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Sample records for based hybrid system

  1. A hybrid base isolation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, G.C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lobo, R.F.; Srinivasan, M. [Hart Consultant Group, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Asher, J.W. [kpff Engineers, Santa Monica, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper proposes a new analysis procedure for hybrid base isolation buildings when considering the displacement response of a base isolated building to wind loads. The system is considered hybrid because of the presence of viscous dampers in the building above the isolator level. The proposed analysis approach incorporates a detailed site specific wind study combined with a dynamic nonlinear analysis of the building response.

  2. Research of IDSS Architecture Based on Hybrid Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Biao; YANG Bao-an

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the necessity of building IDSS on hybrid systems, and adopts XML technology to manage isomeric knowledge in hybrid systems. The paper proposes a new architecture of hybrid systems based IDSS whose core system is isomeric knowledge system. The architecture is composed of knowledge component, problems processing system, data component and intelligent user interface. This new architecture aims to enhance the capability of integrating hybrid systems, to improve the supporting effectiveness of decision-making and the intelligent level of IDSS, and tries a new way to elevate the system's ability of handling and learning knowledge.

  3. Hybrid Communication System Based on OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A Hybrid architecture between terrestrial and satellite networks based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is employed here. In hybrid architecture, the users will be able to avail the services through the terrestrial networks as well as the satellite networks. The users located in urban areas will be served by the existing terrestrial mobile networks and similarly the one located in rural areas will be provided services through the satellite networks. The technique which is used to achieve this objective is called Pre-FFT adaptive beamforming also called time domain beamforming. When the data is received at the satellite end, the Pre-FFT adaptive beamforming extracts the desired user data from the interferer user by applying the complex weights to the received symbol. The weight for the next symbol is then updated by Least Mean Square (LMS algorithm and then is applied to it. This process is carried out till all the desired user data is extracted.

  4. Bond graph model-based fault diagnosis of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Borutzky, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a bond graph model-based approach to fault diagnosis in mechatronic systems appropriately represented by a hybrid model. The book begins by giving a survey of the fundamentals of fault diagnosis and failure prognosis, then recalls state-of-art developments referring to latest publications, and goes on to discuss various bond graph representations of hybrid system models, equations formulation for switched systems, and simulation of their dynamic behavior. The structured text: • focuses on bond graph model-based fault detection and isolation in hybrid systems; • addresses isolation of multiple parametric faults in hybrid systems; • considers system mode identification; • provides a number of elaborated case studies that consider fault scenarios for switched power electronic systems commonly used in a variety of applications; and • indicates that bond graph modelling can also be used for failure prognosis. In order to facilitate the understanding of fault diagnosis and the presented...

  5. A Hybrid Architecture for Web-based Expert Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Dunstan

    2012-01-01

    A recent technique is to represent the knowledge base of an expert system in XML format. XML parsers are then used to convert XML data into expert system language code. The code is executed or interpreted when providing responses to user queries. Web-based expert system (WBES) architectures may be characterized according to where the application knowledge base resides. Applications of both client and server-sided WBES architectures appear in the literature. A hybrid architecture is proposed w...

  6. Hybrid Recommender System based on Autoencoders

    OpenAIRE

    Strub, Florian; Gaudel, Romaric; Mary, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A standard model for Recommender Systems is the Matrix Completion setting: given partially known matrix of ratings given by users (rows) to items (columns), infer the unknown ratings. In the last decades, few attempts where done to handle that objective with Neural Networks, but recently an architecture based on Autoencoders proved to be a promising approach. In current paper, we enhanced that architecture (i) by using a loss function adapted to input data with missing...

  7. Extending a Hybrid Tag-Based Recommender System with Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter

    2010-01-01

    extension for a hybrid tag-based recommender system, which suggests similar Web pages based on the similarity of their tags. The semantic extension aims at discovering tag relations which are not considered in basic syntax similarity. With the goal of generating more semantically grounded recommendations...

  8. Hybrid Recommender System Based on Personal Behavior Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Lingqi; Chen, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Recommender systems are mostly well known for their applications in e-commerce sites and are mostly static models. Classical personalized recommender algorithm includes item-based collaborative filtering method applied in Amazon, matrix factorization based collaborative filtering algorithm from Netflix, etc. In this article, we hope to combine traditional model with behavior pattern extraction method. We use desensitized mobile transaction record provided by T-mall, Alibaba to build a hybrid ...

  9. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED GEARS MATERIAL SELECTION HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.C. Li; W.X. Zhu; G. Chen; D.S. Mei; J. Zhang; K.M. Chen

    2003-01-01

    An artificial neural networks(ANNs) based gear material selection hybrid intelligent system is established by analyzing the individual advantages and weakness of expert system (ES) and ANNs and the applications in material select of them. The system mainly consists of tow parts: ES and ANNs. By being trained with much data samples,the back propagation (BP) ANN gets the knowledge of gear materials selection, and is able to inference according to user input. The system realizes the complementing of ANNs and ES. Using this system, engineers without materials selection experience can conveniently deal with gear materials selection.

  10. Hybrid Heuristic-Based Artificial Immune System for Task Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    sanei, Masoomeh

    2011-01-01

    Task scheduling problem in heterogeneous systems is the process of allocating tasks of an application to heterogeneous processors interconnected by high-speed networks, so that minimizing the finishing time of application as much as possible. Tasks are processing units of application and have precedenceconstrained, communication and also, are presented by Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs). Evolutionary algorithms are well suited for solving task scheduling problem in heterogeneous environment. In this paper, we propose a hybrid heuristic-based Artificial Immune System (AIS) algorithm for solving the scheduling problem. In this regard, AIS with some heuristics and Single Neighbourhood Search (SNS) technique are hybridized. Clonning and immune-remove operators of AIS provide diversity, while heuristics and SNS provide convergence of algorithm into good solutions, that is balancing between exploration and exploitation. We have compared our method with some state-of-the art algorithms. The results of the experiments...

  11. Personalized Service System Based on Hybrid Filtering for Digital Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Fengrong; XING Chunxiao; DU Xiaoyong; WANG Shan

    2007-01-01

    Personalized service systems are an effective way to help users obtain recommendations for unseen items, within the enormous volume of information available based on their preferences. The most commonly used personalized service system methods are collaborative filtering, content-based filtering, and hybrid filtering. Unfortunately,each method has its drawbacks. This paper proposes a new method which unified partition-based collaborative filtering and meta-information filtering.In partition-based collaborative filtering the user-item rating matrix can be partitioned into low-dimensional dense materces using a matrixclustering algorithm. Recommendations are generated based on these low-dimensional matrices.Additionally,the very low ratings problem can be solved using meta-information filtering. The unified method is applied to a digital resource management system. The experimental results show the high efficiency and good performance of the new approach.

  12. Event-triggered hybrid control based on multi-Agent systems for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chun-xia; Liu, Bin; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    of distributed energy resources, thus it is typical hybrid dynamic network. Considering the complex hybrid behaviors, a hierarchical decentralized coordinated control scheme is firstly constructed based on multi-agent sys-tem, then, the hybrid model of the microgrid is built by using differential hybrid Petri...

  13. An online hybrid BCI system based on SSVEP and EMG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ke; Cinetto, Andrea; Wang, Yijun; Chen, Xiaogang; Gao, Shangkai; Gao, Xiaorong

    2016-04-01

    Objective. A hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) is a device combined with at least one other communication system that takes advantage of both parts to build a link between humans and machines. To increase the number of targets and the information transfer rate (ITR), electromyogram (EMG) and steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) were combined to implement a hybrid BCI. A multi-choice selection method based on EMG was developed to enhance the system performance. Approach. A 60-target hybrid BCI speller was built in this study. A single trial was divided into two stages: a stimulation stage and an output selection stage. In the stimulation stage, SSVEP and EMG were used together. Every stimulus flickered at its given frequency to elicit SSVEP. All of the stimuli were divided equally into four sections with the same frequency set. The frequency of each stimulus in a section was different. SSVEPs were used to discriminate targets in the same section. Different sections were classified using EMG signals from the forearm. Subjects were asked to make different number of fists according to the target section. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and mean filtering was used to classify SSVEP and EMG separately. In the output selection stage, the top two optimal choices were given. The first choice with the highest probability of an accurate classification was the default output of the system. Subjects were required to make a fist to select the second choice only if the second choice was correct. Main results. The online results obtained from ten subjects showed that the mean accurate classification rate and ITR were 81.0% and 83.6 bits min-1 respectively only using the first choice selection. The ITR of the hybrid system was significantly higher than the ITR of any of the two single modalities (EMG: 30.7 bits min-1, SSVEP: 60.2 bits min-1). After the addition of the second choice selection and the correction task, the accurate classification rate and ITR was

  14. Multi-Agent System based Event-Triggered Hybrid Controls for High-Security Hybrid Energy Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chun-Xia; Yue, Dong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes multi-agent system based event- triggered hybrid controls for guaranteeing energy supply of a hybrid energy generation system with high security. First, a mul-ti-agent system is constituted by an upper-level central coordi-nated control agent combined with several lower...... switching control, distributed dynamic regulation and coordinated switching con-trol are designed fully dependent on the hybrid behaviors of all distributed energy resources and the logical relationships be-tween them, and interact with each other by means of the mul-ti-agent system to form hierarchical......-level unit agents. Each lower-level unit agent is responsible for dealing with internal switching control and distributed dynamic regula-tion for its unit system. The upper-level agent implements coor-dinated switching control to guarantee the power supply of over-all system with high security. The internal...

  15. A New Hybrid Bathroom System Based on Energy Saving Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Bo-wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of hot water supply in bathroom, this article proposes a new hybrid energy hot water supply system. The programmable logic controller(PLC as the master controller was adopted in this system, which could automatically detect and storage main thermal physical of the system, such as temperature, water level, solar radiation intensity, power consumption and so on. The active thermal utilization technology of solar energy, air-source heat pump technology, solar energy intensive natural ventilation technology and low temperature hot water floor radiant heating technology were organically integrated in this system, which has the advantages of energy conservation and environment protection, high automation, safe and reliable operation, etc. At the same time, it can make good use of electric power cost between on-peak and off-peak, and promote the optimal allocation of power resources and reduce the cost, which can achieve the goal of intelligent control and energy saving.

  16. A Probability-Based Hybrid User Model for Recommendation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of information communication technology, the available information or knowledge is exponentially increased, and this causes the well-known information overload phenomenon. This problem is more serious in product design corporations because over half of the valuable design time is consumed in knowledge acquisition, which highly extends the design cycle and weakens the competitiveness. Therefore, the recommender systems become very important in the domain of product domain. This research presents a probability-based hybrid user model, which is a combination of collaborative filtering and content-based filtering. This hybrid model utilizes user ratings and item topics or classes, which are available in the domain of product design, to predict the knowledge requirement. The comprehensive analysis of the experimental results shows that the proposed method gains better performance in most of the parameter settings. This work contributes a probability-based method to the community for implement recommender system when only user ratings and item topics are available.

  17. Exact Verification of Hybrid Systems Based on Bilinear SOS Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Wang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of safety verification of nonlinear hybrid systems and stability analysis of nonlinear autonomous systems. A hybrid symbolic-numeric method is presented to compute exact inequality invariants of hybrid systems and exact estimates of regions of attraction of autonomous systems efficiently. Some numerical invariants of a hybrid system or an estimate of region of attraction can be obtained by solving a bilinear SOS program via PENBMI solver or iterative method, then the modified Newton refinement and rational vector recovery techniques are applied to obtain exact polynomial invariants and estimates of regions of attraction with rational coefficients. Experiments on some benchmarks are given to illustrate the efficiency of our algorithm.

  18. Genetic Algorithm Based Hybrid Fuzzy System for Assessing Morningness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a real life case example on the assessment process of morningness of individuals using genetic algorithm based hybrid fuzzy system. It is observed that physical and mental performance of human beings in different time slots of a day are majorly influenced by morningness orientation of those individuals. To measure the morningness of people various self-reported questionnaires were developed by different researchers in the past. Among them reduced version of Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire is mostly accepted. Almost all of the linguistic terms used in questionnaires are fuzzily defined. So, assessing them in crisp environments with their responses does not seem to be justifiable. Fuzzy approach based research works for assessing morningness of people are very few in the literature. In this paper, genetic algorithm is used to tune the parameters of a Mamdani fuzzy inference model to minimize error with their predicted outputs for assessing morningness of people.

  19. DIAGNOSIS WINDOWS PROBLEMS BASED ON HYBRID INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFWAN O. HASOON

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the artificial intelligence technologies by integrating Radial Basis Function networks with expert systems to construct a robust hybrid system. The purpose of building the hybrid system is to give recommendations to repair the operating system (Windows problems and troubleshoot the problems that can be repaired. The neural network has unique characteristics which it can complete the uncompleted data, the expert system can't deal with data that is incomplete, but using the neural network individually has some disadvantages which it can't give explanations and recommendations to the problems. The expert system has the ability to explain and give recommendations by using the rules and the human expert in some conditions. Therefore, we have combined the two technologies. The paper will explain the integration methods between the two technologies and which method is suitable to be used in the proposed hybrid system.

  20. Model-based health monitoring of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Danwei; Low, Chang Boon; Arogeti, Shai

    2013-01-01

    Offers in-depth comprehensive study on health monitoring for hybrid systems Includes new concepts, such as GARR, mode tracking and multiple failure prognosis Contains many examples, making the developed techniques easily understandable and accessible Introduces state-of-the-art algorithms and methodologies from experienced researchers

  1. Optimal traffic light control method for a single intersection based on hybrid systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓华; 陈阳舟; 崔平远

    2003-01-01

    A single intersection of two phases is selected as a model to put forward a new optimal time-planning scheme for traffic light based on the model of hybrid automata for single intersection. A method of optimization is proposed for hybrid systems, and the average queue length over all queues is used as an objective function to find an optimal switching scheme for traffic light. It is illustrated that traffic light control for single intersection is a typical hybrid system, and the optimal planning-time scheme can be obtained using the optimal hybrid systems control based on the two stages method.

  2. Passivity-based adaptive hybrid synchronization of a new hyperchaotic system with uncertain parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Fan, Zhangbiao; Zhou, Dongming; Cai, Xiaomei

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the adaptive hybrid synchronization problem for a new hyperchaotic system with uncertain parameters. Based on the passivity theory and the adaptive control theory, corresponding controllers and parameter estimation update laws are proposed to achieve hybrid synchronization between two identical uncertain hyperchaotic systems with different initial values, respectively. Numerical simulation indicates that the presented methods work effectively.

  3. Passivity-Based Adaptive Hybrid Synchronization of a New Hyperchaotic System with Uncertain Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaobing Zhou; Zhangbiao Fan; Dongming Zhou; Xiaomei Cai

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the adaptive hybrid synchronization problem for a new hyperchaotic system with uncertain parameters. Based on the passivity theory and the adaptive control theory, corresponding controllers and parameter estimation update laws are proposed to achieve hybrid synchronization between two identical uncertain hyperchaotic systems with different initial values, respectively. Numerical simulation indicates that the presented methods work effectively.

  4. A Hybrid Steganography System based on LSB Matching and Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Hiary

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid steganographic ap-proach using the least significant bit (LSB technique for grayscale images. The proposed approach uses both LSB match-ing (LSB-M and LSB replacement to hide the secret data in images. Using hybrid LSB techniques increase the level of security. Thus, attackers cannot easily, if not impossible, extract the secret data. The proposed approach stores two bits in a pixel. The embedding rate can reach up to 1.6 bit per pixel. The proposed approach is evaluated and subjected to various kinds of image processing attacks. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with two other relevant techniques; pixel-value differencing (PVD and Complexity Based LSB-M (CBL. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm out-performs PVD in terms of imperceptibility. Also, it significantly outperforms CBL in two main features; higher embedding rate (ER, and more robust to most common image processing attacks such as median filtering, histogram equalization, and rotation.

  5. PV-solar / wind hybrid energy system for GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station

    OpenAIRE

    Pragya Nema, R.K. Nema, Saroj Rangnekar

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives the design idea of optimized PV-Solar and Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA type mobile base station over conventional diesel generator for a particular site in central India (Bhopal) . For this hybrid system ,the meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Bhopal-Central India (Longitude 77o.23'and Latitude 23o.21' ) and the pattern of load consumption of mobile base station are studied and suitably modeled for optimization of the hybrid en...

  6. PV-solar / Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA Type Mobile Telephony Base

    OpenAIRE

    Station Md. Ibrahim; Mohammad Tayyab

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of optimized PV-Solar and Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA type mobile base station over conventional diesel generator for a particular site in south India (Chennai). For this hybrid system ,the meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Chennai (Longitude 80ο .16’and Latitude 13ο .5’ ) and the pattern of load consumption of mobile base station are studied and suitably modeled for optimization of the hybrid ...

  7. Cost based reactive power participation for voltage control in multi units based isolated hybrid power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Saxena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi units of wind and diesel based generators in isolated hybrid power system have technical and operational advantages over single units system. They require dynamic reactive power compensation for fast recovery of voltage under load and input changes. In developing countries like India, investors’ prime concern is to provide continuous electricity at low rate while quality degradation can be permitted within pre defined acceptable range. The use of static compensator along with dynamic compensator may give cost effective reactive power participation for system. This paper presented pricing of reactive power compensation under steady state and transient conditions of system with fixed capacitor and STATCOM. The main contributions of the paper are; (i evaluating reactive power balance equation for generalized multi units of wind and diesel based isolated hybrid power system, (ii reactive power compensation using fixed capacitor and STATCOM in presence of composite load model, (ii fast recovery of voltage response using genetic algorithm based tuning of STATCOM controller, (iii evaluation of reactive power compensation cost for steady and dynamic conditions due to probabilistic change in load and/or input demand and (iv comparison of results with existing reference compensation method.

  8. Generator maintenance scheduling in power systems using metaheuristic-based hybrid approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahal, Keshav P. [School of Informatics, University of Bradford, Bradford (United Kingdom); Chakpitak, Nopasit [College of Arts, Media and Technology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2007-05-15

    The effective maintenance scheduling of power system generators is very important for the economical and reliable operation of a power system. This represents a tough scheduling problem which continues to present a challenge for efficient optimization solution techniques. This paper presents the application of metaheuristic approaches, such as a genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA) and their hybrid for generator maintenance scheduling (GMS) in power systems using an integer representation. This paper mainly focuses on the application of GA/SA and GA/SA/heuristic hybrid approaches. GA/SA hybrid uses the probabilistic acceptance criterion of SA within the GA framework. GA/SA/heuristic hybrid combines heuristic approaches within the GA/SA hybrid to seed the initial population. A case study is formulated in this paper as an integer programming problem using a reliability-based objective function and typical problem constraints. The implementation and performance of the metaheuristic approaches and their hybrid for the test case study are discussed. The results obtained are promising and show that the hybrid approaches are less sensitive to the variations of technique parameters and offer an effective alternative for solving the generator maintenance scheduling problem. (author)

  9. Review on Recent Development Micro Gas Turbine -Trigeneration System and Photovoltaic Based Hybrid Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chand MRR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on distributed power generation as an alternative method to the conventional power generation system continue to be developed to improve its commercialization capabilities. The cogeneration system and trigeneration system are technological improved alternatives in distributed generation where they offer enhancement and reliability in term of efficiency, emission performances and economic benefits. However, it is more feasible to implement the trigeneration system for most commercial and domestic distributed generations as the cooling demand is deliberately high compared to heating demand especially in hot and humid climate locations. Moreover, micro gas turbine is observed to be a beneficial prime mover in cogeneration and trigeneration system based on several criteria such as ability on acquiring high heat to power ratio characteristic as well as lower greenhouse gas emission. On the other hand, the role photovoltaic in building integrated system provides opportunities for renewable energy system engagement in trigeneration based distributed generation systems. This paper emphasize on summarizing the research work perform on cogeneration system or trigeneration system in hybrid mode with photovoltaic. There are also preceding sections on overviewing the state of art of cogeneration system and the trigeneration system as well as photovoltaic technologies in power generation.

  10. Hybridity in Embedded Computing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞慧群; 孙永强

    1996-01-01

    An embedded system is a system that computer is used as a component in a larger device.In this paper,we study hybridity in embedded systems and present an interval based temporal logic to express and reason about hybrid properties of such kind of systems.

  11. Hessian matrix estimation in hybrid systems based on an embedded FFNN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Mook; Park, Jung-Wook

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the Hessian matrix estimation of nonsmooth nonlinear parameters by the identifier based on a feedforward neural network (FFNN) embedded in a hybrid system, which is modeled by the differential-algebraic-impulsive-switched (DAIS) structure. After identifying full dynamics of the hybrid system, the FFNN is used to estimate second-order derivatives of an objective function J with respect to the nonlinear parameters from the gradient information, which are trajectory sensitivities. Then, the estimated Hessian matrix is applied to the optimal tuning of a saturation limiter used in a practical engineering system.

  12. 4D Trajectory Estimation for Air Traffic Control Automation System Based on Hybrid System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Min Tang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To resolve the problem of future airspace management under great traffic flow and high density condition, 4D trajectory estimation has become one of the core technologies of the next new generation air traffic control automation system. According to the flight profile and the dynamics models of different aircraft types under different flight conditions, a hybrid system model that switches the aircraft from one flight stage to another with aircraft state changing continuously in one state is constructed. Additionally, air temperature and wind speed are used to modify aircraft true airspeed as well as ground speed, and the hybrid system evolution simulation is used to estimate aircraft 4D trajectory. The case study proves that 4D trajectory estimated through hybrid system model can image the flight dynamic states of aircraft and satisfy the needs of the planned flight altitude profile.KEY WORDSair traffic management, 4D trajectory estimation, hybrid system model, aircraft dynamic model

  13. Automatic generation of smart earthquake-resistant building system: Hybrid system of base-isolation and building-connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasagi, M; Fujita, K; Tsuji, M; Takewaki, I

    2016-02-01

    A base-isolated building may sometimes exhibit an undesirable large response to a long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motion and a connected building system without base-isolation may show a large response to a near-fault (rather high-frequency) earthquake ground motion. To overcome both deficiencies, a new hybrid control system of base-isolation and building-connection is proposed and investigated. In this new hybrid building system, a base-isolated building is connected to a stiffer free wall with oil dampers. It has been demonstrated in a preliminary research that the proposed hybrid system is effective both for near-fault (rather high-frequency) and long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motions and has sufficient redundancy and robustness for a broad range of earthquake ground motions.An automatic generation algorithm of this kind of smart structures of base-isolation and building-connection hybrid systems is presented in this paper. It is shown that, while the proposed algorithm does not work well in a building without the connecting-damper system, it works well in the proposed smart hybrid system with the connecting damper system.

  14. Automatic generation of smart earthquake-resistant building system: Hybrid system of base-isolation and building-connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kasagi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A base-isolated building may sometimes exhibit an undesirable large response to a long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motion and a connected building system without base-isolation may show a large response to a near-fault (rather high-frequency earthquake ground motion. To overcome both deficiencies, a new hybrid control system of base-isolation and building-connection is proposed and investigated. In this new hybrid building system, a base-isolated building is connected to a stiffer free wall with oil dampers. It has been demonstrated in a preliminary research that the proposed hybrid system is effective both for near-fault (rather high-frequency and long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motions and has sufficient redundancy and robustness for a broad range of earthquake ground motions.An automatic generation algorithm of this kind of smart structures of base-isolation and building-connection hybrid systems is presented in this paper. It is shown that, while the proposed algorithm does not work well in a building without the connecting-damper system, it works well in the proposed smart hybrid system with the connecting damper system.

  15. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE PRESSURE AND VACUUM CONTINUOUS CONTROL SYSTEM BASED ON HYBRID PUMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel pressure and vacuum continuous control system, which adopts a hybrid pump as pressure and vacuum source, is presented. The mathematical model of the system is developed. The theoretical simulation and analysis on the system are implemented in order to study the relationships among the characteristics, parameters and working points of the system. The experimental investigations on the system characteristics are presented with the adoption of a fuzzy-PID controller. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the pressure and vacuum continuous control system based on hybrid pump has good dynamic and static performance, strong robustness and satisfactory adaptability to various system parameters. According to the results, system can successfully gain high accuracy and fast response signal. Also, the mathematical model of system is also testified by the experimental results.

  16. Hybrid PID and PSO-based control for electric power assist steering system for electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, R. A.; Toha, S. F.; Ahmad, S.

    2013-12-01

    Electric power assist steering (EPAS) system provides an important significance in enhancing the driving performance of a vehicle with its energy-conserving features. This paper presents a hybrid PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) based control scheme to minimize energy consumption for EPAS. This single objective optimization scheme is realized using the PSO technique in searching for best gain parameters of the PID controller. The fast tuning feature of this optimum PID controller produced high-quality solutions. Simulation results show the performance and effectiveness of the hybrid PSO-PID based controller as opposed to the conventional PID controller.

  17. A hybrid system identification methodology for wireless structural health monitoring systems based on dynamic substructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragos, Kosmas; Smarsly, Kay

    2016-04-01

    System identification has been employed in numerous structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. Traditional system identification methods usually rely on centralized processing of structural response data to extract information on structural parameters. However, in wireless SHM systems the centralized processing of structural response data introduces a significant communication bottleneck. Exploiting the merits of decentralization and on-board processing power of wireless SHM systems, many system identification methods have been successfully implemented in wireless sensor networks. While several system identification approaches for wireless SHM systems have been proposed, little attention has been paid to obtaining information on the physical parameters (e.g. stiffness, damping) of the monitored structure. This paper presents a hybrid system identification methodology suitable for wireless sensor networks based on the principles of component mode synthesis (dynamic substructuring). A numerical model of the monitored structure is embedded into the wireless sensor nodes in a distributed manner, i.e. the entire model is segmented into sub-models, each embedded into one sensor node corresponding to the substructure the sensor node is assigned to. The parameters of each sub-model are estimated by extracting local mode shapes and by applying the equations of the Craig-Bampton method on dynamic substructuring. The proposed methodology is validated in a laboratory test conducted on a four-story frame structure to demonstrate the ability of the methodology to yield accurate estimates of stiffness parameters. Finally, the test results are discussed and an outlook on future research directions is provided.

  18. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  19. An Event-based Approach to Hybrid Systems Diagnosability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Diagnosability is an important issue in the design of diagnostic systems, because it helps identify whether sufficient information is available to distinguish all...

  20. USER RECOMMENDATION ALGORITHM IN SOCIAL TAGGING SYSTEM BASED ON HYBRID USER TRUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norwati Mustapha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of web 2.0 technologies, tagging become much more important today to facilitate personal organization and also provide a possibility for users to search information or discover new things with Collaborative Tagging Systems. However, the simplistic and user-centered design of this kind of systems cause the task of finding personally interesting users is becoming quite out of reach for the common user. Collaborative Filtering (CF seems to be the most popular technique in recommender systems to deal with information overload issue but CF suffers from accuracy limitation. This is because CF always been at-tack by malicious users that will make it suffers in finding the truly interesting users. With this problem in mind, this study proposes a hybrid User Trust method to enhance CF in order to increase accuracy of user recommendation in social tagging system. This method is a combination of developing trust network based on user interest similarity and trust network from social network analysis. The user interest similarity is de-rived from personalized user tagging information. The hybrid User Trust method is able to find the most trusted users and selected as neighbours to generate recommendations. Experimental results show that the hybrid method outperforms the traditional CF algorithm. In addition, it indicated that the hybrid method give more accurate recommendation than the existing CF based on user trust.

  1. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  2. A hybrid PKI-IBC based ephemerizer system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, S.K.; Dashti, M.T.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.; Venter, H.; Eloff, M.M.; Labuschagne, L.; Eloff, J.H.P.; Solms, R. von

    2007-01-01

    The concept of an Ephemerizer system has been introduced in earlier works as a mechanism to ensure that a file deleted from the persistent storage remains unrecoverable. The principle involved storing the data in an encrypted form in the user’s machine and the key to decrypt the data in a physically

  3. HYBRID HEURISTIC-BASED ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEM FOR TASK SCHEDULING

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Task scheduling problem in heterogeneous systems is the process of allocating tasks of an application to heterogeneous processors interconnected by high-speed networks, so that minimizing the finishing time of application as much as possible. Tasks are processing units of application and have precedenceconstrained, communication and also, are presented by Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs). Evolutionary algorithms are well suited for solving task scheduling problem in heterogeneous environment. I...

  4. Hybrid wireless-over-fiber transmission system based on multiple injection-locked FP LDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Chu, Chien-An; Ying, Cheng-Ling; Lu, Ting-Chien; Peng, Peng-Chun

    2015-07-27

    A hybrid wireless-over-fiber (WoF) transmission system based on multiple injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes (FP LDs) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Unlike the traditional hybrid WoF transmission systems that require multiple distributed feedback (DFB) LDs to support different kinds of services, the proposed system employs multiple injection-locked FP LDs to provide different kinds of applications. Such a hybrid WoF transmission system delivers downstream intensity-modulated 20-GHz microwave (MW)/60-GHz millimeter-wave (MMW)/550-MHz cable television (CATV) signals and upstream phase-remodulated 20-GHz MW signal. Excellent bit error rate (BER), carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), and composite triple-beat (CTB) are observed over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and a 4-m radio frequency (RF) wireless transport. Such a hybrid WoF transmission system has practical applications for fiber-wireless convergence to provide broadband integrated services, including telecommunication, data communication, and CATV services.

  5. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  6. PV-solar / Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA Type Mobile Telephony Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Station Md. Ibrahim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of optimized PV-Solar and Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA type mobile base station over conventional diesel generator for a particular site in south India (Chennai. For this hybrid system ,the meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Chennai (Longitude 80ο .16’and Latitude 13ο .5’ and the pattern of load consumption of mobile base station are studied and suitably modeled for optimization of the hybrid energy system using HOMER software. The simulation and optimization result gives the best optimized sizing of wind turbine and solar array with diesel generator for particular GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station. This system is more cost effective and environmental friendly over the conventional diesel generator. The presented system reduce approximate 70%-80% fuel cost over conventional diesel generator and also reduced the emission of CO2 and other harmful gasses in environments. It is expected that the proposed developed and installed system will provide very good opportunities for telecom sector in near future.

  7. PV-solar / wind hybrid energy system for GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya Nema, R.K. Nema, Saroj Rangnekar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the design idea of optimized PV-Solar and Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA type mobile base station over conventional diesel generator for a particular site in central India (Bhopal . For this hybrid system ,the meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Bhopal-Central India (Longitude 77o.23'and Latitude 23o.21' and the pattern of load consumption of mobile base station are studied and suitably modeled for optimization of the hybrid energy system using HOMER software. The simulation and optimization result gives the best optimized sizing of wind turbine and solar array with diesel generator for particular GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station. This system is more cost effective and environmental friendly over the conventional diesel generator. It should reduced approximate 70%-80% fuel cost over conventional diesel generator and also reduced the emission of CO2 and other harmful gasses in environments. It is expected that the newly developed and installed system will provide very good opportunities for telecom sector in near future.

  8. PV-solar / wind hybrid energy system for GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nema, Pragya; Rangnekar, Saroj [Energy Engineering Department, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology , Bhopal-462007 M.P. (India); Nema, R.K. [Electrical Engineering Department, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal-462007 M.P. (India)

    2010-07-01

    This paper gives the design idea of optimized PV-Solar and Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA type mobile base station over conventional diesel generator for a particular site in central India (Bhopal). For this hybrid system ,the meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Bhopal-Central India (Longitude 77 deg.23'and Latitude 23 deg.21' ) and the pattern of load consumption of mobile base station are studied and suitably modeled for optimization of the hybrid energy system using HOMER software. The simulation and optimization result gives the best optimized sizing of wind turbine and solar array with diesel generator for particular GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station. This system is more cost effective and environmental friendly over the conventional diesel generator. It should reduced approximate 70%-80% fuel cost over conventional diesel generator and also reduced the emission of CO2 and other harmful gasses in environments. It is expected that the newly developed and installed system will provide very good opportunities for telecom sector in near future.

  9. Formal Description of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chaochen; Ji, Wang; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    A language to describe hybrid systems, i.e. networks of communicating discrete and continuous processes, is proposed. A semantics of the language is given in Extended Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic with a proof system that allows reasoning in mathematical analysis about continuous ...... processes to be embedded into the logic. The semantics thus provides a secure link to hybrid system models based on a general theory of dynamical systems....

  10. Digital controller for hybrid filter in HVDC based on approximate inverse system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Ling; ZHAO Dong-yuan; CHEN Jian-ye; WANG Zan-ji

    2006-01-01

    In order to eliminate the characteristic harmonics in high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems and to simplify the analog controller structure,this paper proposes a new digital controller by adopting an approximate inverse system control strategy according to the frequency response characteristic of the hybrid power filter.The proposed digital controller is implemented with a TMS320C32 DSP,including a series of parallel digital band-pass filters,phase shifters and amplifiers.The results of both simulations based on PSCAD and experiments on a 30 kVA HVDC system prove that the proposed digital control system is stable and efficient for eliminating the harmonics.

  11. A hybrid WDM transport system based on mutually injection-locked Fabry Perot laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Cheng-Ling; Lu, Hai-Han; Tzeng, Shah-Jye; Ma, Hsien-Li; Chuang, Yao-Wei

    2007-08-01

    A hybrid wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transport system based on mutually injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes (FP LDs) for CATV, 256-QAM and OC-48 transmission is proposed and demonstrated. Mutually injection-locked FP LDs as broadband light source could be relatively simple and cost-effective compared with other demonstrated light source schemes. The proposed hybrid WDM transport system employs four filtered wavelengths (modes) to transmit 111 AM-VSB channels, four 256-QAM digital passband channels, and one OC-48 digital baseband channel simultaneously. Since our proposed system does not use multiple distributed feedback (DFB) LDs, it reveals a prominent one with simpler and more economic advantages.

  12. Observer-based hybrid control algorithm for semi-active suspension systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任宏斌; 陈思忠; 赵玉壮; 刘刚; 杨林

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve ride comfort and handling performance of the vehicle, an adaptive hybrid control algorithm is proposed for semi-active suspension systems. The virtues of sky-hook is combined with ground-hook control strategies and a more suitable compromise for the suspension systems is chosen. The hybrid coefficient is tuned according to the longitudinal and lateral acceleration so as to improve the vehicle stability especially in high speed conditions. Damping continuous adjustable absorber is used to continuously control the damping force so as to eliminate the damping force jerk instead of traditional on-off control policy. Based on suspension stroke measured by sensors, unscented Kalman filter is designed to estimate the suspension states in real-time for the realization of hybrid control, which improves the robustness of the control strategy and is adaptive to different types of road profiles. Finally, the proposed control algorithm is validated under the following two typical road profiles: half-sine speed bump road and the random road. The simulation results indicate that the hybrid control algorithm could offer a good coordination between ride comfort and handling of the vehicle.

  13. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  14. A Rule Based Energy Management System of Experimental Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simple and efficient rule based energy management system for battery and supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS used in electric vehicles is presented. The objective of the proposed energy management system is to focus on exploiting the supercapacitor characteristics and on increasing the battery lifetime and system efficiency. The role of the energy management system is to yield battery reference current, which is subsequently used by the controller of the DC/DC converter. First, a current controller is designed to realize load current distribution between battery and supercapacitor. Then a voltage controller is designed to ensure the supercapacitor SOC to fluctuate within a preset reasonable variation range. Finally, a commercial experimental platform is developed to verify the proposed control strategy. In addition, the energy efficiency and the cost analysis of the hybrid system are carried out based on the experimental results to explore the most cost-effective tradeoff.

  15. An FEM-Based State Estimation Approach to Nonlinear Hybrid Positioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xin Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For hybrid positioning systems (HPSs, the estimator design is a crucial and important problem. In this paper, a finite-element-method- (FEM- based state estimation approach is proposed to HPS. As the weak solution of hybrid stochastic differential model is denoted by the Kolmogorov's forward equation, this paper constructs its interpolating point through the classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Then, it approaches the solution with biquadratic interpolation function to obtain a prior probability density function of the state. A posterior probability density function is gained through Bayesian formula finally. In theory, the proposed scheme has more advantages in the performance of complexity and convergence for low-dimensional systems. By taking an illustrative example, numerical experiment results show that the new state estimator is feasible and has good performance than PF and UKF.

  16. Hybrid Multi-objective Forecasting of Solar Photovoltaic Output Using Kalman Filter based Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Saima; Ahmadieh Khanesar, Mojtaba; Hajizadeh, Amin;

    2017-01-01

    Learning of fuzzy parameters for system modeling using evolutionary algorithms is an interesting topic. In this paper, two optimal design and tuning of Interval type-2 fuzzy logic system are proposed using hybrid learning algorithms. The consequent parameters of the interval type-2 fuzzy logic...... system in both the hybrid algorithms are tuned using Kalman filter. Whereas the antecedent parameters of the system in the first hybrid algorithm is optimized using the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) and using the multi-objective evolutionary algorithm Based on Decomposition (MOEA....../D) in the second hybrid algorithm. Root mean square error and maximum absolute error as the two accuracy objective are utilized to find the Pareto-optimal solution with the MOPSO and MOEA/D respectively. The proposed hybrid multi-objective designs of the interval type-2 fuzzy logic system are utilized...

  17. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  18. Full-Order Disturbance-Observer-Based Control for Singular Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuming Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the disturbance-observer-based control for singular hybrid system with two types of disturbances is addressed in this paper. Under the assumption that the system states are, unavailable, full-order observers (for both system states and the disturbance and a nonlinear control scheme are constructed, such that the composite system can be guaranteed to be stochastically admissible, and the two types of disturbances can be attenuated and rejected, simultaneously. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, sufficient conditions for the existence of the desired full-order disturbance-observer-based controllers are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Finally, a numerical example is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  19. A system-on-chip and paper-based inkjet printed electrodes for a hybrid wearable bio-sensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Yang, Geng; Mäntysalo, Matti; Jonsson, Fredrik; Zheng, Li-Rong

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid wearable bio-sensing system, which combines traditional small-area low-power and high-performance System-on-Chip (SoC), flexible paper substrate and cost-effective Printed Electronics. Differential bio-signals are measured, digitized, stored and transmitted by the SoC. The total area of the chip is 1.5 × 3.0 mm(2). This enables the miniaturization of the wearable system. The electrodes and interconnects are inkjet printed on paper substrate and the performance is verified in in-vivo tests. The quality of electrocardiogram signal sensed by printed electrodes is comparable with commercial electrodes, with noise level slightly increased. The paper-based inkjet printed system is flexible, light and thin, which makes the final system comfortable for end-users. The hybrid bio-sensing system offers a potential solution to the next generation wearable healthcare technology.

  20. for hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Haddad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a unified dynamical systems framework for a general class of systems possessing left-continuous flows; that is, left-continuous dynamical systems. These systems are shown to generalize virtually all existing notions of dynamical systems and include hybrid, impulsive, and switching dynamical systems as special cases. Furthermore, we generalize dissipativity, passivity, and nonexpansivity theory to left-continuous dynamical systems. Specifically, the classical concepts of system storage functions and supply rates are extended to left-continuous dynamical systems providing a generalized hybrid system energy interpretation in terms of stored energy, dissipated energy over the continuous-time dynamics, and dissipated energy over the resetting events. Finally, the generalized dissipativity notions are used to develop general stability criteria for feedback interconnections of left-continuous dynamical systems. These results generalize the positivity and small gain theorems to the case of left-continuous, hybrid, and impulsive dynamical systems.

  1. Lyapunov based control of hybrid energy storage system in electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, H.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a Lyapunov based control principle in a hybrid energy storage system for electric vehicle. The storage system consists on fuel cell (FC) as a main power source and a supercapacitor (SC) as an auxiliary power source. The power stage of energy conversion consists on a boost...... converter connected with the main source and a buck-boost converter connected with the auxiliary source. The converters share the same dc bus which is connected to the traction motor through an inverter. The aim is controlling power converters in order to satisfy the following requirements: i) tight dc bus...

  2. A PDMS-Based Cylindrical Hybrid Lens for Enhanced Fluorescence Detection in Microfluidic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shyh Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic systems based on fluorescence detection have been developed and applied for many biological and chemical applications. Because of the tiny amount of sample in the system; the induced fluorescence can be weak. Therefore, most microfluidic systems deploy multiple optical components or sophisticated equipment to enhance the efficiency of fluorescence detection. However, these strategies encounter common issues of complex manufacturing processes and high costs. In this study; a miniature, cylindrical and hybrid lens made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS to improve the fluorescence detection in microfluidic systems is proposed. The hybrid lens integrates a laser focusing lens and a fluorescence collecting lens to achieve dual functions and simplify optical setup. Moreover, PDMS has advantages of low-cost and straightforward fabrication compared with conventional optical components. The performance of the proposed lens is first examined with two fluorescent dyes and the results show that the lens provides satisfactory enhancement for fluorescence detection of Rhodamine 6G and Nile Red. The overall increments in collected fluorescence signal and detection sensitivity are more than 220% of those without lens, and the detection limits of Rhodamine 6G and Nile red are lowered to 0.01 μg/mL and 0.05 μg/mL, respectively. The hybrid lens is further applied to the detection of Nile red-labeled Chlorella vulgaris cells and it increases both signal intensity and detection sensitivity by more than 520%. The proposed hybrid lens also dramatically reduces the variation in detected signal caused by the deviation in incident angle of excitation light.

  3. A PDMS-based cylindrical hybrid lens for enhanced fluorescence detection in microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Shyh; Yang, Yu-Ching; Ho, Chong-Yi; Yang, Han-Yu; Wang, Hsiang-Yu

    2014-02-13

    Microfluidic systems based on fluorescence detection have been developed and applied for many biological and chemical applications. Because of the tiny amount of sample in the system; the induced fluorescence can be weak. Therefore, most microfluidic systems deploy multiple optical components or sophisticated equipment to enhance the efficiency of fluorescence detection. However, these strategies encounter common issues of complex manufacturing processes and high costs. In this study; a miniature, cylindrical and hybrid lens made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to improve the fluorescence detection in microfluidic systems is proposed. The hybrid lens integrates a laser focusing lens and a fluorescence collecting lens to achieve dual functions and simplify optical setup. Moreover, PDMS has advantages of low-cost and straightforward fabrication compared with conventional optical components. The performance of the proposed lens is first examined with two fluorescent dyes and the results show that the lens provides satisfactory enhancement for fluorescence detection of Rhodamine 6G and Nile Red. The overall increments in collected fluorescence signal and detection sensitivity are more than 220% of those without lens, and the detection limits of Rhodamine 6G and Nile red are lowered to 0.01 μg/mL and 0.05 μg/mL, respectively. The hybrid lens is further applied to the detection of Nile red-labeled Chlorella vulgaris cells and it increases both signal intensity and detection sensitivity by more than 520%. The proposed hybrid lens also dramatically reduces the variation in detected signal caused by the deviation in incident angle of excitation light.

  4. Using a hybrid neural/expert system for data base mining in market survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesielski, V.; Palstra, G. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Technology (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the application of a hybrid neural/expert system network to the task of finding significant events in a market research data base. Neural networks trained by backward error propagation are used to classify trends in the time series data. A rule system then uses these classifications, knowledge of market research analysis techniques and external events which influence the time series, to infer the significance of the data. The system achieved 86% recall and 100% precision on a test set of 6 months of survey data. This was significantly better than could be achieved by a system using linear regression together with a rule system. Both systems were able to perform analysis of the test data in under 5 minutes. The manual analysis of the same data took a human expert over four working days.

  5. A Novel Image Encryption Scheme Based on Multi-orbit Hybrid of Discrete Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisong Ye

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A multi-orbit hybrid image encryption scheme based on discrete chaotic dynamical systems is proposed. One generalized Arnold map is adopted to generate three orbits for three initial conditions. Another chaotic dynamical system, tent map, is applied to generate one pseudo-random sequence to determine the hybrid orbit points from which one of the three orbits of generalized Arnold map. The hybrid orbit sequence is then utilized to shuffle the pixels' positions of plain-image so as to get one permuted image. To enhance the encryption security, two rounds of pixel gray values' diffusion is employed as well. The proposed encryption scheme is simple and easy to manipulate. The security and performance of the proposed image encryption have been analyzed, including histograms, correlation coefficients, information entropy, key sensitivity analysis, key space analysis, differential analysis, etc. All the experimental results suggest that the proposed image encryption scheme is robust and secure and can be used for secure image and video communication applications.

  6. Integrated ion sensor device applications based on printed hybrid material systems (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2016-09-01

    Comfortable, wearable sensors and computers will enhance every person's awareness of his or her health condition, environment, chemical pollutants, potential hazards, and information of interest. In agriculture and in the food industry there is a need for a constant control of the condition and needs of plants, animals, and farm products. Yet many of these applications depend upon the development of novel, cheap devices and sensors that are easy to implement and to integrate. Organic semiconductors as well as several inorganic materials and hybrid material systems have proven to combine a number of intriguing optical and electronic properties with simple processing methods. As it will be reviewed in this contribution, these materials are believed to find their application in printed electronic devices allowing for the development of smart disposable devices in food-, health-, and environmental monitoring, diagnostics and control, possibly integrated into arrays of sensor elements for multi-parameter detection. In this contribution we review past and recent achievements in the field. Followed by a brief introduction, we will focus on two topics being on the agenda recently: a) the use of electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor (EGOFET) and ion-selective membrane based sensors for in-situ sensing of ions and biological substances and b) the development of hybrid material based resistive switches and their integration into fully functional, printed hybrid crossbar sensor array structures.

  7. Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppens, F H L; Mueller, T; Avouris, Ph; Ferrari, A C; Vitiello, M S; Polini, M

    2014-10-01

    Graphene and other two-dimensional materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides, have rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for optoelectronic applications, with a strong focus on various photodetection platforms. The versatility of these material systems enables their application in areas including ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in the ultraviolet, visible, infrared and terahertz frequency ranges. These detectors can be integrated with other photonic components based on the same material, as well as with silicon photonic and electronic technologies. Here, we provide an overview and evaluation of state-of-the-art photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials, and hybrid systems based on the combination of different two-dimensional crystals or of two-dimensional crystals and other (nano)materials, such as plasmonic nanoparticles, semiconductors, quantum dots, or their integration with (silicon) waveguides.

  8. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...... to the differential action, thus, allowing stepwise development of hybrid systems Udgivelsesdato: JAN 1...

  9. Hybrid Multicriteria Group Decision Making Method for Information System Project Selection Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Information system (IS project selection is of critical importance to every organization in dynamic competing environment. The aim of this paper is to develop a hybrid multicriteria group decision making approach based on intuitionistic fuzzy theory for IS project selection. The decision makers’ assessment information can be expressed in the form of real numbers, interval-valued numbers, linguistic variables, and intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs. All these evaluation pieces of information can be transformed to the form of IFNs. Intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging (IFWA operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers into a group opinion. Intuitionistic fuzzy entropy is used to obtain the entropy weights of the criteria. TOPSIS method combined with intuitionistic fuzzy set is proposed to select appropriate IS project in group decision making environment. Finally, a numerical example for information system projects selection is given to illustrate application of hybrid multi-criteria group decision making (MCGDM method based on intuitionistic fuzzy theory and TOPSIS method.

  10. Test Time Minimization for Hybrid BIST of Core-Based Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gert Jervan; Petru Eles; Zebo Peng; Raimund Ubar; Maksim Jenihhin

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to the test time minimization problem for core-based systems. We assume a hybrid BIST approach, where a test set is assembled, for each core, from pseudorandom test patterns that are generated online, and deterministic test patterns that are generated off-line and stored in the system. In this paper we propose an iterative algorithm to find the optimal combination of pseudorandom and deterministic test sets of the whole system,consisting of multiple cores, under given memory constraints, so that the total test time is minimized. Our approach employs a fast estimation methodology in order to avoid exhaustive search and to speed-up the calculation process. Experimental results have shown the efficiency of the algorithm to find near optimal solutions.

  11. A Dynamic Effective Fault Tolerance System in Robotic Manipulator using a Hybrid Neural Network based Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jiji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Robot manipulator play important role in the field of automobile industry, mainly it is used in gas welding application and manufacturing and assembling of motor parts. In complex trajectory, on each joint the speed of the robot manipulator is affected. For that reason, it is necessary to analyze the noise and vibration of robot's joints for predicting faults also improve the control precision of robotic manipulator. In this study we will propose a new fault detection system for Robot manipulator. The proposed hybrid fault detection system is designed based on fuzzy support vector machine and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs. In this system the decouple joints are identified and corrected using fuzzy SVM, here non-linear signal are used for complete process and treatment, the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs are used to detect the free-swinging and locked joint of the robot, two types of neural predictors are also employed in the proposed adaptive neural network structure. The simulation results of a hybrid controller demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the methodology.

  12. A Method for Cyber-Physical System Behavior Modeling and Safety Verification Based on Extended Hybrid System Description Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuo Ming Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of Cyber-physical system(CPS is up to its behavior, and it is a key property for CPS to be applied in critical application fields. A method for CPS behavior modeling and safety verification is put forward in this paper. The behavior model of CPS is described by extended hybrid system description language(EHYSDEL. The formal definition of hybrid program(HP is given, and the behavior model is transformed to HP based on the definition. The safety of CPS is verified by inputting the HP to KeYmarea. The advantage of the approach is that it models CPS intuitively and verify it’s safety strictly avoiding the state space explosion

  13. Hybrid electric system based on fuel cell and battery and integrating a single dc/dc converter for a tramway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Luis M., E-mail: luis.fernandez@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Garcia, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.garcia@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Garcia, Carlos Andres, E-mail: carlosandres.garcia@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Jurado, Francisco, E-mail: fjurado@ujaen.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Linares, University of Jaen, C/Alfonso X, No. 28. 23700 Linares (Jaen) (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. {yields} Hybrid system based on PEM fuel cell with dc/dc converter and Ni-MH battery. {yields} New control strategy for the energy management of the tramway. {yields} Hybrid system demonstrated to meet appropriate driving cycle of the tramway. -- Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. The hybrid system consists of two electrical energy sources integrating a single dc/dc converter to provide the power demanded by the tramway loads (four electric traction motors and auxiliary services): (1) a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) as the primary and (2) a rechargeable Ni-MH battery as electrical energy storage to supplement the FC over the driving cycle. According to the requirements of the real driving cycle of the tramway, it was considered a 200 kW PEM FC system with two FCs connected in parallel and a 34 Ah Ni-MH battery. The PEM FC and Ni-MH battery models were designed from commercially available components. The power conditioning system provides the appropriate power for the tramway. It is composed of: (1) a unique dc/dc boot converter which adapts the FC output voltage to the 750 V traction standard dc bus; (2) three phase inverters to drive properly each electric motors; and (3) a braking chopper to dissipate excess of regenerative braking energy. Suitable state machine control architecture is presented for the hybrid system, its objective being to provide demanded power by the driving cycle, optimizing the energy generated. Following this objective, a new state machine control strategy based on eight states decides the operating point of each component of the system and a cascade control structure allows achieving the operating points determined by the strategy. Simulation results of the real driving cycle of the tramway check the adequacy of the hybrid electric power system.

  14. Model-based optimal control of a hybrid power generation system consisting of photovoltaic arrays and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, P. L.; Sarimveis, H.; Palyvos, J. A.; Markatos, N. C. G.

    Hybrid renewable energy systems are expected to become competitive to conventional power generation systems in the near future and, thus, optimization of their operation is of particular interest. In this work, a hybrid power generation system is studied consisting of the following main components: photovoltaic array (PV), electrolyser, metal hydride tanks, and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The key advantage of the hybrid system compared to stand-alone photovoltaic systems is that it can store efficiently solar energy by transforming it to hydrogen, which is the fuel supplied to the fuel cell. However, decision making regarding the operation of this system is a rather complicated task. A complete framework is proposed for managing such systems that is based on a rolling time horizon philosophy.

  15. Exact hybrid particle/population simulation of rule-based models of biochemical systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin S Hogg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Detailed modeling and simulation of biochemical systems is complicated by the problem of combinatorial complexity, an explosion in the number of species and reactions due to myriad protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications. Rule-based modeling overcomes this problem by representing molecules as structured objects and encoding their interactions as pattern-based rules. This greatly simplifies the process of model specification, avoiding the tedious and error prone task of manually enumerating all species and reactions that can potentially exist in a system. From a simulation perspective, rule-based models can be expanded algorithmically into fully-enumerated reaction networks and simulated using a variety of network-based simulation methods, such as ordinary differential equations or Gillespie's algorithm, provided that the network is not exceedingly large. Alternatively, rule-based models can be simulated directly using particle-based kinetic Monte Carlo methods. This "network-free" approach produces exact stochastic trajectories with a computational cost that is independent of network size. However, memory and run time costs increase with the number of particles, limiting the size of system that can be feasibly simulated. Here, we present a hybrid particle/population simulation method that combines the best attributes of both the network-based and network-free approaches. The method takes as input a rule-based model and a user-specified subset of species to treat as population variables rather than as particles. The model is then transformed by a process of "partial network expansion" into a dynamically equivalent form that can be simulated using a population-adapted network-free simulator. The transformation method has been implemented within the open-source rule-based modeling platform BioNetGen, and resulting hybrid models can be simulated using the particle-based simulator NFsim. Performance tests show that

  16. Modular Hybrid Energy Concept Employing a Novel Control Structure Based on a Simple Analog System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETREUS, D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel control topology which enables the setup of a low cost analog system leading to the implementation of a modular energy conversion system. The modular concept is based on hybrid renewable energy (solar and wind and uses high voltage inverters already available on the market. An important feature of the proposed topology is a permanently active current loop, which assures short circuit protection and simplifies the control loops compensation. The innovative analogue solution of the control structure is based on a dedicated integrated circuit (IC for power factor correction (PFC circuits, used in a new configuration, to assure an efficient inverter start-up. The energy conversion system (control structure and maximum power point tracking algorithm is simulated using a new macromodel-based concept, which reduces the usual computational burden of the simulator and achieves high processing speed. The proposed novel system is presented in this article from concept, through the design and implementation stages, is verified through simulation and is validated by experimental results.

  17. Power Management Based Current Control Technique for Photovoltaic-Battery Assisted Wind-Hydro Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Prabhakar, J.; Ragavan, K.

    2013-07-01

    This article proposes new power management based current control strategy for integrated wind-solar-hydro system equipped with battery storage mechanism. In this control technique, an indirect estimation of load current is done, through energy balance model, DC-link voltage control and droop control. This system features simpler energy management strategy and necessitates few power electronic converters, thereby minimizing the cost of the system. The generation-demand (G-D) management diagram is formulated based on the stochastic weather conditions and demand, which would likely moderate the gap between both. The features of management strategy deploying energy balance model include (1) regulating DC-link voltage within specified tolerances, (2) isolated operation without relying on external electric power transmission network, (3) indirect current control of hydro turbine driven induction generator and (4) seamless transition between grid-connected and off-grid operation modes. Furthermore, structuring of the hybrid system with appropriate selection of control variables enables power sharing among each energy conversion systems and battery storage mechanism. By addressing these intricacies, it is viable to regulate the frequency and voltage of the remote network at load end. The performance of the proposed composite scheme is demonstrated through time-domain simulation in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  18. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Eltamaly, Ali M.; Alolah, Abdulrahman I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers. PMID:27513000

  19. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed A; Eltamaly, Ali M; Alolah, Abdulrahman I

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers.

  20. Hybrid grammar-based approach to nonlinear dynamical system identification from biological time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, B. A.; Crowe, J. E., Jr.; Voss, H. U.; Crooke, P. S.; Barney, N.; Moore, J. H.

    2006-02-01

    We introduce a grammar-based hybrid approach to reverse engineering nonlinear ordinary differential equation models from observed time series. This hybrid approach combines a genetic algorithm to search the space of model architectures with a Kalman filter to estimate the model parameters. Domain-specific knowledge is used in a context-free grammar to restrict the search space for the functional form of the target model. We find that the hybrid approach outperforms a pure evolutionary algorithm method, and we observe features in the evolution of the dynamical models that correspond with the emergence of favorable model components. We apply the hybrid method to both artificially generated time series and experimentally observed protein levels from subjects who received the smallpox vaccine. From the observed data, we infer a cytokine protein interaction network for an individual’s response to the smallpox vaccine.

  1. Hybrid Automaton Based Controller Design for Damage Mitigation of Islanded Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Sudipta

    some of these limitations, we derive a hybrid automaton model of a power system as a Discrete Event System (DES) plant and controller. The DES plant consists of a switched continuous system with an interface. The system state space is categorized based on safety criteria and discrete control specifications are embedded as transition rules within the DES controller. The DES controller searches for feasible control policies that drive the system trajectories from unsafe states to safe states. We define metrics to quantify the performance of these policies, thus allowing the derivation of the most suitable policy for a set of design specifications and disturbance type. Applications in voltage control, frequency control and dynamic service restoration is presented on a benchmark power system with approximately forty continuous states and eighteen thousand discrete states. To enable the analysis, we build a computational framework based on efficient symbolic computation tools in Mathematica and numerical integration tools in Matlab / Simulink so that the methodology can be replicated for a wide variety of applications. The framework is quite general, and may be expanded to problems beyond power systems.

  2. Hybrid Genetic Crossover Based Swarm Intelligence Optimization for Efficient Resource Allocation in MIMO OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sathish Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of wireless services, leads to ubiquitous personal connectivity in the world. The demand for multimedia interactivity is higher in the world which leads to the requirement of high data transmission rate. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM is a future wireless service which is used to overcome the existing service problems such as development of subscriber pool and higher throughput per user. Although it overcomes the problems in existing services, resource allocation becomes one of the major issues in the MIMO-OFDM systems. Resource allocation in MIMO-OFDM is the optimization of subcarrier and power allocation for the user. The overall performance of the system can be improved only with the efficient resource allocation approach. The user data rate is increased by efficient allocation of the subcarrier and power allocation for each user at the base station, which is subject to constraints on total power and bit error rate. In this study, the problem of resource allocation in MIMO-OFDM system is tackled using hybrid artificial bee colony optimization algorithm based on a crossover operation along with Poisson-Jensen in equation. The experimental results show that the proposed methodology is better than the existing techniques.

  3. A miniature batteryless health and usage monitoring system based on hybrid energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chenling; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2011-04-01

    The cost and size of the state-of-the-art health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS) are determined by capacity of on-board energy storage which limits their large scale deployment. In this paper, we present a miniature low-cost mechanical HUMS integrated circuit (IC) based on the concept of hybrid energy harvesting where continuous monitoring is achieved by self-powering, where as the programming, localization and communication with the sensor is achieved using remote RF powering. The self-powered component of the proposed HUMS is based on our previous result which used a controllable hot electron injection on floatinggate transistor as an ultra-low power signal processor. We show that the HUMS IC can seamlessly switch between different energy harvesting modes based on the availability of ambient RF power and that the configuration, programming and communication functions can be remotely performed without physically accessing the HUMS device. All the measured results presented in this paper have been obtained from prototypes fabricated in a 0.5 micron standard CMOS process and the entire system has been successfully integrated on a 1.5cm x 1.5cm package.

  4. Digital signal processing system design LabVIEW-bases hybrid programming

    CERN Document Server

    Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Peng, Qingzhong

    2008-01-01

    Reflecting LabView's new MathScripting feature, the new edition of this book combines textual and graphical programming to form a hybrid programming approach, enabling a more effective means of building and analyzing DSP systems. The hybrid programming approach allows the use of previously developed textual programming solutions to be integrated into LabVIEW's highly interactive and visual environment, providing an easier and quicker method for building DSP systems.Features * The only DSP laboratory book that combines both textual and graphical programming * 12 lab experime

  5. Preliminary Modelling Results for an Otto Cycle/Stirling Cycle Hybrid-engine-based Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Barry; McGovern, Jim; Feidt, Michel; Petrescu, Stoian

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary data and results for a system mathematical model for a proposed Otto Cycle / Stirling Cycle hybrid-engine-based power generation system. The system is a combined cycle system with the Stirling cycle machine operating as a bottoming cycle on the Otto cycle exhaust. The application considered is that of a stationary power generation scenario wherein the Stirling cycle engine operates as a waste heat recovery device on the exhaust stream of the Otto cycle engine. ...

  6. Design of an off-grid hybrid PV/wind power system for remote mobile base station: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulualem T. Yeshalem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear challenge to provide reliable cellular mobile service at remote locations where a reliable power supply is not available. So, the existing Mobile towers or Base Transceiver Station (BTSs uses a conventional diesel generator with backup battery banks. This paper presents the solution to utilizing a hybrid of photovoltaic (PV solar and wind power system with a backup battery bank to provide feasibility and reliable electric power for a specific remote mobile base station located at west arise, Oromia. All the necessary modeling, simulation, and techno-economic evaluation are carried out using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software. The best optimal system configurations namely PV/Battery and PV/Wind/Battery hybrid systems are compared with the conventional stand-alone diesel generator (DG system. Findings indicated that PV array and battery is the most economically viable option with the total net present cost (NPC of $\\$$57,508 and per unit cost of electricity (COE of $\\$$0.355. Simulation results show that the hybrid energy systems can minimize the power generation cost significantly and can decrease CO2 emissions as compared to the traditional diesel generator only. The sensitivity analysis is also carried out to analysis the effects of probable variation in solar radiation, wind speed, diesel price and average annual energy usage of the system load in the optimal system configurations.

  7. A Novel Mittag-Leffler Kernel Based Hybrid Fault Diagnosis Method for Wheeled Robot Driving System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfeng Yuan

    2015-01-01

    presents a novel hybrid fault diagnosis framework based on Mittag-Leffler kernel (ML-kernel support vector machine (SVM and Dempster-Shafer (D-S fusion. Using sensor data sampled under different running conditions, the proposed approach initially establishes multiple principal component analysis (PCA models for fault feature extraction. The fault feature vectors are then applied to train the probabilistic SVM (PSVM classifiers that arrive at a preliminary fault diagnosis. To improve the accuracy of preliminary results, a novel ML-kernel based PSVM classifier is proposed in this paper, and the positive definiteness of the ML-kernel is proved as well. The basic probability assignments (BPAs are defined based on the preliminary fault diagnosis results and their confidence values. Eventually, the final fault diagnosis result is archived by the fusion of the BPAs. Experimental results show that the proposed framework not only is capable of detecting and identifying the faults in the robot driving system, but also has better performance in stability and diagnosis accuracy compared with the traditional methods.

  8. A Wind Power and Load Prediction Based Frequency Control Approach for Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Peng; Zhenzhen Zhang; Jia Wu

    2015-01-01

    A frequency control approach based on wind power and load power prediction information is proposed for wind-diesel-battery hybrid power system (WDBHPS). To maintain the frequency stability by wind power and diesel generation as much as possible, a fuzzy control theory based wind and diesel power control module is designed according to wind power and load prediction information. To compensate frequency fluctuation in real time and enhance system disturbance rejection ability, a battery energy ...

  9. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  10. A Novel Evaluation Model for Hybrid Power System Based on Vague Set and Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxiao Niu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Because clean energy and traditional energy have different advantages and disadvantages, it is of great significance to evaluate comprehensive benefits for hybrid power systems. Based on thorough analysis of important characters on hybrid power systems, an index system including security, economic benefit, environmental benefit, and social benefit is established in this paper. Due to advantages of processing abundant uncertain and fuzzy information, vague set is used to determine the decision matrix. Convert vague decision matrix to real one by vague combination ruleand determine uncertain degrees of different indexes by grey incidence analysis, then the mass functions of different comment set in different indexes are obtained. Information can be fused in accordance with Dempster-Shafer (D-S combination rule and the evaluation result is got by vague set and D-S evidence theory. A simulation of hybrid power system including thermal power, wind power, and photovoltaic power in China is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of the proposed design scheme. It can be clearly seen that the uncertainties in decision making can be dramatically decreased compared with existing methods in the literature. The actual implementation results illustrate that the proposed index system and evaluation model based on vague set and D-S evidence theory are effective and practical to evaluate comprehensive benefit of hybrid power system.

  11. Consensus of Hybrid Multi-Agent Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanshi; Ma, Jingying; Wang, Long

    2017-01-27

    In this brief, we consider the consensus problem of hybrid multiagent systems. First, the hybrid multiagent system is proposed, which is composed of continuous-time and discrete-time dynamic agents. Then, three kinds of consensus protocols are presented for the hybrid multiagent system. The analysis tool developed in this brief is based on the matrix theory and graph theory. With different restrictions of the sampling period, some necessary and sufficient conditions are established for solving the consensus of the hybrid multiagent system. The consensus states are also obtained under different protocols. Finally, simulation examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  12. Unit Sizing and Cost Analysis of Renewable Energy based Hybrid Power Generation System - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin AGARWAL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model is developed for optimal sizing and analysis of a PV-diesel-battery based hybrid power generation system with the objectives to minimize life cycle cost and CO2 emission, while maintaining the desired system autonomy. A case study of a boy’s hostel in Moradabad district is taken for analysis purposes. It has 91 rooms with a capacity of 3 boys in each room. The decision variables included in the optimization methodology are total PV area, number of PV modules of 600 Wp, diesel generator power, fuel consumption per year and number of 24 V and 150 Ah batteries. The simulation result shows that the PV percentage of 86 % and diesel penetration of 14 % gives the most optimized solution with minimum LCC of $110,547 and average CO2 emission of 28 kg/day. The developed model has been validated by comparing its results with earlier research work.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.24

  13. A Hybrid System based on Multi-Agent System in the Data Preprocessing Stage

    CERN Document Server

    Kularbphettong, Kobkul; Meesad, Phayung

    2010-01-01

    We describe the usage of the Multi-agent system in the data preprocessing stage of an on-going project, called e-Wedding. The aim of this project is to utilize MAS and various approaches, like Web services, Ontology, and Data mining techniques, in e-Business that want to improve responsiveness and efficiency of systems so as to extract customer behavior model on Wedding Businesses. However, in this paper, we propose and implement the multi-agent-system, based on JADE, to only cope data preprocessing stage specified on handle with missing value techniques. JADE is quite easy to learn and use. Moreover, it supports many agent approaches such as agent communication, protocol, behavior and ontology. This framework has been experimented and evaluated in the realization of a simple, but realistic. The results, though still preliminary, are quite.

  14. Statistical Model Checking for Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Du, Dehui; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents novel extensions and applications of the UPPAAL-SMC model checker. The extensions allow for statistical model checking of stochastic hybrid systems. We show how our race-based stochastic semantics extends to networks of hybrid systems, and indicate the integration technique ap...

  15. Prediction of protein secondary structure using probability based features and a hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanty, Pradip; Pal, Nikhil R; Mudi, Rajani K

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we propose some co-occurrence probability-based features for prediction of protein secondary structure. The features are extracted using occurrence/nonoccurrence of secondary structures in the protein sequences. We explore two types of features: position-specific (based on position of amino acid on fragments of protein sequences) as well as position-independent (independent of amino acid position on fragments of protein sequences). We use a hybrid system, NEUROSVM, consisting of neural networks and support vector machines for classification of secondary structures. We propose two schemes NSVMps and NSVM for protein secondary structure prediction. The NSVMps uses position-specific probability-based features and NEUROSVM classifier whereas NSVM uses the same classifier with position-independent probability-based features. The proposed method falls in the single-sequence category of methods because it does not use any sequence profile information such as position specific scoring matrices (PSSM) derived from PSI-BLAST. Two widely used datasets RS126 and CB513 are used in the experiments. The results obtained using the proposed features and NEUROSVM classifier are better than most of the existing single-sequence prediction methods. Most importantly, the results using NSVMps that are obtained using lower dimensional features, are comparable to those by other existing methods. The NSVMps and NSVM are finally tested on target proteins of the critical assessment of protein structure prediction experiment-9 (CASP9). A larger dataset is used to compare the performance of the proposed methods with that of two recent single-sequence prediction methods. We also investigate the impact of presence of different amino acid residues (in protein sequences) that are responsible for the formation of different secondary structures.

  16. Hierarchical Fault Diagnosis for a Hybrid System Based on a Multidomain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis procedure is performed by integrating three steps: multidomain modeling, event identification, and failure event classification. Multidomain model can describe the normal and fault behaviors of hybrid systems efficiently and can meet the diagnosis requirements of hybrid systems. Then the multidomain model is used to simulate and obtain responses under different failure events; the responses are further utilized as a priori information when training the event identification library. Finally, a brushless DC motor is selected as the study case. The experimental result indicates that the proposed method could identify the known and unknown failure events of the studied system. In particular, for a system with less response information under a failure event, the accuracy of diagnosis seems to be higher. The presented method integrates the advantages of current quantitative and qualitative diagnostic procedures and can distinguish between failures caused by parametric and abrupt structure faults. Another advantage of our method is that it can remember unknown failure types and automatically extend the adaptive resonance theory neural network library, which is extremely useful for complex hybrid systems.

  17. An Efficient Face Recognition System Based On the Hybridization of Pose Invariant and Illumination Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Muruganantham

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the previous decade, one of the most effectual applications of image analysis and indulgent that attracted significant consideration is the human face recognition. One of the diverse techniques used for identifying an individual is the Face recognition. Normally the image variations for the reason that of the change in face identity are less than the variations between the images of the same face under different illumination and viewing angle. Among several factors that manipulate face recognition, illumination and pose are the two major challenges. Pose and illumination variations harshly affect the performance of face recognition. Considerably less effort has been taken to deal with the problem of mutual variations of pose and illumination in face recognition, while several algorithms have been proposed for face recognition from fixed points. In this paper we intend a face recognition method that is forceful to pose and illumination variations. We first put forward a simple pose estimation method based on 2D images, which uses a proper classification rule and image representation to classify a pose of a face image. After that, the image can be assigned to a pose class by a classification rule in a low-dimensional subspace constructed by a feature extraction method. We offer a shadow compensation method that compensates for illumination variation in a face image so that the image can be predictable by a face recognition system designed for images under normal illumination condition. Starting the accomplishment result, it is obvious that our projected technique based on the hybridization system recognizes the face images effectively.

  18. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahidul Hoque Samrat

    Full Text Available Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  19. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  20. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic–Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions. PMID:26121032

  1. An arc control and protection system for the JET lower hybrid antenna based on an imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, J.; Mailloux, J.; Kirov, K.; Kinna, D.; Stamp, M.; Devaux, S.; Arnoux, G.; Edwards, J. S.; Stephen, A. V.; McCullen, P.; Hogben, C.

    2014-11-01

    Arcs are the potentially most dangerous events related to Lower Hybrid (LH) antenna operation. If left uncontrolled they can produce damage and cause plasma disruption by impurity influx. To address this issue an arc real time control and protection imaging system for the Joint European Torus (JET) LH antenna has been implemented. The LH system is one of the additional heating systems at JET. It comprises 24 microwave generators (klystrons, operating at 3.7 GHz) providing up to 5 MW of heating and current drive to the JET plasma. This is done through an antenna composed of an array of waveguides facing the plasma. The protection system presented here is based primarily on an imaging arc detection and real time control system. It has adapted the ITER like wall hotspot protection system using an identical CCD camera and real time image processing unit. A filter has been installed to avoid saturation and spurious system triggers caused by ionization light. The antenna is divided in 24 Regions Of Interest (ROIs) each one corresponding to one klystron. If an arc precursor is detected in a ROI, power is reduced locally with subsequent potential damage and plasma disruption avoided. The power is subsequently reinstated if, during a defined interval of time, arcing is confirmed not to be present by image analysis. This system was successfully commissioned during the restart phase and beginning of the 2013 scientific campaign. Since its installation and commissioning, arcs and related phenomena have been prevented. In this contribution we briefly describe the camera, image processing, and real time control systems. Most importantly, we demonstrate that an LH antenna arc protection system based on CCD camera imaging systems works. Examples of both controlled and uncontrolled LH arc events and their consequences are shown.

  2. An arc control and protection system for the JET lower hybrid antenna based on an imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, J., E-mail: joao.figueiredo@jet.efda.org [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal and EFDA-CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Mailloux, J.; Kirov, K.; Kinna, D.; Stamp, M.; Devaux, S.; Arnoux, G.; Edwards, J. S.; Stephen, A. V.; McCullen, P.; Hogben, C. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Center, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Arcs are the potentially most dangerous events related to Lower Hybrid (LH) antenna operation. If left uncontrolled they can produce damage and cause plasma disruption by impurity influx. To address this issue an arc real time control and protection imaging system for the Joint European Torus (JET) LH antenna has been implemented. The LH system is one of the additional heating systems at JET. It comprises 24 microwave generators (klystrons, operating at 3.7 GHz) providing up to 5 MW of heating and current drive to the JET plasma. This is done through an antenna composed of an array of waveguides facing the plasma. The protection system presented here is based primarily on an imaging arc detection and real time control system. It has adapted the ITER like wall hotspot protection system using an identical CCD camera and real time image processing unit. A filter has been installed to avoid saturation and spurious system triggers caused by ionization light. The antenna is divided in 24 Regions Of Interest (ROIs) each one corresponding to one klystron. If an arc precursor is detected in a ROI, power is reduced locally with subsequent potential damage and plasma disruption avoided. The power is subsequently reinstated if, during a defined interval of time, arcing is confirmed not to be present by image analysis. This system was successfully commissioned during the restart phase and beginning of the 2013 scientific campaign. Since its installation and commissioning, arcs and related phenomena have been prevented. In this contribution we briefly describe the camera, image processing, and real time control systems. Most importantly, we demonstrate that an LH antenna arc protection system based on CCD camera imaging systems works. Examples of both controlled and uncontrolled LH arc events and their consequences are shown.

  3. An arc control and protection system for the JET lower hybrid antenna based on an imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, J; Mailloux, J; Kirov, K; Kinna, D; Stamp, M; Devaux, S; Arnoux, G; Edwards, J S; Stephen, A V; McCullen, P; Hogben, C

    2014-11-01

    Arcs are the potentially most dangerous events related to Lower Hybrid (LH) antenna operation. If left uncontrolled they can produce damage and cause plasma disruption by impurity influx. To address this issue an arc real time control and protection imaging system for the Joint European Torus (JET) LH antenna has been implemented. The LH system is one of the additional heating systems at JET. It comprises 24 microwave generators (klystrons, operating at 3.7 GHz) providing up to 5 MW of heating and current drive to the JET plasma. This is done through an antenna composed of an array of waveguides facing the plasma. The protection system presented here is based primarily on an imaging arc detection and real time control system. It has adapted the ITER like wall hotspot protection system using an identical CCD camera and real time image processing unit. A filter has been installed to avoid saturation and spurious system triggers caused by ionization light. The antenna is divided in 24 Regions Of Interest (ROIs) each one corresponding to one klystron. If an arc precursor is detected in a ROI, power is reduced locally with subsequent potential damage and plasma disruption avoided. The power is subsequently reinstated if, during a defined interval of time, arcing is confirmed not to be present by image analysis. This system was successfully commissioned during the restart phase and beginning of the 2013 scientific campaign. Since its installation and commissioning, arcs and related phenomena have been prevented. In this contribution we briefly describe the camera, image processing, and real time control systems. Most importantly, we demonstrate that an LH antenna arc protection system based on CCD camera imaging systems works. Examples of both controlled and uncontrolled LH arc events and their consequences are shown.

  4. FPGA implementation of a hybrid on-line process monitoring in PC based real-time systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one way of FPGA implementation of hybrid (hardware-software based on-line process monitoring in Real-Time systems (RTS. The reasons for RTS monitoring are presented at the beginning. The summary of different RTS monitoring approaches along with its advantages and drawbacks are also exposed. Finally, monitoring module is described in details. Also, FPGA implementation results and some useful monitoring system applications are mentioned.

  5. A HYBRID APPROACH BASED MEDICAL IMAGE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM USING FEATURE OPTIMIZED CLASSIFICATION SIMILARITY FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogapriya Jaganathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past few years, massive upgradation is obtained in the pasture of Content Based Medical Image Retrieval (CBMIR for effective utilization of medical images based on visual feature analysis for the purpose of diagnosis and educational research. The existing medical image retrieval systems are still not optimal to solve the feature dimensionality reduction problem which increases the computational complexity and decreases the speed of a retrieval process. The proposed CBMIR is used a hybrid approach based on Feature Extraction, Optimization of Feature Vectors, Classification of Features and Similarity Measurements. This type of CBMIR is called Feature Optimized Classification Similarity (FOCS framework. The selected features are Textures using Gray level Co-occurrence Matrix Features (GLCM and Tamura Features (TF in which extracted features are formed as feature vector database. The Fuzzy based Particle Swarm Optimization (FPSO technique is used to reduce the feature vector dimensionality and classification is performed using Fuzzy based Relevance Vector Machine (FRVM to form groups of relevant image features that provide a natural way to classify dimensionally reduced feature vectors of images. The Euclidean Distance (ED is used as similarity measurement to measure the significance between the query image and the target images. This FOCS approach can get the query from the user and has retrieved the needed images from the databases. The retrieval algorithm performances are estimated in terms of precision and recall. This FOCS framework comprises several benefits when compared to existing CBMIR. GLCM and TF are used to extract texture features and form a feature vector database. Fuzzy-PSO is used to reduce the feature vector dimensionality issues while selecting the important features in the feature vector database in which computational complexity is decreased. Fuzzy based RVM is used for feature classification in which it increases the

  6. A hybrid soliton-based system: generation and steering of cavity solitons by means of photorefractive soliton electro-activation

    CERN Document Server

    Columbo, Lorenzo; Brambilla, Massimo; Prati, Franco; Tissoni, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    We propose a hybrid soliton-based system consisting of a centrosymmetric photorefractive crystal, supporting photorefractive solitons, coupled to a vertical cavity surface emitting laser, supporting multistable cavity solitons. The composite nature of the system, which couples a propagative/conservative field dynamics to a stationary/dissipative one, allows to observe a more general and unified system phenomenology and to conceive novel photonic functionalities. The potential of the proposed hybrid system becomes clear when investigating the generation and control of cavity solitons by propagating a plane wave through electro-activated solitonic waveguides in the crystal. By changing the electro-activation voltage of the crystal, we prove that cavity solitons can be turned on and shifted with controlled velocity across the device section. The scheme can be exploited for applications to optical information encoding and processing.

  7. Max-plus-linear model-based predictive control for constrained hybrid systems:linear programming solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan ZOU; Shaoyuan LI

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,a linear programming method is proposed to solve model predictive control for a class of hybrid systems.Firstly,using the(max,+)algebra,a typical subclass of hybrid systems called max-plus-linear(MPL)systems is obtained.And then,model predictive control(MPC)framework is extended to MPL systems.In general,the nonlinear optimization approach or extended linear complementarity problem(ELCP)were applied to solve the MPL-MPC optimization problem.A new optimization method based on canonical forms for max-min-plus-scaling(MMPS)functions (using the operations maximization,minimization,addition and scalar multiplication)with linear constraints on the inputs is presented.The proposed approach consists in solving several linear programming problems and is more efficient than nonlinear optimization.The validity of the algorithm is illustrated by an example.

  8. Modeling and Testing of a PV/T hybrid system with Water based Optical Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model has been developed for the Non-imaging V-trough hybrid PV/T concentrator systems along with optical filter and validated with the designed and fabricated system to assess over all thermal efficiency of the PV/T system. A V-trough concentrator system has been developed for two axes tracking. Commercially available solar modules were evaluated for their usability under 2-sun concentration. V-trough concentrator with geometric concentration ratio of 2 (2-sun, we are getting an average overall efficiency of the PV/T system increased by 23.54 % extra overall thermal efficiency of the PV/T system as compared to the solar module efficiency at standard test conditions.

  9. Total Stability Properties Based on Fixed Point Theory for a Class of Hybrid Dynamic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De la Sen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust stability results for nominally linear hybrid systems are obtained from total stability theorems for purely continuous-time and discrete-time systems by using the powerful tool of fixed point theory. The class of hybrid systems dealt consists, in general, of coupled continuous-time and digital systems subject to state perturbations whose nominal (i.e., unperturbed parts are linear and, in general, time-varying. The obtained sufficient conditions on robust stability under a wide class of harmless perturbations are dependent on the values of the parameters defining the over-bounding functions of those perturbations. The weakness of the coupling dynamics in terms of norm among the analog and digital substates of the whole dynamic system guarantees the total stability provided that the corresponding uncoupled nominal subsystems are both exponentially stable. Fixed point stability theory is used for the proofs of stability. A generalization of that result is given for the case that sampling is not uniform. The boundedness of the state-trajectory solution at sampling instants guarantees the global boundedness of the solutions for all time. The existence of a fixed point for the sampled state-trajectory solution at sampling instants guarantees the existence of a fixed point of an extended auxiliary discrete system and the existence of a global asymptotic attractor of the solutions which is either a fixed point or a limit n globally stable asymptotic oscillation.

  10. Game-based Abstraction and Controller Synthesis for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Ernst Moritz; Norman, Gethin; Parker, David;

    2011-01-01

    bounds on the optimal probability of reaching a particular class of states. We also demonstrate the applicability of these abstraction techniques to the computation of long-run average reward properties and the synthesis of controllers. The first of the two abstractions yields more precise information......We consider a class of hybrid systems that involve random phenomena, in addition to discrete and continuous behaviour. Examples of such systems include wireless sensing and control applications. We propose and compare two abstraction techniques for this class of models, which yield lower and upper...

  11. A Novel Integrated Magnetic Structure Based DC/DC Converter for Hybrid Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on a novel actively controlled hybrid magnetic battery/ultracapacitor based energy storage system (ESS) for vehicular propulsion systems. A stand-alone battery system might not be sufficient to satisfy peak power demand and transient load variations in hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV, PHEV). Active battery/ultracapacitor hybrid ESS provides a better solution in terms of efficient power management and control flexibility. Moreover, the voltage of the battery pack can be selected to be different than that of the ultracapacitor, which will result in flexibility of design as well as cost and size reduction of the battery pack. In addition, the ultracapacitor bank can supply or recapture a large burst of power and it can be used with high C-rates. Hence, the battery is not subjected to supply peak and sharp power variations, and the stress on the battery will be reduced and the battery lifetime would be increased. Utilizing ultracapacitor results in effective capturing of the braking energy, especially in sudden braking conditions.

  12. Hybrid Energy Storage System Based on Compressed Air and Super-Capacitors with Maximum Efficiency Point Tracking (MEPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemofouet, Sylvain; Rufer, Alfred

    This paper presents a hybrid energy storage system mainly based on Compressed Air, where the storage and withdrawal of energy are done within maximum efficiency conditions. As these maximum efficiency conditions impose the level of converted power, an intermittent time-modulated operation mode is applied to the thermodynamic converter to obtain a variable converted power. A smoothly variable output power is achieved with the help of a supercapacitive auxiliary storage device used as a filter. The paper describes the concept of the system, the power-electronic interfaces and especially the Maximum Efficiency Point Tracking (MEPT) algorithm and the strategy used to vary the output power. In addition, the paper introduces more efficient hybrid storage systems where the volumetric air machine is replaced by an oil-hydraulics and pneumatics converter, used under isothermal conditions. Practical results are also presented, recorded from a low-power air motor coupled to a small DC generator, as well as from a first prototype of the hydro-pneumatic system. Some economical considerations are also made, through a comparative cost evaluation of the presented hydro-pneumatic systems and a lead acid batteries system, in the context of a stand alone photovoltaic home application. This evaluation confirms the cost effectiveness of the presented hybrid storage systems.

  13. Powertrain Matching and Optimization of Dual-Motor Hybrid Driving System for Electric Vehicle Based on Quantum Genetic Intelligent Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the driving range and improve the overall performance of all-electric vehicles, a new dual-motor hybrid driving system with two power sources was proposed. This system achieved torque-speed coupling between the two power sources and greatly improved the high performance working range of the motors; at the same time, continuously variable transmission (CVT was achieved to efficiently increase the driving range. The power system parameters were determined using the “global optimization method”; thus, the vehicle’s dynamics and economy were used as the optimization indexes. Based on preliminary matches, quantum genetic algorithm was introduced to optimize the matching in the dual-motor hybrid power system. Backward simulation was performed on the combined simulation platform of Matlab/Simulink and AVL-Cruise to optimize, simulate, and verify the system parameters of the transmission system. Results showed that quantum genetic algorithms exhibited good global optimization capability and convergence in dealing with multiobjective and multiparameter optimization. The dual-motor hybrid-driving system for electric cars satisfied the dynamic performance and economy requirements of design, efficiently increasing the driving range of the car, having high performance, and reducing energy consumption of 15.6% compared with the conventional electric vehicle with single-speed reducers.

  14. Organic-rich hybrid O/I systems based on isocyanate chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuney, S. [INSA, Villeurbanne (France). Lab. des Materiaux Macromoleculaires]|[BSN, Givors (France); Gerard, J.F.; Pascault, J.P.Vigier, G. [INSA, Villeurbanne (France)

    1996-12-31

    The isocyanate chemistry has been used to prepare, without adding any solvent, organic-rich hybrid O/I systems, {alpha}-{omega} hydroxy-terminated prepolymers (soft segments, denoted SS) can be end-capped with {gamma}-isocyanato propyl triethoxy silane ({gamma}-IPS), or previously reacted with a diisocyanate (DI) and then end-capped with {gamma}-amino propyl triethoxy silane ({gamma}-APS), or with {gamma}-amino propyl methyl diethoxy silane ({gamma}-APMDES). With this second pathway, a double distribution of molecules is present. The aim of this work is to investigate the morphologies and structural properties of different organic-rich hybrid organic/inorganic materials. Two types of {alpha}-{Omega} hydroxy prepolymers have been used: hydrogenated polybutadiene, HPBD, and polycaprolactone, PCL. The inorganic phase is obtained through the hydrolysis and condensation of the silane groups under acidic conditions and with [H{sub 2}O]/Si = 3. The nanometric silica-rich particles in the final morphologies, after a post-cure at 150 C, were also studied by means of SAXS measurements. Viscoelastic measurements show one or two main relaxation peaks depending on the phase separation process during reaction and the polarity of the initial SS. However for full crosslinked SS/{gamma}-IPS hybrid networks, the relaxed modulus does not depend on SS nature and it is well described by the affine network theory.

  15. Multi-drug delivery system based on alginate/calcium carbonate hybrid nanoparticles for combination chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Long; Wang, Chao-Qun; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Cheng, Si-Xue

    2014-11-01

    A facile strategy to prepare nano-sized drug carriers for co-delivery of multiple types of drugs in combination chemotherapy was developed. Inorganic/organic hybrid alginate/CaCO3 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation in an aqueous solution under very mild conditions. A hydrophilic drug (doxorubicin hydrochloride, DOX) and a hydrophobic drug (paclitaxel, PTX) were co-encapsulated in the hybrid nanoparticles. For comparison, PTX loaded nanoparticles and DOX loaded nanoparticles were also prepared. The measurement based on dynamic light scattering indicated all nanoparticles had a mean size less than 200 nm with a relatively narrow size distribution. The morphology of the nanoparticles was observed by TEM. The in vitro drug release study showed that the release of DOX and PTX from the dual drug loaded nanoparticles could be effectively sustained. The tumor cell inhibitory effect of the drug loaded nanoparticles was evaluated in HeLa cells and MCF-7/ADR cells. The dual drug loaded nanoparticles exhibited significantly enhanced cell uptake and nuclear localization as compared with the single drug loaded nanoparticles. As a result, the dual drug loaded nanoparticles had a significantly enhanced cell inhibitory effect, especially for drug resistant tumor cells. These results indicated that alginate/CaCO3 hybrid nanoparticles have promising applications for the co-delivery of drugs with different physicochemical properties in combination chemotherapy to overcome multidrug resistance.

  16. Bandwidth based methodology for designing a hybrid energy storage system for a series hybrid electric vehicle with limited all electric mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahverdi, Masood

    The cost and fuel economy of hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs) are significantly dependent on the power-train energy storage system (ESS). A series HEV with a minimal all-electric mode (AEM) permits minimizing the size and cost of the ESS. This manuscript, pursuing the minimal size tactic, introduces a bandwidth based methodology for designing an efficient ESS. First, for a mid-size reference vehicle, a parametric study is carried out over various minimal-size ESSs, both hybrid (HESS) and non-hybrid (ESS), for finding the highest fuel economy. The results show that a specific type of high power battery with 4.5 kWh capacity can be selected as the winning candidate to study for further minimization. In a second study, following the twin goals of maximizing Fuel Economy (FE) and improving consumer acceptance, a sports car class Series-HEV (SHEV) was considered as a potential application which requires even more ESS minimization. The challenge with this vehicle is to reduce the ESS size compared to 4.5 kWh, because the available space allocation is only one fourth of the allowed battery size in the mid-size study by volume. Therefore, an advanced bandwidth-based controller is developed that allows a hybridized Subaru BRZ model to be realized with a light ESS. The result allows a SHEV to be realized with 1.13 kWh ESS capacity. In a third study, the objective is to find optimum SHEV designs with minimal AEM assumption which cover the design space between the fuel economies in the mid-size car study and the sports car study. Maximizing FE while minimizing ESS cost is more aligned with customer acceptance in the current state of market. The techniques applied to manage the power flow between energy sources of the power-train significantly affect the results of this optimization. A Pareto Frontier, including ESS cost and FE, for a SHEV with limited AEM, is introduced using an advanced bandwidth-based control strategy teamed up with duty ratio control. This controller

  17. Assesment and Analyze Hybride Control System in Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator Based Current Source Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Ali Zanjani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid technology advancement in control processes, electric utilities are experiencing more demanding requirements on the power quality from the large industrial power consumers. For achieved this purpose use of FACTS devices. One of kind compensator is D-Statcom, using in distribution system for conquest of power quality problem. This paper presents system modeling and control design techniques of distribution static synchronous compensator. For reach an optimal design, using a hybride state-feedback and d-q control systems. Using direct sampling on network parameter, than conventional control system, as well as fast dynamic responses are achieved. The derived simulations are tried to verify the result of this paper.

  18. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes...... of hybrid systems, designing controllers and implementations is very high so that the use of these models is limited in applications where the size of the state space is large. To cope with complexity, model reduction is a powerful technique. This thesis presents methods for model reduction and stability....... Hybrid systems are also an important modeling class for nonlinear systems because a wide variety of nonlinearities are either piecewise-affine (e.g., a saturated linear actuator characteristic) or can be approximated as hybrid systems. The complexity of verifying and assessing general properties...

  19. A low-cost EEG system-based hybrid brain-computer interface for humanoid robot navigation and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bongjae; Jo, Sungho

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) technique that combines the P300 potential, the steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP), and event related de-synchronization (ERD) to solve a complicated multi-task problem consisting of humanoid robot navigation and control along with object recognition using a low-cost BCI system. Our approach enables subjects to control the navigation and exploration of a humanoid robot and recognize a desired object among candidates. This study aims to demonstrate the possibility of a hybrid BCI based on a low-cost system for a realistic and complex task. It also shows that the use of a simple image processing technique, combined with BCI, can further aid in making these complex tasks simpler. An experimental scenario is proposed in which a subject remotely controls a humanoid robot in a properly sized maze. The subject sees what the surrogate robot sees through visual feedback and can navigate the surrogate robot. While navigating, the robot encounters objects located in the maze. It then recognizes if the encountered object is of interest to the subject. The subject communicates with the robot through SSVEP and ERD-based BCIs to navigate and explore with the robot, and P300-based BCI to allow the surrogate robot recognize their favorites. Using several evaluation metrics, the performances of five subjects navigating the robot were quite comparable to manual keyboard control. During object recognition mode, favorite objects were successfully selected from two to four choices. Subjects conducted humanoid navigation and recognition tasks as if they embodied the robot. Analysis of the data supports the potential usefulness of the proposed hybrid BCI system for extended applications. This work presents an important implication for the future work that a hybridization of simple BCI protocols provide extended controllability to carry out complicated tasks even with a low-cost system.

  20. Hybrid optical-digital encryption system based on wavefront coding paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnik, Mikhail V.

    2012-04-01

    The wavefront coding is a widely used in the optical systems to compensate aberrations and increase the depth of field. This paper presents experimental results on application of the wavefront coding paradigm for data encryption. We use a synthesised diffractive optical element (DOE) to deliberately introduce a phase distortion during the images registration process to encode the acquired image. In this case, an optical convolution of the input image with the point spread function (PSF) of the DOE is registered. The encryption is performed optically, and is therefore is fast and secure. Since the introduced distortion is the same across the image, the decryption is performed digitally using deconvolution methods. However, due to noise and finite accuracy of a photosensor, the reconstructed image is degraded but still readable. The experimental results, which are presented in this paper, indicate that the proposed hybrid optical-digital system can be implemented as a portable device using inexpensive off-the-shelf components. We present the results of optical encryption and digital restoration with quantitative estimations of the images quality. Details of hardware optical implementation of the hybrid optical-digital encryption system are discussed.

  1. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  2. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  3. Organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides with intercalated phacolysin as ocular delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhiguo; Zhang, Jie; Chi, Huibo; Cao, Feng, E-mail: cpufengc@163.com [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy (China)

    2015-12-15

    This study was mainly aimed to evaluate the potential use of a novel ocular drug delivery system, organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides (LDH). Organic polymers of chitosan–glutathione (CG) and pre-activated chitosan–glutathione (CG-2MNA) were successfully synthesized and characterized. LDH with intercalated phacolysin (PCL), including larger hexagonal LDH–PCL (Lh-LDH–PCL), larger spherical LDH–PCL (Ls-LDH–PCL), smaller hexagonal LDH–PCL (Sh-LDH–PCL), CG hybrid LDH–PCL (LDH–PCL-CG), and CG-2MNA hybrid LDH–PCL (LDH–PCL-CG-2MNA), were prepared. The nanocomposites with particle size of 107.2–274.9 nm were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron micrographs, etc. In vivo precorneal retention studies showed that the detectable time of all nanocomposites was prolonged from 2 to 6 h in comparison to PCL saline. Accordingly, the AUC{sub 0–6h} values of Lh-LDH–PCL, Ls-LDH–PCL, Sh-LDH–PCL, LDH–PCL-CG, and LDH–PCL-CG-2MNA nanocomposites were increased by 2.27-, 2.08-, 3.08-, 4.67-, and 3.36-fold, respectively. The Draize test and hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated that modified LDH had no eye irritation after single and repeated administration. These results indicated that chitosan derivatives-LDH hybrid nanocomposite dispersion could be a promising ocular drug delivery system to improve precorneal retention time of drugs.Graphical AbstractThiolated chitosan-LDH hybrid nanocomposite dispersion could be a promising ocular drug delivery system to improve precorneal retention time of drugs and may facilitate penetration of drugs into tissues of the eyes.

  4. Molecular photovoltaic system based on fullerenes and carotenoids co-assembled in lipid/alkanethiol hybrid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixia; Zhan, Wei

    2012-03-13

    A hybrid molecular photovoltaic system, based on fullerene C(60) and lutein (a natural photosynthetic carotenoid pigment) that are assembled in a phospholipid/alkanethiol bilayer matrix, is described here. The assembly and photoconversion behaviors of such a system were studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, photoelectrochemical action spectroscopy, and photocurrent generation. While lutein itself is inefficient in generating photocurrent, it can strongly modulate photocurrents produced by fullerenes when coassembled in the lipid bilayer matrix presumably via photoinduced electron transfer. Our results thus provide a successful example of combining both synthetic and natural photoactive components in building molecular photovoltaic systems.

  5. Demand Side Management for Stand-Alone Hybrid Power Systems Based on Load Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederich Kupzog

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the field of Distributed Generation (DG, stand-alone Hybrid Power Systems (HPS are a suitable solution to provide energy to isolated facilities where the connection to a centralized grid is not affordable. The logical evolution of such systems involves the optimization of power resources and related control strategies, but also enhancements concerning the management of energy loads. This paper introduces Demand Side Management (DSM strategies specially designed for HPS. They are applied on a real and patented HPS that consists of PV panels, a diesel generator, an inverter and a set of batteries. DSM strategies are built up on a framework of distributed endpointdevices connected to a central control application where loads are identified according to their behavior. System network components, load definitions, the control application and DSM strategies are depicted. Finally, simulations show illustrative savings achieved by the application of some of the proposed strategies.

  6. Dynamic Modelling of a Wind/Fuel-Cell/Ultra-Capacitor-Based Hybrid Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vanishree

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development of alternative energy sources have shown excellent potential as a form of contribution to conventional power generation systems. In order to meet sustained load demands during varying natural conditions, different energy sources and converters need to be integrated with each other for extended usage of alternative energy. The paper focuses on the combination of wind, Fuel Cell (FC and Ultra-Capacitor (UC systems for sustained power generation. As the wind turbine output power varies with the wind speed: an FC system with a UC bank can be integrated with the wind turbine to ensure that the system performs under all conditions. A dynamic model, design and simulation of a wind/FC/UC hybrid power generation system with power flow controllers is proposed. In the proposed system, when the wind speed is sufficient, the wind turbine can meet the load demand. If the available power from the wind turbine cannot satisfy the load demand, the FC system can meet the excess power demand, while the UC can meet the load demand above the maximum power available from the FC system for short durations. Furthermore, this system can tolerate the rapid changes in wind speed and suppress the effects of these fluctuations on the equipment side voltage in a novel topology.

  7. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    The article is an attempt to use methods of category theory and topology for analysis of hybrid systems. We use the notion of a directed topological space; it is a topological space together with a set of privileged paths. Dynamical systems are examples of directed topological spaces. A hybrid...... system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...... directed homotopy colimit (geometric realization) is a single directed topological space. The behavior of hybrid systems can be then understood in terms of the behavior of dynamical systems through the directed homotopy colimit....

  8. An Interval Type-2 Fuzzy System with a Species-Based Hybrid Algorithm for Nonlinear System Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ta Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a species-based hybrid of the electromagnetism-like mechanism (EM and back-propagation algorithms (SEMBP for an interval type-2 fuzzy neural system with asymmetric membership functions (AIT2FNS design. The interval type-2 asymmetric fuzzy membership functions (IT2 AFMFs and the TSK-type consequent part are adopted to implement the network structure in AIT2FNS. In addition, the type reduction procedure is integrated into an adaptive network structure to reduce computational complexity. Hence, the AIT2FNS can enhance the approximation accuracy effectively by using less fuzzy rules. The AIT2FNS is trained by the SEMBP algorithm, which contains the steps of uniform initialization, species determination, local search, total force calculation, movement, and evaluation. It combines the advantages of EM and back-propagation (BP algorithms to attain a faster convergence and a lower computational complexity. The proposed SEMBP algorithm adopts the uniform method (which evenly scatters solution agents over the feasible solution region and the species technique to improve the algorithm’s ability to find the global optimum. Finally, two illustrative examples of nonlinear systems control are presented to demonstrate the performance and the effectiveness of the proposed AIT2FNS with the SEMBP algorithm.

  9. Optimization-based power management of hybrid power systems with applications in advanced hybrid electric vehicles and wind farms with battery storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Hoseinali

    Modern hybrid electric vehicles and many stationary renewable power generation systems combine multiple power generating and energy storage devices to achieve an overall system-level efficiency and flexibility which is higher than their individual components. The power or energy management control, "brain" of these "hybrid" systems, determines adaptively and based on the power demand the power split between multiple subsystems and plays a critical role in overall system-level efficiency. This dissertation proposes that a receding horizon optimal control (aka Model Predictive Control) approach can be a natural and systematic framework for formulating this type of power management controls. More importantly the dissertation develops new results based on the classical theory of optimal control that allow solving the resulting optimal control problem in real-time, in spite of the complexities that arise due to several system nonlinearities and constraints. The dissertation focus is on two classes of hybrid systems: hybrid electric vehicles in the first part and wind farms with battery storage in the second part. The first part of the dissertation proposes and fully develops a real-time optimization-based power management strategy for hybrid electric vehicles. Current industry practice uses rule-based control techniques with "else-then-if" logic and look-up maps and tables in the power management of production hybrid vehicles. These algorithms are not guaranteed to result in the best possible fuel economy and there exists a gap between their performance and a minimum possible fuel economy benchmark. Furthermore, considerable time and effort are spent calibrating the control system in the vehicle development phase, and there is little flexibility in real-time handling of constraints and re-optimization of the system operation in the event of changing operating conditions and varying parameters. In addition, a proliferation of different powertrain configurations may

  10. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  11. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan;

    2012-01-01

    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous dynamics deserves increased attention, especially in the context of wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variants of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification...... hybrid systems and develop a general abstraction technique for verifying probabilistic safety problems. This gives rise to the first mechanisable technique that can, in practice, formally verify safety properties of non-trivial continuous-time stochastic hybrid systems. Moreover, being based...... of classical hybrid systems, we are interested in whether a certain set of unsafe system states can be reached from a set of initial states. In the probabilistic setting, we may ask instead whether the probability of reaching unsafe states is below some given threshold. In this paper, we consider probabilistic...

  12. A Hybrid Web Recommendation System based on the Improved Association Rule Mining Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Wanaskar, Ujwala; Vij, Sheetal; Mukhopadhyay, Debajyoti

    2013-01-01

    As the growing interest of web recommendation systems those are applied to deliver customized data for their users, we started working on this system. Generally the recommendation systems are divided into two major categories such as collaborative recommendation system and content based recommendation system. In case of collaborative recommen-dation systems, these try to seek out users who share same tastes that of given user as well as recommends the websites according to the liking given us...

  13. A modular molecular photovoltaic system based on phospholipid/alkanethiol hybrid bilayers: photocurrent generation and modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; Jiang, Kai; Zhan, Wei

    2011-10-21

    Monolayer quantities of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), incorporated with either fullerenes or ruthenium tris(bipyridyl) (Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)) complexes, were formed on ferrocene-terminated C11-alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) through lipid fusion. Thus formed hybrid structures are characterized by quartz crystal microbalance, UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and impedance analysis. In comparison to lipid monolayers deposited on C12-alkanethiol SAMs, photocurrent generation from these ferrocene-based structures is significantly modulated, displaying attenuated anodic photocurrents and enhanced cathodic photocurrents. While a similar trend was observed for the two photoagents studied, the degree of such modulations was always found to be greater in fullerene-incorporated bilayers. These findings are evaluated in the context of the film structure, energetics of the involved photo(electrochemical) species and cross-membrane electron-transfer processes.

  14. A Wind Power and Load Prediction Based Frequency Control Approach for Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A frequency control approach based on wind power and load power prediction information is proposed for wind-diesel-battery hybrid power system (WDBHPS. To maintain the frequency stability by wind power and diesel generation as much as possible, a fuzzy control theory based wind and diesel power control module is designed according to wind power and load prediction information. To compensate frequency fluctuation in real time and enhance system disturbance rejection ability, a battery energy storage system real-time control module is designed based on ADRC (active disturbance rejection control. The simulation experiment results demonstrate that the proposed approach has a better disturbance rejection ability and frequency control performance compared with the traditional droop control approach.

  15. Fuzzy logic, PSO based fuzzy logic algorithm and current controls comparative for grid-connected hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borni, A.; Abdelkrim, T.; Zaghba, L.; Bouchakour, A.; Lakhdari, A.; Zarour, L.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper the model of a grid connected hybrid system is presented. The hybrid system includes a variable speed wind turbine controlled by aFuzzy MPPT control, and a photovoltaic generator controlled with PSO Fuzzy MPPT control to compensate the power fluctuations caused by the wind in a short and long term, the inverter currents injected to the grid is controlled by a decoupled PI current control. In the first phase, we start by modeling of the conversion system components; the wind system is consisted of a turbine coupled to a gearless permanent magnet generator (PMG), the AC/DC and DC-DC (Boost) converter are responsible to feed the electric energy produced by the PMG to the DC-link. The solar system consists of a photovoltaic generator (GPV) connected to a DC/DC boost converter controlled by a PSO fuzzy MPPT control to extract at any moment the maximum available power at the GPV terminals, the system is based on maximum utilization of both of sources because of their complementary. At the end. The active power reached to the DC-link is injected to the grid through a DC/AC inverter, this function is achieved by controlling the DC bus voltage to keep it constant and close to its reference value, The simulation studies have been performed using Matlab/Simulink. It can be concluded that a good control system performance can be achieved.

  16. A Hybrid Approach Towards Intrusion Detection Based on Artificial Immune System and Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-01-01

    A number of works in the field of intrusion detection have been based on Artificial Immune System and Soft Computing. Artificial Immune System based approaches attempt to leverage the adaptability, error tolerance, self- monitoring and distributed nature of Human Immune Systems. Whereas Soft Computing based approaches are instrumental in developing fuzzy rule based systems for detecting intrusions. They are computationally intensive and apply machine learning (both supervised and unsupervised) techniques to detect intrusions in a given system. A combination of these two approaches could provide significant advantages for intrusion detection. In this paper we attempt to leverage the adaptability of Artificial Immune System and the computation intensive nature of Soft Computing to develop a system that can effectively detect intrusions in a given network.

  17. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  18. EFFECT OF CLUSTERING IN DESIGNING A FUZZY BASED HYBRID INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vydeki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection System (IDS provides additional security for the most vulnerable Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET. Use of Fuzzy Inference System (FIS in the design of IDS is proven to be efficient in detecting routing attacks in MANETs. Clustering is a vital means in the detection process of FIS based hybrid IDS. This study describes the design of such a system to detect black hole attack in MANET that uses Adhoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV routing protocol. It analyses the effect of two clustering algorithms and also prescribes the suitable clustering algorithm for the above-mentioned IDS. MANETs with various traffic scenarios were simulated and the data set required for the IDS is extracted. A hybrid IDS is designed using Sugeno type-2 FIS to detect black hole attack. From the experimental results, it is derived that the subtractive clustering algorithm produces 97% efficient detection while FCM offers 91%. It has been found that the subtractive clustering algorithm is more fit and efficient than the Fuzzy C-Means clustering (FCM for the FIS based detection system.

  19. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  20. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2007-06-12

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  1. Measurement based controlled not gate for topological qubits in a Majorana fermion and quantum-dot hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zheng-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    We propose a scheme to implement controlled not gate for topological qubits in a quantum-dot and Majorana fermion hybrid system. Quantum information is encoded on pairs of Majorana fermions, which live on the the interface between topologically trivial and nontrivial sections of a quantum nanowire deposited on an s-wave superconductor. A measurement based two-qubit controlled not gate is produced with the help of parity measurements assisted by the quantum-dot and followed by prescribed single-qubit gates. The parity measurement, on the quantum-dot and a topological qubit, is achieved by the Aharonov-Casher effect.

  2. Uncertainty Quantification in Hybrid Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Tuhin

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques are frequently used to ascertain output variability in systems with parametric uncertainty. Traditional algorithms for UQ are either system-agnostic and slow (such as Monte Carlo) or fast with stringent assumptions on smoothness (such as polynomial chaos and Quasi-Monte Carlo). In this work, we develop a fast UQ approach for hybrid dynamical systems by extending the polynomial chaos methodology to these systems. To capture discontinuities, we use a wavelet-based Wiener-Haar expansion. We develop a boundary layer approach to propagate uncertainty through separable reset conditions. We also introduce a transport theory based approach for propagating uncertainty through hybrid dynamical systems. Here the expansion yields a set of hyperbolic equations that are solved by integrating along characteristics. The solution of the partial differential equation along the characteristics allows one to quantify uncertainty in hybrid or switching dynamical systems. The above method...

  3. Uncertainty quantification in hybrid dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Tuhin; Pasini, José Miguel

    2013-03-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques are frequently used to ascertain output variability in systems with parametric uncertainty. Traditional algorithms for UQ are either system-agnostic and slow (such as Monte Carlo) or fast with stringent assumptions on smoothness (such as polynomial chaos and Quasi-Monte Carlo). In this work, we develop a fast UQ approach for hybrid dynamical systems by extending the polynomial chaos methodology to these systems. To capture discontinuities, we use a wavelet-based Wiener-Haar expansion. We develop a boundary layer approach to propagate uncertainty through separable reset conditions. We also introduce a transport theory based approach for propagating uncertainty through hybrid dynamical systems. Here the expansion yields a set of hyperbolic equations that are solved by integrating along characteristics. The solution of the partial differential equation along the characteristics allows one to quantify uncertainty in hybrid or switching dynamical systems. The above methods are demonstrated on example problems.

  4. Hybrid CATV/MMW/BB lightwave transmission system based on fiber-wired/fiber-wireless/fiber-VLLC integrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Lu, Ting-Chieh; Chu, Chien-An; Chen, Bo-Rui; Lin, Chun-Yu; Peng, Peng-Chun

    2015-12-14

    A hybrid lightwave transmission system for cable television (CATV)/millimeter-wave (MMW)/baseband (BB) signal transmission based on fiber-wired/fiber-wireless/fiber-visible laser light communication (VLLC) integrations is proposed and demonstrated. For down-link transmission, the light is intensity-modulated with 50-550 MHz CATV signal and optically promoted from 25 GHz radio frequency (RF) signal to 10 Gbps/50 GHz and 20 Gbps/100 GHz MMW data signals based on fiber-wired and fiber-wireless integrations. Good performances of carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), composite triple-beat (CTB), and bit error rate (BER) are obtained over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and a 10-m RF wireless transport. For up-link transmission, the light is successfully intensity-remodulated with 5-Gbps BB data stream based on fiber-VLLC integration. Good BER performance is achieved over a 40-km SMF and a 10-m free-space VLLC transport. Such a hybrid CATV/MMW/BB lightwave transmission system is an attractive alternative, it gives the benefits of a communication link for broader bandwidth and higher transmission rate.

  5. Energy Management Strategy of Wind and Photovoltaic Hybrid Power System Based on Hybrid System Theory%基于混合系统理论的风光互补发电系统能量管理策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青龙; 赵志洋; 娄序蕾; 施坪

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of energy management strategy based on hybrid system theory for wind and photovoltaic hybrid power system is considered from view point of power balancing. The power distribution between multiple power sources and the working mode switching law were derived. It's indicated that this method can effectively improve the stability and the whole performance of the hybrid power system. Meanwhile, this also provides us an effective method for analysis of hybrid system which consists of multiple energy sources.%基于混合系统理论.从功率平衡的观点研究了风光混合发电系统的能量管理策略,分析得出了多能量源之间的功率分配及工作模式切换律.该方法能有效提高系统稳定性和混合发电系统整体性能;同时,该方法还为多能量源混合系统的分析提供了一种有效方法.

  6. Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Systems Based on Hybrid PSOSA Optimization Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Lai Li; Dong-Hua Zhou; Ling Wang

    2007-01-01

    Fault diagnosis of nonlinear systems is of great importance in theory and practice, and the parameter estimation method is an effective strategy. Based on the framework of moving horizon estimation, fault parameters are identified by a proposed intelligent optimization algorithm called PSOSA, which could avoid premature convergence of standard particle swarm optimization (PSO) by introducing the probabilistic jumping property of simulated annealing (SA). Simulations on a three-tank system show the effectiveness of this optimization based fault diagnosis strategy.

  7. HYBRID SYSTEM BASED FUZZY-PID CONTROL SCHEMES FOR UNPREDICTABLE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Tan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, the primary aim of polymerization industry is to enhance the process operation in order to obtain high quality and purity product. However, a sudden and large amount of heat will be released rapidly during the mixing process of two reactants, i.e. phenol and formalin due to its exothermic behavior. The unpredictable heat will cause deviation of process temperature and hence affect the quality of the product. Therefore, it is vital to control the process temperature during the polymerization. In the modern industry, fuzzy logic is commonly used to auto-tune PID controller to control the process temperature. However, this method needs an experienced operator to fine tune the fuzzy membership function and universe of discourse via trial and error approach. Hence, the setting of fuzzy inference system might not be accurate due to the human errors. Besides that, control of the process can be challenging due to the rapid changes in the plant parameters which will increase the process complexity. This paper proposes an optimization scheme using hybrid of Q-learning (QL and genetic algorithm (GA to optimize the fuzzy membership function in order to allow the conventional fuzzy-PID controller to control the process temperature more effectively. The performances of the proposed optimization scheme are compared with the existing fuzzy-PID scheme. The results show that the proposed optimization scheme is able to control the process temperature more effectively even if disturbance is introduced.

  8. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by ...

  9. Ion-atom hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Willitsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The study of interactions between simultaneously trapped cold ions and atoms has emerged as a new research direction in recent years. The development of ion-atom hybrid experiments has paved the way for investigating elastic, inelastic and reactive collisions between these species at very low temperatures, for exploring new cooling mechanisms of ions by atoms and for implementing new hybrid quantum systems. The present lecture reviews experimental methods, recent results and upcoming developments in this emerging field.

  10. Fuzzy Logic-Based Operation of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs for Enhancing the Resiliency of Hybrid Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hussain

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The resiliency of power systems can be enhanced during emergency situations by using microgrids, due to their capability to supply local loads. However, precise prediction of disturbance events is very difficult rather the occurrence probability can be expressed as, high, medium, or low, etc. Therefore, a fuzzy logic-based battery energy storage system (BESS operation controller is proposed in this study. In addition to BESS state-of-charge and market price signals, event occurrence probability is taken as crisp input for the BESS operation controller. After assessing the membership levels of all the three inputs, BESS operation controller decides the operation mode (subservient or resilient of BESS units. In subservient mode, BESS is fully controlled by an energy management system (EMS while in the case of resilient mode, the EMS follows the commands of the BESS operation controller for scheduling BESS units. Therefore, the proposed hybrid microgrid model can operate in normal, resilient, and emergency modes with the respective objective functions and scheduling horizons. Due to the consideration of resilient mode, load curtailment can be reduced during emergency operation periods. Numerical simulations have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed strategy for enhancing the resiliency of hybrid microgrids.

  11. Prodiag--a hybrid artificial intelligence based reactor diagnostic system for process faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Vitela, J.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Applequist, C. A. [Commonwealth Research Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Chasensky, T.M. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are collaborating on a DOE-sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), project to perform feasibility studies on a novel approach to Artificial Intelligence (Al) based diagnostics for component faults in nuclear power plants. Investigations are being performed in the construction of a first-principles physics-based plant level process diagnostic expert system (ES) and the identification of component-level fault patterns through operating component characteristics using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The purpose of the proof-of-concept project is to develop a computer-based system using this Al approach to assist process plant operators during off-normal plant conditions. The proposed computer-based system will use thermal hydraulic (T-H) signals complemented by other non-T-H signals available in the data stream to provide the process operator with the component which most likely caused the observed process disturbance.To demonstrate the scale-up feasibility of the proposed diagnostic system it is being developed for use with the Chemical Volume Control System (CVCS) of a nuclear power plant. A full-scope operator training simulator representing the Commonwealth Edison Braidwood nuclear power plant is being used both as the source of development data and as the means to evaluate the advantages of the proposed diagnostic system. This is an ongoing multi-year project and this paper presents the results to date of the CRADA phase.

  12. The conceptual Design of a hybrid Life Support System based on the Evaluation and Comparison of Terrestrial Testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupalla, M.; Horneck, G.; Blome, H. J.

    This report summarizes a trade study which was conducted at the DLR in Cologne as part of an Aerospace Engineering Thesis for the University of Applied Sciences at Aachen. The goal of this study was the evaluation of bioregenerative options of a Life Support System (LSS) and a subsequent conceptual design of a hybrid LSS. This concept is supported by previous work on P/C LSS. Baseline for the evaluation of bioregenerative options were the terrestrial experiments in the LSS area. The experiments considered for the study were as follows. MELISSA (ESA's Microbial LSS Approach) BIOS (Russia experiments on CELSS) ALS Project (American practical and theoretical work on LSS) Computer models including mass flows were established for each of the systems with the goal of closing system loops to the extent possible. The terrestrial test initiatives achieved different levels of maturity as of supported crew size and the provided nutrition. For comparison, all systems were scaled for supporting a crew of six as given in the NASA Design Reference Mission Scenario (DRM). In addition one uniform nutritional baseline, as of calories, was applied to all models. Equivalent System Mass analysis was used to compare the scaled terrestrial designs against each other. Following the comparison of the terrestrial systems, the system specific subsystem options for Food Supply, Waste Processing, Water Management and Atmosphere Revitalization were evaluated separately in a trade study. Resulting technologies were integrated into an overall design solution based on mass flow relationships. The bioregenerative part of the LSS was hereby supplemented with P/C LSS technologies in order to enhance system performance and to minimize re-supply requirements. Eventually an iterated conceptual hybrid LSS for DRM type mission was designed and will be presented.

  13. Hybrid attribute-based recommender system for learning material using genetic algorithm and a multidimensional information model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Salehi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the explosion of learning materials in the web-based educational systems has caused difficulty of locating appropriate learning materials to learners. A personalized recommendation is an enabling mechanism to overcome information overload occurred in the new learning environments and deliver suitable materials to learners. Since users express their opinions based on some specific attributes of items, this paper proposes a hybrid recommender system for learning materials based on their attributes to improve the accuracy and quality of recommendation. The presented system has two main modules: explicit attribute-based recommender and implicit attribute-based recommender. In the first module, weights of implicit or latent attributes of materials for learner are considered as chromosomes in genetic algorithm then this algorithm optimizes the weights according to historical rating. Then, recommendation is generated by Nearest Neighborhood Algorithm (NNA using the optimized weight vectors implicit attributes that represent the opinions of learners. In the second, preference matrix (PM is introduced that can model the interests of learner based on explicit attributes of learning materials in a multidimensional information model. Then, a new similarity measure between PMs is introduced and recommendations are generated by NNA. The experimental results show that our proposed method outperforms current algorithms on accuracy measures and can alleviate some problems such as cold-start and sparsity.

  14. Control of second-life hybrid battery energy storage system based on modular boost-multilevel buck converter

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Nilanjan; Strickland, Dani

    2015-01-01

    To fully utilize second-life batteries on the grid system, a hybrid battery scheme needs to be considered for several reasons: the uncertainty over using a single source supply chain for second-life batteries, the differences in evolving battery chemistry and battery configuration by different suppliers to strive for greater power levels, and the uncertainty of degradation within a second-life battery. Therefore, these hybrid battery systems could have widely different module voltage, capacit...

  15. Hybrid-Electric Aircraft TOGW Development Tool with Empirically-Based Airframe and Physics-Based Hybrid Propulsion System Component Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid-Electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) is becoming widely accepted and new tools will be required for future development. This Phase I SBIR proposal creates a...

  16. Optimal Sizing of a Stand-Alone Hybrid Power System Based on Battery/Hydrogen with an Improved Ant Colony Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Weiqiang Dong; Yanjun Li; Ji Xiang

    2016-01-01

    A distributed power system with renewable energy sources is very popular in recent years due to the rapid depletion of conventional sources of energy. Reasonable sizing for such power systems could improve the power supply reliability and reduce the annual system cost. The goal of this work is to optimize the size of a stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic (PV)/wind turbine (WT)/battery (B)/hydrogen system (a hybrid system based on battery and hydrogen (HS-BH)) for reliable and economic supply. Two...

  17. Active Fault Diagnosis for Hybrid Systems Based on Sensitivity Analysis and EKF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Mehdi; Schiøler, Henrik; Bak, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    An active fault diagnosis approach for different kinds of faults is proposed. The input of the approach is designed off-line based on sensitivity analysis such that the maximum sensitivity for each individual system parameter is obtained. Using maximum sensitivity, results in a better precision i...

  18. A Fuzzy-Logic Power Management Strategy Based on Markov Random Prediction for Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years; issues regarding the use of hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs in hybrid electric vehicles have been highlighted by the industry and in academic fields. This paper proposes a fuzzy-logic power management strategy based on Markov random prediction for an active parallel battery-UC HESS. The proposed power management strategy; the inputs for which are the vehicle speed; the current electric power demand and the predicted electric power demand; is used to distribute the electrical power between the battery bank and the UC bank. In this way; the battery bank power is limited to a certain range; and the peak and average charge/discharge power of the battery bank and overall loss incurred by the whole HESS are also reduced. Simulations and scaled-down experimental platforms are constructed to verify the proposed power management strategy. The simulations and experimental results demonstrate the advantages; feasibility and effectiveness of the fuzzy-logic power management strategy based on Markov random prediction.

  19. Development of a multi-objective scheduling system for offshore projects based on hybrid non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghua Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the efficiency of offshore companies, a multi-objective scheduling system based on hybrid non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm was proposed. An optimized model for multi-objective and multi-execution mode was constructed under the condition of taking time, cost, and resource into account, and then the mathematical model for the same was established. Moreover, the key techniques of the proposed system were elaborated, and the flowchart was designed. Aiming at the weaknesses of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm which is short for non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II in the facet of local search and computational efficiency, Pareto-dominated simulated annealing algorithm was applied in search global solution. Finally, by simulation examples and industrial application, the robustness and outperformance of the improved algorithm were verified.

  20. Dispatching of Wind/Battery Energy Storage Hybrid Systems Using Inner Point Method-Based Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyou Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of large scale energy storage makes wind farms more dispatchable, which lowers operating risks to the grid from interconnected large scale wind farms. In order to make full use of the flexibility and controllability of energy storage to improve the schedulability of wind farms, this paper presents a rolling and dispatching control strategy with a battery energy storage system (BESS based on model predictive control (MPC. The proposed control scheme firstly plans expected output, i.e., dispatching order, of a wind/battery energy storage hybrid system based on the predicted output of the wind farm, then calculates the order in the predictive horizon with the receding horizon optimization and the limitations of energy storage such as state of charge and depth of charge/discharge to maintain the combination of active output of the wind farm and the BESS to track dispatching order at the extreme. The paper shows and analyses the effectiveness of the proposed strategy with different sizes of capacity of the BESS based on the actual output of a certain actual wind farm in the northeast of China. The results show that the proposed strategy that controls the BESS could improve the schedulability of the wind farm and maintain smooth output of wind/battery energy storage hybrid system while tracking the dispatching orders. When the capacity of the BESS is 20% or the rated capacity of the wind farm, the mean dispatching error is only 0.153% of the rated capacity of the wind farm.

  1. Influence of voids in the hybrid layer based on self-etching adhesive systems: a 3-D FE analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Martini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of porosities at the dentin/adhesive interface has been observed with the use of new generation dentin bonding systems. These porosities tend to contradict the concept that etching and hybridization processes occur equally and simultaneously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the micromechanical behavior of the hybrid layer (HL with voids based on a self-etching adhesive system using 3-D finite element (FE analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three FE models (Mr were built: Mr, dentin specimen (41x41x82 μm with a regular and perfect (i.e. pore-free HL based on a self-etching adhesive system, restored with composite resin; Mp, similar to M, but containing 25% (v/v voids in the HL; Mpp, similar to Mr, but containing 50% (v/v voids in the HL. A tensile load (0.03N was applied on top of the composite resin. The stress field was obtained by using Ansys Workbench 10.0. The nodes of the base of the specimen were constrained in the x, y and z axes. The maximum principal stress (σmax was obtained for all structures at the dentin/adhesive interface. RESULTS: The Mpp showed the highest peak of σmax in the HL (32.2 MPa, followed by Mp (30 MPa and Mr (28.4 MPa. The stress concentration in the peritubular dentin was high in all models (120 MPa. All other structures positioned far from voids showed similar increase of stress. CONCLUSION: Voids incorporated into the HL raised the σmax in this region by 13.5%. This behavior might be responsible for lower bond strengths of self-etching and single-bottle adhesives, as reported in the literature.

  2. DNA-based hybrid catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Roelfes, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, DNA-based hybrid catalysis has merged as a promising novel approach to homogeneous (asymmetric) catalysis. A DNA hybrid catalysts comprises a transition metal complex that is covalently or supramolecularly bound to DNA. The chiral microenvironment and the second coordination sphere interactions provided by the DNA are key to achieve high enantioselectivities and, often, additional rate accelerations in catalysis. Nowadays, current efforts are focused on improved designs, understanding the origin of the enantioselectivity and DNA-induced rate accelerations, expanding the catalytic scope of the concept and further increasing the practicality of the method for applications in synthesis. Herein, the recent developments will be reviewed and the perspectives for the emerging field of DNA-based hybrid catalysis will be discussed.

  3. Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    elbow) and a pinned first joint (shoul- der) (see Figure 2); it is termed an underactuated system since it is a mechanical system with fewer...Montreal, PQ, Canada, 1998. [10] M. W. Spong. Partial feedback linearization of underactuated mechanical systems . In Proceedings, IROS󈨢, pages 314-321...control mechanism and search for optimal combinations of control variables. Besides the nonlinear and hybrid nature of powertrain systems , hardware

  4. Power quality control of an autonomous wind-diesel power system based on hybrid intelligent controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hee-Sang; Lee, Kwang Y; Kang, Min-Jae; Kim, Ho-Chan

    2008-12-01

    Wind power generation is gaining popularity as the power industry in the world is moving toward more liberalized trade of energy along with public concerns of more environmentally friendly mode of electricity generation. The weakness of wind power generation is its dependence on nature-the power output varies in quite a wide range due to the change of wind speed, which is difficult to model and predict. The excess fluctuation of power output and voltages can influence negatively the quality of electricity in the distribution system connected to the wind power generation plant. In this paper, the authors propose an intelligent adaptive system to control the output of a wind power generation plant to maintain the quality of electricity in the distribution system. The target wind generator is a cost-effective induction generator, while the plant is equipped with a small capacity energy storage based on conventional batteries, heater load for co-generation and braking, and a voltage smoothing device such as a static Var compensator (SVC). Fuzzy logic controller provides a flexible controller covering a wide range of energy/voltage compensation. A neural network inverse model is designed to provide compensating control amount for a system. The system can be optimized to cope with the fluctuating market-based electricity price conditions to lower the cost of electricity consumption or to maximize the power sales opportunities from the wind generation plant.

  5. SCAN-based hybrid and double-hybrid density functionals from parameter-free models

    CERN Document Server

    Hui, Kerwin

    2015-01-01

    By incorporating the nonempirical SCAN semilocal density functional [Sun, Ruzsinszky, and Perdew, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 036402 (2015)] in the underlying expression, we propose one hybrid (SCAN0) and three double-hybrid (SCAN0-DH, SCAN-QIDH, and SCAN0-2) density functionals, which are free of any empirical parameter. The SCAN-based hybrid and double-hybrid functionals consistently outperform their parent SCAN semilocal functional for a wide range of applications. The SCAN-based semilocal, hybrid, and double-hybrid functionals generally perform better than the corresponding PBE-based functionals. In addition, the SCAN0-2 and SCAN-QIDH double-hybrid functionals significantly reduce the qualitative failures of the SCAN semilocal functional, such as the self-interaction error and noncovalent interaction error, extending the applicability of the SCAN-based functionals to a very diverse range of systems.

  6. NOTE: First images of a digital autoradiography system based on a Medipix2 hybrid silicon pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettivier, Giovanni; Montesi, Maria Cristina; Russo, Paolo

    2003-06-01

    We present the first images of beta autoradiography obtained with the high-resolution hybrid pixel detector consisting of the Medipix2 single photon counting read-out chip bump-bonded to a 300 µm thick silicon pixel detector. This room temperature system has 256 × 256 square pixels of 55 µm pitch (total sensitive area of 14 × 14 mm2), with a double threshold discriminator and a 13-bit counter in each pixel. It is read out via a dedicated electronic interface and control software, also developed in the framework of the European Medipix2 Collaboration. Digital beta autoradiograms of 14C microscale standard strips (containing separate bands of increasing specific activity in the range 0.0038-32.9 kBq g-1) indicate system linearity down to a total background noise of 1.8 × 10-3 counts mm-2 s-1. The minimum detectable activity is estimated to be 0.012 Bq for 36 000 s exposure and 0.023 Bq for 10 800 s exposure. The measured minimum detection threshold is less than 1600 electrons (equivalent to about 6 keV Si). This real-time system for beta autoradiography offers lower pixel pitch and higher sensitive area than the previous Medipix1-based system. It has a 14C sensitivity better than that of micro channel plate based systems, which, however, shows higher spatial resolution and sensitive area.

  7. Mechatronics design and experimental verification of an electric-vehicle-based hybrid thermal management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an electric-vehicle-based thermal management system was designed for dual energy sources. An experimental platform developed in a previous study was modified. Regarding the mechanical components, a heat exchanger with a radiator, proportional valve, coolant pipes, and coolant pump was appropriately integrated. Regarding the electric components, two heaters emulating waste heat were controlled using two programmable power supply machines. A rapid-prototyping controller with two temperature inputs and three outputs was designed. Rule-based control strategies were coded to maintain optimal temperatures for the emulated proton exchange membrane fuel cells and lithium batteries. To evaluate the heat power of dual energy sources, driving cycles, energy management control, and efficiency maps of energy sources were considered for deriving time-variant values. The main results are as follows: (a an advanced mechatronics platform was constructed; (b a driving cycle simulation was successfully conducted; and (c coolant temperatures reached their optimal operating ranges when the proportional valve, radiator, and coolant pump were sequentially controlled. The benefits of this novel electric-vehicle-based thermal management system are (a high-efficiency operation of energy sources, (b low occupied volume integrated with energy sources, and (c higher electric vehicle traveling mileage. This system will be integrated with real energy sources and a real electric vehicle in the future.

  8. Hybrid Power Management System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  9. Self-feeding paper based biofuel cell/self-powered hybrid μ-supercapacitor integrated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez Villarrubia, Claudia W; Soavi, Francesca; Santoro, Carlo; Arbizzani, Catia; Serov, Alexey; Rojas-Carbonell, Santiago; Gupta, Gautam; Atanassov, Plamen

    2016-12-15

    For the first time, a paper based enzymatic fuel cell is used as self-recharged supercapacitor. In this supercapacitive enzymatic fuel cell (SC-EFC), the supercapacitive features of the electrodes are exploited to demonstrate high power output under pulse operation. Glucose dehydrogenase-based anode and bilirubin oxidase-based cathode were assembled to a quasi-2D capillary-driven microfluidic system. Capillary flow guarantees the continuous supply of glucose, cofactor and electrolytes to the anodic enzyme and the gas-diffusional cathode design provides the passive supply of oxygen to the catalytic layer of the electrode. The paper-based cell was self-recharged under rest and discharged by high current pulses up to 4mAcm(-2). The supercapacitive behavior and low equivalent series resistance of the cell permitted to achieve up to a maximum power of 0.87mWcm(-2) (10.6mW) for pulses of 0.01s at 4mAcm(-2). This operation mode allowed the system to achieve at least one order of magnitude higher current/power generation compared to the steady state operation.

  10. Multiuser hybrid switched-selection diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2011-09-01

    A new multiuser scheduling scheme is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The proposed system combines features of conventional full-feedback selection-based diversity systems and reduced-feedback switch-based diversity systems. The new hybrid system provides flexibility in trading-off the channel information feedback overhead with the prospected multiuser diversity gains. The users are clustered into groups, and the users\\' groups are ordered into a sequence. Per-group feedback thresholds are used and optimized to maximize the system overall achievable rate. The proposed hybrid system applies switched diversity criterion to choose one of the groups, and a selection criterion to decide the user to be scheduled from the chosen group. Numerical results demonstrate that the system capacity increases as the number of users per group increases, but at the cost of more required feedback messages. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. The Power Quality Compensation Strategy for Power Distribution System Based on Hybrid Parallel Active Power Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid DEHINI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main aim is to confront the performance of shunt active power filter (SAPF and the shunt hybrid active power filter (SHAPF to achieve flexibility and reliability of the filter devices. Both of the two devices used the classical proportional-integral controller for pulse generation to trigger the inventers MOSFET’s. In the adopted hybrid active filter there is a passive power filter with high power rating to filter the low order harmonies and one active filter with low power rating to filter the other high order harmonies. In order to investigate the effectiveness of (SHAPF, the studies have been accomplished using simulation with the MATLAB-SIMULINK. The results show That (SHAPF is more effective than (SAPF, and has lower cost.

  12. A Generic Hybrid Encryption System (HES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Ali Shoukat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a Generic Hybrid Encryption System (HES under mutual committee of symmetric and asymmetric cryptosystems. Asymmetric (public key Cryptosystems associates several performance issues like computational incompetence, memory wastages, energy consumptions and employment limitations on bulky data sets but they are quite secure and reliable in key exchange over insecure remote communication channels. Symmetric (private key cryptosystems are 100 times out performed, having no such issues but they cannot fulfill non-repudiation, false modifications in secret key, fake modifications in cipher text and origin authentication of both parties while exchanging information. These contradictory issues can be omitted by utilizing hybrid encryption mechanisms (symmetric+asymmetric to get optimal benefits of both schemes. Several hybrid mechanisms are available with different logics but our logic differs in infrastructural design, simplicity, computational efficiency and security as compared to prior hybrid encryption schemes. Some prior schemes are either diversified in performance aspects, customer satisfaction, memory utilization or energy consumptions and some are vulnerable against forgery and password guessing (session key recovery attacks. We have done some functional and design related changes in existing Public Key Infrastructure (PKI to achieve simplicity, optimal privacy and more customer satisfaction by providing Hybrid Encryption System (HES that is able to fulfill all set of standardized security constraints. No such PKI based generic hybrid encryption scheme persists as we have provided in order to manage all these kinds of discussed issues.

  13. Fuzzy-logic-based supervisory controller for the management of energy in a hybrid system; Control supervisorio difuso para sistemas hibridos de generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas, J.; Caratozzolo, P.; Ortega, C.; Gonzalez, R.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents and validates the use of a fuzzy-logic-based supervisory controller for the management of energy in a hybrid system. The general configuration of the hybrid system is presented as well as the operational objectives of the supervisory controller. The inputs and outputs of the controller are also presented along with the hierarchical structure employed in order to reduce the number of rules in the knowledge base. The results obtained are compared against those of a conventional controller. Simulations were carried out using Matlab. (Author)

  14. Optimised Hybrid Integrated Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arun Sandilya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid integrated renewable energy system for an isolated small community, where grid extension is considered uneconomical. This paper proposed cost optimization through dynamic matching between load and proper equipment sizing. The Matlab based computer program developed for determining the most cost effective energy source to supply required load any given time of the day. Integrated system based on green energy utilization and rural electricity development.

  15. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  16. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Framework for the Economic Analysis of Hybrid Systems Based on Exergy Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cherry, Robert S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Starting from an overview of the dynamic behavior of the electricity market the need of the introduction of energy users that will provide a damping capability to the system is derived as also a qualitative analysis of the impact of uncertainty, both in the demand and supply side, is performed. Then it follows an introduction to the investment analysis methodologies based on the discounting of the cash flow, and then work concludes with the illustration and application of the exergonomic principles to provide a sound methodology for the cost accounting of the plant components to be used in the cash flow analysis.

  18. Analysis and design of hybrid control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmborg, J.

    1998-05-01

    Different aspects of hybrid control systems are treated: analysis, simulation, design and implementation. A systematic methodology using extended Lyapunov theory for design of hybrid systems is developed. The methodology is based on conventional control designs in separate regions together with a switching strategy. Dynamics are not well defined if the control design methods lead to fast mode switching. The dynamics depend on the salient features of the implementation of the mode switches. A theorem for the stability of second order switching together with the resulting dynamics is derived. The dynamics on an intersection of two sliding sets are defined for two relays working on different time scales. The current simulation packages have problems modeling and simulating hybrid systems. It is shown how fast mode switches can be found before or during simulation. The necessary analysis work is a very small overhead for a modern simulation tool. To get some experience from practical problems with hybrid control the switching strategy is implemented in two different software environments. In one of them a time-optimal controller is added to an existing PID controller on a commercial control system. Successful experiments with this hybrid controller shows the practical use of the method 78 refs, 51 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Performance Analysis for Regional Satellite Positioning System Based upon GEO/HEO Hybrid Constellation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Scheme of positioning constellation would greatly influence the positioning performance. In this paper, a GEO/HEO hybrid constellation with 3 HEO satellites deployed in 3 orbits and 3 GEO satellites for regional positioning is presented. Firstly, elements for 3 GEO and 3 HEO are optimized from regional visibility for the selected region of interest. Secondly, positioning performance is provided through GDOP(geometric dilution of precision) and PDOP(positional dilution of precision). Simulation results show that similar accuracy with GPS can be gained by this constellation.

  20. Hybrid2: The hybrid system simulation model, Version 1.0, user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1996-06-01

    In light of the large scale desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world, the need for a detailed long term performance prediction model for hybrid power systems was seen. To meet these ends, engineers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) have spent the last three years developing the Hybrid2 software. The Hybrid2 code provides a means to conduct long term, detailed simulations of the performance of a large array of hybrid power systems. This work acts as an introduction and users manual to the Hybrid2 software. The manual describes the Hybrid2 code, what is included with the software and instructs the user on the structure of the code. The manual also describes some of the major features of the Hybrid2 code as well as how to create projects and run hybrid system simulations. The Hybrid2 code test program is also discussed. Although every attempt has been made to make the Hybrid2 code easy to understand and use, this manual will allow many organizations to consider the long term advantages of using hybrid power systems instead of conventional petroleum based systems for remote power generation.

  1. Real-Time Wavelet-Based Coordinated Control of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Denoising and Flattening Wind Power Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thai Trung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the penetration level of wind energy is continuously increasing, the negative impact caused by the fluctuation of wind power output needs to be carefully managed. This paper proposes a novel real-time coordinated control algorithm based on a wavelet transform to mitigate both short-term and long-term fluctuations by using a hybrid energy storage system (HESS. The short-term fluctuation is eliminated by using an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC, while the wind-HESS system output is kept constant during each 10-min period by a Ni-MH battery (NB. State-of-charge (SOC control strategies for both EDLC and NB are proposed to maintain the SOC level of storage within safe operating limits. A ramp rate limitation (RRL requirement is also considered in the proposed algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been tested by using real time simulation. The simulation model of the wind-HESS system is developed in the real-time digital simulator (RTDS/RSCAD environment. The proposed algorithm is also implemented as a user defined model of the RSCAD. The simulation results demonstrate that the HESS with the proposed control algorithm can indeed assist in dealing with the variation of wind power generation. Moreover, the proposed method shows better performance in smoothing out the fluctuation and managing the SOC of battery and EDLC than the simple moving average (SMA based method.

  2. Bioelectronic Device Mimicking Human Sensory System based on Nanovesicle-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daesan; Jin, Hye; Lee, San; Kim, Tae; Park, Juhun; Song, Hyun; Park, Tai; Hong, Seunghun

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a nanovesicle-based bioelectronic nose (NBN) that could mimic the receptor-mediated signal transmission of human olfactory systems and recognize a specific odorant. The NBN was comprised of a single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT)-based field effect transistor and cell-derived nanovesicles containing human olfactory receptors and calcium ion signal pathways. Importantly, the NBN took advantages of cell signal pathways for sensing signal amplification. It enabled ~100 times higher sensitivity than that of previous bioelectronic noses based on only olfactory receptor protein and CNT transistors. The NBN sensors exhibited a high sensitivity of 1 fM detection limit and a human-like selectivity with single-carbon-atomic resolution. Furthermore, these sensors could mimic a receptor-mediated cellular signal transmission in live cells. This versatile sensor platform should be useful for the study of molecular recognition and biological processes on cell membranes and also for various practical applications such as food conditioning and medical diagnostics.

  3. Hybrid optical-electrochemical electronic nose system based on Zn-porphyrin and multi-walled carbon nanotube composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kladsomboon, Sumana; Lutz, Mario; Pogfay, Tawee; Puntheeranurak, Theeraporn; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we have enhanced the capability of an e-nose system based on combined optical and electrochemical transduction within a single gas sensor array. The optical part of this e-nose is based on detection of the absorption changes of light emitted from eight light emitting diodes (LEDs) as measured by a CMOS photo-detector. The electrochemical part works by measuring the change in electrical resistivity of the sensing materials upon contact with the sample vapor. Zinc-5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin (ZnTPP) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite was used as the sensing materials based on its good optoelectronic properties. This sensing layer was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscope and tested with various VOC vapors. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to investigate the electronic properties and interaction energies between ZnTPP and analyte molecules. It can be clearly seen that this hybrid optical-electrochemical electronic nose system can classify the vapor of different volatile organic compounds.

  4. Combinatorial Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    2008-01-01

    indicates for a given face the future simplex. In the suggested definition we allow nondeterminacy in form of splitting and merging of solution trajectories. The combinatorial vector field gives rise to combinatorial counterparts of most concepts from dynamical systems, such as duals to vector fields, flow...... Schuppen, it is possible to find a controller for the system on each of the simplices thus guaranteeing that the system flow on the simplex only will leave the simplex through a subset of its faces. Motivated by R. Forman, on the triangulated state space we define a combinatorial vector field, which...

  5. Symbolic Algorithmic Analysis of Rectangular Hybrid Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bin Zhang; Zhen-Hua Duan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems. To deal with the symbolic reachability problem, a restricted constraint system called hybrid zone is formalized for the representation and manipulation of rectangular automata state-spaces. Hybrid zones are proved to be closed over symbolic reachability operations of rectangular hybrid systems. They are also applied to model-checking procedures for verifying some important classes of timed computation tree logic formulas. To represent hybrid zones, a data structure called difference constraint matrix is defined.These enable us to deal with the symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems in an efficient way.

  6. Implementation and Control of a Residential Electrothermal Microgrid Based on Renewable Energies, a Hybrid Storage System and Demand Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Pascual

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an energy management strategy for a residential electrothermal microgrid, based on renewable energy sources. While grid connected, it makes use of a hybrid electrothermal storage system, formed by a battery and a hot water tank along with an electrical water heater as a controllable load, which make possible the energy management within the microgrid. The microgrid emulates the operation of a single family home with domestic hot water (DHW consumption, a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC system as well as the typical electric loads. An energy management strategy has been designed which optimizes the power exchanged with the grid profile in terms of peaks and fluctuations, in applications with high penetration levels of renewables. The proposed energy management strategy has been evaluated and validated experimentally in a full scale residential microgrid built in our Renewable Energy Laboratory, by means of continuous operation under real conditions. The results show that the combination of electric and thermal storage systems with controllable loads is a promising technology that could maximize the penetration level of renewable energies in the electric system.

  7. A Cyber Physical Model Based on a Hybrid System for Flexible Load Control in an Active Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To strengthen the integration of the primary and secondary systems, a concept of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS is introduced to construct a CPS in Power Systems (Power CPS. The most basic work of the Power CPS is to build an integration model which combines both a continuous process and a discrete process. The advanced form of smart grid, the Active Distribution Network (ADN is a typical example of Power CPS. After designing the Power CPS model architecture and its application in ADN, a Hybrid System based model and control method of Power CPS is proposed in this paper. As an application example, ADN flexible load is modeled and controlled with ADN feeder power control by a control strategy which includes the normal condition and the underpowered condition. In this model and strategy, some factors like load power consumption and load functional demand are considered and optimized. In order to make up some of the deficiencies of centralized control, a distributed control method is presented to reduce model complexity and improve calculation speed. The effectiveness of all the models and methods are demonstrated in the case study.

  8. Developing a Virtual Group Decision Support System Based on Fuzzy Hybrid MCDM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Izadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational decisions involve with unusually vague and conflicting criteria. This controversy increases empirical uncertainties, disputes, and the resulting consequences of these decisions. One possible method in subduing this problem is to apply quantitative approaches to provide a transparent process for resolute conclusions which enables decision makers to formulate accurate and decisive on time decisions. Although numerous methods are presented in the literature, the majority of them aim to develop theoretical models. However, this article aims to develop and implement an integrated fuzzy virtual MCDM model based on fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS as a decision support system (DDS. Preventing disadvantageous face-to-face decision-making by achieving positive benefit from virtual decision making causes the proposed DDS to be suitable for making crucial decisions such as supplier selection, employee selection, employee appraisal, R&D project selection, etc. The proposed DDS has been implemented in an optical company in Iran.

  9. Smell Nanobiosensors: Hybrid systems based on the electrical response to odorant capture Theory And Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfinito, Eleonora; Pennetta, Cecilia; Reggiani, Lino

    2009-05-01

    Mammalian olfactory system is the bio-archetype of smell sensor devices. It is based on a very articulated mechanism which translate the odorant capture information performed by the olfactory receptors (ORs) into a code. Finally, the code is sent to the brain for aroma recognition. Our aim is to partially mimick this system to produce a biosensor on nanometric scale. The active part of the device is constituted of nanosomes containing specific ORs. Each nanosome is interfaced with nanoelectrodes and the odorant capture is converted into an electric signal. Specifically, the electrical response is correlated with the conformational change that a single OR undergoes when it captures a specific odorant molecule. An array of nanodevices should be able to produce specific response profiles. In this paper we present a possible theoretical framework in which the experimental results should be embedded. It consists of the description of the protein in terms of an impedance network able to simulate the electrical characteristics associated with the protein topology.

  10. Modelling of pressurised hybrid systems based on integrated planar solid oxide fuel cell (IP-SOFC) technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magistri, L.; Traverso, A.; Massardo, A.F. [TPG-DIMSET, University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, 16145 Genova (Italy); Cerutti, F.; Costamagna, P. [TPG-DICHEP, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 15, 16145 Genova (Italy); Bozzolo, M. [Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems Ltd, PO Box 31, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    This work describes different models, developed by the Thermochemical Power Group at the University of Genoa (Italy), for the simulation of solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine hybrid systems. The paper focuses on both ''cores'' of the system: the fuel cell stack on the one hand and the turbomachinery and the auxiliaries on the other hand. Therefore, in the first part of the paper the models developed for the analysis of the Rolls-Royce Integrated Planar SOFC cells are presented; the results are compared to experimental data, and carefully analysed and discussed. In the second part of the paper, design and off design models of IP-SOFC pressurised hybrid systems in the range 250 kW-20 MW are presented; the hybrid performance results are presented and discussed, also taking ambient condition effects and a possible control strategy into account. Finally, using an in-house general purpose transient system analysis code (TRANSEO code), where chemical composition, heat transfer, and fluid dynamic influences vs. time are considered in detail, a preliminary time dependent investigation of a pressurised hybrid system behaviour is presented. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. A Hybrid Deep Sea Navigation System of LBL/DR Integration Based on UKF and PSO-SVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ben; LIU Kaizhou; WANG Yanyan; ZHAO Yang; CUI Shengguo; WANG Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the navigation accuracy of human occupied vehicle (HOV) precisely and efficiently, an innovative hybrid approach based on unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and support vector machine (SVM) is proposed to fuse integrated navigation data. HOV is generally equipped with long baseline (LBL) acoustic positioning system and dead reckoning (DR) as an integrated navigation system. UKF is adopted to estimate the state of the dynamic model because of its good performance in filtering nonlinear problems. An accurate and stable filtering result can be obtained when both LBL and DR are online. At the same time, SVM is utilized to train DR information with the result when LBL outrages, and the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is employed for SVM parameters optimization. Therefore, the integrated navigation system can maintain a good performance when the LBL is off-line. Simulation results with the real navigation data of Jiaolong HOV show that the methodology proposed here is able to meet the needs of HOV application.

  12. FEMAN: Fuzzy-Based Energy Management System for Green Houses Using Hybrid Grid Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Chehri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations has designated the year 2012 as the international year of sustainable energy. Today, we are seeing a rise in global awareness of energy consumption and environmental problems. Many nations have launched different programs to reduce the energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings to seek lower-carbon energy solutions. We are talking about the future green and smart houses. The subject of smart/green houses is not one of “why,” but rather “how,” specifically: “how making the future house more energy efficient.” The use of the renewable energy, the technology and the services could help us to answer this question. Intelligent home energy management is an approach to build centralized systems that deliver application functionality as services to end-consumer applications. The objective of this work is to develop a smart and robust controller for house energy consumption with maximizing the use of solar energy and reducing the impact on the power grid while satisfying the energy demand of house appliances. We proposed a fuzzy-based energy management controller in order to reduce the consumed energy of the building while respecting a fixed comfort.

  13. Simulating light-weight Personalised Recommender Systems in Learning Networks: A case for Pedagogy-Oriented and Rating-based Hybrid Recommendation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadolski, Rob; Van den Berg, Bert; Berlanga, Adriana; Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob; Sloep, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Nadolski, R. J., Van den Berg, B., Berlanga, A. J., Drachsler, H., Hummel, H. G. K., Koper, R., & Sloep, P. B. (2009). Simulating Light-Weight Personalised Recommender Systems in Learning Networks: A Case for Pedagogy-Oriented and Rating-Based Hybrid Recommendation Strategies. Journal of Artificial

  14. Hybrid Microgrid Model based on Solar Photovoltaics with Batteries and Fuel Cells system for intermittent applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Maxx

    Microgrids are a subset of the modern power structure; using distributed generation (DG) to supply power to communities rather than vast regions. The reduced scale mitigates loss allowing the power produced to do more with better control, giving greater security, reliability, and design flexibility. This paper explores the performance and cost viability of a hybrid grid-tied microgrid that utilizes Photovoltaic (PV), batteries, and fuel cell (FC) technology. The concept proposes that each community home is equipped with more PV than is required for normal operation. As the homes are part of a microgrid, excess or unused energy from one home is collected for use elsewhere within the microgrid footprint. The surplus power that would have been discarded becomes a community asset, and is used to run intermittent services. In this paper, the modeled community does not have parking adjacent to each home allowing for the installment of a privately owned slower Level 2 charger, making EV ownership option untenable. A solution is to provide a Level 3 DC Quick Charger (DCQC) as the intermittent service. The addition of batteries and Fuel Cells are meant to increase load leveling, reliability, and instill limited island capability.

  15. Hybrid lipid-based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayani, Yasaman

    Biological membranes serve several important roles, such as structural support of cells and organelles, regulation of ionic and molecular transport, barriers to non-mediated transport, contact between cells within tissues, and accommodation of membrane proteins. Membrane proteins and other vital biomolecules incorporated into the membrane need a lipid membrane to function. Due to importance of lipid bilayers and their vital function in governing many processes in the cell, the development of various models as artificial lipid membranes that can mimic cell membranes has become a subject of great interest. Using different models of artificial lipid membranes, such as liposomes, planar lipid bilayers and supported or tethered lipid bilayers, we are able to study many biophysical processes in biological membranes. The ability of different molecules to interact with and change the structure of lipid membranes can be also investigated in artificial lipid membranes. An important application of lipid bilayer-containing interfaces is characterization of novel membrane proteins for high throughput drug screening studies to investigate receptor-drug interactions and develop biosensor systems. Membrane proteins need a lipid bilayer environment to preserve their stability and functionality. Fabrication of materials that can interact with biomolecules like proteins necessitates the use of lipid bilayers as a mimic of cell membranes. The objective of this research is to develop novel hybrid lipid-based nanostructures mimicking biological membranes. Toward this aim, two hybrid biocompatible structures are introduced: lipid bilayer-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and hydrogel-anchored liposomes with double-stranded DNA anchors. These structures have potential applications in biosensing, drug targeting, drug delivery, and biophysical studies of cell membranes. In the first developed nanostructure, lipid molecules are covalently attached to the surfaces of MWCNTs, and

  16. Desiccant-Based Combined Systems: Integrated Active Desiccant Rooftop Hybrid System Development and Testing Final Report- Phase 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J

    2005-05-06

    This report summarizes the results of a research and development (R&D) program to design and optimize an active desiccant-vapor compression hybrid rooftop system. The primary objective was to combine the strengths of both technologies to produce a compact, high-performing, energy-efficient system that could accommodate any percentage of outdoor air and deliver essentially any required combination of temperature and humidity, or sensible heat ratio (SHR). In doing so, such a product would address the significant challenges imposed on the performance capabilities of conventional packaged rooftop equipment by standards 62 and 90.1 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. The body of work completed as part of this program built upon previous R&D efforts supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and summarized by the Phase 3b report ''Active Desiccant Dehumidification Module Integration with Rooftop Packaged HVAC Units'' (Fischer and Sand 2002), in addition to Fischer, Hallstrom, and Sand 2000; Fischer 2000; and Fischer and Sand 2004. All initial design objectives established for this development program were successfully achieved. The performance flexibility desired was accomplished by a down-sized active desiccant wheel that processes only a portion of the supply airflow, which is pre-conditioned by a novel vapor compression cycle. Variable-speed compressors are used to deliver the capacity control required by a system handling a high percentage of outdoor air. An integrated direct digital control system allows for control capabilities not generally offered by conventional packaged rooftop systems. A 3000-cfm prototype system was constructed and tested in the SEMCO engineering test laboratory in Columbia, MO, and was found to operate in an energy-efficient fashion relative to more conventional systems. Most important, the system offered the capability to independently control the supply air temperature and

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Hybrid Electrical Engineering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large class of systems that have found application in various industries and households, electrified transportation facilities and energy sector has been classified as electrical engineering systems. Their characteristic feature is a combination of continuous and discontinuous modes of operation, which is reflected in the appearance of a relatively new term “hybrid systems”. A wide class of hybrid systems is pulsed DC converters operating in a pulse width modulation, which are non-linear systems with variable structure. Using various methods for linearization it is possible to obtain linear mathematical models that rather accurately simulate behavior of such systems. However, the presence in the mathematical models of exponential nonlinearities creates considerable difficulties in the implementation of digital hardware. The solution can be found while using an approximation of exponential functions by polynomials of the first order, that, however, violates the rigor accordance of the analytical model with characteristics of a real object. There are two practical approaches to synthesize algorithms for control of hybrid systems. The first approach is based on the representation of the whole system by a discrete model which is described by difference equations that makes it possible to synthesize discrete algorithms. The second approach is based on description of the system by differential equations. The equations describe synthesis of continuous algorithms and their further implementation in a digital computer included in the control loop system. The paper considers modeling of a hybrid electrical engineering system using differential equations. Neglecting the pulse duration, it has been proposed to describe behavior of vector components in phase coordinates of the hybrid system by stochastic differential equations containing generally non-linear differentiable random functions. A stochastic vector-matrix equation describing dynamics of the

  18. Enhancing ethylbenzene vapors degradation in a hybrid system based on photocatalytic oxidation UV/TiO{sub 2}-In and a biofiltration process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinojosa-Reyes, M. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica A.C., Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Lomas 4a seccion, CP. 78216, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Rodriguez-Gonzalez, V. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica A.C., Division de Materiales Avanzados, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Lomas 4a seccion, CP. 78216, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Arriaga, S., E-mail: sonia@ipicyt.edu.mx [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica A.C., Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Lomas 4a seccion, CP. 78216, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The best photocatalytic system for EB degradation was based on TiO{sub 2}-In 1%/365 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum EC of 290 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1} for the hybrid system was obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hybrid process enhanced 40% the overall EC of ethylbenzene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An overall mineralization of 67% for EB degradation was reached in the hybrid system. - Abstract: The use of hybrid processes for the continuous degradation of ethylbenzene (EB) vapors has been evaluated. The hybrid system consists of an UV/TiO{sub 2}-In photooxidation coupled with a biofiltration process. Both the photocatalytic system using P25-Degussa or indium-doped TiO{sub 2} catalysts and the photolytic process were performed at UV-wavelengths of 254 nm and 365 nm. The experiments were carried out in an annular plug flow photoreactor packed with granular perlite previously impregnated with the catalysts, and in a glass biofilter packed with perlite and inoculated with a microbial consortium. Both reactors were operated at an inlet loading rate of 127 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1}. The greatest degradation rate of EB (0.414 ng m{sup -2} min{sup -1}) was obtained with the TiO{sub 2}-In 1%/365 nm photocatalytic system. The elimination capacity (EC) obtained in the control biofilter had values {approx}60 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1}. Consequently, the coupled system was operated for 15 days, and a maximal EC of 275 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1}. Thus, the results indicate that the use of hybrid processes enhanced the EB vapor degradation and that this could be a promising technology for the abatement of recalcitrant volatile organic compounds.

  19. A novel integrated thermal-/membrane-based solar energy-driven hybrid desalination system: Concept description and simulation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Deuk; Thu, Kyaw; Ng, Kim Choon; Amy, Gary L; Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid desalination system consisting of vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) and adsorption desalination (AD) units, designated as VMD-AD cycle, is proposed. The synergetic integration of the VMD and AD is demonstrated where a useful effect of the AD cycle is channelled to boost the operation of the VMD process, namely the low vacuum environment to maintain the high pressure gradient across the microporous hydrophobic membrane. A solar-assisted multi-stage VMD-AD hybrid desalination system with temperature modulating unit is first designed, and its performance is then examined with a mathematical model of each component in the system and compared with the VMD-only system with temperature modulating and heat recovery units. The total water production and water recovery ratio of a solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD hybrid system are found to be about 21% and 23% higher, respectively, as compared to the VMD-only system. For the solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD desalination system having 150 m(2) of evacuated-tube collectors and 10 m(3) seawater storage tanks, both annual collector efficiency and solar fraction are close to 60%.

  20. A novel integrated thermal-/membrane-based solar energy-driven hybrid desalination system: Concept description and simulation results

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Young-Deuk

    2016-05-03

    In this paper, a hybrid desalination system consisting of vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) and adsorption desalination (AD) units, designated as VMD-AD cycle, is proposed. The synergetic integration of the VMD and AD is demonstrated where a useful effect of the AD cycle is channelled to boost the operation of the VMD process, namely the low vacuum environment to maintain the high pressure gradient across the microporous hydrophobic membrane. A solar-assisted multi-stage VMD-AD hybrid desalination system with temperature modulating unit is first designed, and its performance is then examined with a mathematical model of each component in the system and compared with the VMD-only system with temperature modulating and heat recovery units. The total water production and water recovery ratio of a solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD hybrid system are found to be about 21% and 23% higher, respectively, as compared to the VMD-only system. For the solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD desalination system having 150 m2 of evacuated-tube collectors and 10 m3 seawater storage tanks, both annual collector efficiency and solar fraction are close to 60%.

  1. Analysis of Synchronization for Coupled Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zheng; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    In the control systems with coupled multi-subsystem, the subsystems might be synchronized (i.e. all the subsystems have the same operation states), which results in negative influence to the whole system. For example, in the supermarket refrigeration systems, the synchronized switch of each...... subsystem will cause low efficiency, inferior control performance and a high wear on the compressor. This paper takes the supermarket refrigeration systems as an example to analyze the synchronization and its coupling strengths of coupled hybrid systems, which may provide a base for further research...

  2. Hybrid Dislocated Control and General Hybrid Projective Dislocated Synchronization for Memristor Chaotic Oscillator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some important dynamical properties of the memristor chaotic oscillator system have been studied in the paper. A novel hybrid dislocated control method and a general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization scheme have been realized for memristor chaotic oscillator system. The paper firstly presents hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to the unstable equilibrium point. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization has been studied for the drive memristor chaotic oscillator system and the same response memristor chaotic oscillator system. For the different dimensions, the memristor chaotic oscillator system and the other chaotic system have realized general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.

  3. Performance Analysis of Grid Integrated Hydro and Solar Based Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeka Meshram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy systems (RESs are an attractive option to electrify the community as they are environment friendly, free of cost, and all-pervading. The efficiency of these energy systems is very low and can be improved by integrating them in parallel. In this paper, hydro (7.5 kW and solar systems (10 kW are taken as RESs and connected with the utility grid. Due to the intermittent nature of both the hydro and photovoltaic energy sources, utility grid is connected to the system for ensuring the continuous power flow. The hydro power generation system uses the self excited induction generator (SEIG and converters. The AC/DC/AC converter is used as interface to connect the hydro turbine to the utility grid to adjust the generated voltage to the utility grid voltage. The solar generation system is the combination of PV array, boost converter, and solar inverter. The control of both the hydro and solar power plants is provided through the constant current controller. The analysis has been done to verify the existence of the proposed system. Results demonstrate that the proposed system is able to be put into service and can feed the community.

  4. A Lymph Node Staging System for Gastric Cancer: A Hybrid Type Based on Topographic and Numeric Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Young Choi

    Full Text Available Although changing a lymph node staging system from an anatomically based system to a numerically based system in gastric cancer offers better prognostic performance, several problems can arise: it does not offer information on the anatomical extent of disease and cannot represent the extent of lymph node dissection. The purpose of this study was to discover an alternative lymph node staging system for gastric cancer. Data from 6025 patients who underwent gastrectomy for primary gastric cancer between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. The lymph node groups were reclassified into lesser-curvature, greater-curvature, and extra-perigastric groups. Presence of any metastatic lymph node in one group was considered positive. Lymph node groups were further stratified into four (new N0-new N3 according to the number of positive lymph node groups. Survival outcomes with this new N staging were compared with those of the current TNM system. For validation, two centers in Japan (large center, n = 3443; medium center, n = 560 were invited. Even among the same pN stages, the more advanced new N stage showed worse prognosis, indicating that the anatomical extent of metastatic lymph nodes is important. The prognostic performance of the new staging system was as good as that of the current TNM system for overall advanced gastric cancer as well as lymph node-positive gastric cancer (Harrell C-index was 0.799, 0.726, and 0.703 in current TNM and 0.799, 0.727, and 0.703 in new TNM stage. Validation sets supported these outcomes. The new N staging system demonstrated prognostic performance equal to that of the current TNM system and could thus be used as an alternative.

  5. A Lymph Node Staging System for Gastric Cancer: A Hybrid Type Based on Topographic and Numeric Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Young; An, Ji Yeong; Katai, Hitoshi; Seto, Yasuyuki; Fukagawa, Takeo; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Although changing a lymph node staging system from an anatomically based system to a numerically based system in gastric cancer offers better prognostic performance, several problems can arise: it does not offer information on the anatomical extent of disease and cannot represent the extent of lymph node dissection. The purpose of this study was to discover an alternative lymph node staging system for gastric cancer. Data from 6025 patients who underwent gastrectomy for primary gastric cancer between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. The lymph node groups were reclassified into lesser-curvature, greater-curvature, and extra-perigastric groups. Presence of any metastatic lymph node in one group was considered positive. Lymph node groups were further stratified into four (new N0-new N3) according to the number of positive lymph node groups. Survival outcomes with this new N staging were compared with those of the current TNM system. For validation, two centers in Japan (large center, n = 3443; medium center, n = 560) were invited. Even among the same pN stages, the more advanced new N stage showed worse prognosis, indicating that the anatomical extent of metastatic lymph nodes is important. The prognostic performance of the new staging system was as good as that of the current TNM system for overall advanced gastric cancer as well as lymph node-positive gastric cancer (Harrell C-index was 0.799, 0.726, and 0.703 in current TNM and 0.799, 0.727, and 0.703 in new TNM stage). Validation sets supported these outcomes. The new N staging system demonstrated prognostic performance equal to that of the current TNM system and could thus be used as an alternative.

  6. Hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Joseph W.; Carrano, Anthony V.; Davidson, James C.; Koo, Jackson C.

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system. The hybrid system permits the fabrication of isolated microchannels for biomolecule separations without imposing the constraint of a totally sealed system. The hybrid system is reusable and ultimately much simpler and less costly to manufacture than a closed channel plate system. The hybrid system incorporates a microslab portion of the separation medium above the microchannels, thus at least substantially reducing the possibility of non-uniform field distribution and breakdown due to uncontrollable leakage. A microslab of the sieving matrix is built into the system by using plastic spacer materials and is used to uniformly couple the top plate with the bottom microchannel plate.

  7. Comparison and performance analysis of closed loop controlled nonlinear system connected PWM inverter based on hybrid technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Deshmukh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed closed loop control of nonlinear system connected inverter based on the optimal neural controller (ONC. The novelty of the proposed method rests on the hybrid technique which is the combined performance of both, particle swarm optimization (PSO technique and Radial basis function neural network (RBFNN. It effectively optimizes the feasible solutions by updating the generations, by taking lesser time with greater reliability. In the proposed method, the PSO generates the dataset according to different loading conditions. The RBFNN is trained by using the target control signals along with the corresponding input load voltage error and change in error. Depending on the load variations, the RBFNN predicts the exact control signals of the inverter during the testing time. Since experimentation and comparison of such inverter models on hardware being relatively expensive, the proposed method is implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink platform and the performance has been validated through the comparison analysis with the conventional techniques. The comparison results have proved the superiority of the proposed method.

  8. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-03-31

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.

  9. On a novel method to synthesize POSS-based hybrids: An example of the preparation of TPU based system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Monticelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel method to prepare polymer/polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS hybrids by melt reactive blending is proposed in this paper, by the controlled polymer chain scission and reaction of chain ends with functional silsesquioxanes. Application to thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU is addressed, taking advantage of the polyurethane chain scission equilibrium reaction, leading to the formation of highly reactive isocyanate and hydroxyl chain ends. Despite the isocyanate chemistry has been widely studied for the preparation of polymer/POSS hybrids by in situ copolymerisation, the exploitation of similar chemical processes in an industrially viable and environmental friendly melt blending process is currently an open research field. In this work, the reaction in the molten state of dihydroxyl-functionalised POSS with the polyurethane chain is demonstrated to produce a TPU/POSS hybrids. The effect of POSS concentration on nanomorphology, thermal properties and surface properties is studied, showing significant changes compared to pristine TPU. In particular, an increase of glass transition temperature is observed in the presence of reactive POSS (ΔT up to about 10°C in the presence of 10 wt% loading. Furthermore, an increase of surface water wettability, evidenced by the decrease of water contact angle from 95° for pristine TPU to 70° in TPU containing 10"wt% of reactive POSS, is found.

  10. A Hybrid Model For Phrase Chunking Employing Artificial Immunity System And Rule Based Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu.M.S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural language Understanding (NLU, an important field of Artificial Intelligence (AI is concerned with the speech and language understanding between human and computer. Understanding language means knowing what concept a word or phrase stands for and how to link them to form meaningful sentence. Identification of phrases or phrase chunking is an important step in natural language understanding (NLU. Chunker identifies and divides sentences into syntactically correlated word groups. Question Answering (QA systems, another important application of Artificial Intelligence (AImostly requires retrieval of nouns or noun phrases as answers to the questions raised by the users. Also Chunking is an important preprocessing step in full parsing. Due to high ambiguity of natural language, exact parsing of text may become very complex. This ambiguity may be partially resolved by using chunking as an intermediate step. To the best of our knowledge no known work or tag set is available for phrase chunking in Malayalam. To separate the chunks in a document it must be labeled with parts-ofspeech (POS tags. POS Tagging is a difficult task in Malayalam as it is a complex and compounding language. In this paper we describe the application of artificial immunity system (AIS for chunking which is implemented and obtained an accurate output with 96% precision and 93% recall. This system istested on corpuses collected from reputed news papers and magazines. These corpuses contained documents from five different domains such as sports, health, agriculture, science and politics and each document contained sentences –simple, compound, complex-of various levels of complexity. POS tag set with 52 tags is developed for preparing the tagged corpus for Malayalam. The phrase tag set contains 20 phrase tags.

  11. A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Reduct of Attributes in Decision System Based on Rough Set Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge reduction is an important issue when dealing with huge amounts of data. And it has been proved that computing the minimal reduct of decision system is NP-complete. By introducing heuristic information into genetic algorithm, we proposed a heuristic genetic algorithm. In the genetic algorithm, we constructed a new operator to maintaining the classification ability. The experiment shows that our algorithm is efficient and effective for minimal reduct, even for the special example that the simple heuristic algorithm can't get the right result.

  12. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Sebastian Sudheer; M Sabir

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we study the hybrid synchronization between two identical hyperchaotic Lu systems. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system is achieved through synchronization of two pairs of states and anti-synchronization of the other two pairs of states. Active controls are designed to achieve hybrid synchronization between drive and response systems using the sum and difference of relevant variables of the chaotic systems. Numerical simulations are presented to evaluate the analysis and effectiveness of the controllers.

  13. A New Hybrid Model Based on Data Preprocessing and an Intelligent Optimization Algorithm for Electrical Power System Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of electrical power system cannot only benefit the reasonable distribution and management in energy resources, but also satisfy the increasing demand for electricity. The electrical power system construction is often a pivotal part in the national and regional economic development plan. This paper constructs a hybrid model, known as the E-MFA-BP model, that can forecast indices in the electrical power system, including wind speed, electrical load, and electricity price. Firstly, the ensemble empirical mode decomposition can be applied to eliminate the noise of original time series data. After data preprocessing, the back propagation neural network model is applied to carry out the forecasting. Owing to the instability of its structure, the modified firefly algorithm is employed to optimize the weight and threshold values of back propagation to obtain a hybrid model with higher forecasting quality. Three experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the model. Through comparison with other traditional well-known forecasting models, and models optimized by other optimization algorithms, the experimental results demonstrate that the hybrid model has the best forecasting performance.

  14. Using A Battery Storage Wind / PV Hybrid Power Supply System Based Stand-Alone PSO To Determine The Most Appropriate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amam Hossain Bagdadee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind / PV hybrid power systems, completed in time and geography, both economical and reliable than PV or wind turbine, but the hybrid system wind / PV to increase capacity. Installation of experience with traditional power design and optimization of design and operation cannot be seen with. To solve the problem in a comprehensive objective function to present the objective function of the solar wind. And reliability of the storage cells can be calculated with an investment of erosion format system resources, including the number of solar cells and batteries, but the type and amount of solar wind to change. As well as to improve not only to make the results more accurate investment costs and reliability cost of conversion optimization problems several optimization problems today.Improved optimization algorithms, PSO are used to solve nonlinear hybrid analysis is any integer optimization problem on the basis of PSO algorithm standard techniques then there is the first step convergence factor is applied to improve the detection performance of both migration are used to improve the ability of the algorithm to find the best in the whole world.

  15. Tree-based intercropping systems increase growth and nutrient status of hybrid poplar: a case study from two Northeastern American experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivest, David; Cogliastro, Alain; Olivier, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Tree-based intercropping is considered to be a potentially useful land use system for mitigating negative environmental impacts from intensive agriculture such as nutrient leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. Rapid early growth of trees is critical for rapidly accruing environmental benefits provided by the trees. We tested the hypothesis that intercropping increases the growth and nutrient status of young hybrid poplars (Populus spp.), compared to a harrowing alley treatment (i.e., no intercrop), in two experimental sites (St-Rémi and St-Edouard) in southern Québec, Canada. Three hybrid poplar clones (TD3230, Populus trichocarpa x deltoides; DN3308, P. deltoides x nigra; and NM3729, P. nigra x maximowiczii) were planted at St-Rémi. Clones DN3333 and DN3570 were planted at St-Edouard. At St-Rémi, intercropping comprised a 4-year succession of three crops of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). At St-Edouard, intercropping comprised a 3-year succession of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), winter rye (Secale cereale L.), and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). At St-Rémi, four years after treatment began, leafless aboveground biomass of hybrid poplars in the intercropping treatment was 37% higher compared to that in the harrowing treatment. At St-Edouard, after the third growing season, leafless aboveground biomass of hybrid poplars in the intercropping treatment was significantly higher by 40%. Vector analysis of foliar nutrient concentrations and comparison with critical concentration values showed that N (both sites) and K (St-Edouard) were the most limiting nutrients. Hybrid poplar clones responded similarly to treatments, with no consistent differences in tree growth observed between clones. We conclude that tree-based intercropping systems may offer an effective means of improving the early growth of hybrid poplars planted to provide both environmental services and high-value timber.

  16. Color image encryption based on hybrid hyper-chaotic system and cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghouti Niyat, Abolfazl; Moattar, Mohammad Hossein; Niazi Torshiz, Masood

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes an image encryption scheme based on Cellular Automata (CA). CA is a self-organizing structure with a set of cells in which each cell is updated by certain rules that are dependent on a limited number of neighboring cells. The major disadvantages of cellular automata in cryptography include limited number of reversal rules and inability to produce long sequences of states by these rules. In this paper, a non-uniform cellular automata framework is proposed to solve this problem. This proposed scheme consists of confusion and diffusion steps. In confusion step, the positions of the original image pixels are replaced by chaos mapping. Key image is created using non-uniform cellular automata and then the hyper-chaotic mapping is used to select random numbers from the image key for encryption. The main contribution of the paper is the application of hyper chaotic functions and non-uniform CA for robust key image generation. Security analysis and experimental results show that the proposed method has a very large key space and is resistive against noise and attacks. The correlation between adjacent pixels in the encrypted image is reduced and the amount of entropy is equal to 7.9991 which is very close to 8 which is ideal.

  17. A Hybrid Fuzzy Inference System Based on Dispersion Model for Quantitative Environmental Health Impact Assessment of Urban Transportation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Tashayo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the spatial variation of traffic-related air pollution has been and is a long-standing challenge in quantitative environmental health impact assessment of urban transportation planning. Advanced approaches are required for modeling complex relationships among traffic, air pollution, and adverse health outcomes by considering uncertainties in the available data. A new hybrid fuzzy model is developed and implemented through hierarchical fuzzy inference system (HFIS. This model is integrated with a dispersion model in order to model the effect of transportation system on the PM2.5 concentration. An improved health metric is developed as well based on a HFIS to model the impact of traffic-related PM2.5 on health. Two solutions are applied to improve the performance of both the models: the topologies of HFISs are selected according to the problem and used variables, membership functions, and rule set are determined through learning in a simultaneous manner. The capabilities of this proposed approach is examined by assessing the impacts of three traffic scenarios involved in air pollution in the city of Isfahan, Iran, and the model accuracy compared to the results of available models from literature. The advantages here are modeling the spatial variation of PM2.5 with high resolution, appropriate processing requirements, and considering the interaction between emissions and meteorological processes. These models are capable of using the available qualitative and uncertain data. These models are of appropriate accuracy, and can provide better understanding of the phenomena in addition to assess the impact of each parameter for the planners.

  18. Predicting future trends in stock market by decision tree rough-set based hybrid system with HHMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Tiwari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Around the world, trading in the stock market has gained huge attractiveness as a means through which, one can obtain vast profits. Attempting to profitably and precisely predict the financial market has long engrossed the interests and attention of bankers, economists and scientists alike. Stock market prediction is the act of trying, to determine the future value of a company’s stock or other financial instrument traded on a financial exchange. Accurate stock market predictions are important for many reasons. Chief among all is the need for investors, to hedge against potential market risks and the opportunities for arbitrators and speculators, to make profits by trading indexes. Stock Market is a place, where shares are issued and traded. These shares are either traded through Stock exchanges or Overthe-Counter in physical or electronic form. Data mining, as a process of discovering useful patterns, correlations has its own role in financial modeling. Data mining is a discipline in computational intelligence that deals with knowledge discovery, data analysis and full and semi-autonomous decision making. Prediction of stock market by data mining techniques has been receiving a lot of attention recently. This paper presents a hybrid system based on decision tree- rough set, for predicting the trends in the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSESENSEX with the combination of Hierarchical Hidden Markov Model. In this paper we present future trends on the bases of price earnings and dividend. The data on accounting earnings when averaged over many years help to predict the present value of future dividends.

  19. Biomimetic synthesis and characterization of semiconducting hybrid organic–inorganic composite materials based on polyaniline–polyethylene glycol–CdS system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Singh; N P Singh; R A Singh

    2011-07-01

    Triple hybrid materials based on polyaniline-polyethylene glycol and cadmium sulphide have been prepared by the duffusion–limited biomimetic route and characterized by a number of spectroscopic, XRD, SEM, thermal and electrical measurements. These hybrid materials have been prepared by controlled precipitation of cadmium sulphide by passing H2S gas and mixing the resultant colloid with the acidic solution of aniline. in situ polymerization of adsorbed anilinium ions on anionic surface of CdS resulted in hybrids. Water–soluble polyethylene glycol led to diffusion–limited growth of polyaniline and CdS resulting in a nanosized hybrid material as indicated by UV-visible spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). AC impedance spectroscopic studies on binary and ternary nanocomposites of polyaniline with polyethylene glycol and cadmium sulphide separately and triple hybrid system have been reported. Equivalent circuits were determined and discussed in the light of contributions made from different sources such as grain, grain boundary and electrode.

  20. Hybrid dislocated control and general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization for the modified Lue chaotic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuhua [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Maths, Yunyang Teacher' s College, Hubei 442000 (China)], E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.com; Zhou Wuneng [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)], E-mail: wnzhou@163.com; Fang Jianan [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2009-11-15

    This paper introduces a modified Lue chaotic system, and some basic dynamical properties are studied. Based on these properties, we present hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to unstable equilibrium and limit cycle. In addition, based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization (GHPDS) is proposed, which includes complete dislocated synchronization, dislocated anti-synchronization and projective dislocated synchronization as its special item. The drive and response systems discussed in this paper can be strictly different dynamical systems (including different dimensional systems). As examples, the modified Lue chaotic system, Chen chaotic system and hyperchaotic Chen system are discussed. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.

  1. Comparative Study of Hybrid Models Based on a Series of Optimization Algorithms and Their Application in Energy System Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejiao Ma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Big data mining, analysis, and forecasting play vital roles in modern economic and industrial fields, especially in the energy system. Inaccurate forecasting may cause wastes of scarce energy or electricity shortages. However, forecasting in the energy system has proven to be a challenging task due to various unstable factors, such as high fluctuations, autocorrelation and stochastic volatility. To forecast time series data by using hybrid models is a feasible alternative of conventional single forecasting modelling approaches. This paper develops a group of hybrid models to solve the problems above by eliminating the noise in the original data sequence and optimizing the parameters in a back propagation neural network. One of contributions of this paper is to integrate the existing algorithms and models, which jointly show advances over the present state of the art. The results of comparative studies demonstrate that the hybrid models proposed not only satisfactorily approximate the actual value but also can be an effective tool in the planning and dispatching of smart grids.

  2. HOPIS: hybrid omnidirectional and perspective imaging system for mobile robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huei-Yung; Wang, Min-Liang

    2014-09-04

    In this paper, we present a framework for the hybrid omnidirectional and perspective robot vision system. Based on the hybrid imaging geometry, a generalized stereo approach is developed via the construction of virtual cameras. It is then used to rectify the hybrid image pair using the perspective projection model. The proposed method not only simplifies the computation of epipolar geometry for the hybrid imaging system, but also facilitates the stereo matching between the heterogeneous image formation. Experimental results for both the synthetic data and real scene images have demonstrated the feasibility of our approach.

  3. Calculating the Energy Cost of CO2 Removal in a Coal Based Gas Turbine Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Generation System with an Isolated Anode Stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanosdol, J G; Gemmen, R S; Liese, E A

    2007-10-01

    In recent years there has been significant interest in identifying carbon capturing technologies that can be applied to fossil fuel power generation plants.CO2 capture technologies seek to reduce the amount of CO2 that would normally be emitted into the atmosphere from the daily operation of these plants. In terms of system efficiency and operating costs, this carbon capture is expensive. Further, the additional equipment that would be used to capture CO2 emissions greatly adds to the complexity of the system. There has also been significant interest in coal based gas turbine fuel cell hybrid power plants. A hybrid power plant can have much greater system efficiency than a normal gas turbine power plant because the heat that is normally unused in a standalone solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is recovered and used to drive a power producing turbine. It is thought that the increased system efficiency of the hybrid system might compensate for the increased expense of performing carbon capture. In order to provide some analytical insight on this tradeoff we present a 100 MW class coal fired gas turbine SOFC hybrid power generation system. The hybrid system operates at a pressure ratio of 6, and uses heat recuperation and cathode air recirculation to control the SOFC inlet temperature and the temperature change across the SOFC. A carbon capture scheme is added to this system in order to calculate the relative energy cost in terms of system efficiency due to CO2 compression. The carbon capture is performed by burning the unused fuel from the SOFC in an isolated anode stream using pure O2 injection. The resulting heat that is generated from this process is then used to drive a secondary turbine that is placed in the anode exhaust stream where more work is extracted. With an isolated anode stream, the products of combustion from this secondary combustion process are mostly water and carbon dioxide. The water by-product is

  4. Hybrid Dynamical Systems Modeling, Stability, and Robustness

    CERN Document Server

    Goebel, Rafal; Teel, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid dynamical systems exhibit continuous and instantaneous changes, having features of continuous-time and discrete-time dynamical systems. Filled with a wealth of examples to illustrate concepts, this book presents a complete theory of robust asymptotic stability for hybrid dynamical systems that is applicable to the design of hybrid control algorithms--algorithms that feature logic, timers, or combinations of digital and analog components. With the tools of modern mathematical analysis, Hybrid Dynamical Systems unifies and generalizes earlier developments in continuous-time and discret

  5. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bujorianu, Luminita Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic reachability analysis (SRA) is a method of analyzing the behavior of control systems which mix discrete and continuous dynamics. For probabilistic discrete systems it has been shown to be a practical verification method but for stochastic hybrid systems it can be rather more. As a verification technique SRA can assess the safety and performance of, for example, autonomous systems, robot and aircraft path planning and multi-agent coordination but it can also be used for the adaptive control of such systems. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems is a self-contained and accessible introduction to this novel topic in the analysis and development of stochastic hybrid systems. Beginning with the relevant aspects of Markov models and introducing stochastic hybrid systems, the book then moves on to coverage of reachability analysis for stochastic hybrid systems. Following this build up, the core of the text first formally defines the concept of reachability in the stochastic framework and then...

  6. Solar-geothermal hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Alvaro; Almanza, Rafael [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Edificio 12, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant is located in the northwest of Mexico, lat. 32{sup o}39', long. 115{sup o}21' in the northern hemisphere. A solar-geothermal hybrid system is proposed in order to increase the steam flow during the present geothermal cycle, adding a solar field of parabolic trough concentrators. Energy is supplied to the geothermal flow from wells in order to increase the steam generation rate. This configuration will increase the capacity factor of the system by generating additional steam during the peak demand hours. The parabolic trough solar field is evaluated in North-South and East-West orientation collector alignments. A proposal to obtain an increase of 10% in steam flow is evaluated, as the increase in flow is limited by the content of dissolved salts, so as to avoid a liquid phase with high salt concentrations. The size of the parabolic troughs field was obtained. (author)

  7. Effects of Oriented Surface Dipole on Photoconversion Efficiency in an Alkane/Lipid-Hybrid-Bilayer-Based Photovoltaic Model System

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lixia

    2013-06-21

    When a phospholipid monolayer containing a zinc-coordinated porphyrin species formed atop a self-assembled monolayer of heptadecafluoro-1-decanethiol (CF3(CF2)7(CH2)2SH) is subjected to photoelectrochemical current generation, a significant modulation effect is observed. Compared with devices that contain similar photoactive lipid monolayers but formed on 1-dodecanethiol SAMs, these fluorinated hybrid bilayers produce a >60 % increase in cathodic currents and a similar decrease in anodic currents. Photovoltages recorded from these hybrid bilayers are found to vary in the same fashion. The modulation of photovoltaic responses in these hybrid-bilayer-based devices is explained by the opposite surface dipoles associated with the thiols employed in this study, which in one case (fluorothiol) increase and in another (alkanethiol) decrease the work function of the underlying gold substrates. A similar trend of photovoltage/photocurrent modulation is also observed if fullerene is used as the photoagent in these devices. Our results reveal the intricacy of orientated surface dipole in influencing the photovoltaic processes, and its subtle interplay with other factors related to the photoagents, such as their location and orientation within the organic matrix. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Effects of oriented surface dipole on photoconversion efficiency in an alkane/lipid-hybrid-bilayer-based photovoltaic model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixia; Xie, Hong; Bostic, Heidi E; Jin, Limei; Best, Michael D; Zhang, X Peter; Zhan, Wei

    2013-08-26

    When a phospholipid monolayer containing a zinc-coordinated porphyrin species formed atop a self-assembled monolayer of heptadecafluoro-1-decanethiol (CF3(CF2)7(CH2)2SH) is subjected to photoelectrochemical current generation, a significant modulation effect is observed. Compared with devices that contain similar photoactive lipid monolayers but formed on 1-dodecanethiol SAMs, these fluorinated hybrid bilayers produce a >60% increase in cathodic currents and a similar decrease in anodic currents. Photovoltages recorded from these hybrid bilayers are found to vary in the same fashion. The modulation of photovoltaic responses in these hybrid-bilayer-based devices is explained by the opposite surface dipoles associated with the thiols employed in this study, which in one case (fluorothiol) increase and in another (alkanethiol) decrease the work function of the underlying gold substrates. A similar trend of photovoltage/photocurrent modulation is also observed if fullerene is used as the photoagent in these devices. Our results reveal the intricacy of orientated surface dipole in influencing the photovoltaic processes, and its subtle interplay with other factors related to the photoagents, such as their location and orientation within the organic matrix.

  9. Cluster Tree Based Hybrid Document Similarity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varshana Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available based hybrid similarity measure is established to measure the hybrid similarity. In cluster tree, the hybrid similarity measure can be calculated for the random data even it may not be the co-occurred and generate different views. Different views of tree can be combined and choose the one which is significant in cost. A method is proposed to combine the multiple views. Multiple views are represented by different distance measures into a single cluster. Comparing the cluster tree based hybrid similarity with the traditional statistical methods it gives the better feasibility for intelligent based search. It helps in improving the dimensionality reduction and semantic analysis.

  10. Voltage sensitivity based reactive power control on VSC-HVDC in a wind farm connected hybrid multi-infeed HVDC system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    With increasing application of both Line Commutated Converter based High Voltage Direct Current (LCC-HVDC) systems and Voltage Source Converter based HVDC (VSC-HVDC) links, a new type of system structure named Hybrid Multi-Infeed HVDC (HMIDC) system is formed in the modern power systems. This paper...... presents the operation and control method of the wind farm connected HMIDC system. The wind power fluctuation takes large influence to the system voltages. In order to reduce the voltage fluctuation of LCC-HVDC infeed bus caused by the wind power variation, a voltage sensitivity-based reactive power...... control method is proposed in the paper. According to the calculated sensitivity factors, a reactive power increment is added in the control loop of VSC-HVDC so as to regulate the voltage of the target bus. Dynamic simulations in PSCAD/EMTDC and MATLAB are presented to assess the performance...

  11. Low-cost bidirectional hybrid fiber-visible laser light communication system based on carrier-less amplitude phase modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Dong, Huan; Deng, Rui; Chen, Lin

    2016-08-01

    We propose a bidirectional hybrid fiber-visible laser light communication (fiber-VLC) system. To reduce the cost of the system, the cheap and easy integration red vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, low-complexity carrier-less amplitude phase modulation format, and wavelength reuse technique are utilized. Meanwhile, the automatic gain control amplifier voltage and bias voltage for downlink and uplink are optimized. The simulation results show that, by using the proposed system, the bit error rate of 3.8×10-3 can be achieved for 16-Gbps CAP signal after 30-km standard single mode fiber and 8-m VLC bidirectional transmission. Therefore, it indicates the feasibility and potential of proposed system for indoor access network.

  12. Filtering and control of stochastic jump hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Xiuming; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent research work on stochastic jump hybrid systems. Specifically, the considered stochastic jump hybrid systems include Markovian jump Ito stochastic systems, Markovian jump linear-parameter-varying (LPV) systems, Markovian jump singular systems, Markovian jump two-dimensional (2-D) systems, and Markovian jump repeated scalar nonlinear systems. Some sufficient conditions are first established respectively for the stability and performances of those kinds of stochastic jump hybrid systems in terms of solution of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Based on the derived analysis conditions, the filtering and control problems are addressed. The book presents up-to-date research developments and novel methodologies on stochastic jump hybrid systems. The contents can be divided into two parts: the first part is focused on robust filter design problem, while the second part is put the emphasis on robust control problem. These methodologies provide a framework for stability and performance analy...

  13. Innovative sponge-based moving bed-osmotic membrane bioreactor hybrid system using a new class of draw solution for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Nguyen, Hau Thi; Ray, Saikat Sinha; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Lin, Po-Hsun

    2016-03-15

    For the first time, an innovative concept of combining sponge-based moving bed (SMB) and an osmotic membrane bioreactor (OsMBR), known as the SMB-OsMBR hybrid system, were investigated using Triton X-114 surfactant coupled with MgCl2 salt as the draw solution. Compared to traditional activated sludge OsMBR, the SMB-OsMBR system was able to remove more nutrients due to the thick-biofilm layer on sponge carriers. Subsequently less membrane fouling was observed during the wastewater treatment process. A water flux of 11.38 L/(m(2) h) and a negligible reverse salt flux were documented when deionized water served as the feed solution and a mixture of 1.5 M MgCl2 and 1.5 mM Triton X-114 was used as the draw solution. The SMB-OsMBR hybrid system indicated that a stable water flux of 10.5 L/(m(2) h) and low salt accumulation were achieved in a 90-day operation. Moreover, the nutrient removal efficiency of the proposed system was close to 100%, confirming the effectiveness of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in the biofilm layer on sponge carriers. The overall performance of the SMB-OsMBR hybrid system using MgCl2 coupled with Triton X-114 as the draw solution demonstrates its potential application in wastewater treatment.

  14. Symmetry reduction for stochastic hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Katoen, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is focused on adapting symmetry reduction, a technique that is highly successful in traditional model checking, to stochastic hybrid systems. We first show that performability analysis of stochastic hybrid systems can be reduced to a stochastic reachability analysis (SRA). Then, we genera

  15. Symmetry Reduction For Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Katoen, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is focused on adapting symmetry reduction, a technique that is highly successful in traditional model checking, to stochastic hybrid systems. To that end, we first show that performability analysis of stochastic hybrid systems can be reduced to a stochastic reachability analysis (SRA). Th

  16. Hybrid logics with infinitary proof systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Barteld; Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2006-01-01

    We provide a strongly complete infinitary proof system for hybrid logic. This proof system can be extended with countably many sequents. Thus, although these logics may be non-compact, strong completeness proofs are provided for infinitary hybrid versions of non-compact logics like ancestral logic a

  17. Fault tolerant control design for hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Jiang, Bin [Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Cocquempot, Vincent [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-07-01

    This book intends to provide the readers a good understanding on how to achieve Fault Tolerant Control goal of Hybrid Systems. The book can be used as a reference for the academic research on Fault Tolerant Control and Hybrid Systems or used in Ph.D. study of control theory and engineering. The knowledge background for this monograph would be some undergraduate and graduate courses on Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control theory, linear system theory, nonlinear system theory, Hybrid Systems theory and Discrete Event System theory. (orig.)

  18. Voltage Gain Derivation Based on Energy-Balanced Criterion for a Novel Hybrid-Input PV-Wind Power Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies energy-balanced criterion to a novel hybrid-input PV-wind power conversion system (HPWPCS for voltage gain derivation. With the energy-balanced concept, complicated mathematical problems related to voltage gain derivation can be readily resolved. Based on the derived results, it is proven that the proposed HPWPCS is able to process two different kinds of renewable energy resources simultaneously. Even though the HPWPCS includes seven capacitors and three magnetic components, its voltage gain still can be found by the mathematical analysis. In the theoretical derivation, only the energy status of output inductor is dealt with such that complicated derivation procedure is avoided. This analysis method can also be applied to other hybrid green-energy conversion systems. In this paper, a 200 W 50 kHz prototype of HPWPCS is built and examined to verify the mathematical results.

  19. Utilization of hybrid systems in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Mercedes Menendez; Figueredo, Conrado Moreno [Renewable Energy Technologies Study Center (CETER), Marianao (Cuba)

    1996-12-31

    This work deals with the possibility of the wind-photovoltaic hybrid system uses for the electricity generation in Cuba. A design of energy installation is made to satisfy the tourism facilities demands located in Cayo Sabinal, in the north of the province Camaguey. The design is based on the data base of the available wind and solar resources. A group of existing wind-generators in the market is analyzed and the best is selected taking into account a set of energy parameters, the monthly energy supply is function of the turbines numbers and the quantity of necessary solar energy to guarantee the system requirements. An economical evaluation is carried out in order to select the best wind-solar combination and a comparison with other forms of electricity generation (Diesel Plant and a stand alone wind system). In the work is showed the best combination in the critical month is when a 62% of energy is supplied by wind energy and 38% of solar energy. Otherwise in the work is showed hybrid system is more economical than a stand alone wind system and a Diesel Plant. (Author)

  20. Design and part-load performance of a hybrid system based on a solid oxide fuel cell reactor and a micro gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costamagna, P.; Magistri, L.; Massardo, A. F.

    This paper addresses the design and off-design analysis of a hybrid system (HS) based on the coupling of a recuperated micro gas turbine (MGT) with a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) reactor. The SOFC reactor model is presented and discussed, taking into account the influence of the reactor lay-out, the current density, the air utilisation factor, the cell operating temperature, etc. The SOFC design and off-design performance is presented and discussed; the design and off-design models of a recuperated micro-gas turbine are also presented. The operating line, the influence of the micro gas turbine "variable speed" control, and the efficiency behaviour at part load are analysed in depth. Finally, the model of the hybrid system obtained by coupling the MGT and the SOFC reactor, considering the compatibility (technological constraints) of the two systems, is presented. The model allows the evaluation of the design and off-design behaviour of the hybrid system, particularly when the MGT variable speed control system is considered. The thermal efficiency of the hybrid system, taking into account its size (250/300 kW e), is noteworthy: higher than 60% at design point, and also very high at part load conditions. Such a result is mainly due to the simultaneous positive influence of SOFC off-design behaviour and MGT variable speed control. Moreover, it is possible to recover the waste heat from the gas at the MGT recuperator outlet ( Tgas is about 250°C) for cogeneration purposes.

  1. Temperature controlling system based on FISH probe hybridization facility%基于FISH探针杂交设备的温度控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天庆; 张化; 张婉尧

    2015-01-01

    以玻片为基础的FISH,它的变性杂交过程完全实现自动化.FISH探针杂交仪内置一个ARM7微处理器,以控制不同温度变化,满足变性、杂交和固定温度等不同模式,可预置用按键编程进去的程序(显示屏上能指导编程),方便客户调用,提高工作效率.温度控制系统是FISH探针杂交设备的核心部分,决定了杂交仪的可靠性、稳定性及精准性.%By using FISH based on slide,automation in the degeneration process of hybrid can be achieved.Installed an internal ARM7 microprocessor,the FISH probe hybridization facility can control temperature,meet different modes such as denaturation,hybridization,fixed temperature,and so on.Procedure input by means of push-button can be preset(there are guidance on display screen)to make things easy for user,as a result,work efficiency can be improved.The temperature controlling system,which is the core of FISH probe hybridization facility and ensure its reliability,stability and accuracy.

  2. A comparison between molten carbonate fuel cells based hybrid systems using air and supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycles with state of the art technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, D.; Muñoz de Escalona, J. M.; Chacartegui, R.; Muñoz, A.; Sánchez, T.

    A proposal for high efficiency hybrid systems based on molten carbonate fuel cells is presented in this paper. This proposal is based on adopting a closed cycle bottoming gas turbine using supercritical carbon dioxide as working fluid as opposed to open cycle hot air turbines typically used in this type of power generators. First, both bottoming cycles are compared for the same operating conditions, showing that their performances do not differ as much as initially expected, even if the initial objective of reducing compression work is accomplished satisfactorily. In view of these results, a profound review of research and industrial literature is carried out in order to determine realistic specifications for the principal components of the bottoming systems. From this analysis, it is concluded that an appropriate set of specifications must be developed for each bottoming cycle as the performances of compressor, turbine and recuperator differ significantly from one working fluid to another. Thus, when the operating conditions are updated, the performances of the resulting systems show a remarkable advantage of carbon dioxide based systems over conventional air units. Actually, the proposed hybrid system shows its capability to achieve 60% net efficiency, what represents a 10% increase with respect to the reference system.

  3. Performance analysis of switching based hybrid FSO/RF transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Usman, Muneer

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid free space optical (FSO)/ radio frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high data rate wireless back haul.We present and analyze a switching based transmission scheme for hybrid FSO/RF system. Specifically, either FSO or RF link will be active at a certain time instance, with FSO link enjoying a higher priority. Analytical expressions have been obtained for the outage probability, average bit error rate and ergodic capacity for the resulting system. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the hybrid scheme with FSO only scenario.

  4. A "Hybrid" Approach for Synthesizing Optimal Controllers of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hengjun; Zhan, Naijun; Kapur, Deepak;

    2012-01-01

    We propose an approach to reduce the optimal controller synthesis problem of hybrid systems to quantifier elimination; furthermore, we also show how to combine quantifier elimination with numerical computation in order to make it more scalable but at the same time, keep arising errors due to disc...

  5. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systemssystems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  6. Review on the Recent Developments of Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC Based Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkepli Afzam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T system emerged as one of the convenient type of renewable energy system acquire the ability to generate power and thermal energy in the absence of moving parts. However, the power output of PV/T is intermittent due to dependency on solar irradiation condition. Furthermore, its efficiency decreases because of cells instability at high temperature. On the other hand, fuel cell co-generation system (CGS is another technology that can generate power and heat simultaneously. Integration of PV/T and fuel cell CGS could enhance the reliability and sustainability of both systems as well as increasing the overall system performance. Hence, this paper intended to present the parameters that affect performance of PV/T and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC CGS. Moreover, recent developments on PV/T-fuel cell hybrid system are also presented. Based on literates, mass flow rate of moving fluid in PV/T was found to affect the system efficiency. For the PEMFC, when the heat is utilized, the system performance can be increased where the heat efficiency is similar to electrical efficiency which is about 50%. Recent developments of hybrid PV/T and fuel cell show that most of the studies only focus on the power generation of the system. There are less study on the both power and heat utilization which is indeed necessary in future development in term of operation strategy, optimization of size, and operation algorithm.

  7. Dissipative dynamics of superconducting hybrid qubit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Enrique; Calero, Jesus M; Reina, John H, E-mail: enriquem@univalle.edu.c, E-mail: j.reina-estupinan@physics.ox.ac.u [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    We perform a theoretical study of composed superconducting qubit systems for the case of a coupled qubit configuration based on a hybrid qubit circuit made of both charge and phase qubits, which are coupled via a sigma{sub x} x sigma{sub z} interaction. We compute the system's eigen-energies in terms of the qubit transition frequencies and the strength of the inter-qubit coupling, and describe the sensitivity of the energy crossing/anti-crossing features to such coupling. We compute the hybrid system's dissipative dynamics for the cases of i) collective and ii) independent decoherence, whereby the system interacts with one common and two different baths of harmonic oscillators, respectively. The calculations have been performed within the Bloch-Redfield formalism and we report the solutions for the populations and the coherences of the system's reduced density matrix. The dephasing and relaxation rates are explicitly calculated as a function of the heat bath temperature.

  8. Hybrid high power femtosecond laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunov, V. I.; Petrov, V. V.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    Design of a high-power femtosecond laser system based on hybrid chirped pulse amplification (CPA) technique developed by us is presented. The goal of the hybrid principle is the use of the parametric and laser amplification methods in chirped pulse amplifiers. It makes it possible to amplify the low-cycle pulses with a duration of <= fs to terawatt power with a high contrast and high conversion efficiency of the pump radiation. In a created system the Ti:Sapphire laser with 10 fs pulses at 810 nm and output energy about 1-3 nJ will be used like seed source. The oscillator pulses were stretched to duration of about 500 ps by an all-reflective grating stretcher. Then the stretched pulses are injected into a nondegenerate noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) on the two BBO crystals. After amplification in NOPA the residual pump was used in a bow-tie four pass amplifier with hybrid active medium (based on Al II0 3:Ti 3+ and BeAl IIO 4:Ti 3+ crystals). The final stage of the amplification system consists of two channels, namely NIR (820 nm) and short-VIS (410 nm). Numerical simulation has shown that the terawatt level of output power can be achieved also in a short-VIS channel at the pumping of the double-crystal BBO NOPA by the radiation of the fourth harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm. Experimentally parametric amplification in BBO crystals of 30-50 fs pulses were investigated and optimized using SPIDER technique and single-shot autocomelator for the realization of shortest duration 40 fs.

  9. Research and Development of Hybrid Electric Vehicles CAN-Bus Data Monitor and Diagnostic System through OBD-II and Android-Based Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalian Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the smartphone market, future cars seem to have more connections with intelligent cell phone and Internet. Intelligent transportation system (ITS and telematics system have become research focus in recent years. There is an increasing demand for remote monitoring and diagnostic system as the further research of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV goes on. In this paper, a remote controller area network bus (CAN-Bus data monitor and diagnostic system for HEV is presented using on board diagnostic version-II (OBD-II and Android-based smartphone. It is low-cost, convenient, and extensible with smartphone used in the system to realize communication with ELM327 and remote monitoring center wirelessly. The prototype of client and server is developed in Java language, and it is proved by the test that the system works stably and the collected data have practical values.

  10. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan;

    2010-01-01

    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous real-time control deserves increased attention for instance in wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variations of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification...... hybrid systems and develop a general abstraction technique for verifying probabilistic safety problems. This gives rise to the first mechanisable technique that can, in practice, formally verify safety properties of non-trivial continuous-time stochastic hybrid systems-without resorting to point...... of classical hybrid systems we are interested in whether a certain set of unsafe system states can be reached from a set of initial states. In the probabilistic setting, we may ask instead whether the probability of reaching unsafe states is below some given threshold. In this paper, we consider probabilistic...

  11. EXPONENTIAL ESTIMATES FOR STOCHASTIC DELAY HYBRID SYSTEMS WITH MARKOVIAN SWITCHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of norm bounds for the solutions of stochastic hybrid systems with Markovian switching and time delay. Based on Lyapunov-Krasovskii theory for functional differential equations and the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, mean square exponential estimates for the solutions of this class of linear stochastic hybrid systems are derived. Finally, An example is illustrated to show the applicability and effectiveness of our method.

  12. Optimal Sizing of a Stand-Alone Hybrid Power System Based on Battery/Hydrogen with an Improved Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Dong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A distributed power system with renewable energy sources is very popular in recent years due to the rapid depletion of conventional sources of energy. Reasonable sizing for such power systems could improve the power supply reliability and reduce the annual system cost. The goal of this work is to optimize the size of a stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic (PV/wind turbine (WT/battery (B/hydrogen system (a hybrid system based on battery and hydrogen (HS-BH for reliable and economic supply. Two objectives that take the minimum annual system cost and maximum system reliability described as the loss of power supply probability (LPSP have been addressed for sizing HS-BH from a more comprehensive perspective, considering the basic demand of load, the profit from hydrogen, which is produced by HS-BH, and an effective energy storage strategy. An improved ant colony optimization (ACO algorithm has been presented to solve the sizing problem of HS-BH. Finally, a simulation experiment has been done to demonstrate the developed results, in which some comparisons have been done to emphasize the advantage of HS-BH with the aid of data from an island of Zhejiang, China.

  13. Hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems on complex network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NIAN FUZHONG; LIU WEILONG

    2016-06-01

    The real network nodes are always interfered by other messages. So, how to realize the hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems based on the complex network is very important. To solve this problem, two other problems should be considered. One is how the same network node of the complex network was affected by different information sources. Another is how to achieve hybrid synchronization on the network. In this paper, the theoretical analysis andnumerical simulation on various complex networks are implemented. The results indicate that the hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems is feasible.

  14. Hybrid Intrusion Detection System for DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Cepheli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS attacks are one of the major threats and possibly the hardest security problem for today’s Internet. In this paper we propose a hybrid detection system, referred to as hybrid intrusion detection system (H-IDS, for detection of DDoS attacks. Our proposed detection system makes use of both anomaly-based and signature-based detection methods separately but in an integrated fashion and combines the outcomes of both detectors to enhance the overall detection accuracy. We apply two distinct datasets to our proposed system in order to test the detection performance of H-IDS and conclude that the proposed hybrid system gives better results than the systems based on nonhybrid detection.

  15. Design of Magnetic Flux Feedback Controller in Hybrid Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid suspension system with permanent magnet and electromagnet consumes little power consumption and can realize larger suspension gap. But realizing stable suspension of hybrid magnet is a tricky problem in the suspension control sphere. Considering from this point, we take magnetic flux signal as a state variable and put this signal back to suspension control system. So we can get the hybrid suspension mathematical model based on magnetic flux signal feedback. By application of MIMO feedback linearization theory, we can further realize linearization of the hybrid suspension system. And then proportion, integral, differentiation, magnetic flux density B (PIDB controller is designed. Some hybrid suspension experiments have been done on CMS04 magnetic suspension bogie of National University of Defense Technology (NUDT in China. The experiments denote that the new hybrid suspension control algorithm based on magnetic flux signal feedback designed in this paper has more advantages than traditional position-current double cascade control algorithm. Obviously, the robustness and stability of hybrid suspension system have been enhanced.

  16. Energy Management of a Hybrid AC–DC Micro-Grid Based on a Battery Testing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy Recovery Battery Testing Systems (ERBTS plays an important role in battery manufacture. The conventional ERBTS configuration contains a fundamental transformer, and a bidirectional Direct Current (DC–DC and Alternating Current (AC–DC converter. All ERBTS are connected in parallel, thus constituting a special and complicated AC micro-grid system. Aiming at addressing their low energy recovery efficiency, complex grid-connected control algorithm issues for islanded detection, and complicated power circuit topology issues, a hierarchical DC-link voltage hybrid AC–DC micro-grid that contains composite energy storing devices is proposed. Moreover, an energy management optimal scheme for the proposed scheme is put forward. The system configuration of the proposed scheme is described in detail. Compared to the conventional scheme, the proposed scheme has the merits of simplified power circuit topology, no need for phase synchronous control, and much higher energy recovery efficiency and reliability. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed technique is verified through numerous experimental results.

  17. Recent Advances on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Patricia; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent advances on hybrid intelligent systems using soft computing techniques for intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization of complex problems. Soft Computing (SC) consists of several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful hybrid intelligent systems. The book is organized in five main parts, which contain groups of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for control and robotics, which are basically state of the art papers that propose new models and concepts, which can be the basis for achieving intelligent control and mobile robotics. The second part contains papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for pattern recognition and time series prediction, which are basically papers using nature-inspired techniques, like evolutionary algo...

  18. DESIGNING A HYBRID INTELLIGENT MINING SYSTEM FOR CREDIT RISK EVALUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study,a novel hybrid intelligent mining system integrating rough sets theory and support vector machines is developed to extract efficiently association rules from original information table for credit risk evaluation and analysis.In the proposed hybrid intelligent system,support vector machines are used as a tool to extract typical features and filter its noise,which are different from the previous studies where rough sets were only used as a preprocessor for support vector machines.Such an approach could reduce the information table and generate the final knowledge from the reduced information table by rough sets.Therefore,the proposed hybrid intelligent system overcomes the diffi-culty of extracting rules from a trained support vector machine classifier and possesses the robustness which is lacking for rough-set-based approaches.In addition,the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid intelligent system is illustrated with two real-world credit datasets.

  19. A Structural Model Decomposition Framework for Hybrid Systems Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, a large number of practical systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete modes of behavior, each defined by a set of continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task very challenging. In this work, we present a new modeling and diagnosis framework for hybrid systems. Models are composed from sets of user-defined components using a compositional modeling approach. Submodels for residual generation are then generated for a given mode, and reconfigured efficiently when the mode changes. Efficient reconfiguration is established by exploiting causality information within the hybrid system models. The submodels can then be used for fault diagnosis based on residual generation and analysis. We demonstrate the efficient causality reassignment, submodel reconfiguration, and residual generation for fault diagnosis using an electrical circuit case study.

  20. Hybrid Bandwidth Scheduling for CAN-based Networked Control Systems%CAN型网络化控制系统的混合带宽优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白涛; 吴智铭

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid bandwidth scheduling scheme is proposed to improve the quality of service and the bandwidth utilization for the CAN-based networked control systems. It combines rate monotonic and improved round-robin scheme for both the realtime and non-real-time data. Moreover, considering the constraints of control performance and network schedulability, a heuristic branch and bound & genetic algorithm (GA) algorithm is presented for the control data to minimize their bandwidth occupancy and the jitter caused by improper scheduling. The residual bandwidth is allocated to non-real-time data by the proposed scale round-robin scheme such that their network loads are balanced.

  1. Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Munoz, D.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Report on biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be hybridized to support renewable electricity generation. Two hybrid systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best-performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at costs ($1.67/kg) within Department of Energy targets ($2.10/kg) for central biomass-derived hydrogen production while also providing value-added energy services to the electric grid.

  2. Application of Hybrid Dynamical Theory to the Cardiovascular System

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2014-10-14

    In hybrid dynamical systems, the state evolves in continuous time as well as in discrete modes activated by internal conditions or by external events. In the recent years, hybrid systems modeling has been used to represent the dynamics of biological systems. In such systems, discrete behaviors might originate from unexpected changes in normal performance, e.g., a transition from a healthy to an abnormal condition. Simplifications, model assumptions, and/or modeled (and ignored) nonlinearities can be represented by sudden changes in the state. Modeling cardiovascular system (CVS), one of the most fascinating but most complex human physiological systems, with a hybrid approach, is the focus of this chapter. The hybrid property appears naturally in the CVS thanks to the presence of valves which, depending on their state (closed or open), divide the cardiac cycle into four phases. This chapter shows how hybrid models can be used for modeling the CVS. In addition, it describes a preliminary study on the detection of some cardiac anomalies based on the hybrid model and using the standard observer-based approach.

  3. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems FY16 Modeling Efforts at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guler Yigitoglu, Askin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A nuclear hybrid system uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit. The power generated by the nuclear reactor is utilized by one or more power customers as either thermal power, electrical power, or both. In general, a nuclear hybrid system will couple the nuclear reactor to at least one thermal power user in addition to the power conversion system. The definition and architecture of a particular nuclear hybrid system is flexible depending on local markets needs and opportunities. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the nuclear system. Similarly, an area near oil refineries may have a need for emission free hydrogen production. A nuclear hybrid system expands the nuclear power plant from its more familiar central power station role by diversifying its immediately and directly connected customer base. The definition, design, analysis, and optimization work currently performed with respect to the nuclear hybrid systems represents the work of three national laboratories. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the lead lab working with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Each laboratory is providing modeling and simulation expertise for the integration of the hybrid system.

  4. A modified NARMAX model-based self-tuner with fault tolerance for unknown nonlinear stochastic hybrid systems with an input-output direct feed-through term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jason S-H; Hsu, Wen-Teng; Lin, Long-Guei; Guo, Shu-Mei; Tann, Joseph W

    2014-01-01

    A modified nonlinear autoregressive moving average with exogenous inputs (NARMAX) model-based state-space self-tuner with fault tolerance is proposed in this paper for the unknown nonlinear stochastic hybrid system with a direct transmission matrix from input to output. Through the off-line observer/Kalman filter identification method, one has a good initial guess of modified NARMAX model to reduce the on-line system identification process time. Then, based on the modified NARMAX-based system identification, a corresponding adaptive digital control scheme is presented for the unknown continuous-time nonlinear system, with an input-output direct transmission term, which also has measurement and system noises and inaccessible system states. Besides, an effective state space self-turner with fault tolerance scheme is presented for the unknown multivariable stochastic system. A quantitative criterion is suggested by comparing the innovation process error estimated by the Kalman filter estimation algorithm, so that a weighting matrix resetting technique by adjusting and resetting the covariance matrices of parameter estimate obtained by the Kalman filter estimation algorithm is utilized to achieve the parameter estimation for faulty system recovery. Consequently, the proposed method can effectively cope with partially abrupt and/or gradual system faults and input failures by the fault detection.

  5. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system.

  6. Novel Water Treatment Processes Based on Hybrid Membrane-Ozonation Systems: A Novel Ceramic Membrane Contactor for Bubbleless Ozonation of Emerging Micropollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos K. Stylianou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the presentation of novel water treatment systems based on ozonation combined with ceramic membranes for the treatment of refractory organic compounds found in natural water sources such as groundwater. This includes, firstly, a short review of possible membrane based hybrid processes for water treatment from various sources. Several practical and theoretical aspects for the application of hybrid membrane-ozonation systems are discussed, along with theoretical background regarding the transformation of target organic pollutants by ozone. Next, a novel ceramic membrane contactor, bringing into contact the gas phase (ozone and water phase without the creation of bubbles (bubbleless ozonation, is presented. Experimental data showing the membrane contactor efficiency for oxidation of atrazine, endosulfan, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE are shown and discussed. Almost complete endosulfan degradation was achieved with the use of the ceramic contactor, whereas atrazine degradation higher than 50% could not be achieved even after 60 min of reaction time. Single ozonation of water containing MTBE could not result in a significant MTBE degradation. MTBE mineralization by O3/H2O2 combination increased at higher pH values and O3/H2O2 molar ratio of 0.2 reaching a maximum of around 65%.

  7. Supermarket Refrigeration System - Benchmark for Hybrid System Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Lars Finn; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a supermarket refrigeration system as a benchmark for development of new ideas and a comparison of methods for hybrid systems' modeling and control. The benchmark features switch dynamics and discrete valued input making it a hybrid system, furthermore the outputs are subjected...

  8. A hybrid fuzzy-ontology based intelligent system to determine level of severity and treatment recommendation for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torshizi, Abolfazl Doostparast; Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein Fazel; Torshizi, Ghazaleh Doostparast; Eghbali, Kamyar

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with application of fuzzy intelligent systems in diagnosing severity level and recommending appropriate therapies for patients having Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Such an intelligent system can have remarkable impacts on correct diagnosis of the disease and reducing risk of mortality. This system captures various factors from the patients using two modules. The first module determines severity level of the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and the second module, which is a decision making unit, obtains output of the first module accompanied by some external knowledge and makes an appropriate treatment decision based on its ontology model and a fuzzy type-1 system. In order to validate efficiency and accuracy of the developed system, a case study is conducted by 44 participants. Then the results are compared with the recommendations of a panel of experts on the experimental data. Then precision and accuracy of the results were investigated based on a statistical analysis.

  9. Use of hybrid renewable energy systems for small communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandoc Georgeta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present how the sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system is done for a community of three hundred and five households located in a Delta, starting from the optimization of hybrid energy system for a single household. The methodology used in solving this problem is based on multiple options. The first option consists in determined energy needs, maximum power consumption in cold season and in adapting the solution for the production of electricity by a hybrid plant. The second option consists of energy needs resulted in average consumption of electricity in warm season and in adapting the solution for the production of electricity from a hybrid plant. In conjunction with the demand for electricity for the entire community one will get energy demand by aggregating household level (kWh/household. The novelty of this approach lies in the method used by these hybrid systems for obtaining electricity in small communities, isolated from this case study. Based on the results obtained the method can be expanded the implementation of these projects that use hybrid renewable energy systems.

  10. A hybrid reconfigurable solar and wind energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Sagar A.

    We study the feasibility of a novel hybrid solar-wind hybrid system that shares most of its infrastructure and components. During periods of clear sunny days the system will generate electricity from the sun using a parabolic concentrator. The concentrator is formed by individual mirror elements and focuses the light onto high intensity vertical multi-junction (VMJ) cells. During periods of high wind speeds and at night, the same concentrator setup will be reconfigured to channel the wind into a wind turbine which will be used to harness wind energy. In this study we report on the feasibility of this type of solar/wind hybrid energy system. The key mechanisms; optics, cooling mechanism of VMJ cells and air flow through the system were investigated using simulation tools. The results from these simulations, along with a simple economic analysis giving the levelized cost of energy for such a system are presented. An iterative method of design refinement based on the simulation results was used to work towards a prototype design. The levelized cost of the system achieved in the economic analysis shows the system to be a good alternative for a grid isolated site and could be used as a standalone system in regions of lower demand. The new approach to solar wind hybrid system reported herein will pave way for newer generation of hybrid systems that share common infrastructure in addition to the storage and distribution of energy.

  11. Characterization of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid System Based on a Factorial Design of Experiments Using Hardware Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, Bernardo; Banta, Larry E; Tucker, David

    2012-10-01

    A full factorial experimental design and a replicated fractional factorial design were carried out using the Hybrid Performance (HyPer) project facility installed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), U.S. Department of Energy to simulate gasifer/fuel cell/turbine hybrid power systems. The HyPer facility uses hardware in the loop (HIL) technology that couples a modified recuperated gas turbine cycle with hardware driven by a solid oxide fuel cell model. A 34 full factorial design (FFD) was selected to study the effects of four factors: cold-air, hot-air, bleed-air bypass valves, and the electric load on different parameters such as cathode and turbine inlet temperatures, pressure and mass flow. The results obtained, compared with former results where the experiments were made using one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT), show that no strong interactions between the factors are present in the different parameters of the system. This work also presents a fractional factorial design (ffd) 34-2 in order to analyze replication of the experiments. In addition, a new envelope is described based on the results of the design of experiments (DoE), compared with OFAT experiments, and analyzed in an off-design integrated fuel cell/gas turbine framework. This paper describes the methodology, strategy, and results of these experiments that bring new knowledge concerning the operating state space for this kind of power generation system.

  12. A CASE FOR HYBRID INSTRUCTION ENCODING FOR REDUCING CODE SIZE IN EMBEDDED SYSTEM-ON-CHIPS BASED ON RISC PROCESSOR CORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajalu Bakthavatsalam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded computing differs from general purpose computing in several aspects. In most embedded systems, size, cost and power consumption are more important than performance. In embedded System-on-Chips (SoC, memory is a scarce resource and it poses constraints on chip space, cost and power consumption. Whereas fixed instruction length feature of RISC architecture simplifies instruction decoding and pipeline implementation, its undesirable side effect is code size increase caused by large number of unused bits. Code size reduction minimizes memory size, chip space and power consumption all of which are significant for low power portable embedded systems. Though code size reduction has drawn the attention of architects and developers, the solutions currently used are more of cure than of prevention. Considering the huge number of embedded applications, there is a need for a dedicated processor optimized for low power and portable embedded systems. In the study, we propose a variation of Hybrid Instruction Encoding (HIE for the embedded processors. Our scheme uses fixed number of multiple instruction lengths with provision for hybrid sizes for the offset and the immediate fields thereby reducing the number of unused bits. We simulated the HIE for the MIPS32 processors and measured code sizes of various embedded applications of MiBench and MediaBench benchmarks using an offline tool developed newly. We noticed up to 27% code reduction for large and medium sized embedded applications respectively. This results in reduction of on-chip memory capacity up to 1 mega bytes that is very significant for SoC based embedded applications. Considering the large market share of embedded systems, it is worth investing in a new architecture and development of dedicated HIE-RISC processor cores for portable embedded systems based on SoCs.

  13. Self-assembled hybrid materials based on conjugated polymers and semiconductors nano-crystals for plastic solar cells; Architectures hybrides auto-assemblees a base de systemes polyconjugues et de nanocristaux de semi-conducteurs pour le photovoltaique plastique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolamo, J. de

    2007-11-15

    This work is devoted to the elaboration of self-assembled hybrid materials based on poly(3- hexyl-thiophene) and CdSe nano-crystals for photovoltaic applications. For that, complementary molecular recognition units were introduced as side chain groups on the polymer and at the nano-crystals' surface. Diamino-pyrimidine groups were introduced by post-functionalization of a precursor copolymer, namely poly(3-hexyl-thiophene-co-3- bromo-hexyl-thiophene) whereas thymine groups were introduced at the nano-crystals' surface by a ligand exchange reaction with 1-(6-mercapto-hexyl)thymine. However, due to their different solubility, the mixing of the two components by solution processes is difficult. A 'one-pot' procedure was developed, but this method led to insoluble aggregates without control of the hybrid composition. To overcome the solubility problem, the layer-by-layer method was used to prepare the films. This method allows a precise control of the deposition process. Experimental parameters were tested in order to evaluate their impact on the resulting film. The films morphology was investigated by microscopy and X-Ray diffraction techniques. These analyses reveal an interpenetrated structure of nano-crystals within the polymer matrix rather than a multilayered structure. Electrochemical and spectro electrochemical studies were performed on the hybrid material deposited by the LBL process. Finally the materials were tested in a solar cell configuration and the I=f(V) curves reveals a clear photovoltaic behaviour. (author)

  14. Generalization of Dielectric-Dependent Hybrid Functionals to Finite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawand, Nicholas P.; Vörös, Márton; Govoni, Marco; Galli, Giulia

    2016-10-01

    The accurate prediction of electronic and optical properties of molecules and solids is a persistent challenge for methods based on density functional theory. We propose a generalization of dielectric-dependent hybrid functionals to finite systems where the definition of the mixing fraction of exact and semilocal exchange is physically motivated, nonempirical, and system dependent. The proposed functional yields ionization potentials, and fundamental and optical gaps of many, diverse molecular systems in excellent agreement with experiments, including organic and inorganic molecules and semiconducting nanocrystals. We further demonstrate that this hybrid functional gives the correct alignment between energy levels of the exemplary TTF-TCNQ donor-acceptor system.

  15. Energy-Efficient Building HVAC Control Using Hybrid System LBMPC

    CERN Document Server

    Aswani, Anil; Taneja, Jay; Krioukov, Andrew; Culler, David; Tomlin, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Improving the energy-efficiency of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems has the potential to realize large economic and societal benefits. This paper concerns the system identification of a hybrid system model of a building-wide HVAC system and its subsequent control using a hybrid system formulation of learning-based model predictive control (LBMPC). Here, the learning refers to model updates to the hybrid system model that incorporate the heating effects due to occupancy, solar effects, outside air temperature (OAT), and equipment, in addition to integrator dynamics inherently present in low-level control. Though we make significant modeling simplifications, our corresponding controller that uses this model is able to experimentally achieve a large reduction in energy usage without any degradations in occupant comfort. It is in this way that we justify the modeling simplifications that we have made. We conclude by presenting results from experiments on our building HVAC testbed, which s...

  16. Modular supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos Pereira, A. de

    2000-06-01

    The power supply of remote places has been commonly provided by thermal power plants, usually diesel generators. Although hybrid power systems may constitute the most economical solution in many applications their widespread application to the electrification schemes of remote areas still depends on improvements in the issues of design and operation control. The main limitations of the present hybrid power systems technology, which are identified in this work, are related to the control and supervision of the power system. Therefore this thesis focuses on the modularity of supervisory controllers in order to design cost-competitive and reliable hybrid power systems. The modular supervisory controller created in this project is considered an important part of a system design approach that aims to overcome the technical difficulties of the current engineering practice and contribute to open the market of hybrid power systems. The term modular refers to a set of design characteristics that allows the use of basically the same supervisory controller in different projects. The modularization and standardisation of the controller include several issues such as interfacing components, communication protocols, modelling, programming and control strategies. The modularity can reduce the highly specialised system engineering related to the integration of components, operation and control. It can also avoid the high costs for installation, service and maintenance. A modular algorithm for supervisory controllers has been developed (a Matlab program called SuperCon) using an object-oriented design and it has been tested through several simulations using different hybrid system configurations and different control strategies. This thesis presents a complete control system design process which can be used as the basis for the development and implementation of intelligent and autonomous supervisory controllers for hybrid power systems with modular characteristics. (au)

  17. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario

    2014-06-24

    Hybrid wheat plants are superior in yield and growth characteristics compared with their homozygous parents. The commercial production of wheat hybrids is difficult because of the inbreeding nature of wheat and the lack of a practical fertility control that enforces outcrossing. We describe a hybrid wheat system that relies on the expression of a phytotoxic barnase and provides for male sterility. The barnase coding information is divided and distributed at two loci that are located on allelic positions of the host chromosome and are therefore "linked in repulsion." Functional complementation of the loci is achieved through coexpression of the barnase fragments and intein-mediated ligation of the barnase protein fragments. This system allows for growth and maintenance of male-sterile female crossing partners, whereas the hybrids are fertile. The technology does not require fertility restorers and is based solely on the genetic modification of the female crossing partner.

  18. Viability of Hybrid Systems A Controllability Operator Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Labinaz, G

    2012-01-01

    The problem of viability of hybrid systems is considered in this work. A model for a hybrid system is developed including a means of including three forms of uncertainty: transition dynamics, structural uncertainty, and parametric uncertainty. A computational basis for viability of hybrid systems is developed and applied to three control law classes. An approach is developed for robust viability based on two extensions of the controllability operator. The three-tank example is examined for both the viability problem and robust viability problem. The theory is applied through simulation to an active magnetic bearing system and to a batch polymerization process showing that viability can be satisfied in practice. The problem of viable attainability is examined based on the controllability operator approach introduced by Nerode and colleagues. Lastly, properties of the controllability operator are presented.

  19. Eco-efficient based logistics network design in hybrid manufacturing/ remanufacturing system in low-carbon economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacan Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Low-carbon economy requires the pursuit of eco-efficiency, which is a win-win situation between economic and environmental efficiency. In this paper the question of trading off the economic and environmental effects embodied in eco-efficiency in the hybrid manufacturing/remanufacturing logistics network design in the context of low-carbon economy is examined.Design/methodology/approach: A multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model to find the optimal facility locations and materials flow allocation is established. In the objective function, three minimum targets are set: economic cost, CO2 emission and waste generation. Through an iterative algorithm, the Pareto Boundary of the problem is obtained.Findings: The results of numeric study show that in order to achieve a Pareto improvement over an original system, three of the critical rates (i.e. return rate, recovery rate, and cost substitute rate should be increased.Practical implications: To meet the need of low-carbon dioxide, an iso- CO2 emission curve in which decision makers have a series of optimal choices with the same CO2 emission but different cost and waste generation is plotted. Each choice may have different network design but all of these are Pareto optimal solutions, which provide a comprehensive evaluation of both economics and ecology for the decision making.Originality/value: This research chooses carbon emission as one of the three objective functions and uses Pareto sets to analyze how to balance profitability and environmental impacts in designing remanufacturing closed-loop supply chain in the context of low-carbon economy.

  20. Liquid fuel utilization in SOFC hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Marco; Traverso, Alberto; Magistri, Loredana [TPG-DIMSET, University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, 16145 Genoa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    The interest in solid oxide fuel cell systems comes from their capability of converting the chemical energy of traditional fuels into electricity, with high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. In this paper, a study of the design space of solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine hybrids fed by methanol and kerosene is presented for stationary power generation in isolated areas (or transportation). A 500 kW class hybrid system was analysed using WTEMP original software developed by the Thermochemical Power Group of the University of Genoa. The choice of fuel-processing strategy and the influence of the main design parameters on the thermoeconomic characteristics of hybrid systems were investigated. The low capital and fuel cost of methanol systems make them the most attractive solutions among those investigated here. (author)

  1. User-interfaces for hybrid systems: Analysis and design through hybrid reachability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Meeko Mitsuko Karen

    Hybrid systems combine discrete state dynamics, which model mode switching, with continuous state dynamics, which model the physical processes themselves. Applications of hybrid system theory to automated systems have traditionally assumed that the controller itself is an automaton which runs in parallel with the system under control. We model human interaction with hybrid systems, which involves the user; the automation's discrete mode-logic, and the underlying continuous dynamics of the physical system. Often in safety-critical systems, user-interfaces display a reduced set of information about the entire system, however must still provide adequate information and must not confuse the user. We present (1) a method of designing a discrete event system abstraction of the hybrid system, in order to verify or design user-interfaces for hybrid human-automation systems, and (2) the relationship between user-interfaces and discrete observability properties. Using a hybrid computational tool for reachability, we find the largest region in which the system can always remain---this is the safe region of operation. By implementing a controller which arises from this computation, we mathematically guarantee that this safe region is invariant. Assigning discrete states to the computed invariant regions, we create a discrete event system from this hybrid system with safety restrictions. This abstraction can then be used in existing interface verification and design methods. A user-interface, modeled as a discrete system, must, not only be reduced (extraneous information has been eliminated), but also "immediately observable". We derive conditions for immediate observability, in which the current state can be constructed from the current output and last occurring event. Based on finite state machine state-reduction techniques, we synthesize an output for remote user-interfaces which fulfills this property. Aircraft are prime examples of complex, safety-critical systems. In

  2. Hybrid singular systems of differential equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷刚; 张纪峰

    2002-01-01

    This work develops hybrid models for large-scale singular differential system and analyzestheir asymptotic properties. To take into consideration the discrete shifts in regime across whichthe behavior of the corresponding dynamic systems is markedly different, our goals are to develophybrid systems in which continuous dynamics are intertwined with discrete events under random-jumpdisturbances and to reduce complexity of large-scale singular systems via singularly perturbed Markovchains. To reduce the complexity of large-scale hybrid singular systems, two-time scale is used in theformulation. Under general assumptions, limit behavior of the underlying system is examined. Usingweak convergence methods, it is shown that the systems can be approximated by limit systems inwhich the coefficients are averaged out with respect to the quasi-stationary distributions. Since thelimit systems have fewer states, the complexity is much reduced.

  3. Hybrid Recommender System for Joining Virtual Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Esmaeili

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of social networks and virtual communities has created problematic for users of different ages and preferences; in addition, since the true nature of groups is not clearly outlined, users are uncertain about joining various virtual groups and usually face the trouble of joining the undesired ones. As a solution, in this study, we introduced the hybrid community recommender system which offers customized recommendations based on user preferences. Although techniques such as content based filtering and collaborative filtering methods are available, these techniques are not enough efficient and in some cases make problems and bring limitations to users. Our method is based on a combination of content based filtering and collaborative filtering methods. It is created by selecting related features of users based on supervised entropy as well as using association rules and classification method. Supposing users in each community or group share similar characteristics, by hierarchical clustering, heterogeneous members are identified and removed. Unlike other methods, this is also applicable for users who have just joined the social network where they do not have any connections or group memberships. In such situations, this method could still offer recommendations.

  4. Evolved Finite State Controller For Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary methodology to automatically generate nite state automata (FSA) controllers to control hybrid systems. FSA controllers for a case study of two-tank system have been successfully obtained using the proposed evolutionary approach. Experimental results show...

  5. Hybrid Collaborative Stereo Vision System for Mobile Robots Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Roberti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a hybrid collaborative stereo vision system (3D-distributed visual sensing using different kinds of vision cameras for the autonomous navigation of a wheeled robot team. It is proposed a triangulation-based method for the 3D-posture computation of an unknown object by considering the collaborative hybrid stereo vision system, and this way to steer the robot team to a desired position relative to such object while maintaining a desired robot formation. Experimental results with real mobile robots are included to validate the proposed vision system.

  6. Control and load management of a fuel cell based hybrid system; Steuerung und Lademanagement eines brennstoffzellen-basierten Hybridsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klausmann, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    Objective of this work is the development of a control for a hybrid electric power train. Initial point is an electric drive powered by a rechargeable battery. This battery shall be recharged during operation by a methanol-driven fuel cell. At this point it is not intended to deploy a direct methanol fuel cell but a combination of a methanol reformer generating hydrogen-rich gas and a high-temperature fuel cell (HTPEM-FC). This work covers the general strategy of operation like load cycles, standby phases etc., the reformer control and the fuel cell operation with a newly developed charge concept. While the basic research is done on a rapid prototyping system this work aims on porting the control system to an embedded platform. Here emphasis is put on the hardware independency of the control. The development of the reformer control contains the strategy for heating up the system with a minimum of electrical energy consumption, since this energy has to be supplied from the battery during the system start-up, increasing the minimum charge level of the battery required for an autarkic recharge. Unlike in common systems the reformer will be modulated according to the electric load and not vice versa, though the fuel cell serves as load sensor. Beside start-up and shutdown strategies the fuel cell control covers particularly the charge control. The electric load is assumed to be unknown, non-influenceable and unsteady. The charge control handles the charging of the battery under optimal utilization of the available hydrogen while avoiding an overload of the fuel cell caused by sudden load changes like powering up the drive. Therefore the common step-down circuit will be advanced so that all huge and heavy electronic components can be minimized or substituted by internal effects of battery and fuel cell. The fuel utilization will be feed back to the reformer control. After coupling of reformer and fuel cell control the system will be ported to an embedded control system

  7. Hybrid Power Management-Based Vehicle Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications (s ee figure). The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, that provides all power to a common energy storage system that is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems. This architecture also provides power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. The key element of HPM is the energy storage system. All generated power is sent to the energy storage system, and all loads derive their power from that system. This can significantly reduce the power requirement of the primary power source, while increasing the vehicle reliability. Ultracapacitors are ideal for an HPM-based energy storage system due to their exceptionally long cycle life, high reliability, high efficiency, high power density, and excellent low-temperature performance. Multiple power sources and multiple loads are easily incorporated into an HPM-based vehicle. A gas turbine is a good primary power source because of its high efficiency, high power density, long life, high reliability, and ability to operate on a wide range of fuels. An HPM controller maintains optimal control over each vehicle component. This flexible operating system can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve vehicle efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. The HPM-based vehicle architecture has many advantages over conventional vehicle architectures. Ultracapacitors have a much longer cycle life than batteries, which greatly improves system reliability, reduces life-of-system costs, and reduces environmental impact as ultracapacitors will probably never need to be

  8. Hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Rehrig, Paul W. (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system includes: (a) first and second symmetric, pre-curved piezoelectric elements mounted separately on a frame so that their concave major surfaces are positioned opposite to each other; and (b) a linear piezoelectric element mounted separately on the frame and positioned between the pre-curved piezoelectric elements. The pre-curved piezoelectric elements and the linear piezoelectric element are spaced from one another and communicate with energy harvesting circuitry having contact points on the frame. The hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system has a higher electromechanical energy conversion efficiency than any known piezoelectric transducer.

  9. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  10. 基于混合体系结构的无人驾驶车辆系统%Autonomous Vehicle System Based on Hybrid Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修彩靖; 陈慧

    2012-01-01

    从无人驾驶车辆系统的自主性、实时性、适应性要求出发,建立了基于功能和行为相结合的无人驾驶车辆混合式体系结构,基于功能的分解结构满足无人驾驶车辆的自主控制要求,基于行为的分解结构则满足由于行车环境复杂性以及多变性带来的对无人驾驶车辆车系统局部路径规划要求的反应能力和适应能力.实验结果表明,基于混合式体系结构的无人驾驶车辆系统具有自主性,且在环境发生变化时满足实时性及适应性要求.%Hybrid architecture of autonomous vehicle system was built based both on function and behavior so that requirements in autonomy, real-time and adaptability could be met. Functional decomposition architecture was used to automatically control the vehicle while behavioral decomposition architecture was used to handle the complexity and variability of environment which highly challenged responsiveness and adaptability of vehicle' s planning system. Experimental results showed that a hybrid architecture based system enabled the vehicle to drive autonomously while having sufficient adaptability and real-time as the environment changes.

  11. SCAN-based hybrid and double-hybrid density functionals from models without fitted parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Kerwin; Chai, Jeng-Da

    2015-01-01

    By incorporating the nonempirical SCAN semilocal density functional [Sun, Ruzsinszky, and Perdew, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 036402 (2015)] in the underlying expression of four existing hybrid and double-hybrid models, we propose one hybrid (SCAN0) and three double-hybrid (SCAN0-DH, SCAN-QIDH, and SCAN0-2) density functionals, which are free from any fitted parameters. The SCAN-based double-hybrid functionals consistently outperform their parent SCAN semilocal functional for self-interaction probl...

  12. Status and modeling improvements of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Taylor, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper present a summary of the ongoing work on the modeling and system design of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for two different sites in the Amazonia region of Brazil. The work incorporates the latest resource data and is based on the use of the Hybrid2 simulation code developed by the University of Massachusetts and NREL. Details of the baseline operating hybrid systems are reviewed, and the results of the latest detailed hybrid system evaluation for each site are summarized. Based on the system modeling results, separate recommendations for system modification and improvements are made.

  13. Hybrid Battery Ultracapacitor System For Human Robotic Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to develop a hybrid battery-ultra capacitor storage system that powers human-robotic systems in space missions. Space missions...

  14. Polyester based hybrid organic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojiang

    Polyesters are a class of polymers widely used in organic coatings applications. In this work, four types of organic coatings based on polyester polyols were prepared: UV-curable polyester/poly(meth)acrylate coatings, thermal curable polyester polyurethane-urea coatings, thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings, and UV-curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings. Polyester/poly(meth)acrylate block copolymers are synthesized using a combination of polycondensation and Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). All block copolymers are characterized by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). In the case of unsaturated-polyester-based block copolymers the main chain double bond in the polyester backbone remains almost unaffected during ATRP. The unsaturated block copolymers are crosslinkable and can form networks upon photo-irradiation in the presence of a suitable photoinitiator. These copolymers might be interesting candidates for coatings with better overall properties than those based on neat polyesters. Thermal curable polyester polyol based Polyurethane-Urea (PUU) coatings were formulated using Partially Blocked HDI isocyanurate (PBH), Isophorone Diamine (IPDA), and polyester polyol. As a comparison, the polyurethane coatings (PU) without adding IPDA were also prepared. The mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the PUU and PU coating were investigated by using tensile test and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analyzer (DMTA). It was found that PUU coating exhibited higher crosslink density, Tg, tensile modulus and strength than the corresponding PU coating. Thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings were prepared by using polyamine and cyclic carbonate terminated polyester. Cyclic carbonate terminated polyester was synthesized from the reaction of the carbon dioxide and epoxidized polyester which was prepared from the polyester polyol. The properties of the epoxidized and cyclic carbonate

  15. Efficient Synthesis of a Maghemite/Gold Hybrid Nanoparticle System as a Magnetic Carrier for the Transport of Platinum-Based Metallotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Štarha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and thorough characterization of a hybrid magnetic carrier system for the possible transport of activated platinum-based anticancer drugs, as demonstrated for cisplatin (cis-[Pt(NH32Cl2], CDDP, are described. The final functionalized mag/Au–LA–CDDP* system consists of maghemite/gold nanoparticles (mag/Au coated by lipoic acid (HLA; LA stands for deprotonated form of lipoic acid and functionalized by activated cisplatin in the form of cis-[Pt(NH32(H2O2]2+ (CDDP*. The relevant techniques (XPS, EDS, ICP-MS proved the incorporation of the platinum-containing species on the surface of the studied hybrid system. HRTEM, TEM and SEM images showed the nanoparticles as spherical with an average size of 12 nm, while their superparamagnetic feature was proven by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. In the case of mag/Au, mag/Au–HLA and mag/Au–LA–CDDP*, weaker magnetic interactions among the Fe3+ centers of maghemite, as compared to maghemite nanoparticles (mag, were detected, which can be associated with the non-covalent coating of the maghemite surface by gold. The pH and time-dependent stability of the mag/Au–LA–CDDP* system in different media, represented by acetate (pH 5.0, phosphate (pH 7.0 and carbonate (pH 9.0 buffers and connected with the release of the platinum-containing species, showed the ability of CDDP* to be released from the functionalized nanosystem.

  16. Weather forecasting based on hybrid neural model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad; AlGhamdi, Jarallah S.

    2017-02-01

    Making deductions and expectations about climate has been a challenge all through mankind's history. Challenges with exact meteorological directions assist to foresee and handle problems well in time. Different strategies have been investigated using various machine learning techniques in reported forecasting systems. Current research investigates climate as a major challenge for machine information mining and deduction. Accordingly, this paper presents a hybrid neural model (MLP and RBF) to enhance the accuracy of weather forecasting. Proposed hybrid model ensure precise forecasting due to the specialty of climate anticipating frameworks. The study concentrates on the data representing Saudi Arabia weather forecasting. The main input features employed to train individual and hybrid neural networks that include average dew point, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, mean temperature, average relative moistness, precipitation, normal wind speed, high wind speed and average cloudiness. The output layer composed of two neurons to represent rainy and dry weathers. Moreover, trial and error approach is adopted to select an appropriate number of inputs to the hybrid neural network. Correlation coefficient, RMSE and scatter index are the standard yard sticks adopted for forecast accuracy measurement. On individual standing MLP forecasting results are better than RBF, however, the proposed simplified hybrid neural model comes out with better forecasting accuracy as compared to both individual networks. Additionally, results are better than reported in the state of art, using a simple neural structure that reduces training time and complexity.

  17. Wind-solar Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Fei

    2014-01-01

    In the development and utilization of new energy sources, the solar energy and wind energy are paid more attention by various countries, and have become a new field of energy development and utilization of the highest level, the most mature technology, the most widely used and commercial development conditions for new energy. But both the traditional wind power system and solar power system have the characteristic of energy instability. Therefore, wind-solar hybrid power system was proposed i...

  18. Engine-driven hybrid air-conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaokui QIN; Hongmei LU; Xiong LIU; Gerhard SCHMITZ

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid air-conditioning system that com-bines an engine-driven chiller with desiccant dehumidifi-cation was configured and experimentally tested to provide reliable data for energy consumption and operation cost. The engine performance and the desiccant wheel perfor-mance were measured and a numeric model previously set up for dehumidification capacity prediction was validated. For a reference building, the results based upon measured data show that under present electricity/gas price ratio, more than 40% of operation cost can be saved by the hybrid system.

  19. Diagnosing Hybrid Systems: a Bayesian Model Selection Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlraith, Sheila A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine the problem of monitoring and diagnosing noisy complex dynamical systems that are modeled as hybrid systems-models of continuous behavior, interleaved by discrete transitions. In particular, we examine continuous systems with embedded supervisory controllers that experience abrupt, partial or full failure of component devices. Building on our previous work in this area (MBCG99;MBCG00), our specific focus in this paper ins on the mathematical formulation of the hybrid monitoring and diagnosis task as a Bayesian model tracking algorithm. The nonlinear dynamics of many hybrid systems present challenges to probabilistic tracking. Further, probabilistic tracking of a system for the purposes of diagnosis is problematic because the models of the system corresponding to failure modes are numerous and generally very unlikely. To focus tracking on these unlikely models and to reduce the number of potential models under consideration, we exploit logic-based techniques for qualitative model-based diagnosis to conjecture a limited initial set of consistent candidate models. In this paper we discuss alternative tracking techniques that are relevant to different classes of hybrid systems, focusing specifically on a method for tracking multiple models of nonlinear behavior simultaneously using factored sampling and conditional density propagation. To illustrate and motivate the approach described in this paper we examine the problem of monitoring and diganosing NASA's Sprint AERCam, a small spherical robotic camera unit with 12 thrusters that enable both linear and rotational motion.

  20. Hybrid Energy System Modeling in Modelica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Binder; Christiaan J. J. Paredis; Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a Hybrid Energy System (HES) configuration is modeled in Modelica. Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) have as their defining characteristic the use of one or more energy inputs, combined with the potential for multiple energy outputs. Compared to traditional energy systems, HES provide additional operational flexibility so that high variability in both energy production and consumption levels can be absorbed more effectively. This is particularly important when including renewable energy sources, whose output levels are inherently variable, determined by nature. The specific HES configuration modeled in this paper include two energy inputs: a nuclear plant, and a series of wind turbines. In addition, the system produces two energy outputs: electricity and synthetic fuel. The models are verified through simulations of the individual components, and the system as a whole. The simulations are performed for a range of component sizes, operating conditions, and control schemes.

  1. Efficient Proof Engines for Bounded Model Checking of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Herde, Christian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present HySat, a new bounded model checker for linear hybrid systems, incorporating a tight integration of a DPLL-based pseudo-Boolean SAT solver and a linear programming routine as core engine. In contrast to related tools like MathSAT, ICS, or CVC, our tool exploits all...

  2. Modeling and Analysis of Hybrid Cellular/WLAN Systems with Integrated Service-Based Vertical Handoff Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Weiwei; Shen, Lianfeng

    We propose two vertical handoff schemes for cellular network and wireless local area network (WLAN) integration: integrated service-based handoff (ISH) and integrated service-based handoff with queue capabilities (ISHQ). Compared with existing handoff schemes in integrated cellular/WLAN networks, the proposed schemes consider a more comprehensive set of system characteristics such as different features of voice and data services, dynamic information about the admitted calls, user mobility and vertical handoffs in two directions. The code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular network and IEEE 802.11e WLAN are taken into account in the proposed schemes. We model the integrated networks by using multi-dimensional Markov chains and the major performance measures are derived for voice and data services. The important system parameters such as thresholds to prioritize handoff voice calls and queue sizes are optimized. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed ISHQ scheme can maximize the utilization of overall bandwidth resources with the best quality of service (QoS) provisioning for voice and data services.

  3. Heave Compensation System Based on Hybrid Fuzzy P+ID Control%基于混合模糊P+ID控制的升沉补偿系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琦; 李伟; 王晓辉; 张奇峰; 张巍

    2016-01-01

    提出一种混合模糊P+ID控制算法,并将其应用于采用电控液压绞车的升沉补偿控制系统,使水下机器人在作业时不受母船升沉运动的影响。首先采用数字高通滤波器对惯性测量单元(IMU)获得的数据进行处理,计算出母船升沉运动的位移。然后推导出电控液压绞车系统的数学模型,并设计了基于混合模糊P+ID的升沉补偿控制器,根据母船升沉位移来控制液压绞车转动。最后通过仿真实验和物理平台实验验证证明了基于混合模糊P+ID的升沉补偿系统比常规PID系统有着更好的鲁棒性。%A hybrid fuzzy P+ID controller is proposed and applied to the heave compensation system using an electro-hydraulic winch system. The heave compensation system can decouple the operation of underwater vehicle from the motion of vessel. Firstly, the heave motion of vessel is calculated based on measurements from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) using a digital high-pass filter. Then, a mathematical model of the electro-hydraulic winch system is developed, and the heave compensation controller based on hybrid fuzzy P+ID controller is designed to control the winch rotation according to the vessel motion. Finally, simulation studies and real device experiments are conducted to demonstrate that the heave compensation systems based on the fuzzy P+ID controller is much more robust than the conventional PID controller.

  4. Design of A Pv/Diesel Stand Alone Hybrid System For A Remote Community in Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, M.S.; Moghavvemi, M.; T.M.I. Mahlia

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid system based on photovoltaic is considered an effective option to electrify remote and isolated areas far from grid. This is true for areas that receive high averages of solar radiation annually. Using diesel generator as a standby source will make utilization of hybrid systems more attractive. An economic feasibility study and a complete design of a hybrid system consisting of photovoltaic (PV) panels, a diesel generator as a backup power source and a battery system supplying a small ...

  5. Compact Hybrid Automotive Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.

    1986-01-01

    Power train proposed for experimental vehicle powered by internal combustion engine and electric motor. Intended for front-wheel drive automobile, power train mass produced using existing technology. System includes internal-combustion engine, electric motor, continuously variable transmission, torque converter, differential, and control and adjustment systems for electric motor and transmission. Continuously variable transmission integrated into hydraulic system that also handles power steering and power brakes. Batteries for electric motor mounted elsewhere in vehicle.

  6. 混合变量系统基于MCMC的自适应重要抽样法%Adaptive Importance Sampling of Hybrid Variable Systems Based on MCMC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进玲; 曾声奎; 马纪明; 庞怡

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of key failures in a system may cause the system to degrade into different discrete states of performance. The classical importance sampling method based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) can only be applied to a continuous variable system and cannot resolve the problem of mixed systems including discrete variables. Therefore, an improved adaptive importance sampling method based on MCMC is proposed to support the efficient simulation of system performance reliability. First, a failure space is constructed by combining different failure domains, and Markov simulation samples are achieved by the initial sample wandering in the failure space. Second, with a comprehensive consideration of continuous and discrete variables, a hybrid sampling density function is obtained through kernel density evaluation. Then, importance sampling simulation is operated according to the last hybrid sampling density function and the performance reliability is computed. Finally, the simulation efficiency is analyzed in theory. The validity and high efficiency of the proposed method are demonstrated by the case of an electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA) system.%系统关键故障的发生,会导致系统处于各种离散性能降级状态.针对传统的基于马尔可夫链蒙特卡罗( Markov chain Monte Carlo,MCMC)的自适应重要抽样法只适用于连续变量系统的不足,提出考虑混合变量的基于MCMC的自适应重要抽样法,以支持系统性能可靠性的高效仿真.该方法首先将由关键故障产生的不同失效域组成失效空间,并通过初始样本点在失效空间中随机游走构造马尔可夫链模拟样本;然后综合考虑连续变量与离散变量,利用核密度估计构建混合核抽样密度函数;再根据该密度函数进行重要抽样仿真并计算系统的性能可靠性;最后对该方法的仿真效率进行理论分析.通过电液舵机(Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator,EHA)案例对方法的正确性和仿真效率进行验证.

  7. Mechanical thermal synthesis of in situ Al based hybrid nanocomposites in Al-Ni-Ti-O system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilip, J. John Samuel [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Tamil Nadu 600036 (India); Reddy, B.S.B. [Universal College of Engineering and Technology, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh 522438 (India); Das, Siddhartha, E-mail: sdas@metal.iitkgp.ernet.i [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Das, Karabi [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2010-02-04

    Al matrix hybrid nanocomposite is synthesized from a powder blend of Al-12% (wt) NiO-15% (wt) TiO{sub 2} by combined mechanical and thermal activation (mechanical thermal synthesis). The powder blends are mechanically activated by high energy ball milling followed by consolidation and thermal treatment. Milled powders are characterized by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron microscopy. DTA results show the onset reaction temperature to decrease with increase in the milling time. Series of thermal treatments in a wide range of temperatures are performed on the green compacts. The thermally treated samples are then characterized by XRD and electron microscopy. The superior microhardness (1.86-2.25 GPa) of the nanocomposite may be attributed to ultra fine grain size of the Al matrix, and Orowan strengthening from the nanosized reinforcements. Aluminothermic reduction reaction between Al, NiO and TiO{sub 2} is successfully exploited for the synthesis of in situ hybrid nanocomposite by combined mechanical-thermal activation.

  8. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-08-29

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices.

  9. Hybrid integrative positioning system based on Skyhook XPS%基于Skyhook XPS的一体化混合定位系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵小东; 李强

    2011-01-01

    受多路径误差影响,GPS处于高反射环境下可导致接收机相位失锁,对点位坐标影响高达15cm;室内环境卫星无法锁定,GPS更是不能正常工作.本文引入了Skyhook XPS一体化混合定位系统,综合全球定位系统(GPS)、基站三角塔(Cell Tower Triangulation)和无线宽带(Wi-Fi)三种技术之优势,迅速准确定位.详细介绍了Skyhook XPS的系统架构、部署模式与主要接口函数,并基于SDK开发程序实现定位服务.实验结果表明其首次定位时间快、准确率高、可用性强.在高反射地形地物环境下为GPS采集仪提供有效补充定位服务,为无线终端设备、LBS等提供有效定位信息.%Affected by multipath effects, in a high reflective environment the GPS receiver's phase change can not be measured out, point coordinate could deviate up to 15cm; satellites can not be locked indoors, GPS is not working properly. The article intro duced Skyhook XPS-hybrid integrative positioning system, integrated advantages of Global Positioning System (GPS) , Cell Tower Tri angulation and Wi-Fi three kinds of technology, to locate quickly and accurately. Skyhook XPS' s system architecture, deployment model and the main interface functions were described in detail and a location-based service was achieved based on SDK. Experimental results showed that it's fast Time-To-First-Fix, with high accuracy, and strong availability. In high-reflective terrain environment, the hybrid integrative positioning system would be an effective instrument for GPS and provide effective positioning information and location based services for wireless terminals, LBS, etc.

  10. New Tools for Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-02

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 2-17, January 2003. [4] A. Megretski, "Robustness...34Output stabilizability of discrete-event dynamic systems", IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 36, no.8, pp. 925-935, August 1991. [6] K...Passino, A. Michel and P. Antsaklis, "Lyapunov stability of a class of discrete event systems", IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 39, no.

  11. Disease processes as hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Liò

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of hybrid techniques in complex processes of infectious diseases. Since predictive disease models in biomedicine require a multiscale approach for understanding the molecule-cell-tissue-organ-body interactions, heterogeneous methodologies are often employed for describing the different biological scales. Hybrid models provide effective means for complex disease modelling where the action and dosage of a drug or a therapy could be meaningfully investigated: the infection dynamics can be classically described in a continuous fashion, while the scheduling of multiple treatment discretely. We define an algebraic language for specifying general disease processes and multiple treatments, from which a semantics in terms of hybrid dynamical system can be derived. Then, the application of control-theoretic tools is proposed in order to compute the optimal scheduling of multiple therapies. The potentialities of our approach are shown in the case study of the SIR epidemic model and we discuss its applicability on osteomyelitis, a bacterial infection affecting the bone remodelling system in a specific and multiscale manner. We report that formal languages are helpful in giving a general homogeneous formulation for the different scales involved in a multiscale disease process; and that the combination of hybrid modelling and control theory provides solid grounds for computational medicine.

  12. Biomolecule/nanomaterial hybrid systems for nanobiotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel-Vered, Ran; Yehezkeli, Omer; Willner, Itamar

    2012-01-01

    The integration of biomolecules with metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes yields new hybrid nanostructures of unique features that combine the properties of the biomolecules and of the nano-elements. These unique features of the hybrid biomolecule/nanoparticle systems provide the basis for the rapid development of the area of nanobiotechnology. Recent advances in the implementation of hybrid materials consisting of biomolecules and metallic nanoparticles or semiconductor quantum dots will be discussed. The following topics will be exemplified: (i) The electrical wiring of redox enzymes with electrodes by means of metallic nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes, and the application of the modified electrodes as amperometric biosensors or for the construction of biofuel cells. (ii) The biocatalytic growth of metallic nanoparticles as a means to construct optical or electrical sensors. (iii) The functionalization of semiconductor quantum dots with biomolecules and the application of the hybrid nanostructures for developing different optical sensors, including intracellular sensor systems. (iv) The use of biomolecule-metallic nanoparticle nanostructures as templates for growing metallic nanowires, and the construction of fuel-driven nano-transporters.

  13. Optimization strategy for element sizing in hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Real, Alejandro J.; Arce, Alicia; Bordons, Carlos [Departamento de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Universidad de Sevilla, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a procedure to evaluate the optimal element sizing of hybrid power systems. In order to generalize the problem, this work exploits the ''energy hub'' formulation previously presented in the literature, defining an energy hub as an interface among energy producers, consumers and the transportation infrastructure. The resulting optimization minimizes an objective function which is based on costs and efficiencies of the system elements, while taking into account the hub model, energy and power constraints and estimated operational conditions, such as energy prices, input power flow availability and output energy demand. The resulting optimal architecture also constitutes a framework for further real-time control designs. Moreover, an example of a hybrid storage system is considered. In particular, the architecture of a hybrid plant incorporating a wind generator, batteries and intermediate hydrogen storage is optimized, based on real wind data and averaged residential demands, also taking into account possible estimation errors. The hydrogen system integrates an electrolyzer, a fuel cell stack and hydrogen tanks. The resulting optimal cost of such hybrid power plant is compared with the equivalent hydrogen-only and battery-only systems, showing improvements in investment costs of almost 30% in the worst case. (author)

  14. Optimization strategy for element sizing in hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Real, Alejandro J.; Arce, Alicia; Bordons, Carlos

    This paper presents a procedure to evaluate the optimal element sizing of hybrid power systems. In order to generalize the problem, this work exploits the "energy hub" formulation previously presented in the literature, defining an energy hub as an interface among energy producers, consumers and the transportation infrastructure. The resulting optimization minimizes an objective function which is based on costs and efficiencies of the system elements, while taking into account the hub model, energy and power constraints and estimated operational conditions, such as energy prices, input power flow availability and output energy demand. The resulting optimal architecture also constitutes a framework for further real-time control designs. Moreover, an example of a hybrid storage system is considered. In particular, the architecture of a hybrid plant incorporating a wind generator, batteries and intermediate hydrogen storage is optimized, based on real wind data and averaged residential demands, also taking into account possible estimation errors. The hydrogen system integrates an electrolyzer, a fuel cell stack and hydrogen tanks. The resulting optimal cost of such hybrid power plant is compared with the equivalent hydrogen-only and battery-only systems, showing improvements in investment costs of almost 30% in the worst case.

  15. Chaotic attractor transforming control of hybrid Lorenz-Chen system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Dong-Lian; Wang Qiao; Gu Hong

    2008-01-01

    Based on passive theory, this paper studies a hybrid chaotic dynamical system from the mathematics perspective to implement the control of system stabilization.According to the Jacobian matrix of the nonlinear system, the stabilization control region is gotten.The controller is designed to stabilize fast the minimum phase Lorenz-Chen chaotic system after equivalently transforming from chaotic system to passive system. The simulation results show that the system not only can be controlled at the different equilibria, but also can be transformed between the different chaotic attractors.

  16. Bioinspired near-infrared-excited sensing platform for in vitro antioxidant capacity assay based on upconversion nanoparticles and a dopamine-melanin hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Chen, Chuan; Ke, Xuebin; Kang, Ning; Shen, Yuqing; Liu, Yongliang; Zhou, Xi; Wang, Hongjun; Chen, Changqing; Ren, Lei

    2015-02-11

    A novel core-shell structure based on upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles (UCNPs) and dopamine-melanin has been developed for evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of biological fluids. In this approach, dopamine-melanin nanoshells facilely formed on the surface of UCNPs act as ultraefficient quenchers for upconversion fluorescence, contributing to a photoinduced electron-transfer mechanism. This spontaneous oxidative polymerization of the dopamine-induced quenching effect could be effectively prevented by the presence of various antioxidants (typically biothiols, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), and Trolox). The chemical response of the UCNPs@dopamine-melanin hybrid system exhibited great selectivity and sensitivity toward antioxidants relative to other compounds at 100-fold higher concentration. A satisfactory correlation was established between the ratio of the "anti-quenching" fluorescence intensity and the concentration of antioxidants. Besides the response of the upconversion fluorescence signal, a specific evaluation process for antioxidants could be visualized by the color change from colorless to dark gray accompanied by the spontaneous oxidation of dopamine. The near-infrared (NIR)-excited UCNP-based antioxidant capacity assay platform was further used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of cell extracts and human plasma, and satisfactory sensitivity, repeatability, and recovery rate were obtained. This approach features easy preparation, fluorescence/visual dual mode detection, high specificity to antioxidants, and enhanced sensitivity with NIR excitation, showing great potential for screening and quantitative evaluation of antioxidants in biological systems.

  17. Fuzzy-PI-based centralised control of semi-isolated FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC in a PV/battery hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Venmathi; Ramabadran, Ramaprabha

    2016-11-01

    Multiport converters with centralised controller have been most commonly used in stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)/battery hybrid system to supply the load smoothly without any disturbances. This study presents the performance analysis of four-port SEPIC/ZETA bidirectional converter (FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC) using various types of centralised control schemes like Fuzzy tuned proportional integral controller (Fuzzy-PI), fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and conventional proportional integral (PI) controller. The proposed FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC with various control strategy is derived for simultaneous power management of a PV source using distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT) algorithm, a rechargeable battery, and a load by means of centralised controller. The steady state and the dynamic response of the FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC are analysed using three different types of controllers under line and load regulation. The Fuzzy-PI-based control scheme improves the dynamic response of the system when compared with the FLC and the conventional PI controller. The power balance between the ports is achieved by pseudorandom carrier modulation scheme. The response of the FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC is also validated experimentally using hardware prototype model of 500 W system. The effectiveness of the control strategy is validated using simulation and experimental results.

  18. A methodology for risk analysis based on hybrid Bayesian networks: application to the regasification system of liquefied natural gas onboard a floating storage and regasification unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Schleder, Adriana Miralles; Droguett, Enrique López

    2014-12-01

    This article presents an iterative six-step risk analysis methodology based on hybrid Bayesian networks (BNs). In typical risk analysis, systems are usually modeled as discrete and Boolean variables with constant failure rates via fault trees. Nevertheless, in many cases, it is not possible to perform an efficient analysis using only discrete and Boolean variables. The approach put forward by the proposed methodology makes use of BNs and incorporates recent developments that facilitate the use of continuous variables whose values may have any probability distributions. Thus, this approach makes the methodology particularly useful in cases where the available data for quantification of hazardous events probabilities are scarce or nonexistent, there is dependence among events, or when nonbinary events are involved. The methodology is applied to the risk analysis of a regasification system of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on board an FSRU (floating, storage, and regasification unit). LNG is becoming an important energy source option and the world's capacity to produce LNG is surging. Large reserves of natural gas exist worldwide, particularly in areas where the resources exceed the demand. Thus, this natural gas is liquefied for shipping and the storage and regasification process usually occurs at onshore plants. However, a new option for LNG storage and regasification has been proposed: the FSRU. As very few FSRUs have been put into operation, relevant failure data on FSRU systems are scarce. The results show the usefulness of the proposed methodology for cases where the risk analysis must be performed under considerable uncertainty.

  19. Fluorescent system based on bacterial expression of hybrid KcsA channels designed for Kv1.3 ligand screening and study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashova, Kseniya S; Nekrasova, Oksana V; Kuzmenkov, Alexey I; Vassilevski, Alexander A; Ignatova, Anastasia A; Korolkova, Yuliya V; Grishin, Eugene V; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Feofanov, Alexey V

    2013-03-01

    Human voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 is an important pharmacological target for the treatment of autoimmune and metabolic diseases. Increasing clinical demands stipulate an active search for efficient and selective Kv1.3 blockers. Here we present a new, reliable, and easy-to-use analytical system designed to seek for and study Kv1.3 ligands that bind to the extracellular vestibule of the K(+)-conducting pore. It is based on Escherichia coli spheroplasts with the hybrid protein KcsA-Kv1.3 embedded into the membrane, fluorescently labeled Kv1.3 blocker agitoxin-2, and confocal laser scanning microscopy as a detection method. This system is a powerful alternative to radioligand and patch-clamp techniques. It enables one to search for Kv1.3 ligands both among individual compounds and in complex mixtures, as well as to characterize their affinity to Kv1.3 channel using the "mix and read" mode. To demonstrate the potential of the system, we performed characterization of several known Kv1.3 ligands, tested nine spider venoms for the presence of Kv1.3 ligands, and conducted guided purification of a channel blocker from scorpion venom.

  20. Hybrid compensation arrangement in dispersed generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid compensation system consisting of an active filter and distributed passive filters. In the system, each individual passive filter is connected to a distortion source and designed to eliminate main harmonics and supply reactive power for the distortion source, while...... are performed for a power system including the dispersed generation units connected into the system through power electronic converters and diode rectifier loads, which produce the distorted waveforms. The simulation results have demonstrated that good compensation effects can be achieved by using the combined...

  1. Evaluation of a Compact Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Shin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We realized a compact hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI system by integrating a portable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS device with an economical electroencephalography (EEG system. The NIRS array was located on the subjects’ forehead, covering the prefrontal area. The EEG electrodes were distributed over the frontal, motor/temporal, and parietal areas. The experimental paradigm involved a Stroop word-picture matching test in combination with mental arithmetic (MA and baseline (BL tasks, in which the subjects were asked to perform either MA or BL in response to congruent or incongruent conditions, respectively. We compared the classification accuracies of each of the modalities (NIRS or EEG with that of the hybrid system. We showed that the hybrid system outperforms the unimodal EEG and NIRS systems by 6.2% and 2.5%, respectively. Since the proposed hybrid system is based on portable platforms, it is not confined to a laboratory environment and has the potential to be used in real-life situations, such as in neurorehabilitation.

  2. Design of a Road Friendly SAS System for Heavy-Duty Vehicles Based on a Fuzzy-Hybrid-ADD and GH-Control Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhao; Pak Kin Wong; Zhengchao Xie; Xinbo Ma; Caiyang Wei

    2016-01-01

    Semiactive suspension (SAS) system has been widely used for its outstanding performance in offering competent ride quality, road holding, and handling capacity. However, the road friendliness is also one of the crucial factors that should be attached in the design of the SAS system for heavy-duty vehicles. In this study, a fuzzy controlled hybrid-acceleration driven damper (ADD) and ground hook- (GH-) control strategy is proposed for SAS system of heavy-duty vehicles. Firstly, a quarter-vehic...

  3. A Transient Fault Recognition Method for an AC-DC Hybrid Transmission System Based on MMC Information Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikai Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, the research is still in the primary stage in the process of fault disturbance energy transfer in the multilevel modular converter based high voltage direct current (HVDC-MMC. An urgent problem is how to extract and analyze the fault features hidden in MMC electrical information in further studies on the HVDC system. Aiming at the above, this article analyzes the influence of AC transient disturbance on electrical signals of MMC. At the same time, it is found that the energy distribution of electrical signals in MMC is different for different arms in the same frequency bands after the discrete wavelet packet transformation (DWPT. Renyi wavelet packet energy entropy (RWPEE and Renyi wavelet packet time entropy (RWPTE are proposed and applied to AC transient fault feature extraction from electrical signals in MMC. Using the feature extraction results of Renyi wavelet packet entropy (RWPE, a novel recognition method is put forward to recognize AC transient faults using the information fusion technology. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed method is available to recognize transient AC faults.

  4. Hybrid ventilation systems and high performance buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utzinger, D.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). School of Architecture and Urban Planning

    2009-07-01

    This paper described hybrid ventilation design strategies and their impact on 3 high performance buildings located in southern Wisconsin. The Hybrid ventilation systems combined occupant controlled natural ventilation with mechanical ventilation systems. Natural ventilation was shown to provide adequate ventilation when appropriately designed. Proper control integration of natural ventilation into hybrid systems was shown to reduce energy consumption in high performance buildings. This paper also described the lessons learned from the 3 buildings. The author served as energy consultant on all three projects and had the responsibility of designing and integrating the natural ventilation systems into the HVAC control strategy. A post occupancy evaluation of building energy performance has provided learning material for architecture students. The 3 buildings included the Schlitz Audubon Nature Center completed in 2003; the Urban Ecology Center completed in 2004; and the Aldo Leopold Legacy Center completed in 2007. This paper included the size, measured energy utilization intensity and percentage of energy supplied by renewable solar power and bio-fuels on site for each building. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. A hybrid stepping motor system with dual CPU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晗璎; 赵克; 孙力

    2004-01-01

    An indirect method of measuring the rotor position based on the magnetic reluctance variation is presented in the paper. A single-chip microprocessor 80C196KC is utilized to compensate the phase shift produeed by the process of position signals. At the same time, a DSP (Data Signal Processor) unit is used to realize the speed and current closed-loops of the hybrid stepping motor system. At last, experimental results show the control system has excellent static and dynamic characteristics.

  6. Model-Based Fault Tolerant Control for Hybrid Dynamic Systems with Sensor Faults%一类带有传染器故障的混合系统的容错控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨浩; 冒泽慧; 姜斌

    2006-01-01

    A model-based fault tolerant control approach for hybrid linear dynamic systems is proposed in this paper. The proposed method, taking advantage of reliable control, can maintain the performance of the faulty system during the time delay of fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) and fault accommodation (FA), which can be regarded as the first line of defence against sensor faults.Simulation results of a three-tank system with sensor fault are given to show the efficiency of the method.

  7. Design of hybrid damping controller based on multi-target gravitational search optimization algorithm in a multi-machine power system with high penetration of PV park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y Hashemi; H Shayeghi; M Moradzadeh; ASafari

    2016-01-01

    A mathematical approach was proposed to investigate the impact of high penetration of large-scale photovoltaic park (LPP) on small-signal stability of a power network and design of hybrid controller for these units. A systematic procedure was performed to obtain the complete model of a multi-machine power network including LPP. For damping of oscillations focusing on inter-area oscillatory modes, a hybrid controller for LPP was proposed. The performance of the suggested controller was tested using a 16-machine 5-area network. The results indicate that the proposed hybrid controller for LPP provides sufficient damping to the low-frequency modes of power system for a wide range of operating conditions. The method presented in this work effectively indentifies the impact of increased PV penetration and its controller on dynamic performance of multi-machine power network containing LPP. Simulation results demonstrate that the model presented can be used in designing of essential controllers for LPP.

  8. Future hybrid systems: solar and hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Broussard, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)]|[NREL MURA Intern from Southern Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Future solar and hydrogen hybrid systems are discussed in terms of the evolving hydrogen economy. The focus is on distributed hydrogen, relying on the same distributed-energy strengths of solar-photovoltaic electricity in the built environment. Solar-hydrogen residences, as well as solar parks, are presented. Landarea issues are evaluated, and the economics and potential of these approaches are examined in terms of roadmap predictions on PV and hydrogen pathways. (orig.)

  9. Hybrid ventilation systems. Principles, design and calculation, case studies. Final report; Hybride Lueftungssysteme. Prinzipien, Planung und Berechnung, Beispiele. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, R.; Roloff, J. [and others

    2003-09-01

    This report contains the most important information achieved within the IEA-ECBCS project Annex 35 of the national and international level. The first chapters are a translation of the main parts of the international final report 'Principles of Hybrid Ventilation' (ed. Per Heiselberg). The international report including a CD-ROM is enclosed in this report. Based on a definition of hybrid ventilation it is motivated why to deal with hybrid ventilation. The explanations are underlined by precise data of the investigated case studies. The variety of solutions with hybrid ventilation is large, but there are three main principles, natural and mechanical ventilation, fan-assisted natural ventilation, stack- and wind-assisted mechanical ventilation. A hybrid ventilation systems is most suitable to implement if this idea is taken into account in the early design phases. Therefore decision tools are compiled to make it clear whether a hybrid ventilation concept could be successful under the given conditions or not. Moreover, important aspects of control strategies are summarized, which are crucial for an optimal operation of a hybrid ventilation system. If there is an option for installing a hybrid ventilation system it is necessary to carry out calculations and evaluations during the design phases. The available tools are presented and classified. Beside the substantial data of the case studies of the international project partners the national studies are presented in detail. These are the investigation of an existing hybrid ventilation system in the school building 'Bertolt-Brecht-Gymnasium', Dresden and the development of an innovative hybrid ventilation system at the Fraunhofer-Institute of Building Physics in Holzkirchen. (orig.)

  10. Intelligent Hybrid Cluster Based Classification Algorithm for Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Muthurajkumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an hybrid clustering based classification algorithm based on mean approach to effectively classify to mine the ordered sequences (paths from weblog data in order to perform social network analysis. In the system proposed in this work for social pattern analysis, the sequences of human activities are typically analyzed by switching behaviors, which are likely to produce overlapping clusters. In this proposed system, a robust Modified Boosting algorithm is proposed to hybrid clustering based classification for clustering the data. This work is useful to provide connection between the aggregated features from the network data and traditional indices used in social network analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm improves the decision results from data clustering when combined with the proposed classification algorithm and hence it is proved that of provides better classification accuracy when tested with Weblog dataset. In addition, this algorithm improves the predictive performance especially for multiclass datasets which can increases the accuracy.

  11. Improving long-term operation of power sources in off-grid hybrid systems based on renewable energy, hydrogen and battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Pablo; Torreglosa, Juan P.; Fernández, Luis M.; Jurado, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents two novel hourly energy supervisory controls (ESC) for improving long-term operation of off-grid hybrid systems (HS) integrating renewable energy sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic solar panels), hydrogen system (fuel cell, hydrogen tank and electrolyzer) and battery. The first ESC tries to improve the power supplied by the HS and the power stored in the battery and/or in the hydrogen tank, whereas the second one tries to minimize the number of needed elements (batteries, fuel cells and electrolyzers) throughout the expected life of the HS (25 years). Moreover, in both ESC, the battery state-of-charge (SOC) and the hydrogen tank level are controlled and maintained between optimum operating margins. Finally, a comparative study between the controls is carried out by models of the commercially available components used in the HS under study in this work. These ESC are also compared with a third ESC, already published by the authors, and based on reducing the utilization costs of the energy storage devices. The comparative study proves the right performance of the ESC and their differences.

  12. Microfluidic Integration of a Cloth-Based Hybridization Array System (CHAS) for Rapid, Colorimetric Detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) Using an Articulated, Centrifugal Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Matthias; Clime, Liviu; Hoa, Xuyen D; Morton, Keith J; Hébert, Harold; Poncelet, Lucas; Mounier, Maxence; Deschênes, Mylène; Gauthier, Martine E; Huszczynski, George; Corneau, Nathalie; Blais, Burton W; Veres, Teodor

    2015-10-20

    We describe the translation of a cloth-based hybridization array system (CHAS), a colorimetric DNA detection method that is used by food inspection laboratories for colony screening of pathogenic agents, onto a microfluidic chip format. We also introduce an articulated centrifugal platform with a novel fluid manipulation concept based on changes in the orientation of the chip with respect to the centrifugal force field to time the passage of multiple components required for the process. The platform features two movable and motorized carriers that can be reoriented on demand between 0 and 360° during stage rotation. Articulation of the chip can be used to trigger on-the-fly fluid dispensing through independently addressable siphon structures or to relocate solutions against the centrifugal force field, making them newly accessible for downstream transfer. With the microfluidic CHAS, we achieved significant reduction in the size of the cloth substrate as well as the volume of reagents and wash solutions. Both the chip design and the operational protocol were optimized to perform the entire process in a reliable, fully automated fashion. A demonstration with PCR-amplified genomic DNA confirms on-chip detection and identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from colony isolates in a colorimetric multiplex assay using rfbO157, fliCH7, vt1, and vt2 genes.

  13. Analysis and design of permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing based on hybrid factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinji Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, hybrid factor is proposed for hybrid magnetic bearing. The hybrid factor is defined as the ratio of the force produced by the permanent magnet and the forces produced by the permanent magnet and current in hybrid magnetic bearing. It is deduced from a certain radial hybrid magnetic bearing using its important parameters such as the current stiffness and displacement stiffness at first and then the dynamic model of magnetically suspended rotor system is established. The relationship between structural parameters and control system parameters is analyzed based on the hybrid factor. Some influencing factors of hybrid factor in hybrid magnetic bearing, such as the size of the permanent magnet, length of air gap, and area of the stator poles, are analyzed in this article. It can be concluded that larger hybrid factor can be caused by the smaller power loss according to the definition of hybrid factor mentioned above. Meanwhile, the hybrid factor has a maximum value, which is related to control system parameters such as proportional factor expect for structural parameters. Finally, the design steps of parameters of hybrid magnetic bearing can be concluded.

  14. Improving an Hybrid Literary Book Recommendation System through Author Ranking

    CERN Document Server

    Vaz, Paula Cristina; Martins, Bruno; Calado, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Literary reading is an important activity for individuals and choosing to read a book can be a long time commitment, making book choice an important task for book lovers and public library users. In this paper we present an hybrid recommendation system to help readers decide which book to read next. We study book and author recommendation in an hybrid recommendation setting and test our approach in the LitRec data set. Our hybrid book recommendation approach purposed combines two item-based collaborative filtering algorithms to predict books and authors that the user will like. Author predictions are expanded in to a book list that is subsequently aggregated with the former list generated through the initial collaborative recommender. Finally, the resulting book list is used to yield the top-n book recommendations. By means of various experiments, we demonstrate that author recommendation can improve overall book recommendation.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION ON HYBRID TESTING SYSTEM BASED ON OPENFRESCO-LABVIEW-DSPACE%基于OpenFresco-LabVIEW-dSpace的混合试验系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许国山; 郝伟; 陈永盛; 吴斌; 欧进萍

    2013-01-01

    OpenFresco软件使很多通用有限元软件成功应用于混合实验中,大大提高了混合实验结果的精度.OpenFresco相当于接口软件,能够与多种实验控制相连建立混合实验系统.该文选用OpenSees做为有限元分析软件、LabVIEW作为实验控制目标、dSpace作为实验控制器建立了一套混合实验系统,并通过混合模拟和混合试验验证所建立混合试验系统的有效性和精度.研究结果表明:有限元软件OpenSees、接口程序OpenFresco、实验控制LabVIEW、控制器dSpace之间的通讯性能满足混合实验的要求,试验系统具有较好的稳定性和精度.%The newly developed OpenFresco software makes several finite element softwares available for hybrid tests, and has been introduced into hybrid testing system for the ability of accurately and economically analyzing the seismic performance of structures. By using the OpenFresco software, many experimental control objects are available for the hybrid systems. This paper proposes one hybrid testing system by using the finite element software OpenSees, interface software OpenFresco, experimental control Lab VIEW and controller dSpace, and validates the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed hybrid testing system numerically and experimentally. It is shown that the OpenSees, OpenFresco, Lab VIEW and dSpace can work well together to conduct hybrid tests, and the proposed hybrid testing system has excellent performance in terms of stability and accuracy.

  16. New, hybrid pectin-based biosorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakóbik-Kolon, Agata; Milewski, Andrzej K.; Karoń, Krzysztof; Bok-Badura, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this work hybrid pectin-based biosorbents with secondary polysaccharide additives (gellan, carob and xanthan gum, ratio to pectin 1:1, 1:1 and 1:3, respectively) were obtained at two temperatures. The presence of these additives in prepared beads was confirmed by Raman spectra. The SEM micrographs show better homogeneity of blends and grater differences between structures of beads with various additives obtained at higher temperature. The sorption capacity of our hybrid biosorbents as well as sole pectin sorbent is rather the same, and equals 0.85 and 0.70 mmol/g for lead and cadmium, respectively, in pH 4–6. PMID:27812233

  17. A Hybrid Architecture for Vision-Based Obstacle Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Serdar Güzel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new obstacle avoidance method using a single monocular vision camera as the only sensor which is called as Hybrid Architecture. This architecture integrates a high performance appearance-based obstacle detection method into an optical flow-based navigation system. The hybrid architecture was designed and implemented to run both methods simultaneously and is able to combine the results of each method using a novel arbitration mechanism. The proposed strategy successfully fused two different vision-based obstacle avoidance methods using this arbitration mechanism in order to permit a safer obstacle avoidance system. Accordingly, to establish the adequacy of the design of the obstacle avoidance system, a series of experiments were conducted. The results demonstrate the characteristics of the proposed architecture, and the results prove that its performance is somewhat better than the conventional optical flow-based architecture. Especially, the robot employing Hybrid Architecture avoids lateral obstacles in a more smooth and robust manner than when using the conventional optical flow-based technique.

  18. A general purpose characterization system for rooftop hybrid microconcentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Robert; Jones, Christopher; Thomsen, Elizabeth; Diez, Vicente Munoz; Harvey, J.; Everett, Vernie; Blakers, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    A versatile characterization system for hybrid thermal and photovoltaic solar receivers is presented and demonstrated. The characterization of the thermal loss and effective area of a novel hybrid receiver is presented.

  19. CPV hybrid system in ISFOC building, first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Pablo; Alamillo, César; Gil, Eduardo; de la Rubia, Óscar; Martínez, María; Rubio, Francisca; Cadavid, Andros; Navarro, José; Hillenbrand, Sascha; Ballesteros-Sánchez, Isabel; Castillo-Cagigal, Manuel; Masa-Bote, Daniel; Matallanas, Eduardo; Caamaño-Martín, Estefanía; Gutiérrez, Álvaro

    2012-10-01

    PV Off-Grid systems have demonstrated to be a good solution for the electrification of remote areas [1]. A hybrid system is one kind of these systems. The principal characteristic is that it uses PV as the main generator and has a backup power supply, like a diesel generator, for instance, that is used when the CPV generation is not enough to meet demand. To study the use of CPV in these systems, ISFOC has installed a demonstration hybrid system at its headquarters. This hybrid system uses CPV technology as main generator and the utility grid as the backup generator. A group of batteries have been mounted as well to store the remaining energy from the CPV generator when nedeed. The energy flows are managed by a SMA system based on Sunny Island inverters and a Multicluster-Box (figure 1). The Load is the air-conditioning system of the building, as it has a consumption profile higher than the CPV generator and can be controlled by software [2]. The first results of this system, as well as the first chances of improvement, as the need of a bigger CPV generator and a better management of the energy stored in the batteries, are presented in this paper.

  20. Quantum dot-dye hybrid systems for energy transfer applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ting

    2010-07-01

    In this thesis, we focus on the preparation of energy transfer-based quantum dot (QD)-dye hybrid systems. Two kinds of QD-dye hybrid systems have been successfully synthesized: QD-silica-dye and QD-dye hybrid systems. In the QD-silica-dye hybrid system, multishell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were adsorbed onto monodisperse Stoeber silica particles with an outer silica shell of thickness 2-24 nm containing organic dye molecules (Texas Red). The thickness of this dye layer has a strong effect on the total sensitized acceptor emission, which is explained by the increase in the number of dye molecules homogeneously distributed within the silica shell, in combination with an enhanced surface adsorption of QDs with increasing dye amount. Our conclusions were underlined by comparison of the experimental results with Monte-Carlo simulations, and by control experiments confirming attractive interactions between QDs and Texas Red freely dissolved in solution. New QD-dye hybrid system consisting of multishell QDs and organic perylene dyes have been synthesized. We developed a versatile approach to assemble extraordinarily stable QD-dye hybrids, which uses dicarboxylate anchors to bind rylene dyes to QD. This system yields a good basis to study the energy transfer between QD and dye because of its simple and compact design: there is no third kind of molecule linking QD and dye; no spacer; and the affinity of the functional group to the QD surface is strong. The FRET signal was measured for these complexes as a function of both dye to QD ratio and center-to-center distance between QD and dye by controlling number of covered ZnS layers. Data showed that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was the dominant mechanism of the energy transfer in our QD-dye hybrid system. FRET efficiency can be controlled by not only adjusting the number of dyes on the QD surface or the QD to dye distance, but also properly choosing different dye and QD components. Due to the strong stability, our QD

  1. Differential dynamic logics - automated theorem proving for hybrid systems

    OpenAIRE

    Platzer, André

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid systems are models for complex physical systems and are defined as dynamical systems with interacting discrete transitions and continuous evolutions along differential equations. With the goal of developing a theoretical and practical foundation for deductive verification of hybrid systems, we introduce differential dynamic logic as a new logic with which correctness properties of hybrid systems with parameterized system dynamics can be specified and verified naturally. As a verificati...

  2. 基于PLC的风电混合动力系统%Hybrid Power System about Wind and Electricity Based on PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文江; 黄冠; 刘南; 安柏峰

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problem about the utilization of wind resources in industrial production in the past was insufficiently, we designed the wind hybrid systems based on PLC, and it opened up a new space of the development of the wind power. Based on wind turbine, the system drive the air compressor with the supplement of electric motors, storing the compressed air to air storage tank, which has an inner drive served as the cylinder of the executing agency and operating steadily as demanding, to realize the energy savings finally. PLC is the core, machinery is base, pneumatic system output energy in this system, and typical test results obtained through the system test. There are lots of advantages in this system, such as good safety, lower cost, easy to maintain, no noise and pollution. It can be popularized widely, and it also adapt to the demand of energy conservation and emission reduction, what's more, it has a good market prospect.%针对以往工业生产中对风力资源利用的不足,设计了基于PLC控制的风电混合动力系统,开辟了风能发展的新空间.系统以风力机为主、电动机为辅带动空压机,并将空压机产生的压缩气体存储在储气罐内,再由储气罐内的气体驱动作为执行机构的气缸按要求稳定的工作,以达到节约能源的目的.系统以PLC为控制核心,机械部分为基础,气动系统对外输出能量,通过系统测试得到典型结果.具有安全性好,运行成本低,维护容易,无噪音污染等明显优点,可以广泛普及推广,适应节能减排的需求,大有市场前景.

  3. Hybrid systems, optimal control and hybrid vehicles theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhme, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    This book assembles new methods showing the automotive engineer for the first time how hybrid vehicle configurations can be modeled as systems with discrete and continuous controls. These hybrid systems describe naturally and compactly the networks of embedded systems which use elements such as integrators, hysteresis, state-machines and logical rules to describe the evolution of continuous and discrete dynamics and arise inevitably when modeling hybrid electric vehicles. They can throw light on systems which may otherwise be too complex or recondite. Hybrid Systems, Optimal Control and Hybrid Vehicles shows the reader how to formulate and solve control problems which satisfy multiple objectives which may be arbitrary and complex with contradictory influences on fuel consumption, emissions and drivability. The text introduces industrial engineers, postgraduates and researchers to the theory of hybrid optimal control problems. A series of novel algorithmic developments provides tools for solving engineering pr...

  4. Hybrid control of the distributed refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, L.; Wisniewski, R.

    2010-01-01

    The supermarket refrigeration system typically has a distributed control structure, which neglects interactions between its subsystems. These interactions from time to time lead to a synchronization operation of the display-cases which causes an inferior control performance and increased energy...... Lyapunov exponent and a de-synchronization controller by chaotifying the system using the time-delayed impulsive method, essentially a kind of hybrid control. © 2010 IEEE....... consumption. The paper focuses on synchronization dynamics of the refrigeration system modeled as a piecewise-affine switched system. System behaviors are analyzed using chaos theory. The synchronization phenomenon is interpreted as a stable low-period orbit; if the system has a high-order periodic orbit...

  5. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  6. A Dynamical Simulation Facility for Hybrid Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Back, A; Myers, M; Back, Allen; Guckenheimer, John; Myers, Mark

    1993-01-01

    Abstract: This paper establishes a general framework for describing hybrid dynamical systems which is particularly suitable for numerical simulation. In this context, the data structures used to describe the sets and functions which comprise the dynamical system are crucial since they provide the link between a natural mathematical formulation of a problem and the correct application of standard numerical algorithms. We describe a partial implementation of the design methodology and use this simulation tool for a specific control problem in robotics as an illustration of the utility of the approach for practical applications.

  7. Design of a Road Friendly SAS System for Heavy-Duty Vehicles Based on a Fuzzy-Hybrid-ADD and GH-Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Semiactive suspension (SAS system has been widely used for its outstanding performance in offering competent ride quality, road holding, and handling capacity. However, the road friendliness is also one of the crucial factors that should be attached in the design of the SAS system for heavy-duty vehicles. In this study, a fuzzy controlled hybrid-acceleration driven damper (ADD and ground hook- (GH- control strategy is proposed for SAS system of heavy-duty vehicles. Firstly, a quarter-vehicle model with SAS system is constructed. Then, aiming to improve the ride quality and road friendliness, a hybrid-ADD and GH-control strategy is proposed under the coordination of the fuzzy controller. Numerical results show that the ride quality and road friendliness of the SAS system with the proposed control strategy outperform those with traditional hybrid-sky hook and ground hook-control strategy. It is also verified that the proposed strategy is superior to the sole ADD approach and sole ground hook approach in improving the vehicle overall performance.

  8. Breaking Dense Structures: Proving Stability of Densely Structured Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Möhlmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstraction and refinement is widely used in software development. Such techniques are valuable since they allow to handle even more complex systems. One key point is the ability to decompose a large system into subsystems, analyze those subsystems and deduce properties of the larger system. As cyber-physical systems tend to become more and more complex, such techniques become more appealing. In 2009, Oehlerking and Theel presented a (de-composition technique for hybrid systems. This technique is graph-based and constructs a Lyapunov function for hybrid systems having a complex discrete state space. The technique consists of (1 decomposing the underlying graph of the hybrid system into subgraphs, (2 computing multiple local Lyapunov functions for the subgraphs, and finally (3 composing the local Lyapunov functions into a piecewise Lyapunov function. A Lyapunov function can serve multiple purposes, e.g., it certifies stability or termination of a system or allows to construct invariant sets, which in turn may be used to certify safety and security. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the decomposing technique, which relaxes the graph structure before applying the decomposition technique. Our relaxation significantly reduces the connectivity of the graph by exploiting super-dense switching. The relaxation makes the decomposition technique more efficient on one hand and on the other allows to decompose a wider range of graph structures.

  9. Spatial Self-Organization of Vegetation Subject to Climatic Stress-Insights from a System Dynamics-Individual-Based Hybrid Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenot, Christian E; Carteni, Fabrizio; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Rietkerk, Max; Giannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In simulation models of populations or communities, individual plants have often been obfuscated in favor of aggregated vegetation. This simplification comes with a loss of biological detail and a smoothing out of the demographic noise engendered by stochastic individual-scale processes and heterogeneities, which is significant among others when studying the viability of small populations facing challenging fluctuating environmental conditions. This consideration has motivated the development of precise plant-centered models. The accuracy gained in the representation of plant biology has then, however, often been balanced by the disappearance in models of important plant-soil interactions (esp. water dynamics) due to the inability of most individual-based frameworks to simulate complex continuous processes. In this study, we used a hybrid modeling approach, namely integrated System Dynamics (SD)-Individual-based (IB), to illustrate the importance of individual plant dynamics to explain spatial self-organization of vegetation in arid environments. We analyzed the behavior of this model under different parameter sets either related to individual plant properties (such as seed dispersal distance and reproductive age) or the environment (such as intensity and yearly distribution of precipitation events). While the results of this work confirmed the prevailing theory on vegetation patterning, they also revealed the importance therein of plant-level processes that cannot be rendered by reaction-diffusion models. Initial spatial distribution of plants, reproductive age, and average seed dispersal distance, by impacting patch size and vegetation aggregation, affected pattern formation and population survival under climatic variations. Besides, changes in precipitation regime altered the demographic structure and spatial organization of vegetation patches by affecting plants differentially depending on their age and biomass. Water availability influenced non-linearly total

  10. Spatial Self-Organization of Vegetation Subject to Climatic Stress—Insights from a System Dynamics—Individual-Based Hybrid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenot, Christian E.; Carteni, Fabrizio; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Rietkerk, Max; Giannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In simulation models of populations or communities, individual plants have often been obfuscated in favor of aggregated vegetation. This simplification comes with a loss of biological detail and a smoothing out of the demographic noise engendered by stochastic individual-scale processes and heterogeneities, which is significant among others when studying the viability of small populations facing challenging fluctuating environmental conditions. This consideration has motivated the development of precise plant-centered models. The accuracy gained in the representation of plant biology has then, however, often been balanced by the disappearance in models of important plant-soil interactions (esp. water dynamics) due to the inability of most individual-based frameworks to simulate complex continuous processes. In this study, we used a hybrid modeling approach, namely integrated System Dynamics (SD)—Individual-based (IB), to illustrate the importance of individual plant dynamics to explain spatial self-organization of vegetation in arid environments. We analyzed the behavior of this model under different parameter sets either related to individual plant properties (such as seed dispersal distance and reproductive age) or the environment (such as intensity and yearly distribution of precipitation events). While the results of this work confirmed the prevailing theory on vegetation patterning, they also revealed the importance therein of plant-level processes that cannot be rendered by reaction-diffusion models. Initial spatial distribution of plants, reproductive age, and average seed dispersal distance, by impacting patch size and vegetation aggregation, affected pattern formation and population survival under climatic variations. Besides, changes in precipitation regime altered the demographic structure and spatial organization of vegetation patches by affecting plants differentially depending on their age and biomass. Water availability influenced non

  11. An Energy-Based Thermodynamic Stabilization Framework for Hybrid Control Design of Large-Scale Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-27

    parallelism makes it possible to effectively update a neural network on line. These properties make neural networks a viable paradigm for adaptive...Irreversibility, and the Entropic Arrow of Time: From Mechanics to System Thermodynamics," Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications, vol. 9, pp. 250-271, 2008

  12. 基于AMT并联混合动力系统的CAN通信设计%The CAN communication design based on AMT parallel hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋超; 席力克; 罗锐; 谢勇波; 朱田; 文健峰; 王文明

    2015-01-01

    针对 AMT 并联混合动力系统部件组成与通信性能要求,提出了一种双总线 CAN 拓扑结构的实时性通信解决方案。该方案构建了基于 AMT 控制器“路由”转发的消息系统,设计了符合TTCAN 协议内容的消息时间触发机制,能够满足换档过程整车控制器、AMT 控制器、电机控制器、发动机 ECU 之间数据通信的高实时性要求,实现整车控制器与 AMT 控制器命令的无缝集成,建立持续可靠的通信连接。%For AMT parallel hybrid system components and communication performance, a real-time communication solution based on two CAN bus topology structure is proposed. In this solution, the message system based on TCU is constructed, and the message time trigger mechanism which meets the TTCAN protocol content is designed. Finally, the data communication high real-time requirement among VCU, TCU, MCU and ECU is satisfied. The control command integration between VCU and TCU is achieved, and the reliable communication is established.

  13. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and systems for hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI)

    2010-10-12

    A control system for controlling regeneration of a particulate filter for a hybrid vehicle is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration. An engine control module controls operation of an engine of the hybrid vehicle based on the control of the current to the particulate filter.

  14. Hybrid-Based Dense Stereo Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T. Y.; Ting, H. W.; Jaw, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Stereo matching generating accurate and dense disparity maps is an indispensable technique for 3D exploitation of imagery in the fields of Computer vision and Photogrammetry. Although numerous solutions and advances have been proposed in the literature, occlusions, disparity discontinuities, sparse texture, image distortion, and illumination changes still lead to problematic issues and await better treatment. In this paper, a hybrid-based method based on semi-global matching is presented to tackle the challenges on dense stereo matching. To ease the sensitiveness of SGM cost aggregation towards penalty parameters, a formal way to provide proper penalty estimates is proposed. To this end, the study manipulates a shape-adaptive cross-based matching with an edge constraint to generate an initial disparity map for penalty estimation. Image edges, indicating the potential locations of occlusions as well as disparity discontinuities, are approved by the edge drawing algorithm to ensure the local support regions not to cover significant disparity changes. Besides, an additional penalty parameter 𝑃𝑒 is imposed onto the energy function of SGM cost aggregation to specifically handle edge pixels. Furthermore, the final disparities of edge pixels are found by weighting both values derived from the SGM cost aggregation and the U-SURF matching, providing more reliable estimates at disparity discontinuity areas. Evaluations on Middlebury stereo benchmarks demonstrate satisfactory performance and reveal the potency of the hybrid-based dense stereo matching method.

  15. Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.

  16. Modelling supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.; Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Jannerup, O. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Automation, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Supervisory controllers are important to achieve optimal operation of hybrid power systems. The performance and economics of such systems depend mainly on the control strategy for switching on/off components. The modular concept described in this paper is an attempt to design standard supervisory controllers that could be used in different applications, such as village power and telecommunication applications. This paper presents some basic aspects of modelling and design of modular supervisory controllers using the object-oriented modelling technique. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is generic and flexible enough to be used with any system configuration and several goals (different applications). The modularity includes accepting modification of system configuration and goals during operation with minor or no changes in the supervisory controller. (au)

  17. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  18. Optimal Real-Time Scheduling for Hybrid Energy Storage Systems and Wind Farms Based on Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xiong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage devices are expected to be more frequently implemented in wind farms in near future. In this paper, both pumped hydro and fly wheel storage systems are used to assist a wind farm to smooth the power fluctuations. Due to the significant difference in the response speeds of the two storages types, the wind farm coordination with two types of energy storage is a problem. This paper presents two methods for the coordination problem: a two-level hierarchical model predictive control (MPC method and a single-level MPC method. In the single-level MPC method, only one MPC controller coordinates the wind farm and the two storage systems to follow the grid scheduling. Alternatively, in the two-level MPC method, two MPC controllers are used to coordinate the wind farm and the two storage systems. The structure of two level MPC consists of outer level and inner level MPC. They run alternatively to perform real-time scheduling and then stop, thus obtaining long-term scheduling results and sending some results to the inner level as input. The single-level MPC method performs both long- and short-term scheduling tasks in each interval. The simulation results show that the methods proposed can improve the utilization of wind power and reduce wind power spillage. In addition, the single-level MPC and the two-level MPC are not interchangeable. The single-level MPC has the advantage of following the grid schedule while the two-level MPC can reduce the optimization time by 60%.

  19. Bimode uninterruptible power supply compatibility in renewable hybrid energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); O' Sullivan, G. (Abacus Controls, Inc., Somerville, NJ (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Inverters installed in renewable hybrid energy systems are typically used in a stand-alone mode to supply ac power to loads from battery storage when the engine-generator is not being used. Similarities in topology and in the performance requirements of the standby uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system and the hybrid system suggest the UPS could be used in hybrid energy systems. Another alternative to inverters with add-on charging circuits or standby UPS hardware is the Bimode UPS. The bimode UPS uses common circuitry and power components for dc to ac inversion and battery charging. It also provides an automatic and nearly instantaneous ac power transfer function when the engine-generator is started or stopped. The measured operating and transfer characteristics of a bimode UPS in a utility system and in a hybrid system are presented. The applicability of the bimode UPS to hybrid systems and its compatibility in a PV/engine-generator hybrid system are given.

  20. Controllability in hybrid kinetic equations modeling nonequilibrium multicellular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the derivation of hybrid kinetic partial integrodifferential equations that can be proposed for the mathematical modeling of multicellular systems subjected to external force fields and characterized by nonconservative interactions. In order to prevent an uncontrolled time evolution of the moments of the solution, a control operator is introduced which is based on the Gaussian thermostat. Specifically, the analysis shows that the moments are solution of a Riccati-type differential equation.

  1. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems Regional Studies: West Texas & Northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong Suk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vilim, Richard B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [[NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases not generic examples based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  2. A Real-Time Early Cognitive Vision System based on a Hybrid coarse and fine grained Parallel Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With

    such as recognition, reasoning and planning.The ECV stage is a hierarchical architecture that makes use of an early-local-symbolic representation to sparsify and increase the semantic richness of the information from EV. Before this project, the EV and ECV stages of our software were processed on a single core CPU....... The current top model GPUs from NVIDIA possess up to 240 homogeneous cores. In the past, GPUs have beenhard to program, forcing the programmer to map the algorithm to the graphics processing pipeline and think in terms of vertex and fragment shaders, imposing a limiting factor in the implementation of non...... applications using this platform are presented. These applications include the EU-project DRIVSCO, where we have used parts of the vision machine to establish a prototype of a driver assistance system. In another EU-project, called PACO-PLUS, the vision machine is used to process the sensorial input...

  3. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabio V.; Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Reis, Luisa Fernanda R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, EESC/USP, Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento., Avenida do Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator - CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator - HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  4. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio V. Goncalves, Helena M. Ramos, Luisa Fernanda R. Reis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator – CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator – HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  5. Spontaneously Igniting Hybrid Fuel-Oxidiser Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Jain

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available After briefly outlining the recent developments in hybrid rockets, the work carried out by the author on self-igniting (hypergolic solid fuel-liquid oxidiser systems has been reviewed. A major aspect relates to the solid derivatives of hydrazines, which have been conceived as fuels for hybrid rockets. Many of these N-N bonded compounds ignite readily, with very short ignition delays, on coming into contact with liquid oxidisers, like HNO/sub 3/ and N/sub 2/ O/sub 4/. The ignition characteristics have been examined as a function of the nature of the functional group in the fuel molecule, in an attempt to establish a basis for the hypergolic ignition in terms of chemical reactivity of the fuel-oxidiser combination. Important chemical reactions occurring in the pre-ignition stage have been identified by examining the quenched reaction products. Hybrid systems exhibiting synergistic hypergolicity in the presence of metal powders have investigated. An estimation of the rocket performance parameters, experimental determination of the heats of combustion in HNO/sub 3/, thermal decomposition characteristics, temperature profile by thin film thermometry and product identification by the rapid scan FT-IR, are among the other relevant studies made on these systems. A significant recent development has been the synthesis of new N-N bonded viscous binders, capable of rataining the hypergolicity of the fuel powders embedded therein as well as providing the required mechanical strength to the grain. Several of these resins have been characterised. Metallised fuel composites of these resins having high loading of magnesium are found to have short ignition delays and high performance parameters.

  6. Hybrid quantum systems of atoms and ions

    CERN Document Server

    Zipkes, Christoph; Palzer, Stefan; Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, ultracold atoms have emerged as an exceptionally controllable experimental system to investigate fundamental physics, ranging from quantum information science to simulations of condensed matter models. Here we go one step further and explore how cold atoms can be combined with other quantum systems to create new quantum hybrids with tailored properties. Coupling atomic quantum many-body states to an independently controllable single-particle gives access to a wealth of novel physics and to completely new detection and manipulation techniques. We report on recent experiments in which we have for the first time deterministically placed a single ion into an atomic Bose Einstein condensate. A trapped ion, which currently constitutes the most pristine single particle quantum system, can be observed and manipulated at the single particle level. In this single-particle/many-body composite quantum system we show sympathetic cooling of the ion and observe chemical reactions of single particles in situ...

  7. Concepts leading to the IMAGE-100 hybrid interactive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, T. F.; Sulester, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    As LACIE Procedure 1 evolved from the Classification and Mensuration Subsystem smallfields procedures, it became evident that two computational systems would have merit-the LACIE/Earth Resources Interactive Processing System based on a large IBM-360 computer oriented for operational use with high computational throughput, and a smaller, highly interactive system based on a PDP 11-45 minicomputer and its display system, the IMAGE-100. The latter had advantages for certain phases; notably, interactive spectral aids could be implemented quite rapidly. This would allow testing and development of Procedure 1 before its implementation on the LACIE/Earth Resources Interactive Processing System. The resulting minicomputer system, called the Classification and Mensuration Subsystem IMAGE-100 Hybrid System, allowed Procedure-1 operations to be performed interactively, except for clustering, classification, and automatic selection of best acquisitions, which were offloaded to the LACIE/Earth Resources Interactive Processing System.

  8. THE USE OF GENETIC ALGORITHM IN DIMENSIONING HYBRID AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUS T.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the working principle of genetic algorithms used to dimension autonomous hybrid systems. It is presented a study case in which is dimensioned and optimized an autonomous hybrid system for a residential house located in Cluj-Napoca. After the autonomous hybrid system optimization is performed, it is achieved a reduction of the total cost of system investment, a reduction of energy produced in excess and a reduction of CO2 emissions.

  9. Intelligence Course Scheduling System Based on Hybrid Algorithm%基于混合算法的智能排课系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵耀锋

    2011-01-01

    传统采用单一排课算法设计的排课系统,编排出的课程表总是与期望结果相差太大.为了使课表编排结果能满足教学要求,在此对排课约束条件进行了详细分析,采用基于遗传算法和贪婪算法的混合算法进行排课系统设计,将排课分为时间安排和地点安排2部分进行,时间安排采用遗传算法设计,地点安排采用贪婪算法设计,时间安排和地点安排过程可以人工干预,编排的课程表基本符合教务管理需求.混合算法设计的智能排课系统编排的课程表更加科学化、合理化和人性化.%The school timetable generated by the traditional course scheduling system designed with the single course scheduling algorithm is far from the expeetation. In order to make the result of course scheduling satisfy the teaching requirements, the constraint condition of course scheduling is analyzed. The hybrid algorithm based on the genetic algorithms and greedy algorithm is adopted to design the course scheduling system. The caurse scheduling is divided into time arrangement and classroom arrangement. The former is designed with genetic algorithms and the later with greedy algorithm. The process of both arrangements can be intervened manually. The school timetable designed in this way can basically meet the requirements of teaching management, and is more scientific, rational and humanized.

  10. Renewable Electricity Generation via Solar-Powered Methanol Reforming: Hybrid Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems Based on Novel Non-Concentrating, Intermediate-Temperature Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Daniel J.

    Tremendous research efforts have been conducted studying the capturing and conversion of solar energy. Solar thermal power systems offer a compelling opportunity for renewable energy utilization with high efficiencies and excellent cost-effectiveness. The goal of this work was to design a non-concentrating collector capable of reaching temperatures above 250 °C, use this collector to power methanol steam reforming, and operate a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell using the generated hydrogen. The study presents the construction and characterization of a non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature, fin-in-tube evacuated solar collector, made of copper and capable of reaching stagnation temperatures of 268.5 °C at 1000 W/m2 irradiance. The collector was used to power methanol steam reforming, including the initial heating and vaporization of liquid reactants and the final heating of the gaseous reactants. A preferential oxidation (PROX) catalyst was used to remove CO from simulated reformate gas, and this product gas was used to operate a PEM fuel cell. The results show 1) that the outlet temperature is not limited by heat transfer from the absorber coating to the heat transfer fluid, but by the amount of solar energy absorbed. This implicates a constant heat flux description of the heat transfer process and allows for the usage of materials with lower thermal conductivity than copper. 2) It is possible to operate a PEM fuel cell from reformate gas if a PROX catalyst is used to remove CO from the gas. 3) The performance of the fuel cell is only slightly decreased (~4%) by CO2 dilution present in the reformate and PROX gas. These results provide a foundation for the first renewable electricity generation via solar-powered methanol reforming through a hybrid PEM fuel cell system based on novel non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature solar collectors.

  11. A comparison of high-speed flywheels, batteries, and ultracapacitors on the bases of cost and fuel economy as the energy storage system in a fuel cell based hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Reed T.; McCulloch, Malcolm D.

    Fuel cells aboard hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are often hybridized with an energy storage system (ESS). Batteries and ultracapacitors are the most common technologies used in ESSs aboard HEVs. High-speed flywheels are an emerging technology with traits that have the potential to make them competitive with more established battery and ultracapacitor technologies in certain vehicular applications. This study compares high-speed flywheels, ultracapacitors, and batteries functioning as the ESS in a fuel cell based HEV on the bases of cost and fuel economy. In this study, computer models were built to simulate the powertrain of a fuel cell based HEV where high-speed flywheels, batteries, and ultracapacitors of a range of sizes were used as the ESS. A simulated vehicle with a powertrain using each of these technologies was run over two different drive cycles in order to see how the different ESSs performed under different driving patterns. The results showed that when cost and fuel economy were both considered, high-speed flywheels were competitive with batteries and ultracapacitors.

  12. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen He

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UDDS (Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. The simulation results showed that the hybrid power system could greatly optimize and improve the efficiency of the batteries and their dynamic current was also decreased due to the participation of the ultracapacitors, which would have a good influence on batteries’ cycle life. Finally, the parameter matching for the passive hybrid power system was studied by simulation and comparisons.

  13. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  14. Nanodevices based on Membrane-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hye Jun; Kim, Tae Hyun; Namgung, Seon; Hong, Seunghun; Lee, Sang Hun; Park, Tai Hyun

    2010-03-01

    Proteins in cell membrane have been drawing attention due to their versatile functionalities such as ion transfer for neuronal activity and selective binding for sensory systems. However, it is still very difficult to manipulate and study those proteins because they easily lose their functionalities without lipid membranes. We developed a method to coat lipid membranes containing various functional membrane proteins on single-walled carbon nanotube (swCNT)-based field effect transistors (FETs). In this hybrid structure, the activity of membrane proteins can be monitored by underlying swCNT-FETs, allowing us to easily study the functionalities of membrane proteins. Furthermore, we built advanced devices based on these hybrid structures. For an example, we coated lipid membrane containing `olfactory receptors' on swCNT-FETs, resulting in `bioelectric nose' systems. The bioelectric nose system had high sensitivity and human nose-like selectivity to odorant molecules. This talk will also discuss about the future prospect of these membrane-CNT hybrid structures.

  15. Hybrid Projective Synchronization for Two Identical Fractional-Order Chaotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid projective synchronization scheme for two identical fractional-order chaotic systems is proposed in this paper. Based on the stability theory of fractional-order systems, a controller for the synchronization of two identical fractional-order chaotic systems is designed. This synchronization scheme needs not to absorb all the nonlinear terms of response system. Hybrid projective synchronization for the fractional-order Chen chaotic system and hybrid projective synchronization for the fractional-order hyperchaotic Lu system are used to demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  16. Intelligent Control Scheme of Engineering Machinery of Cluster Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qiang; WANG Hongli

    2005-01-01

    In a hybrid system, the subsystems with discrete dynamics play a central role in a hybrid system. In the course of engineering machinery of cluster construction, the discrete control law is hard to obtain because the construction environment is complex and there exist many affecting factors. In this paper, hierarchically intelligent control, expert control and fuzzy control are introduced into the discrete subsystems of engineering machinery of cluster hybrid system, so as to rebuild the hybrid system and make the discrete control law easily and effectively obtained. The structures, reasoning mechanism and arithmetic of intelligent control are replanted to discrete dynamic, conti-nuous process and the interface of the hybrid system. The structures of three types of intelligent hybrid system are presented and the human experiences summarized from engineering machinery of cluster are taken into account.

  17. Multicast Routing Based on Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yuan-da; CAI Gui

    2005-01-01

    A new multicast routing algorithm based on the hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) is proposed. The coding pattern based on the number of routing paths is used. A fitness function that is computed easily and makes algorithm quickly convergent is proposed. A new approach that defines the HGA's parameters is provided. The simulation shows that the approach can increase largely the convergent ratio, and the fitting values of the parameters of this algorithm are different from that of the original algorithms. The optimal mutation probability of HGA equals 0.50 in HGA in the experiment, but that equals 0.07 in SGA. It has been concluded that the population size has a significant influence on the HGA's convergent ratio when it's mutation probability is bigger. The algorithm with a small population size has a high average convergent rate. The population size has little influence on HGA with the lower mutation probability.

  18. Automation Comparison Procedure for Verification of Hybrid Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 999, Springer-Verlag, (1995). [2] Bowler, 0., Grotzky, J., Nielson, M., Nilson.S., and Van Buren, J...Remmel, J.B., "Feedback Derivations: Near Optimal Controls for Hybrid Systems", to appear in Hybrid Systems III, Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science . [6...Grossman, R.L., Nerode, A., Ravn, A. and Rischel, H. eds., Hybrid Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer

  19. Outage Performance of Hybrid FSO/RF System with Low-Complexity Power Adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2016-02-26

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO) / radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high data- rate wireless communication systems. We consider truncated channel inversion based power adaptation strategy for coherent and non- coherent hybrid FSO/RF systems, employing an adaptive combining scheme. Specifically, we activate the RF link along with the FSO link when FSO link quality is unacceptable, and adaptively set RF transmission power to ensure constant combined signal-to-noise ratio at receiver terminal. Analytical expressions for the outage probability of the hybrid system with and without power adaptation are derived. Numerical examples show that, the hybrid FSO/RF systems with power adaptation achieve considerable outage performance improvement over conventional hybrid FSO/RF systems without power adaptation. © 2015 IEEE.

  20. Preconditioning Schur Complement Systems of Highly-Indefinite Linear Systems for a Parallel Hybrid Solve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.Yamazaki; X.S.Li; E.G.Ng

    2010-01-01

    A parallel hybrid linear solver based on the Schur complement method has the potential to balance the robustness of direct solvers with the efficiency of precon-ditioned iterative solvers. However, when solving large-scale highly-indefinite linear systems, this hybrid solver often suffers from either slow convergence or large memory requirements to solve the Schur complement systems. To overcome this challenge, we in this paper discuss techniques to preprocess the Schur complement systems in paral-lel. Numerical results of solving large-scale highly-indefinite linear systems from various applications demonstrate that these techniques improve the reliability and performance of the hybrid solver and enable efficient solutions of these linear systems on hundreds of processors, which was previously infeasible using existing state-of-the-art solvers.

  1. A NEW HYBRID ALGORITHM FOR BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE RECOMMENDER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Prabhu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Business Intelligence is a set of methods, process and technologies that transform raw data into meaningful and useful information. Recommender system is one of business intelligence system that is used to obtain knowledge to the active user for better decision making. Recommender systems apply data mining techniques to the problem of making personalized recommendations for information. Due to the growth in the number of information and the users in recent years offers challenges in recommender systems. Collaborative, content, demographic and knowledge-based are four different types of recommendations systems. In this paper, a new hybrid algorithm is proposed for recommender system which combines knowledge based, profile of the users and most frequent item mining technique to obtain intelligence.

  2. DISPATCHING OF HYBRID WINDPHOTOVOLTAIC- MICROTURBINESSTORAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. BRINI SAOUSSEN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents model for Economic Environmental Dispatching (EED of Hybrid power system including wind and photovoltaic energies. The model combines the stochastic data of the climate such as the wind speed for wind energy, solar radiation and the temperature for photovoltaic energy. The penetration of wind andphotovoltaic powers into traditional network will cause some implications such as security concerns due to its unpredictable nature. The production systems of renewable energy are generally coupled with the network with energy storage devices and micro sources. In this paper, a bi-objective economic environmental dispatchproblem considering wind and photovoltaic penetration is formulated, which treats economic and environmental impacts as conflicting objectives. It applied multiobjective optimization by approach SPEA to solve (EED problem.

  3. Infectious disease modeling a hybrid system approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xinzhi

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents infectious diseases modeled mathematically, taking seasonality and changes in population behavior into account, using a switched and hybrid systems framework. The scope of coverage includes background on mathematical epidemiology, including classical formulations and results; a motivation for seasonal effects and changes in population behavior, an investigation into term-time forced epidemic models with switching parameters, and a detailed account of several different control strategies. The main goal is to study these models theoretically and to establish conditions under which eradication or persistence of the disease is guaranteed. In doing so, the long-term behavior of the models is determined through mathematical techniques from switched systems theory. Numerical simulations are also given to augment and illustrate the theoretical results and to help study the efficacy of the control schemes.

  4. A novel energy recovery system for parallel hybrid hydraulic excavator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Cao, Baoyu; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the proposed energy recovery system is calculated based on the mathematical models. Meanwhile, the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built by AMESim software. The results show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional energy saving system. At last, the main components of the proposed energy recovery system including accumulator and hydraulic motor are analyzed for improving the energy recovery efficiency. The measures to improve the energy recovery efficiency of the proposed system are presented.

  5. Power quality analysis of hybrid renewable energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinchin W. Mosobi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An hybrid renewable energy sources consisting of solar photovoltaic, wind energy system, and a microhydro system is proposed in this paper. This system is suitable for supplying electricity to isolated locations or remote villages far from the grid supply. The solar photovoltaic system is modeled with two power converters, the first one being a DC-DC converter along with an maximum power point tracking to achieve a regulated DC output voltage and the second one being a DC-AC converter to obtain AC output. The wind energy system is modeled with a wind-turbine prime mover with varying wind speed and fixed pitch angle to drive an self excited induction generator (SEIG. Owing to inherent drooping characteristics of the SEIG, a closed loop turbine input system is incorporated. The microhydro system is modeled with a constant input power to drive an SEIG. The three different sources are integrated through an AC bus and the proposed hybrid system is supplied to R, R-L, and induction motor loads. A static compensator is proposed to improve the load voltage and current profiles; it also mitigates the harmonic contents of the voltage and current. The static synchronous compensator is realized by means of a three-phase IGBT-based current-controlled voltage source inverter with a self-supporting DC bus. The complete system is modeled and simulated using Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results obtained illustrate the feasibility of the proposed system and are found to be satisfactory.

  6. Development of Traction Drive Motors for the Toyota Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Munehiro

    Toyota Motor Corporation developed in 2005 a new hybrid system for a large SUV. This system included the new development of a high-speed traction drive motor achieving a significant increase in power weight ratio. This paper provides an overview of the hybrid system, discusses the characteristics required of a traction drive motor, and presents the technologies employed in the developed motor.

  7. Brake Performance Analysis of ABS for Eddy Current and Electrohydraulic Hybrid Brake System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an eddy current and electro-hydraulic hybrid brake system to solve problems such as wear, thermal failure, and slow response of traditional vehicle brake system. Mathematical model was built to calculate the torque of the eddy current brake system and hydraulic brake system and analyze the braking force distribution between two types of brake systems. A fuzzy controller on personal computer based on LabVIEW and Matlab was designed and a set of hardware in the loop system was constructed to validate and analyze the performance of the hybrid brake system. Through lots of experiments on dry and wet asphalt roads, the hybrid brake system achieves perfect performance on the experimental bench, the hybrid system reduces abrasion and temperature of the brake disk, response speed is enhanced obviously, fuzzy controller keeps high utilization coefficient due to the optimal slip ratio regulation, and the total brake time has a smaller decrease than traditional hydraulic brake system.

  8. Limit Cycle Analysis in a Class of Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Favela-Contreras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid systems are those that inherently combine discrete and continuous dynamics. This paper considers the hybrid system model to be an extension of the discrete automata associating a continuous evolution with each discrete state. This model is called the hybrid automaton. In this work, we achieve a mathematical formulation of the steady state and we show a way to obtain the initial conditions region to reach a specific limit cycle for a class of uncoupled and coupled continuous-linear hybrid systems. The continuous-linear term is used in the sense of the system theory and, in this sense, continuous-linear hybrid automata will be defined. Thus, some properties and theorems that govern the hybrid automata dynamic behavior to evaluate a limit cycle existence have been established; this content is explained under a theoretical framework.

  9. Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahbubur Rahman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers (CPs are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective.

  10. On a Variational Approach to Optimization of Hybrid Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Azhmyakov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with multiobjective optimization techniques for a class of hybrid optimal control problems in mechanical systems. We deal with general nonlinear hybrid control systems described by boundary-value problems associated with hybrid-type Euler-Lagrange or Hamilton equations. The variational structure of the corresponding solutions makes it possible to reduce the original “mechanical” problem to an auxiliary multiobjective programming reformulation. This approach motivates possible applications of theoretical and computational results from multiobjective optimization related to the original dynamical optimization problem. We consider first order optimality conditions for optimal control problems governed by hybrid mechanical systems and also discuss some conceptual algorithms.

  11. Performance Analysis of a Hybrid District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Duic, Neven

    2015-01-01

    Hybridisation of district heating systems can contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or through the share increase of renewable energy sources in total energy consumption while reducing negative aspects of particular energy source utilisation. In this work......, the performance of a hybrid district energy system for a small town in Croatia has been analysed. Mathematical model for process analysis and optimisation algorithm for optimal system configuration has been developed and described. The main goal of the system optimisation is to reduce heat production costs....... Several energy sources for heat production have been considered in 8 different simulation cases. Simulation results show that the heat production costs could be reduced with introduction of different energy systems into an existing district heating system. Renewable energy based district heating systems...

  12. The Gwaii Haanas PV hybrid system : analysis of system operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M. [GPCo Inc., Varennes, PQ (Canada); Turcotte, D.; Sheriff, F. [Natural Resources Canada, Varennes, PQ (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2003-05-01

    The operation of the photovoltaic/battery/genset hybrid power system at the Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve warden station in British Columbia has been monitored since July 2001 as part of the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) Energy Technology Centre-Varennes Photovoltaic Hybrid Power Systems Program. The data collected has been used to validate hybrid system simulation tools being developed under the sponsorship of the Program. The analyzed data, along with the simulation tools, provided insight into the operation of the Gwaii Haanas power system. It also assisted in identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the system. Data indicates that the system functions well and is appropriately dimensioned and configured. The modules are arranged in two sub-arrays, with modules connected in parallel, showing remarkable tolerance to shading of part of the array. Almost complete discharge of the batteries occurs during the winter, when the Park residence is unoccupied. During the summer, users should keep track of the battery state-of-charge. Some recommendations were made to prolong the battery life. 1 ref., 1 tab., 16 figs.

  13. Supervisory control for hybrid systems of electrical generation based on fuzzy logic; Control supervisorio para sistemas hibridos de generacion electrica basado en logica difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas M, Javier; Ortega S, Cesar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Caratozzolo M, Patricia [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, campus Cd. de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The development and integration of hybrid systems of electrical generation (SHGE) of small capacity: The intention of these developments is its implementation in isolated or far away communities from conventional electric networks, that contribute in the own productive processes of these towns. As part of these work a system of control for their hybrid system wind-photovoltaic- internal combustion machine was developed that operates nowadays in a system installed in Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. However, in the two past years, the GENC has worked, altogether with the Management of Control and Instrumentation of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (CENIDET) (National Center of Research and Technological Development), to incorporate an intelligent control technique in the regulation of the hybrid systems of wind-photovoltaic-machine of internal combustion type. Lemos de Pereira rises that the main problems of the present technology of the SHGE are related to the control and supervision of the power systems. The system that is in charge of the actions of load control and dispatch is denominated supervisory control. This controller supervises the operation of all the components, regulates the entry or exiting of operation of the generation systems, as well as the loads. [Spanish] El desarrollo e integracion de sistemas hibridos de generacion electrica (SHGE) de pequena capacidad. El proposito de estos desarrollos es su implementacion en comunidades aisladas o alejadas de la red electrica convencional, las cuales contribuyan en los procesos productivos propios de estos poblados. Como parte de dichos trabajos se desarrollo un sistema de control para su sistema hibrido eolico-fotovoltaico-maquina de combustion interna que opera actualmente en un sistema instalado en Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Ahora bien, en los dos ultimos anos, la GENC ha trabajado, en conjunto con la Gerencia de Control e

  14. A Formal Approach to User Interface Design using Hybrid System Theory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optimal Synthesis Inc.(OSI) proposes to develop an aiding tool for user interface design that is based on mathematical formalism of hybrid system theory. The...

  15. Shape based assignment tests suggest transgressive phenotypes in natural sculpin hybrids (Teleostei, Scorpaeniformes, Cottidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheets H David

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization receives attention because of the potential role that it may play in generating evolutionary novelty. An explanation for the emergence of novel phenotypes is given by transgressive segregation, which, if frequent, would imply an important evolutionary role for hybridization. This process is still rarely studied in natural populations as samples of recent hybrids and their parental populations are needed. Further, the detection of transgressive segregation requires phenotypes that can be easily quantified and analysed. We analyse variability in body shape of divergent populations of European sculpins (Cottus gobio complex as well as natural hybrids among them. Results A distance-based method is developed to assign unknown specimens to known groups based on morphometric data. Apparently, body shape represents a highly informative set of characters that parallels the discriminatory power of microsatellite markers in our study system. Populations of sculpins are distinct and "unknown" specimens can be correctly assigned to their source population based on body shape. Recent hybrids are intermediate along the axes separating their parental groups but display additional differentiation that is unique and coupled with the hybrid genetic background. Conclusion There is a specific hybrid shape component in natural sculpin hybrids that can be best explained by transgressive segregation. This inference of how hybrids differ from their ancestors provides basic information for future evolutionary studies. Furthermore, our approach may serve to assign candidate specimens to their source populations based on morphometric data and help in the interpretation of population differentiation.

  16. Investigation of a hybrid PVT air collector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, S.; Touafek, K.; Mordjaoui, M.; Khelifa, A.; Tabet, I.

    2017-02-01

    The photovoltaic thermal hybrid (PVT) collectors, which simultaneously produce electricity and heat, are an alternative to photovoltaic modules and thermal collectors installed separately. Indeed, the heat extracted from the solar cell is used to heat water or air, thereby cooling the cell, and thus increasing its energy efficiency. This paper deals with a hybrid PVT air collector in which a new design has been proposed and tested. Its principle is based on the return of the preheating air to a second heating. The air thus passes twice under the solar cells before being evacuated to the outside of the collector (for space heating). The system is modular and expandable to cover large spaces to be heated. The experimental results of this novel design are presented and discussed under both normal and forced circulation. This technique of air return shows favorable results in terms of the quality of the heated air and electric power generation.

  17. Site characterization for hybrid system construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Miranda, U.; Medrano, M. C. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The basic reason to use alternative systems for electricity generation, in most cases, is the lack of electricity services, such as isolated rural communities which are located far away from the electric distribution line, and the cost of its extension is too expensive, while decentralized power systems can be an economic and appropriate solution to providing these services. Up to now there are several technological options for rural electrification using PV modules, wind plants, water-power plants, anaerobic digesters, or a combination of some of them, according to the availability of energetic resources. The applications include centralized or decentralized systems, autonomous or hybrid systems, isolated or interconnected to the electric line, etc. A particular hybrid system design can be done considering two general aspects, first it is necessary to know the electric consumption that will be supplied, taking into account present and future necessities and how local energetic resources are present in a selected site. Finally, also it is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the cost of kilowatt-hour generated using local energetic resources and compare it with the cost of electricity produced by conventional power systems. [Espanol] La razon principal para el uso de sistemas alternativos de generacion de electricidad, en la mayoria de los casos, es la falta de servicios de electricidad, tal como en las comunidades rurales aisladas localizadas lejos de linea de distribucion electrica, donde el costo de su extension es demasiado caro, mientras que los sistemas descentralizados de energia pueden ser una solucion economica y adecuada para proporcionar estos servicios. Hasta ahora existen varias opciones tecnologicas para la electrificacion rural usando modulos fotovoltaicos, aerogeneradores, plantas hidroelectricas, digestores anaerobicos o una combinacion de algunos de ellos, de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de los recursos energeticos. Las

  18. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  19. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  20. Hybrid TS fuzzy modelling and simulation for chaotic Lorenz system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li De-Quan

    2006-01-01

    The projection of the chaotic attractor observed from the Lorenz system in the X-Z plane is like a butterfly, hence the classical Lorenz system is widely known as the butterfly attractor, and has served as a prototype model for studying chaotic behaviour since it was coined. In this work we take one step further to investigate some fundamental dynamic behaviours of a novel hybrid Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy Lorenz-type system, which is essentially derived from the delta-operator-based TS fuzzy modelling for complex nonlinear systems, and contains the original Lorenz system of continuous-time TS fuzzy form as a special case. By simply and appropriately tuning the additional parametric perturbations in the two-rule hybrid TS fuzzy Lorenz-type system, complex (two-wing) butterfly attractors observed from this system in the three dimensional (3D) X-Y-Z space are created, which have not yet been reported in the literature, and the forming mechanism of the compound structures have been numerically investigated.

  1. A Dynamic Feature-Based Method for Hybrid Blurred/Multiple Object Detection in Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsun-Kuo Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based inspection has been applied for quality control and product sorting in manufacturing processes. Blurred or multiple objects are common causes of poor performance in conventional vision-based inspection systems. Detecting hybrid blurred/multiple objects has long been a challenge in manufacturing. For example, single-feature-based algorithms might fail to exactly extract features when concurrently detecting hybrid blurred/multiple objects. Therefore, to resolve this problem, this study proposes a novel vision-based inspection algorithm that entails selecting a dynamic feature-based method on the basis of a multiclassifier of support vector machines (SVMs for inspecting hybrid blurred/multiple object images. The proposed algorithm dynamically selects suitable inspection schemes for classifying the hybrid images. The inspection schemes include discrete wavelet transform, spherical wavelet transform, moment invariants, and edge-feature-descriptor-based classification methods. The classification methods for single and multiple objects are adaptive region growing- (ARG- based and local adaptive region growing- (LARG- based learning approaches, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can dynamically select suitable inspection schemes by applying a selection algorithm, which uses SVMs for classifying hybrid blurred/multiple object samples. Moreover, the method applies suitable feature-based schemes on the basis of the classification results for employing the ARG/LARG-based method to inspect the hybrid objects. The method improves conventional methods for inspecting hybrid blurred/multiple objects and achieves high recognition rates for that in manufacturing processes.

  2. Design and Implementation of the Hybrid Wind/PV Power System's Remote Monitoring for Mobile Communication Base Station%移动通信基站风光互补系统远程监控设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢瑛珂; 龚恒翔; 巫江; 朱新才

    2013-01-01

    According to the demand of the hybrid wind/photovoltaic power system for mobile communication site,the study designed a distant monitoring system based on GPRS(General Packet Radio Service) network.The system achieved the hybrid wind/PV power system's real-time data collect and alarm,which include the operation parameters,environmental parameters,storage battery temperature and the video images.The monitoring software and website are designed and developed under the Visual studio.net and SQL Server 2005 environment,and realize the monitoring center and the mobile communication site monitoring terminal wireless communication,hybrid wind/photovoltaic system of remote real-time monitoring,the state analysis,remote controlling and alarming etc.And the real-time data are acquired and processed for display,statistics,analysis and storage,also support for internet access.The monitoring system has been trial running in hybrid wind/PV power system which generate electricity for Yangliu base station that lies in Chongqing Banan district,and meets the requirements of networkization and intelligentialization.It has important guiding significance for application and popularization in Chongqing with geographical meteorological characteristics of hybrid wind/photovoltaic system.%根据移动通信基站风光互补供电系统的需要,设计了基于GPRS网络的远程监控系统,实现了风光互补供电系统现场终端运行状况参数、现场环境参数、蓄电池组温度及现场视频图像的远程实时数据监测与报警.基于Visual.net与SQL Server 2005平台开发了监控软件,实现了监控中心与移动通信基站监控终端的无线通信,风光互补发电系统的远程实时监测、状态分析、远程控制和预警等功能,以及监控数据的实时显示、分析、统计及存储,并支持Internet远程查询和访问.该监控系统目前已在重庆移动公司巴南区杨柳基站风光互补供电系统中试运行,能满足系统

  3. Sistemas híbridos con base en las energías renovables para el suministro de energía a plantas desaladoras / Hybrid systems with base in the renewable energy for the energy supply to desalination plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivis Ávila‐Prats

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el siguiente trabajo se modelan los sistemas híbridos con base en las energías renovables, quegaranticen las necesidades energéticas en plantas desaladoras de ósmosis inversa, con unacapacidad de hasta 50 m3 de producción diaria, a fin de obtener la combinación óptima. Para elprocesamiento de los datos se hará uso del software especializado HOMER. Se tomarán comoelementos de partida: la demanda eléctrica de una planta desaladora tipo, las especificacionestécnicas de los equipos propuestos, así como los potenciales de radiación solar y las velocidades deviento de la región analizada (Islas Canarias.Las conclusiones muestran que el sistema híbrido óptimo, desde el punto de vista técnico-económicopara el suministro de energía a desaladoras de ósmosis inversa con capacidad de producción de 50m3/día, será un sistema eólico- diesel, compuesto por: dos aerogeneradores, un banco de baterías yun generador diesel. Se demuestra que la velocidad del viento es la variable termodinámicadeterminante para la configuración de los sistemas híbridos estudiados, considerando los potencialesenergéticos naturales existentes en la región estudiada.Palabras claves: desalinización, ósmosis inversa, HOMER, Islas Canarias, sistemas híbridos, energíasrenovables._____________________________________________________________________AbstractIn the following work the hybrid systems with base in the renewable energy are modeled, to comparemany different design options based on their technical and economic merits. The energy necessitieswill be guaranteed in reverse osmosis desalination plants, with a capacity of up to 50 m3 of dailyproduction. The data processing was analyzed using the computer model, HOMER. The departureelements were: the electric demand of the desalination plant, the technical specifications of theequipments, as well as the potentials of solar radiation and the speeds of wind of the analyzed region(Canary Island

  4. Robot Positioning and Navigation Based on Hybrid Wireless Sensor Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-cai YAO; Jin-dong TAN; Hong-xia PAN

    2010-01-01

    Traditional sensor network and robot navigation are based an the map of detecting the fields available in advance.The optimal algorithms are developed to solve the energy saving,the shortest path problems,etc.However,in the practical encironment,there are many fields,whose map is difficult to get,and needs to be detected.In this paper a kind of ad-hoc navigation algorithm is explored,which is based on the hybrid sensor network without the prior map in advance.The navigation system is composed of static nodes and dynamic nodes.The static nodes monitor the occurrances of the events and broadcast them.In the system,a kind of algorithm is to locate the robot,which is based on cluster broadcasting.The dynamic nodes detect the adversary or dangerous fields and broadcast warning messages.The robot gets the message and follows ad-hoc routine to arrive where the events occur.In the whole process,energy saving has been taken into account.The algorithms,which are based on the hybrid sensor network,are given in this paper.The simulation and practical results are also available.

  5. Switches and Jumps in Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1998-01-01

    An action system framework is a predicate transformer based method for modelling and analysing distributed and reactive systems. The actions are statements in Dijkstra's guarded command language, and their semantics is given by predicate transformers. We extend conventional action systems with a ...

  6. Modeling and Analysis of Hybrid Dynamic Systems Using Hybrid Petri Nets

    OpenAIRE

    GHOMRI Latefa; Alla, Hassane

    2008-01-01

    Some extensions of PNs permitting HDS modeling were presented here. The first models to be presented are continuous PNs. This model may be used for modeling either a continuous system or a discrete system. In this case, it is an approximation that is often satisfactory. Hybrid PNs combine in the same formalism a discrete PN and a continuous PN. Two hybrid PN models were considered in this chapter. The first, called the hybrid PN, has a deterministic behavior; this means that we can predict th...

  7. Nuclear Hybrid energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.; Sabharwall, P.; Yoon, S. J.; Bragg-Sitton, S. B.; Stoot, C.

    2014-07-01

    Without growing concerns in reliable energy supply, the next generation in reliable power generation via hybrid energy systems is being developed. A hybrid energy system incorporates multiple energy input source sand multiple energy outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these combined systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilization because stored excess energy is used later to meet peak energy demands. With high thermal energy production the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct thermal properties. This paper discusses the criteria for efficient energy storage and molten salt energy storage system options for hybrid systems. (Author)

  8. System Modeling and Diagnostics for Liquefying-Fuel Hybrid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Scott; Iverson, David; Ou, Jeremy; Sanderfer, Dwight; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2003-01-01

    A Hybrid Combustion Facility (HCF) was recently built at NASA Ames Research Center to study the combustion properties of a new fuel formulation that burns approximately three times faster than conventional hybrid fuels. Researchers at Ames working in the area of Integrated Vehicle Health Management recognized a good opportunity to apply IVHM techniques to a candidate technology for next generation launch systems. Five tools were selected to examine various IVHM techniques for the HCF. Three of the tools, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), L2 (Livingstone2), and RODON, are model-based reasoning (or diagnostic) systems. Two other tools in this study, ICS (Interval Constraint Simulator) and IMS (Inductive Monitoring System) do not attempt to isolate the cause of the failure but may be used for fault detection. Models of varying scope and completeness were created, both qualitative and quantitative. In each of the models, the structure and behavior of the physical system are captured. In the qualitative models, the temporal aspects of the system behavior and the abstraction of sensor data are handled outside of the model and require the development of additional code. In the quantitative model, less extensive processing code is also necessary. Examples of fault diagnoses are given.

  9. Capacity Configuration of the Hybrid Energy Storage System Based on Bloch Spherical Quantum Genetic Algorithm%基于Bloch球面的量子遗传算法的混合储能系统容量配置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马速良; 马会萌; 蒋小平; 段国栋; 李娜

    2015-01-01

    风电功率波动对电网造成不容忽视的影响。风电并网处加入混合储能系统可有效降低风电对电网的影响。首先,  有效地分解风电有功功率,得到混合储能系统需平抑的波动功率;然后,在电池及超级电容器荷电状态、额定功率及充放电时间的允许范围内实现超级电容器优先充放电的协调控制方式;最后,应用映射于Bloch球面的量子遗传算法,确定满足混合储能系统技术要求及工程指标的混合储能系统配置方案,使混合储能系统成本最低。算例分析证明了在监测荷电状态等约束条件下,优先超级电容器充放电控制方式的有效性及 Bloch 球面量子遗传算法配置混合储能系统方法的合理性。%It can not be ignored that active power fluctuations in wind power's influence on the grid. The hybrid energy storage system access to the place in which wind power connected to the power grid can effectively reduce the impact of the intermittency of wind power. Firstly, the fluctuating power of wind power was separated to derive the output power of the hybrid energy storage system Secondly, charging and discharging of the super-capacitor were firstly controlled in the allowable range of the power rating, the states of charge and the durations of charging or discharging of the hybrid energy storage. At last, the Bloch spherical quantum genetic algorithm was applied to decide the combination scheme of hybrid energy storage system to meet the technical requirements of hybrid energy storage system and engineering indicators and make the cost be the lowest. In the example, the validity of the control model based on priority control of super-capacitor charging and discharging and the effectiveness of configuring hybrid energy storage system capacity with the Bloch spherical quantum genetic algorithm was proved.

  10. Hybrid Model for Cascading Outage in a Power System: A Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuki, Yoshihiko; Takatsuji, Yu; Hikihara, Takashi

    Analysis of cascading outages in power systems is important for understanding why large blackouts emerge and how to prevent them. Cascading outages are complex dynamics of power systems, and one cause of them is the interaction between swing dynamics of synchronous machines and protection operation of relays and circuit breakers. This paper uses hybrid dynamical systems as a mathematical model for cascading outages caused by the interaction. Hybrid dynamical systems can combine families of flows describing swing dynamics with switching rules that are based on protection operation. This paper refers to data on a cascading outage in the September 2003 blackout in Italy and shows a hybrid dynamical system by which propagation of outages reproduced is consistent with the data. This result suggests that hybrid dynamical systems can provide an effective model for the analysis of cascading outages in power systems.

  11. A Matlab—Based Simulation for Hybrid Electric Motorcycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵定国; 李永斌; 汪信尧; 江建中

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation and modeling package based on Matlab for a parallel hybrid electric motorcycle (HEM).The package consists of several main detailed models: internal combustion engine (ICE), motor, continuously variable transmission(CVT), battery, energy management system (EMS) etc. Each component is built as a library, and can be connected together accord-ing to the parallel HEM's topology. Simulation results, such as ICE power demand, motor power demand, battery instantaneous state-of-charge (SOC), pollution emissions etc. Are given and discussed. Lastly experimental data verify our simulation results.

  12. Hybrid systems: a real-time interface to control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Heilmann, Søren; Holdgaard, Michael

    1996-01-01

    are usually investigated by control engineers that base their work on the theory of dynamic systems. The mathematical tool for this work is thus mathematical analysis, in particular the theory of differential equations. The paper gives an introduction to a general hybrid systems model for definition of system......An important application area for real time computing is embedded systems where the computing system provides intelligent control of a mechanical, chemical etc. plant or device. The software requirements for such applications depend heavily on the properties of the plant. These properties...... requirements and a corresponding software architecture together with an example of their specialization for use in implementing a mode switching controller for a hydraulic cylinder...

  13. A hybrid domain analysis for systems with delays in state and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzaghi M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The solution of time-delay systems is obtained by using a hybrid function. The properties of the hybrid functions consisting of block-pulse functions and Chebyshev polynomials are presented. The method is based upon expanding various time functions in the system as their truncated hybrid functions. The operational matrix of delay is introduced. The operational matrices of integration and delay are utilized to reduce the solution of time-delay systems to the solution of algebraic equations. Illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the technique.

  14. Advantages of Hybrid Global Navigation Satellite Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Bilajbegović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In a decision-making situation, what kind of GPS equipment to purchase, one always has a dilemma, tobuy hybrid (GPS+GLONASS or only GPS receivers? In the case of completeness of the GLONASS satellite system, this dilemma probably would not have existed. The answer to this dilemma is given in the present paper, but for the constellation of the GLONASS satellites in summer 2006 (14 satellites operational. Due to the short operational period of these satellites (for example GLONASS-M, 5 years, and not launching new ones, at this moment (February 25, 2007, only 10 satellites are operational. For the sake of research and giving answers to these questions, about 252 RTK measurements have been done using (GPS and GNSS receivers, on points with different obstructions of horizon. Besides that, initialisation time has been investigated for both systems from about 480 measurements, using rover's antenna with metal cover, during a time interval of 0.5, 2 and 5 seconds. Moreover, accuracy, firmware declared accuracy and redundancy of GPS and GNSS RTK measurements have been investigating.  

  15. Improving Diagnosability of Hybrid Systems through Active Diagnosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fault diagnosis is key to ensuring system safety through fault-adaptive control. This task is diffcult in hybrid systems with combined continuous and discrete...

  16. Comparison of metallization systems for thin film hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, R.A.; Raut, M.K.

    1980-08-01

    Five metallization systems were evaluated for fabricating thin film hybrid microcircuits. The titanium/palladium/electroplated gold system proved superior in terms of thermocompression bondability, corrosion resistance, and solderability.

  17. Novel Hybrid Intrusion Detection System For Clustered Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem Sedjelmaci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN is regularly deployed in unattended and hostile environments. The WSN isvulnerable to security threats and susceptible to physical capture. Thus, it is necessary to use effective mechanisms to protect the network. It is widely known, that the intrusion detection is one of the mostefficient security mechanisms to protect the network against malicious attacks or unauthorized access. In this paper, we propose a hybrid intrusion detection system for clustered WSN. Our intrusion framework uses a combination between the Anomaly Detection based on support vector machine (SVM and the Misuse Detection. Experiments results show that most of routing attacks can be detected with low falsealarm.

  18. Discrete mechanics, “time machines” and hybrid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elze Hans-Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Modifying the discrete mechanics proposed by T.D. Lee, we construct a class of discrete classical Hamiltonian systems, in which time is one of the dynamical variables. This includes a toy model of “time machines” which can travel forward and backward in time and which differ from models based on closed timelike curves (CTCs. In the continuum limit, we explore the interaction between such time reversing machines and quantum mechanical objects, employing a recent description of quantum-classical hybrids.

  19. Haptic Manipulation of Deformable Objects in Hybrid Bilateral Teleoperation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Ibarra-Zannatha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the integration of a virtual environment containing a deformable object, manipulated by an open kinematical chain virtual slave robot, to a bilateral teleoperation scheme based on a real haptic device. The virtual environment of this hybrid bilateral teleoperation system combines collision detection algorithms, dynamical, kinematical and geometrical models with a position–position and/or force–position bilateral control algorithm, to produce on the operator side the reflected forces corresponding to the virtual mechanical interactions, through a haptic device. Contact teleoperation task over the virtual environment with a flexible object is implemented and analysed.

  20. Nature-inspired design of hybrid intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, Oscar; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights recent advances in the design of hybrid intelligent systems based on nature-inspired optimization and their application in areas such as intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction, and optimization of complex problems. The book is divided into seven main parts, the first of which addresses theoretical aspects of and new concepts and algorithms based on type-2 and intuitionistic fuzzy logic systems. The second part focuses on neural network theory, and explores the applications of neural networks in diverse areas, such as time series prediction and pattern recognition. The book’s third part presents enhancements to meta-heuristics based on fuzzy logic techniques and describes new nature-inspired optimization algorithms that employ fuzzy dynamic adaptation of parameters, while the fourth part presents diverse applications of nature-inspired optimization algorithms. In turn, the fifth part investigates applications of fuzzy logic in diverse areas, such as...

  1. Design of time interval generator based on hybrid counting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Lu, Houbing; Chen, Lian; Jin, Ge

    2016-10-01

    Time Interval Generators (TIGs) are frequently used for the characterizations or timing operations of instruments in particle physics experiments. Though some "off-the-shelf" TIGs can be employed, the necessity of a custom test system or control system makes the TIGs, being implemented in a programmable device desirable. Nowadays, the feasibility of using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to implement particle physics instrumentation has been validated in the design of Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) for precise time measurement. The FPGA-TDC technique is based on the architectures of Tapped Delay Line (TDL), whose delay cells are down to few tens of picosecond. In this case, FPGA-based TIGs with high delay step are preferable allowing the implementation of customized particle physics instrumentations and other utilities on the same FPGA device. A hybrid counting method for designing TIGs with both high resolution and wide range is presented in this paper. The combination of two different counting methods realizing an integratable TIG is described in detail. A specially designed multiplexer for tap selection is emphatically introduced. The special structure of the multiplexer is devised for minimizing the different additional delays caused by the unpredictable routings from different taps to the output. A Kintex-7 FPGA is used for the hybrid counting-based implementation of a TIG, providing a resolution up to 11 ps and an interval range up to 8 s.

  2. Design of time interval generator based on hybrid counting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, Zhaoqi [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lu, Houbing [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei Electronic Engineering Institute, Hefei 230037 (China); Chen, Lian [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Jin, Ge, E-mail: goldjin@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Time Interval Generators (TIGs) are frequently used for the characterizations or timing operations of instruments in particle physics experiments. Though some “off-the-shelf” TIGs can be employed, the necessity of a custom test system or control system makes the TIGs, being implemented in a programmable device desirable. Nowadays, the feasibility of using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to implement particle physics instrumentation has been validated in the design of Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) for precise time measurement. The FPGA-TDC technique is based on the architectures of Tapped Delay Line (TDL), whose delay cells are down to few tens of picosecond. In this case, FPGA-based TIGs with high delay step are preferable allowing the implementation of customized particle physics instrumentations and other utilities on the same FPGA device. A hybrid counting method for designing TIGs with both high resolution and wide range is presented in this paper. The combination of two different counting methods realizing an integratable TIG is described in detail. A specially designed multiplexer for tap selection is emphatically introduced. The special structure of the multiplexer is devised for minimizing the different additional delays caused by the unpredictable routings from different taps to the output. A Kintex-7 FPGA is used for the hybrid counting-based implementation of a TIG, providing a resolution up to 11 ps and an interval range up to 8 s.

  3. Agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenhua

    The active hybridization technique provides an effective approach to combining the best properties of a heterogeneous set of power sources to achieve higher energy density, power density and fuel efficiency. Active hybrid power sources can be used to power hybrid electric vehicles with selected combinations of internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, and/or supercapacitors. They can be deployed in all-electric ships to build a distributed electric power system. They can also be used in a bulk power system to construct an autonomous distributed energy system. An important aspect in designing an active hybrid power source is to find a suitable control strategy that can manage the active power sharing and take advantage of the inherent scalability and robustness benefits of the hybrid system. This paper presents an agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed agent-based power sharing scheme, simulation studies are performed for a hybrid power source that can be used in a solar car as the main propulsion power module. Simulation results clearly indicate that the agent-based control framework is effective to coordinate the various energy sources and manage the power/voltage profiles.

  4. 模糊-PID混合控制直流电机调速系统设计%Design of Speed Control System Based on Fuzzy-PID Hybrid Control for DC Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖金凤; 盛义发; 徐祖华; 周到

    2011-01-01

    该文提出在转速、电流双闭环的直流电机调速系统转速环采用模糊-PID混合控制方法.当给定转速与实际转速的偏差大于某一阈值时,采用模糊控制;而当偏差减小到设定阈值以下时,采用PID调节.利用Matlab对该控制方法进行仿真,仿真表明混合控制系统的动、静态性能明显优于常规PID控制系统.将该控制方法应用于,DDSZ-1型电机及电气技术实验装置中的DJ23直流电机,以Atmega128为核心,以PWM为控制信号,设计了模糊-PID混合控制电机调速装置.试验结果验证了设计的混合控制调速系统鲁棒性好,实用性强,结构简单.%In this paper, a new hybrid speed regulating method based on Fuzzy-PID was proposed. It can be used in the speed loop for speed and current closed loop control DC motor control system. When the error between reference speed and real speed is bigger than some threshold value, uses the fuzzy control. But when the error reduces to the threshold value below, changes the PID adjustment. The simulation research on the hybrid speed regulating system of DC motor was carried out. The simulation results show that the system based on this hybrid speed regulating has better dynamic and static performance than the system based on PID speed regulating. A speed control system of DJ23 DC motor used in DDSZ-1 electrical machinery and electrical technology test installation was introduced. The system based on this new hybrid speed regulating method has a control unit of the single-chip Atmega128, using PWMcontrol signal to control DC motor. The results of experiment show that the system is of better robustness and strong practicality and simple structure.

  5. New MPPT algorithm based on hybrid dynamical theory

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on the hybrid dynamical theory. A multiceli converter has been considered as an adaptation stage for the photovoltaic chain. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid automata switching between eight different operating modes, which has been validated by simulation tests under different working conditions. © 2014 IEEE.

  6. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Modeling: RELAP5 Dynamic Coupling Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson; Haihua Zhao; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; George Mesina

    2012-09-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) research team is currently developing a dynamic simulation of an integrated hybrid energy system. A detailed simulation of proposed NHES architectures will allow initial computational demonstration of a tightly coupled NHES to identify key reactor subsystem requirements, identify candidate reactor technologies for a hybrid system, and identify key challenges to operation of the coupled system. This work will provide a baseline for later coupling of design-specific reactor models through industry collaboration. The modeling capability addressed in this report focuses on the reactor subsystem simulation.

  7. Carbon nanotube based hybrid nanocarbon foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrizan Jamal, M.; Zhang, Mei

    2017-03-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) based nanocarbon foams (NFs) and the hybrid nanocarbon foams (HNFs) are fabricated in this work. The NFs are formed by using poly(methyl methacrylate) microspheres as a template to create micro-scaled pores. The cell walls are made of CNT networks with nano-scaled pores. The interconnections among CNTs are secured using graphene and nanographite generated via carbonization of polyacrylonitrile. The resulting NFs are ultra-lightweight, highly elastic, electrically and thermally conductive, and robust in structure. The HNFs are made by infiltrating thermoplastic polymer into the NFs in a controllable procedure. Compared to NFs, the HNFs have much higher strength, same electrical conductivity, and limited increase in density. The compressive strength of the HNF increased more than 50 times while the density was changed less than 10 times due to the polymer infiltration. It is found that the deformed HNFs can recover in both structure and property when they are heated over the glass transition temperature of the infiltrated polymer. Such remarkable healing capability could broaden the applications of the HNFs.

  8. 基于编码控制机制的混杂系统半全局实用镇定%Semi-global Practical Stabilization of Hybrid Systems Based on an Encoded Control Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼旭阳; 叶倩

    2014-01-01

    Robust stabilization of hybrid systems is one of the important research topics in the field of complex control systems. This paper proposes a hybrid control strategy under an encoded control mechanism. It can effectively overcome the limitation in dealing with the problems of local robust stabilizing equilibrium point or invariant set for the traditional continuous feedback control or discontinuous feedback control, and obtain better control effects. We first build a general hybrid system model to describe the closed-loop system of a nonlinear system under the encoded state feedback. Then we carry out the robustness analysis of hybrid control for the nonlinear system based on the inverse Lyapunov theorem, and present a semi-global practical asymptotic stability criterion for the closed-loop hybrid system. Finally, we combine with a classical control problem to illustrate the superiority of the proposed control strategy.%混杂系统的鲁棒镇定是复杂控制系统领域的重要研究课题之一。提出了一种编码机制下的混杂控制策略,它能有效地克服传统连续反馈控制或不连续反馈控制在处理局部鲁棒镇定平衡点或不变集问题中的局限性,获得更好的控制效果。首先针对编码状态反馈,构建了一般的混杂系统模型来描述编码状态反馈作用下非线性系统的闭环系统模型。然后,基于逆Lyapunov 定理开展了非线性系统的混杂控制鲁棒性分析,提出了闭环混杂系统的半全局实用渐近稳定性判据。最后,结合一个经典控制问题来说明所提出控制策略的优越性。

  9. Control and fault diagnosis based sliding mode observer of a multicellular converter: Hybrid approach

    KAUST Repository

    Benzineb, Omar

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the diagnosis of a three cell converter is developed. The hybrid nature of the system represented by the presence of continuous and discrete dynamics is taken into account in the control design. The idea is based on using a hybrid control and an observer-type sliding mode to generate residuals from the observation errors of the system. The simulation results are presented at the end to illustrate the performance of the proposed approach. © 2013 FEI STU.

  10. 4D Trajectory Based Operation Flight Conflict Supervisory Control Based on Hybrid System Theory%面向4D航迹运行的飞行冲突混杂系统理论监控方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤新民; 韩云祥; 韩松臣

    2012-01-01

    To resolve the problem of future air traffic management under great traffic flow, high density, and small separation condition, a hybrid control system structure for flight confliction supervisory control is proposed. Firstly, a set of kinematic equations for the aircraft are proposed according to different flight stages. The confliction hyper-surfaces are defined based on air traffic control rules to forbidden the trajectory of the system composed by multiple aircrafts to cross it, and the crossing events can be recognized by a designed supervisor. In addition, the flight confliction discrete controller is designed according to resolutions available for air traffic controller to decide which control input should be applied. The continuous control input vector is derived under the condition that the difference value of confliction hyper-surfaces keeps negative in a resolution period, which keeps the air traffic system in the safe space. Case study proves that the method based on hybrid system theory can detect potential conflictions and resolve them in advance.%为实现未来大流量、高密度、小间隔条件下的空中交通管理,提出了一种避免飞行冲突的混杂控制系统结构.首先依据不同飞行状态下的航空器运动学方程建立被控对象模型,依据空中交通管制规则确定了禁止空中交通系统轨迹穿越的冲突超曲面,并通过设计监控器辨识潜在的冲突事件.然后基于管制员可采用的调配手段设计飞行冲突离散控制器,根据离散冲突事件向量确定可行的离散解脱策略,并在允许解脱时间段内且系统超曲面函数值的差分为负的前提下计算连续操纵输入量.案例研究表明,混杂系统理论模型能对潜在冲突进行实时探测和解脱,保证空中交通系统处于可达集的安全子集中.

  11. Power Adaptation Based on Truncated Channel Inversion for Hybrid FSO/RF Transmission With Adaptive Combining

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2015-07-23

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO)/radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high-data-rate wireless communications. In this paper, we consider power adaptation strategies based on truncated channel inversion for the hybrid FSO/RF system employing adaptive combining. Specifically, we adaptively set the RF link transmission power when FSO link quality is unacceptable to ensure constant combined signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver. Two adaptation strategies are proposed. One strategy depends on the received RF SNR, whereas the other one depends on the combined SNR of both links. Analytical expressions for the outage probability of the hybrid system with and without power adaptation are obtained. Numerical examples show that the hybrid FSO/RF system with power adaptation achieves a considerable outage performance improvement over the conventional system.

  12. Inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic systems for conservative treatments of stone and wood materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bergamonti, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic systems for conservative treatments of stone and wood materials The research has focused on the synthesis, characterization and application of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic systems for conservative treatments of stone and wood. The wood preservatives synthesized and tested for biocidal activity are polyamidoamines functionalized with hydroxyl and siloxane groups, while the coatings applied on the stones are water based TiO2 nanosols with ...

  13. Power Management Optimization of an Experimental Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Farouk Odeim; Jürgen Roes; Angelika Heinzel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid system is investigated in terms of modeling and power management design and optimization. The power management strategy is designed based on the role that should be played by each component of the hybrid power source. The supercapacitor is responsible for the peak power demands. The battery assists the supercapacitor in fulfilling the transient power demand by controlling its state-of-energy, whereas the fuel cell system, ...

  14. Design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Warner, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of a study centered on the design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for remote locations in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate high reliability hybrid power systems that have been designed for the lowest life cycle costs. The technical and economic analysis of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems was carried out using HYBRID2, a computational code developed at the University of Massachusetts in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). After a summary of a generalized design procedure for such systems based on the use of this code, a systematic parametric evaluation of a representative design case for a village power system in Brazil is presented. As summarized in the paper, the performance and economic effects of key design parameters are illustrated. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during t...

  16. Investigation of the photovoltaic cell/ thermoelectric element hybrid system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotfas, D. T.; Cotfas, P. A.; Machidon, O. M.; Ciobanu, D.

    2016-06-01

    The PV/TEG hybrid system, consisting of the photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric element, is presented in the paper. The dependence of the PV/TEG hybrid system parameters on the illumination levels and the temperature is analysed. The maxim power values of the photovoltaic cell, of the thermoelectric element and of the PV/TEG system are calculated and a comparison between them is presented and analysed. An economic analysis is also presented.

  17. A simulation approach to sizing hybrid photovoltaic and wind systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. A.

    1983-12-01

    A simulation approach to sizing hybrid photovoltaic and wind systems provides a combination of components to realize zero downtime and minimum initial or life-cycle cost. Using Dayton, OH as a test site for weather data, cost advantages in the neighborhood of four are predicted for a hybrid system with battery storage when compared to a wind-energy-only system for the same electrical load.

  18. 基于分布式发电的多类型储能系统的设计与应用%Hybrid Energy Storage System Based on Distributed Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙博; 魏海坤

    2016-01-01

    In view of the hybrid energy storage system based on the distributed generation,this paper designs appIica-tion system for hybrid energy storage system,incIuding remote monitoring,energy management and coordination controI.The system wiI meet the needs of safe,reIiabIe,high efficiency and economic operation through the design of system topoIogy, software and hardware,and optimizes the operation and appIication of various equipments in the system.%针对基于分布式发电的多类型储能系统,构建一套涵盖远程监控、能量管理及协调控制功能的多类型储能应用系统,通过系统拓扑设计及软硬件方案设计,满足多类型储能系统在分布式发电应用中安全、可靠、高效、经济运行的需要,优化系统内各种设备的运行与应用。

  19. An experimental distribution of analog and digital information in a hybrid wireless visible light communication system based on acousto-optic modulation and sinusoidal gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Colín, R.; García Juárez, A.; Zaldívar Huerta, I. E.; Marquina, A. Vera; García Delgado, L. A.; Leal Cruz, A. L.; Gómez Fuentes, R.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we propose a photonic architecture as an alternative tool to distribute point to multipoint analog and digital information over a hybrid wireless visible optical communication system. The experimental set-up is composed of a red laser pointer, an acousto-optic modulator, a sinusoidal grating and a photo-detector array. By using a simple and variable interferometric system, diffraction gratings with different spatial frequencies are generated and recorded on a photoemulsion which is composed of vanilla with dichromate gelatin. Analog video and digital information are first transmitted and recovered over a wireless communication system using a microwave carrier at 4.52 GHz which is generated by distributed feedback lasers operating in the low laser threshold current region. Separately, the recovered video information and digital data are combined with a radio frequency signal of 80 MHz, obtaining a subcarrier of information that is imposed on the optical carrier of the pointer laser using an acousto-optic modulator which is operated with an angle of incident light that satisfies the Bragg condition. The modulated optical carrier is sent to a sinusoidal grating, the diffraction pattern is photo-detected using an array of PIN photo-detectors. The use of sinusoidal gratings with acousto-optic modulators allows that number of channels to be increased when both components are placed in cascade.

  20. Hybrid silica luminescent materials based on lanthanide-containing lyotropic liquid crystal with polarized emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivanova, N.M., E-mail: natsel@mail.ru [Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx Str., Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation); Vandyukov, A.E.; Gubaidullin, A.T. [A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry of the Kazan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Acad. Arbuzov Str., Kazan 420088 (Russian Federation); Galyametdinov, Y.G. [Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx Str., Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    This paper represents the template method for synthesis of hybrid silica films based on Ln-containing lyotropic liquid crystal and characterized by efficient luminescence. Luminescence films were prepared in situ by the sol–gel processes. Lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) mesophases C{sub 12}H{sub 25}O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub 10}H/Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O containing Ln (III) ions (Dy, Tb, Eu) were used as template. Polarized optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and FT-IR-spectroscopy were used for characterization of liquid crystal mesophases and hybrid films. The morphology of composite films was studied by the atomic force microscopy method (AFM). The optical properties of the resulting materials were evaluated. It was found that hybrid silica films demonstrate significant increase of their lifetime in comparison with an LLC system. New effects of linearly polarized emission revealed for Ln-containing hybrid silica films. Polarization in lanthanide-containing hybrid composites indicates that silica precursor causes orientation of emitting ions. - Highlights: • We suggest a new simple approach for creating luminescence hybrid silica films. • Ln-containing hybrid silica films demonstrate yellow, green and red emissions. • Tb(III)-containing hybrid film have a high lifetime. • We report effects of linearly polarized emission in hybrid film.

  1. CONSTANT WORK-POINT CONTROL FOR PARALLEL HYBRID SYSTEM WITH CAPACITOR ACCUMULATOR IN HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanting; WANG Qingfeng; XIAO Qing; FU Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Limitations of various accumulators in hybrid hydraulic excavator are analyzed. A program using capacitor as the accumulator based on constant work-point control is put forward. A simulating experimental system of hybrid construction machinery is established, and experimental study on constant work-point control for parallel hybrid system with capacitor accumulator is carried out using the pressure and flow rate derived from boom cylinder of hydraulic excavator in actual work as the simulating loads. A program of double work-point control is proposed and proved by further experiments.

  2. Alginate-based hybrid aerogel microparticles for mucosal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, V S S; Gurikov, P; Poejo, J; Matias, A A; Heinrich, S; Duarte, C M M; Smirnova, I

    2016-10-01

    The application of biopolymer aerogels as drug delivery systems (DDS) has gained increased interest during the last decade since these structures have large surface area and accessible pores allowing for high drug loadings. Being biocompatible, biodegradable and presenting low toxicity, polysaccharide-based aerogels are an attractive carrier to be applied in pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, some polysaccharides (e.g. alginate and chitosan) present mucoadhesive properties, an important feature for mucosal drug delivery. This feature allows to extend the contact of DDS with biological membranes, thereby increasing the absorption of drugs through the mucosa. Alginate-based hybrid aerogels in the form of microparticles (alginate and further dried with supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2). Spherical mesoporous aerogel microparticles were obtained for alginate, hybrid alginate/pectin and alginate/κ-carrageenan aerogels, presenting high specific surface area (370-548m(2)g(-1)) and mucoadhesive properties. The microparticles were loaded with ketoprofen via adsorption from its solution in sc-CO2, and with quercetin via supercritical anti-solvent precipitation. Loading of ketoprofen was in the range between 17 and 22wt% whereas quercetin demonstrated loadings of 3.1-5.4wt%. Both the drugs were present in amorphous state. Loading procedure allowed the preservation of antioxidant activity of quercetin. Release of both drugs from alginate/κ-carrageenan aerogel was slightly faster compared to alginate/pectin. The results indicate that alginate-based aerogel microparticles can be viewed as promising matrices for mucosal drug delivery applications.

  3. Dynamic modeling of a photovoltaic hydrogen fuel cell hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.J.; Lai, L.K. [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China); Wu, W. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 640 (China); Chang, W.R. [Department of Landscape Architecture, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei 242 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The objective of this paper is to mathematically model a stand-alone renewable power system, referred to as ''Photovoltaic-Fuel Cell (PVFC) hybrid system'', which maximizes the use of a renewable energy source. It comprises a photovoltaic generator (PV), a water electrolyzer, a hydrogen tank, and a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell generator. A multi-domain simulation platform Simplorer is employed to model the PVFC hybrid systems. Electrical power from the PV generator meets the user loads when there is sufficient solar radiation. The excess power from the PV generator is then used for water electrolysis to produce hydrogen. The fuel cell generator works as a backup generator to supplement the load demands when the PV energy is deficient during a period of low solar radiation, which keeps the system's reliability at the same level as for the conventional system. Case studies using the present model have shown that the present hybrid system has successfully tracked the daily power consumption in a typical family. It also verifies the effectiveness of the proposed management approach for operation of a stand-alone hybrid system, which is essential for determining a control strategy to ensure efficient and reliable operation of each part of the hybrid system. The present model scheme can be helpful in the design and performance analysis of a complex hybrid-power system prior to practical realization. (author)

  4. Smoothing Control on Output Power of Wind/Solar Hybrid Generation System Based on Fuzzy Control%基于模糊控制的风光储发电系统输出功率平滑控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骏毅; 陈蕾; 许象明; 施伟成; 杜炜凝; 祁明; 曹桂斌; 卞栋

    2014-01-01

    In view of fluctuation of output power of photovoltaic generation and wind power generation with changes of sun-light intensity caused by intermittent and random of solar sunlight and wind power,a kind of smoothing control scheme for output power of wind/solar hybrid generation system based on fuzzy control was proposed by analyzing characteristics of photovoltaic generation,wind power generation and flywheel energy storage. Taking some typical day as an example,simu-lation observation and analysis was carried out on flywheel rotate speed,output power and smoothing factors of the wind/so-lar hybrid generation system which was compared with the system without flywheel energy storage system and simple fly-wheel energy storage system. Simulation results showed that output power of wind/solar hybrid generation system was real-ized smoothing control based on fuzzy control with the smoothing factor of 6 × 1 0-9 that was able to be ignored. The result indicated that the proposed method was able to effectively restrain fluctuation of output power of the wind/solar hybrid gen-eration system.%鉴于太阳日照和风能的间歇性和随机性使光伏发电和风力发电输出功率随日照强度的变化而波动,在分析了光伏发电特性、风力发电特性和飞轮储能特性的基础上,提出一种基于模糊控制的风光储混合发电系统输出功率平滑控制方案。以某典型日为算例,仿真观察和分析风光储混合发电系统的飞轮转速、输出功率及平滑因数,并与无飞轮储能系统、简单飞轮储能系统两种情况进行比较。仿真结果显示,基于模糊控制的风光储混合发电系统输出功率得到平滑控制,平滑因数约6×10-9,几乎可忽略不计。仿真结果表明所提控制方法能有效抑制风光储混合发电系统输出功率的波动。

  5. Hybrid quantum systems with ultracold spins and optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Airlia; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Wang, Ke; Date, Aditya; Schwab, Keith; Meystre, Pierre; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2016-05-01

    Linear cavity optomechanics has enabled radiation pressure cooling and sensing of mechanical resonators at the quantum limits. However, exciting and unrealized avenues such as generating massive macroscopic nonclassical states, quantum signal transduction, and phonon-based manybody physics each require strong, nonlinear interactions. In our group, we are exploring three approaches to realizing strong optomechanical nonlinearities - i. using atomically thin graphene membranes, ii. coupling optomechanical systems with ultracold atomic spins, and iii. using microtoroidal optomechanical resonators strongly coupled to atoms trapped in their evanescent fields. We describe our progress in each of these efforts and discuss ongoing studies on various aspects of quantum enhanced metrology, nonequilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems and quantum transduction using these novel hybrid quantum systems. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a Grant from the ARO.

  6. Renewable energy systems in Mexico: Installation of a hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ronald C.

    1993-05-01

    Sandia has been providing technical leadership on behalf of DOE and CORECT on a working level cooperative program with Mexico on renewable energy (PROCER). As part of this effort, the Sandia Design Assistance Center (DAC) and the solar energy program staff at Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, recently reached agreement on a framework for mutually beneficial technical collaboration on the monitoring and field evaluation of renewable energy systems in Mexico, particularly village-scale hybrid systems. This trip was made for the purpose of planning the details for the joint installation of a data acquisition system (DAS) on a recently completed PV/Wind/Diesel hybrid system in the village of Xcalac on the Southeast coast of the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. The DAS installation will be made during the week of March 15, 1993. While in Mexico, discussions were also held with personnel from.the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Solar Energy Laboratory and several private sector companies with regard to renewable energy project activities and technical and educational support needs in Mexico.

  7. Integration of hybrid wireless networks in cloud services oriented enterprise information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shancang; Xu, Lida; Wang, Xinheng; Wang, Jue

    2012-05-01

    This article presents a hybrid wireless network integration scheme in cloud services-based enterprise information systems (EISs). With the emerging hybrid wireless networks and cloud computing technologies, it is necessary to develop a scheme that can seamlessly integrate these new technologies into existing EISs. By combining the hybrid wireless networks and computing in EIS, a new framework is proposed, which includes frontend layer, middle layer and backend layers connected to IP EISs. Based on a collaborative architecture, cloud services management framework and process diagram are presented. As a key feature, the proposed approach integrates access control functionalities within the hybrid framework that provide users with filtered views on available cloud services based on cloud service access requirements and user security credentials. In future work, we will implement the proposed framework over SwanMesh platform by integrating the UPnP standard into an enterprise information system.

  8. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  9. Luminescent hybrid materials based on laponite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanrong; Li, Man; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Wenjun

    2014-08-11

    The spectroscopic behavior of ionic Eu(3+) or Tb(3+) complexes of an aromatic carboxyl-functionalized organic salt as well as those of the hybrid materials derived from adsorption of the ionic complexes on Laponite clay are reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns suggest that the complexes are mainly adsorbed on the outer surfaces of the Laponite disks rather than intercalated within the interlayer spaces. Photophysical data showed that the energy-transfer efficiency from the ligand to Eu(3+) ions in the hybrid material is increased remarkably with respect to the corresponding ionic complex. The hybrid material containing the Eu(3+) complex shows bright red emission from the prominent (5) D0 →(7) F2 transition of Eu(3+) ions, and that containing the Tb(3+) complex exhibits bright green emission due to the dominant (5) D4 →(7) F5 transition of Tb(3+) ions.

  10. Wind Solar Hybrid System Rectifier Stage Topology Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup M. Gakare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents power-control strategies of a grid-connected hybrid generation system with versatile power transfer. The hybrid system allows maximum utilization of freely available renewable sources like wind and photovoltaic energies. This paper presents a new system configuration of the multi input rectifier stage for a hybrid wind and photovoltaic energy system. This configuration allows the two sources to supply the load simultaneously depending on the availability of the energy sources maximum power from the sun when it is available. An adaptive MPPT algorithm with a standard perturbs and observed method will be used for the Photo Voltaic system. The main advantage of the hybrid system is to give continuous power supply to the load. The gating pulses to the inverter switches are implemented with conventional and fuzzy controller. This hybrid wind-photo voltaic system is modeled in MATLAB/ SIMULINK environment. Simulation circuit is analyzed and results are presented for this hybrid wind and solar energy system.

  11. System design of a large fuel cell hybrid locomotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. R.; Hess, K. S.; Barnes, D. L.; Erickson, T. L.

    Fuel cell power for locomotives combines the environmental benefits of a catenary-electric locomotive with the higher overall energy efficiency and lower infrastructure costs of a diesel-electric. A North American consortium, a public-private partnership, is developing a prototype hydrogen-fueled fuel cell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive for urban and military-base rail applications. Switcher locomotives are used in rail yards for assembling and disassembling trains and moving trains from one point to another. At 127 tonnes (280,000 lb), continuous power of 250 kW from its (proton exchange membrane) PEM fuel cell prime mover, and transient power well in excess of 1 MW, the hybrid locomotive will be the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle yet. This fast-paced project calls for completion of the vehicle itself near the end of 2007. Several technical challenges not found in the development of smaller vehicles arise when designing and developing such a large fuel cell vehicle. Weight, center of gravity, packaging, and safety were design factors leading to, among other features, the roof location of the lightweight 350 bar compressed hydrogen storage system. Harsh operating conditions, especially shock loads during coupling to railcars, require component mounting systems capable of absorbing high energy. Vehicle scale-up by increasing mass, density, or power presents new challenges primarily related to issues of system layout, hydrogen storage, heat transfer, and shock loads.

  12. System design of a large fuel cell hybrid locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.R.; Hess, K.S.; Barnes, D.L.; Erickson, T.L. [Vehicle Projects LLC, 621 17th Street, Suite 2131, Denver, CO 80293 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Fuel cell power for locomotives combines the environmental benefits of a catenary-electric locomotive with the higher overall energy efficiency and lower infrastructure costs of a diesel-electric. A North American consortium, a public-private partnership, is developing a prototype hydrogen-fueled fuel cell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive for urban and military-base rail applications. Switcher locomotives are used in rail yards for assembling and disassembling trains and moving trains from one point to another. At 127 tonnes (280,000 lb), continuous power of 250 kW from its (proton exchange membrane) PEM fuel cell prime mover, and transient power well in excess of 1 MW, the hybrid locomotive will be the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle yet. This fast-paced project calls for completion of the vehicle itself near the end of 2007. Several technical challenges not found in the development of smaller vehicles arise when designing and developing such a large fuel cell vehicle. Weight, center of gravity, packaging, and safety were design factors leading to, among other features, the roof location of the lightweight 350 bar compressed hydrogen storage system. Harsh operating conditions, especially shock loads during coupling to railcars, require component mounting systems capable of absorbing high energy. Vehicle scale-up by increasing mass, density, or power presents new challenges primarily related to issues of system layout, hydrogen storage, heat transfer, and shock loads. (author)

  13. Splitting and Updating Hybrid Knowledge Bases (Extended Version)

    CERN Document Server

    Slota, Martin; Swift, Terrance

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, nonmonotonic rules have proven to be a very expressive and useful knowledge representation paradigm. They have recently been used to complement the expressive power of Description Logics (DLs), leading to the study of integrative formal frameworks, generally referred to as hybrid knowledge bases, where both DL axioms and rules can be used to represent knowledge. The need to use these hybrid knowledge bases in dynamic domains has called for the development of update operators, which, given the substantially different way Description Logics and rules are usually updated, has turned out to be an extremely difficult task. In [SL10], a first step towards addressing this problem was taken, and an update operator for hybrid knowledge bases was proposed. Despite its significance -- not only for being the first update operator for hybrid knowledge bases in the literature, but also because it has some applications - this operator was defined for a restricted class of problems where only the ABox was all...

  14. Hybrid centralized-distributed power conditioning system for thermoelectric generator with high energy efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hongfei; Sun, Kai; Chen, Min;

    2013-01-01

    The unbalanced temperature distribution influences the power output of thermoelectric generator (TEG) system, which leads to mismatch power among TEG modules. This mismatch power degrades the energy efficiency of TEG systems based on the series-connected TEG modules. A hybrid centralized-distribu......The unbalanced temperature distribution influences the power output of thermoelectric generator (TEG) system, which leads to mismatch power among TEG modules. This mismatch power degrades the energy efficiency of TEG systems based on the series-connected TEG modules. A hybrid centralized...... the proposed system, which benefits for implementing high MPPT efficiency and high conversion efficiency simultaneously. A hybrid MPPT control strategy is proposed for this HCD power conditioning system. The characteristics, circuit implementation and operation principles of the proposed system are presented...

  15. 基于AT89C52单片机的步进电机控制系统研究%Research of Control System of Two-phase Hybrid Stepping Motor Based on AT89C52 Microcontrollers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冲; 王淑红; 侯胜伟; 牛慧文

    2012-01-01

    The design scheme Based on AT89C52 Microcontrollers of two phase hybrid stepping motor control system is introduced, reflects two phase hybrid stepping motor control method in principle, increase the flexibility of stepping motor control system design. The control system adopts AT89C52 as controller, use BUW49 power tube of double H bridge type circuit as driver, join button control and LCD1602 display. The circuit structure of control system is simple and the thinking design is clearly. Experimental results shows that the control system operation is simple and reliable, it has strong practicability.%本文介绍了基于AT89C52单片机的两相混合式步进电机控制系统的设计方案,增加了步进电机控制系统设计的灵活性。控制系统采用AT89C52单片机作为控制器,由达林顿功率管BUW49组成的双H桥式电路作为驱动器,加入按键控制及LCD1602显示。控制系统的电路结构简单、设计思路清晰。实验表明,控制系统操作简单、运行可靠,具有较强的实用性。

  16. 基于CDN和P4P融合架构的IPTV系统%IPTV System Based on CDN-P4P Hybrid Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖剑锋

    2011-01-01

    P2P +CDN is the hot topic in IPTV system. However, P2P may bring new problems because of its defects. In this article, a CDN-P4P hybrid architecture in IPTV system is brought out And thus, it can give full play to P2P technology in the media of the distribution of decentralized advantage, and can avoid the signaling level in the decentralized vulnerable.%CDN+ P2P技术是目前IPTV系统的研究热点,但P2P技术同时又存在一些缺陷.通过分析P2P技术的本质,提出了一种新的CDN和P4P结合架构的IPTV系统,能够充分发挥P2P技术在媒体分发方面的去中心化优势,规避了在信令层面的去中心化弱势.

  17. Performance optimization of RoF systems using 120° hybrid coupler for OSSB signal against third order intermodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parvin; Sharma, Sanjay Kumar; Singla, Shelly

    2016-10-01

    The performance of radio over fiber (RoF) system with dual drive Mach Zehender modulator has been optimized against third order intermodulation distortion by using 120° hybrid coupler in transmission system. Signal to Noise Distortion ratio (SNDR) has been evaluated and a performance comparison is also drawn for the systems based on 90° and 120° hybrid coupler in both noise and intermodulation distortion dominant environment. The SNDR is efficiently improved by employing 120° hybrid coupler in noise dominant and intermodulation distortion dominant environment. An improvement of 4.86 dB is obtained in the maximum SNDR with 120° hybrid coupler is obtained over at 20 km optical fiber length compared with a 90° hybrid coupler based system. A significant reduction of third order intermodulation power at receiver has also been observed with 120° hybrid coupler.

  18. Titanium dioxide-cellulose hybrid nanocomposite based conductometric glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniruzzaman, Mohammad; Mahadeva, Suresha K.; Khondoker, Abu Hasan; Kim, Jaehwan

    2012-04-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of conductometric glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized TiO2-cellulose hybrid nanocomposite. TiO2 nanoparticles were blended with cellulose solution prepared by dissolving cotton pulp with lithium chloride/N, N-dimethylacetamide solvent to fabricate TiO2-cellulose hybrid nanocomposite. The enzyme (GOx) was immobilized into this hybrid material by physical adsorption method. The successful immobilization of GOx into TiO2-cellulose hybrid nanocomposite via covalent bonding between TiO2 and GOx was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron analysis. The linear response of our propose glucose biosensor is obtained in the range of 1-10mM with correlation coefficient of 0.93. Our study demonstrates TiO2-cellulose hybrid material as a potential candidate for an inexpensive, flexible and disposable glucose biosensor.

  19. Impact of 3D Var GSI-ENKF hybrid data assimilation system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Prasad; C J Johny; Jagdeep Singh Sodhi

    2016-12-01

    The hybrid two-way coupled 3DEnsVar assimilation system was tested with the NCMRWF global data assimilation forecasting system. At present, this system consists of T574L64 deterministic model and the grid-point statistical interpolation analysis scheme. In this experiment, the analysis system is modified with a two-way coupling with an 80 member Ensemble Kalman Filter of T254L64 resolution and runs are carried out in parallel to the operational system for the Indian summer monsoon season (June– September) for the year 2015 to study its impact. Both the assimilation systems are based on NCEP GFS system. It is found that hybrid assimilation marginally improved the quality of the forecasts of all variables over the deterministic 3D Var system, in terms of statistical skill scores and also in terms of circulation features. The impact of the hybrid system in prediction of extreme rainfall and cyclone track is discussed.

  20. Impact of 3D Var GSI-ENKF hybrid data assimilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, V. S.; Johny, C. J.; Sodhi, Jagdeep Singh

    2016-12-01

    The hybrid two-way coupled 3DEnsVar assimilation system was tested with the NCMRWF global data assimilation forecasting system. At present, this system consists of T574L64 deterministic model and the grid-point statistical interpolation analysis scheme. In this experiment, the analysis system is modified with a two-way coupling with an 80 member Ensemble Kalman Filter of T254L64 resolution and runs are carried out in parallel to the operational system for the Indian summer monsoon season (June-September) for the year 2015 to study its impact. Both the assimilation systems are based on NCEP GFS system. It is found that hybrid assimilation marginally improved the quality of the forecasts of all variables over the deterministic 3D Var system, in terms of statistical skill scores and also in terms of circulation features. The impact of the hybrid system in prediction of extreme rainfall and cyclone track is discussed.

  1. Asymptotic Stabilizability of a Class of Stochastic Nonlinear Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Seroka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the asymptotic stabilizability in probability of a class of stochastic nonlinear control hybrid systems (with a linear dependence of the control with state dependent, Markovian, and any switching rule is considered in the paper. To solve the issue, the Lyapunov technique, including a common, single, and multiple Lyapunov function, the hybrid control theory, and some results for stochastic nonhybrid systems are used. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stabilizability in probability for a considered class of hybrid systems are formulated. Also the stabilizing control in a feedback form is considered. Furthermore, in the case of hybrid systems with the state dependent switching rule, a method for a construction of stabilizing switching rules is proposed. Obtained results are illustrated by examples and numerical simulations.

  2. Evolutionary design of discrete controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finite State Automaton (FSA) is selected as the representation for a discrete controller due to its interpretability, fast execution speed and natural extension to a statechart, which is very...... popular in industrial applications. A case study of a two-tank system is used to demonstrate that the proposed evolutionary approach can lead to a successful design of an FSA controller for the hybrid mechatronic system, represented by a hybrid bond graph. Generalisation of the evolved FSA controller...... of the evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finally, some important future research directions are pointed out, leading to the major work of the succeeding part of the research....

  3. A study on the control of a hybrid MTDC system supplying a passive network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotb, Omar; Ghandhari, Mehrdad; Eriksson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid Multi-Terminal DC (MTDC) system can combine the benefits of both Line Commutated Converter (LCC) and Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technologies in the form of reduced losses and flexibility to connect to weak and passive grids. In this paper, an analysis of control strategies used...... in a hybrid MTDC system is presented. A case study of a four terminal hybrid MTDC system supplying a passive AC network was considered for simulation study. A control scheme based on voltage margin was developed to cope with the condition of main DC voltage controlling station tripping. Two various control...... scenarios for controlling the VSCs connected to the passive network were presented and compared. The system performance was studied through EMTP-RV simulations under different disturbances. The results show the ability of selected converter control modes and proposed control schemes to operate the hybrid...

  4. Hybrid Photovoltaic-Hydrogen Power Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigos, A.; Blanes, J. M.; Carrasco, J. A.; Maset, E.; Ejea, J. B.; Ferreres, A.; Sanchis, E.

    2011-10-01

    This paper explores a power conditioning unit for photovoltaic/hydrogen based energy systems. Similar power conversion techniques, compared to traditional space power systems, are applied. An S4R regulator is devised with an unregulated battery bus as primary output and a secondary path to feed and electrolyser. A modular fuel cell converter completes the system and it operates when photovoltaic energy is not available or load demand exceeds solar power, i. e. like a traditional BDR. An ancillary battery keeps the unregulated bus voltage distributed in the system and it also aids the fuel cell during transients or start-up due to its limited speed. A 1kW breadboard has been designed and implemented to corroborate the proposed system.

  5. ON THE STABILIZATION OF THE LINEAR HYBRID SYSTEM STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The linear control hybrid system, consisting of a fi- nite set of subsystems (modes having different dimensions, is considered. The moments of reset time are determined by some complementary function – evolutionary time. This function satisfies the special complementary ordinary differential equation. The mode stabilization problem is solved for some class of piecewise linear controls. The method of stabilization relies on the set of invariant planes, the existence of which is due to the special form of the hybrid system.

  6. A hybrid joint based controller for an upper extremity exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Khairuddin, Ismail; Taha, Zahari; Majeed, Anwar P. P. Abdul; Hakeem Deboucha, Abdel; Azraai Mohd Razman, Mohd; Aziz Jaafar, Abdul; Mohamed, Zulkifli

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the modelling and control of a two degree of freedom upper extremity exoskeleton. The Euler-Lagrange formulation was used in deriving the dynamic modelling of both the human upper limb as well as the exoskeleton that consists of the upper arm and the forearm. The human model is based on anthropometrical measurements of the upper limb. The proportional-derivative (PD) computed torque control (CTC) architecture is employed in this study to investigate its efficacy performing joint-space control objectives specifically in rehabilitating the elbow and shoulder joints along the sagittal plane. An active force control (AFC) algorithm is also incorporated into the PD-CTC to investigate the effectiveness of this hybrid system in compensating disturbances. It was found that the AFC- PD-CTC performs well against the disturbances introduced into the system whilst achieving acceptable trajectory tracking as compared to the conventional PD-CTC control architecture.

  7. User Controllability in a Hybrid Recommender System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Santander, Denis Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of Tapestry in 1990, research on recommender systems has traditionally focused on the development of algorithms whose goal is to increase the accuracy of predicting users' taste based on historical data. In the last decade, this research has diversified, with "human factors" being one area that has received…

  8. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  9. Atlas-Based Prostate Segmentation Using an Hybrid Registration

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Sébastien; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the preliminary results of a semi-automatic method for prostate segmentation of Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) which aims to be incorporated in a navigation system for prostate brachytherapy. Methods: The method is based on the registration of an anatomical atlas computed from a population of 18 MRI exams onto a patient image. An hybrid registration framework which couples an intensity-based registration with a robust point-matching algorithm is used for both atlas building and atlas registration. Results: The method has been validated on the same dataset that the one used to construct the atlas using the "leave-one-out method". Results gives a mean error of 3.39 mm and a standard deviation of 1.95 mm with respect to expert segmentations. Conclusions: We think that this segmentation tool may be a very valuable help to the clinician for routine quantitative image exploitation.

  10. 基于交互式多目标优化算法的风光互补发电系统优化%Optimization of wind-PV hybrid power systems based on interactive multi-objective optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周天沛; 孙伟

    2013-01-01

    The configuration optimization of wind-PV hybrid power systems may consider as a problem of multi-object optimization problem, in which the optimization objective is minimizing system installation cost, subject to power reliability. It was a key how to reasonably settle the configuration to give full play to the superiority of hybrid power systems. An interactive multi-objective optimization algorithm based on preference was proposed in the calculation of the cost (objective) function minimization, the populations, composition of target weight value , was optimized by interactive genetic algorithm, the weighted single objective function was optimized by particle swarm optimization algorithm, which were applied to configuration optimization of wind-PV hybrid power systems. The result shows that the economic performance of the hybrid power systems is superior to that of the single photovoltaic power system or single wind power system under the prerequisite for satisfying the load demand.%风光互补发电系统的优化配置是一个多目标优化问题,优化目标为系统安装成本,约束条件为供电可靠性.合理的匹配设计是充分发挥风光互补发电系统优越性的关键.在成本(目标)函数的最优化计算中,提出一种基于偏好的交互式多目标优化算法,利用交互式遗传算法优化目标权重值组成的种群,利用粒子群优化算法优化加权单目标函数,并将其应用到风光互补发电系统的优化配置中.计算结果表明,在满足负荷用电的前提下,风光互补发电系统的经济性能优于单独的光伏系统和风电系统.

  11. Note on the Lax Pair of a Coupled Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ping; FU Pei-Kai

    2012-01-01

    The hybrid lattice,known as a discrete Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation,is found to be a discrete modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation.The coupled hybrid lattice,which is pointed out to be a discrete coupled KdV system,is also found to be a discrete form of a coupled mKdV system.New lax pairs for the single and coupled discrete hybrid systems are proposed as a different study from previous ones.%The hybrid lattice, known as a discrete Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, is found to be a discrete modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation. The coupled hybrid lattice, which is pointed out to be a discrete coupled KdV system, is also found to be a discrete form of a coupled mKdV system. New lax pairs for the single and coupled discrete hybrid systems are proposed as a different study from previous ones.

  12. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  13. Graphene based nanocomposite hybrid electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphale, Ashish N.

    There is an unmet need to develop high performance energy storage systems (ESS), capable of storing energy from both renewable and non-renewable sources to meet the current energy crisis and depletion of non-renewable sources. Amongst many available ESS, supercapacitors (ECs) are the most promising because they exhibit a high charge/discharge rate and power density, along with a long cycle life. The possibility of exploring the use of atomically thin carbon allotropes like graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and electrically conducting polymers (ECPs) such as polypyrrole (PPy) has been studied as a high performance conducting electrodes in supercapacitor application. A novel templated sustainable nanocomposite electrode has been fabricated using cellulose extracted from Cladophora c. aegagropila algae as component of the assembled supercapacitor device which later has been transitioned to a unique template-less freestanding nanocomposite supercapacitor electrode. The specific capacitance of polypyrrole-graphene-cellulose nanocomposite as calculated from cyclic voltammetry curve is 91.5 F g -1 at the scan rate 50 m Vs-1 in the presence of 1M NaCl electrolyte. The open circuit voltage of the device with polypyrrole -graphene-cellulose electrode was found to be around 225 m V and that of the polypyrrole -cellulose device is only 53 m V without the presence of graphene in the nanocomposite electrode. Understanding the fundamentals by fabricating template nanocomposite electrode, it led to fabricate a unique nanocomposite template-less freestanding film which comprises of polypyrrole-graphene-CNT hybrid. Various experiments have been performed using different electrolytes such ascorbic acid, sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid in different scan rates. The specific capacitance of polypyrrole-graphene-CNT nanocomposite with 0.1 wt% of graphene-CNT, as calculated from cyclic voltammetry curve is 450 F g-1 at the scan rate 5 m V s-1. For the first time a nanofibrous membrane has

  14. Design of Data Acquisition System Based on LabVIEW For Hybrid Energy Automobile%基于LabVIEW的复合能源电动汽车数据采集系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱洪波; 康龙云; 杨会州

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of hybrid energy automobile and to optimize the control strategy of hy brid energy management system, a data acquisition system based on LabVIEW is designed, including data ac quisition card, sensors, signal conditioning circuit, main program. This system can achieve the functions of data acquisition, analysis, display and storage of operational parameters of hybrid energy automobile. Furthermore, to improve calculation accuracy of vehicle speed signal, a method of velocity measuring which the sampling fre quency can be adjusted according to the vehicle speed is proposed. At last, the experiment that has taken on the hybrid energy automobile indicates that the system can realize data acquisition exactly.%为了评价复合能源电动汽车的性能以及优化复合能源管理系统的控制策略,设计了一种基于LabVIEW的数据采集系统,主要包括传感器、数据采集卡、信号调理电路、系统主程序.本系统实现了对复合能源电动汽车运行参数的采集、分析、显示和存储.此外,为了提高车速信号的计算精度,提出了一种可以根据车速调整采样频率的测速方法.最后在复合能源电动车上进行了实验,结果表明,系统能够对信号进行准确采集.

  15. Research on optimal power allocation strategy based on SOC state feedback in hybrid energy storage system%基于 SOC 状态反馈的混合储能功率优化策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙纯军; 倪春花; 窦晓波

    2016-01-01

    文中储能系统功率优化分配以一阶惯性滤波系统为基础,介绍了滤波系数的确定方法,首先提出了基于频谱分析的混合储能系统功率分配方法,根据频谱分析结果,确定波动功率在蓄电池与超级电容之间的分配;在频谱分析的基础上,进一步提出了基于SOC状态反馈的混合储能系统功率优化分配方法,并采用模糊控制,根据储能系统荷电状态SOC的值实时调整系统的滤波时间参数,从而实现超级电容-蓄电池储能系统的长期有效运行。最后,在PSCAD/EMTDC中搭建微电网仿真模型,并设计仿真方案,通过仿真验证所提混合储能系统功率优化分配策略的有效性。%Energy storage system has an important significance for reliable and stable operation of micro-grids.Con-sidering the lack of single form of energy storage, ultra-capacitor-battery hybrid energy storage system is used in this paper.Strategies of power distribution of energy storage system are based on first order inertial filter system, and the method to determine the filter coefficients are introduced.Firstly, a method based on spectrum analysis is proposed to distribute the fluctuated power between the battery and ultra-capacitor.Next, a power distribution strategy of hybrid energy storage system based on SOC feedback is proposed.And fuzzy control method is adopted to adjust system pa-rameters in real time according to the state of charge of the storage system, thus achieving the long term operation of hybrid energy storage system.Finally, the models are built in PSCAD /EMTDC to verify the effectiveness of the pow-er distribution strategies through simulation according to the designed projects.

  16. Feynman-Kac formula for stochastic hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    We derive a Feynman-Kac formula for functionals of a stochastic hybrid system evolving according to a piecewise deterministic Markov process. We first derive a stochastic Liouville equation for the moment generator of the stochastic functional, given a particular realization of the underlying discrete Markov process; the latter generates transitions between different dynamical equations for the continuous process. We then analyze the stochastic Liouville equation using methods recently developed for diffusion processes in randomly switching environments. In particular, we obtain dynamical equations for the moment generating function, averaged with respect to realizations of the discrete Markov process. The resulting Feynman-Kac formula takes the form of a differential Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. We illustrate the theory by calculating the occupation time for a one-dimensional velocity jump process on the infinite or semi-infinite real line. Finally, we present an alternative derivation of the Feynman-Kac formula based on a recent path-integral formulation of stochastic hybrid systems.

  17. Feynman-Kac formula for stochastic hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    We derive a Feynman-Kac formula for functionals of a stochastic hybrid system evolving according to a piecewise deterministic Markov process. We first derive a stochastic Liouville equation for the moment generator of the stochastic functional, given a particular realization of the underlying discrete Markov process; the latter generates transitions between different dynamical equations for the continuous process. We then analyze the stochastic Liouville equation using methods recently developed for diffusion processes in randomly switching environments. In particular, we obtain dynamical equations for the moment generating function, averaged with respect to realizations of the discrete Markov process. The resulting Feynman-Kac formula takes the form of a differential Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. We illustrate the theory by calculating the occupation time for a one-dimensional velocity jump process on the infinite or semi-infinite real line. Finally, we present an alternative derivation of the Feynman-Kac formula based on a recent path-integral formulation of stochastic hybrid systems.

  18. Control Valve Trajectories for SOFC Hybrid System Startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorrell, Megan; Banta, Larry; Rosen, William; Restrepo, Bernardo; Tucker, David

    2012-07-01

    Control and management of cathode airflow in a solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine hybrid power system was analyzed using the Hybrid Performance (HyPer) hardware simulation at the National Energy Technology (NETL), U.S. Department of Energy. This work delves into previously unexplored operating practices for HyPer, via simultaneous manipulation of bypass valves and the electric load on the generator. The work is preparatory to the development of a Multi-Input, Multi-Output (MIMO) controller for HyPer. A factorial design of experiments was conducted to acquire data for 81 different combinations of the manipulated variables, which consisted of three air flow control valves and the electric load on the turbine generator. From this data the response surface for the cathode airflow with respect to bypass valve positions was analyzed. Of particular interest is the control of airflow through the cathode during system startup and during large load swings. This paper presents an algorithm for controlling air mass flow through the cathode based on a modification of the steepest ascent method.

  19. High Performance of a TOA-TDOA Hybrid GSM Location System for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志扬; 施鹏飞

    2003-01-01

    This paper illustrates the performance of a mobile positioning technique applicable to a GSM network.An experimental system of a network-based GSM positioning for ITS has been proposed, and the hybrid TOA-TDOA method based on GSM signaling has been analyzed and used. The performance of the proposed system is showed through simulations in urban and suburban environments. The accuracy for 67% mobile stations is 70 m in urban and 120 m in suburban. The accuracy, coverage and network load of positioning system are also analyzed.

  20. An Active Fault-Tolerant PWM Tracker for Unknown Nonlinear Stochastic Hybrid Systems: NARMAX Model and OKID-Based State-Space Self-Tuning Control

    OpenAIRE

    Chu-Tong Wang; Tsai, Jason S. H.; Chia-Wei Chen; You Lin; Shu-Mei Guo; Leang-San Shieh

    2010-01-01

    An active fault-tolerant pulse-width-modulated tracker using the nonlinear autoregressive moving average with exogenous inputs model-based state-space self-tuning control is proposed for continuous-time multivariable nonlinear stochastic systems with unknown system parameters, plant noises, measurement noises, and inaccessible system states. Through observer/Kalman filter identification method, a good initial guess of the unknown parameters of the chosen model is obtained so as to reduce the ...

  1. PV-wind hybrid system performance. A new approach and a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arribas, Luis; Cano, Luis; Cruz, Ignacio [Departamento de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mata, Montserrat; Llobet, Ermen [Ecotecnia, Roc Boronat 78, 08005 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Until now, there is no internationally accepted guideline for the measurement, data exchange and analysis of PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. As there is a need for such a tool, so as to overcome the barrier that the lack of confidence due to the absence of reliability means for the development of the market of Hybrid Systems, an effort has been made to suggest one tool for PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. The suggested guidelines presented in this work are based on the existing guidelines for PV Systems, as a PV-Wind Hybrid system can be roughly thought of as a PV System to which wind generation has been added. So, the guidelines for PV Systems are valid for the PV-Wind System, and only the part referred to wind generation should be included. This has been the process followed in this work. The proposed method is applied to a case study, the CICLOPS Project, a 5 kW PV, 7.5 kW Wind Hybrid system installed at the Isolated Wind Systems Test Site that CIEMAT owns in CEDER (Soria, Spain). This system has been fully monitored through a year and the results of the monitoring activity, characterizing the long-term performance of the system are shown in this work. (author)

  2. Optimum Performance-Based Seismic Design Using a Hybrid Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talatahari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid optimization method is presented to optimum seismic design of steel frames considering four performance levels. These performance levels are considered to determine the optimum design of structures to reduce the structural cost. A pushover analysis of steel building frameworks subject to equivalent-static earthquake loading is utilized. The algorithm is based on the concepts of the charged system search in which each agent is affected by local and global best positions stored in the charged memory considering the governing laws of electrical physics. Comparison of the results of the hybrid algorithm with those of other metaheuristic algorithms shows the efficiency of the hybrid algorithm.

  3. Hybrid Ventilation with Innovative Heat Recovery—A System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Hellström

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors when low energy houses are built is to have good heat recovery on the ventilation system. However, standard ventilation units use a considerable amount of electricity. This article discusses the consequences on a system level of using hybrid ventilation with heat recovery. The simulation program TRNSYS was used in order to investigate a ventilation system with heat recovery. The system also includes a ground source storage and waste water heat recovery system. The result of the analysis shows that the annual energy gain from ground source storage is limited. However, this is partly a consequence of the fact that the well functioning hybrid ventilation system leaves little room for improvements. The analysis shows that the hybrid ventilation system has potential to be an attractive solution for low energy buildings with a very low need for electrical energy.

  4. Thermal simulation of a cooling system of hybrid commercial vehicles; Thermalsimulation eine Hybrid-LKW-Kuehlsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroh, Christoph; Schnoerch, Stefan; Rathberger, Christian [Magna Powertrain Engineering Center Steyr GmbH und Co. KG, St. Valentin (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    In the past few years hybrid vehicles have been in the center of automotive engineering efforts, in particular in the field of passenger cars. But hybrid powertrains will also be important for commercial trucks. This focus on hybrid vehicles leads to high demands on thermal management since the additional components in a hybrid vehicle need appropriate cooling or even heating. In the given paper the simulation of a complete cooling system of a hybrid commercial vehicle will be explained. For this virtual examination the commercial 1D thermal management software KULI will be used, a co-simulation with several programs will not be done deliberately. Yet all aspects which are relevant for a global assessment of the thermal management are considered. The main focus is put on the investigation of appropriate concepts for the fluid circuits, including low and high temperature circuits, electric water pumps, etc. Moreover, also a refrigerant circuit with a chiller for active battery cooling will be used, the appropriate control strategy is implemented as well. For simulating transient profiles a simple driving simulation model is included, using road profile, ambient conditions, and various vehicle parameters as input. In addition an engine model is included which enables the investigation of fuel consumption potentials. This simulation model shows how the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle can be investigated with a single program and with reasonable effort. (orig.)

  5. Hybrid rocket propulsion systems for outer planet exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jens, Elizabeth T.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hubbard, G. Scott

    2016-11-01

    Outer planet exploration missions require significant propulsive capability, particularly to achieve orbit insertion. Missions to explore the moons of outer planets place even more demanding requirements on propulsion systems, since they involve multiple large ΔV maneuvers. Hybrid rockets present a favorable alternative to conventional propulsion systems for many of these missions. They typically enjoy higher specific impulse than solids, can be throttled, stopped/restarted, and have more flexibility in their packaging configuration. Hybrids are more compact and easier to throttle than liquids and have similar performance levels. In order to investigate the suitability of these propulsion systems for exploration missions, this paper presents novel hybrid motor designs for two interplanetary missions. Hybrid propulsion systems for missions to Europa and Uranus are presented and compared to conventional in-space propulsion systems. The hybrid motor design for each of these missions is optimized across a range of parameters, including propellant selection, O/F ratio, nozzle area ratio, and chamber pressure. Details of the design process are described in order to provide guidance for researchers wishing to evaluate hybrid rocket motor designs for other missions and applications.

  6. Energy efficient hybrid computing systems using spin devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharad, Mrigank

    Emerging spin-devices like magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ's), spin-valves and domain wall magnets (DWM) have opened new avenues for spin-based logic design. This work explored potential computing applications which can exploit such devices for higher energy-efficiency and performance. The proposed applications involve hybrid design schemes, where charge-based devices supplement the spin-devices, to gain large benefits at the system level. As an example, lateral spin valves (LSV) involve switching of nanomagnets using spin-polarized current injection through a metallic channel such as Cu. Such spin-torque based devices possess several interesting properties that can be exploited for ultra-low power computation. Analog characteristic of spin current facilitate non-Boolean computation like majority evaluation that can be used to model a neuron. The magneto-metallic neurons can operate at ultra-low terminal voltage of ˜20mV, thereby resulting in small computation power. Moreover, since nano-magnets inherently act as memory elements, these devices can facilitate integration of logic and memory in interesting ways. The spin based neurons can be integrated with CMOS and other emerging devices leading to different classes of neuromorphic/non-Von-Neumann architectures. The spin-based designs involve `mixed-mode' processing and hence can provide very compact and ultra-low energy solutions for complex computation blocks, both digital as well as analog. Such low-power, hybrid designs can be suitable for various data processing applications like cognitive computing, associative memory, and currentmode on-chip global interconnects. Simulation results for these applications based on device-circuit co-simulation framework predict more than ˜100x improvement in computation energy as compared to state of the art CMOS design, for optimal spin-device parameters.

  7. Three-Dimensional Printing Based Hybrid Manufacturing of Microfluidic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapan, Yunus; Hasan, Muhammad Noman; Shen, Richang; Gurkan, Umut A

    2015-05-01

    Microfluidic platforms offer revolutionary and practical solutions to challenging problems in biology and medicine. Even though traditional micro/nanofabrication technologies expedited the emergence of the microfluidics field, recent advances in advanced additive manufacturing hold significant potential for single-step, stand-alone microfluidic device fabrication. One such technology, which holds a significant promise for next generation microsystem fabrication is three-dimensional (3D) printing. Presently, building 3D printed stand-alone microfluidic devices with fully embedded microchannels for applications in biology and medicine has the following challenges: (i) limitations in achievable design complexity, (ii) need for a wider variety of transparent materials, (iii) limited z-resolution, (iv) absence of extremely smooth surface finish, and (v) limitations in precision fabrication of hollow and void sections with extremely high surface area to volume ratio. We developed a new way to fabricate stand-alone microfluidic devices with integrated manifolds and embedded microchannels by utilizing a 3D printing and laser micromachined lamination based hybrid manufacturing approach. In this new fabrication method, we exploit the minimized fabrication steps enabled by 3D printing, and reduced assembly complexities facilitated by laser micromachined lamination method. The new hybrid fabrication method enables key features for advanced microfluidic system architecture: (i) increased design complexity in 3D, (ii) improved control over microflow behavior in all three directions and in multiple layers, (iii) transverse multilayer flow and precisely integrated flow distribution, and (iv) enhanced transparency for high resolution imaging and analysis. Hybrid manufacturing approaches hold great potential in advancing microfluidic device fabrication in terms of standardization, fast production, and user-independent manufacturing.

  8. Analysis of advanced solar hybrid desiccant cooling systems for buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlepp, D.; Schultz, K.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an assessment of the energy savings possible from developing hybrid desiccant/vapor-compression air conditioning systems. Recent advances in dehumidifier design for solar desiccant cooling systems have resulted in a dehumidifier with a low pressure drop and high efficiency in heat and mass transfer. A recent study on hybrid desiccant/vapor compression systems showed a 30%-80% savings in resource energy when compared with the best conventional systems with vapor compression. A system consisting of a dehumidifier with vapor compression subsystems in series was found to be the simplest and best overall performer.

  9. An intelligent hybrid behavior coordination system for an autonomous mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chaomin; Krishnan, Mohan; Paulik, Mark; Fallouh, Samer

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, development of a low-cost PID controller with an intelligent behavior coordination system for an autonomous mobile robot is described that is equipped with IR sensors, ultrasonic sensors, regulator, and RC filters on the robot platform based on HCS12 microcontroller and embedded systems. A novel hybrid PID controller and behavior coordination system is developed for wall-following navigation and obstacle avoidance of an autonomous mobile robot. Adaptive control used in this robot is a hybrid PID algorithm associated with template and behavior coordination models. Software development contains motor control, behavior coordination intelligent system and sensor fusion. In addition, the module-based programming technique is adopted to improve the efficiency of integrating the hybrid PID and template as well as behavior coordination model algorithms. The hybrid model is developed to synthesize PID control algorithms, template and behavior coordination technique for wall-following navigation with obstacle avoidance systems. The motor control, obstacle avoidance, and wall-following navigation algorithms are developed to propel and steer the autonomous mobile robot. Experiments validate how this PID controller and behavior coordination system directs an autonomous mobile robot to perform wall-following navigation with obstacle avoidance. Hardware configuration and module-based technique are described in this paper. Experimental results demonstrate that the robot is successfully capable of being guided by the hybrid PID controller and behavior coordination system for wall-following navigation with obstacle avoidance.

  10. 基于混合结构的高职院校教务管理系统的研究与设计%Research and Design of Educational Management System in Higher Vocational Colleges Based on the hybrid structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎国栋

    2015-01-01

    教务管理系统是教育信息化的核心内容。通过研究当前教务管理系统特点,分析高职院校教学规律,在比较C/S模式和B/S模式的优缺点的基础上,建立了基于混合结构的教务管理系统。%The educational management system is the core content of educational informatization. Through the study of the current educational management system features, analysis of teaching rules of higher vocational colleges, on the basis of comparing the advantages and disadvantages of C/S mode and B/S mode on, set up the educational management system based on hybrid structure.

  11. A PRODUCT HYBRID GMRES ALGORITHM FOR NONSYMMETRIC LINEAR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-jiang Zhong

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that the residual polynomials resulted from successive restarting cycles of GMRES(m) may differ from one another meaningfully. In this paper, it is further shown that the polynomials can complement one another harmoniously in reducing the iterative residual. This characterization of GMRES(m) is exploited to formulate an efficient hybrid iterative scheme, which can be widely applied to existing hybrid algorithms for solving large nonsymmetric systems of linear equations. In particular, a variant of the hybrid GMRES algorithm of Nachtigal, Reichel and Trefethen (1992) is presented. It is described how the new algorithm may offer significant performance improvements over the original one.

  12. Hybrid PV/wind system with quinary asymmetric inverter without increasing DC-link number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Baghbany Oskouei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests quinary asymmetric inverter with coupled inductors and transformer, and uses it in hybrid system including photovoltaic (PV and wind. This inverter produces twenty-five-level voltage in addition to merits of multilevel inverter, has only one DC source. Then, it is adequate for hybrid systems, which prevents increasing DC-link and makes control of system easy. Proposed structure also provides isolation in the system and the switch numbers are reduced in this topology compared with other multilevel structures. In this system, battery is used as backup, where PV and wind have complementary nature. The performance of proposed inverter and hybrid system is validated with simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK software and experimental results based PCI-1716 data acquisition system.

  13. Sizing of a hybrid locomotive based on accumulators and ultracapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Amine; Sareni, Bruno; Roboam, Xavier; Thiounn-Guermeur, Marina

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybridization of a BB460000 locomotive is proposed integrating a reduced power diesel generator, batteries and ultracapacitors as storage elements. The power mission of the BB460000 locomotive is studied in order to analyze its ability to be hybridized and to identify the most critical mission. An energy management strategy based on a frequency sharing is proposed. It allows strongly decreasing the nominal power of the diesel generator. Then, through a power flow sizing model, ...

  14. Development of Hybrid Product Breakdown Structure for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Henry, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Product Breakdown Structure is traditionally a method of identification of the products of a project in a tree structure. It is a tool used to assess, plan, document, and display the equipment requirements for a project. It is part of a product based planning technique, and attempts to break down all components of a project in as much detail as possible, so that nothing is overlooked. The PBS for ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center is being developed to encompass the traditional requirements including the alignment of facility, systems, and components to the organizational hierarchy. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure is a hybrid in nature in that some aspects of a work breakdown structure will be incorporated and merged with the Architecture Concept of Operations, Master Subsystem List, customer interface, and assigned management responsibility. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure needs to be able to identify the flexibility of support differing customers (internal and external) usage of ground support equipment within the Kennedy Space Center launch and processing complex. The development of the Product Breakdown Structure is an iterative activity Initially documenting the organization hierarchy structure and relationships. The Product Breakdown Structure identifies the linkage between the customer program requirements, allocation of system resources, development of design goals, and identification logistics products. As the Product Breakdown Structure progresses the incorporation of the results of requirement planning for the customer occurs identifying facility needs and systems. The mature Product Breakdown Structure is baselined with a hierarchical drawing, the Product Breakdown Structure database, and an associated document identifying the verification of the data through the life cycle of the program/product line. This paper will document, demonstrate, and identify key aspects of the life cycle of a Hybrid Product

  15. 基于遗传算法的风光柴蓄复合发电系统优化设计%Optimal Design of Wind-Solar-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Power Generation System Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建东; 商执一; 王自上; 杨帆

    2011-01-01

    According to the nonlinear characteristics of the wind -solar -diesel -battery hybrid power generation system,using the genetic algorithm and strategies of energy dispatching,with the initial investment and operating cost adopted as the objective function. the hybrid p ower system scheme was optimized based on the actual engineering system configuration.Three closest schemes to the optimized scheme were chosen and simulated on the all-year hourly basis. The simulation experimental results show that under conditions of meeting the user's load requirements, the optimized algorithm and strategies of energy dispatching adopted are correct and the scheme is feasible and economical.%针对风光柴蓄复合发电系统的非线性特性,采用遗传算法和能量调度策略,以系统初期投资费用和运行费用最优为系统优化目标函数,结合实际工程系统的配置进行了优化设计,并选取与优化方案较接近的三种方案进行全年逐时仿真比较.实验结果表明,在满足用户负载要求的条件下,所采用的优化算法和策略正确,方案配置合理、经济、可行.

  16. A Secure & Hybrid Authentication Protocol of Intrusion Detection System for MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.CHARLES AROCKIARAJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In MANET, security is the toughest and very challenging area, because nodes are without any predefined framework. This is due to the high mobility of outstanding vulnerabilities and attacks of the malicious nodes in the intrusion detection system of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET. A secure & hybrid protocol design has been proposed, in order to improve the detection efficiency and also to improvise the performance of Intrusion Detection Systems for MANET. Based on the hybrid techniques with the aid of key management authentication and combining with a fuzzy based decision model for detecting the misbehaving attacks. Identifying group of physical attacker and finding its probabilities and its side effects are evaluated. To discover the misbehaving attackers and predicting it effects by using Fuzzy based model. In the proposed hybrid authentication protocol for malicious node detection system and for avoiding problems related to missing packet, delay in the nodes and false misbehavior reports. Secure hybrid authentication protocol is used to detect various attacks in MANETs by incorporating hybrid techniques such as fuzzy schemes and key organization method. Hence the different ratio of all the parameter were experimented and analyzed, in terms of the attack prediction rate, attack precision, packet drop ratio and end to end delivery ratio. The schemes were compared with the existing mechanisms and results show that proposed hybrid authentication has superior improvement in the performance.

  17. An Energy Management System of a Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Boat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Han

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All-electric ships are now a standard offering for energy/propulsion systems in boats. In this context, integrating fuel cells (FCs as power sources in hybrid energy systems can be an interesting solution because of their high efficiency and low emission. The energy management strategy for different power sources has a great influence on the fuel consumption, dynamic performance and service life of these power sources. This paper presents a hybrid FC/battery power system for a low power boat. The hybrid system consists of the association of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC and battery bank. The mathematical models for the components of the hybrid system are presented. These models are implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulations allow analyzing the dynamic performance and power allocation according to a typical driving cycle. In this system, an efficient energy management system (EMS based on operation states is proposed. This EMS strategy determines the operating point of each component of the system in order to maximize the system efficiency. Simulation results validate the adequacy of the hybrid power system and the proposed EMS for real ship driving cycles.

  18. Towards a General Theory of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Lygeros, J.; Bujorianu, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we set up a mathematical structure, called Markov string, to obtaining a very general class of models for stochastic hybrid systems. Markov Strings are, in fact, a class of Markov processes, obtained by a mixing mechanism of stochastic processes, introduced by Meyer. We prove that Markov strings are strong Markov processes with the cadlag property. We then show how a very general class of stochastic hybrid processes can be embedded in the framework of Markov strings. This class,...

  19. Hybrid Recommendation System Memanfaatkan Penggalian Frequent Itemset dan Perbandingan Keyword

    OpenAIRE

    Suka Parwita, Wayan Gede; Winarko, Edi

    2015-01-01

    AbstrakRecommendation system sering dibangun dengan memanfaatkan data peringkat item dan data identitas pengguna. Data peringkat item merupakan data yang langka pada sistem yang baru dibangun. Sedangkan, pemberian data identitas pada recommendation system dapat menimbulkan kekhawatiran penyalahgunaan data identitas.Hybrid recommendation system memanfaatkan algoritma penggalian frequent itemset dan perbandingan keyword dapat memberikan daftar rekomendasi tanpa menggunakan data identitas penggu...

  20. Impulsive and hybrid dynamical systems stability, dissipativity, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Haddad, Wassim M; Nersesov, Sergey G

    2014-01-01

    This book develops a general analysis and synthesis framework for impulsive and hybrid dynamical systems. Such a framework is imperative for modern complex engineering systems that involve interacting continuous-time and discrete-time dynamics with multiple modes of operation that place stringent demands on controller design and require implementation of increasing complexity--whether advanced high-performance tactical fighter aircraft and space vehicles, variable-cycle gas turbine engines, or air and ground transportation systems. Impulsive and Hybrid Dynamical Systems goes beyond similar