes the deterministic site scale zones that dominate the groundwater flow. The main objective of the study is to provide the geometry and the hydrogeological properties related to the groundwater flow for the zones and the sparsely fractured bedrock to be used in the numerical modelling of groundwater flow and geochemical transport and thereby in the safety assessment. Also, these zones should be taken into account in the repository layout and in the construction of the disposal facility and they have a long-term impact on the evolution of the site and the safety of the disposal repository. The previous hydrogeological model was compiled in 2008 and this updated version is based on data available at the end of May 2010. The updating was based on new hydrogeological observations and a systematic approach covering all drillholes to assess measured fracture transmissivities typical of the site-scale hydrogeological zones. New data consisted of head observations and interpreted pressure and flow responses caused by field activities. Essential background data for the modelling included the ductile deformation model and the site scale brittle deformation zones modelled in the geological model version 2.0. The GSM combine both geological and geophysical investigation data on the site. As a result of the modelling campaign, hydrogeological zones HZ001, HZ008, HZ19A, HZ19B, HZ19C, HZ20A, HZ20B, HZ21, HZ21B, HZ039, HZ099, OL-BFZ100, and HZ146 were included in the structure model. Compared with the previous model, zone HZ004 was replaced with zone HZ146 and zone HZ039 was introduced for the first time. Alternative zone HZ21B was included in the basic model. For the modelled zones, both the zone intersections, describing the fractures with dominating groundwater

  19. A metric-based assessment of flood risk and vulnerability of rural communities in the Lower Shire Valley, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeloye, A. J.; Mwale, F. D.; Dulanya, Z.

    2015-06-01

    In response to the increasing frequency and economic damages of natural disasters globally, disaster risk management has evolved to incorporate risk assessments that are multi-dimensional, integrated and metric-based. This is to support knowledge-based decision making and hence sustainable risk reduction. In Malawi and most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), however, flood risk studies remain focussed on understanding causation, impacts, perceptions and coping and adaptation measures. Using the IPCC Framework, this study has quantified and profiled risk to flooding of rural, subsistent communities in the Lower Shire Valley, Malawi. Flood risk was obtained by integrating hazard and vulnerability. Flood hazard was characterised in terms of flood depth and inundation area obtained through hydraulic modelling in the valley with Lisflood-FP, while the vulnerability was indexed through analysis of exposure, susceptibility and capacity that were linked to social, economic, environmental and physical perspectives. Data on these were collected through structured interviews of the communities. The implementation of the entire analysis within GIS enabled the visualisation of spatial variability in flood risk in the valley. The results show predominantly medium levels in hazardousness, vulnerability and risk. The vulnerability is dominated by a high to very high susceptibility. Economic and physical capacities tend to be predominantly low but social capacity is significantly high, resulting in overall medium levels of capacity-induced vulnerability. Exposure manifests as medium. The vulnerability and risk showed marginal spatial variability. The paper concludes with recommendations on how these outcomes could inform policy interventions in the Valley.

  20. Assessment of agricultural drought vulnerability in the Philippines using remote sensing and GIS-based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macapagal, Marco D.; Olivares, Resi O.; Perez, Gay Jane P.

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a recurrent extreme climate event that can cause crop damage and yield loss, thereby inflicting negative socioeconomic impacts all over the world. According to several climate studies, drought events may be more frequent and more severe as global warming progresses. As an agricultural country, the Philippines is highly susceptible to adverse impacts of drought using remotely sensed information and geographic processing techniques. An agricultural drought vulnerability map identifying croplands that are least vulnerable, moderately vulnerable, and most vulnerable to crop water-related stress, was developed. Vulnerability factors, including land use system, irrigation support. Available soil-water holding capacity, as well as satellite-derived evapotranspiration and rainfall, were taken into consideration in classifying and mapping agricultural drought vulnerability at a national level. (author)

  1. Vulnerability assessment of the Toluca Valley aquifer combining a parametric approach and advective transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gárfias, J.; Llanos, H.; Franco, R.; Martel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment is an important task in water resources and land management. Depending on the availability of data and the complexity of the hydrogeological conditions, different approaches can be adopted. As an alternative, this study involves the use of a combined approach based on vulnerability methods and advective particle tracking to better understand the susceptibility to contamination in the Toluca valley aquifer. An intrinsic vulnerability map (DRASTIC) was used to identify areas that are more susceptible to ground water contamination. To estimate advective particle tracking, we developed a 3D flow model using VisualModflow and MODPATH to describe the regional flow of groundwater. The vulnerability map demonstrates the problematic application and interpretation of qualitative the vulnerability method of the parametric system group, which indicates a difference of approximately 23% when compared with the modified vulnerability map. Potential contamination sources based on landfill sites were comparatively high; approximately 76% are located in areas that could be susceptible to contamination through vertical infiltration, especially those that are located along the Lerma system of wells. Industrial parks located in the centre of the valley (83%), where continuous extraction of groundwater and land subsidence occurs, have been classified as high vulnerability zones, increasing the risk of contaminants from surface sources reaching the groundwater. In order to understand the susceptibility to contamination in the aquifer, various delineation approaches should be adopted and all the results that validate each other should be considered, thus making a good strategy for implementing different degrees of protection measures. [es

  2. Social media and gamification: Engaging vulnerable parents in an online evidence-based parenting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Susan M; Sanders, Matthew R; Turner, Karen M T; Maurange, Marianne; Knott, Theresa; Prinz, Ronald; Metzler, Carol; Ainsworth, Andrew T

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility (accessibility, engagement and impact) of adding social media and gaming features (e.g., social sharing with anonymity, badges to incentivize skills practice, an accredited facilitator for support) and access via smartphones to an evidenced-based parenting program, Triple P Online. The highly vulnerable population included 155 disadvantaged, high-risk parents (e.g., 76% had a family annual income of less than $15,000; 41% had been incarcerated; 38% were in drug/alcohol treatment; and 24% had had a child removed due to maltreatment). The ethnic groups most commonly identified were African American (24%) and Hispanic (66%). Respondents were primarily mothers (86%) from five community programs in Los Angeles. The study used a single group repeated measures design (pre, post, 6-month follow-up). Data collected included standardized self-report measures, post-intervention focus groups and interviews, website usage reports, and Google Analytics. Significant multivariate ANOVA time effects were found, demonstrating reductions in child behavioral problems, reduced lax/permissive and over-reactive parenting, and decreased parental stress. No effects were found for parental confidence, attributions, or depression and anxiety (which were in the normal range at baseline). Positive effects were maintained or improved at 6-month follow-up. The participants engaged in the online community and valued its flexibility, anonymity, and shared learning. This foundational implementation trial provides support for future rigorous evaluation of social media and gaming features as a medium for increasing parental engagement in evidence-based parenting programs online--a public health approach to protect and improve the development of vulnerable children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Study of Quantitative Assessment of Regional Eco-environmental Vulnerability Based on Multi-source Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wu; Binbin, He; Aike, Kan; Cirenluobu; Xiao, Yang

    2017-11-01

    How to estimate vulnerability of eco-environment quickly and accurately is an important research to predict the trend of environmental change in the future. Based on the analysis of the previous methods of eco-environment assessment, we tried to build a quantitative assessment model of eco-environment vulnerability by multi-source remote sensing data. The model focuses on extracting the change information of vegetation and land cover types from remote sensing (RS) data, and reveals the law of eco-environment vulnerability change. In the process of building the model, the correlation between normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and topographic data was analysed. The nonlinear regression method was used to estimating vegetation coverage taken as one of the main parameters of the model. And then, the model was applied to a specific study area. The quantitative assessment used Multi temporal data obtained to calculate the vulnerability values. It described the spatial distribution and variation characteristics of eco-environmental vulnerability in this region. We also estimate the accuracy and stability of the model. The calculation results show that we can quickly evaluate regional eco-environmental vulnerability and improve the efficiency of ecological environment monitoring through our proposed model.

  4. Identifying the World's Most Climate Change Vulnerable Species: A Systematic Trait-Based Assessment of all Birds, Amphibians and Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foden, Wendy B.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Stuart, Simon N.; Vié, Jean-Christophe; Akçakaya, H. Resit; Angulo, Ariadne; DeVantier, Lyndon M.; Gutsche, Alexander; Turak, Emre; Cao, Long; Donner, Simon D.; Katariya, Vineet; Bernard, Rodolphe; Holland, Robert A.; Hughes, Adrian F.; O’Hanlon, Susannah E.; Garnett, Stephen T.; Şekercioğlu, Çagan H.; Mace, Georgina M.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change will have far-reaching impacts on biodiversity, including increasing extinction rates. Current approaches to quantifying such impacts focus on measuring exposure to climatic change and largely ignore the biological differences between species that may significantly increase or reduce their vulnerability. To address this, we present a framework for assessing three dimensions of climate change vulnerability, namely sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity; this draws on species’ biological traits and their modeled exposure to projected climatic changes. In the largest such assessment to date, we applied this approach to each of the world’s birds, amphibians and corals (16,857 species). The resulting assessments identify the species with greatest relative vulnerability to climate change and the geographic areas in which they are concentrated, including the Amazon basin for amphibians and birds, and the central Indo-west Pacific (Coral Triangle) for corals. We found that high concentration areas for species with traits conferring highest sensitivity and lowest adaptive capacity differ from those of highly exposed species, and we identify areas where exposure-based assessments alone may over or under-estimate climate change impacts. We found that 608–851 bird (6–9%), 670–933 amphibian (11–15%), and 47–73 coral species (6–9%) are both highly climate change vulnerable and already threatened with extinction on the IUCN Red List. The remaining highly climate change vulnerable species represent new priorities for conservation. Fewer species are highly climate change vulnerable under lower IPCC SRES emissions scenarios, indicating that reducing greenhouse emissions will reduce climate change driven extinctions. Our study answers the growing call for a more biologically and ecologically inclusive approach to assessing climate change vulnerability. By facilitating independent assessment of the three dimensions of climate change vulnerability

  5. On the vulnerability of iris-based systems to a software attack based on a genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Barrero, Marta; Galbally Herrero, Javier; Tomé González, Pedro; Fiérrez, Julián

    2012-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33275-3_14 Proceedings of 17th Iberoamerican Congress, CIARP 2012, Buenos Aires, Argentina The vulnerabilities of a standard iris verification system to a novel indirect attack based on a binary genetic algorithm are studied. The experiments are carried out on the iris subcorpus of the publicly available BioSecure DB. The attack has shown a remarkable performance, thus proving the lack of robustness o...

  6. Hydrogeological characterization of deep subsurface structures at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shinji; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Amano, Kenji; Takeuchi, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    Several hydrogeological investigation techniques have been used at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory site to assess hydrogeological structures and their control on groundwater flow. For example, the properties of water-conducting features (WCFs) can be determined using high-resolution electrical conductivity measurements of fluids, and compared to measurements using conventional logging techniques. Connectivity of WCFs can be estimated from transmissivity changes over time, calculated from the pressure derivative of hydraulic pressure data obtained from hydraulic testing results. Hydraulic diffusivity, obtained from hydraulic interference testing by considering the flow dimension, could be a key indicator of the connectivity of WCFs between boreholes. A conceptual hydrogeological model of several hundred square meters to several square kilometers, bounded by flow barrier structures, has been developed from pressure response plots, based on interference hydraulic testing. The applicability of several methods for developing conceptual hydrogeological models has been confirmed on the basis of the hydrogeological investigation techniques mentioned above. (author)

  7. Easier surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities through a Web-based spatial OLAP application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselin Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change has a significant impact on population health. Population vulnerabilities depend on several determinants of different types, including biological, psychological, environmental, social and economic ones. Surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities must take into account these different factors, their interdependence, as well as their inherent spatial and temporal aspects on several scales, for informed analyses. Currently used technology includes commercial off-the-shelf Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Database Management Systems with spatial extensions. It has been widely recognized that such OLTP (On-Line Transaction Processing systems were not designed to support complex, multi-temporal and multi-scale analysis as required above. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP is central to the field known as BI (Business Intelligence, a key field for such decision-support systems. In the last few years, we have seen a few projects that combine OLAP and GIS to improve spatio-temporal analysis and geographic knowledge discovery. This has given rise to SOLAP (Spatial OLAP and a new research area. This paper presents how SOLAP and climate-related health vulnerability data were investigated and combined to facilitate surveillance. Results Based on recent spatial decision-support technologies, this paper presents a spatio-temporal web-based application that goes beyond GIS applications with regard to speed, ease of use, and interactive analysis capabilities. It supports the multi-scale exploration and analysis of integrated socio-economic, health and environmental geospatial data over several periods. This project was meant to validate the potential of recent technologies to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between public health and climate change, and to facilitate future decision-making by public health agencies and municipalities in Canada and elsewhere. The project also aimed at

  8. Easier surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities through a Web-based spatial OLAP application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Eveline; Gosselin, Pierre; Badard, Thierry; Bédard, Yvan

    2009-04-03

    Climate change has a significant impact on population health. Population vulnerabilities depend on several determinants of different types, including biological, psychological, environmental, social and economic ones. Surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities must take into account these different factors, their interdependence, as well as their inherent spatial and temporal aspects on several scales, for informed analyses. Currently used technology includes commercial off-the-shelf Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Database Management Systems with spatial extensions. It has been widely recognized that such OLTP (On-Line Transaction Processing) systems were not designed to support complex, multi-temporal and multi-scale analysis as required above. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) is central to the field known as BI (Business Intelligence), a key field for such decision-support systems. In the last few years, we have seen a few projects that combine OLAP and GIS to improve spatio-temporal analysis and geographic knowledge discovery. This has given rise to SOLAP (Spatial OLAP) and a new research area. This paper presents how SOLAP and climate-related health vulnerability data were investigated and combined to facilitate surveillance. Based on recent spatial decision-support technologies, this paper presents a spatio-temporal web-based application that goes beyond GIS applications with regard to speed, ease of use, and interactive analysis capabilities. It supports the multi-scale exploration and analysis of integrated socio-economic, health and environmental geospatial data over several periods. This project was meant to validate the potential of recent technologies to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between public health and climate change, and to facilitate future decision-making by public health agencies and municipalities in Canada and elsewhere. The project also aimed at integrating an initial collection of geo

  9. Vulnerability before, during, and after a major depressive episode - A 3-wave population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, J; Oldehinkel, AJ; Vollebergh, W

    2004-01-01

    Background: Vulnerability as defined by high levels of neuroticism, low self-esteem, and poor coping skills characterizes individuals with a history of major depressive episodes (MDEs). Objective: To separate postmorbid vulnerability into (1) trait effects (ie, the continuation of premorbid

  10. Vulnerability Before, During, and After a Major Depressive Episode : A 3-Wave Population-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, J.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Background Vulnerability as defined by high levels of neuroticism, low self-esteem, and poor coping skills characterizes individuals with a history of major depressive episodes (MDEs). Objective To separate postmorbid vulnerability into (1) trait effects (ie, the continuation of premorbid

  11. Vulnerability assessment in a participatory approach to design and implement community based adaptation to drought in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasage, Ralph; Muis, Sanne; Sardella, Carolina; van Drunen, Michiel; Verburg, Peter; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier meltwater during the growing season. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents the implementation of an approach for the participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change, which was implemented jointly by the local community and by a team consisting of an NGO, Peruvian ministry of environment, research organisations and a private sector organisation. It bases participatory design on physical measurements, modelling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña river basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey we explore how a vulnerability index (impacts divided by the households' perceived adaptive capacity) can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households in a sub catchment. The socio-economic factors water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlate with this vulnerability to drought. The index proved to be appropriate for communicating about vulnerability to climate change and its determining factors with different stakeholders. The water system research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency in farming is low. The adaptation measures that were jointly selected by the communities and the project team aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency, and these will help to reduce the communities vulnerability to drought.

  12. A real-life based evaluation method of deployable vulnerable road user protection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Rikard; Dahlgren, Mikael; van Schijndel, Margriet; de Hair, Stefanie; van Montfort, Sjef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a real-life-based evaluation method, incorporating vulnerable road user (VRU) full-body loading to a vehicle with a deployable protection system in relevant test setups, and use this method to evaluate a prototype pedestrian and cyclist protection system. Based on accident data from severe crashes, the most common scenarios were selected and developed into 5 test setups, 2 for pedestrians and 3 for bicyclists. The Polar II pedestrian anthropomorphic test device was used, either standing or on a standard bicycle. These test setups could then be used to evaluate real-life performance of a prototype protection system, regarding both positioning and protection, for vulnerable road users. The protection system consisted of an active hood and a windshield airbag and was mounted on a large passenger car with a conventional hood-type front end. Injury evaluation criteria were selected for head, neck, and chest loading derived from occupant frontal and side impact test methods. The protection system managed to be fully deployed, obtaining the intended position in time-that is, before VRU body contact-in all test setups, and head protection potential was not negatively influenced by the preceding thoracic impact. Head loading resulted in head injury criterion (HIC) values ranging up to 4400 for the standard car, and all HIC values were below 650 with the protection system. The risk of severe (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] 3+) head injury decreased from 85% to 100% in 3 test setups (mainly to the windscreen frame), to less than a 20% risk in all setups. In general, there were larger differences between structures impacted than between the pedestrian and cyclist setup. Neck loading was maintained at an acceptable level or was slightly decreased by the protection system, and chest loading was decreased from high values in 2 test setups in which the cyclist was impacted laterally with chest impact mainly to the hood area. A test method was

  13. Assessment of urban vulnerability towards floods using an indicator-based approach – a case study for Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Müller

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Regularly occurring flood events do have a history in Santiago de Chile, the capital city of Chile and study area for this research. The analysis of flood events, the resulting damage and its causes are crucial prerequisites for the development of risk prevention measures. The goal of this research is to empirically investigate the vulnerability towards floods in Santiago de Chile as one component of flood risk. The analysis and assessment of vulnerability is based on the application of a multi-scale (individual, household, municipal level set of indicators and the use of a broad range of data. The case-specific set of indicators developed in this study shows the relevant variables and their interrelations influencing the flood vulnerability in the study area. It provides a decision support tool for stakeholders and allows for monitoring and evaluating changes over time. The paper outlines how GIS, census, and remote sensing data as well as household surveys and expert interviews are used as an information base for the derivation of a vulnerability map for two municipalities located in the eastern part of Santiago de Chile. The generation of vulnerability maps representing the two different perspectives of local decision makers (experts and affected households is exemplified and discussed using the developed methodology.

  14. Analysis on regional hydrogeological condition of Beishan preselected area for high level radioactive waste disposal repository in Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Su Rui; Liu Shufen; Lu Chuanhe

    2004-01-01

    Based on the field investigation which has been carried out in the Beishan preselected area for high level radioactive waste repository in Gansu province during the last few years and the previous hydrogeological investigation results, the different groundwater types are divided initially and the hydrogeological features of different water-bearing media are described in this paper. Meanwhile, the preliminary evaluation of the regional hydrogeological condition of the study area is carried out. (author)

  15. The KINDRA H2020 Project: a knowledge inventory for hydrogeology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitta, Marco; Bodo, Balazs; Caschetto, Mariachiara; Correia, Victor; Cseko, Adrienn; Fernandez, Isabel; Hartai, Eva; Hinsby, Klaus; Madarasz, Tamas; Garcia Padilla, Mercedes; Szucs, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Hydrogeology-related research activities cover a wide spectrum of research areas at EU and national levels. This fact is due to the intrinsic nature of the "water" topic, representing a key-aspect of the modern society: water is not only necessary for human, biological and environmental requirements, but it is one basic "engine" of several interconnected research topics, including energy, health, climate, food, security and others as exemplified by the water-food-energy-climate nexus described by e.g. the World Economic Forum. With respect to the water cycle, the management of groundwater brings additional challenges to the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and climate change adaptation (such as integrated transboundary management of groundwater resources). This fact is related to the nature of groundwater, which represents the "hidden" part of the water cycle, difficult to evaluate, communicate and appreciate, although it sustains the health of both humans and ecosystems as well as industrial and agricultural production. In general, groundwater has been considered mainly for its relationships with surface waters, influencing river flow, e-flows, GDE (groundwater-dependent ecosystems), pollutant fate, agricultural practices, water scarcity and others. In this framework, the importance of groundwater inside the WFD has been reinforced by the daughter directive on groundwater. In the last years, particular insights have been developed on surface waters/groundwater interactions and several related research projects have been carried out. Nevertheless, a specific focus on hydrogeology, the science branch studying groundwater, has not looked into until now, despite of its utmost importance as renewable, high-quality, naturally protected (but still vulnerable) resource. At the same time the European knowledge-base that has been acquired on this important topic is widespread into several projects, plans, actions, realized at national and fragmented

  16. Hydrogeology baseline study Aurora Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A baseline hydrogeologic study was conducted in the area of Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine in order to develop a conceptual regional hydrogeologic model for the area that could be used to understand groundwater flow conditions. Geologic information was obtained from over 2,000 coreholes and from data obtained between 1980 and 1996 regarding water level for the basal aquifer. A 3-D numerical groundwater flow model was developed to provide quantitative estimates of the potential environmental impacts of the proposed mining operations on the groundwater flow system. The information was presented in the context of a regional study area which encompassed much of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, and a local study area which was defined by the lowlands of the Muskeg River Basin. Characteristics of the topography, hydrology, climate, geology, and hydrogeology of the region are described. The conclusion is that groundwater flow in the aquifer occurs mostly in a westerly direction beneath the Aurora Mine towards its inferred discharge location along the Athabasca River. Baseflow in the Muskeg River is mostly related to discharge from shallow surficial aquifers. Water in the river under baseflow conditions was fresh, of calcium-carbonate type, with very little indication of mineralization associated with deeper groundwater in the Aurora Mine area. 44 refs., 5 tabs., 31 figs

  17. Multi-hazard risk assessment of coastal vulnerability from tropical cyclones - A GIS based approach for the Odisha coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Bhaskaran, Prasad K

    2018-01-15

    The coastal region bordering the East coast of India is a thickly populated belt exposed to high risk and vulnerability from natural hazards such as tropical cyclones. Tropical cyclone frequencies that develop over the Bay of Bengal (average of 5-6 per year) region are much higher as compared to the Arabian Sea thereby posing a high risk factor associated with storm surge, inland inundation, wind gust, intense rainfall, etc. The Odisha State in the East coast of India experiences the highest number of cyclone strikes as compared to West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. To express the destructive potential resulting from tropical cyclones the Power Dissipation Index (PDI) is a widely used metric globally. A recent study indicates that PDI for cyclones in the present decade have increased about six times as compared to the past. Hence there is a need to precisely ascertain the coastal vulnerability and risk factors associated with high intense cyclones expected in a changing climate. As such there are no comprehensive studies attempted so far on the determination of Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) for Odisha coast that is highly prone to cyclone strikes. With this motivation, the present study makes an attempt to investigate the physical, environmental, social, and economic impacts on coastal vulnerability associated with tropical cyclones for the Odisha coast. The study also investigates the futuristic projection of coastal vulnerability over this region expected in a changing climate scenario. Eight fair weather parameters along with storm surge height and onshore inundation were used to estimate the Physical Vulnerability Index (PVI). Thereafter, the PVI along with social, economic, and environmental vulnerability was used to determine the overall CVI using the GIS based approach. The authors believe that the comprehensive nature of this study is expected to benefit coastal zone management authorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatial-temporal eco-environmental vulnerability assessment and its influential factors based on Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, N. K.; Liou, Y. A.; Ming-Hsu, L.

    2016-12-01

    Regional land use/land cover (LULC) changes lead to various changes in ecological processes and, in turn, alter regional micro-climate. To understand eco-environmental responses to LULC changes, eco-environmental evaluation is thus required with aims to identify vulnerable regions and influential factors, so that practical measures for environmental protection and management may be proposed. The Thua Thien - Hue Province has been experiencing urbanization at a rapid rate in both population and physical size. The urban land, agricultural land, and aquaculture activities have been invasively into natural space and caused eco-environment deterioration by land desertification, soil erosion, shrinking forest resources,…etc. In this study, an assessment framework that is composed by 11 variables with 9 of them constructed from Landsat time series is proposed to serve as basis to examine eco-environmental vulnerability in the Thua Thien - Hue Province in years 1989, 2003, and 2014. An eco-environmental vulnerability map is assorted into six vulnerability levels consisting of potential, slight, light, medium, heavy, and very heavy vulnerabilities. Result shows that there is an increasing trend in eco-environmental vulnerability in general with expected evolving distributions in heavy and very heavy vulnerability levels, which mainly lying on developed land, bare land, semi bare land, agricultural land, and poor and recovery forests. In contrast, there is a significant decline in potential vulnerability level. The contributing factors of an upward trend in medium, heavy, and very heavy levels include: (i) a large natural forest converted to plantation forest and agriculture land; and (ii) significant expansion of developed land leading to difference in thermal signatures in urban areas as compared with those of the surrounding areas. It is concluded that anthropogenic processes with transformation on LULC has amplified the vulnerability of eco-environment in the study

  19. Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, C.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Johnson, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation`s activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and, neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication (C) bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,{gamma}/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

  20. Structure Refinement for Vulnerability Estimation Models using Genetic Algorithm Based Model Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for model structure refinement is proposed and applied in estimation of cumulative number of vulnerabilities according to time. Security as a quality characteristic is presented and defined. Vulnerabilities are defined and their importance is assessed. Existing models used for number of vulnerabilities estimation are enumerated, inspecting their structure. The principles of genetic model generators are inspected. Model structure refinement is defined in comparison with model refinement and a method for model structure refinement is proposed. A case study shows how the method is applied and the obtained results.

  1. Constructing the Indicators of Assessing Human Vulnerability to Industrial Chemical Accidents: A Consensus-based Fuzzy Delphi and Fuzzy AHP Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Farin; Ardalan, Ali; Aguirre, Benigno; Mansouri, Nabiollah; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2017-04-10

    Industrial chemical accidents have been increased in developing countries. Assessing the human vulnerability in the residents of industrial areas is necessary for reducing the injuries and causalities of chemical hazards. The aim of this study was to explore the key indicators for the assessment of human vulnerability in the residents living near chemical installations. The indicators were established in the present study based on the Fuzzy Delphi method (FDM) and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP). The reliability of FDM and FAHP was calculated. The indicators of human vulnerability were explored in two sets of social and physical domains. Thirty-five relevant experts participated in this study during March-July 2015. According to experts, the top three indicators of human vulnerability according to the FDM and FAHP were vulnerable groups, population density, and awareness. Detailed sub-vulnerable groups and awareness were developed based on age, chronic or severe diseases, disability, first responders, and residents, respectively. Each indicator and sub-indicator was weighted and ranked and had an acceptable consistency ratio. The importance of social vulnerability indicators are about 7 times more than physical vulnerability indicators. Among the extracted indicators, vulnerable groups had the highest weight and the greatest impact on human vulnerability. however, further research is needed to investigate the applicability of established indicators and generalizability of the results to other studies. Fuzzy Delphi; Fuzzy AHP; Human vulnerability; Chemical hazards.

  2. Groundwater vulnerability assessment: from overlay methods to statistical methods in the Lombardy Plain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Stevenazzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is among the most important freshwater resources. Worldwide, aquifers are experiencing an increasing threat of pollution from urbanization, industrial development, agricultural activities and mining enterprise. Thus, practical actions, strategies and solutions to protect groundwater from these anthropogenic sources are widely required. The most efficient tool, which helps supporting land use planning, while protecting groundwater from contamination, is represented by groundwater vulnerability assessment. Over the years, several methods assessing groundwater vulnerability have been developed: overlay and index methods, statistical and process-based methods. All methods are means to synthesize complex hydrogeological information into a unique document, which is a groundwater vulnerability map, useable by planners, decision and policy makers, geoscientists and the public. Although it is not possible to identify an approach which could be the best one for all situations, the final product should always be scientific defensible, meaningful and reliable. Nevertheless, various methods may produce very different results at any given site. Thus, reasons for similarities and differences need to be deeply investigated. This study demonstrates the reliability and flexibility of a spatial statistical method to assess groundwater vulnerability to contamination at a regional scale. The Lombardy Plain case study is particularly interesting for its long history of groundwater monitoring (quality and quantity, availability of hydrogeological data, and combined presence of various anthropogenic sources of contamination. Recent updates of the regional water protection plan have raised the necessity of realizing more flexible, reliable and accurate groundwater vulnerability maps. A comparison of groundwater vulnerability maps obtained through different approaches and developed in a time span of several years has demonstrated the relevance of the

  3. National and local vulnerability to climate-related disasters in Latin America: the role of social asset-based adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Oliver; Rossing, Tine

    2012-01-01

    The Latin American region is particularly prone to climate-related natural hazards. However, this article argues that natural hazards are only partly to blame for the region's vulnerability to natural disasters with quantitative evidence suggesting instead that income per capita and inequality are main determinants of natural disaster mortality in Latin America. Locally, the region's poor are particularly susceptible to climate-related natural hazards. As a result of their limited access to capital, adaptation based on social assets constitutes an effective coping strategy. Evidence from Bolivia and Belize illustrates the importance of social assets in protecting the most vulnerable against natural disasters.

  4. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for New Hampshire based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of New Hampshire census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  5. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Alaska based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Alaska census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  6. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Massachusetts based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Massachusetts census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  7. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Maryland based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Maryland census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  8. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Washington based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Washington census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  9. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Maine based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Maine census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  10. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Delaware based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Delaware census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  11. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Texas based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Texas census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  12. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Michigan based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Michigan census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  13. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Connecticut based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Connecticut census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  14. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Louisiana based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Louisiana census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  15. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for New York based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of New York census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  16. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Rhode Island based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Rhode Island census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  17. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Ohio based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Ohio census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  18. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Illinois based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Illinois census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  19. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Virginia based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Virginia census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  20. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Pennsylvania based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Pennsylvania census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  1. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Alabama based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Alabama census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  2. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Wisconsin based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Wisconsin census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  3. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Indiana based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Indiana census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  4. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Mississippi based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Mississippi census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  5. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for New Jersey based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of New Jersey census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  6. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Georgia based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Georgia census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  7. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for South Carolina based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of South Carolina census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  8. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Hawaii based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Hawaii census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  9. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Oregon based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Oregon census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  10. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Coastal States based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of coastal states census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  11. A metric-based assessment of flood risk and vulnerability of rural communities in the Lower Shire Valley, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Adeloye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to the increasing frequency and economic damages of natural disasters globally, disaster risk management has evolved to incorporate risk assessments that are multi-dimensional, integrated and metric-based. This is to support knowledge-based decision making and hence sustainable risk reduction. In Malawi and most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, however, flood risk studies remain focussed on understanding causation, impacts, perceptions and coping and adaptation measures. Using the IPCC Framework, this study has quantified and profiled risk to flooding of rural, subsistent communities in the Lower Shire Valley, Malawi. Flood risk was obtained by integrating hazard and vulnerability. Flood hazard was characterised in terms of flood depth and inundation area obtained through hydraulic modelling in the valley with Lisflood-FP, while the vulnerability was indexed through analysis of exposure, susceptibility and capacity that were linked to social, economic, environmental and physical perspectives. Data on these were collected through structured interviews of the communities. The implementation of the entire analysis within GIS enabled the visualisation of spatial variability in flood risk in the valley. The results show predominantly medium levels in hazardousness, vulnerability and risk. The vulnerability is dominated by a high to very high susceptibility. Economic and physical capacities tend to be predominantly low but social capacity is significantly high, resulting in overall medium levels of capacity-induced vulnerability. Exposure manifests as medium. The vulnerability and risk showed marginal spatial variability. The paper concludes with recommendations on how these outcomes could inform policy interventions in the Valley.

  12. Vulnerability of ground water to contamination, northern Bexar County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy R.

    2003-01-01

    soils in the study area are uniformly thin, they have only minimal effect on the vulnerability of ground water to contamination.The results of hydrogeologic mapping during the present study divide the outcrop of the Glen Rose Limestone into five mappable intervals, labeled (youngest to oldest) A through E. Of these intervals, only the middle (C) and the lowermost (E) generally provide appreciable permeability.The vulnerability assessment provided herein was determined by combining the presumed effects of selected natural features (with individual vulnerability ratings ranging from 0 through 35) using a grid-based, multilayer system of digital datasets and geographic information system analysis. The resulting vulnerability map comprises composite vulnerability ratings that range from 26 through 104. The relatively less vulnerable areas those containing no faults, sinkholes, or caves occupy about 92 percent of the study area. The most vulnerable areas are those containing both a fault and one or more caves. The distribution of the most vulnerable areas which trend from southwest to northeast, roughly parallel to the Balcones fault zone occur mainly where faults intersect caves.

  13. The European Vulnerable Option Pricing with Jumps Based on a Mixed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we combine the reduced-form model with the structural model to discuss the European vulnerable option pricing. We define that the default occurs when the default process jumps or the corporate goes bankrupt. Assuming that the underlying asset follows the jump-diffusion process and the default follows the Vasicek model, we can have the expression of European vulnerable option. Then we use the measure transformation and martingale method to derive the explicit solution of it.

  14. Assessment of aquifer intrinsic vulnerability using GIS based Drastic model in Sialkot area, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqib Khan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic vulnerability of a shallow aquifer of Sialkot is assessed using DRASTIC index method. The information required as input for all seven parameters, i.e. depth to water table, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, the impact of vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity data were collected from literature surveys and on field surveys. A cumulative vulnerability map was developed using the indices obtained as a result of DRASTIC methodology. The values obtained from DRASTIC model for the study area were between 112 and 151. The area was dominated by medium and moderate vulnerable zones covering an area of 446 km2 and 442 km2 respectively. An area of 79 km2 was covered by the low vulnerable zone while the high vulnerable zone encompassed a total area of 38 km2. Least covered area i-e., 09 km2 was found in the vicinity of the very high vulnerable zone. The validation of the DRASTIC model using the nitrate distribution revealed that very high and high indices have the lower percentage of reliability than of the low to moderate zones as compared with the nitrate distribution in the groundwater.

  15. Groundwater vulnerability assessment for the Banyas Catchment of the Syrian coastal area using GIS and the RISKE method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattaa, Bassam; Al-Fares, Walid; Al Charideh, Abdul Rahman

    2010-05-01

    Vulnerability assessment to delineate areas that are more susceptible to contamination from anthropogenic sources has become an important element for sensible resource management and landuse planning. This contribution aims at estimating aquifer vulnerability by applying the RISKE model in Banyas Catchment Area (BCA), Tartous Prefecture, west Syria. An additional objective is to demonstrate the combined use of the RISKE model and a geographical information system (GIS) as an effective method for groundwater pollution risk assessment. The RISKE model uses five environmental parameters (Rock of aquifer media, Infiltration, Soil media, Karst, and Epikarst) to characterize the hydro-geological setting and evaluate aquifer vulnerability. The elevated eastern and low western part of the study area was dominated by high vulnerability classes, while the middle part was characterized by moderate vulnerability classes. Based on the vulnerability analysis, it was found that 2% and 39% of BCA is under low and high vulnerability to groundwater contamination, respectively, while more than 52% and 5% of the area of BCA can be designated as an area of moderate and very high vulnerability to groundwater contamination, respectively. The GIS technique has provided an efficient environment for analyses and high capabilities of handling a large amount of spatial data. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prediction of Radionuclide transfer based on soil parameters: application to vulnerability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roig, M.; Vidal, M.; Rauret, G.

    1998-01-01

    The multi factorial character of the radiocaesium and radiostrontium soil-to-plan transfer, which depends on the radionuclide level in the soil solution amplified by a plant factor, prevents from establishing univariate relationships between transfer factors and soil and/or plant parameters. The plant factor is inversely proportional to the level of competitive species in the soil solution (Ca and Mg, for radiostrontium, and K and NH 4 for radiocaesium). Radionuclide level in soil solution depends on the radionuclide available fraction and its distribution coefficient. For radiostrontium, this may be obtained from the Cationic Exchange Capacity (CEC), whereas for radiocaesium the Specific Interception Potential should be calculate, both corrected by the concentrations of the competitive species and selectivity coefficients. Therefore, the transfer factor eventually depends on soil solution composition, the available fraction and the number of sorption sites, as well as on the plant factor. For a given plant, a relative sequence of transfer can be set up based solely on soil parameters, since the plant factor is cancelled. This prediction model has been compared with transfer data from experiments with Mediterranean, mineral soils, contaminated with a thermo generated aerosol, and with podzolic and organic soils, contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. These studies revealed that it was possible to predict a relative scale of transfer for any type of soil, also allowing a scale of soil vulnerability to radiostrontium and radiocaesium contamination to be set up. (Author)

  17. Performance-based seismic assessment of vulnerability of dam using time history analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmrabet Oumnia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current performance-based seismic assessment procedure can be computationally intensive as it requires many time history analyses (THA each requiring time intensive post-processing of results. Time history analysis is a part of structural analysis and is the calculation of the response of a structure to any earthquake. It is one of the main processes of structural design in regions where earthquakes are prevalent. The objective of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of embankment dam located on the Oued RHISS in the Province of AL HOCEIMA using the THA method. To monitor structural behavior, the seismic vulnerability of structure is evaluated under real earthquake records with considering the soil-structure-fluide interaction. In this study, a simple assistant program is developed for implementing earthquake analyses of structure with ANSYS, ground acceleration–time history data are used for seismic analysis and dynamic numerical simulations were conducted to study and identify the total response of the soil-structure system.

  18. Expert panel on hydrogeology; report to AECL Research (1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenico, P.A.; Grisak, G.E.; Schwartz, F.W.

    1995-02-01

    In 1992 AECL Research convened a panel of external hydrogeological experts consisting of P.A. Domenico, G.E. Grisak, and F.W. Schwartz, to review AECL's proposed approach to siting a geological repository in the rocks of the Canadian Shield for the safe disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel wastes. In particular the panel was asked to provide its opinion on 1) the soundness of the technical approach developed to characterize the groundwater flow systems for the purpose of selecting a location for a disposal vault, 2) the validity and effectiveness of the geological case study used to demonstrate the performance assessment methodology based on the hydrogeological conditions observed at the Whiteshell Research Area, and 3) the adequacy of the hydrogeological information that AECL proposes to use in its Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of the disposal concept. This report presents the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the hydrogeology review panel. The report was submitted to AECL Research in 1992 December. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  19. A spatial DB model to simulate the road network efficiency in hydrogeological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michele, Mangiameli; Giuseppe, Mussumeci

    2015-01-01

    We deal with the theme of the simulation of risk analysis using a technological approach based on the integration of exclusively free and open source tools: PostgreSQL as Database Management System (DBMS) and Quantum GIS-GRASS as Geographic Information System (GIS) platform. The case study is represented by a seismic land in Sicily characterized by steep slopes and frequent instability phenomena. This area includes a city of about 30.000 inhabitants (Enna) that lies on the top of a mountain at about 990 m a.s.l.. The access to the city is assured by few and very winding roads that are also highly vulnerable to seismic and hydrogeological hazards. When exceptional rainfall events occur, the loss of efficiency of these roads should compromise timeliness and effectiveness of rescue operations. The data of the sample area have been structured into the adopted DBMS, and the connection to the GIS functionalities allows simulating the exceptional events. We analyzed the hazard, vulnerability and exposure related to these events and calculated the final risk defining three classes for each scenario: low (L), medium (M) and high (H). This study can be a valuable tool to prioritize risk levels and set priorities for intervention to the main road networks.

  20. A spatial DB model to simulate the road network efficiency in hydrogeological emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele, Mangiameli; Giuseppe, Mussumeci

    2015-12-01

    We deal with the theme of the simulation of risk analysis using a technological approach based on the integration of exclusively free and open source tools: PostgreSQL as Database Management System (DBMS) and Quantum GIS-GRASS as Geographic Information System (GIS) platform. The case study is represented by a seismic land in Sicily characterized by steep slopes and frequent instability phenomena. This area includes a city of about 30.000 inhabitants (Enna) that lies on the top of a mountain at about 990 m a.s.l.. The access to the city is assured by few and very winding roads that are also highly vulnerable to seismic and hydrogeological hazards. When exceptional rainfall events occur, the loss of efficiency of these roads should compromise timeliness and effectiveness of rescue operations. The data of the sample area have been structured into the adopted DBMS, and the connection to the GIS functionalities allows simulating the exceptional events. We analyzed the hazard, vulnerability and exposure related to these events and calculated the final risk defining three classes for each scenario: low (L), medium (M) and high (H). This study can be a valuable tool to prioritize risk levels and set priorities for intervention to the main road networks..

  1. A spatial DB model to simulate the road network efficiency in hydrogeological emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michele, Mangiameli, E-mail: michele.mangiameli@dica.unict.it; Giuseppe, Mussumeci [Dept. of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2015-12-31

    We deal with the theme of the simulation of risk analysis using a technological approach based on the integration of exclusively free and open source tools: PostgreSQL as Database Management System (DBMS) and Quantum GIS-GRASS as Geographic Information System (GIS) platform. The case study is represented by a seismic land in Sicily characterized by steep slopes and frequent instability phenomena. This area includes a city of about 30.000 inhabitants (Enna) that lies on the top of a mountain at about 990 m a.s.l.. The access to the city is assured by few and very winding roads that are also highly vulnerable to seismic and hydrogeological hazards. When exceptional rainfall events occur, the loss of efficiency of these roads should compromise timeliness and effectiveness of rescue operations. The data of the sample area have been structured into the adopted DBMS, and the connection to the GIS functionalities allows simulating the exceptional events. We analyzed the hazard, vulnerability and exposure related to these events and calculated the final risk defining three classes for each scenario: low (L), medium (M) and high (H). This study can be a valuable tool to prioritize risk levels and set priorities for intervention to the main road networks.

  2. Vulnerability of Coral Reefs to Bioerosion From Land-Based Sources of Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Cohen, Anne; Yates, Kimberly K.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; White, Darla

    2017-12-01

    Ocean acidification (OA), the gradual decline in ocean pH and [CO32-] caused by rising levels of atmospheric CO2, poses a significant threat to coral reef ecosystems, depressing rates of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) production, and enhancing rates of bioerosion and dissolution. As ocean pH and [CO32-] decline globally, there is increasing emphasis on managing local stressors that can exacerbate the vulnerability of coral reefs to the effects of OA. We show that sustained, nutrient rich, lower pH submarine groundwater discharging onto nearshore coral reefs off west Maui lowers the pH of seawater and exposes corals to nitrate concentrations 50 times higher than ambient. Rates of coral calcification are substantially decreased, and rates of bioerosion are orders of magnitude higher than those observed in coral cores collected in the Pacific under equivalent low pH conditions but living in oligotrophic waters. Heavier coral nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values pinpoint not only site-specific eutrophication, but also a sewage nitrogen source enriched in 15N. Our results show that eutrophication of reef seawater by land-based sources of pollution can magnify the effects of OA through nutrient driven-bioerosion. These conditions could contribute to the collapse of coastal coral reef ecosystems sooner than current projections predict based only on ocean acidification.Plain Language SummaryWe show that sustained, nutrient rich, lower pH submarine groundwater discharging onto nearshore coral reefs off west Maui lowers the pH of seawater and exposes corals to nitrate concentrations 50 times higher than ambient. Rates of coral calcification are substantially decreased, and rates of bioerosion are orders of magnitude higher than those observed in coral cores collected in the Pacific. With many of Maui's coral reefs in significant decline reducing any stressors at a local scale is important to sustaining future coral reef ecosystems and planning for resiliency.

  3. Hydrogeology of Valley-Fill Aquifers and Adjacent Areas in Eastern Chemung County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2015-10-19

    The extent, hydrogeologic framework, and potential well yields of valley-fill aquifers within a 151-square-mile area of eastern Chemung County, New York, were investigated, and the upland distribution of till thickness over bedrock was characterized. The hydrogeologic framework of these valleyfill aquifers was interpreted from multiple sources of surficial and subsurface data and an interpretation of the origin of the glacial deposits, particularly during retreat of glacial ice from the region. Potential yields of screened wells are based on the hydrogeologic framework interpretation and existing well-yield data, most of which are from wells finished with open-ended well casing.

  4. Study on the methodology for hydrogeological site descriptive modelling by discrete fracture networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tatsuya; Ando, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Shuuji; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Takeuchi, Shinji; Amano, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to establish comprehensive techniques for site descriptive modelling considering the hydraulic heterogeneity due to the Water Conducting Features in fractured rocks. The WCFs was defined by the interpretation and integration of geological and hydrogeological data obtained from the deep borehole investigation campaign in the Mizunami URL project and Regional Hydrogeological Study. As a result of surface based investigation phase, the block-scale hydrogeological descriptive model was generated using hydraulic discrete fracture networks. Uncertainties and remaining issues associated with the assumption in interpreting the data and its modelling were addressed in a systematic way. (author)

  5. Exploring drought vulnerability in Africa: an indicator based analysis to be used in early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, G.; Barbosa, P.; Garrote, L.; Iglesias, A.; Vogt, J.

    2014-05-01

    We propose a composite drought vulnerability indicator (DVI) that reflects different aspects of drought vulnerability evaluated at Pan-African level for four components: the renewable natural capital, the economic capacity, the human and civic resources, and the infrastructure and technology. The selection of variables and weights reflects the assumption that a society with institutional capacity and coordination, as well as with mechanisms for public participation, is less vulnerable to drought; furthermore, we consider that agriculture is only one of the many sectors affected by drought. The quality and accuracy of a composite indicator depends on the theoretical framework, on the data collection and quality, and on how the different components are aggregated. This kind of approach can lead to some degree of scepticism; to overcome this problem a sensitivity analysis was done in order to measure the degree of uncertainty associated with the construction of the composite indicator. Although the proposed drought vulnerability indicator relies on a number of theoretical assumptions and some degree of subjectivity, the sensitivity analysis showed that it is a robust indicator and hence able of representing the complex processes that lead to drought vulnerability. According to the DVI computed at country level, the African countries classified with higher relative vulnerability are Somalia, Burundi, Niger, Ethiopia, Mali and Chad. The analysis of the renewable natural capital component at sub-basin level shows that the basins with high to moderate drought vulnerability can be subdivided into the following geographical regions: the Mediterranean coast of Africa; the Sahel region and the Horn of Africa; the Serengeti and the Eastern Miombo woodlands in eastern Africa; the western part of the Zambezi Basin, the southeastern border of the Congo Basin, and the belt of Fynbos in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The results of the DVI at the country level were

  6. Hydrogeological map of Italy: the preliminary Sheet N. 348 Antrodoco (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Amanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Geological Survey of Italy, Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research is realizing the Sheet N.348 Antrodoco (Central Italy of the Hydrogeological map of Italy as a cartographical test of the Italian hydrogeological survey and mapping guidelines, in the frame of the Italian Geological Cartography Project. The study area is characterized by structural units deeply involved in the Apennine Orogeny (Latium and Abruzzi region territory, Rieti and L’Aquila provinces and including deposits of marine carbonate shelf, slope, basin and foredeep environments hosting relatively large amounts of groundwater resources. The map was realized to obtain the best possible representation of all hydrogeological elements deriving from field surveys, in order to characterize the hydrogeological asset. A control network for monthly measurement of surface and groundwater flow rates and hydrogeochemical parameters was performed. Data were uploaded in a geographic information system to perform the present preliminary hydrogeological cartography consisting in a main map showing the following hydrogeological complexes based on relative permeability degree (from bottom to top: i calcareous (Jurassic-Cretaceous; high permeability; ii calcareous-marly (Upper Cretaceous-Middle Eocene; intermediate permeability; iii marly-calcareous and marly (Upper Eocene- Upper Miocene; low permeability; iv flysch (Upper Miocene; low permeability; v conglomeratic-sandy and detritic (Upper Pliocene- Pleistocene; intermediate permeability; vi alluvial (Quaternary; low permeability. Among other elements shown in the main map there are hydrographical basin and sub-basin boundaries, stream gauging stations, meteo-climatic stations, streamwater-groundwater exchange processes, hydrostructure boundaries, point and linear spring flow rates, groundwater flow directions. Furthermore, complementary smaller-scale sketches at the margin of the main map were realized (e

  7. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability and risk to pollution in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sangam; Semkuyu, Dickson John; Pandey, Vishnu P

    2016-06-15

    Groundwater vulnerability and risk assessment is a useful tool for groundwater pollution prevention and control. In this study, GIS based DRASTIC model have been used to assess intrinsic aquifer vulnerability to pollution whereas Groundwater Risk Assessment Model (GRAM) was used to assess the risk to groundwater pollution in the groundwater basin of Kathmandu Valley. Seven hydrogeological factors were used in DRASTIC model to produce DRASTIC Index (DI) map which represent intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to pollution of the area. The seven hydrogeological factors used were depth to water, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of vadose zone, and hydraulic conductivity of aquifer. GIS based GRAM was used to produce likelihood of release of hazards, likelihood of detection of hazards, consequence of hazards and residual risk of groundwater contamination in terms of nitrate in the groundwater basin. It was found that more than 50% of the groundwater basin area in the valley is susceptible to groundwater pollution and these areas are mostly in Northern groundwater district Low and very low vulnerable areas account for only 13% and are located in Central and Southern groundwater districts. However after taking into account the barriers to groundwater pollution and likelihood of hazards release and detection, it was observed that most areas i.e. about 87% of the groundwater basin are at moderate residual risk to groundwater pollution. The resultant groundwater vulnerability and risk map provides a basis for policy makers and planner's ability to use information effectively for decision making at protecting the groundwater from pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying Vulnerable Nodes of Complex Networks in Cascading Failures Induced by Node-Based Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the research on network security, distinguishing the vulnerable components of networks is very important for protecting infrastructures systems. Here, we probe how to identify the vulnerable nodes of complex networks in cascading failures, which was ignored before. Concerned with random attack (RA and highest load attack (HL on nodes, we model cascading dynamics of complex networks. Then, we introduce four kinds of weighting methods to characterize the nodes of networks including Barabási-Albert scale-free networks (SF, Watts-Strogatz small-world networks (WS, Erdos-Renyi random networks (ER, and two real-world networks. The simulations show that, for SF networks under HL attack, the nodes with small value of the fourth kind of weight are the most vulnerable and the ones with small value of the third weight are also vulnerable. Also, the real-world autonomous system with power-law distribution verifies these findings. Moreover, for WS and ER networks under both RA and HL attack, when the nodes have low tolerant ability, the ones with small value of the fourth kind of weight are more vulnerable and also the ones with high degree are easier to break down. The results give us important theoretical basis for digging the potential safety loophole and making protection strategy.

  9. Hydrogeological Characteristics of Groundwater Yield in Shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Present paper tries to understand the influence of hydrogeological characteristics on groundwater yield of shallow wells in regolith aquifer, Ilorin, Nigeria. The data on hydrogeological characteristics such as drawdown, water level, depth of borehole, depth of overburden and well yield for 78 borewells were collected from ...

  10. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the Yinchuan Plain, Northwest China using OREADIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hui; Li, Peiyue; Howard, Ken W F; Yang, Chao; Zhang, Xuedi

    2012-06-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessments provide a measure of the sensitivity of groundwater quality to an imposed contaminant load and are globally recognized as an essential element of all aquifer management and protection plans. In this paper, the vulnerability of groundwaters underlying the Yinchuan Plain of Northwest China is determined using OREADIC, a GIS-based assessment tool that incorporates the key characteristics of the universally popular DRASTIC approach to vulnerability assessment but has been modified to consider important additional hydrogeological factors that are specific to the region. The results show that areas of high vulnerability are distributed mainly around Qingtongxia City, Wuzhong City, Lingwu City, and Yongning County and are associated with high rates of aquifer recharge, shallow depths to the water table, and highly permeable aquifer materials. The presence of elevated NO (3) (-) in the high vulnerability areas endorses the OREADIC approach. The vulnerability maps developed in this study have become valuable tools for environmental planning in the region and will be used for predictive management of the groundwater resource.

  11. Topological Vulnerability Evaluation Model Based on Fractal Dimension of Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Li; Wei, Bo; Sadiq, Rehan; Sadiq, Yong; Deng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    With an increasing emphasis on network security, much more attentions have been attracted to the vulnerability of complex networks. In this paper, the fractal dimension, which can reflect space-filling capacity of networks, is redefined as the origin moment of the edge betweenness to obtain a more reasonable evaluation of vulnerability. The proposed model combining multiple evaluation indexes not only overcomes the shortage of average edge betweenness’s failing to evaluate vulnerability of some special networks, but also characterizes the topological structure and highlights the space-filling capacity of networks. The applications to six US airline networks illustrate the practicality and effectiveness of our proposed method, and the comparisons with three other commonly used methods further validate the superiority of our proposed method. PMID:26751371

  12. Transforming vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia S; Zhang, Xinwei Esther; Meleis, Afaf I

    2003-11-01

    Asian American immigrant women engaged in filial caregiving are at special risk for health problems due to complex contextual factors related to immigration, cultural traditions, and role transition. This study examines the experience of two groups of immigrant Asian American women who are caring for older parents. A total of 41 women (22 Chinese American and 19 Filipino American) were interviewed in a study based on Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The women were determined to be loyal to their traditional culture, which included strong filial values, while adapting to a new culture. Through the struggle of meeting role expectations and coping with paradox, the women mobilized personal and family resources to transform vulnerability into strength and well-being.

  13. Hydrogeological characterization of the Stripa site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.; Macleod, R.; Welhan, J.; Cole, C.; Vail, L.

    1987-06-01

    This study was initiated in January, 1986, to determine a) if the permeability of the rock mass in the immediate mine area was anisotropic, b) the effective and total fracture porosity distributions based on field and laboratory data and c) the three-dimensional configuration of the groundwater flow system at Stripa in order to properly interpret the hydrogeological, geochemical and isotopic data. The total and flow porosities of single fractures from Stripa were determined in the laboratory using a resin impregnation technique. The three-dimensional numerical model gave mine inflows that were consistent with the measured mine inflows with perturbations extending to at least 3,000 m of depth. (orig./DG)

  14. Detection of vulnerable relays and sensitive controllers under cascading events based on performance indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Hu, Yanting

    2014-01-01

    The unexpected relay operations have been regarded as one of main reasons to propagate and induce the cascaded blackouts. It is significant to timely detect vulnerable relays to be blocked, and locate sensitive controllers to regulate the emergency states. In this paper, a multi agent system (MAS...... instability induced cascaded blackout built in real time digital simulator (RTDS) will be used to demonstrate the proposed strategy. The simulation results indicate this strategy can effectively detect the vulnerable relays and sensitive controllers under overloading situations....

  15. An integrated theoretical and practical approach for teaching hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, Tullia; Fumagalli, Letizia; Cavallin, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    their limitations; C) by an evaluation process whose results contribute to the final examination, so that the students are evaluated on the basis of their ability to discuss theoretical subjects and/or projects and to resolving exercises and case studies either by hand calculations or by modelling. The applied hydrogeology examination is an example of the evaluation process. It involves development of a plan to resolve a real hydrogeological issue, such as the design of a hydraulic barrier for a landfill, the design of a well field to meet the supply requirements of a muncipality, or the control of possible seepage from a contaminated site close to to sensitive discharge features such as wells, springs, rivers. The students are allowed to work on computers for three consecutive mornings for a total 15 hours, and in the end are required to produce a technical report and a hydrogeological model. Obviously their solutions are neither unique nor completely optimized (just as in the real world), but the comparisons and debates among the students are important portals to learning and improvement. A second example: the groundwater pollution and remediation examination is based on the discussion of a remediation project elaborated in stages during the course, with the addition of increasing complex types of data and information. The students have one hour a week, during the course, to submit to the teacher their analysis of the problem and possible solutions. In ten years of experience all students have considered this method of examination a challenge, and found it engaging and helpful, even if unusual, at least in Italy. The University of Milano Bicocca has recently drilled a piezometric well both to monitor the flow of groundwater and to allow students to perform aquifer tests and to conduct standard groundwater sampling procedure, without any longer needing to rely on outside private donors for access to a field site. The overall approach, which includes, lectures

  16. Discussion on hydrogeological conditions of metallogenesis of the sandstone type uranium deposit in Burqin basin, Xinjiang autonomous region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qirong

    2000-01-01

    Based on a brief introduction to the occurrence and distribution of groundwater, the characteristics of the tectonic-hydrogeological layers of the basin are discussed. Then, the author expounds the groundwater hydrodynamic conditions including recharge, runoff and drainage, and hydrogeochemical characteristics. In the end, the hydrogeological conditions favorable for uranium metallogenesis are summarized

  17. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to nitrates from agricultural sources using a GIS-compatible logic multicriteria model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo, Boris; Gil, Antonia; Flotats, Xavier; Sánchez, José Ángel

    2016-04-15

    In the present study an overlay method to assess groundwater vulnerability is proposed. This new method based on multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) was developed and validated using an appropriate case study in Aragon area (NE Spain). The Vulnerability Index to Nitrates from Agricultural Sources (VINAS) incorporates a novel Logic Scoring of Preferences (LSP) approach, and it has been developed using public geographic information from the European Union. VINAS-LSP identifies areas with five categories of vulnerability, taking into account the hydrogeological and environmental characteristics of the territory as a whole. The resulting LSP map is a regional screening tool that can provide guidance on the potential risk of nitrate pollution, as well as highlight areas where specific research and farming planning policies are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bedrock Hydrogeology - Site investigation SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, Johan [Geosigma AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bockgaard, Niclas [Golder Assoes AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations for a planned extension of the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR). This report presents an integrated analysis and interpretation of the historic data from the existing SFR (1980 - 1986), as well as, from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008 - 2009). The primary objective is to establish a conceptual hydrogeological model of the bedrock for safety assessment and design analyses. Analyses and interpretations of all (old and new) hydraulic data are analysed with regard to the recently developed geological deformation zone model of the SFR model domain (Curtis et al. 2011). The methodology used by Curtis et al. (2011) has focussed on magnetic anomalies and deformation zone intercepts with ground surface greater than 300 m. In the hydrogeological modelling, however, it has been considered important to also explore the occurrence and characteristics of shallow horizontal to sub-horizontal structures (sheet joints) inside the SFR model domain. Such structures are of considerable importance for the hydrogeology in the uppermost c. 150 m of bedrock in SDM-Site Forsmark; hence the term Shallow Bedrock Aquifer was used to emphasise their hydraulic significance. In this study, the acronym SBA-structure is used for horizontal structures identified in the hydrogeological modelling. In addition to the predominantly steeply dipping geological deformation zones, eight so-called SBA-structures are modelled deterministically in the hydrogeological model. The SBA-structures are envisaged as hydraulically heterogeneous and composed of clusters of minor gently dipping to horizontal fractures rather than extensive single features. A type of structures that is partly included in the definition of the SBA-structures is the Unresolved Possible Deformations Zone (Unresolved PDZ) intercepts identified by Curtis et al. (2011). The Unresolved

  19. Indicator-based model to assess vulnerability to landslides in urban areas. Case study of Husi city (Eastern Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozavu, Adrian; Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Catalin Stanga, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    In the last three or four decades, vulnerability evolved from physical fragility meanings to a more complex concept, being a key element of risk assessment. In landslide risk assessment, there are a large series of studies regarding landslide hazard, but far fewer researches focusing on vulnerability measurement. Furthermore, there is still no unitary understanding on the methodological framework, neither any internationally agreed standard for landslide vulnerability measurements. The omnipresent common element is the existence of elements at risk, but while some approaches are limited to exposure, other focus on the degree of losses (human injuries, material damages and monetary losses, structural dysfunctions etc.). These losses are differently assessed using both absolute and relative values on qualitative or quantitative scales and they are differently integrated to provide a final vulnerability value. This study aims to assess vulnerability to landslides at local level using an indicator-based model applied to urban areas and tested for Husi town (Eastern Romania). The study region is characterized by permeable and impermeable alternating sedimentary rocks, monoclinal geological structure and hilly relief with impressive cuestas, continental temperate climate, and precipitation of about 500 mm/year, rising to 700 m and even more in some rainy years. The town is a middle size one (25000 inhabitants) and it had an ascending evolution in the last centuries, followed by an increasing human pressure on lands. Methodologically, the first step was to assess the landslide susceptibility and to identify in this way those regions within which any asset would be exposed to landslide hazards. Landslide susceptibility was assessed using the logistic regression approach, taking into account several quantitative and qualitative factors (elements of geology, morphometry, rainfall, land use etc.). The spatial background consisted in the Digital Elevation Model and all derived

  20. Applying the Flood Vulnerability Index as a Knowledge base for flood risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balica, S-F.

    2012-01-01

    Floods are one of the most common and widely distributed natural risks to life and property worldwide. An important part of modern flood risk management is to evaluate vulnerability to floods. This evaluation can be done only by using a parametric approach. Worldwide there is a need to enhance our

  1. Numerical modeling of ADA system for vulnerable road users protection based on radar and vision sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garate, V.R.; Bours, R.C.H.; Kietlinski, K.

    2012-01-01

    The protection of vulnerable road users (VRU) remains one of the most challenging problems for our society and several governmental and consumer organization has set targets to reduce the VRU fatality and injury rates. The automotive industry is, therefore, developing pedestrian and cyclist

  2. Index based regional vulnerability assessment to cyclones hazards of coastal area of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Q. A.; Kervyn, M.; Khan, A. U.

    2016-12-01

    Cyclone, storm surge, coastal flooding, salinity intrusion, tornado, nor'wester, and thunderstorms are the listed natural hazards in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. Bangladesh was hit by devastating cyclones in 1970, 1991, 2007, 2009, and 2016. Intensity and frequency of natural hazards in the coastal area are likely to increase in future due to climate change. Risk assessment is one of the most important steps of disaster risk reduction. As a climate change victim nation, Bangladesh claims compensation from green climate fund. It also created its own climate funds. It is therefore very important to assess vulnerability of the coast of Bangladesh to natural hazards for efficient allocation of financial investment to support the national risk reduction. This study aims at identifying the spatial variations in factors contributing to vulnerability of the coastal inhabitants of Bangladesh to natural hazards. An exploratory factor analysis method has been used to assess the vulnerability at each local administrative unit. The 141 initially selected 141 socio-economic indicators were reduced to 41 by converting some of them to meaningful widely accepted indicators and removing highly correlated indicators. Principle component analysis further reduced 41 indicators to 13 dimensions which explained 79% of total variation. PCA dimensions show three types of characteristics of the people that may lead people towards vulnerability. They are (a) demographic, education and job opportunities, (b) access to basic needs and facilities, and (c) special needs people. Vulnerability maps of the study area has been prepared by weighted overlay of the dimensions. Study revealed that 29 and 8 percent of total coastal area are very high and high vulnerable to natural hazards respectively. These are distributed along sea boundary and major rivers. Comparison of this spatial distribution with the capacities to face disaster show that highly vulnerable areas are well covered by cyclone

  3. Mental vulnerability, Helicobacter pylori, and incidence of hospital-diagnosed peptic ulcer over 28 years in a population-based cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levenstein, Susan; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Rosenstock, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether mental vulnerability, an enduring personality characteristic, predicts incident hospital-diagnosed ulcer over three decades. Materials and methods: A population-based cohort study enrolled 3365 subjects with no ulcer history, ages 30–60, in 1982–3. Mental vulnerability...... vulnerability was 1.5 (CI 1.0–2.2, p =.04). Mental vulnerability raised risk in Helicobacter pylori seropositive subjects and those exposed to neither Helicobacter pylori nor non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs; its impact was virtually unchanged when analysis was limited to complicated ulcers. Conclusions...

  4. Process-based monitoring and modeling of Karst springs - Linking intrinsic to specific vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Jannis; Page, Rebecca M; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Huggenberger, Peter

    2018-06-01

    The presented work illustrates to what extent field investigations as well as monitoring and modeling approaches are necessary to understand the high discharge dynamics and vulnerability of Karst springs. In complex settings the application of 3D geological models is essential for evaluating the vulnerability of Karst systems. They allow deriving information on catchment characteristics, as the geometry of aquifers and aquitards as well as their displacements along faults. A series of Karst springs in northwestern Switzerland were compared and Karst system dynamics with respect to qualitative and quantitative issues were evaluated. The main objective of the studies was to combine information of catchment characteristics and data from novel monitoring systems (physicochemical and microbiological parameters) to assess the intrinsic vulnerability of Karst springs to microbiological contamination with simulated spring discharges derived from numerical modeling (linear storage models). The numerically derived relation of fast and slow groundwater flow components enabled us to relate different sources of groundwater recharge and to characterize the dynamics of the Karst springs. Our study illustrates that comparably simple model-setups were able to reproduce the overall dynamic intrinsic vulnerability of several Karst systems and that one of the most important processes involved was the temporal variation of groundwater recharge (precipitation, evapotranspiration and snow melt). Furthermore, we make a first attempt on how to link intrinsic to specific vulnerability of Karst springs, which involves activities within the catchment area as human impacts from agriculture and settlements. Likewise, by a more detailed representation of system dynamics the influence of surface water, which is impacted by release events from storm sewers, infiltrating into the Karst system, could be considered. Overall, we demonstrate that our approach can be the basis for a more flexible and

  5. Hydrogeological controls of groundwater - land surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Etienne; Batelaan, Okke; Goderniaux, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Interaction of groundwater with the land surface impacts a wide range of climatic, hydrologic, ecologic and geomorphologic processes. Many site-specific studies have successfully focused on measuring and modelling groundwater-surface water interaction, but upscaling or estimation at catchment or regional scale appears to be challenging. The factors controlling the interaction at regional scale are still poorly understood. In this contribution, a new 2-D (cross-sectional) analytical groundwater flow solution is used to derive a dimensionless criterion that expresses the conditions under which the groundwater outcrops at the land surface (Bresciani et al., 2016). The criterion gives insights into the functional relationships between geology, topography, climate and the locations of groundwater discharge along river systems. This sheds light on the debate about the topographic control of groundwater flow and groundwater-surface water interaction, as effectively the topography only influences the interaction when the groundwater table reaches the land surface. The criterion provides a practical tool to predict locations of groundwater discharge if a limited number of geomorphological and hydrogeological parameters (recharge, hydraulic conductivity and depth to impervious base) are known, and conversely it can provide regional estimates of the ratio of recharge over hydraulic conductivity if locations of groundwater discharge are known. A case study with known groundwater discharge locations located in South-West Brittany, France shows the feasibility of regional estimates of the ratio of recharge over hydraulic conductivity. Bresciani, E., Goderniaux, P. and Batelaan, O., 2016, Hydrogeological controls of water table-land surface interactions. Geophysical Research Letters 43(18): 9653-9661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016GL070618

  6. Hydrogeological characterization of peculiar Apenninic springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervi, F.; Marcaccio, M.; Petronici, F.; Borgatti, L.

    2014-09-01

    In the northern Apennines of Italy, springs are quite widespread over the slopes. Due to the outcropping of low-permeability geologic units, they are generally characterized by low-yield capacities and high discharge variability during the hydrologic year. In addition, low-flow periods (discharge lower than 1 Ls-1) reflect rainfall and snowmelt distribution and generally occur in summer seasons. These features strongly condition the management for water-supply purposes, making it particularly complex. The "Mulino delle Vene" springs (420 m a.s.l., Reggio Emilia Province, Italy) are one of the largest in the Apennines for mean annual discharge and dynamic storage and are considered as the main water resource in the area. They flow out from several joints and fractures at the bottom of an arenite rock mass outcrop in the vicinity of the Tresinaro River. To date, these springs have not yet been exploited, as the knowledge about the hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer and their hydrological behaviour is not fully achieved. This study aims to describe the recharge processes and to define the hydrogeological boundaries of the aquifer. It is based on river and spring discharge monitoring and groundwater balance assessment carried out during the period 2012-2013. Results confirm the effectiveness of the approach, as it allowed the total aliquot of discharge of the springs to be assessed. Moreover, by comparing the observed discharge volume with the one calculated with the groundwater balance, the aquifer has been identified with the arenite slab (mean altitude of 580 m a.s.l.), extended about 5.5 km2 and located 1 km west of the monitored springs.

  7. Vulnerability of streams to legacy nitrate sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Duff, John H.; Saad, David A.; Spahr, Norman E.; Wolock, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of hydrogeologic setting on the susceptibility of streams to legacy nitrate was examined at seven study sites having a wide range of base flow index (BFI) values. BFI is the ratio of base flow to total streamflow volume. The portion of annual stream nitrate loads from base flow was strongly correlated with BFI. Furthermore, dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed pore water were significantly higher in high BFI watersheds than in low BFI watersheds suggesting that geochemical conditions favor nitrate transport through the bed when BFI is high. Results from a groundwater-surface water interaction study at a high BFI watershed indicate that decades old nitrate-laden water is discharging to this stream. These findings indicate that high nitrate levels in this stream may be sustained for decades to come regardless of current practices. It is hypothesized that a first approximation of stream vulnerability to legacy nutrients may be made by geospatial analysis of watersheds with high nitrogen inputs and a strong connection to groundwater (e.g., high BFI).

  8. Early-life stress is associated with gender-based vulnerability to epileptogenesis in rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Desgent

    Full Text Available During development, the risk of developing mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE increases when the developing brain is exposed to more than one insult in early life. Early life insults include abnormalities of cortical development, hypoxic-ischemic injury and prolonged febrile seizures. To study epileptogenesis, we have developed a two-hit model of MTLE characterized by two early-life insults: a freeze lesion-induced cortical malformation at post-natal day 1 (P1, and a prolonged hyperthermic seizure (HS at P10. As early life stressors lead to sexual dimorphism in both acute response and long-term outcome, we hypothesized that our model could lead to gender-based differences in acute stress response and long-term risk of developing MTLE. Male and female pups underwent a freeze-lesion induced cortical microgyrus at P1 and were exposed to HS at P10. Animals were monitored by video-EEG from P90 to P120. Pre and post-procedure plasma corticosterone levels were used to measure stress response at P1 and P10. To confirm the role of sex steroids, androgenized female pups received daily testosterone injections to the mother pre-natally and post-natally for nine days while undergoing both insults. We demonstrated that after both insults females did not develop MTLE while all males did. This correlated with a rise in corticosterone levels at P1 following the lesion in males only. Interestingly, all androgenized females showed a similar rise in corticosterone at P1, and also developed MTLE. Moreover, we found that the cortical lesion significantly decreased the latency to generalized convulsion during hyperthermia at P10 in both genders. The cortical dysplasia volumes at adulthood were also similar between male and female individuals. Our data demonstrate sexual dimorphism in long-term vulnerability to develop epilepsy in the lesion + hyperthermia animal model of MTLE and suggest that the response to early-life stress at P1 contributes significantly to

  9. Hydrogeological testing in the Sellafield area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    A summary of the hydrogeological test methodologies employed in the Sellafield geological investigations is provided in order that an objective appraisal of the quality of the data can be formed. A brief presentation of some of these data illustrates the corroborative nature of different test and measurement methodologies and provides a preliminary view of the results obtained. The programme of hydrogeological testing is an evolving one and methodologies are developing as work proceeds and targets become more clearly defined. As the testing is focused on relatively low permeability rocks at depth, the approach to testing differs slightly from conventional hydrogeological well testing and makes extensive use of oilfield technology. (author)

  10. Intravascular photoacoustic detection of vulnerable plaque based on constituent selected imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jian; Xing Da, E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a disease of the large arteries, is the primary cause of heart disease and stroke. Over decades, atherosclerosis is characterized by thickening of the walls of the arteries, only advanced atherosclerotic disease could be observed. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid imaging technique that combines the advantages of high spatial resolution of ultrasound with contrast of optical absorption. In this paper, we present an intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging system to characterize vulnerable plaques by using the optical absorption contrast between different constituents. Epidemiological studies have revealed several important plaque constituents associated with early atherosclerosis, such as macrophage, cholesterol, lipid, calcification, and so on. We chose a section of lipid rich atherosclerosis artery and a section of normal artery as the phantom. Two IVPA images of them are given to show the difference between sick and normal. As a new method of detecting vulnerable plaque, IVPA constituents imaging will provide more details for diagnosis that offer an enticing prospect in early detecting of atherosclerosis.

  11. COMMUNITY-BASED FLOOD VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION ASSESSMENT: A CASE STUDY FROM BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    MD ABOUL FAZAL YOUNUS; NICK HARVEY

    2013-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007, 2012:11) warned that the mega deltas in South Asia (e.g. the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna River Basin) will be at great risk due to increased flooding, and the region's poverty would reduce the capacity of the inhabitants to adapt to change. This paper provides a "bottom up" impact approach which focuses on a methodological contribution for assessment of vulnerability and adaptation (V & A) in a riverine flood-prone area, "Islampur" in ...

  12. Seismic Hazard Analysis based on Earthquake Vulnerability and Peak Ground Acceleration using Microseismic Method at Universitas Negeri Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiawan, H.; Supriyadi; Yulianti, I.

    2017-02-01

    Microseismic is a harmonic vibration of land that occurs continuously at a low frequency. The characteristics of microseismic represents the characteristics of the soil layer based on the value of its natural frequency. This paper presents the analysis of seismic hazard at Universitas Negeri Semarang using microseismic method. The data acquisition was done at 20 points with distance between points 300 m by using three component’s seismometer. The data was processed using Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) method to obtain the natural frequency and amplification value. The value of the natural frequency and amplification used to determine the value of the earthquake vulnerability and peak ground acceleration (PGA). The result shows then the earthquake vulnerability value range from 0.2 to 7.5, while the value of the average peak ground acceleration (PGA) is in the range 10-24 gal. Therefore, the average peak ground acceleration equal to earthquake intensity IV MMI scale.

  13. Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2012. An indicator-based report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    This European Environment Agency (EEA) report presents information on past and projected climate change and related impacts in Europe, based on a range of indicators. The report also assesses the vulnerability of society, human health and ecosystems in Europe and identifies those regions in Europe most at risk from climate change. Furthermore, the report discusses the principle sources of uncertainty for the indicators and notes how monitoring and scenario development can improve our understanding of climate change, its impacts and related vulnerabilities. Some key findings: The last decade (2002-2011) was the warmest on record in Europe, with European land temperature 1.3 deg. C warmer than the pre-industrial average. Various model projections show that Europe could be 2.5-4 deg. C warmer in the later part of the 21st Century, compared to the 1961-1990 average. Heat waves have increased in frequency and length, causing tens of thousands of deaths over the last decade. The projected increase in heat waves could increase the number of related deaths over the next decades, unless societies adapt, the report says. However, cold-related deaths are projected to decrease in many countries. While precipitation is decreasing in southern regions, it is increasing in northern Europe, the report says. These trends are projected to continue. Climate change is projected to increase river flooding, particularly in northern Europe, as higher temperatures intensify the water cycle. However, it is difficult to discern the influence of climate change in flooding data records for the past. River flow droughts appear to have become more severe and frequent in southern Europe. Minimum river flows are projected to decrease significantly in summer in southern Europe but also in many other parts of Europe to varying degrees. The Arctic is warming faster than other regions. Record low sea ice was observed in the Arctic in 2007, 2011 and 2012, falling to roughly half the minimum extent seen

  14. Mapping of coastal aquifer vulnerable zone in the south west coast of Kanyakumari, South India, using GIS-based DRASTIC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliraj, S; Chandrasekar, N; Peter, T Simon; Selvakumar, S; Magesh, N S

    2015-01-01

    The south west coast of Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu, India, is significantly affected by seawater intrusion and diffusion of pollutants into the aquifers due to unregulated beach placer mining and other anthropogenic activities. The present study investigates the vulnerability of the coastal aquifers using Geographic Information System (GIS)-based DRASTIC model. The seven DRASTIC parameters have been analyzed using the statistical equation of this model to demarcate the vulnerable zones for aquifer contamination. The vulnerability index map is prepared from the weighted spatial parameters, and an accounting of total index value ranged from 85 to 213. Based on the categorization of vulnerability classes, the high vulnerable zones are found near the beach placer mining areas between Manavalakurichi and Kodimanal coastal stretches. The aquifers associated with settlements and agricultural lands in the middle-eastern part have experienced high vulnerability due to contaminated water bodies. Similarly, the coastal areas of Thengapattinam and Manakudi estuary and around the South Tamaraikulam have also been falling under high vulnerability condition due to backwater and saltpan. In general, the nearshore region except the placer mining zone and the backwater has a moderately vulnerable condition, and the vulnerability index values range from 149 to180. Significantly, the northern and northeastern uplands and some parts of deposition zones in the middle-south coast have been identified as low to no vulnerable conditions. They are structurally controlled by various geological features such as charnockite, garnet biotite gneiss and granites, and sand dunes, respectively. The aquifer vulnerability assessment has been cross-verified by geochemical indicators such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Cl(-), HCO₃(-), and Cl(-)/HCO₃(-) ratio. The high ranges of TDS (1,842--3,736 mg/l) and Cl(-) (1,412--2,112 mg/l) values are well correlated with the observed high

  15. Mining hydrogeological data from existing AEM datasets for mineral Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghini, Antonio; Viezzoli, Andrea; Teatini, Pietro; Cattarossi, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Large amount of existing Airborne Electromagnetic (AEM) data are potentially available all over the World. Originally acquired for mining purposes, AEM data traditionally do not get processed in detail and inverted: most of the orebodies can be easily detected by analyzing just the peak anomaly directly evidenced by voltage values (the so-called "bump detection"). However, the AEM acquisitions can be accurately re-processed and inverted to provide detailed 3D models of resistivity: a first step towards hydrogeological studies and modelling. This is a great opportunity especially for the African continent, where the detection of exploitable groundwater resources is a crucial issue. In many cases, a while after AEM data have been acquired by the mining company, Governments become owners of those datasets and have the opportunity to develop detailed hydrogeological characterizations at very low costs. We report the case in which existing VTEM (Versatile Time Domain Electromagnetic - Geotech Ltd) data, originally acquired to detect gold deposits, are used to improve the hydrogeological knowledge of a roughly 50 km2 pilot-test area in Sierra Leone. Thanks to an accurate processing workflow and an advanced data inversion, based on the Spatially Constrained Inversion (SCI) algorithm, we have been able to resolve the thickness of the regolith aquifer and the top of the granitic-gneiss or greenstone belt bedrock. Moreover, the occurrence of different lithological units (more or less conductive) directly related to groundwater flow, sometimes having also a high chargeability (e.g. in the case of lateritic units), has been detailed within the regolith. The most promising areas to drill new productive wells have been recognized where the bedrock is deeper and the regolith thickness is larger. A further info that was considered in hydrogeological mapping is the resistivity of the regolith, provided that the most permeable layers coincide with the most resistive units. The

  16. A population-based study of cognitive impairment in socially vulnerable adults in Argentina. The Matanza Riachuelo Study. Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bartoloni

    Full Text Available Population aging has taken place intensively worldwide, even in developing countries. These countries have population groups with low resources and basic unmet needs that are frequently omitted from epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI and dementia in an economic and socially vulnerable population from Argentina. METHODS: A door-to-door observational population-based survey among adults over 60 years of cognitive impairment and dementia in the social vulnerable area of the Matanza Riachuelo Basin, in the suburban area of Buenos Aires, Argentina was conducted. Trained psychologists interviewed subjects and a proxy informant. A standardized protocol including a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale and a functional inventory for IADL and ADL was administered. Diagnoses were divided into three general categories: normal cognitive function, cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND and dementia. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A total of 2437 elderly persons were assessed, of which 73.6% fulfilled inclusion criteria. The prevalence of CI among those over 60 was 26.4% (18.1% CIND and 8.3% dementia with higher prevalence of dementia in younger individuals than rates reported in developed counties, probably due to low control of vascular risk factors. This information can help inform health public decisions in the generation of programs and plans for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairment in this type of socially vulnerable population.

  17. A population-based study of cognitive impairment in socially vulnerable adults in Argentina. The Matanza Riachuelo study preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoloni, Leonardo; Blatt, Graciela; Insua, Iván; Furman, Mariano; González, María Agustina; Hermann, Bárbara; Kesselman, Mariana; Massautis, Alicia; Reinado, Alejandra; Senas, Patricia; Yavitz, Claudia; Lejarraga, Horacio; Nunes, Fernando; Arizaga, Raúl Luciano; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2014-01-01

    Population aging has taken place intensively worldwide, even in developing countries. These countries have population groups with low resources and basic unmet needs that are frequently omitted from epidemiological studies. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI) and dementia in an economic and socially vulnerable population from Argentina. Methods A door-to-door observational population-based survey among adults over 60 years of cognitive impairment and dementia in the social vulnerable area of the Matanza Riachuelo Basin, in the suburban area of Buenos Aires, Argentina was conducted. Trained psychologists interviewed subjects and a proxy informant. A standardized protocol including a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale and a functional inventory for IADL and ADL was administered. Diagnoses were divided into three general categories: normal cognitive function, cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND) and dementia. Results and Conclusions A total of 2437 elderly persons were assessed, of which 73.6% fulfilled inclusion criteria. The prevalence of CI among those over 60 was 26.4% (18.1% CIND and 8.3% dementia) with higher prevalence of dementia in younger individuals than rates reported in developed counties, probably due to low control of vascular risk factors. This information can help inform health public decisions in the generation of programs and plans for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairment in this type of socially vulnerable population. PMID:29213923

  18. Classification of hydrogeologic areas and hydrogeologic flow systems in the basin and range physiographic province, southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, David W.; Konieczki, Alice D.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province in parts of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Utah, and most of Nevada was classified at basin and larger scales to facilitate information transfer and to provide a synthesis of results from many previous hydrologic investigations. A conceptual model for the spatial hierarchy of the hydrogeology was developed for the Basin and Range Physiographic Province and consists, in order of increasing spatial scale, of hydrogeologic components, hydrogeologic areas, hydrogeologic flow systems, and hydrogeologic regions. This hierarchy formed a framework for hydrogeologic classification. Hydrogeologic areas consist of coincident ground-water and surface-water basins and were delineated on the basis of existing sets of basin boundaries that were used in past investigations by State and Federal government agencies. Within the study area, 344 hydrogeologic areas were identified and delineated. This set of basins not only provides a framework for the classification developed in this report, but also has value for regional and subregional purposes of inventory, study, analysis, and planning throughout the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. The fact that nearly all of the province is delineated by the hydrogeologic areas makes this set well suited to support regional-scale investigations. Hydrogeologic areas are conceptualized as a control volume consisting of three hydrogeologic components: the soils and streams, basin fill, and consolidated rocks. The soils and streams hydrogeologic component consists of all surface-water bodies and soils extending to the bottom of the plant root zone. The basin-fill hydrogeologic component consists of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediment deposited in the structural basin. The consolidated-rocks hydrogeologic component consists of the crystalline and sedimentary rocks that form the mountain blocks and basement rock of the structural basin. Hydrogeologic areas were

  19. Contribution to optimisation of Environmental Isotopes tracing in Hydrogeology. Case study of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAJAOBELISON, J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to suggest some improvements on the theory of interpretation and on the methodological approach for the optimum use of environmental isotopes tracing applied to hydrogeological investigation. A review of the theory of environmental isotopes used in hydrogeology has been made. The main constraints have been highlighted and led to some comments and proposals of improvement, in particular with regard to the continental effect on stable isotopes, to the seasonal variation of groundwater 1 4C content, and to the appropriate model for fractured crystalline aquifers. A literature survey on ten specific scientific papers, dealing with isotopic hydrology in miscellaneous types of aquifers and catchments, allowed to draw a synthesis of the hydrogeological, geochemical and isotopic constraints. A proposal of optimum methodological approach, taking into account the above mentioned constraints, have been inferred. The results of an on-going hydrogeological investigation carried out in the Southern crystalline basement and coastal sedimentary aquifers of Madagascar highlights an unusual methodological approach based on the lack of initial basic hydrogeological data. Besides, it shows to what extent the experience of the above mentioned research works can apply in the specific case of the complex aquifers of Madagascar. The lessons gained from this study contribute to enrich the synthesis of environmental isotopes constraints in hydrogeology and lead to a more realistic methodological approach proposal wich is likely to better make profitable the isotope hydrology technology

  20. Tono regional hydrogeological study project. Annual report fiscal year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting a wide range of geoscientific research in order to build a firm scientific and technological basis for the research and development of geological disposal. One of the major components of the ongoing geoscientific research programme is the Regional Hydrogeological Study (RHS) project in the Tono region, central Japan. The main goal of the RHS project is to develop and demonstrate surface-based investigation methodologies to characterize geological environments at a regional scale in Japan. The RHS project was initiated in 1992. To date, remote sensing, geological mapping, airborne and ground geophysical investigations, and measurements in nine deep boreholes have been carried out in the study area (ca. 100 km{sup 2}). Groundwater monitoring (water chemistry and pressure) is continuing in these boreholes. Important results that have been obtained from these investigations include multi-disciplinary information about the heterogeneity of lithological, hydrogeological, geochemical and rock mechanical properties of the granitic rock, and evolution of the groundwater geochemistry. During fiscal year 1999, two 1,000 m long cored boreholes (DH-10 and DH-11) were drilled. Core logging, geophysical logging, hydraulic testing and groundwater sampling were conducted in these boreholes. Laboratory tests provided information about physical, rock mechanical and geochemical properties of granite in deep sections of these boreholes. Groundwater monitoring was continued in the existing boreholes. The usefulness and applicability of airborne and ground geophysical investigation methods were evaluated. Geological and hydrogeological models were developed based on information obtained until 1999. Groundwater flow simulation was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of boundary conditions and properties assigned to each hydrogeological unit. A conceptual model of the evolution of groundwater chemistry in the

  1. Community-Based Efforts to Prevent and Manage Diabetes in Women Living in Vulnerable Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Laurie; Kelly, R Patrick; Wilkin, Margaret; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra

    2017-11-13

    Social determinants of health likely play a significant role in the development of type 2 diabetes for women in vulnerable communities. Adult African American women diagnosed with or at-risk for diabetes in Inkster, Michigan (n = 113) and a group of demographically similar women in Flint, Michigan (n = 48) participated in programs aimed at increasing diabetes-related self-management behaviors through peer coaching, health literacy training, and social support. Participants completed surveys to measure changes in health, health behaviors, health literacy, and social support. We found that these diabetes programs with a focus on increasing women's capacity to practice health management behaviors, navigate the health care system, and connect with social support, led to an increase in healthy behaviors and a reported increase in both overall and diabetes-specific health over an 18 month period. Overall health, general diet and specific diet improved significantly (p change was not statistically significant. Women who participated in the intervention changed health behaviors, and increased their sense of health literacy and social support. Improvement in women's access to and use of community preventive services, and the provision of outreach support using community health workers (CHWs) and peer mentorship was an integral part of creating these changes. Although this study found that a variety of diabetes prevention and management programs provided opportunities for positive health changes, findings also suggest that it is critical to address the burdens women from vulnerable communities face in order to participate in these programs.

  2. Practitioner Review: Children in foster care – vulnerabilities and evidence-based interventions that promote resilience processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Landsverk, John A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Vostanis, Panos

    2012-01-01

    Background An increasing number of children are placed in foster care g(i.e., a kin or nonkin family home other than the biological parent) due to experiences of physical, sexual, emotional, or psychological abuse, and/or neglect. Children in foster care are at increased risk for a host of negative outcomes encompassing emotional, behavioral, neurobiological, and social realms. Methods Areas of risk and vulnerability among foster children are described, including emotional and behavioral deficits, impaired neurobiological development, and social relationship deficits. Evidence suggesting the significance of family placement changes and prenatal exposure to substances as contributing mechanisms is presented. Based on a systematic search of the PsycINFO database (to March 2012), eight efficacious evidence-based interventions for foster families are summarized. Findings Although the development of evidence-based interventions that improve outcomes for foster children has lagged behind the delivery of interventions in other service sectors (e.g., mental health and educational sectors), several interventions across childhood and adolescence offer promise. Service system constraints offer both challenges and opportunities for more routine implementation of evidence-based interventions. Conclusions Given the increased likelihood of poor outcomes for foster children, increased efforts to understand the pathways to vulnerability and to implement interventions shown to be effective in remediating risks and improving outcomes for this population are indicated. Evaluation of efficacious interventions in countries outside of the USA is also needed. PMID:22882015

  3. Microzonation of seismic risk in a low-rise Latin American city based on the macroseismic evaluation of the vulnerability of residential buildings: Colima city, México

    OpenAIRE

    Zobin, V. M.; Cruz-Bravo, A. A.; Ventura-Ramírez, F.

    2010-01-01

    A macroseismic methodology of seismic risk microzonation in a low-rise city based on the vulnerability of residential buildings is proposed and applied to Colima city, Mexico. The seismic risk microzonation for Colima consists of two elements: the mapping of residential blocks according to their vulnerability level and the calculation of an expert-opinion based damage probability matrix (DPM) for a given level of earthquake intensity and a given type of residential block. A specified exposure...

  4. Forecasting the effects of EU policy measures on the nitrate pollution of groundwater based on a coupled agroeconomic - hydro(geo)logic model (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, F.

    2010-12-01

    The fundamental objectives of the European Union-Water Framework Directive and the EU Groundwater Directive are to attain a good status of water and groundwater resources in the member states of the EU by 2015. For river basins, whose good status cannot be guaranteed by 2015, catchment wide operational plans and measurement programs have to be drafted and implemented until 2009. In the river basin district Weser, Germany, which comprises a catchment area of ca. 49.000 km2, the achievement of the good status is unclear, or rather unlikely for 63% of the groundwater bodies. Inputs from diffuse sources and most of all nitrate losses from agriculturally used land have been identified as the main reasons for exceeding the groundwater threshold value for nitrate (50 mg/l) and for failing the good qualitative status of groundwater. The achievement of good qualitative status of groundwater bodies entails a particular challenge as the complex ecological, hydrological, hydrogeological and agro-economic relationships have to be considered simultaneously. We used an interdisciplinary model network to predict the nitrogen intakes into groundwater at the regional scale using an area differentiated approach. The model system combines the agro-economic model RAUMIS for estimating nitrogen surpluses from agriculture and the hydrological models GROWA/DENUZ/WEKU for describing the reactive nitrate transport in the soil-groundwater system. In a first step the model is used to analyze the present situation using N surpluses from agriculture for the year 2003. In many region of the Weser basin, particularly in the northwestern part which is characterized by high livestock densities, predicted nitrate concentrations in percolation water exceed the EU groundwater quality standard of 50 mg/L by far. In a second step the temporal and spatial impacts of the common agricultural policy (CAP) of the EU, already implemented agri-environmental measures of the Federal States and the expected

  5. Ethics in Community-Based Research with Vulnerable Children: Perspectives from Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Betancourt

    Full Text Available A "risk of harm" protocol to identify youth in need of immediate emergency assistance in a study on mental health and HIV in Rwanda among 680 youth ages 10-17 is described. Cases are presented that describe the experience in using this protocol to ensure safety of participants, with ethical and logistical challenges considered. Among the population of the study, 3.2% were deemed "risk of harm." The most prevalent presenting problem was non-fatal suicidal behavior (91% of risk of harm cases, with 36% having a history of a reported previous attempt. Challenges included: acute food insecurity/significant poverty; lack of support/adequate supervision from family members; family violence; alcohol abuse; and HIV-related stigma. Development of a "risk of harm" protocol and collaboration between study staff, community leadership, health authorities, and health workers are critical to ensuring participants' safety in research among vulnerable populations.

  6. Human vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Siqueira, José Eduardo; Segre, Marco

    2008-01-01

    We consider essential when addressing human vulnerability, to perceive it under two diverse prisms, therefore, complementary: the individual and the collective. The first part will present the human being as the protagonist isolated from this circumstance and it will be performed in the first person, in a nearly colloquial manner. One's vulnerability, while a part of a social network, will be addressed in the second part of the text. It will not be difficult to realize how the individual on the condition of autonomous being or integrated element in a wide social network dies of the same illness, which seems to be a strong characteristic of post-modernity.

  7. Manual on mathematical models in isotope hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Methodologies based on the use of naturally occurring isotopes are, at present, an integral part of studies being undertaken for water resources assessment and management. Quantitative evaluations based on the temporal and/or spatial distribution of different isotopic species in hydrological systems require conceptual mathematical formulations. Different types of model can be employed depending on the nature of the hydrological system under investigation, the amount and type of data available, and the required accuracy of the parameter to be estimated. This manual provides an overview of the basic concepts of existing modelling approaches, procedures for their application to different hydrological systems, their limitations and data requirements. Guidance in their practical applications, illustrative case studies and information on existing PC software are also included. While the subject matter of isotope transport modelling and improved quantitative evaluations through natural isotopes in water sciences is still at the development stage, this manual summarizes the methodologies available at present, to assist the practitioner in the proper use within the framework of ongoing isotope hydrological field studies. In view of the widespread use of isotope methods in groundwater hydrology, the methodologies covered in the manual are directed towards hydrogeological applications, although most of the conceptual formulations presented would generally be valid. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for the U.S. Coastal States based on the 2010 Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) 2006-10 measures the social vulnerability of U.S. counties to environmental hazards. The index is a comparative metric that...

  9. Redistributing vulnerabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Padmawati, Retna Siwi

    2015-01-01

    Central Java earthquake, and we explore relations between citizens and the state during post-disaster house reconstruction. We argue that disastrous outcomes of catastrophic events do not follow pre-existing fault lines of vulnerability in a simple or predictable manner, and that the social process...

  10. Assessing vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is in the shantytowns and rural villages of the Third World that floods and droughts strike hardest and deepest. Vulnerability to the vagaries of climate depends not only on location, but, crucially, on the capacity of the victims to cope with the impacts of extreme weather. So, where are the

  11. Organizational interventions improving access to community-based primary health care for vulnerable populations: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanassov, Vladimir; Pluye, Pierre; Descoteaux, Sarah; Haggerty, Jeannie L; Russell, Grant; Gunn, Jane; Levesque, Jean-Frederic

    2016-10-10

    Access to community-based primary health care (hereafter, 'primary care') is a priority in many countries. Health care systems have emphasized policies that help the community 'get the right service in the right place at the right time'. However, little is known about organizational interventions in primary care that are aimed to improve access for populations in situations of vulnerability (e.g., socioeconomically disadvantaged) and how successful they are. The purpose of this scoping review was to map the existing evidence on organizational interventions that improve access to primary care services for vulnerable populations. Scoping review followed an iterative process. Eligibility criteria: organizational interventions in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries; aiming to improve access to primary care for vulnerable populations; all study designs; published from 2000 in English or French; reporting at least one outcome (avoidable hospitalization, emergency department admission, or unmet health care needs). Main bibliographic databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL) and team members' personal files. One researcher selected relevant abstracts and full text papers. Theory-driven synthesis: The researcher classified included studies using (i) the 'Patient Centered Access to Healthcare' conceptual framework (dimensions and outcomes of access to primary care), and (ii) the classification of interventions of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care. Using pattern analysis, interventions were mapped in accordance with the presence/absence of 'dimension-outcome' patterns. Out of 8,694 records (title/abstract), 39 studies with varying designs were included. The analysis revealed the following pattern. Results of 10 studies on interventions classified as 'Formal integration of services' suggested that these interventions were associated with three dimensions of access (approachability, availability and affordability) and

  12. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution mapping of Ranchi district using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, R; Iqbal, J; Gorai, A K; Pathak, G; Tuluri, F; Tchounwou, P B

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The present study demonstrates the integrated approach with GIS and DRASTIC model to derive a groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model considers the seven hydrogeological factors [Depth to water table ( D ), net recharge ( R ), aquifer media ( A ), soil media ( S ), topography or slope ( T ), impact of vadose zone ( I ) and hydraulic Conductivity( C )] for generating the groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model was applied for assessing the groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India. The model was validated by comparing the model output (vulnerability indices) with the observed nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the study area. The reason behind the selection of nitrate is that the major sources of nitrate in groundwater are anthropogenic in nature. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 wells/tube wells distributed in the study area. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for measuring the nitrate concentrations in groundwater. A sensitivity analysis of the integrated model was performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on groundwater vulnerability index. New weights were computed for each input parameters to understand the influence of individual hydrogeological factors in vulnerability indices in the study area. Aquifer vulnerability maps generated in this study can be used for environmental planning and groundwater management.

  13. Uncertainty in geological and hydrogeological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nilsson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty in conceptual model structure and in environmental data is of essential interest when dealing with uncertainty in water resources management. To make quantification of uncertainty possible is it necessary to identify and characterise the uncertainty in geological and hydrogeological data. This paper discusses a range of available techniques to describe the uncertainty related to geological model structure and scale of support. Literature examples on uncertainty in hydrogeological variables such as saturated hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, specific storage, effective porosity and dispersivity are given. Field data usually have a spatial and temporal scale of support that is different from the one on which numerical models for water resources management operate. Uncertainty in hydrogeological data variables is characterised and assessed within the methodological framework of the HarmoniRiB classification.

  14. Chemical analysis of water in hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakova, R.; Zenisova, Z.; Seman, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the monograph is to give complete information on the chemical analysis of water hydrogeology not only for the students program of Geology study (Bachelor degree study), Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology (Master's degree study) and Engineering Geology (doctoral level study), but also for students from other colleges and universities schools in Slovakia, as well as in the Czech Republic, dealing with the chemical composition of water and its quality, from different perspectives. The benefit would be for professionals with hydrogeological, water and environmental practices, who can find there all the necessary information about proper water sampling, the units used in the chemical analysis of water, expressing the proper chemical composition of water in its various parameters through classification of chemical composition of the water up to the basic features of physical chemistry at thermodynamic calculations and hydrogeochemical modelling.

  15. Modelling the changing cumulative vulnerability to climate-related hazards for river basin management using a GIS-based multicriteria decision approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Wu, Ju-Yu; Hung, Chih-Hsuan

    2017-04-01

    1. Background Asia-Pacific region is one of the most vulnerable areas of the world to climate-related hazards and extremes due to rapid urbanization and over-development in hazard-prone areas. It is thus increasingly recognized that the management of land use and reduction of hazard risk are inextricably linked. This is especially critical from the perspective of integrated river basin management. A range of studies has targeted existing vulnerability assessments. However, limited attention has been paid to the cumulative effects of multiple vulnerable factors and their dynamics faced by local communities. This study proposes a novel methodology to access the changing cumulative vulnerability to climate-related hazards, and to examine the relationship between the attraction factors relevant to the general process of urbanization and vulnerability variability with a focus on a river basin management unit. 2. Methods and data The methods applied in this study include three steps. First, using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) approach, a Cumulative Vulnerability Assessment Framework (CVAF) is built with a goal to characterize and compare the vulnerability to climate-related hazards within river basin regions based on a composition of multiple indicators. We organize these indicator metrics into three categories: (1) hazard exposure; (2) socioeconomic sensitivity, and (3) adaptive capacity. Second, the CVAF is applied by combining a geographical information system (GIS)-based spatial statistics technique with a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) to assess and map the changing cumulative vulnerability, comparing conditions in 1996 and 2006 in Danshui River Basin, Taiwan. Third, to examine the affecting factors of vulnerability changing, we develop a Vulnerability Changing Model (VCM) using four attraction factors to reflect how the process of urban developments leads to vulnerability changing. The factors are transport networks, land uses

  16. SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1988-08-01

    The SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation was implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the SRP site. Phase III, which is discussed in this report, includes the drilling of 7 deep coreholes (sites P-24 through P-30) and the installation of 53 observation wells ranging in depth from approximately 50 ft to more than 970 ft below the ground surface. In addition to the collection of geologic cores for lithologic and stratigraphic study, samples were also collected for the determination of physical characteristics of the sediments and for the identification of microorganisms.

  17. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-11-01

    As discussed in the program plan for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, this program has been implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the current state of knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The objective of the program is to install a series of observation well clusters (wells installed in each major water bearing formation at the same site) at key locations across the plant site in order to: (1) provide detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and groundwater hydrology, (2) provide observation wells to monitor the groundwater quality, head relationships, gradients, and flow paths.

  18. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  19. Land Use Management by Assessing Aquifer Vulnerability in Khovayes Plain Using the DRASTIC and SINTACS Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mousavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Land use change is a gradual process that entails dire consequences for groundwater quality and quantity. Quantitative changes in groundwater can be usually monitored by controlling the annual groundwater balance. Monitoring qualitative changes in groundwater, however, is both time-consuming and expensive. DRASTIC and SINTACS models exploit aquifer properties to predict its vulnerability. In this study, aquifer vulnerability assessment was performed by the DRASTIC & SINTACS models for future land use management in Khovayes, southwest Iran. The DRASTIC Model is based on hydrological and hydrogeological parameters involved in contaminant transport. SINTACS parameters are the same as those of the DRASTIC model, except that weighting and ranking the parameters are more flexible. Once vulnerability maps of the study region had been prepared, they were verified against the nitrate map. A correlation coefficient of 0.4 was obtained between the DRASTIC map and the nitrate one while the correlation between the SINTACS and the nitrate maps was found to be 0.8. Map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analyses were carried out, which showed the southwestern stretches of the study area as the region with the highest risk of vulnerability.

  20. THE METHOD FOR IDENTIFYING THE MOST VULNERABLE AREAS CAUSED BY EXOGENOUS PROCESSES UNDER ARIDIFICATION/HUMIDIFICATION (BASED ON GIS AND RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Chupina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the method of identifying the most vulnerable territories under exogenous processes caused by aridification/humidification. It is based on the assumption that some forms and types of relief increase resistance of terrestrial ecosystems to external influences, while other kinds of relief make them vulnerable. The relationship between landscape and moistening (ground and climatic is of great importance to plains which have groundwater close to the surface. We have used morphometric analysis to divide the territory into hydromorphic and automorphic landscapes. Hydromorphic territories are those that are affected by additional surface moistening and groundwater, while automorphic landscapes are less dependent on groundwater under normal atmospheric moisture. The territory is ranked according to the degree of vulnerability by expert evaluation method. The developed approach is based entirely on using GIS software (ArcGIS 10.2.1 and processing the DEM SRTM. As a result, two models of vulnerability of natural terrestrial ecosystems to exogenic processes on Baraba Plain (Western Siberia have been created for both aridification and humidification cases. The opportunity to estimate the vulnerability is the novel feature for these models of terrestrial ecosystems, in both regional and local scales. The results obtained confirm the existing ideas about the discrete mosaic character of changes in spatial landscape patterns in the area under consideration. For the southern part of Western Siberia where farming is risky the assessment of the potential degree of vulnerability for ecosystems under conditions of increasing climate aridity and extremes is relevant.

  1. Addressing vulnerability, building resilience: community-based adaptation to vector-borne diseases in the context of global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardosh, Kevin Louis; Ryan, Sadie J; Ebi, Kris; Welburn, Susan; Singer, Burton

    2017-12-11

    The threat of a rapidly changing planet - of coupled social, environmental and climatic change - pose new conceptual and practical challenges in responding to vector-borne diseases. These include non-linear and uncertain spatial-temporal change dynamics associated with climate, animals, land, water, food, settlement, conflict, ecology and human socio-cultural, economic and political-institutional systems. To date, research efforts have been dominated by disease modeling, which has provided limited practical advice to policymakers and practitioners in developing policies and programmes on the ground. In this paper, we provide an alternative biosocial perspective grounded in social science insights, drawing upon concepts of vulnerability, resilience, participation and community-based adaptation. Our analysis was informed by a realist review (provided in the Additional file 2) focused on seven major climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases: malaria, schistosomiasis, dengue, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, chagas disease, and rift valley fever. Here, we situate our analysis of existing community-based interventions within the context of global change processes and the wider social science literature. We identify and discuss best practices and conceptual principles that should guide future community-based efforts to mitigate human vulnerability to vector-borne diseases. We argue that more focused attention and investments are needed in meaningful public participation, appropriate technologies, the strengthening of health systems, sustainable development, wider institutional changes and attention to the social determinants of health, including the drivers of co-infection. In order to respond effectively to uncertain future scenarios for vector-borne disease in a changing world, more attention needs to be given to building resilient and equitable systems in the present.

  2. Map Your Hazards! - an Interdisciplinary, Place-Based Educational Approach to Assessing Natural Hazards, Social Vulnerability, Risk and Risk Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, B. D.; McMullin-Messier, P. A.; Schlegel, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    'Map your Hazards' is an educational module developed within the NSF Interdisciplinary Teaching about Earth for a Sustainable Future program (InTeGrate). The module engages students in place-based explorations of natural hazards, social vulnerability, and the perception of natural hazards and risk. Students integrate geoscience and social science methodologies to (1) identify and assess hazards, vulnerability and risk within their communities; (2) distribute, collect and evaluate survey data (designed by authors) on the knowledge, risk perception and preparedness within their social networks; and (3) deliver a PPT presentation to local stakeholders detailing their findings and recommendations for development of a prepared, resilient community. 'Map your Hazards' underwent four rigorous assessments by a team of geoscience educators and external review before being piloted in our classrooms. The module was piloted in a 300-level 'Volcanoes and Society' course at Boise State University, a 300-level 'Environmental Sociology' course at Central Washington University, and a 100-level 'Natural Disasters and Environmental Geology' course at the College of Western Idaho. In all courses students reported a fascination with learning about the hazards around them and identifying the high risk areas in their communities. They were also surprised at the low level of knowledge, inaccurate risk perception and lack of preparedness of their social networks. This successful approach to engaging students in an interdisciplinary, place-based learning environment also has the broad implications of raising awareness of natural hazards (survey participants are provided links to local hazard and preparedness information). The data and preparedness suggestions can be shared with local emergency managers, who are encouraged to attend the student's final presentations. All module materials are published at serc.carleton.edu/integrate/ and are appropriate to a wide range of classrooms.

  3. GIS Grid and CWS-based assessment of vulnerability to debris flow hazards in the upper reaches of Min River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mingtao; Hübl, Johannes; Fuchs, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Based on conceptual models of vulnerability assessment for mountain hazards, this paper aims to improve a quantitative assessment model for regional vulnerability by a detailed analysis of the relation between and among vulnerability (V), exposure (E), social coping capacity (C) and resilience (Re) with the expression of V = E(1-° C+Re- 2). Taking the mountain settlements in the upper reaches of Min River, China, as an example and ArcGIS 9.3 as the platform, we applied the technology of GIS Grid and the method of Contributing Weight Superposition (CWS) to establish both a model and a system for the vulnerability assessment of elements at risk. The latter consists of 13 index factors including population, economics and road densities, building and farmland coverage, hazard-affected areas, a monitoring coefficient to take into account early warning measures, the urbanization rate, GDP per capita, and labor aged population ratio. Accordingly, a debris-flow hazard vulnerability zoning map has been obtained and the assessment results had shown that the distribution of high and comparatively high vulnerability zones, where economic activities are the most intensive, had a close correlation to the river geometry and geomorphology and population activities. Such results correspond well with loss data in the region, proving the reasonability and feasibility of assessment methods in this paper. The results thus may serve as the pertinent guidance for settlement relocation, population distribution readjustment, and management to prevent and reduce hazards in the upper reaches of Min River.

  4. Stepwise hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analysis on site scale (Step 0 and Step 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuya; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori

    2005-05-01

    One of the main goals of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment. To achieve this goal, a variety of investigations, analysis, and evaluations have been conducted using an iterative approach. In this study, hydrogeological modeling and ground water flow analyses have been carried out using the data from surface-based investigations at Step 0 and Step 1, in order to synthesize the investigation results, to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrogeological model, and to specify items for further investigation. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) As the investigation progresses Step 0 to Step 1, the understanding of groundwater flow was enhanced from Step 0 to Step 1, and the hydrogeological model could be revised, 2) The importance of faults as major groundwater flow pathways was demonstrated, 3) Geological and hydrogeological characteristics of faults with orientation of NNW and NE were shown to be especially significant. The main item specified for further investigations is summarized as follows: geological and hydrogeological characteristics of NNW and NE trending faults are important. (author)

  5. Seismic-refraction field experiments on Galapagos Islands: A quantitative tool for hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelinet, M.; Domínguez, C.; Fortin, J.; Violette, S.

    2018-01-01

    Due to their complex structure and the difficulty of collecting data, the hydrogeology of basaltic islands remains misunderstood, and the Galapagos islands are not an exception. Geophysics allows the possibility to describe the subsurface of these islands and to quantify the hydrodynamical properties of its ground layers, which can be useful to build robust hydrogeological models. In this paper, we present seismic refraction data acquired on Santa Cruz and San Cristobal, the two main inhabited islands of Galapagos. We investigated sites with several hydrogeological contexts, located at different altitudes and at different distances to the coast. At each site, a 2D P-wave velocity profile is built, highlighting unsaturated and saturated volcanic layers. At the coastal sites, seawater intrusion is identified and basal aquifer is characterized in terms of variations in compressional sound wave velocities, according to saturation state. At highlands sites, the limits between soils and lava flows are identified. On San Cristobal Island, the 2D velocity profile obtained on a mid-slope site (altitude 150 m), indicates the presence of a near surface freshwater aquifer, which is in agreement with previous geophysical studies and the hydrogeological conceptual model developed for this island. The originality of our paper is the use of velocity data to compute field porosity based on poroelasticity theory and the Biot-Gassmann equations. Given that porosity is a key parameter in quantitative hydrogeological models, it is a step forward to a better understanding of shallow fluid flows within a complex structure, such as Galapagos volcanoes.

  6. Hydrogeological And Geotechnical Investigations Of Gully Erosion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For many years, gully erosion and landslides are posing a serious threat to human existence, agricultural land, infrastructure and socio-economic activities in Calabar and its environs. Consequently, hydrogeological and geotechnical studies of gully erosion sites were carried out in order to provide information on the ...

  7. Hydrogeological and geophysical study for deeper groundwater ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and monitoring in hydrogeology. Abdulaziz et al. (2012) in their work demonstrated subsurface char- acterization and groundwater flow. Though multi ...... electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and self-potential. (SP) methods for a water well drilling program in frac- tured/karstified limestones; J. Appl. Geophys. 75 42–53.

  8. Hydrogeology and migration in the remote field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.L.; Escalier des Orres, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives the main data on Oklo - Okelobondo site: hydrogeology, stratigraphy, geologic fractures, hydrochemical data. Then the results of computerized simulations of convective - dispersive transport with the help of METIS code (Modelling of flows and mass transfer with interaction in saturated medium) are described. 7 refs., 7 figs

  9. Small Scale Multisource Site – Hydrogeology Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A site impacted by brackish water was evaluated using traditional hydrogeologic and geochemical site characterization techniques. No single, specific source of the brine impacted ground water was identified. However, the extent of the brine impacted ground water was found to be...

  10. Hydrogeological and geophysical study for deeper groundwater ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    102(1) 61–69. Revil A, Karaoulis M, Johnson T and Kemna A 2012. Review: Some low-frequency electrical methods for sub- surface characterization and monitoring in hydrogeology;. Hydrogeol. J. 20(4) 617–658. Rijkswaterstaat 1969 Standard Graphs for Resistivity. Prospecting; European Association of Exploration Geo-.

  11. Hydrogeologic study of Cafam area. Melgar (Tolima)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel M, Carlos E; Perez C, Rosalbina

    1989-06-01

    The hydrogeologic study covers an area of 50 km 2 with the objectives of to determine the possibility of use of the underground waters and to locate places to carry out exploratory perforations in lands of Cafam, equally the elaboration of a hydrogeologic map of the region; for the effect it was carried out cartography geologic scale 1:10.000, inventory and sampling of water point, geoelectric prospecting and some permeability tests. In the area the exploitation of underground water is incipient, alone there are 20 points of water, of which none produce more than 1L/seg. The water has in general good physical chemistry quality for the human consumption. Geologically was recognized the groups Guadalupe and Gualanday, also some quaternary deposits; the previous ones were subdivided in 11 geological units for its composition and morphology, which are framed structurally in the E flank of the synclinal of Carmen de Apicala and displaced by traverse faults with address E-W and N-W. From the point of hydrogeologic view the units were grouped in 8 aquifer systems, of which four are considered of hydrogeologic importance for the area; the sector with better possibilities to capture these aquifer systems is the W of the area (in the terraces area) that extends to the Sumapaz River. For the Cafam sector a place was selected to build an exploratory well of 200 mts. of depth that would capture an aquifer of low transmissivity, corresponding to the Unit T3

  12. Hydrogeological characterization and assessment of groundwater ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    recharge areas act as a source of pollution to groundwater (Kumar et al. 2006). In this perspec- tive, it becomes important to assess groundwater quality in shallow aquifers in the vicinity of the. Najafgarh drain. 2. Hydrogeology of the study area. The Najafgarh drain traverses through south-west, west, north-west and north ...

  13. Hydrogeological characterization and assessment of groundwater ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this perspective, assessment of groundwater quality in shallow aquifers in vicinity of the Najafgarh drain of Delhi and hydrogeological characterization of adjacent areas were done. The groundwater quality was examined in perspective of Indian as well as World Health Organization's drinking water standards. The spatial ...

  14. Hydrogeological And Geotechnical Investigations Of Gully Erosion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, hydrogeological and geotechnical studies of gully erosion sites were carried out in order to provide information on the genesis and continual expansion of gullies in the area. The results indicate that gullies are located in the upper aquifer of the Benin Formation (Coastal Plain Sands). The estimated hydraulic ...

  15. Hydrogeological evaluation of geological formations in Ashanti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, therefore, employed Geographical Information System to assess some of these hydrogeological parameters in the Ashanti Region using the ordinary kriging interpolation method. Data on 2,788 drilled boreholes in the region were used and the assessment focused on the various geological formations in the ...

  16. Hydrogeological Characteristics of Groundwater Yield in Shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Ifabiyi, I.P., Ashaolu, E.D and Omotosho, O*. Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Faculty of Social Sciences,. University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria (*oluomotoshor@gmail.com). ABSTRACT. Present paper tries to understand the influence of hydrogeological characteristics on groundwater.

  17. Progress in Geo-Electrical Methods for Hydrogeological Mapping?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In most of the 20th century the geo-electrical methods were primarily used for groundwater exploration and the application of the methods were normally followed by a borehole, and a moment of truth. In this process the use of DC (direct current) soundings have been developed to a high grade of ex....... The test area was earlier mapped by DC-soundings, so it is possible to test the methods against each other. It is concluded that well performed DC-soundings with a Schlumberger configuration still provide the best base for hydrogeological mapping...

  18. Description of hydrogeological data in SKB's database GEOTAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentzschein, B.

    1986-12-01

    Since 1977 Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB has been performing a research and development programme for final disposal and spent nuclear fuel. The purpose of the programme is to acquire knowledge and data of radioactive waste. Measurement for the characterisation of geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrochemical conditions are performed in specific site investigations as well as for geoscientific projects. A database, called GEOTAB, was investigated. It is based on a concept from Mimer Information System, and have been further developed by Ergo-Data. The hardware is a VAX 750 computer located at KRAB (Kraftverksbolagens Redovisningsavdelning AB) in Stockholm. (orig./DG)

  19. Diurnal and Seasonal Cloud Base Patterns Highlight Small-Mountain Tropical Cloud Forest Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beusekom, A.; Gonzalez, G.; Scholl, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The degree to which cloud immersion sustains tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) during rainless periods and the amount these clouds are affected by urban areas is not well understood, as cloud base is rarely quantified near mountains. We found that a healthy small-mountain TMCF in Puerto Rico had lowest cloud base during the mid-summer dry season. In addition, we observed that cloud bases were lower than the mountaintops as often in the winter dry season as in the wet seasons, based on 2.5 years of direct and 16 years of indirect observations. The low clouds during dry season appear to be explained by proximity to the oceanic cloud system where lower clouds are seasonally invariant in altitude and cover; along with orographic lifting and trade-wind control over cloud formation. These results suggest that climate change impacts on small-mountain TMCFs may not be limited to the dry season; changes in regional-scale patterns that cause drought periods during the wet seasons will likely have higher cloud base, and thus may threaten cloud water support to sensitive mountain ecosystems. Strong El Niño's can cause drought in Puerto Rico; we will report results from the summer of 2015 that examined El Niño effects on cloud base altitudes. Looking at regionally collected airport cloud data, we see indicators that diurnal urban effects may already be raising the low cloud bases.

  20. Hydrogeological modeling for improving groundwater monitoring network and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Jay Krishna

    2017-10-01

    The research aimed to investigate a new approach for spatiotemporal groundwater monitoring network optimization using hydrogeological modeling to improve monitoring strategies. Unmonitored concentrations were incorporated at different potential monitoring locations into the groundwater monitoring optimization method. The proposed method was applied in the contaminated megasite, Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Germany. Based on an existing 3-D geological model, 3-D groundwater flow was obtained from flow velocity simulation using initial and boundary conditions. The 3-D groundwater transport model was used to simulate transport of α-HCH with an initial ideal concentration of 100 mg/L injected at various hydrogeological layers in the model. Particle tracking for contaminant and groundwater flow velocity realizations were made. The spatial optimization result suggested that 30 out of 462 wells in the Quaternary aquifer (6.49 %) and 14 out of 357 wells in the Tertiary aquifer (3.92 %) were redundant. With a gradual increase in the width of the particle track path line, from 0 to 100 m, the number of redundant wells remarkably increased, in both aquifers. The results of temporal optimization showed different sampling frequencies for monitoring wells. The groundwater and contaminant flow direction resulting from particle tracks obtained from hydrogeological modeling was verified by the variogram modeling through α-HCH data from 2003 to 2009. Groundwater monitoring strategies can be substantially improved by removing the existing spatio-temporal redundancy as well as incorporating unmonitored network along with sampling at recommended interval of time. However, the use of this model-based method is only recommended in the areas along with site-specific experts' knowledge.

  1. Characterization of hydrogeologic units using matrix properties, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    Determination of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste requires the use of numerical flow and transport models. Input for these models includes parameters that describe hydrologic properties and the initial and boundary conditions for all rock materials within the unsaturated zone, as well as some of the upper rocks in the saturated zone. There are 30 hydrogeologic units in the unsaturated zone, and each unit is defined by limited ranges where a discrete volume of rock contains similar hydrogeologic properties. These hydrogeologic units can be easily located in space by using three-dimensional lithostratigraphic models based on relationships of the properties with the lithostratigraphy. Physical properties of bulk density, porosity, and particle density; flow properties of saturated hydraulic conductivity and moisture-retention characteristics; and the state variables (variables describing the current state of field conditions) of saturation and water potential were determined for each unit. Units were defined using (1) a data base developed from 4,892 rock samples collected from the coring of 23 shallow and 8 deep boreholes, (2) described lithostratigraphic boundaries and corresponding relations to porosity, (3) recognition of transition zones with pronounced changes in properties over short vertical distances, (4) characterization of the influence of mineral alteration on hydrologic properties such as permeability and moisture-retention characteristics, and (5) a statistical analysis to evaluate where boundaries should be adjusted to minimize the variance within layers. This study describes the correlation of hydrologic properties to porosity, a property that is well related to the lithostratigraphy and depositional and cooling history of the volcanic deposits and can, therefore, be modeled to be distributed laterally

  2. Hydrogeological investigation of Melendiz basin (Aksaray)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogdu, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    Within the scope of this M.Sc, study entitled Hydrogeologic Investigation of Melendiz basin, the geological, hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical features of a 600 km2 area have been studied and, 1/100.000 scale geological and hydrogeological maps have been prepared. Tetriary-Guaternary aged young volkanic rocks occupy nearly 80% (480 km2 ) of the area. The major aquifers are alluvium and andesite and basalt which are extensively fractured and jointed. Aquitard units comprise of ignimbirite, some of the andesites-basalts and formations that composes of limestone-sandstone-marl intercalations. The youngest geologic unit of the area, Hasandag volcanic ash formation, and also the tuffs have been indentified as aquiclude units. Mean areal precipitation, potential and real evapotranspiration rates and mean annual streamflow have been calculated on the basis of available data and, a hydrologic budget of the basin has been established. Hydrogeologic units have been classified as aquifer, aquitard and aquiclude with respect to their geohydrologic properties, field observations and the results of the pumping tests. On the other hand, hydrodynamic mechanism of the groundwater flow reaching major cold and thermal water discharges have also been explained. A hydrogeologic budget for the area covering Ciftlik township and its vicinity where extensively joint and fractured andesite-basalt and alluvial aquifers outcrop has been established. Major water points as thermal and cold springs, wells and streams have been sampled for major ion analysis. Beyond this, some water points have also been sampled for organic, trace,metal ald environmental isotropic analyses. Environmental isotope data of thermal springs point out a long-deep groundwater flow path

  3. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analysed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Flávia Pereira; Alves, Maria da Glória; Martins, Livia Mattos; Rangel, Alba Lucínia Peixoto; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Hill, Dolores; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia

    2015-11-01

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analysed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area endemic for waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to select sites for water collection from wells for T. gondii oocyst testing and for collecting blood from free-range chickens and humans for anti-T. gondii serologic testing. Serologic testing of human specimens was done using conventional commercial tests and a sporozoite-specific embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP), which is able to differentiate whether infection resulted from tissue cysts or oocysts. Water specimens were negative for the presence of viable T. gondii oocysts. However, seroprevalence in free-range chickens was significantly associated with vulnerability of groundwater to surface contamination (p toxoplasmosis in light of groundwater vulnerability information associated with prevalence in humans estimated by oocyst antigens recognition have implications for the potential role of hydrogeological assessment in researching waterborne toxoplasmosis at a global scale.

  4. HIV/AIDS in mid-sized cities in Senegal: From individual to place-based vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drame, Fatou Maria; Foley, Ellen E

    2015-05-01

    In Senegal, recent data indicates that the HIV epidemic is increasingly driven by concurrent sexual partners among men and women in stable relationships. In order to respond to this changing epidemiological profile in Senegal, multi-lateral and national AIDS actors require information about these emerging trends in unstudied populations. To that end, this study has several objectives, first, to assess local dynamics of sexual behaviors among individuals at popular socializing venues in areas at increased risk of HIV transmission; and then to examine how particular venues may influence risks of HIV transmission. In 2013 we collected data at 314 venues in 10 cities in Senegal using PLACE methodology. These venues were listed with collaboration of 374 community informants. They are places where commercial sex workers, MSM, and individuals who are not part of any identified risk group socialize and meet new sexual partners. We conducted 2600 interviews at the 96 most popular venues. A significant portion of the sample reports buying or selling sex and the majority engaged in behavior considered high-risk for transmitting sexual infections. Almost a quarter of patrons interviewed in venues were young people aged 15-24 years. Types of venues described were very diverse. Half of them were venues (n = 156) where sex workers could be solicited and almost a third were venues where MSM could meet male partners (n = 90). The study showed existing pockets of vulnerability to HIV in Thies, Bignona or Saly that are not evident from aggregate HIV data. These early findings suggest links between risky behaviors and type of venue on the one hand and type of city on the other hand. Finally, these findings offer complementary insight to existing studies of HIV vulnerability in Senegal and support a case for venue-based interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the vulnerability of human and biological communities to changing ecosystem services using a GIS-based multi-criteria decision support tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel; Norman, Laura M.; Labiosa, William B.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe an application of a GIS-based multi-criteria decision support web tool that models and evaluates relative changes in ecosystem services to policy and land management decisions. The Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio (SCWEPM) was designed to provide credible forecasts of responses to ecosystem drivers and stressors and to illustrate the role of land use decisions on spatial and temporal distributions of ecosystem services within a binational (U.S. and Mexico) watershed. We present two SCWEPM sub-models that when analyzed together address bidirectional relationships between social and ecological vulnerability and ecosystem services. The first model employs the Modified Socio-Environmental Vulnerability Index (M-SEVI), which assesses community vulnerability using information from U.S. and Mexico censuses on education, access to resources, migratory status, housing situation, and number of dependents. The second, relating land cover change to biodiversity (provisioning services), models changes in the distribution of terrestrial vertebrate habitat based on multitemporal vegetation and land cover maps, wildlife habitat relationships, and changes in land use/land cover patterns. When assessed concurrently, the models exposed some unexpected relationships between vulnerable communities and ecosystem services provisioning. For instance, the most species-rich habitat type in the watershed, Desert Riparian Forest, increased over time in areas occupied by the most vulnerable populations and declined in areas with less vulnerable populations. This type of information can be used to identify ecological conservation and restoration targets that enhance the livelihoods of people in vulnerable communities and promote biodiversity and ecosystem health.

  6. [Vulnerability factors to depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugán, Antal; Margitics, Ferenc; Pauwlik, Zsuzsa

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal in their complexity the biological and cognitive vulnerability factors, as well as the environmental and socialisation predisposing factors playing a role in the development of depression in non-clinical sample of subjects (college students). Biological vulnerability was examined through temperament and character features, cognitive vulnerability was examined through dysfunctional attitudes, attributional style and coping strategies, and environmental, socialization predisposing factors were observed through certain family socialisation effects (type of family atmosphere, educational objectives, educational and rearing attitudes and style) and parental rearing behaviour. 681 college students were involved in this study (465 females, 216 males). Students were assigned to the study group if they fell in the fourth quartile of the sample based on the results obtained by the Beck's Depression Inventory: 170 persons (128 females, 42 males). Students who fell in the first quartile of the sample on the basis of their results obtained by the mentioned Inventory formed the control group: 204 persons (118 females, 86 males). The results of our study have demonstrated that in a sub-clinical sample the lack of parental care was observed to be a socialization predisposing factor in the development of depression, while certain dysfunctional attitudes and pessimistic interpretation styles were detected to be cognitive vulnerability factors, and harm avoidance proved to be a biological vulnerability factor. We also managed to reveal the effects of certain background factors, which produce their influence indirectly through mediating factors.

  7. Hydrogeological study simulation associated to the deposition of low and medium radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius Verna Magalhaes; Soares, Wellington Antonio; Alves, James Vieira

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the Brazilian Nuclear Program foresaw the construction of at least five nuclear power plants until 2030. Like other human activities, the use of nuclear energy generates waste, which can have negative potential impact on the human health and on the environment. This waste must be safely managed, and cannot be released without a previous treatment. This paper presents a study in order to evaluate the implantation of a nuclear waste repository of low and medium level of activity in the Bahia state, Brazil, with the help of the FRACTRAN software. The results showed that the hydrogeological vulnerability is small, what encourages the development of additional studies. (author)

  8. Regional hydrogeological simulations using CONECTFLOW. Preliminary site description. Laxemar sub area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Hunter, Fiona; Jackson, Peter; McCarthy, Rachel [Serco Assurance, Risley (United Kingdom); Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    The main objective of this study is to support the development of a preliminary Site Description of the Laxemar subarea on a regional-scale based on the available data of November 2004 (Data Freeze L1.2). A more specific objective of this study is to assess the role of both known and less quantified hydrogeological conditions in determining the present-day distribution of saline groundwater in the Laxemar subarea on a regional-scale. An improved understanding of the palaeo-hydrogeology is necessary in order to gain credibility for the Site Description in general and the hydrogeological description in particular. This is to serve as a basis for describing the present hydrogeological conditions on a local-scale, as well as predictions of future hydrogeological conditions. Another objective is to assess the flow-paths from the local-scale model domain, based on the present-day flow conditions, to assess the distribution of discharge and recharge areas connected to the flow at the approximate repository depth to inform the Preliminary Safety Evaluation. Significant new features incorporated in the modelling include: a depth variation in hydraulic properties within the deformation zones; a dependence on rock domain and depth in the rock mass properties in regional-scale models; a more detailed model of the overburden in terms of a layered system of spatially variable thickness made up of several different types of Quaternary deposits has been implemented; and several variants on the position of the watertable have been tried. The motivation for introducing a dependence on rock domain was guided by the hydrogeological interpretation with the aim of honouring the observed differences in hydraulic properties measured at the boreholes.

  9. Regional hydrogeological simulations using CONECTFLOW. Preliminary site description. Laxemar sub area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, Lee; Hunter, Fiona; Jackson, Peter; McCarthy, Rachel; Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko

    2006-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to support the development of a preliminary Site Description of the Laxemar subarea on a regional-scale based on the available data of November 2004 (Data Freeze L1.2). A more specific objective of this study is to assess the role of both known and less quantified hydrogeological conditions in determining the present-day distribution of saline groundwater in the Laxemar subarea on a regional-scale. An improved understanding of the palaeo-hydrogeology is necessary in order to gain credibility for the Site Description in general and the hydrogeological description in particular. This is to serve as a basis for describing the present hydrogeological conditions on a local-scale, as well as predictions of future hydrogeological conditions. Another objective is to assess the flow-paths from the local-scale model domain, based on the present-day flow conditions, to assess the distribution of discharge and recharge areas connected to the flow at the approximate repository depth to inform the Preliminary Safety Evaluation. Significant new features incorporated in the modelling include: a depth variation in hydraulic properties within the deformation zones; a dependence on rock domain and depth in the rock mass properties in regional-scale models; a more detailed model of the overburden in terms of a layered system of spatially variable thickness made up of several different types of Quaternary deposits has been implemented; and several variants on the position of the watertable have been tried. The motivation for introducing a dependence on rock domain was guided by the hydrogeological interpretation with the aim of honouring the observed differences in hydraulic properties measured at the boreholes

  10. A vibration-based health monitoring program for a large and seismically vulnerable masonry dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorelli, M. L.; Ceravolo, R.; De Lucia, G.; Epicoco, R.

    2017-05-01

    Vibration-based health monitoring of monumental structures must rely on efficient and, as far as possible, automatic modal analysis procedures. Relatively low excitation energy provided by traffic, wind and other sources is usually sufficient to detect structural changes, as those produced by earthquakes and extreme events. Above all, in-operation modal analysis is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that can support optimal strategies for the preservation of architectural heritage, especially if complemented by model-driven procedures. In this paper, the preliminary steps towards a fully automated vibration-based monitoring of the world’s largest masonry oval dome (internal axes of 37.23 by 24.89 m) are presented. More specifically, the paper reports on signal treatment operations conducted to set up the permanent dynamic monitoring system of the dome and to realise a robust automatic identification procedure. Preliminary considerations on the effects of temperature on dynamic parameters are finally reported.

  11. A new GIS-based tsunami risk evaluation: MeTHuVA (METU tsunami human vulnerability assessment) at Yenikapı, Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankaya, Zeynep Ceren; Suzen, Mehmet Lutfi; Yalciner, Ahmet Cevdet; Kolat, Cagil; Zaytsev, Andrey; Aytore, Betul

    2016-07-01

    Istanbul is a mega city with various coastal utilities located on the northern coast of the Sea of Marmara. At Yenikapı, there are critical vulnerable coastal utilities, structures, and active metropolitan life. Fishery ports, commercial ports, small craft harbors, passenger terminals of intercity maritime transportation, waterfront commercial and/or recreational structures with residential/commercial areas and public utility areas are some examples of coastal utilization that are vulnerable to marine disasters. Therefore, the tsunami risk in the Yenikapı region is an important issue for Istanbul. In this study, a new methodology for tsunami vulnerability assessment for areas susceptible to tsunami is proposed, in which the Yenikapı region is chosen as a case study. Available datasets from the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and Turkish Navy are used as inputs for high-resolution GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) evaluation of tsunami risk in Yenikapı. Bathymetry and topography database is used for high-resolution tsunami numerical modeling where the tsunami hazard, in terms of coastal inundation, is deterministically computed using the NAMI DANCE numerical code, considering earthquake worst case scenarios. In order to define the tsunami human vulnerability of the region, two different aspects, vulnerability at location and evacuation resilience maps were created using the analytical hierarchical process (AHP) method of MCDA. A vulnerability at location map is composed of metropolitan use, geology, elevation, and distance from shoreline layers, whereas an evacuation resilience map is formed by slope, distance within flat areas, distance to buildings, and distance to road networks layers. The tsunami risk map is then computed by the proposed new relationship which uses flow depth maps, vulnerability at location maps, and evacuation resilience maps.

  12. Study on the methodology of hydrogeological character in preselected site for high-level waste repository in Beishan area, Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Su Rui; Yang Tianxiao

    2003-01-01

    The results of regional hydrogeological investigations conducted during 1996-2000 were summarized. The study was started with the surface hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, and groundwater isotopic and humic acid investigations. The key-points are focused on the characteristics of water-bearing formation, hydrogeochemistry, groundwater isotopes as well as humic acid. On the bases of a large quantity of hydrogeological data, the hydrogeological conditions of each groundwater unit, groundwater circulation characteristics, groundwater hydrodynamics and hydrgeochemistry are described. In addition, the modeling about groundwater flow state, groundwater chemical balance, interaction among water-rock-nuclear waste is carried out, then the suitability of the Beishan site for the high-level radioactive waste disposal is evaluated. The report comprehensively and deeply shows the hydrogeological characteristics of weak water bearing, low permeability and slow moving as well as the hydrogeochemical features of mild alkalinity and high mineralization in Beishan area. The results will provide an important basis for the evaluation of the site. (authors)

  13. Analyzing driving forces behind changes in energy vulnerability of Spanish electricity generation through a Divisia index-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We propose and develop the LMDI approach to factorize changes in electricity bill vulnerability. • Spanish vulnerability (1995–2011) markedly grew mainly by increasing gas dependence. • Fuel price increase and growing importance of electricity damage energy security. • Energy intensity advances & fuel diversification: insufficient to drive vulnerability. • Main recommendation: enhance internal energy market and common external EU strategy. - Abstract: High energy dependence on fossil raises vulnerability concerns about security of supply and energy cost. This research examines the impact of high dependence of imported fuels for power generation in Spain through the quantification and analysis of the driving forces behind the change in its electricity bill. Following logarithmic mean Divisia indexes approach, we present and perform a new method that enables a complete decomposition of changes in electricity vulnerability into contributions from several drivers. In fact, we identify five predefined factors behind the variations in vulnerability in Spain during the 1998–2011 period: fuel price, average heat rate, fuel dependence, degree of electricity importance and energy intensity. The application of this approach reveals a significant increase in Spanish vulnerability in the last two decades, promoted by increments in fuel price and importance of electricity over the primary energy consumption, but especially by increasing fuel dependence (particularly gas dependence). Therefore, findings mainly advocate for those strategies aimed at reducing Spanish energy dependence. Also those improving thermal efficiency and energy intensity are indicated

  14. A Monte Carlo simulation based two-stage adaptive resonance theory mapping approach for offshore oil spill vulnerability index classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Chen, Bing; Li, Zelin; Zheng, Xiao; Wu, Hongjing; Jing, Liang; Lee, Kenneth

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, a Monte Carlo simulation based two-stage adaptive resonance theory mapping (MC-TSAM) model was developed to classify a given site into distinguished zones representing different levels of offshore Oil Spill Vulnerability Index (OSVI). It consisted of an adaptive resonance theory (ART) module, an ART Mapping module, and a centroid determination module. Monte Carlo simulation was integrated with the TSAM approach to address uncertainties that widely exist in site conditions. The applicability of the proposed model was validated by classifying a large coastal area, which was surrounded by potential oil spill sources, based on 12 features. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that the classification process was affected by multiple features instead of one single feature. The classification results also provided the least or desired number of zones which can sufficiently represent the levels of offshore OSVI in an area under uncertainty and complexity, saving time and budget in spill monitoring and response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preschool children with lower executive function may be more vulnerable to emotional-based eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Joy Rickman; Laugero, Kevin D

    2013-03-01

    Decreased executive function (EF) has been linked to unhealthy eating behaviors and obesity in older children and adults, however little is known about this relationship in young children. One possible reason for this association is that individuals with degraded EF are more vulnerable to emotional-based overeating. Emotional eating may thus be more likely to occur in persons with lower self-control or ability to regulate emotions. A pilot project in a research-based preschool was conducted to examine the relationships between executive function, emotional arousal and eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) in 3-6year-old children. Executive function was measured through child-completed tasks, parent questionnaires, and standardized teacher reports. Emotional arousal was measured via skin conductance. Children who had lower cognitive development scores as indicated by teacher reports had higher EAH. Increased emotional arousal was associated with increased EAH, but only in a subgroup of children who had a lower capacity for emotional regulation as suggested by lower delay of gratification scores, lower effortful control (parent questionnaire), and overall lower teacher-reported cognitive development. Further studies are necessary to determine whether interventions to improve executive function and emotional regulation in young children may also have the benefit of improving eating behaviors and decreasing risk of obesity in the long run. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Functioning before and after a major depressive episode: pre-existing vulnerability or scar? A prospective three-wave population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, E H; Ten Have, M; van Dorsselaer, S; Jeronimus, B F; de Graaf, R; de Jonge, P

    2018-01-14

    The vulnerability hypothesis suggests that impairments after remission of depressive episodes reflect a pre-existing vulnerability, while the scar hypothesis proposes that depression leaves residual impairments that confer risk of subsequent episodes. We prospectively examined vulnerability and scar effects in mental and physical functioning in a representative Dutch population sample. Three waves were used from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2, a population-based study with a 6-years follow-up. Mental and physical functioning were assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36). Major depressive disorder (MDD) was assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Vulnerability effects were examined by comparing healthy controls (n = 2826) with individuals who developed a first-onset depressive episode during first follow-up but did not have a lifetime diagnosis of MDD at baseline (n = 181). Scarring effects were examined by comparing pre- and post-morbid functioning in individuals who developed a depressive episode after baseline that was remitted at the third wave (n = 108). Both mental (B = -5.4, s.e. = 0.9, p vulnerability rather than a scar.

  17. Hydrogeologic Framework of Bedrock Units and Initial Salinity Distribution for a Simulation of Groundwater Flow for the Lake Michigan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is assessing groundwater availability in the Lake Michigan Basin. As part of the assessment, a variable-density groundwater-flow model is being developed to simulate the effects of groundwater use on water availability throughout the basin. The hydrogeologic framework for the Lake Michigan Basin model was developed by grouping the bedrock geology of the study area into hydrogeologic units on the basis of the functioning of each unit as an aquifer or confining layer within the basin. Available data were evaluated based on the areal extent of coverage within the study area, and procedures were established to characterize areas with sparse data coverage. Top and bottom altitudes for each hydrogeologic unit were interpolated in a geographic information system for input to the model and compared with existing maps of subsurface formations. Fourteen bedrock hydrogeologic units, making up 17 bedrock model layers, were defined, and they range in age from the Jurassic Period red beds of central Michigan to the Cambrian Period Mount Simon Sandstone. Information on groundwater salinity in the Lake Michigan Basin was compiled to create an input dataset for the variable-density groundwater-flow simulation. Data presented in this report are referred to as 'salinity data' and are reported in terms of total dissolved solids. Salinity data were not available for each hydrogeologic unit. Available datasets were assigned to a hydrogeologic unit, entered into a spatial database, and data quality was visually evaluated. A geographic information system was used to interpolate salinity distributions for each hydrogeologic unit with available data. Hydrogeologic units with no available data either were set equal to neighboring units or were vertically interpolated by use of values from units above and below.

  18. Groundwater vulnerability assessment in Jaworzynka's Valley catchment basin (Tatra Mountains, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypel, M.

    2012-04-01

    During the research an attempt was made to assess an intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to contamination in Tatra Mountains (Poland. Assessment of the degree of hazard of permeating pollutions from land surface directly to the ground water table was the main target of the research. The Jaworzynka's Valley in West Tatra Mountains was chosen as the exact research area. Jaworzynka's Valley is a typical karst catchment basin. Location of study area wasn't accidental, because in the north part of the valley there is a well which is being used as drinking water intake for the whole Zakopane City. This is the reason, why the quality of ground water is so important. The method used in this research, entitled KARSTIC, wasn't applied in Poland before. This is a parametric method of groundwater vulnerability assessment. KARSTIC is a modification of much better known DRASTIC method, specialized for specific karst terrain. KARSTIC method created by A. Davis and others (1994), was used for the first time, during a research in the Black Hills Mountains, USA. Research in Jaworzynka's Valley was based on the Black Hills study. In order to apply this method in Tatra Mountains, it was necessary to make a few changes in relation to original area. Applying KARSTIC method consists of successive stages. Schematization of hydrogeological conditions is an inseparable part of KARSTIC method. The first step bases on collecting all of available data such as maps, databases and documentations. Next stage consists of classifying all parameters employed in this method and then assigning a ratings and weights for this parameters. Subsequently it is necessary to use a mathematical formula, named Pollution Potential Index, which presents a ground water vulnerability in each point. The final step is visualization on the ground water vulnerability map. The result of research displays the high vulnerability in close proximity of the drinking water intake. The most vulnerable areas in Jaworzynka

  19. Health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment keep the socially vulnerable physically active in community-based physical activity programs: a sequential cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.; Bakker, E.J.; Ophem, van J.A.C.; Wagemakers, A.; Koelen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is most commonly found in socially vulnerable groups. Dutch policies target these groups through community-based health-enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programs. As robust evidence on the effectiveness of this approach is limited, this study investigated whether CBHEPA

  20. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Cole, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin's moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers

  1. Recent hydrogeologic study of the Vis island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janislav Kapelj

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Vis Island belongs to the group of the Middle Dalmatian islands. It comprises an area of about 90.2 km2. Morphologically, three belts of highlands and two depressions with karst poljes are significant. The highest point on the island is Hum with 587 m a.s.l. theisland’s water supply is organized from the water-supply station “Korita”, situated in the central part of island, in tectonically formed depression. There are two additional capturedobjects: the well K-1 above the Komiža town and the spring “Pizdica”. The most important hydrogeological role on the island have two hydrogeological barriers, one in the KomižaBay, completely made of impermeable igneous and clastic rocks, and another one, the recently recognized relative barrier in the area of Dra~evo, Plisko and Velo polje. Since the island karst aquifer is in permanent dynamic relation with seawater, classical geologic,structural and hydrogeologic investigations have been performed with application of hydrogeochemical methods taking into account the natural chemical tracer content of groundwater and its variations in different hydrologic and vegetation conditions. Precipitationregime is very unfavorable with regard to the recharging of island’s aquifer, because dry periods are usually very long. During the summer tourist season, when the number of inhabitants and fresh water consumption considerably increase, amounts of island’sgroundwater suitable for water supply and irrigation rapidly decrease. Sometimes, insufficient quantity of fresh water on the Vis Island causes restrictions. Concerning the development of tourist potential and the present agricultural activities, summer lack ofwater is a serious restrictive factor. Some results of the performed hydrogeological study, important as a basis for island’s fresh water potential assessment, will be presented.

  2. The physical hydrogeology of ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Appold, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal ore deposits represent a convergence of fluid flow, thermal energy, and solute flux that is hydrogeologically unusual. From the hydrogeologic perspective, hydrothermal ore deposition represents a complex coupled-flow problem—sufficiently complex that physically rigorous description of the coupled thermal (T), hydraulic (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes (THMC modeling) continues to challenge our computational ability. Though research into these coupled behaviors has found only a limited subset to be quantitatively tractable, it has yielded valuable insights into the workings of hydrothermal systems in a wide range of geologic environments including sedimentary, metamorphic, and magmatic. Examples of these insights include the quantification of likely driving mechanisms, rates and paths of fluid flow, ore-mineral precipitation mechanisms, longevity of hydrothermal systems, mechanisms by which hydrothermal fluids acquire their temperature and composition, and the controlling influence of permeability and other rock properties on hydrothermal fluid behavior. In this communication we review some of the fundamental theory needed to characterize the physical hydrogeology of hydrothermal systems and discuss how this theory has been applied in studies of Mississippi Valley-type, tabular uranium, porphyry, epithermal, and mid-ocean ridge ore-forming systems. A key limitation in the computational state-of-the-art is the inability to describe fluid flow and transport fully in the many ore systems that show evidence of repeated shear or tensional failure with associated dynamic variations in permeability. However, we discuss global-scale compilations that suggest some numerical constraints on both mean and dynamically enhanced crustal permeability. Principles of physical hydrogeology can be powerful tools for investigating hydrothermal ore formation and are becoming increasingly accessible with ongoing advances in modeling software.

  3. Hydrogeology, waste disposal, science and politics: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, P.K. [ed.

    1994-07-01

    A total of 48 papers were presented at the Engineering Geology and Geotechnical Engineering 30th Symposium. These papers are presented in this proceedings under the following headings: site characterization--Pocatello area; site characterization--Boise Area; site assessment; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; geophysical methods; remediation; geotechnical engineering; and hydrogeology, northern and western Idaho. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. A compilation of subsurface hydrogeologic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    This report presents a compilation of both fracture properties and hydrogeological parameters relevant to the flow of groundwater in fractured rock systems. Methods of data acquisition as well as the scale of and conditions during the measurement are recorded. Measurements and analytical techniques for each of the parameters under consideration have been reviewed with respect to their methodology, assumptions and accuracy. Both the rock type and geologic setting associated with these measurements have also been recorded. 373 refs

  5. Hydrogeology, waste disposal, science and politics: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    A total of 48 papers were presented at the Engineering Geology and Geotechnical Engineering 30th Symposium. These papers are presented in this proceedings under the following headings: site characterization--Pocatello area; site characterization--Boise Area; site assessment; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; geophysical methods; remediation; geotechnical engineering; and hydrogeology, northern and western Idaho. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  6. Stochastic hydrogeology: what professionals really need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative hydrogeology celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2006. Geostatistics is younger but has had a very large impact in hydrogeology. Today, geostatistics is used routinely to interpolate deterministically most of the parameters that are required to analyze a problem or make a quantitative analysis. In a small number of cases, geostatistics is combined with deterministic approaches to forecast uncertainty. At a more academic level, geostatistics is used extensively to study physical processes in heterogeneous aquifers. Yet, there is an important gap between the academic use and the routine applications of geostatistics. The reasons for this gap are diverse. These include aspects related to the hydrogeology consulting market, technical reasons such as the lack of widely available software, but also a number of misconceptions. A change in this situation requires acting at different levels. First, regulators must be convinced of the benefit of using geostatistics. Second, the economic potential of the approach must be emphasized to customers. Third, the relevance of the theories needs to be increased. Last, but not least, software, data sets, and computing infrastructure such as grid computing need to be widely available.

  7. Development and implementation of a GIS-based tool for spatial modeling of seismic vulnerability of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieving sustainable development in countries prone to earthquakes is possible with taking effective measures to reduce vulnerability to earthquakes. In this context, damage assessment of hypothetical earthquakes and planning for disaster management are important issues. Having a computer tool capable of estimating structural and human losses from earthquakes in a specific region may facilitate the decision-making process before and during disasters. Interoperability of this tool with wide-spread spatial analysis frameworks will expedite the data transferring process. In this study, the earthquake damage assessment (EDA software tool is developed as an embedded extension within a GIS (geographic information system environment for the city of Tehran, Iran. This GIS-based extension provides users with a familiar environment to estimate and observe the probable damages and fatalities of a deterministic earthquake scenario. The productivity of this tool is later demonstrated for southern Karoon parish, Region 10, Tehran. Three case studies for three active faults in the area and a comparison of the results with other research substantiated the reliability of this tool for additional earthquake scenarios.

  8. Tono regional hydrogeological study project. Annual report fiscal year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    Tono Geoscience Center, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute has been conducting a wide range of geoscientific research in order to build a firm scientific and technological basis for the research and development of geological disposal. One of the major components of the ongoing geoscientific research programme is the Regional Hydrogeological Study (RHS) project in the Tono region, central Japan. The main goal of the RHS project is to develop and demonstrate surface-based investigation methodologies to characterize geological environments on a regional scale in Japan. The RHS project was initiated in 1992. To date, remote sensing, geological mapping, airborne and ground geophysical investigations, and measurements in eleven deep boreholes have been carried out in the study area (c. 100 km{sup 2}). Groundwater chemistry and hydraulic head monitoring is under way in these boreholes. Important results that have been obtained from these investigations include various information concerning the heterogeneity of lithological, hydrogeological and geochemical, and evolution of the groundwater geochemistry. During fiscal year 2001, hydraulic testing and groundwater sampling were conducted in borehole DH-13 which was drilled during fiscal year 2000. High density electrical resistivity measurements were conducted on a lineament. Groundwater monitoring was continued in the existing boreholes. As a part of evaluation of data uncertainties for modeling and simulation, study was started with the purpose of setting of modeling and simulation area around MIU constructionsite. Development of investigation instruments were also continued. (author)

  9. Vulnerability of ground water to contamination, Edwards Aquifer recharge zone, Bexar County, Texas, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allan K.

    2000-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer, one of the most productive carbonate-rock aquifers in the Nation, is composed of the Kainer and Person Formations of the Edwards Group plus the overlying Georgetown Formation. Most recharge to the Edwards aquifer results from the percolation of streamflow loss and the infiltration of precipitation through porous parts of the recharge zone. Residential and commercial development is increasing, particularly in Bexar County in south-central Texas, atop the densely fractured and steeply faulted recharge zone. The increasing development has increased the vulnerability of ground water to contamination by spillage or leakage of waste materials, particularly fluids associated with urban runoff and (or) septic-tank leachate. This report describes a method of assessing the vulnerability of ground water to contamination in the Edwards aquifer recharge zone. The method is based on ratings of five natural features of the area: (1) hydraulic properties of outcropping hydrogeologic units; (2) presence or absence of faults; (3) presence or absence of caves and (or) sinkholes; (4) slope of land surface; and (5) permeability of soil. The sum of the ratings for the five natural features was used to develop a map showing the recharge zone's vulnerability to ground-water contamination.

  10. Materials of conference: Hydrogeological Problems of South-West Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogeological problems of South-west Poland is the collection of conference papers held in Szklarska Poreba on 20-22 June 1996. The materials have been gathered in three topical groups: water quality problems in hydrological cycle, regional hydrogeology of South-west Poland, theoretical problems and research methods in hydrogeology. More of performed articles have a interdisciplinary character taking into account the precipitation and surface water quality and their influence on ground water features

  11. Mental vulnerability, Helicobacter pylori, and incidence of hospital-diagnosed peptic ulcer over 28 years in a population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Susan; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Rosenstock, Steffen; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-09-01

    To examine whether mental vulnerability, an enduring personality characteristic, predicts incident hospital-diagnosed ulcer over three decades. A population-based cohort study enrolled 3365 subjects with no ulcer history, ages 30-60, in 1982-3. Mental vulnerability, Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies, socioeconomic status, and sleep duration were determined at baseline; non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug use, smoking, leisure time physical activity, and alcohol consumption both at baseline and in 1993-4. Hospital diagnoses of incident ulcer through 2011 were detected using the Danish National Patient Registry. Ulcers were diagnosed in 166 subjects, including 83 complicated by bleeding or perforation. Age-, gender-, and socioeconomic status-adjusted associations were significant for mental vulnerability (Hazard Ratio (HR) 2.0, 95% Confidence Interval 1.4-2.8), Helicobacter pylori (HR 1.7, CI 1.2-2.3), smoking (HR 2.0, CI 1.3-3.1), heavy drinking (HR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.4), abstinence (HR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.5), non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (HR 2.1, CI 1.5-3.0), and sedentary lifestyle (HR 1.9, CI 1.4-2.7). Adjusted for all behavioral mediators, the HR for mental vulnerability was 1.5 (CI 1.0-2.2, p = .04). Mental vulnerability raised risk in Helicobacter pylori seropositive subjects and those exposed to neither Helicobacter pylori nor non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs; its impact was virtually unchanged when analysis was limited to complicated ulcers. A vulnerable personality raises risk for hospital-diagnosed peptic ulcer, in part because of an association with health risk behaviors. Its impact is seen in 'idiopathic' and Helicobacter pylori-associated ulcers, and in acute surgical cases.

  12. Hydrogeology and Hydrologic Landscape Regions of Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Douglas K.; Lopes, Thomas J.; Medina, Rose L.; Smith, J. LaRue

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated a rule to protect ground water in areas other than source-water protection areas. These other sensitive ground water areas (OSGWAs) are aquifers that are not currently but could eventually be used as a source of drinking water. The OSGWA program specifically addresses existing wells that are used for underground injection of motor vehicle waste. If the injection well is in a ground-water protection area or an OSGWA, well owners must either close the well or apply for a permit. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection will evaluate site-specific information and determine if the aquifer associated with a permit application is susceptible to contamination. A basic part of evaluating OSGWAs is characterizing the hydrogeology of aquifer systems including the lithology, hydrologic properties, soil permeability, and faulting, which partly control the susceptibility of ground water to contamination. Detailed studies that evaluate ground-water susceptibility are not practical in a largely unpopulated State like Nevada. However, existing and new information could be extrapolated to other areas of the State if there is an objective framework to transfer the information. The concept of hydrologic landscape regions, which identify areas with similar hydrologic characteristics, provides this framework. This report describes the hydrogeology and hydrologic landscape regions of Nevada. Consolidated rocks that form mountain ranges and unconsolidated sediments that fill the basins between the ranges are grouped into hydrogeologic units having similar lithology and assumed to have similar hydrologic properties. Consolidated rocks and unconsolidated sediments are the two major hydrogeologic units and comprise 51 and 49 percent of the State, respectively. Consolidated rocks are subdivided into 8 hydrogeologic units. In approximate order of decreasing horizontal hydraulic conductivity, consolidated-rock hydrogeologic

  13. Hydrogeologic framework of the middle San Pedro watershed, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Jesse; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Pool, D.R.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Parker, John T.; Macy, J.P.; Thomas, Blakemore

    2010-01-01

    Water managers in rural Arizona are under increasing pressure to provide sustainable supplies of water despite rapid population growth and demands for environmental protection. This report describes the results of a study of the hydrogeologic framework of the middle San Pedro watershed. The components of this report include: (1) a description of the geologic setting and depositional history of basin fill sediments that form the primary aquifer system, (2) updated bedrock altitudes underlying basin fill sediments calculated using a subsurface density model of gravity data, (3) delineation of hydrogeologic units in the basin fill using lithologic descriptions in driller's logs and models of airborne electrical resistivity data, (4) a digital three-dimensional (3D) hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) that represents spatial extents and thicknesses of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs), and (5) description of the hydrologic properties of the HGUs. The lithologic interpretations based on geophysical data and unit thickness and extent of the HGUs included in the HFM define potential configurations of hydraulic zones and parameters that can be incorporated in groundwater-flow models. The hydrogeologic framework comprises permeable and impermeable stratigraphic units: (1) bedrock, (2) sedimentary rocks predating basin-and-range deformation, (3) lower basin fill, (4) upper basin fill, and (5) stream alluvium. The bedrock unit includes Proterozoic to Cretaceous crystalline rocks, sedimentary rocks, and limestone that are relatively impermeable and poor aquifers, except for saturated portions of limestone. The pre-basin-and-range sediments underlie the lower basin fill but are relatively impermeable owing to cementation. However, they may be an important water-bearing unit where fractured. Alluvium of the lower basin fill, the main water-bearing unit, was deposited in the structural trough between the uplifted ridges of bedrock and (or) pre-basin-and-range sediments. Alluvium of

  14. Hydrogeology of the Mogollon Highlands, central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John T.C.; Steinkampf, William C.; Flynn, Marilyn E.

    2005-01-01

    The Mogollon Highlands, 4,855 square miles of rugged, mountainous terrain at the southern edge of the Colorado Plateau in central Arizona, is characterized by a bedrock-dominated hydrologic system that results in an incompletely integrated regional ground-water system, flashy streamflow, and various local water-bearing zones that are sensitive to drought. Increased demand on the water resources of the area as a result of recreational activities and population growth have made necessary an increased understanding of the hydrogeology of the region. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study of the geology and hydrology of the region in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources under the auspices of the Arizona Rural Watershed Initiative, a program launched in 1998 to assist rural areas in dealing with water-resources issues. The study involved the analysis of geologic maps, surface-water and ground-water flow, and water and rock chemical data and spatial relationships to characterize the hydrogeologic framework. The study area includes the southwestern corner of the Colorado Plateau and the Mogollon Rim, which is the eroded edge of the plateau. A 3,000- to 4,000-foot sequence of early to late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks forms the generally south-facing scarp of the Mogollon Rim. The area adjacent to the edge of the Mogollon Rim is an erosional landscape of rolling, step-like terrain exposing Proterozoic metamorphic and granitic rocks. Farther south, the Sierra Ancha and Mazatzal Mountain ranges, which are composed of various Proterozoic rocks, flank an alluvial basin filled with late Cenozoic sediments and volcanic flows. Eight streams with perennial to intermittent to ephemeral flow drain upland regions of the Mogollon Rim and flow into the Salt River on the southern boundary or the Verde River on the western boundary. Ground-water flow paths generally are controlled by large-scale fracture systems or by karst features in carbonate rocks. Stream

  15. An uncertainty-based framework to quantifying climate change impacts on coastal flood vulnerability: case study of New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahmatkesh, Zahra; Karamouz, Mohammad

    2017-10-17

    The continued development efforts around the world, growing population, and the increased probability of occurrence of extreme hydrologic events have adversely affected natural and built environments. Flood damages and loss of lives from the devastating storms, such as Irene and Sandy on the East Coast of the USA, are examples of the vulnerability to flooding that even developed countries have to face. The odds of coastal flooding disasters have been increased due to accelerated sea level rise, climate change impacts, and communities' interest to live near the coastlines. Climate change, for instance, is becoming a major threat to sustainable development because of its adverse impacts on the hydrologic cycle. Effective management strategies are thus required for flood vulnerability reduction and disaster preparedness. This paper is an extension to the flood resilience studies in the New York City coastal watershed. Here, a framework is proposed to quantify coastal flood vulnerability while accounting for climate change impacts. To do so, a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach that combines watershed characteristics (factors) and their weights is proposed to quantify flood vulnerability. Among the watershed characteristics, potential variation in the hydrologic factors under climate change impacts is modeled utilizing the general circulation models' (GCMs) outputs. The considered factors include rainfall, extreme water level, and sea level rise that exacerbate flood vulnerability through increasing exposure and susceptibility to flooding. Uncertainty in the weights as well as values of factors is incorporated in the analysis using the Monte Carlo (MC) sampling method by selecting the best-fitted distributions to the parameters with random nature. A number of low impact development (LID) measures are then proposed to improve watershed adaptive capacity to deal with coastal flooding. Potential range of current and future vulnerability to flooding is

  16. [Socio-environmental vulnerability index: a methodological proposal based on the case of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Fernanda Siqueira; Costa, Eduarda Marques da; Magrini, Alessandra

    2017-12-01

    The term vulnerability has been more frequently used in several studies, striving to better understand the specificities and needs of different population groups. The scope of this study was to identify, characterize and analyze populations in situations of socio-environmental vulnerability in Rio de Janeiro city, consolidating social, economic, environmental, health and public security indicators in a synthesis index - the Socio-Environmental Vulnerability Index. The data sources used were the IBGE-2010 Demographic Census, the Geo-Rio Foundation and the Public Security Institute of the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology integrated Multicriteria Decision Analysis into a Geographic Information System. According to our results, the socio-environmental vulnerability in Rio de Janeiro city is aggravated by risk situations and environmental degradation. Those aspects are accentuated by the population density in shantytown areas, where the most disadvantaged strata exist in a process of environmental and urban exclusion. The study makes it possible to locate spatially vulnerable areas, emphasizing the importance of these tools to guide resource allocation, formulation and implementation of more effective public policies.

  17. Hydrogeological flow in gypsum karst areas: some examples from northern Italy and main circulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomeo Vigna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A Messinian succession containing gypsum beds crops out in northern Italy, mainly in Piedmont and along the northern flank of the Apennine mountains in Emilia-Romagna. These gypsum bodies have been extensively quarried at the surface, in outcrops, and through underground quarries. In Emilia-Romagna these gypsum outcrops can be rather extensive, several km long and up to 1 km wide, while in Piedmont they are mostly covered by silty-marly deposits of Upper Messinian and Pliocene age and show only sparse and small outcrops. The underground quarrying of these evaporite bodies in Piedmont has allowed studying in detail their hydrogeology, and the ways in which water flows through these karst rocks. In contrast, in Emilia-Romagna the hydrogeology of these aquifers has been studied with traditional spring water monitoring and speleological methods. On the basis of the results it has been possible to define three conceptual models regarding the water circulation in these evaporites, similar to the models existing for carbonate aquifers. The models represent aquifers with decreasing vulnerability to pollution, from the more vulnerable system with dominant conduit drainage, characterizing most of the known gypsum aquifers, to those with interconnected conduit drainage and with dispersive circulation.

  18. Evolution of wetland in Honghe National Nature Reserve from the view of hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiancang; Dong, Weihong; Lin, Xueyu; Liang, Yukai; Meng, Ying; Xie, Wei

    2017-12-31

    There is wide concern about the evolution of wetlands, an important component of the global ecosystem. The Honghe National Nature Reserve (HNNR) is an internationally important marsh wetland in China that is at risk of degradation. To gain an improved understanding of how the HNNR wetland developed from 1975 to 2014, typical years, including 1975, 1988, 1996, 2002 and 2014, were selected based on precipitation date. And land cover types of the different years were classified using TM images. The results showed that the wetland evolution mainly reflects transformations between the meadow and wetland land cover types. The landscape index suggests the wetland is degrading. The main drivers of wetland evolution were a warmer and drier climate, the establishment of an irrigation system, and a decrease in the groundwater level. These factors resulted in changes in the quantity of water in the HNNR. We can therefore say that the evolution was driven by changes in the water quantity. Because there have been very few hydrogeological studies in the HNNR, we examined the relationships among precipitation, surface water, and groundwater, all of which significantly influence water quantity. We found that precipitation was the only source of surface water and, while there was certain amount of surface water recharge into the shallow groundwater, the recharge range was limited, which increased the vulnerability of the wetlands. Thus, it is difficult to recharge surface water but easy to lose surface water from the HNNR, which suggests that efforts need to be directed at maintaining the surface water at the optimal level to prevent degradation of the wetland. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Cotton genetic resources and crop vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    A report on the genetic vulnerability of cotton was provided to the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council. The report discussed crop vulnerabilities associated with emerging diseases, emerging pests, and a narrowing genetic base. To address these crop vulnerabilities, the report discussed the ...

  20. An asset-based approach to vulnerability: the case of small-scale fishing areas in Cameroon and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwaula, Levison S; Witt, Rudolf; Waibel, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses vulnerability to poverty of rural small-scale fishing communities using cross-section data from 295 households in Cameroon and 267 in Nigeria. We propose a vulnerability measure that incorporates the idea of asset poverty into the concept of expected poverty, which allows decomposing expected poverty into expected structural-chronic, structural-transient, and stochastic-transient poverty. The findings show that most households in our study areas are expected to be structurally-chronic and structurally-transient poor. This underlines the importance of asset formation for long-term poverty reduction strategies. Further refinements are possible with longitudinal data and information about future states of nature.

  1. Measuring Vulnerability in the Food System

    OpenAIRE

    Paloviita, Ari; Puupponen, Antti; Kortetmäki, Teea; Silvasti, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Food system vulnerability is an emerging concept for food security policies and food supply chain management. Hence, measuring food system vulnerability is necessary for developing appropriate food security policies and managing food supply chain vulnerabilities. In this paper, we aim to clarify the development process of food system vulnerability indicators. We conducted an abducted qualitative content analysis based on public documents of various Finnish organizations, including mi...

  2. A computer hydrogeologic model of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillson, R.; Hand, J.; Adams, P.; Lawrence, S.

    1996-01-01

    A three-dimensional, hydrogeologic model of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding region was developed as an element for regional groundwater flow and radionuclide transport models. The hydrogeologic model shows the distribution, thickness, and structural relationships of major aquifers and confining units, as conceived by a team of experts organized by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office. The model was created using Intergraph Corporation's Geographical Information System based Environmental Resource Management Application software. The study area encompasses more than 28,000 square kilometers in southern Nevada and Inyo County, California. Fifty-three geologic cross sections were constructed throughout the study area to provide a framework for the model. The lithology was simplified to 16 hydrostratigraphic units, and the geologic structures with minimal effect on groundwater flow were removed. Digitized cross sections, surface geology, and surface elevation data were the primary sources for the hydrogeologic model and database. Elevation data for the hydrostratigraphic units were posted, contoured, and gridded. Intergraph Corporation's three-dimensional visualization software, VOXEL trademark, was used to view the results interactively. The hydrogeologic database will be used in future flow modeling activities

  3. Predicting patterns of vulnerability to climate change in near coastal species using an algorithm-based risk assessment framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near-coastal (0-200 depth) ecosystems and species are under threat from increasing temperatures, ocean acidification, and sea level rise. However, species vary in their vulnerability to specific climatic changes and climate impacts will vary geographically. For management to resp...

  4. A compilation of subsurface hydrogeologic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    This volume contains a continuation of the fracture data for the research sites discussed in Volume 1 which have been studied in sufficient detail to allow for analysis. The sites discussed in this volume are the following: Climax Granite Nevada Test Site; OCRD Room, Colorado School of Mines; Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina; Oracle, Arizona; Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), Hanford, Washington Underground Research Laboratory, AECL, Canada; Atikokan Research Area, AECL; Chalk River Research Area, AECL; Whiteshell Research Area, AECL. Other sources of information have been included where sufficient site specific geologic and hydrogeologic information is provided

  5. A compilation of subsurface hydrogeologic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    This volume contains the permeability data for the research sites discussed in Volume 1 which have been studied in sufficient detail to allow for analysis. These sites are the following: Stripa Mine, Sweden; Finnsjon, Kamlunge, Fjallveden, Gidea, Svartboberget, Sweden; Olkiluoto, Loviisa, Lavia, Finland; Climax Granite Nevada Test Site; OCRD Room, Colorado School of Mines; Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina; Oracle, Arizona; Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), Hanford, Washington; Underground Research Laboratory, AECL, Canada; Atikokan Research Area, AECL; Chalk River Research Area, AECL; Whiteshell Research Area, AECL. Other sources of information have been included where sufficient site specific geologic and hydrogeologic information is provided

  6. A Vulnerability Evaluation of the Phreatic Water in the Plain Area of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang Based on the VDEAL Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiliang Jia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A VDEAL (V is the lithology of the vadose zone, D is the groundwater depth, E is the degree of groundwater exploitation, A is the aquifer characteristics and L is the land use pattern. model, which is suitable for a vulnerability evaluation of the groundwater in arid inland areas, and that is based on the GOD (G is the groundwater status, O is overburden feature and D is groundwater depth method and DRASTIC (D is the depth of water-table, R is the net recharge, A is the aquifer media, S is the soil media, T is the topography, I is the impact of the vadose and C is the conductivity of the aquifer. model is proposed in this paper. Five indicators were selected by reference to the DRAV (D is the depth of water-table, R is the net recharge, A is the aquifer media and V is the impact of the vadose. and VLDA (V is the lithology of the vadose zone , L is the land use pattern, D is the groundwater depth and A is the aquifer characteristics and. models, namely, the lithology of the vadose zone (V, the groundwater depth (D, the degree of groundwater exploitation (E, the aquifer characteristics (A and the land use pattern (L. According to monitoring data from 2003 and 2011, the variations of phreatic water quality in the plain area of the Junggar Basin were divided into three types: the water quality may have deteriorated, be unchanged or improved. Four groups of indicator weights were configured to calculate the vulnerability index using the VDEAL model. The changes of phreatic water quality were then compared against the vulnerability index. The normalized weights of V, D, E, A, and L were respectively 0.15, 0.25, 0.10, 0.10, and 0.40; this is according to the principle that the sampling sites of deteriorated water quality are generally distributed in a high-vulnerability region, and the sites of unchanged and improved water quality are distributed in middle vulnerability, low vulnerability and invulnerable regions. The evaluation results of phreatic

  7. Tono regional hydrogeological study project annual report fiscal year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting a wide range of geoscientific research in order to build a firm scientific and technological basis for the research and development of geological disposal. One of the major components of the ongoing geoscientific research programme is the Regional Hydrogeological Study (RHS) project in the Tono region, central Japan. The main goal of the RHS project is to develop and demonstrate surface-based investigation methodologies to characterize geological environments on a regional scale in Japan. The RHS project was initiated in 1992. To date, remote sensing, geological mapping, airborne and ground geophysical investigations, and measurements in eleven deep boreholes have been carried out in the study area (c. 100 km{sup 2}). Groundwater monitoring (water chemistry and hydraulic head) is continuing in these boreholes. Important results that have been obtained from these investigations include multi-disciplinary information about the heterogeneity of lithological, hydrogeological, geochemical and rock mechanical properties of the granitic rock, and evolution of the groundwater geochemistry. During fiscal year 2000, two 1,000 m long cored boreholes (DH-12 and DH-13) were drilled. Core logging, geophysical logging, hydraulic testing and groundwater sampling were conducted in these boreholes. Laboratory tests were performed to provide information about physical, rock mechanical and geochemical properties of granite in deep sections of these boreholes. Groundwater monitoring was continued in the existing boreholes. The usefulness and applicability of ground geophysical investigation methods were evaluated. As part of evaluation of data uncertainties for modeling and simulation, geological and hydrogeological models were developed based on information obtained in an initial investigation stage. Groundwater flow simulation was conducted in order to estimate the extent of groundwater flow system in the study

  8. Hydrogeology of the basalts in the Uruguayan NW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, A.; Fernandez, A.

    1967-01-01

    This work is about the hydrogeological aspects in the NW Uruguayan basaltic area. The results of this research are the main geological, morphological and hydrogeological aspects of the area as well as the characteristics and the color of the basalt and sandstones

  9. Hydrogeological Properties of the Rocks in Adansi Mining Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrogeological properties of an aquifer coupled with climatic conditions and geomorphology determines how much groundwater exists in that location. A hydrogeological study of the rocks in the Adansi area was carried out to obtain the aquifer hydraulic properties. Drilling and pumping test analysis information were ...

  10. Hydrogeological Properties of the Rocks in Adansi Mining Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... hydrogeological properties of an aquifer coupled with climatic conditions and geomorphology determines how much groundwater exists in that location. A hydrogeological study of the rocks in the Adansi area was carried out to obtain the aquifer hydraulic properties. Drilling and pumping test analysis ...

  11. Comparison of a traditional with a new approach based on Graph Theory to vulnerability assessment to natural hazards: a study case on a socio-economic complex system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, Marcello; Martina, Mario L. V.

    2017-04-01

    The emergent behaviour of the contemporary complex, socio-technical and interconnected society makes the collective risk greater than the sum of the parts and this requires a holistic, systematic and integrated approach. Although there have been major improvements in recent years, there are still some limitation in term of a holistic approach that is able to include the emergent value hidden in the connections between exposed elements and the interactions between the different spheres of the multi-hazards, vulnerability, exposure and resilience. To deal with these challenges it is necessary to consider the connections between the exposed elements (e.g. populations, schools, hospital, etc.) and to quantify the relative importance of the elements and their interconnections (e.g. the need of injured people to go to hospital or children to school). In a system (e.g. road, hospital and ecological network, etc.), or in a System of System (e.g. socio-technical urban service), there are critical elements that, beyond the intrinsic vulnerability, can be characterized by greater or lower vulnerability because of their physical, geographical, cyber or logical connections. To this aim, we propose in this study a comparative analysis between traditional reductionist approach and a new holistic approach to vulnerability assessment to natural hazards. The analysis considers a study case of a socio-economic complex system through an innovative approach based on the properties of graph G=(N,L). A graph consists of two sets N (nodes) and L (links): the nodes represent the single exposed elements (physical, social, environmental, etc.) to a hazard, while the links (or connections) represent the interaction between the elements. The final goal is to illustrate an application of this innovative approach of integrated collective vulnerability assessment.

  12. “The Impact of Community-based Capital Cash Transfers on the Schooling of Orphaned and Vulnerable Children in Kenya”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal, Morten; Webale, A.; Mwasiaji, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we report on a community-based capital cash transfer initiative (CCCT) in Kenya that sought to mobilise and enable HIV-affected communities to respond to the needs of orphaned and vulnerable children. With bilateral funding, the Social Services Department in Kenya provided 80 comm...... of orphaned children, particularly amongst girls. We conclude that CCCT is a viable strategy for improving orphan schooling in sub-Saharan Africa....

  13. Two-hundred years of hydrogeology in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenshein, J. S.; Moore, J.E.; Lohman, S.W.; Chase, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    The Hydrogeology Division of the Geological Society of America (GSA) sponsored a symposium entitled ' Hydrogeology in the United States, 1776- 1976 ' at the annual meeting of the GSA on November 9, 1976. The symposium was organized to provide a forum for discussion of major eras in the history of American hydrogeology and to contribute to the bicentennial celebration of the founding of the United States. Presentations were broken down into 3 sections: The Early Era (with a tribute to Oscar E. Meinzer), 1776-1920; Meinzer Era, 1910-1940; and the Modern Era (including scientific advantages; the quantification of hydrogeology; geochemistry; surface and borehole geophysics; and hydrogeology, policy, and politics) 1940-1976. (Lantz-PTT)

  14. A Surficial Hydrogeologic Framework for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.; Krantz, David E.; Newell, Wayne L.; Martucci, Sarah K.

    2005-01-01

    A surficial hydrogeologic framework was developed for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, from New Jersey through North Carolina. The framework includes seven distinct hydrogeologic subregions within which the primary natural physical factors affecting the flow and chemistry of shallow ground water and small streams are relatively consistent. Within most subregions, the transport of chemicals from the land surface to ground water and streams can be described by a fairly uniform set of natural processes; some subregions include mixed hydrogeologic settings that are indistinguishable at the regional scale. The hydrogeologic framework and accompanying physiographic and geologic delineations are presented in digital and printed format. The seven hydrogeologic subregions that constitute the framework were delineated primarily on the basis of physiography and the predominant texture (typical grain size) of surficial and (where surficial sediments are particularly thin) subcropping sediments. Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was constructed by standardizing and extrapolating previously published interpretations for the Coastal Plain of South Carolina and New Jersey, based on similar work in the other States. Surficial and subcropping geology were similarly compiled from previous publications by resolving inconsistencies in nomenclature, interpretation, and scale, and interpolating across unmapped areas. A bulk sediment texture was determined for each mapped geologic unit on the basis of published descriptions. Fundamental differences among the seven hydrogeologic subregions are described on the basis of hypotheses about surficial and shallow subsurface hydrology and water chemistry in each, as well as variable land use, soils, and topography. On the regional scale, the Coastal Lowlands (Subregion 1), the Middle Coastal Plain Fine Sediments (Subregion 3), the Middle Coastal Plain Sands with Overlying Gravels (Subregion 4), and the Inner Coastal Plain Upland

  15. Evaluation of Uncertainties in hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analyses. Model calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Ono, Makoto; Sugihara, Yutaka; Shimo, Michito; Yamamoto, Hajime; Fumimura, Kenichi

    2003-03-01

    This study involves evaluation of uncertainty in hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analysis. Three-dimensional groundwater flow in Shobasama site in Tono was analyzed using two continuum models and one discontinuous model. The domain of this study covered area of four kilometers in east-west direction and six kilometers in north-south direction. Moreover, for the purpose of evaluating how uncertainties included in modeling of hydrogeological structure and results of groundwater simulation decreased with progress of investigation research, updating and calibration of the models about several modeling techniques of hydrogeological structure and groundwater flow analysis techniques were carried out, based on the information and knowledge which were newly acquired. The acquired knowledge is as follows. As a result of setting parameters and structures in renewal of the models following to the circumstances by last year, there is no big difference to handling between modeling methods. The model calibration is performed by the method of matching numerical simulation with observation, about the pressure response caused by opening and closing of a packer in MIU-2 borehole. Each analysis technique attains reducing of residual sum of squares of observations and results of numerical simulation by adjusting hydrogeological parameters. However, each model adjusts different parameters as water conductivity, effective porosity, specific storage, and anisotropy. When calibrating models, sometimes it is impossible to explain the phenomena only by adjusting parameters. In such case, another investigation may be required to clarify details of hydrogeological structure more. As a result of comparing research from beginning to this year, the following conclusions are obtained about investigation. (1) The transient hydraulic data are effective means in reducing the uncertainty of hydrogeological structure. (2) Effective porosity for calculating pore water velocity of

  16. Hydrogeological study of an anti-tank range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Michel; Martel, Richard; Gabriel, Uta; Lefebvre, René; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy

    2008-01-01

    The Arnhem Anti-Tank Range (Canadian Forces Base [CFB] Valcartier, Canada, in operation since the 1970s) has been characterized, including the drilling, installation, and characterization of 25 wells and a ground-penetrating radar survey. The observed particular features of this site include highly variable flow velocities (from source zone of the impact area, sharp flow direction shifts, discontinuous stratigraphy and a local perched aquifer. A transient ground water flow model permitted us to understand how the complex hydrogeological setting shapes contaminant transport in the regional aquifer. The model explains the highly variable energetic material (EM) concentrations measured in the plume with peaks associated to spring and to a lesser extent to fall recharge events. As a conclusion from this work, the authors suggest that the characterization of contaminant sources on slopes should extend over all seasons to be sure to detect potential transient flow conditions and variable contaminant concentrations.

  17. An Assessment of Current Concepts for Hydrogeological Site Characterization, and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Y.; Barros, F.

    2007-05-01

    Characterization of the geological and hydrogeological conditions of contaminated sites is a critical element of risk management. Characterization includes data acquisition and interpretation that intends to provide the analytical tools needed for decision making related to transport of contaminants and for remediation. Despite many years of experience, site characterization is still not as well understood and regulated as it should be. The chasm between some of the newer concepts developed by researchers on the one hand, and the technology used in the field by service providers on the other, has never been wider than it is today. Consequently, questions that should be addressed using well-documented rational tools may continue to be addressed based on intuition and experience. Instead of coming up with defensible action plans and implementing them rapidly, such action plans are often a source of contention and end up in the courts. This paper evaluates concepts often used in the practice of hydrogeological site characterization, and tries to distinguish between myth and reality. It explores concepts such as: 1. Accurate descriptions of geological and hydrogeological conditions are attainable; 2. Sound planning and action plans in response to accidents require a large amount of data; 3. Investing in site characterization is a sound investment; 4. Experience gained in decontamination and decommissioning in the field is a sound basis for planning future efforts; 5. If you do not find the contaminants, they do not exist; 6. Numerical models for flow and transport processes in the subsurface are beneficial; 7. Current regulations in the area of hydrogeology are helpful. These concepts, while often invoked in applications, are often wrong and misleading or applied incorrectly, and reflect the many ambiguities prevailing in this area. This paper explores the issues raised above in detail. It also presents the elements of a consistent approach for site characterization

  18. Clustering and Bayesian hierarchical modeling for the definition of informative prior distributions in hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, K.; Kawa, N.; Hesse, F.; Rubin, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In order to reduce uncertainty in the prediction of subsurface flow and transport processes, practitioners should use all data available. However, classic inverse modeling frameworks typically only make use of information contained in in-situ field measurements to provide estimates of hydrogeological parameters. Such hydrogeological information about an aquifer is difficult and costly to acquire. In this data-scarce context, the transfer of ex-situ information coming from previously investigated sites can be critical for improving predictions by better constraining the estimation procedure. Bayesian inverse modeling provides a coherent framework to represent such ex-situ information by virtue of the prior distribution and combine them with in-situ information from the target site. In this study, we present an innovative data-driven approach for defining such informative priors for hydrogeological parameters at the target site. Our approach consists in two steps, both relying on statistical and machine learning methods. The first step is data selection; it consists in selecting sites similar to the target site. We use clustering methods for selecting similar sites based on observable hydrogeological features. The second step is data assimilation; it consists in assimilating data from the selected similar sites into the informative prior. We use a Bayesian hierarchical model to account for inter-site variability and to allow for the assimilation of multiple types of site-specific data. We present the application and validation of the presented methods on an established database of hydrogeological parameters. Data and methods are implemented in the form of an open-source R-package and therefore facilitate easy use by other practitioners.

  19. Hydrogeological Methods for Assessing Feasibility of Artificial Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Koo, M.; Lee, K.; Moon, D.; Barry, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents the hydrogeological methods to assess the feasibility of artificial recharge in Jeju Island, Korea for securing both sustainable groundwater resources and severe floods. Jeju-friendly Aquifer Recharge Technology (J-ART) in this study is developing by capturing ephemeral stream water with no interference in the environments such as natural recharge or eco-system, storing the flood water in the reservoirs, recharging it through designed borehole after appropriate water treatment, and then making it to be used at down-gradient production wells. Many hydrogeological methods, including physico-chemical surface water and groundwater monitoring, geophysical survey, stable isotope analysis, and groundwater modeling have been employed to predict and assess the artificially recharged surface waters flow and circulation between recharge area and discharge area. In the study of physico-chemical water monitoring survey, the analyses of surface water level and velocity, of water qualities including turbidity, and of suspended soil settling velocity were performed. For understanding subsurface hydrogeologic characteristics the injection test was executed and the results are 118-336 m2/day of transmissivity and 4,367-11,032 m3/day of the maximum intake water capacity. Characterizing groundwater flow from recharge area to discharge area should be achieved to assess the efficiency of J-ART. The resistivity logging was carried out to predict water flow in unsaturated zone during artificial recharge based on the inverse modeling and resistivity change patterns. Stable isotopes of deuterium and oxygen-18 of surface waters and groundwaters have been determined to interpret mixing and flow in groundwaters impacted by artificial recharge. A numerical model simulating groundwater flow and heat transport to assess feasibility of artificial recharge has been developed using the hydraulic properties of aquifers, groundwater levels, borehole temperatures, and meteorological

  20. Digital elevations and extents of regional hydrogeologic units in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Jason P.; Andreasen, David C.; Mcfarland, E. Randolph; Watt, Martha K.

    2016-08-31

    Digital geospatial datasets of the extents and top elevations of the regional hydrogeologic units of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina were developed to provide an updated hydrogeologic framework to support analysis of groundwater resources. The 19 regional hydrogeologic units were delineated by elevation grids and extent polygons for 20 layers: the land and bathymetric surface at the top of the unconfined surficial aquifer, the upper surfaces of 9 confined aquifers and 9 confining units, and the bedrock surface that defines the base of all Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments. The delineation of the regional hydrogeologic units relied on the interpretive work from source reports for New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina rather than from re-analysis of fundamental hydrogeologic data. This model of regional hydrogeologic unit geometries represents interpolation, extrapolation, and generalization of the earlier interpretive work. Regional units were constructed from available digital data layers from the source studies in order to extend units consistently across political boundaries and approximate units in offshore areas.Though many of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain hydrogeologic units may extend eastward as far as the edge of the Atlantic Continental Shelf, the modeled boundaries of all regional hydrogeologic units in this study were clipped to an area approximately defined by the furthest offshore extent of fresh to brackish water in any part of the aquifer system, as indicated by chloride concentrations of 10,000 milligrams per liter. Elevations and extents of units that do not exist onshore in Long Island, New York, were not included north of New Jersey. Hydrogeologic units in North Carolina were included primarily to provide continuity across the Virginia-North Carolina State boundary, which was important for defining the southern edge of

  1. Implications of adopting a biodiversity-based vulnerability index versus a shoreline environmental sensitivity index on management and policy planning along coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harik, G; Alameddine, I; Maroun, R; Rachid, G; Bruschi, D; Astiaso Garcia, D; El-Fadel, M

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a multi-criteria index was developed to assess anthropogenic stressors along the Mediterranean coastline. The index aimed at geo-locating pollution hotspots for informed decision making related to coastal zone management. The index was integrated in a Geographical Information System based geodatabase implemented at several pilot areas along the Northern (Italy and France), Eastern (Lebanon), and Southern (Tunisia) Mediterranean coastlines. The generated stressor maps were coupled with a biodiversity richness index and an environmental sensitivity index to produce vulnerability maps that can form the basis for prioritizing management and mitigation interventions towards the identification of pollution hotspots and the promotion of sustainable coastal zone management. The results identified significant differences between the two assessment methods, which can bias prioritization in decision making and policy planning depending on stakeholders' interests. The discrepancies emphasize the need for transparency and understanding of the underlying foundations behind vulnerability indices and mapping development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A near real time scenario at regional scale for the hydrogeological risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponziani, F.; Stelluti, M.; Zauri, R.; Berni, N.; Brocca, L.; Moramarco, T.; Salciarini, D.; Tamagnini, C.

    2012-04-01

    The early warning systems dedicated to landslides and floods represent the Umbria Region Civil Protection Service new generation tools for hydraulic and hydrogeological risk reduction. Following past analyses performed by the Functional Centre (part of the civil protection service dedicated to the monitoring and the evaluation of natural hazards) on the relationship between saturated soil conditions and rainfall thresholds, we have developed an automated early warning system for the landslide risk, called LANDWARN, which generates daily and 72h forecast risk matrix with a dense mesh of 100 x 100m, throughout the region. The system is based on: (a) the 20 days -observed and 72h -predicted rainfall, provided by the local meteorological network and the Local scale Meteorological Model COSMO ME, (b) the assessment of the saturation of soils by: daily extraction of ASCAT satellite data, data from a network of 16 TDR sensors, and a water balance model (developed by the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection, CNR, Perugia, Italy) that allows for the prediction of a saturation index for each point of the analysis grid up to a window of 72 h, (c) a Web-GIS platform that combines the data grids of calculated hazard indicators with layers of landslide susceptibility and vulnerability of the territory, in order to produce dynamic risk scenarios. The system is still under development and it's implemented at different scales: the entire region, and a set of known high-risk landslides in Umbria. The system is monitored and regularly reviewed through the back analysis of landslide reports for which the activation date is available. Up to now, the development of the system involves: a) the improvement of the reliability assessment of the condition of soil saturation, a key parameter which is used to dynamically adjust the values of rainfall thresholds used for the declaration of levels of landslide hazard. For this purpose, a procedure was created for the ASCAT

  3. Bird and bat species' global vulnerability to collision mortality at wind farms revealed through a trait-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxter, Chris B; Buchanan, Graeme M; Carr, Jamie; Butchart, Stuart H M; Newbold, Tim; Green, Rhys E; Tobias, Joseph A; Foden, Wendy B; O'Brien, Sue; Pearce-Higgins, James W

    2017-09-13

    Mitigation of anthropogenic climate change involves deployments of renewable energy worldwide, including wind farms, which can pose a significant collision risk to volant animals. Most studies into the collision risk between species and wind turbines, however, have taken place in industrialized countries. Potential effects for many locations and species therefore remain unclear. To redress this gap, we conducted a systematic literature review of recorded collisions between birds and bats and wind turbines within developed countries. We related collision rate to species-level traits and turbine characteristics to quantify the potential vulnerability of 9538 bird and 888 bat species globally. Avian collision rate was affected by migratory strategy, dispersal distance and habitat associations, and bat collision rates were influenced by dispersal distance. For birds and bats, larger turbine capacity (megawatts) increased collision rates; however, deploying a smaller number of large turbines with greater energy output reduced total collision risk per unit energy output, although bat mortality increased again with the largest turbines. Areas with high concentrations of vulnerable species were also identified, including migration corridors. Our results can therefore guide wind farm design and location to reduce the risk of large-scale animal mortality. This is the first quantitative global assessment of the relative collision vulnerability of species groups with wind turbines, providing valuable guidance for minimizing potentially serious negative impacts on biodiversity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Design of Service Oriented Architecture(SOA)-based Software Vulnerability Analysis Method for Digital I and C System in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J. G.; Lee, C. K.; Kwon, K. C.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    Diverse cyber security issues due to the vulnerability of the digital control systems have been brought up in the existing IT environments while advancement and propagation of digital I and C systems have improved convenience through automation. The recent example of Stuxnet proved that stability in the digital I and C system could not be secured due to an air gap of physical security elements. Therefore, it is required to discover new approaches toward cyber security that will overcome the limitation on security in a closed environment. In particular, there is a rapid increase in the importance of cyber security seen in guidelines published by IAEA and U.S. NRC shows that cyber security as well as physical security draws worldwide attention as a key component for nuclear system safety. To incorporate the new guide requirement, cyber security threats are analyzed by ITbase security elements for finding best practice approaches. The vulnerabilities identified by the general security threats and defined mitigation activities can include many different methods and strategies. This research suggests a method for analyzing vulnerability and assessment the nuclear digital I and C cyber security

  5. Vulnerability in homeless adolescents: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsen, Caroline

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of vulnerability in homeless adolescents. Caring for vulnerable populations and reduction of health inequities are top international healthcare priorities. Homeless adolescents experience health disparities as compared to their housed counterparts and are among the most vulnerable of all populations. Understanding the concept of vulnerability as it relates to the homeless adolescent population will assist nurses in addressing the health and social concerns of this population. The PubMed, Medline, Cochrane and CINAHL electronic databases were used to search for research papers published between 1980 and 2009. The keywords 'vulnerable', 'vulnerability' and 'homeless', 'adolescent', 'street' and 'youth' were used. Twenty-three papers from multiple disciplines were reviewed in an effort to arrive at a global definition of homeless adolescents' vulnerability. Rodgers' evolutionary method of concept analysis was used for the analysis. Based on this analysis, vulnerability in homeless adolescents is defined as the constellation of past, present and future risk, perceived or real, because of the common human experience of risk, the increased vulnerability of the adolescent period, the consequences of family disruption, and the increased risks of life on the street. There was agreement in the literature regarding the antecedents, attributes, consequences and surrogate terms of the concept. However, differentiation between the concepts of risk and vulnerability, as suggested by seminal nurse researchers, was not supported. More research is needed into self-perceptions of vulnerability and vulnerability in subgroups of homeless adolescents. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. On the significance of contaminant plume-scale and dose-response models in defining hydrogeological characterization needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R.; Bai, H.

    2007-12-01

    Defining rational and effective hydrogeological data acquisition strategies is of crucial importance since financial resources available for such efforts are always limited. Usually such strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of the impacts of uncertainty. This paper presents an approach for determining site characterization needs based on human health risk factors. The main challenge is in striking a balance between improved definition of hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological parameters. Striking this balance can provide clear guidance on setting priorities for data acquisition and for better estimating adverse health effects in humans. This paper addresses this challenge through theoretical developments and numerical testing. We will report on a wide range of factors that affect the site characterization needs including contaminant plume's dimensions, travel distances and other length scales that characterize the transport problem, as well as health risk models. We introduce a new graphical tool that allows one to investigate the relative impact of hydrogeological and physiological parameters in risk. Results show that the impact of uncertainty reduction in the risk-related parameters decreases with increasing distances from the contaminant source. Also, results indicate that human health risk becomes less sensitive to hydrogeological measurements when dealing with ergodic plumes. This indicates that under ergodic conditions, uncertainty reduction in human health risk may benefit from better understanding of the physiological component as opposed to a detailed hydrogeological characterization

  7. Intrinsic vulnerability assessment of the aquifer in the Rižana spring chatcment by method SINTACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented intrinsic vulnerability assessment of the aquifer in the Rižana spring chatcment by the method SINTACS. It is parametric method that takes into consideration seven parameters (depth to ground water, effective infiltration action, unsaturatedzone attenuation capacity, soil/overburden attenuation capacity, hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer, hydraulic conductivity range of aquifer, hydrologic role of the topographic slope. Parameters are presented in grid information layers that wereelaborated on the basis of interpretation and GIS processing of geological, hydrogeological,speleological, topographical, meteorological and pedological data. According to the parametersimportance for vulnerability assessment, a multiplier (importance weight was assigned to each parameter. Final map of vulnerability is a result of overlaying (summing of weighted information layers (parameters and shows the catchment area of the Rižanaspring subdivided into six vulnerability classes.

  8. Modeling vulnerability of groundwater to pollution under future scenarios of climate change and biofuels-related land use change: a case study in North Dakota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruopu; Merchant, James W

    2013-03-01

    Modeling groundwater vulnerability to pollution is critical for implementing programs to protect groundwater quality. Most groundwater vulnerability modeling has been based on current hydrogeology and land use conditions. However, groundwater vulnerability is strongly dependent on factors such as depth-to-water, recharge and land use conditions that may change in response to future changes in climate and/or socio-economic conditions. In this research, a modeling framework, which employs three sets of models linked within a geographic information system (GIS) environment, was used to evaluate groundwater pollution risks under future climate and land use changes in North Dakota. The results showed that areas with high vulnerability will expand northward and/or northwestward in Eastern North Dakota under different scenarios. GIS-based models that account for future changes in climate and land use can help decision-makers identify potential future threats to groundwater quality and take early steps to protect this critical resource. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montazer, P.; Wilson, W.E.

    1985-12-31

    The unsaturated volcanic tuff beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy as a host rock for a potential mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Assessment of site suitability needs an efficient and focused investigative program. A conceptual hydrogeologic model that simulates the flow of fluids through the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain was developed to guide the program and to provide a basis for preliminary assessment of site suitability. The study was made as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project of the US Department of Energy. Thickness of the unsaturated zone is about 1640 to 2460 feet (500 to 750 meters). Based on physical properties, the rocks in the unsaturated zone are grouped for the purpose of this paper into five informal hydrogeologic units. From top to bottom these units are: Tiva Canyon welded unit, Paintbrush nonwelded unit. Topopah Spring welded unit, Calico Hills nonwelded unit, and Crater Flat unit. Welded units have a mean fracture density of 8 to 40 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 12 to 23%, matrix hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 6.5 x 10{sup -6} to 9.8 x 10{sup -6} foot per day (2 x 10{sup -6} to 3 x 10{sup -6} meter per day), and bulk hydraulic conductivities of 0.33 to 33 feet per day (0.1 to 10 meters per day). The nonwelded units have a mean fracture density of 1 to 3 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 31 to 46%, and saturated hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 2.6 x 10{sup -5} to 2.9 x 10{sup -2} foot per day (8 x 10{sup -6} to 9 x 10{sup -3} meter per day). 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montazer, P.; Wilson, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    The unsaturated volcanic tuff beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy as a host rock for a potential mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Assessment of site suitability needs an efficient and focused investigative program. A conceptual hydrogeologic model that simulates the flow of fluids through the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain was developed to guide the program and to provide a basis for preliminary assessment of site suitability. The study was made as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project of the US Department of Energy. Thickness of the unsaturated zone is about 1640 to 2460 feet (500 to 750 meters). Based on physical properties, the rocks in the unsaturated zone are grouped for the purpose of this paper into five informal hydrogeologic units. From top to bottom these units are: Tiva Canyon welded unit, Paintbrush nonwelded unit. Topopah Spring welded unit, Calico Hills nonwelded unit, and Crater Flat unit. Welded units have a mean fracture density of 8 to 40 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 12 to 23%, matrix hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 6.5 x 10 -6 to 9.8 x 10 -6 foot per day (2 x 10 -6 to 3 x 10 -6 meter per day), and bulk hydraulic conductivities of 0.33 to 33 feet per day (0.1 to 10 meters per day). The nonwelded units have a mean fracture density of 1 to 3 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 31 to 46%, and saturated hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 2.6 x 10 -5 to 2.9 x 10 -2 foot per day (8 x 10 -6 to 9 x 10 -3 meter per day). 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. A Vulnerability-Based, Bottom-up Assessment of Future Riverine Flood Risk Using a Modified Peaks-Over-Threshold Approach and a Physically Based Hydrologic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, James; Steinschneider, Scott; Walter, M. Todd

    2017-12-01

    There is a chronic disconnection among purely probabilistic flood frequency analysis of flood hazards, flood risks, and hydrological flood mechanisms, which hamper our ability to assess future flood impacts. We present a vulnerability-based approach to estimating riverine flood risk that accommodates a more direct linkage between decision-relevant metrics of risk and the dominant mechanisms that cause riverine flooding. We adapt the conventional peaks-over-threshold (POT) framework to be used with extreme precipitation from different climate processes and rainfall-runoff-based model output. We quantify the probability that at least one adverse hydrologic threshold, potentially defined by stakeholders, will be exceeded within the next N years. This approach allows us to consider flood risk as the summation of risk from separate atmospheric mechanisms, and supports a more direct mapping between hazards and societal outcomes. We perform this analysis within a bottom-up framework to consider the relevance and consequences of information, with varying levels of credibility, on changes to atmospheric patterns driving extreme precipitation events. We demonstrate our proposed approach using a case study for Fall Creek in Ithaca, NY, USA, where we estimate the risk of stakeholder-defined flood metrics from three dominant mechanisms: summer convection, tropical cyclones, and spring rain and snowmelt. Using downscaled climate projections, we determine how flood risk associated with a subset of mechanisms may change in the future, and the resultant shift to annual flood risk. The flood risk approach we propose can provide powerful new insights into future flood threats.

  12. Hydrogeophysics and remote sensing for the design of hydrogeological conceptual models in hard rocks - Sardón catchment (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francés, Alain P.; Lubczynski, Maciek W.; Roy, Jean; Santos, Fernando A. M.; Mahmoudzadeh Ardekani, Mohammad R.

    2014-11-01

    Hard rock aquifers are highly heterogeneous and hydrogeologically complex. To contribute to the design of hydrogeological conceptual models of hard rock aquifers, we propose a multi-techniques methodology based on a downward approach that combines remote sensing (RS), non-invasive hydrogeophysics and hydrogeological field data acquisition. The proposed methodology is particularly suitable for data scarce areas. It was applied in the pilot research area of Sardón catchment (80 km2) located west of Salamanca (Spain). The area was selected because of hard-rock hydrogeology, semi-arid climate and scarcity of groundwater resources. The proposed methodology consisted of three main steps. First, we detected the main hydrogeological features at the catchment scale by processing: (i) a high resolution digital terrain model to map lineaments and to outline fault zones; and (ii) high-resolution, multispectral satellite QuickBird and WorldView-2 images to map the outcropping granite. Second, we characterized at the local scale the hydrogeological features identified at step one with: i) ground penetrating radar (GPR) to assess groundwater table depth complementing the available monitoring network data; ii) 2D electric resistivity tomography (ERT) and frequency domain electromagnetic (FDEM) to retrieve the hydrostratigraphy along selected survey transects; iii) magnetic resonance soundings (MRS) to retrieve the hydrostratigraphy and aquifer parameters at the selected survey sites. In the third step, we drilled 5 boreholes (25 to 48 m deep) and performed slug tests to verify the hydrogeophysical interpretation and to calibrate the MRS parameters. Finally, we compiled and integrated all acquired data to define the geometry and parameters of the Sardón aquifer at the catchment scale. In line with a general conceptual model of hard rock aquifers, we identified two main hydrostratigraphic layers: a saprolite layer and a fissured layer. Both layers were intersected and drained by

  13. Groundwater vulnerability assessment and validation on the example of Gömör-Torna Karst, Hungary and Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iván, Veronika; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive resource and source groundwater vulnerability assessment was carried out on a transboundary test site of the Gömör-Torna Karst (Hungary and Slovakia). The main goal of the investigation was to understand and map vulnerability in a more general hydrogeological context, taking into consideration the special characteristics of gravity-driven groundwater flow systems, i.e. the flow dynamics in the area. In order to assess vulnerability, parametric, semi-quantitative approaches were adapted, applied, compared and validated on the test area. Focusing on the usual "weak points" of the assessment (as crucial but nonetheless mainly just roughly estimated parameters), complementary investigations were carried out with diverse techniques. The characteristic clayey sediment cover may have major impact on the infiltration. Its spatial extension and role in the infiltration process were investigated by means of geophysical techniques and grain-size measurements. In order to understand the flow dynamics in the saturated zone better, results of tracer tests were analyzed. Besides that, spring hydrograph and recession curve analysis were carried out based on long-term daily spring discharge data series. The study provides an approach in order to improve the reliability of vulnerability maps. The well-studied and intensively karstified area of the Gömör-Torna Karst serves also as an appropriate example for further similar studies to find the best possible investigation and mapping strategies and thus to create comprehensive, reliable, process-based vulnerability maps. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Geogold Kárpátia Environmental Consulting Ltd and the Aggtelek National Park Directorate for involvement in the project and sharing geophysical and tracer test data.

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life, Self-Efficacy and Enjoyment Keep the Socially Vulnerable Physically Active in Community-Based Physical Activity Programs: A Sequential Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herens, Marion; Bakker, Evert Jan; van Ophem, Johan; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Koelen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is most commonly found in socially vulnerable groups. Dutch policies target these groups through community-based health-enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programs. As robust evidence on the effectiveness of this approach is limited, this study investigated whether CBHEPA programs contribute to an increase in and the maintenance of physical activity in socially vulnerable groups. In four successive cohorts, starting at a six-month interval, 268 participants from 19 groups were monitored for twelve months in seven CBHEPA programs. Data collection was based on repeated questionnaires. Socio-economic indicators, program participation and coping ability were measured at baseline. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and on-going program participation were measured three times. Self-efficacy and enjoyment were measured at baseline and at twelve months. Statistical analyses were based on a quasi-RCT design (independent t-tests), a comparison of participants and dropouts (Mann-Whitney test), and multilevel modelling to assess change in individual physical activity, including group level characteristics. Participants of CBHEPA programs are socially vulnerable in terms of low education (48.6%), low income (52.4%), non-Dutch origin (64.6%) and health-related quality of life outcomes. Physical activity levels were not below the Dutch average. No increase in physical activity levels over time was observed. The multilevel models showed significant positive associations between health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment, and leisure-time physical activity over time. Short CBHEPA programs (10-13 weeks) with multiple trainers and gender-homogeneous groups were associated with lower physical activity levels over time. At twelve months, dropouts' leisure-time physical activity levels were significantly lower compared to continuing participants, as were health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment outcomes. BMI and

  15. Health-Related Quality of Life, Self-Efficacy and Enjoyment Keep the Socially Vulnerable Physically Active in Community-Based Physical Activity Programs: A Sequential Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Herens

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is most commonly found in socially vulnerable groups. Dutch policies target these groups through community-based health-enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA programs. As robust evidence on the effectiveness of this approach is limited, this study investigated whether CBHEPA programs contribute to an increase in and the maintenance of physical activity in socially vulnerable groups. In four successive cohorts, starting at a six-month interval, 268 participants from 19 groups were monitored for twelve months in seven CBHEPA programs. Data collection was based on repeated questionnaires. Socio-economic indicators, program participation and coping ability were measured at baseline. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and on-going program participation were measured three times. Self-efficacy and enjoyment were measured at baseline and at twelve months. Statistical analyses were based on a quasi-RCT design (independent t-tests, a comparison of participants and dropouts (Mann-Whitney test, and multilevel modelling to assess change in individual physical activity, including group level characteristics. Participants of CBHEPA programs are socially vulnerable in terms of low education (48.6%, low income (52.4%, non-Dutch origin (64.6% and health-related quality of life outcomes. Physical activity levels were not below the Dutch average. No increase in physical activity levels over time was observed. The multilevel models showed significant positive associations between health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment, and leisure-time physical activity over time. Short CBHEPA programs (10-13 weeks with multiple trainers and gender-homogeneous groups were associated with lower physical activity levels over time. At twelve months, dropouts' leisure-time physical activity levels were significantly lower compared to continuing participants, as were health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment

  16. Analysis of the impact of large scale seismic retrofitting strategies through the application of a vulnerability-based approach on traditional masonry buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Tiago Miguel; Maio, Rui; Vicente, Romeu

    2017-04-01

    The buildings' capacity to maintain minimum structural safety levels during natural disasters, such as earthquakes, is recognisably one of the aspects that most influence urban resilience. Moreover, the public investment in risk mitigation strategies is fundamental, not only to promote social and urban and resilience, but also to limit consequent material, human and environmental losses. Despite the growing awareness of this issue, there is still a vast number of traditional masonry buildings spread throughout many European old city centres that lacks of adequate seismic resistance, requiring therefore urgent retrofitting interventions in order to both reduce their seismic vulnerability and to cope with the increased seismic requirements of recent code standards. Thus, this paper aims at contributing to mitigate the social and economic impacts of earthquake damage scenarios through the development of vulnerability-based comparative analysis of some of the most popular retrofitting techniques applied after the 1998 Azores earthquake. The influence of each technique individually and globally studied resorting to a seismic vulnerability index methodology integrated into a GIS tool and damage and loss scenarios are constructed and critically discussed. Finally, the economic balance resulting from the implementation of that techniques are also examined.

  17. Insecure attachment style as a vulnerability factor for depression: recent findings in a community-based study of Malay single and married mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Kadir, Nor Ba'yah; Bifulco, Antonia

    2013-12-30

    The role of marital breakdown in women's mental health is of key concern in Malaysia and internationally. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of married and separated/divorced and widowed women examined insecure attachment style as an associated risk factor for depression among 1002 mothers in an urban community in Malaysia. A previous report replicated a UK-based vulnerability-provoking agent model of depression involving negative evaluation of self (NES) and negative elements in close relationships (NECRs) interacting with severe life events to model depression. This article reports on the additional contribution of insecure attachment style to the model using the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ). The results showed that VASQ scores were highly correlated with NES, NECR and depression. A multiple regression analysis of depression with backward elimination found that VASQ scores had a significant additional effect. Group comparisons showed different risk patterns for single and married mothers. NES was the strongest risk factor for both groups, with the 'anxious style' subset of the VASQ being the best additional predictor for married mothers and the total VASQ score (general attachment insecurity) for single mothers. The findings indicate that attachment insecurity adds to a psychosocial vulnerability model of depression among mothers cross-culturally and is important in understanding and identifying risk. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrogeologic factors to be addressed in disposal guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, D.W.; Raven, K.G.

    1986-12-01

    This report identifies the physical hydrogeologic factors that should be addressed for performance assessment of a radioactive waste disposal facility in plutonic rock. The hydrogeologic factors include theoretical methods, groundwater flow factors and solute transport parameters. Theoretical methods, including different deterministic and stochastic approaches for evaluating physical hydrogeolgic conditions, are evaluated with respect to data requirements, applications and limitations. Preferred methods for measurement and determination of the identified groundwater flow factors and solute transport parameters are discussed. A recommended set of procedures for reliable hydrogeologic characterization of a plutonic rock mass at both regional and site scales is also presented

  19. Hydrogeological reconnaissance study: Dyfi Valley, Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendining, S.J.

    1981-10-01

    This report describes work carried out for the Department of the Environment as part of its research programme into radioactive waste management. It presents an account of a hydrogeological reconnaissance study in the Dyfi Valley area of Central Wales. Initially the purposes of such a study are given and the assumptions used in deriving parameters such as flow volume, path length and transit time in areas of massive fractured rocks are described. Using these assumptions with geological, topographic and hydrometeorological data the potential ranges in properties such as bulk hydraulic conductivity, path lengths, hydraulic gradients and volumes of groundwater flow have been determined. These ranges have been used to estimate solute transport model parameters. The limitations and usefulness of the reconnaissance study in planning research and siting exploratory boreholes in the Dyfi area are discussed. (author)

  20. Hydrogeology of Montserrat review and new insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brioch Hemmings

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: The tropical, active volcanic arc island of Montserrat, Lesser Antilles, Caribbean. Study focus: New insights into hydrological recharge distribution, measurements of aquifer permeability, and geological and hydrological field observations from Montserrat are combined with a review of the current understanding of volcanic island hydrology. The aim is to begin to develop a conceptual model for the hydrology of Montserrat, and to inform and stimulate further investigation into the hydrology of volcanic arc islands, by combining a review of the current understanding of essential components of the hydrological system with fresh analysis of existing data, and new observations, data collection and analysis. This study provides new insights into hydrological recharge distribution, measurements of aquifer permeability, and geological and hydrological field observations from Montserrat. New hydrological insights for the region: A new groundwater recharge model predicts whole island recharge of 266 mm/year, between 10% and 20% of annual rainfall. Core scale permeability tests reveal ranges from 10−14 to 10−12 m2 for volcaniclastic rocks with coarse matrix, to a minimum of 10−18 m2 for andesitic lavas and volcaniclastics with fine or altered matrix. Analysis of historical pumping tests on aquifers in reworked, channel and alluvial sediment indicate permeabilities ∼10−10 m2. Springs at elevations between 200 and 400 m above mean sea level on Centre Hills currently discharge over 45 L/s. High discharge require a reasonably laterally continuous low permeability body. Contrasting conceptual models are presented to illustrate two potential hydrogeological scenarios. New field observations also reveal systematic spatial variations in spring water temperature and specific electrical conductivity indicating that meteoric waters supplying the springs are mixed with a deeper groundwater source at some sites. Keywords: Volcanic island

  1. Marine hydrogeology: recent accomplishments and future opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A. T.

    2005-03-01

    Marine hydrogeology is a broad-ranging scientific discipline involving the exploration of fluid-rock interactions below the seafloor. Studies have been conducted at seafloor spreading centers, mid-plate locations, and in plate- and continental-margin environments. Although many seafloor locations are remote, there are aspects of marine systems that make them uniquely suited for hydrologic analysis. Newly developed tools and techniques, and the establishment of several multidisciplinary programs for oceanographic exploration, have helped to push marine hydrogeology forward over the last several decades. Most marine hydrogeologic work has focused on measurement or estimation of hydrogeologic properties within the shallow subsurface, but additional work has emphasized measurements of local and global fluxes, fluid source and sink terms, and quantitative links between hydrogeologic, chemical, tectonic, biological, and geophysical processes. In addition to summarizing selected results from a small number of case studies, this paper includes a description of several new experiments and programs that will provide outstanding opportunities to address fundamental hydrogeologic questions within the seafloor during the next 20-30 years. L'hydrogéologie marine est une large discipline scientifique impliquant l' exploration des interactions entre les fluides et les roches sous les fonds marins. Des études ont été menées dans les différents environnements sous-marins (zone abyssale, plaque océanique, marges continentales). Bien que de nombreux fonds marins soient connus, il existe des aspects des systèmes marins qui les rendent inadaptés à l'analyse hydrologique. De nouveaux outils et techniques, et la mise en oeuvre de nombreux programmes multidisciplinaires d'exploration océanographique, ont aidé à pousser en avant l'hydrogéologie marine ces dix dernières années. La plus part des études hydrogéologiques se sont concentrées jusqu'à présent sur la mesure ou

  2. Borehole Completion and Conceptual Hydrogeologic Model for the IFRC Well Field, 300 Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horner, Jacob A.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Lanigan, David C.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2009-04-20

    A tight cluster of 35 new wells was installed over a former waste site, the South Process Pond (316-1 waste site), in the Hanford Site 300 Area in summer 2008. This report documents the details of the drilling, sampling, and well construction for the new array and presents a summary of the site hydrogeology based on the results of drilling and preliminary geophysical logging.

  3. Fuzzing and Vulnerabilities Search

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Evgenyevich Kirillov; Nikolai Petrovich Lavrentiev

    2013-01-01

    Fuzzing for vulnerabilities can be very effective if we know the input data format. This work contains description of network message format recovery algorithm and the usage of restored data model in fuzzing and vulnerabilities search.

  4. Fuzzing and Vulnerabilities Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Evgenyevich Kirillov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzing for vulnerabilities can be very effective if we know the input data format. This work contains description of network message format recovery algorithm and the usage of restored data model in fuzzing and vulnerabilities search.

  5. Hydropower Generation Vulnerability in the Yangtze River in China under Climate Change Scenarios: Analysis Based on the WEAP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Global warming caused by human activities exacerbates the water cycle, changes precipitation features, such as precipitation amount, intensity and time, and raises uncertainties in water resources. This work uses run-off data obtained using climate change models under representative concentration pathways (RCPs and selects the Yangtze River Basin as the research boundary to evaluate and analyse the vulnerability of hydropower generation in 2016–2050 on the basis of the water evaluation and planning model. Results show that the amount of rainfall during 2016–2050 in the Yangtze River Basin is estimated to increase with fluctuations in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. In the RCP4.5 scenario, hydropower stations exhibit large fluctuations in generating capacity, which present the trend of an increase after a decrease; in the RCP8.5 scenario, the generating capacity of hydropower stations in the Yangtze River Basin presents a steady increase. Over 50% of the generating capacity in the Yangtze River Basin is produced from the Three Gorges Dam and 10 other hydropower stations. Over 90% is generated in eight river basins, including the Jinsha, Ya-lung and Min Rivers. Therefore, climate change may accelerate changes in the Yangtze River Basin and further lead to vulnerability of hydropower generation.

  6. Mean Variance Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Eichner

    2008-01-01

    This paper transfers the concept of Gollier and Pratt's (Gollier, C., J. W. Pratt. 1996. Risk vulnerability and the tempering effect of background risk. Econometrica 64 1109-1123) risk vulnerability into mean variance preferences. Risk vulnerability is shown to be equivalent to the slope of the mean variance indifference curve being decreasing in mean and increasing in variance. Next, we introduce the notion of mean variance vulnerability to link the concepts of decreasing absolute risk avers...

  7. What Does Vulnerability Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parley, Fiona F

    2011-01-01

    Protection of those deemed vulnerable has received increasing attention since 2000. This article reports on care staff views of vulnerability using original data from a research study (Parley. "Vulnerability and abuse: an exploration of views of care staff working with people who have learning disabilities," PhD Thesis, 2007) in which care staff…

  8. Enhancing the usability of seasonal to decadal (S2D) climate information - an evidence-based framework for the identification and assessment of sector-specific vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The successful provision of from seasonal to decadal (S2D) climate service products to sector-specific users is dependent on specific problem characteristics and individual user needs and decision-making processes. Climate information requires an impact on decision making to have any value (Rodwell and Doblas-Reyes, 2006). For that reason the knowledge of sector-specific vulnerabilities to S2D climate variability is very valuable information for both, climate service producers and users. In this context a concept for a vulnerability assessment framework was developed to (i) identify climate events (and especially their temporal scales) critical for sector-specific problems to assess the basic requirements for an appropriate climate-service product development; and to (ii) assess the potential impact or value of related climate information for decision-makers. The concept was developed within the EUPORIAS project (European Provision of Regional Impacts Assessments on Seasonal and Decadal Timescales) based on ten project-related case-studies from different sectors all over Europe. In the prevalent stage the framework may be useful as preliminary assessment or 'quick-scan' of the vulnerability of specific systems to climate variability in the context of S2D climate service provision. The assessment strategy of the framework is user-focused, using predominantly a bottom-up approach (vulnerability as state) but also a top-down approach (vulnerability as outcome) generally based on qualitative data (surveys, interviews, etc.) and literature research for system understanding. The starting point of analysis is a climate-sensitive 'critical situation' of the considered system which requires a decision and is defined by the user. From this basis the related 'critical climate conditions' are assessed and 'climate information needs' are derived. This mainly refers to the critical period of time of the climate event or sequence of events. The relevant period of time of problem

  9. Urban hydrogeology in Indonesia: A highlight from Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, R. F.

    2018-02-01

    In many cities in the developing countries, groundwater is an important source of public water supply. The interaction between groundwater systems and urban environments has become an urgent challenge for many developing cities in the world, Indonesia included. Contributing factors are, but not limited to, the continuous horizontal and vertical expansion of cities, population growth, climate change, water scarcity and groundwater quality degradation. Jakarta as the capital city of Indonesia becomes a good example to study and implement urban hydrogeology. Urban hydrogeology is a science for investigating groundwater at the hydrological cycle and its change, water regime and quality within the urbanized landscape and zones of its impact. The present paper provides a review of urban groundwater studies in Jakarta in the context of urban water management, advances in hydrogeological investigation, monitoring and modelling since the city was established. The whole study emphasizes the necessity of an integrated urban groundwater management and development supporting hydrogeological techniques for urban areas.

  10. Study of hydrogeological and engineering-geological conditions of deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Methods for hydrogeological and engineering-geological studies are considered as a part of the complex works dUring eXploration of hydrogenic uranium deposits to develop them by Underground ieaching (UL). Problems are enumerated and peculiarities Of hydrogeologic and engipeering-geological works at different stages are outlined (prospeccing - evaluating works, preliminary and detailed survey). Attention is paid to boring and equipment for hydrogeological and engineering - geological boreholes. Testing-filtering works are described, the latter includes: evacuations, fulnesses ( forcings), and tests of fulness-evacuation. The problem on steady-state observations in boreholes and laboratory studies of rocks and underground waters is discussed. Geological and geophysical methods for evaluation of rock and ore filtering properties are presented. Necessity of hydrogeological zonation of deposits as applied to UL is marked

  11. Hydrogeological modelling of the Atlantis aquifer for management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogeological modelling of the Atlantis aquifer for management support to the Atlantis Water Supply Scheme. Nebo Jovanovic, Richard DH Bugan, Gideon Tredoux, Sumaya Israel, Rodney Bishop, Vernon Marinus ...

  12. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIE(PRESENTATION FOR MNA WORKSHOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  13. Geology and hydrogeology of the Town of Calais, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG2016-1 Springston, G., Kim, J., Gale. M. and Thomas, E., 2016, Geology and hydrogeology of the Town of Calais, Vermont: Vermont Geological Survey...

  14. Vulnerability in patients and nurses and the mutual vulnerability in the patient-nurse relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Sanne; Vatne, Solfrid

    2017-05-01

    To examine the mutual vulnerability of patients and nurses, anticipating that an enhanced understanding of the phenomenon may help reduce vulnerability. Patient vulnerability is a key issue in nursing, aimed at protecting the patient from harm. In the literature, vulnerability is described both from a risk perspective and a subjective perspective. This implies that the objective dimension of patient vulnerability does not necessarily reflect the patient's own perception of being vulnerable. However, external judgment may influence internal perception. Adding to this complexity, attention has also been drawn to the vulnerability of the nurse. A definition deduced from central literature on vulnerability captures the complexity of objective versus subjective vulnerability. Based on the perspective of vulnerability in general, vulnerability in healthcare services shows how dependency may increase patient vulnerability. Further, despite education, training and supportive settings, patients may increase nurse vulnerability. The core of this mutuality is explored in the light of Martin Heidegger's philosophy of being. The patient's need for help from the nurse opens the patient to engage in supportive and/or harmful encounters. Thus, dependency adds to the vulnerability related to health issues. The nurse's vulnerability lies in her engagement in caring for the patient. If failing to provide proper care, the nurse's existence as 'a good nurse' is threatened. This is exacerbated if the patient turns against the nurse. Therefore, the core of vulnerability seems to lie in the fact that the patient and the nurse are both striving to be the persons they want to be, and the persons they have not yet become. Recognition of the mutual vulnerability in the patient-nurse relationship calls for collective acknowledgement of the demanding nature of caring relationships, for support and for a strengthening of professional skills. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Drilling methods to keep the hydrogeological parameters of natural aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoqin

    2004-01-01

    In hydrogeological drilling, how to keep the hydrogeological parameters of natural aquifer unchanged is a deeply concerned problem for the technicians, this paper introduces the methods taken by the state-owned 'Red Hill' geological company of Uzbekistan. By the research and contrast of different kinds of flush liquid, the company has found the methods to reduce the negative effects of drilling on the permeability of the vicinal aquifer. (author)

  16. Summary of field operations Technical Area I well PGS-1. Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritts, J.E.; McCord, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is managing the project to assess and, when necessary, to remediate sites contaminated by the lab operations. Within the ER project, the site-wide hydrogeologic characterization task is responsible for the area-wide hydrogeologic investigation. The purpose of this task is to reduce the uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow beneath the area and across its boundaries. This specific report deals with the installation of PGS-1 monitoring well which provides information on the lithology and hydrology of the aquifer in the northern area of the Kirtland Air Force Base. The report provides information on the well design; surface geology; stratigraphy; structure; drilling, completion, and development techniques; and borehole geophysics information

  17. Current status of the regional hydrogeological study project in the Tono area. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koide, Kaoru; Maeda, Katsuhiko [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Toki, Gifu (Japan). Tono Geoscience Center

    2001-09-01

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting a wide range of geoscientific research in order to build a firm scientific and technological basis for the R and D of geological disposal. One of the major components of the ongoing geoscientific research program is the Regional Hydrogeological Study (RHS) project in the Tono region, central Japan. The main goal of the RHS project is to develop and demonstrate surface-based investigation methodologies to characterize geological environments on a regional scale in Japan. The RHS project was initiated in 1992. To date, remote sensing, geological mapping, geophysical investigations and measurements in thirteen deep boreholes have been carried out. Important results that have been obtained from these investigations include multi-disciplinary information about the geological, hydrogeological, geochemical and rock mechanical properties of granitic rock, and evaluation of the groundwater geochemistry. The JNC will synthesize the results from the R and D activities in fiscal 2004. (author)

  18. Development of three dimensional hydrogeological model and estimation of groundwater storage in Japanese islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshigai, Masaru; Marui, Atsunao; Ito, Narimitsu; Yoshizawa, Takuya

    An optimum groundwater management which achieved a good balance between conservation and utilization is required to use the groundwater as sustainable water resources. On the recent groundwater management which uses a numerical simulation, it is important to understand the full breadth of groundwater basin and groundwater storage for evaluation the extent of human impact. However, previous study has not been clarified the full breadth of them throughout Japan, because basic information on the groundwater has not maintained still enough. The present work developed the three dimensional hydrogeological model in Japanese islands using the related database. And the groundwater storage was estimated based on the three dimensional hydrogeological model. As a result, to evaluate the full breadth of groundwater basin became possible from the sharply wide-range distribution of stratum. Moreover, we succeeded in providing the useful information such as development potential of unused groundwater resources for groundwater conservation and development.

  19. Evaluation of strategies for hydrogeologic characterization of a repository area in marine and fluvioterrestrial sedimentary strata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R.W.; Hufschmied, P.; Loew, S.; Black, J.; Dershowitz, W.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper describes a comprehensive repository development strategy that includes a quantitative approach to quantify (i) the uncertainty about the existence of hydrogeologic key features and (ii) one's ability to reduce this uncertainty by a phased field exploration program. The quantitative methodology is based on the premise that one of the primary goals of the site exploration program is to intersect, detect, and characterize key hydrogeologic features which have some likelihood of forming preferential pathways through the geosphere. The success of the exploration strategy is determined by the probability that adequate information will be obtained by the exploration program to confirm either the absence of the presence of preferential pathways at the repository site. The application of the methodology demonstrated the utility of the approach and indicated some key differences between the two host rocks under consideration. 7 figs; 1 tab.; 10 refs

  20. Hydrogeology in North America: past and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2005-03-01

    This paper is a retrospective on the evolution of hydrogeology in North America over the past two centuries, and a brief speculation of its future. The history of hydrogeology is marked by developments in many different fields such as groundwater hydrology, soil mechanics, soil science, economic geology, petroleum engineering, structural geology, geochemistry, geophysics, marine geology, and more recently, ecology. The field has been enriched by the contributions of distinguished researchers from all these fields. At present, hydrogeology is in transition from a state of discovering new resources and exploiting them efficiently for maximum benefit, to one of judicious management of finite, interconnected resources that are vital for the sustenance of humans and other living things. The future of hydrogeology is likely to be dictated by the subtle balance with which the hydrological, erosional, and nutritional cycles function, and the decision of a technological society to either adapt to the constraints imposed by the balance, or to continue to exploit hydrogeological systems for maximum benefit. Although there is now a trend towards ecological and environmental awareness, human attitudes could change should large parts of the populated world be subjected to the stresses of droughts that last for many decades. Cet article est une rétrospective de l'évolution de l'hydrogéologie en Amérique du Nord sur les deux derniers siècles, et une brève évaluation de son futur. L'histoire de l'hydrogéologie est marquée par le développement de plusieurs techniques de terrain telles, l'hydrologie des eaux souterraines, la mécanique des sols, les sciences du sol, la géologie économique, l' ingénierie pétrolière, la géologie structurale, la géochimie, la géophysique, la géologie marine et plus récemment l'écologie. La science a été enrichie par la contribution de plusieurs chercheurs distingués, provenant de toutes ces branches. A présent, l

  1. Hydrogeological Characterization of the Middle Magdalena Valley - Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Maria Cristina; Riva, Monica; Donado, Leonardo David; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    We provide a detailed hydrogeological characterization of the complex aquifer system of the Middle Magdalena Valley, Colombia. The latter is comprised by 3 sub-basins within which 7 blocks have been identified for active exploration and potential production of oil and gas. As such, there is a critical need to establish modern water resources management practices in the area to accommodate the variety of social, environmental and industrial needs. We do so by starting from a detailed hydrogeological characterization of the system and focus on: (a) a detailed hydrogeological reconnaissance of the area leading to the definition of the main hydrogeological units; (b) the collection, organization and analysis of daily climatic data from 39 stations available in the region; and (c) the assessment of the groundwater flow circulation through the formulation of a conceptual and a mathematical model of the subsurface system. Groundwater flow is simulated in the SAM 1.1 aquifer located in the Middle Magdalena Valley with the objective of showing and evaluating alternative conceptual hydrogeological modeling alternatives. We focus here on modeling results at system equilibrium (i.e., under steady-state conditions) and assess the value of available information in the context of the candidate modeling strategies we consider. Results of our modeling effort are conducive to the characterization of the distributed hydrogeological budget and the assessment of critical areas as a function of the conceptualization of the system functioning and data avilability.

  2. Microzonation of seismic risk in a low-rise Latin American city based on the macroseismic evaluation of the vulnerability of residential buildings: Colima city, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobin, V. M.; Cruz-Bravo, A. A.; Ventura-Ramírez, F.

    2010-06-01

    A macroseismic methodology of seismic risk microzonation in a low-rise city based on the vulnerability of residential buildings is proposed and applied to Colima city, Mexico. The seismic risk microzonation for Colima consists of two elements: the mapping of residential blocks according to their vulnerability level and the calculation of an expert-opinion based damage probability matrix (DPM) for a given level of earthquake intensity and a given type of residential block. A specified exposure time to the seismic risk for this zonation is equal to the interval between two destructive earthquakes. The damage probability matrices were calculated for three types of urban buildings and five types of residential blocks in Colima. It was shown that only 9% of 1409 residential blocks are able to resist to the Modify Mercalli (MM) intensity VII and VIII earthquakes without significant damage. The proposed DPM-2007 is in good accordance with the experimental damage curves based on the macroseismic evaluation of 3332 residential buildings in Colima that was carried out after the 21 January 2003 intensity MM VII earthquake. This methodology and the calculated PDM-2007 curves may be applied also to seismic risk microzonation for many low-rise cities in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.

  3. Microzonation of seismic risk in a low-rise Latin American city based on the macroseismic evaluation of the vulnerability of residential buildings: Colima city, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Zobin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A macroseismic methodology of seismic risk microzonation in a low-rise city based on the vulnerability of residential buildings is proposed and applied to Colima city, Mexico. The seismic risk microzonation for Colima consists of two elements: the mapping of residential blocks according to their vulnerability level and the calculation of an expert-opinion based damage probability matrix (DPM for a given level of earthquake intensity and a given type of residential block. A specified exposure time to the seismic risk for this zonation is equal to the interval between two destructive earthquakes. The damage probability matrices were calculated for three types of urban buildings and five types of residential blocks in Colima. It was shown that only 9% of 1409 residential blocks are able to resist to the Modify Mercalli (MM intensity VII and VIII earthquakes without significant damage. The proposed DPM-2007 is in good accordance with the experimental damage curves based on the macroseismic evaluation of 3332 residential buildings in Colima that was carried out after the 21 January 2003 intensity MM VII earthquake. This methodology and the calculated PDM-2007 curves may be applied also to seismic risk microzonation for many low-rise cities in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.

  4. A GIS-based vulnerability assessment of brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in eastern Sheridan County, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M; Chesley-Preston, Tara L; Thamke, Joanna N

    2014-02-15

    Water (brine) co-produced with oil in the Williston Basin is some of the most saline in the nation. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), characterized by glacial sediments and numerous wetlands, covers the northern and eastern portion of the Williston Basin. Sheridan County, Montana, lies within the PPR and has a documented history of brine contamination. Surface water and shallow groundwater in the PPR are saline and sulfate dominated while the deeper brines are much more saline and chloride dominated. A Contamination Index (CI), defined as the ratio of chloride concentration to specific conductance in a water sample, was developed by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology to delineate the magnitude of brine contamination in Sheridan County. Values >0.035 indicate contamination. Recently, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a county level geographic information system (GIS)-based vulnerability assessment of brine contamination to aquatic resources in the PPR of the Williston Basin based on the age and density of oil wells, number of wetlands, and stream length per county. To validate and better define this assessment, a similar approach was applied in eastern Sheridan County at a greater level of detail (the 2.59 km(2) Public Land Survey System section grid) and included surficial geology. Vulnerability assessment scores were calculated for the 780 modeled sections and these scores were divided into ten equal interval bins representing similar probabilities of contamination. Two surface water and two groundwater samples were collected from the section with the greatest acreage of Federal land in each bin. Nineteen of the forty water samples, and at least one water sample from seven of the ten selected sections, had CI values indicating contamination. Additionally, CI values generally increased with increasing vulnerability assessment score, with a stronger correlation for groundwater samples (R(2)=0.78) than surface water samples (R(2)=0.53). Copyright © 2013

  5. Hydrogeology along the southern boundary of the Hanford Site between the Yakima and Columbia Rivers, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liikala, T.L.

    1994-09-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) operations at the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington, have generated large volumes of hazardous and radioactive wastes since 1944. Some of the hazardous wastes were discharged to the ground in the 1100 and 3000 Areas, near the city of Richland. The specific waste types and quantities are unknown; however, they probably include battery acid, antifreeze, hydraulic fluids, waste oils, solvents, degreasers, paints, and paint thinners. Between the Yakima and Columbia rivers in support of future hazardous waste site investigations and ground-water and land-use management. The specific objectives were to collect and review existing hydrogeologic data for the study area and establish a water-level monitoring network; describe the regional and study area hydrogeology; develop a hydrogeologic conceptual model of the unconfined ground-water flow system beneath the study area, based on available data; describe the flow characteristics of the unconfined aquifer based on the spatial and temporal distribution of hydraulic head within the aquifer; use the results of this study to delineate additional data needs in support of future Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Studies (RI/FS), Fate and Transport modeling, Baseline Risk Assessments (BRA), and ground-water and land-use management

  6. Hydrogeology - HYDROGEOL_SETTINGS_IN: Hydrogeologic Terrains and Settings of Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:100,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — HYDROGEOL_SETTINGS_IN is a polygon shapefile that shows hydrogeologic terrains and settings of Indiana. The methodology of the investigation and definitions of terms...

  7. Vulnerability assessment in avalanche hazardous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigo, B.; De Biagi, V.; Chiaia, B.

    2012-04-01

    Until a few decades ago, damages and human losses related to the avalanche risk represented only a small part of the destructive effects produced each year by natural events. Nowadays, on the contrary, the situation has considerably changed due to growing of the built-up areas and human presence in the mountain environment: this fact increases the current avalanche risk and puts snow avalanches and hydro-geological risks (floods, landslides, rock falls, etc…) at the same importance level. To mitigate the effects, Authorities provide both specific policies for urban development and mountain land use and simple but reliable methodologies to define the avalanche risk. As is well known, risk can be defined as the product of three factors: the environmental danger P (probability that a given phenomenon with its catastrophic intensity occurs in a specific area and time), the vulnerability V (degree of loss of one or more elements by a natural phenomenon of a known magnitude) and the exposure E (measure of the exposed value for each vulnerable element). A novel approach for the evaluation of the "Vulnerability factor" of a new or existing building under avalanche hazard by considering its structural (materials, strength and robustness, etc…) and architectural (shape, exposure, etc…) peculiarities is presented. A real avalanche event occurred in December, 2008 in Aosta Valley, which caused the total collapse of a building is taken as an example for tesing the effectiveness of the proposed risk assessment. By means of photographical analysis on undamaged parts, local surveys and debris arrangement, the impact pressure and the collapse dynamics are back-analyzed. The results are commented and comparisons between the damages and Vulnerability factor are made.

  8. Effect of self-care training program based on Orem's model on the behaviors leading to sexually transmitted disease in vulnerable women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghersad, Zahra; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Boroumandfar, Zahra; Golshiri, Parastoo

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerable women are prone to sexually transmitted diseases due to their high-risk behaviors. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of self-care training program based on Orem's model on the behaviors leading to sexually transmitted diseases in vulnerable women. This field trial was initially conducted on 100 women covered under health services and welfare organization in Isfahan city, who were selected by rationing ssampling. For needs assessment, they filled the self-care needs assessment questionnaire in three domains of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Then, at the stage of intervention (self-care training), 64 subjects were selected through convenient sampling and were assigned to experimental and control groups by random allocation. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistical tests through SPSS 18. Results showed that mean scores of knowledge ( P < 0.001), attitude ( P < 0.001), practice ( P = 0.04), and behavior change ( P = 0.01) were significantly higher immediately after and 3 months after intervention, compared to before intervention, but there was no significant difference in mean scores between immediately after and 3 months after intervention. With regard to these results, it can be concluded that if the educational programs are planned based on clients' real needs assessment, the learners follow the educational materials, related to their problems, more seriously and it results in a notable behavior change in them.

  9. Shallow Aquifer Vulnerability From Subsurface Fluid Injection at a Proposed Shale Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M. P.; Worrall, F.; Davies, R. J.; Hart, A.

    2017-11-01

    Groundwater flow resulting from a proposed hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operation was numerically modeled using 91 scenarios. Scenarios were chosen to be a combination of hydrogeological factors that a priori would control the long-term migration of fracking fluids to the shallow subsurface. These factors were induced fracture extent, cross-basin groundwater flow, deep low hydraulic conductivity strata, deep high hydraulic conductivity strata, fault hydraulic conductivity, and overpressure. The study considered the Bowland Basin, northwest England, with fracking of the Bowland Shale at ˜2,000 m depth and the shallow aquifer being the Sherwood Sandstone at ˜300-500 m depth. Of the 91 scenarios, 73 scenarios resulted in tracked particles not reaching the shallow aquifer within 10,000 years and 18 resulted in travel times less than 10,000 years. Four factors proved to have a statistically significant impact on reducing travel time to the aquifer: increased induced fracture extent, absence of deep high hydraulic conductivity strata, relatively low fault hydraulic conductivity, and magnitude of overpressure. Modeling suggests that high hydraulic conductivity formations can be more effective barriers to vertical flow than low hydraulic conductivity formations. Furthermore, low hydraulic conductivity faults can result in subsurface pressure compartmentalization, reducing horizontal groundwater flow, and encouraging vertical fluid migration. The modeled worst-case scenario, using unlikely geology and induced fracture lengths, maximum values for strata hydraulic conductivity and with conservative tracer behavior had a particle travel time of 130 years to the base of the shallow aquifer. This study has identified hydrogeological factors which lead to aquifer vulnerability from shale exploitation.

  10. Site investigation SFR. Hydrogeological modelling of SFR. Model version 0.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations for a planned extension of the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR). A hydrogeological model is developed in three model versions, which will be used for safety assessment and design analyses. This report presents a data analysis of the currently available hydrogeological data from the ongoing Site Investigation SFR (KFR27, KFR101, KFR102A, KFR102B, KFR103, KFR104, and KFR105). The purpose of this work is to develop a preliminary hydrogeological Discrete Fracture Network model (hydro-DFN) parameterisation that can be applied in regional-scale modelling. During this work, the Geologic model had not yet been updated for the new data set. Therefore, all analyses were made to the rock mass outside Possible Deformation Zones, according to Single Hole Interpretation. Owing to this circumstance, it was decided not to perform a complete hydro-DFN calibration at this stage. Instead focus was re-directed to preparatory test cases and conceptual questions with the aim to provide a sound strategy for developing the hydrogeological model SFR v. 1.0. The presented preliminary hydro-DFN consists of five fracture sets and three depth domains. A statistical/geometrical approach (connectivity analysis /Follin et al. 2005/) was performed to estimate the size (i.e. fracture radius) distribution of fractures that are interpreted as Open in geologic mapping of core data. Transmissivity relations were established based on an assumption of a correlation between the size and evaluated specific capacity of geologic features coupled to inflows measured by the Posiva Flow Log device (PFL-f data). The preliminary hydro-DFN was applied in flow simulations in order to test its performance and to explore the role of PFL-f data. Several insights were gained and a few model technical issues were raised. These are summarised in Table 5-1

  11. Scale problems in assessment of hydrogeological parameters of groundwater flow models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawalany Marek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An overview is presented of scale problems in groundwater flow, with emphasis on upscaling of hydraulic conductivity, being a brief summary of the conventional upscaling approach with some attention paid to recently emerged approaches. The focus is on essential aspects which may be an advantage in comparison to the occasionally extremely extensive summaries presented in the literature. In the present paper the concept of scale is introduced as an indispensable part of system analysis applied to hydrogeology. The concept is illustrated with a simple hydrogeological system for which definitions of four major ingredients of scale are presented: (i spatial extent and geometry of hydrogeological system, (ii spatial continuity and granularity of both natural and man-made objects within the system, (iii duration of the system and (iv continuity/granularity of natural and man-related variables of groundwater flow system. Scales used in hydrogeology are categorised into five classes: micro-scale – scale of pores, meso-scale – scale of laboratory sample, macro-scale – scale of typical blocks in numerical models of groundwater flow, local-scale – scale of an aquifer/aquitard and regional-scale – scale of series of aquifers and aquitards. Variables, parameters and groundwater flow equations for the three lowest scales, i.e., pore-scale, sample-scale and (numerical block-scale, are discussed in detail, with the aim to justify physically deterministic procedures of upscaling from finer to coarser scales (stochastic issues of upscaling are not discussed here. Since the procedure of transition from sample-scale to block-scale is physically well based, it is a good candidate for upscaling block-scale models to local-scale models and likewise for upscaling local-scale models to regional-scale models. Also the latest results in downscaling from block-scale to sample scale are briefly referred to.

  12. Summary of discrete fracture network modelling as applied to hydrogeology of the Forsmark and Laxemar sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Roberts, David

    2013-04-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is responsible for the development of a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The permitting of such a repository is informed by assessment studies to estimate the risks of the disposal method. One of the potential risks involves the transport of radionuclides in groundwater from defective canisters in the repository to the accessible environment. The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel has involved undertaking detailed surface-based site characterisation studies at two different sites, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. A key component of the hydrogeological modelling of these two sites has been the development of Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) concepts of groundwater flow through the fractures in the crystalline rocks present. A discrete fracture network model represents some of the characteristics of fractures explicitly, such as their, orientation, intensity, size, spatial distribution, shape and transmissivity. This report summarises how the discrete fracture network methodology has been applied to model groundwater flow and transport at Forsmark and Laxemar. The account has involved summarising reports previously published by SKB between 2001 and 2011. The report describes the conceptual framework and assumptions used in interpreting site data, and in particular how data has been used to calibrate the various parameters that define the discrete fracture network representation of bedrock hydrogeology against borehole geologic and hydraulic data. Steps taken to confirm whether the developed discrete fracture network models provide a description of regional-scale groundwater flow and solute transport consistent with wider hydraulic tests hydrochemical data from Forsmark and Laxemar are discussed. It illustrates the use of derived hydrogeological DFN models in the simulations of the temperate period hydrogeology that provided input to radionuclide transport

  13. Site investigation SFR. Hydrogeological modelling of SFR. Model version 0.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehman, Johan; Follin, Sven

    2010-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations for a planned extension of the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR). A hydrogeological model is developed in three model versions, which will be used for safety assessment and design analyses. This report presents a data analysis of the currently available hydrogeological data from the ongoing Site Investigation SFR (KFR27, KFR101, KFR102A, KFR102B, KFR103, KFR104, and KFR105). The purpose of this work is to develop a preliminary hydrogeological Discrete Fracture Network model (hydro-DFN) parameterisation that can be applied in regional-scale modelling. During this work, the Geologic model had not yet been updated for the new data set. Therefore, all analyses were made to the rock mass outside Possible Deformation Zones, according to Single Hole Interpretation. Owing to this circumstance, it was decided not to perform a complete hydro-DFN calibration at this stage. Instead focus was re-directed to preparatory test cases and conceptual questions with the aim to provide a sound strategy for developing the hydrogeological model SFR v. 1.0. The presented preliminary hydro-DFN consists of five fracture sets and three depth domains. A statistical/geometrical approach (connectivity analysis /Follin et al. 2005/) was performed to estimate the size (i.e. fracture radius) distribution of fractures that are interpreted as Open in geologic mapping of core data. Transmissivity relations were established based on an assumption of a correlation between the size and evaluated specific capacity of geologic features coupled to inflows measured by the Posiva Flow Log device (PFL-f data). The preliminary hydro-DFN was applied in flow simulations in order to test its performance and to explore the role of PFL-f data. Several insights were gained and a few model technical issues were raised. These are summarised in Table 5-1

  14. Tsunami Hazard in La Réunion Island (SW Indian Ocean): Scenario-Based Numerical Modelling on Vulnerable Coastal Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeyer, S.; Quentel, É.; Hébert, H.; Gailler, A.; Loevenbruck, A.

    2017-08-01

    Several major tsunamis have affected the southwest Indian Ocean area since the 2004 Sumatra event, and some of them (2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010) have hit La Réunion Island in the southwest Indian Ocean. However, tsunami hazard is not well defined for La Réunion Island where vulnerable coastlines can be exposed. This study offers a first tsunami hazard assesment for La Réunion Island. We first review the historical tsunami observations made on the coastlines, where high tsunami waves (2-3 m) have been reported on the western coast, especially during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Numerical models of historical scenarios yield results consistent with available observations on the coastal sites (the harbours of La Pointe des Galets and Saint-Paul). The 1833 Pagai earthquake and tsunami can be considered as the worst-case historical scenario for this area. In a second step, we assess the tsunami exposure by covering the major subduction zones with syntethic events of constant magnitude (8.7, 9.0 and 9.3). The aggregation of magnitude 8.7 scenarios all generate strong currents in the harbours (3-7 m s^{-1}) and about 2 m of tsunami maximum height without significant inundation. The analysis of the magnitude 9.0 events confirms that the main commercial harbour (Port Est) is more vulnerable than Port Ouest and that flooding in Saint-Paul is limited to the beach area and the river mouth. Finally, the magnitude 9.3 scenarios show limited inundations close to the beach and in the riverbed in Saint-Paul. More generally, the results confirm that for La Runion, the Sumatra subduction zone is the most threatening non-local source area for tsunami generation. This study also shows that far-field coastal sites should be prepared for tsunami hazard and that further work is needed to improve operational warning procedures. Forecast methods should be developed to provide tools to enable the authorities to anticipate the local effects of tsunamis and to evacuate the harbours in

  15. Studies on hydrogeological conditions for mineralization of some sandstone type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiming; Li Sen; Xiao Feng; Qi Daneng; Yin Jinshuang

    1996-11-01

    Based on the analysis for regional geology, structural and hydrogeological conditions of Erennaoer Depression, Erlian Basin, the hydrogeological hydraulic zoning was carried out for groundwater in the study area, structural-palaeo-hydrogeological stages and the feature of deep-seated groundwater were studied, and, two important U-mineralization periods were determined. The conditions of recharge, runoff and discharge of groundwater in ore bearing aquifers and the hydraulic mechanism were revealed by isotope hydrology and single-well tracing technique. By study of hydrogeochemistry, it is indicated that both Subeng and Nuheting U-deposit are located at the parts where groundwater characteristics intensely variate, and the ore indicators are determined. Oil and gas transportation and the relationships between groundwater and U-metallogenetic process were discussed by using of organic geochemistry method. It shows that the bleeding of oil and gas is very important for the forming of U-deposits. It is suggested that the interlayered oxidation zone type sandstone U-deposit which is suitable for in-situ leaching could be existed in the Tenggeer formation, Bayanhua group of Lower Cretaceous, accordingly, two prospecting areas are delimited. (4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  16. [Medical hydrogeology is an independent interdisciplinary branch of the science about groundwater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elpiner, L I

    The use of groundwater in population water supply systems gains more and more importance because of increasing degradation of the quality of surface water sources. At the same time there are changed concepts on ubiquitous high quality of groundwater. The executed analysis offoreign and domestic literature allowed authors to determine the character and causes of negative changes in the composition of groundwater. In the large body of investigations there were established cause-and-effect relationships between a number of noninfectious (including cardiovascular and cancer) and infectious diseases and anthropogenic pollution and the natural composition of groundwater. In the article there is substantiated the formation of a new interdisciplinary scientific direction - medical hydrogeology. On the basis of current data on the medical and ecological significance of the quality, quantity and regime of the groundwater, geological conditions of the shaping of their composition, there was shown the need of the consideration of the hydrological situation in making water supply management solutions safe for the health of the population. In this regard, there were considered the interrelationship and interdependence of allied disciplines - hygiene, ecological toxicology and epidemiology, hydrogeochemistry, hydrogeology. There was pointed the importance of the acquisition of based on hydrogeology medical specialists of the water supply profile for sharing with hygienists of the effective solution of tasks of the management of groundwater sources.

  17. The use of historical data for the characterisation of multiple damaging hydrogeological events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides, floods and secondary floods (hereinafter called phenomena triggered by rainfall and causing extensive damage are reviewed in this paper. Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHEs are defined as the occurrence of one or more simultaneous aforementioned phenomena. A method for the characterisation of DHEs based upon historic data is proposed. The method is aimed at assessing DHE-related hazard in terms of recurrence, severity, damage, and extent of the affected area. Using GIS, the DHEs historical and climatic data collection, the geomorphological and hydrogeological characterisation of the hit areas, the characterisation of induced damage, the evaluation of triggering rainfall return period and critical duration of each DHE were carried out. The approach was applied to a test site in Southern Italy (Calabria for validation purposes. A database was set up including data from 24 events which have occurred during an 80-year period. The spatial distribution of phenomena was analysed together with the return period of cumulative rainfall. The trend of the occurred phenomena was also compared with the climatic trend. Four main types of Damaging Hydrogeological Events were identified in the study area.

  18. A discussion on validation of hydrogeological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, J.; Mousavi, S.F.; Usunoff, E.J.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Galarza, G.

    1993-01-01

    Groundwater flow and solute transport are often driven by heterogeneities that elude easy identification. It is also difficult to select and describe the physico-chemical processes controlling solute behaviour. As a result, definition of a conceptual model involves numerous assumptions both on the selection of processes and on the representation of their spatial variability. Validating a numerical model by comparing its predictions with actual measurements may not be sufficient for evaluating whether or not it provides a good representation of 'reality'. Predictions will be close to measurements, regardless of model validity, if these are taken from experiments that stress well-calibrated model modes. On the other hand, predictions will be far from measurements when model parameters are very uncertain, even if the model is indeed a very good representation of the real system. Hence, we contend that 'classical' validation of hydrogeological models is not possible. Rather, models should be viewed as theories about the real system. We propose to follow a rigorous modeling approach in which different sources of uncertainty are explicitly recognized. The application of one such approach is illustrated by modeling a laboratory uranium tracer test performed on fresh granite, which was used as Test Case 1b in INTRAVAL. (author)

  19. Hydrogeologic investigations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, W.L.; Trudeau, D.A.; Drellack, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site was established in 1950 as a continental area for testing nuclear devices and, since 1963, all nuclear detonations there have been underground. Most tests are conducted in vertical shafts with a small percentage conducted in tunnels. The majority of detonation points are above the water table, primarily in volcanic rocks or alluvium. In the testing areas the water table is 450--700 m below the surface. Pre- and post- event geologic investigations are conducted for each test location and long-term studies assess the impact of underground testing on a more regional scale. Studies in progress have not identified any impact on the regional ground water system from testing, but some local effects have been recognized. In some areas where several large tests have been conducted below the water table, water levels hundreds of meters above the regional water table have been measured and radioactivity has been discovered associated with fractures in a few holes. Flow-through and straddle packer testing has revealed unexpectedly high hydraulic pressures at depth. Recently, a multiple completion monitoring well installed to study three zones has confirmed the existence of a significant upward hydraulic gradient. These observations of local pressurization and fracture flow are being further explored to determine the influence of underground nuclear testing on the regional hydrogeologic system

  20. 2101-M Pond hydrogeologic characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Bates, D.J.; Martin, W.J.

    1990-09-01

    This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory {sup (a)} at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report is the interpretation of the hydrogeologic environment at the 2101-M Pond, located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretation were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the installation of four ground-water monitoring wells, in addition to data gathered from several previously existing wells. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a groundwater monitoring program initiated in 1988. The four new monitoring wells were installed around the 2101-M Pond between May 23 and August 27, 1988. Geologic sampling, aquifer testing, and initial ground-water sampling were performed during the installation of these wells. Laboratory analyses of the sediment samples for particle size, calcium carbonate content, and selected natural and contaminant constituents were performed. A full year of quarterly ground-water sampling and the first statistical analysis of background and downgradient data have also been performed. 112 refs., 49 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. Using Age-Based Life History Data to Investigate the Life Cycle and Vulnerability of Octopus cyanea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Jade N.; Depczynski, Martial; Roberts, John D.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Gagliano, Monica; Heyward, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Octopus cyanea is taken as an unregulated, recreationally fished species from the intertidal reefs of Ningaloo, Western Australia. Yet despite its exploitation and importance in many artisanal fisheries throughout the world, little is known about its life history, ecology and vulnerability. We used stylet increment analysis to age a wild O. cyanea population for the first time and gonad histology to examine their reproductive characteristics. O. cyanea conforms to many cephalopod life history generalisations having rapid, non-asymptotic growth, a short life-span and high levels of mortality. Males were found to mature at much younger ages and sizes than females with reproductive activity concentrated in the spring and summer months. The female dominated sex-ratios in association with female brooding behaviours also suggest that larger conspicuous females may be more prone to capture and suggests that this intertidal octopus population has the potential to be negatively impacted in an unregulated fishery. Size at age and maturity comparisons between our temperate bordering population and lower latitude Tanzanian and Hawaiian populations indicated stark differences in growth rates that correlate with water temperatures. The variability in life history traits between global populations suggests that management of O. cyanea populations should be tailored to each unique set of life history characteristics and that stylet increment analysis may provide the integrity needed to accurately assess this. PMID:22912898

  2. Using age-based life history data to investigate the life cycle and vulnerability of Octopus cyanea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade N Herwig

    Full Text Available Octopus cyanea is taken as an unregulated, recreationally fished species from the intertidal reefs of Ningaloo, Western Australia. Yet despite its exploitation and importance in many artisanal fisheries throughout the world, little is known about its life history, ecology and vulnerability. We used stylet increment analysis to age a wild O. cyanea population for the first time and gonad histology to examine their reproductive characteristics. O. cyanea conforms to many cephalopod life history generalisations having rapid, non-asymptotic growth, a short life-span and high levels of mortality. Males were found to mature at much younger ages and sizes than females with reproductive activity concentrated in the spring and summer months. The female dominated sex-ratios in association with female brooding behaviours also suggest that larger conspicuous females may be more prone to capture and suggests that this intertidal octopus population has the potential to be negatively impacted in an unregulated fishery. Size at age and maturity comparisons between our temperate bordering population and lower latitude Tanzanian and Hawaiian populations indicated stark differences in growth rates that correlate with water temperatures. The variability in life history traits between global populations suggests that management of O. cyanea populations should be tailored to each unique set of life history characteristics and that stylet increment analysis may provide the integrity needed to accurately assess this.

  3. A Bayesian Markov geostatistical model for estimation of hydrogeological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, L.; Gustafson, G.

    1996-01-01

    A geostatistical methodology based on Markov-chain analysis and Bayesian statistics was developed for probability estimations of hydrogeological and geological properties in the siting process of a nuclear waste repository. The probability estimates have practical use in decision-making on issues such as siting, investigation programs, and construction design. The methodology is nonparametric which makes it possible to handle information that does not exhibit standard statistical distributions, as is often the case for classified information. Data do not need to meet the requirements on additivity and normality as with the geostatistical methods based on regionalized variable theory, e.g., kriging. The methodology also has a formal way for incorporating professional judgments through the use of Bayesian statistics, which allows for updating of prior estimates to posterior probabilities each time new information becomes available. A Bayesian Markov Geostatistical Model (BayMar) software was developed for implementation of the methodology in two and three dimensions. This paper gives (1) a theoretical description of the Bayesian Markov Geostatistical Model; (2) a short description of the BayMar software; and (3) an example of application of the model for estimating the suitability for repository establishment with respect to the three parameters of lithology, hydraulic conductivity, and rock quality designation index (RQD) at 400--500 meters below ground surface in an area around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in southeastern Sweden

  4. 1C software vulnerabilities description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the vulnerability of the application solution based on the “1C: Enterprise 8” platform, which can be used by only built-in tools of the platform. Possible threats and attack algorithm are described.

  5. VULNERABILITY OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARMEAN ANDREEA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In present, the study of vulnerability of companies is increasing in every field due to the unstable economic environment influences. The object of this research is to define and identify vulnerabilities of companies and the establishment of evaluation methods at their level. This article emphasizes the importance and usefulness of one of the best known model in this way, from our point of view, namely Băileşteanu, Negrila Pattern. This pattern covers both external factors and internal ones, that increase vulnerabilities of companies, and fit the companies in which the state of vulnerability are (vitality, viability, vulnerability, high vulnerability, difficulty and high difficulty, with a matrix. The result of the research is that any company belonging to any field, can be analyzed using this model, and assigned to one of the conditions defined within.

  6. Incremental Risk Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Günter Franke; Richard C. Stapleton; Marti G. Subrahmanyam

    2005-01-01

    We present a necessary and sufficient condition on an agent's utility function for a simple mean preserving spread in an independent background risk to increase the agent's risk aversion (incremental risk vulnerability). Gollier and Pratt (1996) have shown that declining and convex risk aversion as well as standard risk aversion are sufficient for risk vulnerability. We show that these conditions are also sufficient for incremental risk vulnerability. In addition, we present sufficient condit...

  7. Hydrogeologic framework and groundwater conditions of the Ararat Basin in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Carter, Janet M.; Medler, Colton J.; Thompson, Ryan F.; Anderson, Mark T.

    2018-01-17

    Armenia is a landlocked country located in the mountainous Caucasus region between Asia and Europe. It shares borders with the countries of Georgia on the north, Azerbaijan on the east, Iran on the south, and Turkey and Azerbaijan on the west. The Ararat Basin is a transboundary basin in Armenia and Turkey. The Ararat Basin (or Ararat Valley) is an intermountain depression that contains the Aras River and its tributaries, which also form the border between Armenia and Turkey and divide the basin into northern and southern regions. The Ararat Basin also contains Armenia’s largest agricultural and fish farming zone that is supplied by high-quality water from wells completed in the artesian aquifers that underlie the basin. Groundwater constitutes about 40 percent of all water use, and groundwater provides 96 percent of the water used for drinking purposes in Armenia. Since 2000, groundwater withdrawals and consumption in the Ararat Basin of Armenia have increased because of the growth of aquaculture and other uses. Increased groundwater withdrawals caused decreased springflow, reduced well discharges, falling water levels, and a reduction of the number of flowing artesian wells in the southern part of Ararat Basin in Armenia.In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) began a cooperative study in Armenia to share science and field techniques to increase the country’s capabilities for groundwater study and modeling. The purpose of this report is to describe the hydrogeologic framework and groundwater conditions of the Ararat Basin in Armenia based on data collected in 2016 and previous hydrogeologic studies. The study area includes the Ararat Basin in Armenia. This report was completed through a partnership with USAID/Armenia in the implementation of its Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships effort through the Advanced Science and Partnerships for Integrated Resource Development program and associated

  8. Groundwater Vulnerability Regions of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions onThis map represent areas with similar hydrogeologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  9. Quality of life as a vulnerability and recovery factor in eating disorders: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchison, Deborah; Dawson, Lisa; Hand, Lucy; Mond, Jonathan; Hay, Phillipa

    2016-10-11

    Emerging evidence suggests that changes in quality of life (QoL) predicts later changes in eating disorder (ED) symptoms. The objective of this study was to explore individual sufferers' perspectives on the influence of QoL on the onset, maintenance, and/or remission of ED symptoms. 19 women from the community with a history of eating disorders (n = 13 currently symptomatic; n = 6 recovered) were interviewed about their observations on the relationship between QoL and ED symptoms over time in their own lives. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed, and then thematically analysed. Thematic analysis uncovered two major themes: 1. QoL as a Vulnerability Factor, and 2. QoL as a Recovery Factor. In relation to the first theme, onset of ED symptoms was discussed by women in this study as having been triggered by impairment in QoL, including a general sense of lacking control in life, stress, abusive intimate relationships, poor role modelling from family, physical impairment related to obesity, peer pressure, and weight-related teasing. On the other hand, and in relation to the second theme, subsequent improvement in QoL was nominated as central to symptom improvement and recovery. QoL improvement was described by participants differently, but included increased general satisfaction in life, emotional maturation, prioritising and improving physical health, the development of a supportive intimate relationship and social relationships, and having children. Impairment in QoL may act as a trigger for the onset and maintenance of ED symptoms, whereas improvement in QoL may be central to eating disorder improvement and eventual recovery. Treatment should involve consideration of a core focus on QoL improvement as a potential 'backdoor' approach to improving ED symptoms.

  10. A direct vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque elasticity reconstruction method based on an original material-finite element formulation: theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier, Adeline; Deleaval, Flavien; Doyley, Marvin M.; Yazdani, Saami K.; Finet, Gérard; Le Floc'h, Simon; Cloutier, Guy; Pettigrew, Roderic I.; Ohayon, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    The peak cap stress (PCS) amplitude is recognized as a biomechanical predictor of vulnerable plaque (VP) rupture. However, quantifying PCS in vivo remains a challenge since the stress depends on the plaque mechanical properties. In response, an iterative material finite element (FE) elasticity reconstruction method using strain measurements has been implemented for the solution of these inverse problems. Although this approach could resolve the mechanical characterization of VPs, it suffers from major limitations since (i) it is not adapted to characterize VPs exhibiting high material discontinuities between inclusions, and (ii) does not permit real time elasticity reconstruction for clinical use. The present theoretical study was therefore designed to develop a direct material-FE algorithm for elasticity reconstruction problems which accounts for material heterogeneities. We originally modified and adapted the extended FE method (Xfem), used mainly in crack analysis, to model material heterogeneities. This new algorithm was successfully applied to six coronary lesions of patients imaged in vivo with intravascular ultrasound. The results demonstrated that the mean relative absolute errors of the reconstructed Young's moduli obtained for the arterial wall, fibrosis, necrotic core, and calcified regions of the VPs decreased from 95.3±15.56%, 98.85±72.42%, 103.29±111.86% and 95.3±10.49%, respectively, to values smaller than 2.6 × 10-8±5.7 × 10-8% (i.e. close to the exact solutions) when including modified-Xfem method into our direct elasticity reconstruction method.

  11. Quality of life as a vulnerability and recovery factor in eating disorders: a community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Mitchison

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging evidence suggests that changes in quality of life (QoL predicts later changes in eating disorder (ED symptoms. The objective of this study was to explore individual sufferers’ perspectives on the influence of QoL on the onset, maintenance, and/or remission of ED symptoms. Method 19 women from the community with a history of eating disorders (n = 13 currently symptomatic; n = 6 recovered were interviewed about their observations on the relationship between QoL and ED symptoms over time in their own lives. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed, and then thematically analysed. Results Thematic analysis uncovered two major themes: 1. QoL as a Vulnerability Factor, and 2. QoL as a Recovery Factor. In relation to the first theme, onset of ED symptoms was discussed by women in this study as having been triggered by impairment in QoL, including a general sense of lacking control in life, stress, abusive intimate relationships, poor role modelling from family, physical impairment related to obesity, peer pressure, and weight-related teasing. On the other hand, and in relation to the second theme, subsequent improvement in QoL was nominated as central to symptom improvement and recovery. QoL improvement was described by participants differently, but included increased general satisfaction in life, emotional maturation, prioritising and improving physical health, the development of a supportive intimate relationship and social relationships, and having children. Conclusions Impairment in QoL may act as a trigger for the onset and maintenance of ED symptoms, whereas improvement in QoL may be central to eating disorder improvement and eventual recovery. Treatment should involve consideration of a core focus on QoL improvement as a potential ‘backdoor’ approach to improving ED symptoms.

  12. Geologic Setting and Hydrogeologic Units of the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Sue C.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Morgan, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System (CPRAS) covers approximately 44,000 square miles of northeastern Oregon, southeastern Washington, and western Idaho. The area supports a $6 billion per year agricultural industry, leading the Nation in production of apples and nine other commodities (State of Washington Office of Financial Management, 2007; U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2007). Groundwater availability in the aquifers of the area is a critical water-resource management issue because the water demand for agriculture, economic development, and ecological needs is high. The primary aquifers of the CPRAS are basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) and overlying basin-fill sediments. Water-resources issues that have implications for future groundwater availability in the region include (1) widespread water-level declines associated with development of groundwater resources for irrigation and other uses, (2) reduction in base flow to rivers and associated effects on temperature and water quality, and (3) current and anticipated effects of global climate change on recharge, base flow, and ultimately, groundwater availability. As part of a National Groundwater Resources Program, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study of the CPRAS in 2007 with the broad goals of (1) characterizing the hydrologic status of the system, (2) identifying trends in groundwater storage and use, and (3) quantifying groundwater availability. The study approach includes documenting changes in the status of the system, quantifying the hydrologic budget for the system, updating the regional hydrogeologic framework, and developing a groundwater-flow simulation model for the system. The simulation model will be used to evaluate and test the conceptual model of the system and later to evaluate groundwater availability under alternative development and climate scenarios. The objectives of this study were to update the hydrogeologic framework for the CPRAS using the available

  13. Hydrogeological Framework Model for Dhaka Regional Groundwater Flow System (DGFS), Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Abm; Marandi, Andres; Schüth, Christoph; Ribbe, Lars

    2017-04-01

    The hydrogeology of the Dhaka Regional Groundwater Flow System (DGFS) is located in central Bangladesh, consisting of sediment accumulates from the Ganges and Brahmaputra Meghna (GBM) river systems. The DGFS system is stratigraphically and structurally complex and subjected to a variety of structural disruption. These sediment deposits form a complex, three-dimensional (3D) framework that can be subdivided into aquifers and confining units on the basis of their ability to store and transmit water. The aquifer systems in this region are geologically controlled and depend on the sedimentary characteristics of the depositional environment and related parameters. More than 20 years of ground-water flow modeling of the DGFS has produced a succession of models that represent the regional hydrogeology and groundwater flow system. However, incorporation of a geologic framework in the models with different geologic data sets or subsurface interpretation is often missing. Therefore, such incorporation of geological and sedimentological information within the modeling framework could increase model calibration. The separate geological structure of the Dhaka region is studied yet detailed spatial and depth variables of geological and sedimentological information is still not evident in the hydrogeological framework. In this background, the objective of the paper is therefore to incorporate the geological information into the hydrogeological framework model and advance the approach of hydrogeology for the DGFS. We have used the concept of the Hydrogeologic Unit (HGU) - the sediment and deposits formation of the hydrostratigraphic framework for a groundwater flow system. The quaternary sedimentation processes of DGFS were subdivided into different cycles based on sea-level changes and Carbon-14 dating. The subdivisions are called 1a, 1b, 2 and 3 which correspond to high stand fluvial sequences (10-0 ka BP), Transgressive Tract/ low stand (20-10 ka BP), pre lows stand deposits

  14. Integrating advanced 3D Mapping into Improved Hydrogeologic Frameworks, a Future path for Groundwater Modeling? Results from Western Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannia, J. C.; Abraham, J. D.; Peterson, S. M.; Sibray, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to provide an innovative, advanced 3 dimensional hydrogeologic framework which was used in a groundwater model designed to test water management scenarios. Principal aquifers for the area mostly consist of Quaternary alluvium and Tertiary-age fluvial sediments which are heavily used for irrigation, municipal and environmental uses. This strategy used airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys, validated through sensitivity analysis of geophysical and geological ground truth to provide new geologic interpretation to characterize the hydrogeologic framework in the area. The base of aquifer created through this work leads to new interpretations of saturated thickness and groundwater connectivity to the surface water system. The current version of the groundwater model which uses the advanced hydrogeologic framework shows a distinct change in flow path orientation, timing and amount of base flow to the streams of the area. Ongoing efforts for development of the hydrogeologic framework development include subdivision of the aquifers into new hydrostratigraphic units based on analysis of geophysical and lithologic characteristics which will be incorporated into future groundwater models. The hydrostratigraphic units are further enhanced by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements to characterize aquifers. NMR measures the free water in the aquifer in situ allowing for a determination of hydraulic conductivity. NMR hydraulic conductivity values will be mapped to the hydrostratigraphic units, which in turn are incorporated into the latest versions of the groundwater model. The addition of innovative, advanced 3 dimensional hydrogeologic frameworks, which incorporates AEM and NMR, for groundwater modeling, has a definite advantage over traditional frameworks. These groundwater models represent the natural system at a level of reality not achievable by other methods, which lead to greater confidence in the

  15. Modern and Unconventional Approaches to Karst Hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukop, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Karst hydrogeology is frequently approached from a hydrograph/statistical perspective where precipitation/recharge inputs are converted to output hydrographs and the conversion process reflects the hydrology of the system. Karst catchments show hydrological response to short-term meteorological events and to long-term variation of large-scale atmospheric circulation. Modern approaches to analysis of these data include, for example, multiresolution wavelet techniques applied to understand relations between karst discharge and climate fields. Much less effort has been directed towards direct simulation of flow fields and transport phenomena in karst settings. This is primarily due to the lack of information on the detailed physical geometry of most karst systems. New mapping, sampling, and modeling techniques are beginning to enable direct simulation of flow and transport. A Conduit Flow Process (CFP) add-on to the USGS ModFlow model became available in 2007. FEFLOW and similar models are able to represent flows in individual conduits. Lattice Boltzmann models have also been applied to flow modeling in karst systems. Regarding quantitative measurement of karst system geometry, at scales to 0.1 m, X-ray computed tomography enables good detection of detailed (sub-millimeter) pore space in karstic rocks. Three-dimensional printing allows reconstruction of fragile high porosity rocks, and surrogate samples generated this way can then be subjected to laboratory testing. Borehole scales can be accessed with high-resolution ( 0.001 m) Digital Optical Borehole Imaging technologies and can provide virtual samples more representative of the true nature of karst aquifers than can obtained from coring. Subsequent extrapolation of such samples can generate three-dimensional models suitable for direct modeling of flow and transport. Finally, new cave mapping techniques are beginning to provide information than can be applied to direct simulation of flow. Due to flow rates and cave

  16. Predictability of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems; geological disposal of nuclear waste in crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, W.M.; Diodato, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Confidence in long-term geologic isolation of high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel requires confidence in predictions of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems. Prediction of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems is based on scientific understanding of those systems in the present - an understanding that can be tested with data from the past. Crystalline rock settings that have been geologically stable for millions of years and longer offer the potential of predictable, long-term waste isolation. Confidence in predictions of geologic isolation of radioactive waste can measured by evaluating the extent to which those predictions and their underlying analyses are consistent with multiple independent lines of evidence identified in the geologic system being analysed, as well as with evidence identified in analogs to that geologic system. The proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, United States, differs in significant ways from potential repository sites being considered by other nations. Nonetheless, observations of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems of Yucca Mountain and Yucca Mountain analogs present multiple independent lines of evidence that can be used in evaluating long-term predictions of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems at Yucca Mountain. (authors)

  17. Stepwise hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analysis on site scale (The former part of the step 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoe, Hironori; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Endo, Yoshinobu

    2005-07-01

    One of the main goals of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment. To achieve this goal, a variety of investigations are being conducted using an iterative approach. In this study, hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analyses have been carried out using the data from surface-based investigations at the former part of Step 3 (deep borehole investigations without vertical seismic profiling investigations), in order to synthesize the investigation results, to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrogeological model, and to specify items for further investigation. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) The uncertainty of hydrogeological model of the site scale is decreased as stepwise research; 2) Borehole investigations combined with hydraulic monitoring are useful for decreasing the uncertainty of hydrogeological model; The main items specified for further investigations are summarized as follows: 1) Trend, length, and hydraulic parameters of faults confirmed in the MIU construction site; 2) Shape of boundary of geological layer, and hydraulic parameters of rock; 3) Hydraulic head distribution of deep underground. (author)

  18. Methodology for deriving hydrogeological input parameters for safety-analysis models - application to fractured crystalline rocks of Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vomvoris, S.; Andrews, R.W.; Lanyon, G.W.; Voborny, O.; Wilson, W.

    1996-04-01

    Switzerland is one of many nations with nuclear power that is seeking to identify rock types and locations that would be suitable for the underground disposal of nuclear waste. A common challenge among these programs is to provide engineering designers and safety analysts with a reasonably representative hydrogeological input dataset that synthesizes the relevant information from direct field observations as well as inferences and model results derived from those observations. Needed are estimates of the volumetric flux through a volume of rock and the distribution of that flux into discrete pathways between the repository zones and the biosphere. These fluxes are not directly measurable but must be derived based on understandings of the range of plausible hydrogeologic conditions expected at the location investigated. The methodology described in this report utilizes conceptual and numerical models at various scales to derive the input dataset. The methodology incorporates an innovative approach, called the geometric approach, in which field observations and their associated uncertainty, together with a conceptual representation of those features that most significantly affect the groundwater flow regime, were rigorously applied to generate alternative possible realizations of hydrogeologic features in the geosphere. In this approach, the ranges in the output values directly reflect uncertainties in the input values. As a demonstration, the methodology is applied to the derivation of the hydrogeological dataset for the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  19. Insights and participatory actions driven by a socio-hydrogeological approach for groundwater management: the Grombalia Basin case study (Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, C.; Re, V.; Siciliano, G.; Chkir, N.; Tuci, C.; Zouari, K.

    2017-08-01

    Sustainable groundwater management strategies in water-scarce countries need to guide future decision-making processes pragmatically, by simultaneously considering local needs, environmental problems and economic development. The socio-hydrogeological approach named `Bir Al-Nas' has been tested in the Grombalia region (Cap Bon Peninsula, Tunisia), to evaluate the effectiveness of complementing hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological investigations with the social dimension of the issue at stake (which, in this case, is the identification of groundwater pollution sources). Within this approach, the social appraisal, performed through social network analysis and public engagement of water end-users, allowed hydrogeologists to get acquainted with the institutional dimension of local groundwater management, identifying issues, potential gaps (such as weak knowledge transfer among concerned stakeholders), and the key actors likely to support the implementation of the new science-based management practices resulting from the ongoing hydrogeological investigation. Results, hence, go beyond the specific relevance for the Grombaila basin, showing the effectiveness of the proposed approach and the importance of including social assessment in any given hydrogeological research aimed at supporting local development through groundwater protection measures.

  20. Hydrogeologic Framework Model for the Saturated Zone Site Scale flow and Transport Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the 19-unit, hydrogeologic framework model (19-layer version, output of this report) (HFM-19) with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. The HFM-19 is developed as a conceptual model of the geometric extent of the hydrogeologic units at Yucca Mountain and is intended specifically for use in the development of the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Primary inputs to this model report include the GFM 3.1 (DTN: MO9901MWDGFM31.000 [DIRS 103769]), borehole lithologic logs, geologic maps, geologic cross sections, water level data, topographic information, and geophysical data as discussed in Section 4.1. Figure 1-1 shows the information flow among all of the saturated zone (SZ) reports and the relationship of this conceptual model in that flow. The HFM-19 is a three-dimensional (3-D) representation of the hydrogeologic units surrounding the location of the Yucca Mountain geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The HFM-19 represents the hydrogeologic setting for the Yucca Mountain area that covers about 1,350 km2 and includes a saturated thickness of about 2.75 km. The boundaries of the conceptual model were primarily chosen to be coincident with grid cells in the Death Valley regional groundwater flow model (DTN: GS960808312144.003 [DIRS 105121]) such that the base of the site-scale SZ flow model is consistent with the base of the regional model (2,750 meters below a smoothed version of the potentiometric surface), encompasses the exploratory boreholes, and provides a framework over the area of interest for groundwater flow and radionuclide transport modeling. In depth, the model domain extends from land surface to the base of the regional groundwater flow model (D'Agnese et al. 1997 [DIRS 100131], p 2). For the site-scale SZ flow model, the HFM

  1. Hydrogeologic Framework Model for the Saturated Zone Site Scale flow and Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Miller

    2004-11-15

    The purpose of this report is to document the 19-unit, hydrogeologic framework model (19-layer version, output of this report) (HFM-19) with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. The HFM-19 is developed as a conceptual model of the geometric extent of the hydrogeologic units at Yucca Mountain and is intended specifically for use in the development of the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Primary inputs to this model report include the GFM 3.1 (DTN: MO9901MWDGFM31.000 [DIRS 103769]), borehole lithologic logs, geologic maps, geologic cross sections, water level data, topographic information, and geophysical data as discussed in Section 4.1. Figure 1-1 shows the information flow among all of the saturated zone (SZ) reports and the relationship of this conceptual model in that flow. The HFM-19 is a three-dimensional (3-D) representation of the hydrogeologic units surrounding the location of the Yucca Mountain geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The HFM-19 represents the hydrogeologic setting for the Yucca Mountain area that covers about 1,350 km2 and includes a saturated thickness of about 2.75 km. The boundaries of the conceptual model were primarily chosen to be coincident with grid cells in the Death Valley regional groundwater flow model (DTN: GS960808312144.003 [DIRS 105121]) such that the base of the site-scale SZ flow model is consistent with the base of the regional model (2,750 meters below a smoothed version of the potentiometric surface), encompasses the exploratory boreholes, and provides a framework over the area of interest for groundwater flow and radionuclide transport modeling. In depth, the model domain extends from land surface to the base of the regional groundwater flow model (D'Agnese et al. 1997 [DIRS 100131], p 2). For the site

  2. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

    2012-06-01

    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

  3. Assessing forest vulnerability to climate warming using a process-based model of tree growth: bad prospects for rear-edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Camarero, Jesus Julio; Gutiérrez, Emilia; González Rouco, Fidel; Gazol, Antonio; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Linares, Juan Carlos; Seftigen, Kristina

    2017-07-01

    Growth models can be used to assess forest vulnerability to climate warming. If global warming amplifies water deficit in drought-prone areas, tree populations located at the driest and southernmost distribution limits (rear-edges) should be particularly threatened. Here, we address these statements by analyzing and projecting growth responses to climate of three major tree species (silver fir, Abies alba; Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris; and mountain pine, Pinus uncinata) in mountainous areas of NE Spain. This region is subjected to Mediterranean continental conditions, it encompasses wide climatic, topographic and environmental gradients, and, more importantly, it includes rear-edges of the continuous distributions of these tree species. We used tree-ring width data from a network of 110 forests in combination with the process-based Vaganov-Shashkin-Lite growth model and climate-growth analyses to forecast changes in tree growth during the 21st century. Climatic projections were based on four ensembles CO 2 emission scenarios. Warm and dry conditions during the growing season constrain silver fir and Scots pine growth, particularly at the species rear-edge. By contrast, growth of high-elevation mountain pine forests is enhanced by climate warming. The emission scenario (RCP 8.5) corresponding to the most pronounced warming (+1.4 to 4.8 °C) forecasted mean growth reductions of -10.7% and -16.4% in silver fir and Scots pine, respectively, after 2050. This indicates that rising temperatures could amplify drought stress and thus constrain the growth of silver fir and Scots pine rear-edge populations growing at xeric sites. Contrastingly, mountain pine growth is expected to increase by +12.5% due to a longer and warmer growing season. The projections of growth reduction in silver fir and Scots pine portend dieback and a contraction of their species distribution areas through potential local extinctions of the most vulnerable driest rear-edge stands. Our modeling

  4. The geology and hydrogeology of Sellafield: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplow, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Nirex is responsible for providing and managing a national facility for solid intermediate-level and low-level radioactive waste. Geological and hydrogeological investigations have been in progress at Sellafield in west Cumbria since 1989 aimed at determining whether or not the site is suitable for such a deep repository. Geological investigations have included the drilling of 20 deep boreholes with over 20 000 metres of drilling, together with almost 2000 line kilometres of seismic surveys and over 8000 line kilometres of airborne geophysical surveys. Hydrogeological testing and groundwater sampling and testing have provided additional information on the ground conditions at the site. (author)

  5. Multiple perspective vulnerability analysis of the power network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuliang; Zhang, Jianhua; Duan, Na

    2018-02-01

    To understand the vulnerability of the power network from multiple perspectives, multi-angle and multi-dimensional vulnerability analysis as well as community based vulnerability analysis are proposed in this paper. Taking into account of central China power grid as an example, correlation analysis of different vulnerability models is discussed. Then, vulnerabilities produced by different vulnerability metrics under the given vulnerability models and failure scenarios are analyzed. At last, applying the community detecting approach, critical areas of central China power grid are identified, Vulnerable and robust communities on both topological and functional perspective are acquired and analyzed. The approach introduced in this paper can be used to help decision makers develop optimal protection strategies. It will be also useful to give a multiple vulnerability analysis of the other infrastructure systems.

  6. A Mamdani Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System for Improvement of Groundwater Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoubi, Belgacem; Dabbaghi, Radhia; Kharroubi, Adel

    2018-01-23

    Assessing groundwater vulnerability is an important procedure for sustainable water management. Various methods have been developed for effective assessment of groundwater vulnerability and protection. However, each method has its own conditions of use and, in practice; it is difficult to return the same results for the same site. The research conceptualized and developed an improved DRASTIC method using Mamdani Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (M-ANFIS-DRASTIC). DRASTIC and M-ANFIS-DRASTIC were applied in the Jorf aquifer, southeastern Tunisia, and results were compared. Results confirm that M-ANFIS-DRASTIC combined with geostatistical tools is more powerful, generated more precise vulnerability classes with very low estimation variance. Fuzzy logic has a power to produce more realistic aquifer vulnerability assessments and introduces new ways of modeling in hydrogeology using natural human language expressed by logic rules. © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  7. Gender vulnerabilities, spousal abuse and the incidence of HIV in Lesotho:a case for an integrative rights-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowu, 'Dejo

    2011-09-01

    The article posits that imbalances in gender relations are influencing two distinctive yet connected crises for women in Lesotho: the HIV epidemic and spousal abuse. The overarching premise is that as spousal abuse is increasingly recognised and as HIV infections spread, responses to the phenomenon do not reflect the related risks and consequences in married women's lives. This article underscores the nexus of connections between HIV and spousal abuse in Lesotho, identifying potential areas for pragmatic state-led responses. Applying a rights-based approach, it assesses women's vulnerability to each problem at the individual, societal and programmatic levels, noting that there are both direct and underlying factors heightening risks for women. The article asks, what is the value added by a rights-based approach to the subject under discourse? And, how can a rights-based approach be translated into practical tools for planning, monitoring and evaluating projects and programmes aimed at tackling the multifaceted risks and challenges of HIV and spousal abuse confronting women in Lesotho? In response to these questions, the author identifies three trajectories of opportunities for an integrated, comprehensive response. The unmistakable anchor of the article's propositions is the rights-based approach. Although the discussion focuses on Lesotho, the implications for the broader African region cannot be overemphasised in light of commonly shared experiences pertaining to the severe difficulties posed by spousal abuse and HIV.

  8. Analyzing cloud base at local and regional scales to understand tropical montane cloud forest vulnerability to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Van Beusekom

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The degree to which cloud immersion provides water in addition to rainfall, suppresses transpiration, and sustains tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs during rainless periods is not well understood. Climate and land use changes represent a threat to these forests if cloud base altitude rises as a result of regional warming or deforestation. To establish a baseline for quantifying future changes in cloud base, we installed a ceilometer at 100 m altitude in the forest upwind of the TMCF that occupies an altitude range from ∼ 600 m to the peaks at 1100 m in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico. Airport Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS ceilometer data, radiosonde data, and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO satellite data were obtained to investigate seasonal cloud base dynamics, altitude of the trade-wind inversion (TWI, and typical cloud thickness for the surrounding Caribbean region. Cloud base is rarely quantified near mountains, so these results represent a first look at seasonal and diurnal cloud base dynamics for the TMCF. From May 2013 to August 2016, cloud base was lowest during the midsummer dry season, and cloud bases were lower than the mountaintops as often in the winter dry season as in the wet seasons. The lowest cloud bases most frequently occurred at higher elevation than 600 m, from 740 to 964 m. The Luquillo forest low cloud base altitudes were higher than six other sites in the Caribbean by ∼ 200–600 m, highlighting the importance of site selection to measure topographic influence on cloud height. Proximity to the oceanic cloud system where shallow cumulus clouds are seasonally invariant in altitude and cover, along with local trade-wind orographic lifting and cloud formation, may explain the dry season low clouds. The results indicate that climate change threats to low-elevation TMCFs are not limited to the dry season; changes in synoptic

  9. Analyzing cloud base at local and regional scales to understand tropical montane cloud forest vulnerability to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beusekom, Ashley E.; González, Grizelle; Scholl, Martha A.

    2017-01-01

    The degree to which cloud immersion provides water in addition to rainfall, suppresses transpiration, and sustains tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) during rainless periods is not well understood. Climate and land use changes represent a threat to these forests if cloud base altitude rises as a result of regional warming or deforestation. To establish a baseline for quantifying future changes in cloud base, we installed a ceilometer at 100 m altitude in the forest upwind of the TMCF that occupies an altitude range from ∼ 600 m to the peaks at 1100 m in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico. Airport Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) ceilometer data, radiosonde data, and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite data were obtained to investigate seasonal cloud base dynamics, altitude of the trade-wind inversion (TWI), and typical cloud thickness for the surrounding Caribbean region. Cloud base is rarely quantified near mountains, so these results represent a first look at seasonal and diurnal cloud base dynamics for the TMCF. From May 2013 to August 2016, cloud base was lowest during the midsummer dry season, and cloud bases were lower than the mountaintops as often in the winter dry season as in the wet seasons. The lowest cloud bases most frequently occurred at higher elevation than 600 m, from 740 to 964 m. The Luquillo forest low cloud base altitudes were higher than six other sites in the Caribbean by ∼ 200–600 m, highlighting the importance of site selection to measure topographic influence on cloud height. Proximity to the oceanic cloud system where shallow cumulus clouds are seasonally invariant in altitude and cover, along with local trade-wind orographic lifting and cloud formation, may explain the dry season low clouds. The results indicate that climate change threats to low-elevation TMCFs are not limited to the dry season; changes in synoptic-scale weather patterns

  10. Analyzing cloud base at local and regional scales to understand tropical montane cloud forest vulnerability to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beusekom, Ashley E.; González, Grizelle; Scholl, Martha A.

    2017-06-01

    The degree to which cloud immersion provides water in addition to rainfall, suppresses transpiration, and sustains tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) during rainless periods is not well understood. Climate and land use changes represent a threat to these forests if cloud base altitude rises as a result of regional warming or deforestation. To establish a baseline for quantifying future changes in cloud base, we installed a ceilometer at 100 m altitude in the forest upwind of the TMCF that occupies an altitude range from ˜ 600 m to the peaks at 1100 m in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico. Airport Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) ceilometer data, radiosonde data, and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite data were obtained to investigate seasonal cloud base dynamics, altitude of the trade-wind inversion (TWI), and typical cloud thickness for the surrounding Caribbean region. Cloud base is rarely quantified near mountains, so these results represent a first look at seasonal and diurnal cloud base dynamics for the TMCF. From May 2013 to August 2016, cloud base was lowest during the midsummer dry season, and cloud bases were lower than the mountaintops as often in the winter dry season as in the wet seasons. The lowest cloud bases most frequently occurred at higher elevation than 600 m, from 740 to 964 m. The Luquillo forest low cloud base altitudes were higher than six other sites in the Caribbean by ˜ 200-600 m, highlighting the importance of site selection to measure topographic influence on cloud height. Proximity to the oceanic cloud system where shallow cumulus clouds are seasonally invariant in altitude and cover, along with local trade-wind orographic lifting and cloud formation, may explain the dry season low clouds. The results indicate that climate change threats to low-elevation TMCFs are not limited to the dry season; changes in synoptic-scale weather patterns that increase frequency

  11. Hydrogeology of the Azores volcanic archipelago (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J.; Coutinho, R.; Antunes, P.; Freire, P.

    2009-04-01

    the volcanic edifices slopes. The basal aquifer system is in the coastal area, presenting generally a very low hydraulic gradient. Hydrogeological surveys that have been made in the Azores archipelago points out to more than 1000 springs and wells spread all over the archipelago (950 springs and 83 drilled wells). Spring distribution is heterogeneous, with densities varying between 0.01 springs/km2 at Pico island and 0.72 springs/km2 estimated at Santa Maria. Specific capacity ranges from 1.4x10-2 to 266.7 L/sm, with a median value of 32.3 L/sm. Transmissivity also present a large range, with values ranging between 1.65x10-5 and 4.03x10-1 m2/s, and a median of 3.66x10-2 m2/s. The heterogeneous distribution shown by these values expresses the influence of the hydrogeological characteristics of volcanic terrain, resulting from syngenetic characteristics and secondary processes, like weathering. The highest values are observed in wells drilled in recent basaltic lava flows, which generally are thin and fractured, with frequent clincker levels interbedded, and the lowest data was estimated in the older volcanic formations of Santa Maria island. Groundwater on perched-water bodies, excluding the numerous mineral waters that are spread in several islands of the archipelago, present usually a low mineralization, shown by the electrical conductivity values (36-725 S/cm; median=158.0 S/cm). The average temperature is equal to 15°C. Waters have an average temperature of 15°C and are mainly slightly acid to slightly alkaline, with a pH range from 4.7 to 8.6, but showing a median value of 7.2. The main water types are Na-Cl to Na-HCO3 waters, with numerous samples lying in the intermediate compositional fields that characterize Na-Cl-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl waters. The groundwater composition in the basal aquifer system is usually from the Na-Cl type and presents a higher mineralization, resulting in a median value for electrical conductivity equal to 1044 S/cm, expressing the

  12. Preschool children with lower executive function may be more vulnerable to emotional-based eating in the absence of hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased executive function has been linked to unhealthy eating behaviors and obesity in older children and adults, however little is known about this relationship in young children. A pilot project in a research-based preschool was conducted to examine the relationships between executive function...

  13. An integrated framework for software vulnerability detection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj Kumar

    2017-07-15

    learning, self-creation, self-governance, .... process. Figure 2 presents the autonomic computing-based inte- grated framework for vulnerability detection, assessment, classification, risk analysis, mitigation and management. In.

  14. County Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This layer summarizes the social vulnerability index for populations within each county in the United States at scales 1:3m and below. It answers the question...

  15. Seismic vulnerability of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rashidinia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Occurring earthquake in Iran plateau is common due to that Iran is on seismic belt and having a large number of faults. Studying of Yazd’s vulnerability in Iranian’s seismic code earthquake is the goal of this research. In this study vulnerability of structures depending on the type of soil obtained by HAZUS method and on the basis of the vulnerability of building structures in different regions will be investigated. On the basis of structural damage, levels of damage and loss of life calculated separately for each region. The results showed that in region 1 and 2 because of population density and having most of the old buildings, they have the greatest loss of life and region 3 have a greatest financial and structural damages and it is very vulnerable.

  16. Lithostratigraphic contact – a significant site for hydrogeological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Estimating the hydrogeologic control of fractured aquifers in hard crystalline and metamorphosed rocks is challenging due to complexity in the development of secondary porosity. The present study in the. Precambrian metamorphic terrain in and around the Balarampur of Purulia district, West Bengal, India, aims to estimate ...

  17. hydrogeological caracterization and modeling of the aquifer of oued ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K. Baba-Hamed

    1 janv. 2018 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. Libraries Resource Directory. We are listed under Research Associations category. HYDROGEOLOGICAL CARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF THE AQUIFER.

  18. Synthetic Study on the Geological and Hydrogeological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the site specific properties of a study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the several geological investigations such as surface geological surveys and borehole drillings were carried out since 1997. Especially, KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to understand the further study of geological environments in 2006. As a result, the first geological model of a study area was constructed by using the results of geological investigation. The objective of this research is to construct a hydrogeological model around KURT area on the basis of the geological model. Hydrogeological data which were obtained from in-situ hydraulic tests in the 9 boreholes were estimated to accomplish the objective. And, the hydrogeological properties of the 4 geological elements in the geological model, which were the subsurface weathering zone, the log angle fracture zone, the fracture zones and the bedrock were suggested. The hydrogeological model suggested in this study will be used as input parameters to carry out the groundwater flow modeling as a next step of the site characterization around KURT area

  19. Groundwater availability as constrained by hydrogeology and environmental flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Katelyn A; Mayer, Alex S; Reeves, Howard W

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pumping from aquifers in hydraulic connection with nearby streams has the potential to cause adverse impacts by decreasing flows to levels below those necessary to maintain aquatic ecosystems. The recent passage of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact has brought attention to this issue in the Great Lakes region. In particular, the legislation requires the Great Lakes states to enact measures for limiting water withdrawals that can cause adverse ecosystem impacts. This study explores how both hydrogeologic and environmental flow limitations may constrain groundwater availability in the Great Lakes Basin. A methodology for calculating maximum allowable pumping rates is presented. Groundwater availability across the basin may be constrained by a combination of hydrogeologic yield and environmental flow limitations varying over both local and regional scales. The results are sensitive to factors such as pumping time, regional and local hydrogeology, streambed conductance, and streamflow depletion limits. Understanding how these restrictions constrain groundwater usage and which hydrogeologic characteristics and spatial variables have the most influence on potential streamflow depletions has important water resources policy and management implications. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  20. International excursion hydrogeology, Slovakia, [September 8 - 15, 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksma, R.

    1996-01-01

    This is a report of the hydrogeological excursion to Slovakia, held in the period from September 8 up to September 15, 1996. This report is a compilation of the work of the participating students, parts of the excursion guide and also information, provided by the Slovak excursion guides.

  1. a significant site for hydrogeological investigation in crystalline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Estimating the hydrogeologic control of fractured aquifers in hard crystalline and metamorphosed rocks is challenging due to complexity in the development of secondary porosity. The present study in the Precambrian metamorphic terrain in and around the Balarampur of Purulia district, West Bengal, India, aims to estimate ...

  2. Hydrogeological investigation programmes: best practice. Proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    Proof of Evidence by an expert witness is presented in support of the case by Friends of the Earth (FOE) against the proposed construction by UK Nirex Ltd of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at a site in the Sellafield area. The RCF is part of an investigation by Nirex into a suitable site for an underground repository for the disposal of radioactive waste. The objections were raised at a Planning Inquiry in 1995. Drawing on best practice in hydrogeological investigation from case studies of groundwater assessment in the UK and the Canadian nuclear waste disposal programme, the hydrogeological monitoring work undertaken to date at Sellafield is found to be inadequate in both scope and duration. The lack of adequate equilibrium hydrogeological data is significant in its implications for the RCF both in terms of the effects on local water resources and the proposed repository. It is concluded, therefore, that the construction of the RCF should be postponed pending the establishment of the equilibrium hydrogeological regime. (10 figures; 33 references). (UK)

  3. Hydrogeological research at the site of the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batsche, H.; Rauert, W.; Klarr, K.

    1980-01-01

    In connection with the storage of radioactive wastes in the abandoned Asse salt mine near Brunswick (Federal Republic of Germany), the hydrogeology of the ridge of hills of Asse has been investigated. In order to obtain as detailed information as possible on the hydrogeological conditions, a long-term investigation programme has been set up and many methods of investigation have been used. Hydrogeological boring operations resulted in important scientific findings regarding, for example, the course of the salt table and the main anhydrite which towers up above the salt table into the overlying collapsed rocks. Hydrochemical data showed the hydraulic effect of transverse faults. Isotopic hydrological measurements permitted distinction between the flow behaviour of the groundwater in different aquifers. The origin of the salt springs at the northwest end of the structure can be explained. Some additional pumping and labelling tests are expected to yield quantitative results concerning hydraulic interrelationships recognized to date. The very complex hydrogeological structure of the ridge of hills of Asse is the result of the multiple succession of permeable and impermeable layers on the flanks of the structure, and, furthermore, is possibly due to the fact that in some individual faults groundwater may seep through normally impermeable layers as well as via waterways at the salt table. (author)

  4. Lithostratigraphic contact – a significant site for hydrogeological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Estimating the hydrogeologic control of fractured aquifers in hard crystalline and metamorphosed rocks is challenging due to complexity in the ... constant and electrical resistivity on either side of the lithological contacts differ significantly. .... g13, etc., where 'g' corresponds to the grid, the first numerical in the subscript ...

  5. Lithostratigraphic contact–a significant site for hydrogeological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Estimating the hydrogeologic control of fractured aquifers in hard crystalline and metamorphosed rocks is challenging due to complexity in the development of secondary porosity. The present study in the Precambrian metamorphic terrain in and around the Balarampur of Purulia district, West Bengal, India, aims to estimate ...

  6. Uruguay Hydrogeological map scale 1/1.000.000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzen, W.; Carrion, R.; Massa, E.; Pena, S.; Stapff, M.

    2003-06-01

    Between the main items the Uruguayan Hydrogeological map show us: aquifers productivity, geographical references, well information, depth, level, caudal, dry waste, from Hydrologic unit cuaternario differenced, Villa Soriano, Chuy, Raigon, Salto, Cretacico Superior, Tacuarembo, Las Arenas, Del Terciario, Cretacico Superior, Tres Islas, Cerrezuelo, Arapey, Neoproterozoico, Paleoproterozoico. It shows a brief map about Guarani Aquifer

  7. Subsoil Characteristics and Hydrogeology of the Export Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The subsoil characterization and hydrogeological investigation of the Export Processing Zone (EPZ), Calabar Southeastern Nigeria was undertaken using geotechnical analysis of soils and water level monitoring. Geotechnical analysis of soils in the EPZ show that the grain size range from poorly graded (well sorted) to well ...

  8. Development of hydrogeological modelling approaches for assessment of consequences of hazardous accidents at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumynin, V.G.; Mironenko, V.A.; Konosavsky, P.K.; Pereverzeva, S.A.

    1994-07-01

    This paper introduces some modeling approaches for predicting the influence of hazardous accidents at nuclear reactors on groundwater quality. Possible pathways for radioactive releases from nuclear power plants were considered to conceptualize boundary conditions for solving the subsurface radionuclides transport problems. Some approaches to incorporate physical-and-chemical interactions into transport simulators have been developed. The hydrogeological forecasts were based on numerical and semi-analytical scale-dependent models. They have been applied to assess the possible impact of the nuclear power plants designed in Russia on groundwater reservoirs

  9. Selective vulnerability in brain hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis......Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis...

  10. Groundwater Vulnerability Map for South Africa | Musekiwa | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vulnerability of groundwater is a relative, non-measurable and dimensionless property which is based on the concept that some land areas are more vulnerable to groundwater contamination than others. Maps showing groundwater vulnerability assist with the identification of areas more susceptible to contamination than ...

  11. Geophysical Characterization of Serpentinite Hosted Hydrogeology at the McLaughlin Natural Reserve, Coast Range Ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Estefania; Tominaga, Masako; Cardace, Dawn; Schrenk, Matthew O.; Hoehler, Tori M.; Kubo, Michael D.; Rucker, Dale F.

    2018-01-01

    Geophysical remote sensing both on land and at sea has emerged as a powerful approach to characterize in situ water-rock interaction processes in time and space. We conducted 2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) surveys to investigate in situ hydrogeological architecture within the Jurassic age tectonic mélange portion of the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO) during wet and dry seasons, where water-rock interactive processes are thought to facilitate a subsurface biosphere. Integrating survey tracks traversing two previously drilled wells, QV1,1 and CSW1,1 at the CROMO site with wireline and core data, and the Serpentine Valley site, we successfully documented changes in hydrogeologic properties in the CROMO formation, i.e., lateral and vertical distribution of conductive zones and their temporal behavior that are dependent upon seasonal hydrology. Based on the core-log-ERT integration, we propose a hydrogeological architectural model, in which the formation is composed of three distinct aquifer systems: perched serpentinite aquifer without seasonal dependency (shallow system), well-cemented serpentine confining beds with seasonal dependency (intermediate system), serpentinite aquifer (deep system), and the ultramafic basement that acts as a quasi-aquiclude (below the deep system). The stunning contrast between the seasonality in the surface water availability and groundwater storativity in the formation allowed us to locate zones where serpentinite weathering and possibly deeper serpentinization processes might have taken place. We based our findings primarily on lithological composition and the distribution of the conductive formation, our work highlights the link between serpentinite weathering processes and possible sources of water in time and space.

  12. EARTHQUAKE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR HOSPITAL BUILDINGS USING A GIS-BASED GROUP MULTI CRITERIA DECISION MAKING APPROACH: A CASE STUDY OF TEHRAN, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Delavar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, urban areas are threatened by a number of natural hazards such as flood, landslide and earthquake. They can cause huge damages to buildings and human beings which necessitates disaster mitigation and preparation. One of the most important steps in disaster management is to understand all impacts and effects of disaster on urban facilities. Given that hospitals take care of vulnerable people reaction of hospital buildings against earthquake is vital. In this research, the vulnerability of hospital buildings against earthquake is analysed. The vulnerability of buildings is related to a number of criteria including age of building, number of floors, the quality of materials and intensity of the earthquake. Therefore, the problem of seismic vulnerability assessment is a multi-criteria assessment problem and multi criteria decision making methods can be used to address the problem. In this paper a group multi criteria decision making model is applied because using only one expert’s judgments can cause biased vulnerability maps. Sugeno integral which is able to take into account the interaction among criteria is employed to assess the vulnerability degree of buildings. Fuzzy capacities which are similar to layer weights in weighted linear averaging operator are calculated using particle swarm optimization. Then, calculated fuzzy capacities are included into the model to compute a vulnerability degree for each hospital.

  13. Hydrologic Scenario Uncertainty in a Comprehensive Assessment of Hydrogeologic Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, T. J.; Meyer, P. D.; Ye, M.; Neuman, S. P.

    2005-12-01

    A method to jointly assess hydrogeologic conceptual model and parameter uncertainties has recently been developed based on a Maximum Likelihood implementation of Bayesian Model Averaging (MLBMA). Evidence from groundwater model post-audits suggests that errors in the projected future hydrologic conditions of a site (hydrologic scenarios) are a significant source of model predictive errors. MLBMA can be extended to include hydrologic scenario uncertainty, along with conceptual model and parameter uncertainties, in a systematic and quantitative assessment of predictive uncertainty. Like conceptual model uncertainty, scenario uncertainty is represented by a discrete set of alternative scenarios. The effect of scenario uncertainty on model predictions is quantitatively assessed by conducting an MLBMA analysis under each scenario. We demonstrate that posterior model probability is a function of the scenario only through the possible dependence of prior model probabilities on the scenario. As a result, the model likelihoods (computed from calibration results), are not a function of the scenario and do not need to be recomputed under each scenario. MLBMA results for each scenario are weighted by the scenario probability and combined to render a joint assessment of scenario, conceptual model, and parameter uncertainty. Like model probability, scenario probability represents a subjective evaluation, in this case of the plausibility of the occurrence of the specific scenario. Because the scenarios describe future conditions, the scenario probabilities represent prior estimates and cannot be updated using the (past) system state data as is used to compute posterior model probabilities. Assessment of hydrologic scenario uncertainty is illustrated using a site-specific application considering future changes in land use, dam operations, and climate. Estimation of scenario probabilities and consideration of scenario characteristics (e.g., timing, magnitude) are discussed.

  14. Vulnerability of coastal ecosystems to changes in harmful algal bloom distribution in response to climate change: projections based on model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glibert, Patricia M; Icarus Allen, J; Artioli, Yuri; Beusen, Arthur; Bouwman, Lex; Harle, James; Holmes, Robert; Holt, Jason

    2014-12-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs), those proliferations of algae that can cause fish kills, contaminate seafood with toxins, form unsightly scums, or detrimentally alter ecosystem function have been increasing in frequency, magnitude, and duration worldwide. Here, using a global modeling approach, we show, for three regions of the globe, the potential effects of nutrient loading and climate change for two HAB genera, pelagic Prorocentrum and Karenia, each with differing physiological characteristics for growth. The projections (end of century, 2090-2100) are based on climate change resulting from the A1B scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Institut Pierre Simon Laplace Climate Model (IPCC, IPSL-CM4), applied in a coupled oceanographic-biogeochemical model, combined with a suite of assumed physiological 'rules' for genera-specific bloom development. Based on these models, an expansion in area and/or number of months annually conducive to development of these HABs along the NW European Shelf-Baltic Sea system and NE Asia was projected for both HAB genera, but no expansion (Prorocentrum spp.), or actual contraction in area and months conducive for blooms (Karenia spp.), was projected in the SE Asian domain. The implications of these projections, especially for Northern Europe, are shifts in vulnerability of coastal systems to HAB events, increased regional HAB impacts to aquaculture, increased risks to human health and ecosystems, and economic consequences of these events due to losses to fisheries and ecosystem services. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Hydrogeology and hydrologic conditions of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Phillip D.; Knierim, Katherine J.; Breaker, Brian K.; Westerman, Drew A.; Clark, Brian R.

    2016-11-23

    The hydrogeology and hydrologic characteristics of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system were characterized as part of ongoing U.S. Geological Survey efforts to assess groundwater availability across the Nation. The need for such a study in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province (Ozark Plateaus) is highlighted by increasing demand on groundwater resources by the 5.3 million people of the Ozark Plateaus, water-level declines in some areas, and potential impacts of climate change on groundwater availability. The subject study integrates knowledge gained through local investigation within a regional perspective to develop a regional conceptual model of groundwater flow in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (Ozark system), a key phase of groundwater availability assessment. The Ozark system extends across much of southern Missouri and northwestern and north-central Arkansas and smaller areas of southeastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma. The region is one of the major karst landscapes in the United States, and karst aquifers are predominant in the Ozark system. Groundwater flow is ultimately controlled by aquifer and confining unit lithologies and stratigraphic relations, geologic structure, karst development, and the character of surficial lithologies and regolith mantle. The regolith mantle is a defining element of Ozark Plateaus karst, affecting recharge, karst development, and vulnerability to surface-derived contaminants. Karst development is more advanced—as evidenced by larger springs, hydraulic characteristics, and higher well yields—in the Salem Plateau and in the northern part of the Springfield Plateau (generally north of the Arkansas-Missouri border) as compared with the southern part of the Springfield Plateau in Arkansas, largely due to thinner, less extensive regolith and purer carbonate lithology.Precipitation is the ultimate source of all water to the Ozark system, and the hydrologic budget for the Ozark system includes inputs from recharge

  16. A preliminary analysis and assessment of hydrogeological conditions for in-situ leach mining of sandstone-type uranium deposit in northern Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fazheng; Zhao Jinfeng; Chang Baocheng; Gao Junyi

    2006-01-01

    A systematic analysis and assessment on hydrogeologic condition, the lithology and hydrogeologic structure of ore-hosting aquitfers, hydrodynamic condition, hydrochemical characteristics at a sandstone-type uranium deposit in northern Ordos basin is made in this paper. It has been concluded, that hydrogeologic condition in the study area is favorable, meeting the requirements for in-situ leach mining of the deposit. Aimed at the low artesian pressure head and low water output and based on the results of pumping-injection tests which led to the significant increase of water output, a technical scheme of pressured water injection has been proposed to artificially raise the artesian pressure head and increase the output of groundwater to satisfy the requirements of in-situ leach mining. (authors)

  17. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Weary, David J.; Field, Malcolm S.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Schill, William Bane; Young, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Leetown Science Center and the co-located U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture both depend on large volumes of cold clean ground water to support research operations at their facilities. Currently, ground-water demands are provided by three springs and two standby production wells used to augment supplies during periods of low spring flow. Future expansion of research operations at the Leetown Science Center is dependent on assessing the availability and quality of water to the facilities and in locating prospective sites for additional wells to augment existing water supplies. The hydrogeology of the Leetown area, West Virginia, is a structurally complex karst aquifer. Although the aquifer is a karst system, it is not typical of most highly cavernous karst systems, but is dominated by broad areas of fractured rock drained by a relatively small number of solution conduits. Characterization of the aquifer by use of fluorometric tracer tests, a common approach in most karst terranes, therefore only partly defines the hydrogeologic setting of the area. In order to fully assess the hydrogeology and water quality in the vicinity of Leetown, a multi-disciplinary approach that included both fractured rock and karst research components was needed. The U.S. Geological Survey developed this multi-disciplinary research effort to include geologic, hydrologic, geophysical, geographic, water-quality, and microbiological investigations in order to fully characterize the hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia. Detailed geologic and karst mapping provided the framework on which hydrologic investigations were based. Fracture trace and lineament analysis helped locate potential water-bearing fractures and guided installation of monitoring wells. Monitoring wells were drilled for borehole geophysical surveys, water-quality sampling, water-level measurements, and aquifer tests to

  18. Groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    More than 40 percent of California's drinking water is from groundwater. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province (hereinafter referred to as San Diego) is one of the study units being evaluated. The San Diego study unit is approximately 3,900 square miles and consists of the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and 12 other alluvial basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The study unit also consists of all areas outside defined groundwater basins that are within 3 kilometers of a public-supply well. The study unit was separated, based primarily on hydrogeologic settings, into four study areas: Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, Alluvial Basins, and Hard Rock (Wright and others, 2005). The sampling density for the Hard Rock study area, which consists of areas outside of groundwater basins, was much lower than for the other study areas. Consequently, aquifer proportions for the Hard Rock study area are not used to calculate the aquifer proportions shown by the pie charts. An assessment of groundwater quality for the Hard Rock study area can be found in Wright and Belitz, 2011. The temperatures in the coastal part of the study unit are mild with dry summers, moist winters, and an average annual rainfall of about 10 inches. The temperatures in the mountainous eastern part of the study unit are cooler than in the coastal part, with an annual precipitation of about 45 inches that occurs mostly in the winter. The primary aquifers consist of Quaternary-age alluvium and weathered bedrock in the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and Alluvial Basins study areas, whereas in the Hard Rock study area the primary aquifers consist mainly of fractured and

  19. Compilation and analysis of hydrogeological pressure responses to field activities in Olkiluoto during 2006-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaittinen, T.; Pentti, E.

    2013-11-01

    Groundwater flow characteristics provide essential input for the construction and safety assessment of a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. On the Olkiluoto site flow connections have been studied in deep drillholes by means of long-term pumping tests, various interference tests, and by interpreting the measured hydraulic heads. This report focuses on the assessment of measured hydraulic heads during 2006-2009. Hydraulic heads have been measured both in open and in packed-off drillholes since 1991. The interpretation of the hydraulic connections is based on observed changes in hydraulic head distribution caused by certain investigation activities on the site. Field activities may increase the head, e.g. drilling, or more typically decrease the head, e.g. flush pumping after drilling, difference flow logging with pumping, and both temporary and currently stable inflows into underground facilities caused by the construction of ONKALO. Processing of the head observations has been developed by determining section-specific corrections for natural fluctuation of the groundwater. The objective of the corrections is to remove natural fluctuation of the groundwater table and sea level, tidal effect, and atmospheric pressure to improve detection of changes in hydraulic head caused by field activities. Time series of observations are compared to schedules of field activities and values for responses are calculated. In addition to temporary responses head drawdown at the end of 2009 is estimated. Analysed responses are mainly related to pumpings from open drillholes and to construction of the access tunnel and the shafts through the hydrogeological HZ19 system until June 2008. Since July 2008 the strongest responses are caused by excavation of the access tunnel and pre-grouting of the shafts through the hydrogeological HZ20 system. Based on the head observations in packed-off drillholes, sub-horizontal hydraulic zones form a layered system at the ONKALO area

  20. Nuclear material production cycle vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for rapidly and systematically identifying vulnerable equipment in a nuclear material or similar production process and ranking that equipment according to its attractiveness to a malevolent attacker. A multistep approach was used in the analysis. First, the entire production cycle was modeled as a flow diagram. This flow diagram was analyzed using graph theoretical methods to identify processes in the production cycle and their locations. Models of processes that were judged to be particularly vulnerable based on the cycle analysis then were developed in greater detail to identify equipment in that process that is vulnerable to intentional damage

  1. Flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock: Effects of multiscale heterogeneity of hydrogeologic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Quanlin; Liu, Hui-Hai; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2002-01-01

    The heterogeneity of hydrogeologic properties at different scales may have different effects on flow and transport processes in a subsurface system. A model for the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is developed to represent complex heterogeneity at two different scales: (1) layer scale corresponding to geologic layering and (2) local scale. The layer-scale hydrogeologic properties are obtained using inverse modeling, based on the available measurements collected from the Yucca Mountain site. Calibration results show a significant lateral and vertical variability in matrix and fracture properties. Hydrogeologic property distributions in a two-dimensional, vertical cross section of the site are generated by combining the average layer-scale matrix and fracture properties with local-scale perturbations generated using a stochastic simulation method. The unsaturated water flow and conservative (nonsorbing) tracer transport through the cross section are simulated for different sets of matrix and fracture property fields. Comparison of simulation results indicates that the local-scale heterogeneity of matrix and fracture properties has a considerable effect on unsaturated flow processes, leading to fast flow paths in fractures and the matrix. These paths shorten the travel time of a conservative tracer from the source (repository) horizon in the unsaturated zone to the water table for small fractions of total released tracer mass. As a result, the local-scale heterogeneity also has a noticeable effect on global tracer transport processes, characterized by an average breakthrough curve at the water table, especially at the early arrival time of tracer mass. However, the effect is not significant at the later time after 20 percent tracer mass reaches the water table. The simulation results also verify that matrix diffusion plays an important role in overall solute transport processes in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain

  2. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: ► The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. ► The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. ► A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. ► Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  3. The Habitat Susceptibility of Bali Starling (Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann> 1912) Based on Forest Fire Vulnerability Mappin in West Bali National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramatana, F.; Prasetyo, L. B.; Rushayati, S. B.

    2017-10-01

    Bali starling is an endemic and endangered species which tend to decrease of its population in the wild. West Bali National Park (WBNP) is the only habitat of bali starling, however it is threatened nowadays by forest fire. Understanding the sensitivity of habitat to forest & land fire is urgently needed. Geographic Information System (GIS) can be used for mapping the vulnerability of forest fire. This study aims to analyze the contributed factor of forest fire, to develop vulnerability level map of forest fire in WBNP, to estimate habitat vulnerability of bali starling. The variable for mapping forest fire in WBNP were road distance, village distance, land cover, NDVI, NDMI, surface temperature, and slope. Forest fire map in WBNP was created by scoring from each variable, and classified into four classes of forest fire vulnerability which are very low (9 821 ha), low (5 015.718 ha), middle (6 778.656 ha), and high (2 126.006 ha). Bali starling existence in the middle and high vulnerability forest fire class in WBNP, consequently the population and habitat of bali starling is a very vulnerable. Management of population and habitat of bali starling in WBNP must be implemented focus on forest fire impact.

  4. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  5. Hydraulic assessment of the Buda Thermal Karst area and its vulnerability (Budapest, Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czauner, Brigitta; Erőss, Anita; Erhardt, Ildikó; Ötvös, Viktória; Simon, Szilvia; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2017-04-01

    Thermal and medicinal water resources of Budapest (Hungary), the "City of Spas", are provided by the Buda Thermal Karst area. Assessment of its vulnerability requires the understanding of the discharge phenomena and thus the groundwater flow conditions in the area. Accordingly, BTK has already been the objective of several hydrogeological investigations, including numerical simulations as well, which led to conceptual models. The aim of the present study was the hydraulic evaluation of the flow systems based on the complex analysis of real, i.e. measured, archival hydraulic data of wells in order to i) get acquainted with the real flow systems, and ii) hydraulically confirm or disprove the previous conceptual models, in particular the applicability of gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept and hydraulic continuity, separation of the natural discharge zones, and hypogenic karstification. Considering the data distribution, pressure vs. elevation profiles, tomographic fluid-potential maps, and hydraulic cross-sections were constructed for the first time in this area. As a result, gravitational flow systems and the modifying effects of aquitard units and faults were identified. Consequently, the differences in temperature, hydrochemistry, discharge distribution (one and two-components), and related cave forming processes between the Central (Rózsadomb) and Southern (Gellért Hill) natural discharge areas could be explained, as well as the hydraulic behaviour of the Northeastern Margin-fault of the Buda Hills could be determined. Regarding the on-going hypogenic karstification processes, regional upward flow conditions were confirmed along the main discharge zone of the Danube. Identification of gravity as the main fluid flow driving force, as well as the hydraulic effects of heterogeneities can significantly contribute to the recognition of the risk factors regarding the vulnerability of the Buda Thermal Karst area. The research was supported by the

  6. New insights on the rarity of the vulnerable Cinereous Warbling-finch (Aves, Emberizidae based on density, home range, and habitat selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Marques-Santos

    Full Text Available The Cinereous Warbling-finch Poospiza cinerea (Emberizidae is a Neotropical grassland bird considered rare, with population declining due to habitat loss and classified as vulnerable. However, the species conspicuously remains in several degraded areas, suggesting that it may be favored by these environments. Studies which focus on this species were inexistent until 2012, making questionable any statement about its threaten status. Here we analyzed population density, home range, and habitat selection of two groups of P. cinerea at independent sites that differ in human impact levels. Density was estimated by counting and mapping birds. Kernel density and minimum convex polygon were used to estimate home ranges. Habitat selection was inferred from use and availability of every habitat identified within the home range boundaries. One group positively selected urban tree vegetation, despite the availability of natural habitats in its home range. Based on a review on the literature and our findings, we assume that it is unlikely that P. cinerea is rare owing to habitat degradation, as previously thought. Nevertheless, this species was always recorded around native Cerrado vegetation and thus habitat modification may still threaten this species at some level. It is suggested that this species might be a woodland edge species, but future studies are necessary to confirm this assumption.

  7. How Academic Health Systems Can Achieve Population Health in Vulnerable Populations Through Value-Based Care: The Critical Importance of Establishing Trusted Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Donald E; Kitzman, Heather E

    2018-01-16

    Improving population health may require health systems to proactively engage patient populations as partners in the implementation of healthy behaviors as a shared value using strategies that incentivize healthy outcomes for the population as a whole. The current reactive health care model, which focuses on restoring the health of individuals after it has been lost, will not achieve the goal of improved population health. To achieve this goal, health systems must proactively engage in partnerships with the populations they serve. Health systems will need the help of community entities and individuals who have the trust of the population being served to act on behalf of the health system if they are to achieve this effective working partnership. The need for these trusted agents is particularly pertinent for vulnerable and historically underserved segments of the population. In this Invited Commentary, the authors discuss ways by which health systems might identify, engage, and leverage trusted agents to improve the health of the population through value-based care.

  8. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Santa Clara and San Mateo County Groundwater Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basins of Santa Clara County and San Mateo County, located to the south of the city of San Francisco. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements

  9. California GAMA Program: A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Bakersfield Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MTBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2003, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basin that underlies Bakersfield, in the southern San Joaquin Valley. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements help determine the recharge water

  10. Combined Estimation of Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model and Parameter Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the research described in this report is the development and application of a methodology for comprehensively assessing the hydrogeologic uncertainties involved in dose assessment, including uncertainties associated with conceptual models, parameters, and scenarios. This report describes and applies a statistical method to quantitatively estimate the combined uncertainty in model predictions arising from conceptual model and parameter uncertainties. The method relies on model averaging to combine the predictions of a set of alternative models. Implementation is driven by the available data. When there is minimal site-specific data the method can be carried out with prior parameter estimates based on generic data and subjective prior model probabilities. For sites with observations of system behavior (and optionally data characterizing model parameters), the method uses model calibration to update the prior parameter estimates and model probabilities based on the correspondence between model predictions and site observations. The set of model alternatives can contain both simplified and complex models, with the requirement that all models be based on the same set of data. The method was applied to the geostatistical modeling of air permeability at a fractured rock site. Seven alternative variogram models of log air permeability were considered to represent data from single-hole pneumatic injection tests in six boreholes at the site. Unbiased maximum likelihood estimates of variogram and drift parameters were obtained for each model. Standard information criteria provided an ambiguous ranking of the models, which would not justify selecting one of them and discarding all others as is commonly done in practice. Instead, some of the models were eliminated based on their negligibly small updated probabilities and the rest were used to project the measured log permeabilities by kriging onto a rock volume containing the six boreholes. These four

  11. [Family vulnerability: concept development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettengill, Myriam Aparecida Mandetta; Angelo, Margareth

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to develop the concept of family vulnerability. Data were collected through Qualitative Concept Analysis, which involves two phases. In the first, theoretical phase, data from literature were used for identification of the theoretical attributes of the concept. In the second, field phase, data were collected by means of observations and interviews with twelve families going through the experience of a child's disease and hospitalization. Symbolic Interactionism was used as a theoretical framework, which supported Grounded Theory, applied to guide data collection and analysis in the field phase. As a result of phase II, a theoretical model was built, whose central category defines family vulnerability as FEELING THREATENED IN THEIR AUTONOMY, due to the interactions between family members, illness and health team. The comparison between the two analyses allowed for a theoretical proposition of family vulnerability and advances in terms of theoretical knowledge on family nursing.

  12. Threats and vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    In this chapter, we present a review of threats and vulnerabilities that could afflict society and individuals in the AmI world in the context of the key policy issues of privacy, identity, trust, security and digital divide. We define a threat as the potential for one or more unwanted consequences caused by a circumstance, capability, action or event that could be harmful to a system or person. Threats can be caused naturally, accidentally or intentionally. In essence, a threat is a ubiquitous phenomenon. A vulnerability is a flaw or weakness in a system's design, its implementation, operation or management that could be exploited to violate the system and, consequently, cause a threat. Vulnerabilities may have different dimensions: technical, functional or behavioural.1

  13. Vulnerability, Health Agency and Capability to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straehle, Christine

    2016-01-01

    One of the defining features of the capability approach (CA) to health, as developed in Venkatapuram's book Health Justice, is its aim to enable individual health agency. Furthermore, the CA to health hopes to provide a strong guideline for assessing the health-enabling content of social and political conditions. In this article, I employ the recent literature on the liberal concept of vulnerability to assess the CA. I distinguish two kinds of vulnerability. Considering circumstantial vulnerability, I argue that liberal accounts of vulnerability concerned with individual autonomy, align with the CA to health. Individuals should, as far as possible, be able to make health-enabling decisions about their lives, and their capability to do so should certainly not be hindered by public policy. The CA to health and a vulnerability-based analysis then work alongside to define moral responsibilities and designate those who hold them. Both approaches demand social policy to address circumstances that hinder individuals from taking health-enabling decisions. A background condition of vulnerability, on the other hand, even though it hampers the capability for health, does not warrant the strong moral claim proposed by the CA to health to define health as a meta-capability that should guide social policy. Nothing in our designing social policy could change the challenge to health agency when we deal with background conditions of vulnerability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Energy vulnerability relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

  15. Use of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) to improve the nutrient adequacy of general food distribution rations for vulnerable sub-groups in emergency settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Camila M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2010-01-01

    The term 'lipid-based nutrient supplements' (LNS) refers generically to a range of fortified, lipid-based products, including products like Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) (a large daily ration with relatively low micronutrient concentration) as well as highly concentrated supplements (1-4 teaspoons/day, providing fortification. RUTF have been successfully used for the management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) among children in emergency settings. Recent research on smaller doses of LNS for prevention of malnutrition has created interest in their potential use in emergency settings to ensure a more nutritionally adequate ration for the most vulnerable groups [e.g. infants and children between 6 and 24 months of age, and pregnant and lactating women (PLW)]. Currently, the main food and nutrition interventions in emergency settings include general food distribution (GFD) rations, which are provided to the affected population as a whole, and selective (or supplementary) feeding programs (SFP), which are to be provided to nutritionally vulnerable or malnourished individuals. In addition to logistical and operational challenges that may limit the intended effect of these programs, the nutritional quality of the food commodities provided may be insufficient to meet the needs of infants and young children and PLW. Because these subgroups have particularly high nutrient needs for growth and development, meeting these needs is challenging in settings where the ration is limited to a few food commodities, with little access to a diverse diet and bioavailable sources of micronutrients. In recent years, there has been increased attention to adding micronutrient interventions, on top of the other food-based interventions (such as GFDs and SFPs), to fill micronutrient gaps in diets in emergency settings. The focus of this document is the potential role of LNS in meeting the nutritional needs of these vulnerable subgroups, with the goal of preventing malnutrition in

  16. Underground structures increasing the intrinsic vulnerability of urban groundwater: Sensitivity analysis and development of an empirical law based on a groundwater age modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Guillaume; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    In a previous paper published in Journal of Hydrology, it was shown that underground structures are responsible for a mixing process between shallow and deep groundwater that can favour the spreading of urban contamination. In this paper, the impact of underground structures on the intrinsic vulnerability of urban aquifers was investigated. A sensitivity analysis was performed using a 2D deterministic modelling approach based on the reservoir theory generalized to hydrodispersive systems to better understand this mixing phenomenon and the mixing affected zone (MAZ) caused by underground structures. It was shown that the maximal extent of the MAZ caused by an underground structure is reached approximately 20 years after construction. Consequently, underground structures represent a long-term threat for deep aquifer reservoirs. Regarding the construction process, draining operations have a major impact and favour large-scale mixing between shallow and deep groundwater. Consequently, dewatering should be reduced and enclosed as much as possible. The role played by underground structures' dimensions was assessed. The obstruction of the first aquifer layer caused by construction has the greatest influence on the MAZ. The cumulative impact of several underground structures was assessed. It was shown that the total MAZ area increases linearly with underground structures' density. The role played by materials' properties and hydraulic gradient were assessed. Hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy and porosity have the strongest influence on the development of MAZ. Finally, an empirical law was derived to estimate the MAZ caused by an underground structure in a bi-layered aquifer under unconfined conditions. This empirical law, based on the results of the sensitivity analysis developed in this paper, allows for the estimation of MAZ dimensions under known material properties and underground structure dimensions. This empirical law can help urban planners assess the area of

  17. The hydrogeologic-geochemical model of Cerro Prieto revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Halfman, S.E.; Truesdell, A.H.; Manon M., A.

    1989-01-01

    As the exploitation of the Cerro Prieto, Mexico, geothermal field continues, there is increasing evidence that the hydrogeologic model developed by Halfman et al. (1984, 1986) presents the basic features controlling the movement of geothermal fluids in the system. At the present time the total installed capacity at Cerro Prieto is 620 MWe requiring the production of more than 10,500 tonnes/hr of a brine-steam mixture. This significant rate of fluid production has resulted in changes in reservoir thermodynamic conditions and in the chemistry of the produced fluids. After reviewing the hydrogeologic-geochemical model of Cerro Prieto, some of the changes observed in the field due to its exploitation are discussed and interpreted on the basis of the model. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  19. Site investigation - equipment for geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrochemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.E.; Fridh, B.; Johansson, B.E.; Sehlstedt, M.

    1986-11-01

    The investigations are performed within a site investigation program. In total about 60,000 m of cored 56 mm boreholes have been drilled and investigated at eight study sites. A summarized description of the main investigation methods is included. Instruments for geophysical investigations contains equipment for ground measurements as well as for borehole logging. The Geophysical investigations including the borehole radar measurements, are indirect methods for the geological and hydrogeological characterization of the rock formation. Great effort has been laid on the development of hydrogeological instruments for hydraulic tests and groundwater head measurements. In order to obtain hydrochemical investigations with high quality, a complete system for sampling and analysis of ground water has been developed. (orig./PW)

  20. HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE U-3bl COLLAPSE ZONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada and National Security Technologies, LLC

    2006-01-01

    The U-3bl collapse crater was formed by an underground nuclear test in August 1962. This crater and the adjoining U-3ax crater were subsequently developed and used as a bulk low-level radioactive waste disposal cell (U-3ax/bl), which is part of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Various investigations have been conducted to assess the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties in the vicinity of the U-3ax/bl waste disposal cell. This report presents data from one of these investigations, conducted in 1996. Also included in this report is a review of pertinent nuclear testing records, which shows that the testing operations and hydrogeologic setting of the U-3ax/bl site were typical for the period and location of testing

  1. Hydrogeological and multi-isotopic approach to define nitrate pollution and denitrification processes in a coastal aquifer (Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittalis, Daniele; Carrey, Raul; Da Pelo, Stefania; Carletti, Alberto; Biddau, Riccardo; Cidu, Rosa; Celico, Fulvio; Soler, Albert; Ghiglieri, Giorgio

    2018-02-01

    Agricultural coastal areas are frequently affected by the superimposition of various processes, with a combination of anthropogenic and natural sources, which degrade groundwater quality. In the coastal multi-aquifer system of Arborea (Italy)—a reclaimed morass area identified as a nitrate vulnerable zone, according to Nitrate Directive 91/676/EEC—intensive agricultural and livestock activities contribute to substantial nitrate contamination. For this reason, the area can be considered a bench test for tuning an appropriate methodology aiming to trace the nitrate contamination in different conditions. An approach combining environmental isotopes, water quality and hydrogeological indicators was therefore used to understand the origins and attenuation mechanisms of nitrate pollution and to define the relationship between contaminant and groundwater flow dynamics through the multi-aquifer characterized by sandy (SHU), alluvial (AHU), and volcanic hydrogeological (VHU) units. Various groundwater chemical pathways were consistent with both different nitrogen sources and groundwater dynamics. Isotope composition suggests a mixed source for nitrate (organic and synthetic fertilizer), especially for the AHU and SHU groundwater. Moreover, marked heterotrophic denitrification and sulfate reduction processes were detected; although, for the contamination related to synthetic fertilizer, the attenuation was inefficient at removing NO3 - to less than the human consumption threshold of 50 mg/L. Various factors contributed to control the distribution of the redox processes, such as the availability of carbon sources (organic fertilizer and the presence of lagoon-deposited aquitards), well depth, and groundwater flow paths. The characterization of these processes supports water-resource management plans, future actions, and regulations, particularly in nitrate vulnerable zones.

  2. spatially identifying vulnerable areas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    System (SMDSS) to identify factors that make forest and game reserves vulnerable to rampant human induced ... Commission Act, 1999 (Act 571); and Wildlife Resources (Amendment) (Declaration of Game Reserves). Regulations, 1976 ..... A dynamic simulation model of land-use changes in Sudano-sahelian countries of ...

  3. Vulnerable road users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A group of road users can be defined as ‘vulnerable’ in a number of ways, such as by the amount of protection in traffic (e.g. pedestrians and cyclists) or by the amount of task capability (e.g. the young and the elderly). Vulnerable road users do not usually have a protective 'shell', and also the

  4. Anaphylaxis vulnerable groups

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    Professor of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. Age groups vulnerable to serious attacks of anaphylaxis include infants, teenagers, pregnant women, and the elderly. Concomitant diseases, such as severe or uncontrolled asthma, cardiovascular disease, mastocytosis or clonal mast cell ...

  5. Groundwater vulnerability indices conditioned by Supervised Intelligence Committee Machine (SICM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiri, Ata Allah; Gharekhani, Maryam; Khatibi, Rahman; Sadeghfam, Sina; Moghaddam, Asghar Asghari

    2017-01-01

    This research presents a Supervised Intelligent Committee Machine (SICM) model to assess groundwater vulnerability indices of an aquifer. SICM uses Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to overarch three Artificial Intelligence (AI) models: Support Vector Machine (SVM), Neuro-Fuzzy (NF) and Gene Expression Programming (GEP). Each model uses the DRASTIC index, the acronym of 7 geological, hydrological and hydrogeological parameters, which collectively represents intrinsic (or natural) vulnerability and gives a sense of contaminants, such as nitrate-N, penetrating aquifers from the surface. These models are trained to modify or condition their DRASTIC index values by measured nitrate-N concentration. The three AI-techniques often perform similarly but have differences as well and therefore SICM exploits the situation to improve the modeled values by producing a hybrid modeling results through selecting better performing SVM, NF and GEP components. The models of the study area at Ardabil aquifer show that the vulnerability indices by the DRASTIC framework produces sharp fronts but AI models smoothen the fronts and reflect a better correlation with observed nitrate values; SICM improves on the performances of three AI models and cope well with heterogeneity and uncertain parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Research-based Reflections on How the Educational, Economic and Social Circumstances Faced by Some Children and Young People Can Lead to Significant Disadvantage and Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker Stanley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides detailed reflections on the educational, economic and social circumstances that impact on the lives of many disadvantaged and vulnerable children and young people. Drawing largely on primary research data collected in Romania, Germany and the United Kingdom, three illustrative case studies are presented for consideration focusing on: life in residential care and youth offending institutions; experiences of educational vulnerability; and human trafficking. The methodological approach adopted across the research projects explored, was shaped by the demands and expectations of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC. All of the reported data reflects the views of children and young people who were interviewed as part of three research projects. It is argued that the difficult and challenging circumstances that many children and young people find themselves in, place them at significant disadvantage and increased vulnerability in terms of their social and educational development and life chances.

  7. Preliminary hydrogeological evaluation of geological units from the Mesa de los Santos, Santander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Eliana Jimena; Contreras, Nathalia Maria; Pinto, Jorge Eduardo; Velandia, Francisco; Morales, Carlos Julio; Hincapie, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    This paper present a preliminary hydrogeological evaluation of La Mesa de Los Santos' lithostratigraphic formations, based on the geological mapping, stratigraphy and inventory of water points. All this is supplemented with the analysis of primary porosity by means of the petrographic study and the secondary porosity related statistically with the quantity of fractures of each formation, as well as opening, interconnection and dip. It is made an approach to hydrogeological potential of the geologic outcropping formations in La Mesa de Los Santos, Department of Santander, from the stratigraphic and petrographic analysis and the structural features of these formations. The Upper Member of Los Santos Formation presents the highest potential because of rock's fracturing, continued by the Lower Member with low primary porosity and half fracturing. Silgara Formation, Granito de Pescadero, Jordan Formation and some sections of the sandy levels of the Rosablanca Formation presents a lowest potential due to its low porosity and low grade of fracturing. Low permeability is presented in the Middle Member of the Los Santos Formation, Paja and Tablazo formations, as well as in sectors of the fore mentioned formations and in the Quaternary deposits.

  8. Modelling of the site scale hydrogeological situation at Beberg using NAMMU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsic, N.; Gylling, B.; Grundfelt, B.; Hartley, L.

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to perform modelling of the site scale hydrogeological situation at Beberg using the finite element code NAMMU and compare the results with those from HYDRASTAR reported in SR 97. NAMMU was used in the large scale regional hydrogeological modelling at Beberg. The hypothetical repository layout at Beberg is based on geological data from the Finnsjoen site. Four model variants were created in this study. Two variants were compared with the deterministic freshwater case in the HYDRASTAR modelling. The other two variants were created to study the effect of a regionally distributed permeability anisotropy and variable density groundwater on the groundwater flow pattern. These processes are not considered in HYDRASTAR. The NAMMU results, including the pathline patterns, agree with those from the HYDRASTAR modelling. The effect of anisotropy and saline groundwater is found significant for the pathlines. The difference in canister flux between the NAMMU and the HYDRASTAR models is small, while the difference in travel time is more significant. The discrepancies between the results from the NAMMU and the HYDRASTAR simulations can be ascribed to the different numerical discretisation, i.e. different representation of the permeability, and the different pathline algorithms used in the two models

  9. Modelling of the site scale hydrogeological situation at Beberg using NAMMU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsic, N.; Gylling, B.; Grundfelt, B. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Hartley, L. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to perform modelling of the site scale hydrogeological situation at Beberg using the finite element code NAMMU and compare the results with those from HYDRASTAR reported in SR 97. NAMMU was used in the large scale regional hydrogeological modelling at Beberg. The hypothetical repository layout at Beberg is based on geological data from the Finnsjoen site. Four model variants were created in this study. Two variants were compared with the deterministic freshwater case in the HYDRASTAR modelling. The other two variants were created to study the effect of a regionally distributed permeability anisotropy and variable density groundwater on the groundwater flow pattern. These processes are not considered in HYDRASTAR. The NAMMU results, including the pathline patterns, agree with those from the HYDRASTAR modelling. The effect of anisotropy and saline groundwater is found significant for the pathlines. The difference in canister flux between the NAMMU and the HYDRASTAR models is small, while the difference in travel time is more significant. The discrepancies between the results from the NAMMU and the HYDRASTAR simulations can be ascribed to the different numerical discretisation, i.e. different representation of the permeability, and the different pathline algorithms used in the two models.

  10. Effects of damaging hydrogeological events on people throughout 15 years in a Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Aceto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHE are defined as rainy periods during which landslides and floods can damage people. The paper investigated the effects of DHE on people living in Calabria (southern Italy in the period 2000–2014, using data coming from the systematic survey of regional newspapers. Data about fatalities, people injured and people involved (not killed neither hurt were stored in the database named PEOPLE, made of three sections: (1 event identification, (2 victim-event interaction, (3 effects on people. The outcomes highlighted vulnerability factors related to gender and age: males were killed more frequently (75 % than females (25 %, and fatalities were older (average age 49 years than injured (40.1 years and involved people (40.5 years. The average ages of females killed (67.5 years, injured (43.4 years and involved (44.6 years were higher than the same values assessed for males, maybe indicating that younger females tended to be more cautious than same-age males, while older females showed an intrinsic greater vulnerability. Involved people were younger than injured people and fatalities, perhaps because younger people show greater promptness to react in dangerous situations. In the study region, floods caused more fatalities (67.9 %, injured (55 % and involved people (55.3 % than landslides. Fatalities and injuries mainly occurred outdoor, especially along roads, and the most dangerous dynamic was to be dragged by flood, causing the majority of fatalities (71.4 %. These outcomes can be used to strengthen the strategies aimed at saving people, and to customise warning campaigns according to the local risk features and people's behaviour. The results can improve the understanding of the potential impacts of geo-hydrological hazards on the population and can increase risk awareness among both administrators and citizens.

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