WorldWideScience

Sample records for based health prevention

  1. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention in opioid Dependence Treatment &Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Findings: therapy compliance, retention in treatment, decrease in somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction and increase in health was significantly in both combination of psychological intervention method than the Naltroxan group. Mindfulness-based on relapse prevention was more effective than CBT relapse prevention in decreasing of, social dysfunction, relapse prevention, increase of therapy compliance, and health. Results: Mindfulness based relapse prevention was superior to CBT and Naltroxan and considerably increased effectiveness of opioid relapse prevention therapy.

  2. The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.

  3. The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aník Gevers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV. However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.

  4. Value-Based Health Care Delivery, Preventive Medicine and the Medicalization of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The real paradigm shift for healthcare is often stated to include a transition from accentuating health care production and instead emphasize patient value by moving to a ‘value-based health care delivery’. In this transition, personalized medicine is sometimes referred to as almost a panacea in solving the current and future health challenges. In theory, the progress of precision medicine sounds uncontroversial and most welcomed with its promise of a better healthcare for all, with real benefits for the individual patient provided a tailored and optimized treatment plan suitable for his or her genetic makeup. And maybe, therefore, the assumptions underpinning personalized medicine have largely escaped questioning. The use of personalized medicine and the use of digital technologies is reshaping our health care system and how we think of health interventions and our individual responsibility. However, encouraging individuals to engage in preventive health activities possibly avoids one form of medicalization (clinical), but on the other hand, it takes up another form (preventive medicine and ‘self-care’) that moves medical and health concerns into every corner of everyday life. This ought to be of little value to the individual patient and public health. We ought to instead demand proof of these value ideas and the lacking research. Before this is in place critical appraisal and cynicism are requisite skills for the future. Otherwise, we are just listening to visionaries when we put our future health into their hands and let personalized solutions reach into people's everyday life regardless of patient safety and integrity. PMID:28409064

  5. Value-Based Health Care Delivery, Preventive Medicine and the Medicalization of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelmsson, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The real paradigm shift for healthcare is often stated to include a transition from accentuating health care production and instead emphasize patient value by moving to a 'value-based health care delivery'. In this transition, personalized medicine is sometimes referred to as almost a panacea in solving the current and future health challenges. In theory, the progress of precision medicine sounds uncontroversial and most welcomed with its promise of a better healthcare for all, with real benefits for the individual patient provided a tailored and optimized treatment plan suitable for his or her genetic makeup. And maybe, therefore, the assumptions underpinning personalized medicine have largely escaped questioning. The use of personalized medicine and the use of digital technologies is reshaping our health care system and how we think of health interventions and our individual responsibility. However, encouraging individuals to engage in preventive health activities possibly avoids one form of medicalization (clinical), but on the other hand, it takes up another form (preventive medicine and 'self-care') that moves medical and health concerns into every corner of everyday life. This ought to be of little value to the individual patient and public health. We ought to instead demand proof of these value ideas and the lacking research. Before this is in place critical appraisal and cynicism are requisite skills for the future. Otherwise, we are just listening to visionaries when we put our future health into their hands and let personalized solutions reach into people's everyday life regardless of patient safety and integrity.

  6. Ergonomics and epidemiology in evidence based health prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2009-01-01

    According to the definitions, ergonomics is a natural part of the health and safety activity but it has its own research methods and causal models. Public health, occupational and clinical medicines are closely related to epidemiology and differ from ergonomics by using a disease model with a wide...... success of health effects from the clinical trials could not be obtained. It is argued that the ergonomics design, Integration and Implementation can be strengthened by adapting the epidemiological methods and causal models. The ergonomics can then contribute to a common development of public health...

  7. Community and school mental health professionals' knowledge and use of evidence based substance use prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Steven W; Randy Koch, J; Brady, Christine; Meszaros, Peggy; Sadler, Joanna

    2013-07-01

    Youth with learning and behavioral problems are at elevated risk for substance use during adolescence. Although evidence-based substance use prevention and screening practices are described in the literature, the extent with which these are provided to these youth is unclear. Mental health professionals in schools and community mental health centers are in an ideal position to conduct substance use screening and prevention practices since they have frequent contact with this high risk group. In order to determine whether these mental health professionals were using evidence based substance use screening and prevention programs with these youth, we analyzed 345 completed surveys from mental health professionals in schools and community clinics throughout a mid-Atlantic state. Results indicated that a large portion of the respondents were unfamiliar with evidence based practices and they were infrequently used. Implications for the division of labor at schools and community mental health centers are discussed in relation to time allotment and priority for these procedures.

  8. Violent Extremism, Community-Based Violence Prevention, and Mental Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, Stevan M; Stone, Andrew; Saeed, Aliya; Shanfield, Stephen; Beahrs, John; Gutman, Alisa; Mihajlovic, Aida

    2017-01-01

    New community-based initiatives being developed to address violent extremism in the United States are utilizing mental health services and leadership. This article reviews current approaches to preventing violent extremism, the contribution that mental illness and psychosocial problems can make to violent extremism, and the rationale for integrating mental health strategies into preventing violent extremism. The authors describe a community-based targeted violence prevention model and the potential roles of mental health professionals. This model consists of a multidisciplinary team that assesses at-risk individuals with comprehensive threat and behavioral evaluations, arranges for ongoing support and treatment, conducts follow-up evaluations, and offers outreach, education, and resources for communities. This model would enable mental health professionals in local communities to play key roles in preventing violent extremism through their practice and leadership.

  9. Improving preventive service delivery at adult complete health check-ups: the Preventive health Evidence-based Recommendation Form (PERFORM cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moineddin Rahim

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effectiveness of a single checklist reminder form to improve the delivery of preventive health services at adult health check-ups in a family practice setting. Methods A prospective cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted at four urban family practice clinics among 38 primary care physicians affiliated with the University of Toronto. Preventive Care Checklist Forms© were created to be used by family physicians at adult health check-ups over a five-month period. The sex-specific forms incorporate evidence-based recommendations on preventive health services and documentation space for routine procedures such as physical examination. The forms were used in two intervention clinics and two control clinics. Rates and relative risks (RR of the performance of 13 preventive health maneuvers at baseline and post-intervention and the percentage of up-to-date preventive health services delivered per patient were compared between the two groups. Results Randomly-selected charts were reviewed at baseline (n = 509 and post-intervention (n = 608. Baseline rates for provision of preventive health services ranged from 3% (fecal occult blood testing to 93% (blood pressure measurement, similar to other settings. The percentage of up-to-date preventive health services delivered per patient at the end of the intervention was 48.9% in the control group and 71.7% in the intervention group. This is an overall 22.8% absolute increase (p = 0.0001, and 46.6% relative increase in the delivery of preventive health services per patient in the intervention group compared to controls. Eight of thirteen preventive health services showed a statistically significant change (p Conclusion This simple, low cost, clinically relevant intervention improves the delivery of preventive health services by prompting physicians of evidence-based recommendations in a checklist format that incorporates existing practice patterns. Periodic updates

  10. Effectiveness of a Community-Based Health Education Intervention in Cervical Cancer Prevention in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chania

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s beliefs are one of the main reasons for not undergoing Pap-test for cervical cancer prevention. Health education programs could help change these beliefs and motivate women to adopt a preventive health behavior.Objectives: This study aims to assess the modification in women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention after the implementation of a health education intervention.Methodology: A health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention was implemented to 300 women in two prefectures of southern Greece. The experimental group received a 120-minute health education intervention, based on the Health Beliefs Model (HBM including a lecture, discussion and leaflets. The hypotheses were a will this brief intervention change women’s beliefs (perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, benefits and barriers ofundergoing the Pap-test? b will this change in beliefs sustain in six months follow-up period? and c will women undergo pap-test in six months period? The women filled in an anonymous questionnaire, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM, before, immediately after and six months after the program.Results: The health education intervention significantly modified women’s beliefs and behaviors towards pap-test. The greater changes in women’s beliefs were observed in their sense of susceptibility towards the disease and the benefits of prevention which were sustained or improved after six months. Perceived barriers to undergo the Paptest, pain, embarrassment, and worry for the results decreased immediately after the program but started relapsingin the six month follow up period. Moreover, 88.1% of the women answered that they had underwent a Pap-test during the following six months.Conclusions: This health education intervention modified women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention. Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be

  11. Business model innovation for value and technology based preventive health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linner, T.; Solcanu, G.; van den Boom, C.B.; Lingegard, H.; Istamto, T.; Proctor, G.M.; Lu, Y.; Steenbakkers, J.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a structured approach for the development of an initial business strategy blueprint for a complicated, multi-partner, multidisciplinary, early-stage research project focusing on valuebased and preventive health care technology, is presented. Based on an in-depth analysis of the

  12. Value-Based Health Care Delivery, Preventive Medicine and the Medicalization of Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Vilhelmsson, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The?real paradigm shift for healthcare is often stated to include a transition from accentuating health care production and instead emphasize patient value by moving to a??value-based health care delivery?. In this transition, personalized medicine is sometimes referred to as almost a panacea in solving the current and future health challenges.?In theory, the progress of precision medicine sounds uncontroversial and most welcomed with its promise of?a better healthcare for all, with real bene...

  13. Cost Benefit of Comprehensive Primary and Preventive School-Based Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, William V; Connor, Katherine A; Mueller, Josiah M; Hong, Jonathan C; Velazquez, Gabriela Calderon; Johnson, Sara B

    2018-01-01

    The Rales Health Center is a comprehensive school-based health center at an urban elementary/middle school. Rales Health Center provides a full range of pediatric services using an enriched staffing model consisting of pediatrician, nurse practitioner, registered nurses, and medical office assistant. This staffing model provides greater care but costs more than traditional school-based health centers staffed by part-time nurses. The objective was to analyze the cost benefit of Rales Health Center enhanced staffing model compared with a traditional school-based health center (standard care), focusing on asthma care, which is among the most prevalent chronic conditions of childhood. In 2016, cost-benefit analysis using a decision tree determined the net social benefit of Rales Health Center compared with standard care from the U.S. societal perspective based on the 2015-2016 academic year. It was assumed that Rales Health Center could handle greater patient throughput related to asthma, decreased prescription costs, reduced parental resources in terms of missed work time, and improved student attendance. Univariate and multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. The expected cost to operate Rales Health Center was $409,120, compared with standard care cost of $172,643. Total monetized incremental benefits of Rales Health Center were estimated to be $993,414. The expected net social benefit for Rales Health Center was $756,937, which demonstrated substantial societal benefit at a return of $4.20 for every dollar invested. This net social benefit estimate was robust to sensitivity analyses. Despite the greater cost associated with the Rales Health Center's enhanced staffing model, the results of this analysis highlight the cost benefit of providing comprehensive, high-quality pediatric care in schools, particularly schools with a large proportion of underserved students. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by

  14. Health, community, and spirituality: evaluation of a multicultural faith-based diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jaime; Devia, Carlos; Weiss, Linda; Chantarat, Tongtan; Ruddock, Charmaine; Linnell, Jill; Golub, Maxine; Godfrey, Loyce; Rosen, Rosa; Calman, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Fine, Fit, and Fabulous (FFF), a faith-based diabetes prevention program for black and Latino congregants at churches in low-income New York City neighborhoods. FFF includes nutrition education and fitness activities while incorporating Bible-based teachings that encourage healthy lifestyles. FFF is a 12-week, bilingual program developed by the Bronx Health REACH coalition, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded Center of Excellence for the Elimination of Disparities. This program has been implemented in 15 Bronx and Harlem churches, engaging a primarily black and Latino overweight and obese urban population. Pre-post surveys, nutrition tests, and weight logs were collected to assess knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding healthy eating and physical activity. Participants (n = 183) reported statistically significant improvements in knowledge and healthy behaviors from baseline. Increased numbers of participants reported exercising in the past 30 days, eating fruit daily, being able to judge portion sizes, and reading food labels. Statistically significant numbers reported that they ate less fast food and were less likely to overeat at follow-up. The average weight loss across churches was 4.38 lbs or 2% of participants' initial body weight. Significant differences were observed when stratifying by race/ethnicity. Evaluation results show FFF's success at engaging overweight adults in behavior changes related to healthy eating and exercise. FFF demonstrates the potential of faith-based health interventions to address obesity and diabetes risk in high-need communities of color.

  15. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Karwalajtys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tina Karwalajtys1, Janusz Kaczorowski2,31Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care & Community Research, Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.Keywords: risk factors, blood pressure determination, community health services, community health planning, public health practice

  16. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwalajtys, Tina; Kaczorowski, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.

  17. Travel health prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    All around the world there has been a rapid growth in the number of international travels. According to the World Tourism Organisation the number of international tourist arrivals reached 1,235 billion in 2016 and continues to grow at a high rate. This has been much due to the development of air transport (including low-cost airlines), increasingly common economic migration, a growing number of travellers visiting friends and relatives, and an increase in medical tourism. With tropical destinations becoming increasingly popular among travellers, doctors have seen a rising number of patients who seek medical advice on health risks prevalent in hot countries and health prevention measures to be taken in tropical destinations, especially where sanitation is poor. The risk for developing a medical condition while staying abroad depends on a variety of factors, including the traveller's general health condition, health prevention measures taken before or during travel (vaccinations, antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, health precautions during air, road and sea travel, proper acclimatisation, prevention of heat injuries, protection against local flora and fauna, personal hygiene, water, food and feeding hygiene), as well as the prevalence of health risk factors in a given location. Health prevention is a precondition for safe travel and maintaining good physical health; in the era of a rapid growth in international tourism it has become of key importance for all travellers.

  18. Low Back Pain Preventive Behaviors Among Nurses Based on the Health Belief Model Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Sharafkhani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nursing profession is physically demanding as it is ranked second from the viewpoint of physical activity, following industrial occupations. Nursing is considered a profession with high musculoskeletal disorders, specifically low back pain. This article evaluated the nurses’ educational needs based on the Health Belief Model (HBM with focus on the low back pain and adoption of preventive behaviors. This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 133 nurses who were selected randomly from three public educational hospitals affiliated with Arak University of Medical Sciences. Data collection was performed with a questionnaire, which included demographic characteristics, questions on HBM constructs, and a checklist for explaining the performances. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. In this study, among the HBM constructs, the cues to action and the perceived barriers were the main predictors of optimal performance among the sample subjects (B = 0.09, p < .01. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the nurses’ performance on adopting the preventive behaviors and the scores of perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action (p < .05. However, no significant relationship was observed between the nurses’ performance and perceived susceptibility, severity, and benefits. In this study, as for behavior barriers, the nurses complained about unfamiliarity with the workplace ergonomics and inappropriate conditions based on ergonomic principles, which requires educational planning with the aim of overcoming perceived barriers, improving managerial activities, and enhancing the working place conditions.

  19. Promoting Mental Health Literacy among Educators: Critical in School-Based Prevention and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Jessica; Smith, J. David; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and other school staff play key roles as partners in the prevention, identification, and intervention of mental health difficulties among children and youth. However, it is essential that teachers are equipped with sufficient mental health literacy to engender effective practices in these areas. This article reviews the literature related…

  20. Psychometric characteristics of process evaluation measures for a school-based childhood obesity prevention study: Louisiana Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process evaluations of large-scale school based programs are necessary to aid in the interpretation of the outcome data. The Louisiana Health (LA Health) study is a multi-component childhood obesity prevention study for middle school children. The Physical Education (PEQ), Intervention (IQ), and F...

  1. Use and appreciation of a web-based, tailored intervention (E-health4Uth) combined with counseling to promote adolescents' health in preventive youth health care: Survey and log-file analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bannink (Rienke); S.M.L. Broeren (Suzanne); E. Joosten-van Zwanenburg (Evelien); E. As, van (Elisabeth); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); H. Raat (Hein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Health promotion for adolescents is important in the prevention of mental health problems and health-risk behaviors. We implemented two interventions in a preventive youth health care setting. Adolescents in the E-health4Uth group received Web-based, tailored messages on

  2. The effect of an educational program based on health belief model on preventing osteoporosis in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khani Jeihooni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. The study′s objective is to investigate the effect of an educational program based on Health Belief Model (HBM on preventing osteoporosis in women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 patients (60 experimental and 60 control who were registered under the health centers in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran, were selected in 2014. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information, HBM constructs was used to measure nutrition and walking performance for the prevention of osteoporosis before, immediately after intervention, and 6 months later. Bone mineral density (BMD was recorded at the lumbar spine and femur before and 6 months after intervention. Results: The mean age of women participated in the study was 41.75 ± 5.4 years for the experimental group, and 41.77 ± 5.43 years for the control group. The mean body mass index was 22.44 ± 3.30 for the experimental group and 22.27 ± 3.05 for the control group. The average number of women deliveries for the experimental group was 2.57 ± 1.47 and 2.50 ± 1.19 for the control group. There is no significant difference between the two groups in education level (P = 0.771, marital status (P = 0.880, occupation (P = 0.673, breastfeeding (P = 0.769, smoking (P = 0.315, history of osteoporosis in the family (P = 0.378, history of special diseases (P = 0.769, and records of bone densitometry (P = 0.543. Immediately and 6 months after intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, internal cues to action, nutrition, and walking performance compared to the control group. Six months after intervention, the value of lumbar spine BMD T-score in the experimental group increased to 0.127, while in the control group it reduced to −0.043. The value of the hip BMD T-score in the intervention group

  3. Systematic review of mental health and well-being outcomes following community-based obesity prevention interventions among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Setting Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to id...

  4. Community-based health efforts for the prevention of falls in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Hanley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alan Hanley1, Carmel Silke2, John Murphy31Department of Medicine, Letterkenny General Hospital, Letterkenny, Co Donegal, Ireland; 2Department of Rheumatology, Our Lady's Hospital Manorhamilton, Manorhamilton, Co Leitrim, Ireland; 3Department of Medicine, Castlebar, Co Mayo, IrelandAbstract: Falls are a major public health problem in the elderly population. The associated health care cost is great. It has therefore become an important public health matter to evaluate those interventions that might be effective in reducing the risk of falls. Risk factors that predict an increased risk of falling are described. We discuss interventions that can be employed in the community to reduce the risk of falls and associated injuries by discipline, including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and physician-led interventions. We also discuss the cost-effectiveness of such interventions.Keywords: fall, fracture, prevention, public health

  5. What are the Evidence Based Public Health Interventions for Prevention and Control of NCDs in Relation to India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The accelerating epidemics of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs in India call for a comprehensive public health response which can effectively combat and control them before they peak and inflict severe damage in terms of unaffordable health, economic, and social costs. To synthesize and present recent evidences regarding the effectiveness of several types of public health interventions to reduce NCD burden. Interventions influencing behavioral risk factors (like unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol consumption through policy, public education, or a combination of both have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the NCD risk in populations as well as in individuals. Policy interventions are also effective in reducing the levels of several major biological risk factors linked to NCDs (high blood pressure; overweight and obesity; diabetes and abnormal blood cholesterol. Secondary prevention along the lines of combination pills and ensuring evidenced based clinical care are also critical. Though the evidence for health promotion and primary prevention are weaker, policy interventions and secondary prevention when combined with these are likely to have a greater impact on reducing national NCD burden. A comprehensive and integrated response to NCDs control and prevention needs a "life course approach." Proven cost-effective interventions need to be integrated in a NCD prevention and control policy framework and implemented through coordinated mechanisms of regulation, environment modification, education, and health care responses.

  6. Effect of Health Education Based on the Protection Motivation Theory on Malaria Preventive Behaviors in Rural Households of Kerman, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ghahremani, Leila; Faryabi, Reza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malaria is one of the most serious diseases in pregnant women as well as children less than 5 years around the world. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in the households of Ghale Ganj, Kerman, Iran in 2011. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted on 144 households covered by 8 health centers of Ghale Ganj, Kerman. The study samples were selected thr...

  7. Evaluation of community-based oral health promotion and oral disease prevention--WHO recommendations for improved evidence in public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella

    2004-01-01

    Systematic evaluation is an integral part of the organisation and delivery of community oral health care programmes, ensuring the effectiveness of these community-based interventions. As for general health promotion programmes the common problems from effectiveness reviews of oral health...... a challenge to oral health professionals to integrate community oral health programmes into a wider health agenda. Public health research focusing on the development of evaluation methodologies has identified a variety of issues including the importance of using pluralistic evaluation approaches (quantitative...... of the evaluation of oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programmes. The aims of the workshop were to: (1) identify common problems and challenges in evaluating community-based oral health interventions; (2) explore developments in the evaluation approaches in public health; (3) share experiences...

  8. Effects of Physician-Based Preventive Oral Health Services on Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Ashley M; Preisser, John S; Rozier, R Gary

    2015-07-01

    Most Medicaid programs reimburse nondental providers for preventive dental services. We estimate the impact of comprehensive preventive oral health services (POHS) on dental caries among kindergarten students, hypothesizing improved oral health among students with medical visits with POHS. We conducted a retrospective study in 29,173 kindergarten students by linking Medicaid claims (1999-2006) with public health surveillance data (2005-2006). Zero-inflated regression models estimated the association between number of visits with POHS and (1) decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth (dmft) and (2) untreated decayed teeth while adjusting for confounding. Kindergarten students with ≥4 POHS visits averaged an adjusted 1.82 dmft (95% confidence interval: 1.55 to 2.09), which was significantly less than students with 0 visits (2.21 dmft; 95% confidence interval: 2.16 to 2.25). The mean number of untreated decayed teeth was not reduced for students with ≥4 POHS visits compared with those with 0 visits. POHS provided by nondental providers in medical settings were associated with a reduction in caries experience in young children but were not associated with improvement in subsequent use of treatment services in dental settings. Efforts to promote oral health in medical settings should continue. Strategies to promote physician-dentist collaborations are needed to improve continuity of care for children receiving dental services in medical settings. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Capitation-Based Financing Hampers the Provision of Preventive Services in Primary Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, János; Kósa, Karolina; Papp, Magor; Fürjes, Gergő; Kőrösi, László; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Ádány, Róza

    2016-01-01

    Mortality caused by non-communicable diseases has been extremely high in Hungary, which can largely be attributed to not performed preventive examinations (PEs) at the level of primary health care (PHC). Both structures and financial incentives are lacking, which could support the provision of legally defined PEs. A Model Programme was launched in Hungary in 2012 to adapt the recommendations for PHC of the World Health Organization. A baseline survey was carried out to describe the occurrence of not performed PEs. A sample of 4320 adults representative for Hungary by age and gender was surveyed. Twelve PEs to be performed in PHC as specified by a governmental decree were investigated and quantified. Not performed PEs per person per year with 95% confidence intervals were computed for age, gender, and education strata. The number of not performed PEs for the entire adult population of Hungary was estimated and converted into expenses according to the official reimbursement costs of the National Health Insurance Fund. The rate of service use varied between 16.7 and 70.2%. There was no correlation between the unit price of examinations and service use (r = 0.356; p = 0.267). The rate of not performed PEs was not related to gender, but older age and lower education proved to be risk factors. The total number of not performed PEs was over 17 million in the country. Of the 31 million euros saved by not paying for PEs, the largest share was not spent on those in the lowest educational category. New preventive services offered in the reoriented PHC model program include systematic and scheduled health examination health promotion programs at community settings, risk assessment followed by individual or group care, and/or referral and chronic care. The Model Programme has created a pressure for collaborative work, consultation, and engagement at each level, from the GPs and health mediators up to the decision-making level. It channeled the population into preventive

  10. Performance-based building codes: a call for injury prevention indicators that bridge health and building sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, N

    2008-10-01

    The international introduction of performance-based building codes calls for a re-examination of indicators used to monitor their implementation. Indicators used in the building sector have a business orientation, target the life cycle of buildings, and guide asset management. In contrast, indicators used in the health sector focus on injury prevention, have a behavioural orientation, lack specificity with respect to features of the built environment, and do not take into account patterns of building use or building longevity. Suggestions for metrics that bridge the building and health sectors are discussed. The need for integrated surveillance systems in health and building sectors is outlined. It is time to reconsider commonly used epidemiological indicators in the field of injury prevention and determine their utility to address the accountability requirements of performance-based codes.

  11. The Effect of Education Based on the Health Belief Model on Osteoporosis Prevention Behaviors in Female High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousaviasl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Osteoporosis is one of the most common metabolic bone diseases and is the silent epidemic of this era. Objectives This study evaluates the effect of education that is based on the health belief model on promoting osteoporosis prevention behaviors among female high school students. Methods In this two-group interventional study, 172 students age 11 to 14 years (experimental group = 86 subjects; control group = 86 subjects were randomly selected from Khorramshahr high schools using multistage sampling. Data were collected before the intervention and two months after its completion using a researcher-made questionnaire with four parts: demographic questions, knowledge questions, questions related to the health belief model constructs, and questions regarding preventive behaviors. Data was analyzed using SPSS 22 software and by applying the Mann-Whitney test, the analysis of covariance procedure, and the Wilcoxon statistical test. Results After the intervention, significant statistical differences were seen between the experimental and control groups in mean scores of knowledge, health belief model constructs, and preventive behaviors. Conclusions The education based on health belief model plays an important role in increasing knowledge and improving osteoporosis prevention behaviors in students.

  12. Prevention of Mental Health Disorders Using Internet- and Mobile-Based Interventions: A Narrative Review and Recommendations for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Daniel Ebert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD, their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en masse due to limited health care resources and the limited availability of evidence-based interventions and clinicians in routine practice, especially in rural areas. Therefore, new approaches are needed to maximize the impact of psychological preventive interventions. Limitations of traditional prevention programs could potentially be overcome by providing Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs. This relatively new medium for promoting mental health and preventing MHD introduces a fresh array of possibilities, including the provision of evidence-based psychological interventions that are free from the restraints of travel and time and allow reaching participants for whom traditional opportunities are not an option. This article provides an introduction to the subject and narratively reviews the available evidence for the effectiveness of IMIs with regard to the prevention of MHD onsets. The number of randomized controlled trials that have been conducted to date is very limited and so far it is not possible to draw definite conclusions about the potential of IMIs for the prevention of MHD for specific disorders. Only for the indicated prevention of depression there is consistent evidence across four different randomized trial trials. The only trial on the prevention of general anxiety did not result in positive findings in terms of eating disorders (EDs, effects were only found in post hoc subgroup analyses, indicating that it might be possible to prevent ED onset for subpopulations of people at risk of developing EDs. Future studies need to identify those subpopulations likely to profit from preventive. Disorders not examined so far include

  13. Prevention of Mental Health Disorders Using Internet- and Mobile-Based Interventions: A Narrative Review and Recommendations for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, David Daniel; Cuijpers, Pim; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Baumeister, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD), their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en masse due to limited health care resources and the limited availability of evidence-based interventions and clinicians in routine practice, especially in rural areas. Therefore, new approaches are needed to maximize the impact of psychological preventive interventions. Limitations of traditional prevention programs could potentially be overcome by providing Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs). This relatively new medium for promoting mental health and preventing MHD introduces a fresh array of possibilities, including the provision of evidence-based psychological interventions that are free from the restraints of travel and time and allow reaching participants for whom traditional opportunities are not an option. This article provides an introduction to the subject and narratively reviews the available evidence for the effectiveness of IMIs with regard to the prevention of MHD onsets. The number of randomized controlled trials that have been conducted to date is very limited and so far it is not possible to draw definite conclusions about the potential of IMIs for the prevention of MHD for specific disorders. Only for the indicated prevention of depression there is consistent evidence across four different randomized trial trials. The only trial on the prevention of general anxiety did not result in positive findings in terms of eating disorders (EDs), effects were only found in post hoc subgroup analyses, indicating that it might be possible to prevent ED onset for subpopulations of people at risk of developing EDs. Future studies need to identify those subpopulations likely to profit from preventive. Disorders not examined so far include substance use

  14. The Effectiveness of Education Based on BASNEF Model Program in Promotion of Preventive Behavior of Leishmaniasis among Health Workers and Families under Health Centers Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khani Jeihooni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Intervention of educational training in order to prevent the leishmaniasis in endemic areas seems necessary. This study was implemented with the aim of assessing the effectiveness of education based on BASNEF Model program in promotion of preventive behavior of leishmaniasis among Health workers and families under the coverage of Health centers. Materials & Methods: An intervention study was carried out in rural health centers during 2009. Questionnaires were completed by 20 health- workers of two rural health centers. Also 20 families under the coverage of this health centers were randomly selected to complete the questionnaire. Then four training sessions for health workers and 2 training sessions for the influential individuals were conducted to increase the enabling factors and solving their problems, weekly meetings was held with health workers representatives. After three months of health workers training the data were collected again and analyzed via Chi- Square, T Independent, T pair, Regression and Mann- Whitney statistics. Results: The mean score for to knowledge, attitude, behavior intension, enabling factors and health workers behaviors significantly increased after educational intervention in experimental group and influential individuals. The mean scores for knowledge, attitude, behavior intension, enabling factors and the behavior of attendant families under coverage also increased significantly. Conclusion: Educational program of BASNEF Model, leads to behavior change of health workers and eventually their training behavior leads to preventive actions in families under coverage.

  15. Student public commitment in a school-based diabetes prevention project: impact on physical health and health behavior

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    Solomon Sara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As concern about youth obesity continues to mount, there is increasing consideration of widespread policy changes to support improved nutritional and enhanced physical activity offerings in schools. A critical element in the success of such programs may be to involve students as spokespeople for the program. Making such a public commitment to healthy lifestyle program targets (improved nutrition and enhanced physical activity may potentiate healthy behavior changes among such students and provide a model for their peers. This paper examines whether student's "public commitment"--voluntary participation as a peer communicator or in student-generated media opportunities--in a school-based intervention to prevent diabetes and reduce obesity predicted improved study outcomes including reduced obesity and improved health behaviors. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a 3-year randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 middle schools examining the impact of a multi-component school-based program on body mass index (BMI and student health behaviors. A total of 4603 students were assessed at the beginning of sixth grade and the end of eighth grade. Process evaluation data were collected throughout the course of the intervention. All analyses were adjusted for students' baseline values. For this paper, the students in the schools randomized to receive the intervention were further divided into two groups: those who participated in public commitment activities and those who did not. Students from comparable schools randomized to the assessment condition constituted the control group. Results We found a lower percentage of obesity (greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for BMI at the end of the study among the group participating in public commitment activities compared to the control group (21.5% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.02. The difference in obesity rates at the end of the study was even greater among the subgroup of students who

  16. Inuit women's stories of strength: informing Inuit community-based HIV and STI prevention and sexual health promotion programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Jenny R

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of literature to guide the development of community-based HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and sexual health promotion programs within Inuit communities. The aim of this study was to create a dialogue with Inuit women to address the lack of information available to inform programming to improve the sexual health of Inuit women, their families, and their communities in the Canadian Arctic. This study used Indigenous methodologies and methods by drawing from Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit and postcolonial research theory in a framework of Two-Eyed Seeing, and using storytelling sessions to gather data. Community-based participatory research principles informed the design of the study, ensuring participants were involved in all stages of the project. Nine storytelling sessions took place with 21 Inuit women aged 18-61 years. Storytelling sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim, and Atlas.ti aided in the organization of the data for collaborative thematic analysis within three participatory analysis sessions with 13 of the participating women. From the storytelling and analysis sessions, five major themes emerged: (a) the way it used to be, (b) change, (c) family, (d) intimate relationships and (e) holistic strategies. Participating women emphasized that HIV and STI prevention and sexual health promotion programming needs to take a holistic, community-wide, family-focused and youth-centred approach within their communities. Participants identified several important determinants of sexual health and shared ideas for innovative approaches they believe will work as prevention efforts within their communities. This article specifically focuses on key characteristics of programming aimed at STI and HIV prevention and sexual health promotion that were identified throughout participants' stories. This study has provided a narrative to complement the epidemiological data that highlight the urgent need for prevention programming.

  17. Systematic review of mental health and well-being outcomes following community-based obesity prevention interventions among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-05

    This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to identify all eligible articles. PRISMA guidelines were followed and search terms and search strategy ensured all possible studies were identified for review. Intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they were: focused on overweight or obesity prevention, community-based, targeted adolescents (aged 10-19 years), reported a mental health or well-being measure, and included a comparison or control group. Studies that focused on specific adolescent groups or were treatment interventions were excluded from review. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Primary outcomes were measures of mental health and well-being, including diagnostic and symptomatic measures. Secondary outcomes included adiposity or weight-related measures. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria; one reported anxiety/depressive outcomes, two reported on self-perception well-being measures such as self-esteem and self-efficacy, and four studies reported outcomes of quality of life. Positive mental health outcomes demonstrated that following obesity prevention, interventions included a decrease in anxiety and improved health-related quality of life. Quality of evidence was graded as very low. Although positive outcomes for mental health and well-being do exist, controlled evaluations of community-based obesity prevention interventions have not often included mental health measures (n=7). It is recommended that future interventions

  18. Systematic review of mental health and well-being outcomes following community-based obesity prevention interventions among adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Setting Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to identify all eligible articles. PRISMA guidelines were followed and search terms and search strategy ensured all possible studies were identified for review. Participants Intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they were: focused on overweight or obesity prevention, community-based, targeted adolescents (aged 10–19 years), reported a mental health or well-being measure, and included a comparison or control group. Studies that focused on specific adolescent groups or were treatment interventions were excluded from review. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes were measures of mental health and well-being, including diagnostic and symptomatic measures. Secondary outcomes included adiposity or weight-related measures. Results Seven studies met the inclusion criteria; one reported anxiety/depressive outcomes, two reported on self-perception well-being measures such as self-esteem and self-efficacy, and four studies reported outcomes of quality of life. Positive mental health outcomes demonstrated that following obesity prevention, interventions included a decrease in anxiety and improved health-related quality of life. Quality of evidence was graded as very low. Conclusions Although positive outcomes for mental health and well-being do exist, controlled evaluations of community-based obesity prevention interventions have

  19. Impact of a School-Based Pediatric Obesity Prevention Program Facilitated by Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Craig A.; Moreno, Jennette P.; El-Mubasher, Abeer; Gallagher, Martina; Tyler, Chermaine; Woehler, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated a school-based obesity intervention for elementary school children (N = 835) where health professionals assisted teachers with the integration of healthy messages into the school curriculum. Methods: Schools were randomized into a professional-facilitated intervention (PFI; N = 4) or a self-help (SH; N = 3)…

  20. Impact of a school-based pediatric obesity prevention program faciliated by health professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated a school-based obesity intervention for elementary school children (N=835) where health professionals assisted teachers with the integration of healthy messages into the school curriculum. Schools were randomized into a professional-facilitated intervention (PFI; N=4) or a self-...

  1. The Effect of Puberty Health Education based on Health Belief Model on Health Behaviors and Preventive among Teen Boys in Marivan, North West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohollah Valizade

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Maturity and its related sexual and mental changes are one of the most important events in the life of every individual. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of puberty health education based on Health Belief Model on health behaviors and preventive among students boy first secondary school in Marivan city in 2015. Materials and Methods This research is an experimental intervention study that was conducted in 2015. The study participants were 64 male students of second year of first secondary school boys who were selected randomly with cluster sampling from two schools among 12 schools in first grade of high school in the Marivan city. Totally 32 students were selected randomly in the intervention group in the one of the schools and 32 students in the control group in the other school. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire developed by the researchers based on the health belief model. The validity and reliability of questionnaire was confirmed. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 17, Chi square, descriptive statistics and independent t-tests. Results Results showed significance differences after educational intervention in the mean scores of awareness, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, cues to action and performance in the intervention group (p

  2. Effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in rural households of kerman, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremani, Leila; Faryabi, Reza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Malaria is one of the most serious diseases in pregnant women as well as children less than 5 years around the world. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in the households of Ghale Ganj, Kerman, Iran in 2011. The present quasi-experimental study was conducted on 144 households covered by 8 health centers of Ghale Ganj, Kerman. The study samples were selected through systematic random sampling and the study data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic information, the constructs of the protection motivation theory, and a checklist for assessing the malaria preventive behaviors. After the pre-test, the intervention group underwent an educational intervention and after two months, the post-test was performed through the same questionnaire. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 18) and analyzed using Chi-square and Wilcoxon non-parametric tests. Besides, P motivation theory as well as malaria preventive behaviors (P motivation theory is highly effective in promoting malaria preventive behaviors.

  3. THE CHALLENGES OF SCHOOL-BASED YOUTH SUICIDE PREVENTION: EXPERIENCES AND PERCEPTIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS IN SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Maryke; Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Youth suicidal behaviour poses a significant public health concern. Mental health care professionals working in schools have an important role to play in youth suicide prevention initiatives, although little is known of the experiences of this group of professionals in the developing world. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mental health professionals working in South African schools and document their insights, attitudes and beliefs regarding youth suicidal behaviour. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven school-based mental health care professionals and data were analysed using Thematic Analysis. Participants reported that they relied on a reactive strategy by responding to youths who were in crisis. They were challenged by a lack of support from faculty staff, lack of access to resources, and heavy caseloads. Findings highlight the need for a proactive and collaborative approach to suicide prevention among mental health care professionals, teachers and parents in South African schools and improved training and supervision.

  4. VA Suicide Prevention Applications Network: A National Health Care System-Based Suicide Event Tracking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmire, Claire; Stephens, Brady; Morley, Sybil; Thompson, Caitlin; Kemp, Janet; Bossarte, Robert M

    2016-11-01

    The US Department of Veterans Affairs' Suicide Prevention Applications Network (SPAN) is a national system for suicide event tracking and case management. The objective of this study was to assess data on suicide attempts among people using Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services. We assessed the degree of data overlap on suicide attempters reported in SPAN and the VHA's medical records from October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2014-overall, by year, and by region. Data on suicide attempters in the VHA's medical records consisted of diagnoses documented with E95 codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision . Of 50 518 VHA patients who attempted suicide during the 4-year study period, data on fewer than half (41%) were reported in both SPAN and the medical records; nearly 65% of patients whose suicide attempt was recorded in SPAN had no data on attempted suicide in the VHA's medical records. Evaluation of administrative data suggests that use of SPAN substantially increases the collection of data on suicide attempters as compared with the use of medical records alone, but neither SPAN nor the VHA's medical records identify all suicide attempters. Further research is needed to better understand the strengths and limitations of both systems and how to best combine information across systems.

  5. Consumer Adoption of Future MyData-Based Preventive eHealth Services: An Acceptance Model and Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivumäki, Timo; Pekkarinen, Saara; Lappi, Minna; Väisänen, Jere; Juntunen, Jouni; Pikkarainen, Minna

    2017-12-22

    Constantly increasing health care costs have led countries and health care providers to the point where health care systems must be reinvented. Consequently, electronic health (eHealth) has recently received a great deal of attention in social sciences in the domain of Internet studies. However, only a fraction of these studies focuses on the acceptability of eHealth, making consumers' subjective evaluation an understudied field. This study will address this gap by focusing on the acceptance of MyData-based preventive eHealth services from the consumer point of view. We are adopting the term "MyData", which according to a White Paper of the Finnish Ministry of Transport and Communication refers to "1) a new approach, a paradigm shift in personal data management and processing that seeks to transform the current organization centric system to a human centric system, 2) to personal data as a resource that the individual can access and control." The aim of this study was to investigate what factors influence consumers' intentions to use a MyData-based preventive eHealth service before use. We applied a new adoption model combining Venkatesh's unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 (UTAUT2) in a consumer context and three constructs from health behavior theories, namely threat appraisals, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers. To test the research model, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM) with Mplus software, version 7.4. A Web-based survey was administered. We collected 855 responses. We first applied traditional SEM for the research model, which was not statistically significant. We then tested for possible heterogeneity in the data by running a mixture analysis. We found that heterogeneity was not the cause for the poor performance of the research model. Thus, we moved on to model-generating SEM and ended up with a statistically significant empirical model (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] 0.051, Tucker-Lewis index [TLI] 0

  6. Guelph Family Health Study's Home-Based Obesity Prevention Intervention Increases Fibre and Fruit Intake in Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirotta, Julia A; Darlington, Gerarda A; Buchholz, Andrea C; Haines, Jess; Ma, David W L; Duncan, Alison M

    2018-06-01

    The Guelph Family Health Study (GFHS) pilot was designed to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of a home-based obesity prevention intervention on health behaviours and obesity risk. The objective of this analysis was to determine the effect of the 6-month intervention on preschool-aged children's dietary intakes. Families with children aged 1.5-5 years old were randomized to receive one of the following: 4 home visits with a health educator as well as tailored emails and mailed incentives (4HV; n = 19 children); 2 home visits with a health educator as well as tailored emails and mailed incentives (2HV; n = 14 children); or general health advice through emails (control; n = 12 children). Three-day food records were completed by parents for their children before and after the 6-month intervention and analyzed for 3-day average intakes of energy, nutrients, and MyPlate food groups. After the 6-month intervention, the 4HV group had significantly higher fibre intake and the 4HV and 2HV groups had significantly higher fruit intake, both compared with the control group. This study provides support for a home-based intervention approach to improve the diet quality of preschool-aged children.

  7. Mental Health Stigma Prevention: Pilot Testing a Novel, Language Arts Curriculum-Based Approach for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Hannah L.; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Lippincott, Ann; Taylor, Zachary; Zheng, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Researchers have emphasized the importance of integrating mental health education with academic curriculum. The focus of the current studies was "Mental Health Matters" (MHM), a mental health curriculum that is integrated with English language arts. It is taught by trained community member volunteers and aims to increase…

  8. Practical experience from the Office of Adolescent Health's large scale implementation of an evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Amy Lynn; Roper, Allison Yvonne

    2014-03-01

    After 3 years of experience overseeing the implementation and evaluation of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs in a diversity of populations and settings across the country, the Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) has learned numerous lessons through practical application and new experiences. These lessons and experiences are applicable to those working to implement evidence-based programs on a large scale. The lessons described in this paper focus on what it means for a program to be implementation ready, the role of the program developer in replicating evidence-based programs, the importance of a planning period to ensure quality implementation, the need to define and measure fidelity, and the conditions necessary to support rigorous grantee-level evaluation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Sexual Health Transformation among College Student Educators in an Arts-Based HIV Prevention Intervention: A Qualitative Cross-Site Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Shannon L.; Taboada, Arianna; Merino, Yesenia; Heitfeld, Suzanne; Gordon, Robert J.; Gere, David; Lightfoot, Alexandra F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the sexual health change process experienced by 26 college student sexual health educators from three geographic regions of the United States who participated in a multisite arts-based sexual health prevention program. We conducted eight focus groups and used a phenomenological approach to analyze data. We drew from social cognitive…

  10. Psychometric characteristics of process evaluation measures for a rural school-based childhood obesity prevention study: Louisiana Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert L; Thomson, Jessica L; Rau, Kristi K; Ragusa, Shelly A; Sample, Alicia D; Singleton, Nakisha N; Anton, Stephen D; Webber, Larry S; Williamson, Donald A

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the implementation of intervention components of the Louisiana Health study, which was a multicomponent childhood obesity prevention program conducted in rural schools. Content analysis. Process evaluation assessed implementation in classrooms, gym classes, and cafeterias. Classroom teachers (n  =  232), physical education teachers (n  =  53), food service managers (n  =  33), and trained observers (n  =  9). Five process evaluation measures were created: Physical Education Questionnaire (PEQ), Intervention Questionnaire (IQ), Food Service Manager Questionnaire (FSMQ), Classroom Observation (CO), and School Nutrition Environment Observation (SNEO). Interrater reliability and internal consistency were assessed on all measures. Analysis of variance and χ(2) were used to compare differences across study groups on questionnaires and observations. The PEQ and one subscale from the FSMQ were eliminated because their reliability coefficients fell below acceptable standards. The subscale internal consistencies for the IQ, FSMQ, CO, and SNEO (all Cronbach α > .60) were acceptable. After the initial 4 months of intervention, there was evidence that the Louisiana Health intervention was being implemented as it was designed. In summary, four process evaluation measures were found to be sufficiently reliable and valid for assessing the delivery of various aspects of a school-based obesity prevention program. These process measures could be modified to evaluate the delivery of other similar school-based interventions.

  11. Working With Parents to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Protocol for a Primary Care-Based eHealth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Jillian Ls; Cave, Andrew L; Donaldson, Stephanie; Ellendt, Carol; Holt, Nicholas L; Jelinski, Susan; Martz, Patricia; Maximova, Katerina; Padwal, Raj; Wild, T Cameron; Ball, Geoff Dc

    2015-03-25

    Parents play a central role in preventing childhood obesity. There is a need for innovative, scalable, and evidence-based interventions designed to enhance parents' motivation to support and sustain healthy lifestyle behaviors in their children, which can facilitate obesity prevention. (1) Develop an online screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) eHealth tool to enhance parents' concern for, and motivation to, support children's healthy lifestyle behaviors, (2) refine the SBIRT eHealth tool by assessing end-user acceptability, satisfaction, and usability through focus groups, and (3) determine feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of the refined SBIRT eHealth tool through a randomized controlled trial. This is a three-phase, multi-method study that includes SBIRT eHealth tool development (Phase I), refinement (Phase II), and testing (Phase III). Phase I: Theoretical underpinnings of the SBIRT tool, entitled the Resource Information Program for Parents on Lifestyle and Education (RIPPLE), will be informed by concepts applied within existing interventions, and content will be based on literature regarding healthy lifestyle behaviors in children. The SBIRT platform will be developed in partnership between our research team and a third-party intervention development company. Phase II: Focus groups with parents, as well as health care professionals, researchers, and trainees in pediatrics (n=30), will explore intervention-related perceptions and preferences. Qualitative data from the focus groups will inform refinements to the aesthetics, content, structure, and function of the SBIRT. Phase III: Parents (n=200) of children-boys and girls, 5 to 17 years old-will be recruited from a primary care pediatric clinic while they await their children's clinical appointment. Parents will be randomly assigned to one of five groups-four intervention groups and one control group-as they complete the SBIRT. The randomization function is built into the

  12. Mental Health Stigma Prevention: Pilot Testing a Novel, Language Arts Curriculum-Based Approach for Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Hannah L; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Lippincott, Ann; Taylor, Zachary; Zheng, Jimmy

    2016-10-01

    Researchers have emphasized the importance of integrating mental health education with academic curriculum. The focus of the current studies was Mental Health Matters (MHM), a mental health curriculum that is integrated with English language arts. It is taught by trained community member volunteers and aims to increase knowledge and decrease stigma toward individuals with mental health disorders. In Study 1, 142 sixth graders participated in MHM and completed pre- and postprogram measures of mental health knowledge, stigma, and program acceptability. Teachers also completed ratings of acceptability. Study 2 (N = 120 seventh graders) compared participants who had participated in MHM the previous year with those who had not using the same measures. Sixth grade students and teachers rated the program as highly acceptable. Participants significantly increased their knowledge and decreased their levels of stigma. Seventh graders who had participated in MHM had significantly more mental health knowledge than peers who had not, but there were no differences in stigma. The model appears to be acceptable to students and teachers. Future research is needed to assess the long-term effectiveness of integrating mental health education with other academic curriculum such as language arts or science. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  13. Community-based health efforts for the prevention of falls in the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanley, Alan

    2012-01-31

    Falls are a major public health problem in the elderly population. The associated health care cost is great. It has therefore become an important public health matter to evaluate those interventions that might be effective in reducing the risk of falls. Risk factors that predict an increased risk of falling are described. We discuss interventions that can be employed in the community to reduce the risk of falls and associated injuries by discipline, including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and physician-led interventions. We also discuss the cost-effectiveness of such interventions.

  14. Preventive health services implemented by family physicians in Portugal—a cross-sectional study based on two clinical scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos; Azevedo, Luís Filipe; Santos, Cristina; Sá, Luísa; Santos, Paulo; Couto, Maria; Pereira, Altamiro; Hespanhol, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether Portuguese family physicians perform preventive health services in accordance with scientific evidence, based on the recommendations of the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Primary healthcare, Portuguese National Health Service. Participants 255 Portuguese family physicians selected by a stratified cluster sampling design were invited to participate in a computer-assisted telephone survey. Outcomes Prevalence of compliance with USPSTF recommendations for screening, given a male and female clinical scenario and a set of proposed medical interventions, including frequency of the intervention and performance in their own daily practice. Results A response rate of 95.7% was obtained (n=244). 98–100% of family physicians answered according to the USPSTF recommendations in most interventions. In the male scenario, the lowest concordance was observed in the evaluation of prostate-specific antigen with 37% of family physicians answering according to the USPSTF recommendations. In the female scenario, the lowest concordance was for cholesterol testing with 2% of family physicians complying. Family physicians younger than 50 years had significantly better compliance scores than older ones (mean 77% vs 72%; p<0.001). Conclusions We found a high degree of agreement with USPSTF recommendations among Portuguese family physicians. However, we also found results suggesting excessive use of some medical interventions, raising concerns related to possible harm associated with overdiagnosis and overtreatment. PMID:24861550

  15. [New Scientific Evidence-based Public Health Guidelines and Practical Manual for Prevention of Sick House Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Reiko; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Araki, Atsuko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Azuma, Kenichi; Kawai, Toshio; Yamato, Hiroshi; Osawa, Haruki; Shibata, Eiji; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Masuchi, Ayumi; Minatoya, Machiko; Ait Bamai, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Recently, we have published a book containing evidence-based public health guidelines and a practical manual for the prevention of sick house syndrome. The manual is available through the homepage of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (http://www.mhlw.go.jp/file/06-Seisakujouhou-11130500-Shokuhinanzenbu/0000155147.pdf). It is an almost completely revised version of the 2009 version. The coauthors are 13 specialists in environmental epidemiology, exposure sciences, architecture, and risk communication. Since the 1970s, health problems caused by indoor chemicals, biological pollution, poor temperature control, humidity, and others in office buildings have been recognized as sick building syndrome (SBS) in Western countries, but in Japan it was not until the 1990s that people living in new or renovated homes started to describe a variety of nonspecific subjective symptoms such as eye, nose, and throat irritation, headache, and general fatigue. These symptoms resembled SBS and were designated "sick house syndrome (SHS)." To determine the strategy for prevention of SHS, we conducted a nationwide epidemiological study in six cities from 2003-2013 by randomly sampling 5,709 newly built houses. As a result 1,479 residents in 425 households agreed to environmental monitoring for indoor aldehydes and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). After adjustment for possible risk factors, some VOCs and formaldehyde were dose-dependently shown to be significant risk factors. We also studied the dampness of the houses, fungi, allergies, and others. This book is fully based on the scientific evidence collected through these studies and other newly obtained information, especially from the aspect of architectural engineering. In addition to SHS, we included chapters on recent information about "multi-chemical sensitivity."

  16. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Literacy Health Care Quality Healthy People healthfinder Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Spotlight: This ... 16/2017 This site is coordinated by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of ...

  17. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is effective as relapse prevention for patients with recurrent depression in Scandinavian primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, Josefine L; Zelleroth, Clara; Axberg, Ulf; Norlander, Torsten

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in primary care for patients with recurrent depression (major depressive disorder: MDD). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), MDD is now the leading cause of disease burden in middle- and high-income countries. Patients (N = 45) with three or more previous depressive episodes were recruited to participate in MBCT as a preventative intervention. Using a benchmarking approach, outcome data was compared with data from a recent efficacy study. The methodology is a rigorous approach to assessing effectiveness when evidence-based UK protocols are transferred into the existing Scandinavian service delivery. Additionally, a person-centred methodological approach was used to assess clinical significance on the Reliable Change Index (RCI). The analysis revealed comparable or larger effects from pre-test to post-test in reduced psychiatric symptoms, increased quality of life and level of mindfulness, and the effects were maintained over 14 months. Analysis of the relapse rate in the current study (16%) compared to the TAU in the efficacy study (68%) yielded an h value of 0.78, a moderate effect size. Only 13% dropped out of the treatment. According to the RCI findings, 65% to 67% of participants in the clinical group improved, no individual worsened, and women showed a significantly greater improvement of depression and anxiety than men. Therapeutic alliance and motivation had no impact on the outcome. The overall result suggests that MBCT can be implemented successfully in Scandinavian primary health care as a preventive intervention for patients with recurrent depression. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Impact of a Web-based intervention on maternal caries transmission and prevention knowledge, and oral health attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, David; Barracks, Sharifa Z; Bruzelius, Emilie; Ward, Angela

    2014-09-01

    Poor oral health knowledge is thought to significantly contribute to the incidence of early childhood caries, the most common childhood disease in the U.S. This study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based educational program in increasing oral health and caries transmission knowledge, attitudes and planned behavior among mothers and primary caregivers. Study participants were recruited from subscribers to an online health information newsletter distributed by a national dental insurance company and from visitors to a health information website sponsored by the same company. Participants completed pre- and post-intervention surveys and viewed a brief educational program. Results were analyzed for pre- to post-test changes in knowledge and attitudes. Planned behavior change was also assessed. 459 participants completed pre-and post-test surveys. The sample was typically more insured (91.3 %), and college educated (76.9 %), than the general population. At baseline, respondents were knowledgeable about caries and its prevention; however, their specific knowledge about caries transmission was limited. There was a significant increase in caries knowledge from baseline to follow-up, particularly regarding caries transmission. At baseline less than half of the participants (48.8 %) knew that mothers/primary caregivers play a large role in passing cavity causing germs to children and 43.1 % knew that there is a defined period of time when the risk of transmission of cariogenic bacteria is greatest; however in post-testing 99.6 % and 98.3 % answered these question correctly respectively (p education to primary caregivers can be an effective and low cost strategy for promoting maternal and infant oral health.

  19. THE CHALLENGES OF SCHOOL-BASED YOUTH SUICIDE PREVENTION: EXPERIENCES AND PERCEPTIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS IN SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Woolf, Maryke; Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Youth suicidal behaviour poses a significant public health concern. Mental health care professionals working in schools have an important role to play in youth suicide prevention initiatives, although little is known of the experiences of this group of professionals in the developing world. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mental health professionals working in South African schools and document their insights, attitudes and beliefs regarding youth suicidal behaviour. I...

  20. Potential for mobile health (mHealth) prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Kerala: A population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Leo; Menon, Jaideep; Smith, Rebecca; Rajeev, Jaya G; Kumar, Raman Krishan; Banerjee, Amitava

    India's southern state of Kerala stands at the forefront of India's epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD), among other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Mobile phone use in healthcare (mHealth) has shown promise in India, including NCDs. However, suitability and acceptability of m-Health interventions is poorly researched, particularly in rural settings. METHODS: A questionnaire regarding mobile phone usage and possible use in healthcare was verbally administered in five primary health centres and by home visits in five village councils ("panchayats") of Ernakulam, Kerala. Adults who spoke Malayalam or English, with access to a mobile phone were recruited by convenience sampling in partnership with accredited social health activists (ASHAs). Quantitative data analysis was conducted using SPSS software. 262 participants were recruited. 87% routinely used and 88% owned a mobile phone. 92% were willing to receive mHealth advice, and 94% favoured mobile medication reminders. 70.3% and 73% preferred voice calls over short messaging service (SMS) for delivering health information and medication reminders, respectively. 85.9% would send home recorded information on their blood pressure, weight, medication use and lifestyle to a doctor or ASHA. 75.2% trusted the confidentiality of mHealth data, while 77.1% had no concerns about the privacy of their information. The majority of this population approve mHealth interventions. While further investigation of mHealth as a health education tool is warranted, SMS interventions may fail to maximise equity and penetration across all patient groups. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing the effect of an educational intervention program based on Health Belief Model on preventive behaviors of internet addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheri, Aghbabak; Tol, Azar; Sadeghi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Internet addiction refers to the excessive use of the internet that causes mental, social, and physical problems. According to the high prevalence of internet addiction among university students, this study aimed to determine the effect of an educational intervention on preventive behaviors of internet addiction among Tehran University of Medical Sciences students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a quasi-experimental study conducted among female college students who live in the dormitories of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Two-stage cluster sampling was used for selection of eighty participants in each study groups; data were collected using “Young's Internet Addiction” and unstructured questionnaire. Validity and reliability of unstructured questionnaire were evaluated by expert panel and were reported as Cronbach's alpha. Information of study groups before and 4 months after the intervention was compared using statistical methods by SPSS 16. RESULTS: After the intervention, the mean scores of internet addiction, perceived barriers construct, and the prevalence of internet addiction significantly decreased in the intervention group than that in the control group and the mean scores of knowledge and Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs (susceptibility, severity, benefits, self-efficacy) significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS: Education based on the HBM was effective on the reduction and prevention of internet addiction among female college students, and educational interventions in this field are highly recommended. PMID:28852654

  2. Suicide Prevention Strategies for Improving Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Holly C; Wyman, Peter A

    2016-04-01

    Suicide is a public health problem that accounts for more than 1 million deaths annually worldwide. This article addresses evidence-based and promising youth suicide prevention approaches at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Coordinated, developmentally timed, evidence-based suicide prevention approaches at all intervention levels are likely to reduce youth suicide. For most youth who die by suicide, there are opportunities for intervention before imminent risk develops. Current research in suicide prevention points to the value of investing in "upstream" universal interventions that build skills and resilience as well as policies that enable access to care and protection from lethal means. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Patients' estimations of the importance of preventive health services: a nationwide, population-based cross-sectional study in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Luísa; Ribeiro, Orquídea; Azevedo, Luís Filipe; Couto, Luciana; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Hespanhol, Alberto; Santos, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine, in the context of primary care preventive health services, the level of importance that Portuguese patients attribute to different preventive activities. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Primary Healthcare, Portugal. Participants 1000 Portuguese adults selected by a stratified cluster sampling design were invited to participate in a computer-assisted telephone survey. Persons with a cognitive or physical disability that hampered the ability to complete a telephone interview and being a nursing home resident or resident in any other type of collective dwelling were excluded. Outcomes Mean level of importance assigned to 20 different medical preventive activities, using a scale of 1–10, with 1 corresponding to ‘no importance for you and your health’ and 10 indicating ‘very important’. Results The mean level of importance assigned to medical preventive activity was 7.70 (95% CI 7.60 to 7.80). Routine blood and urine tests were considered the most important, with an estimated mean of 9.15 (95% CI 9.07 to 9.24), followed by female-specific interventions (Pap smear, mammography and gynaecological and breast ultrasounds), with mean importance ranging from 8.45 (95% CI 8.23 to 8.63) for mammography to 8.56 (95% CI 8.36 to 8.76) for Pap smear. Advice regarding alcohol consumption (6.18; 95% CI 5.96 to 6.39) and tobacco consumption (5.99; 95% CI 5.75 to 6.23) were considered much less important. Conclusions Our results reveal that Portuguese patients overestimate the importance of preventive medical activities, tend to give more importance to diagnostic and laboratory tests than to lifestyle measures, do not discriminate tests that are important and evidence-based, and seem not be aware of the individualisation of risk. Family physicians should be aware of these optimistic expectations, because these can influence the doctor–patient relationship when discussing these interventions and incorporating personalised risk. PMID:27707825

  4. Prevention of cardiovascular disease based on lipid lowering treatment: a challenge for the Mexican health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J; Rojas, Rosalba; Villalpando, Salvador; Barquera, Simón; Rull, Juan; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the percentage of Mexican adults that may require lipid-lowering treatment according to National Cholesterol Education Program-III guidelines, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANut 2006). Information was obtained from 4 040 subjects aged 20 to 69 years, studied after a 9 to 12 hours fast. A cardiovascular risk equivalent was found in 13.8% and >or=2 risk factors were present in 31.5% of the population. LDL-C concentrations were above the treatment goal in 70% of the high-risk group and in 38.6% of subjects with >or=2 risk factors. Nearly 12 million Mexicans should be taught how to change their lifestyles and close to 8 million individuals require drug therapy to decrease their cardiovascular risk. Thirty percent of Mexican adults require some form of lipid-lowering treatment (lifestyle modifications in 36.25%, drug therapy in 24.19%).

  5. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-09-01

    The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol) may induce people to

  6. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  7. School Based Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Aid Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    School Based Health Centers (SBHC) are considered by experts as one of the most effective and efficient ways to provide preventive health care to children. Few programs are as successful in delivering health care to children at no cost to the patient, and where they are: in school. For many underserved children, The Children's Aid Society's…

  8. Feasibility and quality of cardiovascular disease prevention within a community-based health insurance program in rural Nigeria: an operational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Marleen E.; Bolarinwa, Oladimeji A.; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. W.; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Odusola, Aina O.; Rosendaal, Nicole T. A.; Bindraban, Navin R.; Adenusi, Peju; Agbede, Kayode; Lange, Joep M. A.; Akande, Tanimola M.; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of providing guideline-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention care within the context of a community-based health insurance program (CBHI) in rural Nigeria. A prospective operational cohort study was conducted in a primary healthcare clinic in rural Nigeria,

  9. Lifestyle interventions based on the diabetes prevention program delivered via eHealth: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Kevin L; Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin

    2017-07-01

    The objective was to describe Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)-based lifestyle interventions delivered via electronic, mobile, and certain types of telehealth (eHealth) and estimate the magnitude of the effect on weight loss. A systematic review was conducted. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for studies published between January 2003 and February 2016 that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. An overall estimate of the effect on mean percentage weight loss across all the interventions was initially conducted. A stratified meta-analysis was also conducted to determine estimates of the effect across the interventions classified according to whether behavioral support by counselors post-baseline was not provided, provided remotely with communication technology, or face-to-face. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, in which 26 interventions were evaluated. Samples were primarily white and college educated. Interventions included Web-based applications, mobile phone applications, text messages, DVDs, interactive voice response telephone calls, telehealth video conferencing, and video on-demand programing. Nine interventions were stand-alone, delivered post-baseline exclusively via eHealth. Seventeen interventions included additional behavioral support provided by counselors post-baseline remotely with communication technology or face-to-face. The estimated overall effect on mean percentage weight loss from baseline to up to 15months of follow-up across all the interventions was -3.98%. The subtotal estimate across the stand-alone eHealth interventions (-3.34%) was less than the estimate across interventions with behavioral support given by a counselor remotely (-4.31%), and the estimate across interventions with behavioral support given by a counselor in-person (-4.65%). There is promising evidence of the efficacy of DPP-based eHealth interventions on weight loss. Further studies are needed particularly in racially and ethnically diverse

  10. Prevention of Mental Health Disorders using Internet and mobile-based Interventions: a narrative review and recommendations for future research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, David Daniel; Cuijpers, Pim; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Baumeister, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD), their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en

  11. Prevention of mental health disorders using internet- and mobile-based interventions : A narrative review and recommendations for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, David Daniel; Cuijpers, Pim; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Baumeister, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD), their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en

  12. Electronic health record-based assessment of cardiovascular health: The stroke prevention in healthcare delivery environments (SPHERE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi E. Foraker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available <3% of Americans have ideal cardiovascular health (CVH. The primary care encounter provides a setting in which to conduct patient-provider discussions of CVH. We implemented a CVH risk assessment, visualization, and decision-making tool that automatically populates with electronic health record (EHR data during the encounter in order to encourage patient-centered CVH discussions among at-risk, yet under-treated, populations. We quantified five of the seven CVH behaviors and factors that were available in The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center's EHR at baseline (May–July 2013 and compared values to those ascertained at one-year (May–July 2014 among intervention (n = 109 and control (n = 42 patients. The CVH of women in the intervention clinic improved relative to the metrics of body mass index (16% to 21% ideal and diabetes (62% to 68% ideal, but not for smoking, total cholesterol, or blood pressure. Meanwhile, the CVH of women in the control clinic either held constant or worsened slightly as measured using those same metrics. Providers need easy-to-use tools at the point-of-care to help patients improve CVH. We demonstrated that the EHR could deliver such a tool using an existing American Heart Association framework, and we noted small improvements in CVH in our patient population. Future work is needed to assess how to best harness the potential of such tools in order to have the greatest impact on the CVH of a larger patient population.

  13. Sepsis is a preventable public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempker, Jordan A; Wang, Henry E; Martin, Greg S

    2018-05-06

    There is a paradigm shift happening for sepsis. Sepsis is no longer solely conceptualized as problem of individual patients treated in emergency departments and intensive care units but also as one that is addressed as public health issue with population- and systems-based solutions. We offer a conceptual framework for sepsis as a public health problem by adapting the traditional model of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.

  14. [Mental Health and Prevention of Suicide in Japanese Workplaces Based on a Pilot Study of Job Stress and Suicide Ideation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese suicide rate is still high compared with other countries. Worker suicide especially leads to marked social and economic losses and severely affects the bereaved. There is an urgent need to devise a system to prevent suicide at a very early stage. Generally, it is considered very difficult to intervene and prevent suicide in cases in which individuals kill themselves suddenly. However, according to some studies on suicide attempts, even those who killed themselves suddenly had experienced some kind of conflict or a desire to die for a long period. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the risk factors at an early stage when individuals have vague thoughts of suicide. This will help reduce the risk of suicide in such cases. In this article, I first survey the data related to workers' mental health in Japan. Second, I introduce the results of our pilot study in which we investigated mental health issues related to suicide among workers who have taken leave from work for more than two months. In this study, workers who do not exhibit help-seeking behavior are suggested to be a high-risk group for suicide. It is speculated that this behavior is related to several factors such as the sex, age, social status, education, personal stigma, and perceived stigma. Therefore, we must focus on both clinical and social solutions for the prevention of suicide. I believe that psychiatrists will come to play a more important role as liaisons between workplaces and social resources for the prevention of suicide.

  15. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  16. Effectiveness of Education Based on the Health Belief Model on Performing Preventive Measures for Breast Cancer Among Female Teachers in Zahedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Kalan-Farmanfarma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preventive behaviors such as screening tests have an important role in prevention and control of breast cancer. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of educational programs on preventive behaviors of breast cancer based on the health belief model among female teachers of guidance schools in Zahedan city. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 240 female teachers from (120 participants in each of the control and intervention groups Zahedan guidance schools. The data-gathering tool was a multipart questionnaire containing demographic variables, knowledge and health belief model structures. An educational program was performed based on the health belief model in five sessions through lectures, training videos, question and answer session for participants in the intervention group. Questionnaires were filled before and two months after the intervention in the two groups. Data was analyzed by independent T-test, chi-square and multiple linear regressions using SPSS-15 software. Results: There was no meaningful difference in the mean scores of knowledge, health belief model constructs, and performance between the two groups before the educational intervention, but the mean scores of variables increased significantly after the intervention (P< 0.05. Conclusion: The health belief model was effective to promote preventive behaviors. Hence, educational interventions with an emphasis on raising awareness, change in beliefs and improving self-efficacy regarding breast cancer are recommended

  17. Process evaluation of Project WebHealth: a nondieting Web-based intervention for obesity prevention in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dour, Colleen A; Horacek, Tanya M; Schembre, Susan M; Lohse, Barbara; Hoerr, Sharon; Kattelmann, Kendra; White, Adrienne A; Shoff, Suzanne; Phillips, Beatrice; Greene, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the motivational effect of the Project WebHealth study procedures and intervention components on weight-related health behavior changes in male and female college students. Process evaluation. Eight universities in the United States. Project WebHealth participants (n = 653; 29% men). Participants rated motivational effects of study procedures and intervention components. Participants were grouped into outcome-based health behavior categories based on achievement of desired targets for fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and/or body weight. Differences in motivation from each procedure and component were analyzed by gender- and outcome-based health behavior category. Women were generally more motivated than men. Compared to those who did not meet any target health behaviors, men with improved health outcomes (68%) were significantly more motivated by the skills to fuel the body lesson, goal setting, and research snippets. Their female counterparts (63%) were significantly more motivated by the lessons on body size and eating enjoyment, and by the suggested weekly activities. Specific study procedures and components of Project WebHealth motivated study participants to improve their weight-related health behaviors, and they differed by gender. Findings support the need for gender-tailored interventions in this population. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Health professionals' attitudes towards suicide prevention initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunero, S; Smith, J; Bates, E; Fairbrother, G

    2008-09-01

    Preventing suicide can depend upon the ability of a range of different health professionals to make accurate suicide risk assessments and treatment plans. The attitudes that clinicians hold towards suicide prevention initiatives may influence their suicide risk assessment and management skills. This study measures a group of non-mental health professionals' attitude towards suicide prevention initiatives. Health professionals that had attended suicide prevention education showed significantly more positive attitudes towards suicide prevention initiatives. The findings in this study further support the effectiveness of educating non-mental health professionals in suicide risk awareness and management.

  19. Reducing Cancer Health Disparities through Community Engagement: Working with Faith-Based Organizations (Project CHURCH) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker | "Reducing Cancer Health Disparities through Community Engagement: Working with Faith-Based Organizations (Project CHURCH)" will be presented by Lorna H. McNeill, PhD, MPH, Chair of the Department of Health Disparities at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX. Date: 2/20/2018; Time: 11:00am - 12:00pm; Location: NCI Shady Grove Campus,

  20. Use and Appreciation of a Web-Based, Tailored Intervention (E-health4Uth) Combined With Counseling to Promote Adolescents' Health in Preventive Youth Health Care: Survey and Log-File Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; Joosten-van Zwanenburg, Evelien; van As, Els; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-06

    Health promotion for adolescents is important in the prevention of mental health problems and health-risk behaviors. We implemented two interventions in a preventive youth health care setting. Adolescents in the E-health4Uth group received Web-based, tailored messages on their health behavior and well-being. Adolescents in the E-health4Uth and counseling group received the same tailored messages, but were subsequently referred to a school nurse for a consultation if they were at risk of mental health problems. This study evaluated the use and appreciation of these Web-based, tailored messages and additional consultation with a school nurse. Differences in use and appreciation according to demographics (ie, gender, level of education, and ethnicity) of the adolescents were also assessed. Two youth health care organizations participated in this study and conducted the interventions in 12 secondary schools. In total, 1702 adolescents participated; 533 in the E-health4Uth group, 554 in the E-health4Uth and counseling group, and 615 in the control group (ie, care as usual). Adolescents completed an evaluation questionnaire assessing the use and appreciation of the tailored messages immediately after receiving these messages and at a 4-month follow-up. After the consultation, adolescents and nurses completed an evaluation questionnaire on the use and appreciation of the consultation. The majority of the adolescents (845/1034, 81.72%) indicated they had read the tailored messages. Most items on the use and appreciation of the tailored messages and the program were scored positive (overall satisfaction on a scale from 1, most-negative, to 10, most-positive: mean 6.70, SD 1.60). In general, adolescents in vocational training, girls, and adolescents of non-Dutch ethnicity, indicated they used the tailored messages more often and appreciated the content of the messages better than adolescents receiving preuniversity education, boys, and adolescents of Dutch ethnicity

  1. Use and Appreciation of a Web-Based, Tailored Intervention (E-health4Uth) Combined With Counseling to Promote Adolescents’ Health in Preventive Youth Health Care: Survey and Log-File Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; Joosten-van Zwanenburg, Evelien; van As, Els; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Background Health promotion for adolescents is important in the prevention of mental health problems and health-risk behaviors. We implemented two interventions in a preventive youth health care setting. Adolescents in the E-health4Uth group received Web-based, tailored messages on their health behavior and well-being. Adolescents in the E-health4Uth and counseling group received the same tailored messages, but were subsequently referred to a school nurse for a consultation if they were at risk of mental health problems. Objective This study evaluated the use and appreciation of these Web-based, tailored messages and additional consultation with a school nurse. Differences in use and appreciation according to demographics (ie, gender, level of education, and ethnicity) of the adolescents were also assessed. Methods Two youth health care organizations participated in this study and conducted the interventions in 12 secondary schools. In total, 1702 adolescents participated; 533 in the E-health4Uth group, 554 in the E-health4Uth and counseling group, and 615 in the control group (ie, care as usual). Adolescents completed an evaluation questionnaire assessing the use and appreciation of the tailored messages immediately after receiving these messages and at a 4-month follow-up. After the consultation, adolescents and nurses completed an evaluation questionnaire on the use and appreciation of the consultation. Results The majority of the adolescents (845/1034, 81.72%) indicated they had read the tailored messages. Most items on the use and appreciation of the tailored messages and the program were scored positive (overall satisfaction on a scale from 1, most-negative, to 10, most-positive: mean 6.70, SD 1.60). In general, adolescents in vocational training, girls, and adolescents of non-Dutch ethnicity, indicated they used the tailored messages more often and appreciated the content of the messages better than adolescents receiving preuniversity education, boys, and

  2. Electronic health record-based patient identification and individualized mailed outreach for primary cardiovascular disease prevention: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persell, Stephen D; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Friesema, Elisha M; Cooper, Andrew J; Baker, David W

    2013-04-01

    Many individuals at higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) do not receive recommended treatments. Prior interventions using personalized risk information to promote prevention did not test clinic-wide effectiveness. To perform a 9-month cluster-randomized trial, comparing a strategy of electronic health record-based identification of patients with increased CVD risk and individualized mailed outreach to usual care. Patients of participating physicians with a Framingham Risk Score of at least 5 %, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level above guideline threshold for drug treatment, and not prescribed a lipid-lowering medication were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Patients of physicians randomized to the intervention group were mailed individualized CVD risk messages that described benefits of using a statin (and controlling hypertension or quitting smoking when relevant). The primary outcome was occurrence of a LDL-cholesterol level, repeated in routine practice, that was at least 30 mg/dl lower than prior. A secondary outcome was lipid-lowering drug prescribing. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01286311. Fourteen physicians with 218 patients were randomized to intervention, and 15 physicians with 217 patients to control. The mean patient age was 60.7 years and 77% were male. There was no difference in the primary outcome (11.0 % vs. 11.1 %, OR 0.99, 95 % CI 0.56-1.74, P = 0.96), but intervention group patients were twice as likely to receive a prescription for lipid-lowering medication (11.9 %, vs. 6.0 %, OR 2.13, 95 % CI 1.05-4.32, p = 0.038). In post hoc analysis with extended follow-up to 18 months, the primary outcome occurred more often in the intervention group (22.5 % vs. 16.1 %, OR 1.59, 95 % CI 1.05-2.41, P = 0.029). In this effectiveness trial, individualized mailed CVD risk messages increased the frequency of new lipid-lowering drug prescriptions, but we observed no difference in proportions lowering LDL

  3. Social impact bonds and their application to preventive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, John L

    2013-05-01

    Although preventive health in Australia has been acknowledged as central to national health and wellbeing, efforts to reform the delivery of preventive health have to date produced limited results. The financing of preventive health at a national level is based on outcome- or performance-based funding mechanisms; however, delivery of interventions and activities at a state level have not been subjected to outcome-based funding processes. A new financing tool being applied in the area of social services (social impact bonds) has emerged as a possible model for application in the prevention arena. This paper explores key issues in the consideration of this funding model in the prevention arena. When preventive health is conceptualised as a merit good, the role of government is clarified and outcome measures fully articulated, social impact bonds may be a viable funding option to supplement core public health activities. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? The complexities of outcome monitoring in preventive health are well understood.Likewise, the problem of linking funding to outcomes from preventive health practice has also been debated at length in health policy. However, not much is known about the application of social impact bonds into the preventive health arena.WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper discusses the limitations and opportunities facing the application of the social impact bond financing model in the preventive health arena. This has not been undertaken previously.WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? Social impact bonds have received significant recent attention from federal and state government treasury departments as potential financing tools for government. Health policy practitioners are watching this space very closely to see the outcomes of a New South Wales trial. Health promotion practitioners and primary care practitioners who deliver preventive services will need to keep abreast of this issue as it will have significant impact on their

  4. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Denise Moreno; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H; Betterton, Eric A

    2015-09-09

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered "hard-to-reach" by government-led programs.

  5. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Ramírez, Denise; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D.; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A.; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H.; Betterton, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered “hard-to-reach” by government-led programs. PMID:26371028

  6. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Moreno Ramírez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered “hard-to-reach” by government-led programs.

  7. Collaborative leadership and the implementation of community-based fall prevention initiatives: a multiple case study of public health practice within community groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle-Reid, Maureen; Dykeman, Cathy; Ploeg, Jenny; Kelly Stradiotto, Caralyn; Andrews, Angela; Bonomo, Susan; Orr-Shaw, Sarah; Salker, Niyati

    2017-02-16

    Falls among community-dwelling older adults are a serious public health concern. While evidence-based fall prevention strategies are available, their effective implementation requires broad cross-sector coordination that is beyond the capacity of any single institution or organization. Community groups comprised of diverse stakeholders that include public health, care providers from the public and private sectors and citizen volunteers are working to deliver locally-based fall prevention. These groups are examples of collective impact and are important venues for public health professionals (PHPs) to deliver their mandate to work collaboratively towards achieving improved health outcomes. This study explores the process of community-based group work directed towards fall prevention, and it focuses particular attention on the collaborative leadership practices of PHPs, in order to advance understanding of the competencies required for collective impact. Four community groups, located in Ontario, Canada, were studied using an exploratory, retrospective, multiple case study design. The criteria for inclusion were presence of a PHP, a diverse membership and the completion of an initiative that fit within the scope of the World Health Organization Fall Prevention Model. Data were collected using interviews (n = 26), focus groups (n = 4), and documents. Cross-case synthesis was conducted by a collaborative team of researchers. The community groups differed by membership, the role of the PHP and the type of fall prevention initiatives. Seven practice themes emerged: (1) tailoring to address context; (2) making connections; (3) enabling communication; (4) shaping a vision; (5) skill-building to mobilize and take action; (6) orchestrating people and projects; and (7) contributing information and experience. The value of recognized leadership competencies was underscored and the vital role of institutional supports was highlighted. To align stakeholders working

  8. A process evaluation of a social cognitive theory-based childhood obesity prevention intervention: the Comics for Health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscum, Paul; Sharma, Manoj; Wang, Lihshing Leigh; Wilson, Bradley; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana

    2013-03-01

    Process evaluations are an often overlooked yet essential component of health promotion interventions. This study reports the results of a comprehensive process evaluation for the "Comics for Health" program, a childhood obesity prevention intervention implemented at 12 after-school programs. Qualitative and quantitative process data were collected using surveys, field notes, and open-item questionnaires, which assessed program fidelity, dose delivered, dose received, reach, recruitment, and context. Triangulation of methods was also employed to better understand how the program was implemented and received by the facilitator, staff members, and children in the program. Results indicated that program implementation had an almost perfect rate of fidelity with most lessons recording 100% tasks completed. Lessons were implemented in their intended order and lasted approximately 30 minutes as planned. After-school staff members reported that the program was well received by children, and this program should be replicated in the future. Attendance records showed that a majority of the children attended each lesson on the initial day of delivery (70.4%) and informal make-up lessons were implemented to compensate for the other children. Finally, several known sources of contamination were found such as past and concurrent exposure to similar health promotion interventions, which could potentially influence study outcomes. These findings will be used to help explain the results of this intervention and make recommendations for future intervention efforts.

  9. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  10. Menopause: Prevention and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mª Rivas Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account that climacteric constitutes a physiological state in woman’s life, which covers a large stage of her life cycle, it is important that nursery professionals will develop an Action Plan, whose main objective will be health. Covering, then, this stage from a multidisciplinary and holistic field is going to contribute to both: the adoption of healthy life habits and the repercussions that symptoms and physiological processes associated with menopause have on women. Another objective for nurses there must be to provide all our knowledge in a detailed and focused on the individual needs that may come up way. That way, we lay the foundations for facing climacteric with the minimum deterioration of the quality of life and well being.This article is an analysis of the etiology of every one of the most prevalent menopause problems, the predisposing factors to suffer them or to make them get worse, and the habits that are going to prevent larger spill-over effects of those problems. Furthermore, a revision about how nutrition, exercise, toxic substances consumption, etc. have repercussions on musculoskeletal problems, vascular symptoms, urogenital problems, psychological alterations, and gynaecological and breast cancer is made.

  11. The Effect of Educational Program Based on the Health Belief Model on Brucellosis Preventive Behaviors among Traditional Ranchers in Rural Areas of Hamadan Province

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    Zahra Eskandari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Training brucellosis preventive behaviors is mandatory to reduce the incidence of this disease in at-risk groups. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an educational program based on Health Belief Model (HBM on brucellosis preventive behaviors among traditional ranchers in rural areas of Hamadan Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: This interventional study was performed with a pretest-posttest design and a control group in 2016. The participants were traditional ranchers of the villages of Hamadan Province, who are identified at high risk for brucellosis. In this study, 70 ranchers were randomly selected and divided into experimental and control groups. The data was collected using a questionnaire consisting of demographic information, knowledge, behavior checklist, and HBM constructs. The experimental group received the educational intervention during 4 sessions with film screening and the use of video and text messages. Data was analyzed using chi-square, Fisher’s exact test, independent t-test, and paired t-test in SPSS. Results: After the intervention, the mean scores of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived self-efficacy, and cues to action and prevention of brucellosis in the experimental group had significantly increased in comparison to the control group (P<0.001. Conclusions: Results of this study showed that the educational intervention based on the Health Belief Model could promote brucellosis preventive behaviors among traditional ranchers.

  12. Economic Evaluation of Community-Based HIV Prevention Programs in Ontario: Evidence of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Infections and Health Care Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Holtgrave, David R; Bacon, Jean; Kennedy, Rick; Lush, Joanne; McGee, Frank; Tomlinson, George A; Rourke, Sean B

    2016-06-01

    Investments in community-based HIV prevention programs in Ontario over the past two and a half decades are assumed to have had an impact on the HIV epidemic, but they have never been systematically evaluated. To help close this knowledge gap, we conducted a macro-level evaluation of investment in Ontario HIV prevention programs from the payer perspective. Our results showed that, from 1987 to 2011, province-wide community-based programs helped to avert a total of 16,672 HIV infections, saving Ontario's health care system approximately $6.5 billion Canadian dollars (range 4.8-7.5B). We also showed that these community-based HIV programs were cost-saving: from 2005 to 2011, every dollar invested in these programs saved about $5. This study is an important first step in understanding the impact of investing in community-based HIV prevention programs in Ontario and recognizing the impact that these programs have had in reducing HIV infections and health care costs.

  13. Ahead of the game protocol: a multi-component, community sport-based program targeting prevention, promotion and early intervention for mental health among adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Stewart A; Swann, Christian; Batterham, Marijka; Boydell, Katherine M; Eckermann, Simon; Fogarty, Andrea; Hurley, Diarmuid; Liddle, Sarah K; Lonsdale, Chris; Miller, Andrew; Noetel, Michael; Okely, Anthony D; Sanders, Taren; Telenta, Joanne; Deane, Frank P

    2018-03-21

    There is a recognised need for targeted community-wide mental health strategies and interventions aimed specifically at prevention and early intervention in promoting mental health. Young males are a high need group who hold particularly negative attitudes towards mental health services, and these views are detrimental for early intervention and help-seeking. Organised sports provide a promising context to deliver community-wide mental health strategies and interventions to adolescent males. The aim of the Ahead of the Game program is to test the effectiveness of a multi-component, community-sport based program targeting prevention, promotion and early intervention for mental health among adolescent males. The Ahead of the Game program will be implemented within a sample drawn from community sporting clubs and evaluated using a sample drawn from a matched control community. Four programs are proposed, including two targeting adolescents, one for parents, and one for sports coaches. One adolescent program aims to increase mental health literacy, intentions to seek and/or provide help for mental health, and to decrease stigmatising attitudes. The second adolescent program aims to increase resilience. The goal of the parent program is to increase parental mental health literacy and confidence to provide help. The coach program is intended to increase coaches' supportive behaviours (e.g., autonomy supportive behaviours), and in turn facilitate high-quality motivation and wellbeing among adolescents. Programs will be complemented by a messaging campaign aimed at adolescents to enhance mental health literacy. The effects of the program on adolescent males' psychological distress and wellbeing will also be explored. Organised sports represent a potentially engaging avenue to promote mental health and prevent the onset of mental health problems among adolescent males. The community-based design, with samples drawn from an intervention and a matched control community

  14. Reported Systems Changes and Sustainability Perceptions of Three State Departments of Health Implementing Multi-Faceted Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lee Smith

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the concepts of systems change and sustainability are not new, little is known about the factors associated with systems change sustaining multi-state, multi-level fall prevention efforts. This exploratory study focuses on three State Departments of Health (DOH that were awarded 5-year funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to simultaneously implement four separate yet related evidence-based fall prevention initiatives at the clinical, community, and policy level. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in partnerships and collaborative activities that occurred to accomplish project goals (examining changes in the context of “before funding” and “after funding was received”. Additionally, this study explored changes in State DOH perceptions about action related to sustainability indicators in the context of “during funding” and “after funding ends.” Findings from this study document the partnership and activity changes necessary to achieve defined fall prevention goals after funding is received, and that the importance of sustainability indicator documentation is seen as relevant during funding, but less so after the funding ends. Findings from this study have practice and research implications that can inform future funded efforts in terms of sector and stakeholder engagement necessary for initiating, implementing, and sustaining community- and clinical-based fall prevention interventions.

  15. Development of a theory-based (PEN-3 and Health Belief Model), culturally relevant intervention on cervical cancer prevention among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Bandura, Lisa; Hidalgo, Bertha; Cherrington, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The development of efficacious theory-based, culturally relevant interventions to promote cervical cancer prevention among underserved populations is crucial to the elimination of cancer disparities. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention focusing on primary (sexual risk reduction) and secondary (Pap smear) prevention of cervical cancer among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping (IM). The PEN-3 and Health Belief Model provided theoretical guidance for the intervention development and implementation. IM provides a logical five-step framework in intervention development: delineating proximal program objectives, selecting theory-based intervention methods and strategies, developing a program plan, planning for adoption in implementation, and creating evaluation plans and instruments. We first conducted an extensive literature review and qualitatively examined the sociocultural factors associated with primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer. We then proceeded to quantitatively validate the qualitative findings, which led to development matrices linking the theoretical constructs with intervention objectives and strategies as well as evaluation. IM was a helpful tool in the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention addressing primary and secondary prevention among Latina immigrants.

  16. A Community-Based, Technology-Supported Health Service for Detecting and Preventing Frailty among Older Adults: A Participatory Design Development Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velsen, Lex; Illario, Maddalena; Jansen-Kosterink, Stephanie; Crola, Catherine; Di Somma, Carolina; Colao, Annamaria; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Frailty is a multifaceted condition that affects many older adults and marks decline on areas such as cognition, physical condition, and nutritional status. Frail individuals are at increased risk for the development of disability, dementia, and falls. There are hardly any health services that enable the identification of prefrail individuals and that focus on prevention of further functional decline. In this paper, we discuss the development of a community-based, technology-supported health service for detecting prefrailty and preventing frailty and further functional decline via participatory design with a wide range of stakeholders. The result is an innovative service model in which an online platform supports the integration of traditional services with novel, Information Communication Technology supported tools. This service is capable of supporting the different phases of screening and offers training services, by also integrating them with community-based services. The service model can be used as a basis for developing similar services within a wide range of healthcare systems. We present the service model, the general functioning of the technology platform, and the different ways in which screening for and prevention of frailty has been localized. Finally, we reflect on the added value of participatory design for creating such health services.

  17. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention.

  18. Evaluating a Health Belief Model-Based Educational Program for School Injury Prevention among Hard-of-Hearing/Deaf High School Students

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    Fatemeh Vejdani-Aram

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: While all students are vulnerable to injuries, such vulnerability may even be higher in the deaf and hard-of-hearing students. Therefore, this study evaluated a health belief model-based educational program to prevent school injuries among deaf and hard-of-hearing high school students. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on all deaf and hard-of-hearing students who attended two special schools in Hamadan (Iran during 2014. They were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 23 or the control group (n = 27. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire containing items on demographic characteristics, constructs of the health belief model, and knowledge and preventive behaviors. In both groups, the questionnaires were filled out through interviews before and two months after the intervention. The intervention included distributing booklets and holding five educational sessions. Data were analyzed with paired t, independent t, chi square, and Fisher’s exact tests in SPSS16. Results: After the educational intervention, the mean scores of knowledge (P=0.002, preventive behaviors (P=0.001, and constructs of the health belief model, i.e. perceived severity (P=0.001, perceived benefits (P=0.001, self-efficacy (P=0.001, and cues to action (P=0.001, were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group. Conclusion: According to our findings, an educational intervention based on the health belief model can promote behaviors to prevent school injuries among deaf and hard-of-hearing students.

  19. A Critical Examination of the Use of Trained Health Coaches to Decrease the Metabolic Syndrome for Participants of a Community-Based Diabetes Prevention and Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon; Shawley, Samantha; Ingels, John Spencer; Stewart, Jonathan; Misra, Ranjita

    2016-01-01

    The epidemic of obesity and diabetes in the United States poses major challenge to the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Furthermore, when this is viewed in other components of the metabolic syndrome (i.e., the burden of high cholesterol and hypertension), the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome continues to rise in the USA continued challenge is how to deal with this epidemic from a medical and public health standpoint. Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is a unique approach and offers a novel perspective for answering this challenge. A critical set of goals for CBPR is to address health disparities and social inequalities while getting community members engaged in all aspects of the research process. Utilizing the West Virginia Diabetes Prevention and Management Program and trained Health Coaches as a model, we discuss topics of consideration related to CBPR, involving trained health coaches, optimizing early adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors, and enhancing participation. Through careful project planning and design, questions regarding disparities increasing susceptibility and preventive efforts within the community can be addressed successfully. These topics are part of a broader integration of theories such as participatory research, community engagement, and outcomes measurement. The understanding of the pathophysiology and epidemiology of the metabolic syndrome can help frame an appropriate strategy for establishing long-term community-wide changes that promote health. In order to continue to improve investigations for preventing the metabolic syndrome, it will be necessary to have aggressive efforts at the individual and population level for developing culturally sensitive programs that start early and are sustainable in practical environments such as the workplace. In this comprehensive review, we will discuss practical considerations related to project design, implementation, and how to measure effectiveness in regards to

  20. Oral health behaviours of parents and young children in a practice-based caries prevention trial in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Lucy; Worthington, Helen V; Donaldson, Michael; O'Neil, Ciaran; Birch, Stephen; Noble, Solveig; Killough, Seamus; Murphy, Lynn; Greer, Margaret; Brodison, Julie; Verghis, Rejina; Tickle, Martin

    2018-06-01

    The NICPIP trial evaluated the costs and effects of a caries prevention intervention delivered to 2- to 3-year-old children attending dental practices in Northern Ireland. This supplementary study explored the oral health behaviours of children and their parents to help understand the reasons for the trial's findings. A mixed methods study that included a questionnaire completed by all parents (n = 1058) at the time they brought their child for the NICPIP final clinical assessment. The questionnaire collected data on frequency of toothbrushing and sugar consumption. Questionnaire data were analysed by trial group and caries status. Parents of trial participants (n = 42) were invited to take part in telephone interviews. Parents were purposively sampled according to trial group and whether or not their child developed caries. The interviews explored how and why oral health behaviours happened. Interview data were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. The questionnaire data indicated that toothbrushing and between-meal sugar snacking were common in the majority of children. The children of parents who automatically reminded their child to brush their teeth were more likely to remain caries-free (Odds Ratio 1.24; 95% CI 1.08, 1.41; P = .002). Frequency of sweet drink consumption was associated with the child developing caries (Odds Ratio 0.88; 95% CI 0.79, 0.98; P = .021). The interview data showed that parents had positive attitudes towards brushing both in terms of perceived importance and expected outcomes. Attitudes towards sugar snacking were more complex, with parents reporting difficulties in controlling this behaviour. Sugar was described as being something that was "ever present" in children's lives. Toothbrushing was widely adopted from a young age, but between-meal sugar consumption was highly prevalent. The results suggest that effective family-level and population-level interventions are needed to reduce sugar consumption

  1. Promoting recovery via an integrated model of care to deliver a bed-based, mental health prevention and recovery centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart J; Collister, Laura; Stafrace, Simon; Crowther, Elizabeth; Kroschel, Jon; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2014-10-01

    This research was conducted in order to explore the experience of care and outcomes for people entering a bed-based step-up/step-down Prevention and Recovery Centre (PARC). An audit of files for PARC participants in 2010 collected demographic (age, gender, and marital, housing, employment and education/training status) and clinical measures (length of stay, entry and exit outcome measures, psychiatric hospital use). Participants were also invited to a feedback group to discuss their PARC experience. In 2010, 118 people entered PARC. Most were single and unemployed and 35% were in temporary housing or homeless. In the six months following PARC exit, participants spent significantly less time in psychiatric hospital than in the six months prior to entry (precovery for people with mental illness through promoting independence and illness self-management. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  2. Gender-Based Violence Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…

  3. Rethinking school-based health centers as complex adaptive systems: maximizing opportunities for the prevention of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Alison Moriarty

    2012-01-01

    This article examines school-based health centers (SBHCs) as complex adaptive systems, the current gaps that exist in contraceptive access, and the potential to maximize this community resource in teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention efforts. Adolescent pregnancy is a major public health challenge for the United States. Existing community resources need to be considered for their potential to impact teen pregnancy and STI prevention efforts. SBHCs are one such community resource to be leveraged in these efforts. They offer adolescent-friendly primary care services and are responsive to the diverse needs of the adolescents utilizing them. However, current restrictions on contraceptive availability limit the ability of SBHCs to maximize opportunities for comprehensive reproductive care and create missed opportunities for pregnancy and STI prevention. A clinical case explores the current models of health care services related to contraceptive care provided in SBHCs and the ability to meet or miss the needs of an adolescent seeking reproductive care in a SBHC.

  4. The Effect of Education about Preventive Behaviors of Urinary Infection Based on Health Belief Model by Attending and Non- Attending Educational Programs in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Noroozi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the second most common complication of pregnancy, maternal and fetal complications and serious consequences will follow. So, the purpose of this study is comparison of education effect between attend and non-attend methods on promotion prevailing behavior from urinary tract infection in pregnant women based on the health belief model. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 140 pregnant women coming to Bushehr medical center, in two group (70 people each were studied. In attend group, two education meetings, including 1.5 hour were hold based on the health belief model with an interval of a week. Non-attend education group, just received a booklet arranged based on health belief model. The information about awareness, structures model and function were collected before, one week and three months later via questionnaire. The urinary test results were collected before and three months after the intervention. After getting information, data were analyzed by software SPSS version 20 via perfect tests. Results: Before educational intervention, knowledge, preventive behaviors of urinary infection and all structures model were same in both groups. After the intervention, average of perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit and self-efficacy increased and average of perceived barrier decreased significantly in attend education group (P≤0/001, and in non-attend education group, awareness score and perceived susceptibility, benefit and self-efficacy increased and average of perceived barrier decreased significantly. Average of perceived susceptibility, barrier, self-efficacy, awareness, and mean of preventive behaviors of urinary infection between two groups were different significantly (P≤0/001. Conclusion: Regarding to changes in health belief model constructs, knowledge and function in two groups after education, using booklets based on health belief model for pregnant women can be useful due to their

  5. Related Factors of Physical Activity Preventive Behavior of Osteoporosis Based on Health Belief Model among Teen Girls in Qom City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Karimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Although osteoporosis is a disease of adulthood, it can start from childhood and adolescence. Lifestyle, especially physical activity, mobility, and proper nutrition during adolescence are among the important osteoporosis preventive factors. Therefore, this study aimed to determine related factors of physical activity preventive behavior of osteoporosis based on the Health Belief Model (HBM among teen girls in Qom city, Iran. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was conducted on 265 tenth to twelfth grade girl students in Qom city. The participants were selected via multistage sampling method. A researcher-made questionnaire based on Health Belief Model used for data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS-20. Results The current study, knowledge and perceived self-efficacy had a significant and positive relationship with physical activity behavior (r=0.13, P0.05. Conclusion The results of the study showed that educational interventions and programs must focus on increasing knowledge and perceived self-efficacy to enhance physical activity behavior and reduce the perceived barriers associated with osteoporosis preventive physical activity.

  6. Determinants of Preventive Behaviors of Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnant Women Based on the Constructs of Health Belief Model in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS MazloomyMahmoodabad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infection is considered as one of the most common complications of pregnancy, which can be avoided via adopting preventive behaviors. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate determinants of preventive behaviors of urinary tract infection in pregnant women based on the constructs of Health Belief Model in Yazd. Methods: This descriptive cross- sectional study was conducted on 160 pregnant women referred to health centers of Yazd, suffering from urinary tract infection, who were selected via purposive sampling method. In order to glean the study data, a questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model construct was applid and then the study data were analyzed using SPSS Software (ver.18 via frequency tables and t-test. Results: Among the pregnant women, 63.1% (101 patients demonstrated average score of knowledge and 36.9% (59 patients had good knowledge. Regarding the constructs of Health Belief Model, 73.1% (117 had good score of perceived barriers, 95% (152 demonstraded good perceived benefits, 95% (152 reported good perceived susceptibility, and 81.3% (130 scored a good level of perceived severity. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between the total score of knowledge and attitude (p=0.02, though the correlation between the behavior and knowledge (p=0.08 as well as attitude and behavior (p=0.09 were not proved to be significant. Conclusions: According to the results, further structural intervention needs to focus on perceived barriers in order to prevent the urinary tract infections. Furthermore, behaviors related to eating and hygiene habits should be considered further and the importance of family, wife and the media involvement seem to be essential in designing the training programs.

  7. Effect of health education on knowledge and prevention on Hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of health education on knowledge and prevention on Hepatitis infection among secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo state. ... Based on these findings, the study recommended that health education/ health campaign should be directed to school students and Specific risk practices ...

  8. Receipt of preventive oral health care by U.S. children: a population-based study of the 2005-2008 medical expenditure panel surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Colleen E; Bell, Janice F; Reed, Sarah C

    2013-11-01

    This study provides estimates of the annual use of preventive oral health care by U.S. children ages 6 months-17 years. We estimated the annual use of preventive oral health care with data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey for the years 2005 through 2008 (n = 18,218). Additionally, we tested associations between use of preventive oral health care and predisposing factors, enabling factors and health need within three age groups: young children, school-age children and youth. Overall, 21 % of the sample was reported to have received preventive oral health care in the prior year. More school-age children received preventive care than did young children or youth regardless of gender, race/ethnicity, health status, residence, or family size. Among the youngest children, low parental education and lack of health insurance were associated with lower odds of receiving preventive care. School-age children of racial and ethnic minority groups had a higher odds of receiving preventive care than did non-Hispanic Whites. Youth with special health care needs were less likely to receive care than their peers. Within each age group, use of preventive care increased significantly from 2005 to 2008. In the U.S. there has been an increase in use of pediatric preventive dental care. Continued effort is needed to achieve primary prevention. Outreach and education should include all parents and especially parents with low levels of education, parents of children with special health care needs and those without health insurance.

  9. Investigating the effect of education based on need to prevent falling during activities of daily living among the elderlies referring to health centers of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Ghasemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falling has a great importance among the elderlies. Even if no physical injury occurs, it can cause fear of falling down again and, consequently, reduce older adults′ activities. With regard to the prevalence of falling among older adults, its prevention is essential. Therefore, the present study was aimed to define the effect of need-based education on prevention of older adults′ falling during their everyday life activities. Materials and Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study. Study population comprised all the older adults of age 60 years and over referring to health care centers in Isfahan. Through multiple random sampling, 15 older adults were selected from four health care centers. Data collection tool in the present study was Daily Activity Questionnaire. Results: Results showed a significant difference between the mean of daily activity scores in the intervention group before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention (12, 13.6, and 13.5, respectively; P = 0.01. Meanwhile, there was no significant deference between the scores immediately after and 1 month after the intervention. There was no significant difference observed between the three time points in the control group (mean = 12.3; P = 0.907. Conclusion: Implementation of education concerning prevention of older adults′ falling led to improvement of their daily activity in the intervention group.

  10. Effects of risk-based multifactorial fall prevention on health-related quality of life among the community-dwelling aged: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoaho Raimo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to assess the effects of a risk-based, multifactorial fall prevention programme on health-related quality of life among the community-dwelling aged who had fallen at least once during the previous 12 months. Methods The study is a part of a single-centre, risk-based, multifactorial randomised controlled trial. The intervention lasted for 12 months and consisted of a geriatric assessment, guidance and treatment, individual instruction in fall prevention, group exercise, lectures on themes related to falling, psychosocial group activities and home exercise. Of the total study population (n = 591, 97% of eligible subjects, 513(251 in the intervention group and 262 in the control group participated in this study. The effect of the intervention on quality of life was measured using the 15D health-related quality of life instrument consisting of 15 dimensions. The data were analysed using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, the Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression. Results In men, the results showed significant differences in the changes between the intervention and control groups in depression (p = 0.017 and distress (p = 0.029 and marginally significant differences in usual activities (p = 0.058 and sexual activity (p = 0.051. In women, significant differences in the changes between the groups were found in usual activities (p = 0.005 and discomfort/symptoms (p = 0.047. For the subjects aged 65 to 74 years, significant differences in the changes between the groups were seen in distress (p = 0.037 among men and in usual activities (p = 0.011 among women. All improvements were in favour of the intervention group. Conclusion Fall prevention produced positive effects on some dimensions of health-related quality of life in the community-dwelling aged. Men benefited more than women.

  11. GIS, Pollution Prevention and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using examples of preventing pollution and reducing risk of exposure to communities, this guide answers basic interest and start-up questions, addresses benefits and limitations and illustrates the value of GIS for local health departments.

  12. Men's Health: Prevent the Top Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce stress — or learn to deal with stress in healthy ways. Don't wait to visit the doctor until something is seriously wrong. Your doctor can be your best ally for preventing health problems. Follow your doctor's ...

  13. The development and implementation of theory-driven programs capable of addressing poverty-impacted children's health, mental health, and prevention needs: CHAMP and CHAMP+, evidence-informed, family-based interventions to address HIV risk and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan McKay, Mary; Alicea, Stacey; Elwyn, Laura; McClain, Zachary R B; Parker, Gary; Small, Latoya A; Mellins, Claude Ann

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a program of prevention and intervention research conducted by the CHAMP (Collaborative HIV prevention and Adolescent Mental health Project; McKay & Paikoff, 2007 ) investigative team. CHAMP refers to a set of theory-driven, evidence-informed, collaboratively designed, family-based approaches meant to address the prevention, health, and mental health needs of poverty-impacted African American and Latino urban youth who are either at risk for HIV exposure or perinatally infected and at high risk for reinfection and possible transmission. CHAMP approaches are informed by theoretical frameworks that incorporate an understanding of the critical influences of multilevel contextual factors on youth risk taking and engagement in protective health behaviors. Highly influential theories include the triadic theory of influence, social action theory, and ecological developmental perspectives. CHAMP program delivery strategies were developed via a highly collaborative process drawing upon community-based participatory research methods in order to enhance cultural and contextual sensitivity of program content and format. The development and preliminary outcomes associated with a family-based intervention for a new population, perinatally HIV-infected youth and their adult caregivers, referred to as CHAMP+, is described to illustrate the integration of theory, existing evidence, and intensive input from consumers and healthcare providers.

  14. [Breastfeeding: health, prevention, and environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of research in the field of neuroscience and human microbiome indicates the primal period (from preconceptional up to the early years of a child's life) as crucial to the future of the individual, opening new scenarios for the understanding of the processes underlying the human health. In recent decades, the social representation of infant feeding moved in fact from the normality of breastfeeding to the normal use of artificial formulas and bottle-feeding. Even the scientific thinking and the research production have been influenced by this phenomenon. In fact, a clear dominance of studies aimed to show the benefits of breast milk compared to formula milk rather than the risks of the latter compared to the biological norm of breastfeeding. Mother milk affects infant health also through his/her microbiome. Microbial colonisation startes during intrauterine life and continues through the vaginal canal at birth, during skin to skin contact immediately after birth, with colostrum and breastfeeding. The microbial exposure of infants delivered by the mother influences the development of the child microbiota, by programming his/her future health. However, rewriting the biological normality implies also a health professional paradigm shift such as departing from the systematic separation mother-child at birth, sticking at fixed schedules for breastfeeding time and duration, as it still happens in many birth centres. Breastfeeding has economic implications and the increase of its prevalence is associated with significant reduction of avoidable hospital admissions and medical care costs, both for the child and for the mother. Success in breastfeeding is the result of complex social interactions and not simply of an individual choice. However, any successful strategy must be oriented to the mother empowerment. Therefore, health professionals and community stakeholders have to learn and practice the health promotion approach, particularly avoiding

  15. Cell phone–based health education messaging improves health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMS), provides new and innovative opportunities for disease prevention and health education. Objective: To explore the use of cell phone–based health education SMS to improve the health literacy of community residents in China. Methods: ...

  16. To prevent, react, and rebuild: health research and the prevention of genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Reva N; Smith, James; Fishman, Paul; Larson, Eric B

    2004-12-01

    To develop an approach to the primary prevention of genocide, based on established public health-based violence prevention methods derived from a variety of high-risk settings. (1) Peer-reviewed literature in the fields of public health, violence/injury prevention, medicine, economics, sociology, psychology, history, and genocide studies, (2) demographic and health data bases made available by governments and international organizations, (3) reports on recent episodes of genocide published by international and nongovernmental organizations, (4) newspaper and journalistic accounts of recent and past genocides, (5) archival testimonies of genocide victims and perpetrators, and (6) court transcripts of international genocide prosecutions. The research was conducted as a medical-historical policy analysis synthesizing data within the following framework: (1) Assessment of current violence and injury prevention models for suitability in the prevention of extreme, population-wide violence, (2) analysis of morbidity and mortality data to quantify the impact of genocide on the health of populations, (3) making an inventory of the known societal risk factors for genocidal violence, (4) identification of the theorized, modifiable attitudinal risk factors for genocidal behavior within a population health model, and (5) assessment of existing projects targeting primary violence and injury prevention in high risk jurisdictions, for future adaptation within a structured, public health approach. Mortality rates due to genocidal violence are far in excess of other public health emergencies including malaria and HIV/AIDS. The immediate and long-range health consequences of genocide include the sequelae of infectious diseases, organ system failure, and psychiatric disorders, conferring an increased burden of disease on affected populations for multiple subsequent generations. The impact of genocide on local health economies is catastrophic, and the opportunity costs of diverting

  17. Preparing Occupational Therapy Students to Address Mental Health Promotion, Prevention, and Intervention in School-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Cindy DeRuiter; Bilics, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Directors of entry-level occupational therapy (OT) programs were surveyed regarding how their programs prepare students to become mental health practitioners in schools. Analysis of quantitative data included descriptive statistics to examine participants' ratings of their program's ability to prepare students for mental health practice. We found…

  18. Bullying Prevention for Public Health Practitioners

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses bullying as a public health problem, and provides information and resources for public health practitioners.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  19. Promoting health equity to prevent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G

    2018-05-17

    Traditionally, research activities aimed at diminishing health inequalities and preventing crime have been conducted in isolation, with relatively little cross-fertilization. We argue that moving forward, transdisciplinary collaborations that employ a life-course perspective constitute a productive approach to minimizing both health disparities and early delinquent involvement. Specifically, we propose a multidimensional framework that integrates findings on health disparities and crime across the early life-course and emphasizes the role of racial and socioeconomic disparities in health. Developing the empirical nexus between health disparities research and criminological research through this multidimensional framework could fruitfully direct and organize research that contributes to reductions in health inequalities and the prevention of crime during the early life course. We also propose that this unified approach can ultimately enhance public safety policies and attenuate the collateral consequences of incarceration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Educational Intervention Based on Health Belief Model and Social Support on Promoting Skin Cancer Preventive Behaviors in a Sample of Iranian Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeihooni, Ali Khani; Rakhshani, Tayebeh

    2018-01-08

    Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers in Iran. Farmers are exposed to the sun's ultraviolet radiation due to their job and are susceptible to skin cancer. The aim of this study is to survey the effect of educational intervention based on health belief model and social support on promoting skin cancer preventive behaviors in farmers of Fasa City, Fars province, Iran. In this quasi-experimental study, 200 farmers (100 in experimental group and 100 in control group) in Fasa City, Fars, Iran, were selected in 2017. The educational intervention for the experimental group consisted of eight training sessions (introduction to skin cancer, risk factors, complications, benefits and barriers to proper use of sunscreen, UV sunglasses and physical protection, self-efficacy in applying preventive behaviors, role of social support). A questionnaire consisting of demographic information, knowledge, HBM constructs (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, self-efficacy and cues to action), and social support was used to measure skin cancer preventive behaviors before, 3 months after the intervention, and 6 months later. Data were analyzed using SPSS-22 via chi-squared, independent samples t test, Mann-Whitney, and repeated measures ANOVA at a significance level of 0.5. The mean age of the farmers was 42.21 ± 10.52 years in the experimental group and 44.28 ± 10.16 years in the control group. Three months after the intervention and 6 months after the intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, self-efficacy, cues to action, social support, and skin cancer preventive behaviors compared to the control group. This study showed the effectiveness of the intervention based on the HBM constructs and social support in adoption of skin cancer preventive behaviors in 3 and 6 months post intervention in farmers. Hence, these models can act as a

  1. Developing Occupation-Based Preventive Programs for Late-Middle-Aged Latino Patients in Safety-Net Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepens Niemiec, Stacey L; Carlson, Mike; Martínez, Jenny; Guzmán, Laura; Mahajan, Anish; Clark, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Latino adults between ages 50 and 60 yr are at high risk for developing chronic conditions that can lead to early disability. We conducted a qualitative pilot study with 11 Latinos in this demographic group to develop a foundational schema for the design of health promotion programs that could be implemented by occupational therapy practitioners in primary care settings for this population. One-on-one interviews addressing routines and activities, health management, and health care utilization were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed. Results of a content analysis of the qualitative data revealed the following six domains of most concern: Weight Management; Disease Management; Mental Health and Well-Being; Personal Finances; Family, Friends, and Community; and Stress Management. A typology of perceived health-actualizing strategies was derived for each domain. This schema can be used by occupational therapy practitioners to inform the development of health-promotion lifestyle interventions designed specifically for late-middle-aged Latinos. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  2. Connect: An Effective Community-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Gretchen; Baber, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention is an important public health issue. However, few prevention programs are theory driven or systematically evaluated. This study evaluated Connect, a community-based youth suicide prevention program. Analysis of pre and posttraining questionnaires from 648 adults and 204 high school students revealed significant changes in…

  3. Examining Evidence-Based Content Related to Hospital Acquired Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Paper and Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Camilla M.

    2012-01-01

    Although there have been great advancements in the Electronic Health Record (EHR), there is a dearth of rigorous research that examines the relationship between the use of electronic documentation to capture nursing process components and the impact of consistent documentation on patient outcomes (Daly, Buckwalter & Maas, 2002; Gugerty, 2006;…

  4. Occupational mental health promotion: a prevention agenda based on education and treatment. The American Psychological Association/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Health Promotion Panel, 1990 Work and Well-Being Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW. Psychological disorders are one of the 10 leading work-related diseases and injuries in the United States according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. This article addresses occupational metal health and preventive stress management in the workplace. The individual and organizational costs are briefly considered with concern for reducing the burden of suffering associated with these problems. SEARCH METHOD. As an American Psychological Association interdisciplinary panel, we searched the psychological, medical, public health, and organizational literature. We selected articles relevant to the problem of psychological disorders in the workplace and to enhancing occupational mental health and preventive stress management. IMPORTANT FINDINGS. The panel proposed a national agenda of education and treatment, combined with a program of evaluation research, for addressing these issues. Target populations are identified, and the need for collaboration among a variety of national constituencies is considered. Advancing occupational mental health and promoting skills in preventive stress management is considered in the context of comprehensive health promotion. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS. The panel concluded that there is a pressing need to: 1) set a 'gold' standard concerning the current state of knowledge in the domains of occupational mental health and stress management; 2) identify Diagnostically Related Groups (DRGs) which are stress-related; 3) establish assessment standards for stress and mental health; 4) set guidelines for reasonable interventions; and 5) establish acceptable post-outcome criteria.

  5. Prevention of Filipino Youth Behavioral Health Disparities: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Participating in "Incredible Years," an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention, Los Angeles, California, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nicole; Supan, Jocelyn; Kreutzer, Cary B; Samson, Allan; Coffey, Dean M; Javier, Joyce R

    2015-10-22

    Evidence-based interventions for training parents are proven to prevent onset and escalation of childhood mental health problems. However, participation in such programs is low, especially among hard-to-reach, underserved populations such as Filipino Americans. Filipinos, the largest Asian subgroup in California, have significant behavioral health disparities compared with non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups. The purpose of this study was to learn about Filipinos' barriers and facilitators to participating in "Incredible Years" (IY), a parenting program. We conducted 4 focus groups in Los Angeles, California, in 2012; the groups consisted of 20 Filipino parents of children aged 6 to 12 years who recently completed the IY parenting program, which was offered as a prevention workshop. Three reviewers, including two co-authors (A.S., J.J.) and a research assistant used content analysis to independently code the interview transcripts and extract subthemes. Grounded theory analytic methods were used to analyze interview transcripts. Parents' perceived benefits of participation in IY were learning more effective parenting techniques, networking with other parents, improved spousal relationships, and improvements in their children's behavior. Parents' most common motivating factor for enrollment in IY was to improve their parenting skills and their relationships with their children. The most common barriers to participation were being uncomfortable sharing problems with others and the fear of being stigmatized by others judging their parenting skills. Participants said that parent testimonials would be the most effective way to promote IY. Many recommended outreach at schools, pediatricians' offices, and churches. Increasing Filipino American parent enrollment in IY in culturally relevant ways will reduce the incidence of mental health disorders among children in this growing population.

  6. Prevention of health care-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Vincent

    2014-09-15

    Health care-associated infections cause approximately 75,000 deaths annually, in addition to increasing morbidity and costs. Over the past decade, a downward trend in health care-associated infections has occurred nationwide. Basic prevention measures include administrative support, educating health care personnel, and hand hygiene and isolation precautions. Prevention of central line- or catheter-associated infections begins with avoidance of unnecessary insertion, adherence to aseptic technique when inserting, and device removal when no longer necessary. Specific recommendations for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections include use of chlorhexidine for skin preparation, as a component of dressings, and for daily bathing of patients in intensive care units. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are the most common device-related health care-associated infection. Maintaining a closed drainage system below the patient reduces the risk of infection. To prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is associated with high mortality, mechanically ventilated patients should be placed in the semirecumbent position and receive antiseptic oral care. Prevention of surgical site infections includes hair removal using clippers, glucose control, and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Reducing transmission of Clostridium difficile and multidrug-resistant organisms in the hospital setting begins with hand hygiene and contact precautions. Institutional efforts to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing are also strongly recommended. Reducing rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection can be achieved through active surveillance cultures and decolonization therapy with mupirocin.

  7. Family-based prevention of mental health problems in children affected by HIV and AIDS: an open trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Ng, Lauren C; Kirk, Catherine M; Munyanah, Morris; Mushashi, Christina; Ingabire, Charles; Teta, Sharon; Beardslee, William R; Brennan, Robert T; Zahn, Ista; Stulac, Sara; Cyamatare, Felix R; Sezibera, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an intervention to reduce mental health problems and bolster resilience among children living in households affected by caregiver HIV in Rwanda. Pre-post design, including 6-month follow-up. The Family Strengthening Intervention (FSI) aims to reduce mental health problems among HIV-affected children through improved child-caregiver relationships, family communication and parenting skills, HIV psychoeducation and connections to resources. Twenty families (N = 39 children) with at least one HIV-positive caregiver and one child 7-17 years old were enrolled in the FSI. Children and caregivers were administered locally adapted and validated measures of child mental health problems, as well as measures of protective processes and parenting. Assessments were administered at pre and postintervention, and 6-month follow-up. Multilevel models accounting for clustering by family tested changes in outcomes of interest. Qualitative interviews were completed to understand acceptability, feasibility and satisfaction with the FSI. Families reported high satisfaction with the FSI. Caregiver-reported improvements in family connectedness, good parenting, social support and children's pro-social behaviour (P self-esteem, depression, anxiety and irritability were seen at follow-up (P < .05). Significant decreases in child-reported harsh punishment were observed at postintervention and follow-up, and decreases in caregiver reported harsh punishment were also recorded on follow-up (P < 0.05). The FSI is a feasible and acceptable intervention that shows promise for improving mental health symptoms and strengthening protective factors among children and families affected by HIV in low-resource settings.

  8. Tanzania Health Information Technology (T-HIT) System: Pilot Test of a Tablet-Based System to Improve Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Sheana; Thomas, Deborah Sk; Nyanza, Elias C; Ngallaba, Sospatro E

    2018-01-15

    The prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV requires innovative solutions. Although routine monitoring is effective in some areas, standardized and easy-to-scale solutions to identify and monitor pregnant women, test them for HIV, and treat them and their children is still lacking. Mobile health (mHealth) offers opportunities for surveillance and reporting in rural areas of low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to document the preliminary impacts of the Tanzania Health Information Technology (T-HIT) system mHealth intervention aimed at health workers for PMTCT care delivery and capacity building in a rural area of Tanzania. We developed T-HIT as a tablet-based system for an electronic data collection system designed to capture and report PMTCT data during antenatal, delivery, and postnatal visits in Misungwi, Tanzania. T-HIT was tested by health workers in a pilot randomized trial comparing seven sites using T-HIT assigned at random to seven control sites; all sites maintained standard paper record-keeping during the pilot intervention period. We compared numbers of antenatal visits, number of HIV tests administered, and women testing positive across all sites. Health workers recorded data from antenatal visits for 1530 women; of these, 695 (45.42%) were tested for HIV and 3.59% (55/1530) tested positive. Health workers were unable to conduct an HIV test for 103 women (6.73%, 103/1530) because of lack of reagent, which is not captured on paper logs. There was no difference in the activity level for testing when comparing sites T-HIT to non-T-HIT sites. We observed a significant postintervention increase in the numbers of women testing positive for HIV compared with the preintervention period (P=.04), but this was likely not attributable to the T-HIT system. T-HIT had a high degree of acceptability and feasibility and is perceived as useful by health workers, who documented more antenatal visits during the pilot intervention

  9. Tanzania Health Information Technology (T-HIT) System: Pilot Test of a Tablet-Based System to Improve Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Sheana; Nyanza, Elias C; Ngallaba, Sospatro E

    2018-01-01

    Background The prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV requires innovative solutions. Although routine monitoring is effective in some areas, standardized and easy-to-scale solutions to identify and monitor pregnant women, test them for HIV, and treat them and their children is still lacking. Mobile health (mHealth) offers opportunities for surveillance and reporting in rural areas of low- and middle-income countries. Objective The aim of this study was to document the preliminary impacts of the Tanzania Health Information Technology (T-HIT) system mHealth intervention aimed at health workers for PMTCT care delivery and capacity building in a rural area of Tanzania. Methods We developed T-HIT as a tablet-based system for an electronic data collection system designed to capture and report PMTCT data during antenatal, delivery, and postnatal visits in Misungwi, Tanzania. T-HIT was tested by health workers in a pilot randomized trial comparing seven sites using T-HIT assigned at random to seven control sites; all sites maintained standard paper record-keeping during the pilot intervention period. We compared numbers of antenatal visits, number of HIV tests administered, and women testing positive across all sites. Results Health workers recorded data from antenatal visits for 1530 women; of these, 695 (45.42%) were tested for HIV and 3.59% (55/1530) tested positive. Health workers were unable to conduct an HIV test for 103 women (6.73%, 103/1530) because of lack of reagent, which is not captured on paper logs. There was no difference in the activity level for testing when comparing sites T-HIT to non-T-HIT sites. We observed a significant postintervention increase in the numbers of women testing positive for HIV compared with the preintervention period (P=.04), but this was likely not attributable to the T-HIT system. Conclusions T-HIT had a high degree of acceptability and feasibility and is perceived as useful by health workers, who documented more

  10. The Effect of Health Education based on Health Belief Model on Preventive Actions of Synthetic Drugs Dependence in Male Students of Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saeed Mazloomy Mahmoodabad

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Findings indicated that by increase of HBM components' average scores, the average score of synthetic drug dependence preventive actions increased too. Therefore, results of the research confirm the effect and efficiency of HBM in making preventive actions of drug dependence. 

  11. Using Beta-Version mHealth Technology for Team-Based Care Management to Support Stroke Prevention: An Assessment of Utility and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Magaly; Wu, Shinyi; Ryan, Gery; Towfighi, Amytis; Vickrey, Barbara G

    2017-05-23

    Beta versions of health information technology tools are needed in service delivery models with health care and community partnerships to confirm the key components and to assess the performance of the tools and their impact on users. We developed a care management technology (CMT) for use by community health workers (CHWs) and care managers (CMs) working collaboratively to improve risk factor control among recent stroke survivors. The CMT was expected to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the CHW-CM team. The primary objective was to describe the Secondary Stroke Prevention by Uniting Community and Chronic Care Model Teams Early to End Disparities (SUCCEED) CMT and investigate CM and CHW perceptions of the CMT's usefulness and challenges for team-based care management. We conducted qualitative interviews with all users of the beta-version SUCCEED CMT, namely two CMs and three CHWs. They were asked to demonstrate and describe their perceptions of the CMT's ease of use and usefulness for completing predefined key care management activities. They were also probed about their general perceptions of the CMT's information quality, ease of use, usefulness, and impact on CM and CHW roles. Interview transcripts were coded using a priori codes. Coded excerpts were grouped into broader themes and then related in a conceptual model of how the CMT facilitated care management. We also conducted a survey with 14 patients to obtain their perspective on CHW tablet use during CHW-patient interactions. Care managers and community health workers expressed that the CMT helped them keep track of patient interactions and plan their work. It guided CMs in developing and sharing care plans with CHWs. For CHWs, the CMT enabled electronic collection of clinical assessment data, provided decision support, and provided remote access to patients' risk factor values. Long loading times and downtimes due to outages were the most significant challenges encountered. Additional issues

  12. Impact evaluation of "Have Fun - Be Healthy" program: A community based health promotion intervention to prevent childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Thanya; Stoneman, Rebecca; Lamont, Amanda; Harris, Neil; Lee, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    Childhood obesity is rising in prevalence in Australia. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the "Have Fun-Be Healthy" (HFBH) intervention, delivered in the Playgroup setting, to generate short term changes in dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours of children under 5 years and self-efficacy of parents and primary carers. This intervention consisted of eight structured cooking and physical play sessions delivered over a period of 8 weeks by trained facilitators. Pre- and post-intervention data collection was performed using survey questionnaires administered to parents and carers of children under 5 years from low socioeconomic backgrounds recruited through convenience sampling. A total of 640 pre-intervention surveys and 312 post-intervention surveys were returned. The matched response rate was 45.5%. There was an improvement in mean intake of healthy foods and mean physical activity with a decrease in mean intake of unhealthy food and mean screen time in children (P > .05). Following the intervention, parental/carer self-efficacy in promoting healthy eating and limiting screen time of children improved significantly (P < .05). Children's physical activity levels and consumption of healthy foods were positively correlated with parental/carer self-efficacy (P < .01) while screen time and consumption of unhealthy foods were negatively correlated (P < .01). HFBH intervention was successful in improving the dietary, physical activity and screen time in children and parental self-efficacy. SO WHAT?: Being amongst the first of its' kind in Australia, the findings of this study can have implications for developing and implementing similar future health promotion interventions in comparable settings. © 2017 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  13. Using a population-based approach to prevent hepatocellular cancer in New South Wales, Australia: effects on health services utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tipper Steven

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australians born in countries where hepatitis B infection is endemic are 6-12 times more likely to develop hepatocellular cancer (HCC than Australian-born individuals. However, a program of screening, surveillance and treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB in high risk populations could significantly reduce disease progression and death related to end-stage liver disease and HCC. Consequently we are implementing the B Positive pilot project, aiming to optimise the management of CHB in at-risk populations in south-west Sydney. Program participants receive routine care, enhanced disease surveillance or specialist referral, according to their stage of CHB infection, level of viral load and extent of liver injury. In this paper we examine the program's potential impact on health services utilisation in the study area. Methods Estimated numbers of CHB infections were derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics data and applying estimates of HBV prevalence rates from migrants' countries of birth. These figures were entered into a Markov model of disease progression, constructing a hypothetical cohort of Asian-born adults with CHB infection. We calculated the number of participants in different CHB disease states and estimated the numbers of GP and specialist consultations and liver ultrasound examinations the cohort would require annually over the life of the program. Results Assuming a 25% participation rate among the 5,800 local residents estimated to have chronic hepatitis B infection, approximately 750 people would require routine follow up, 260 enhanced disease surveillance and 210 specialist care during the first year after recruitment is completed. This translates into 5 additional appointments per year for each local GP, 25 for each specialist and 420 additional liver ultrasound examinations. Conclusions While the program will not greatly affect the volume of local GP consultations, it will lead to a significant increase in

  14. Frameworks: A Community-Based Approach to Preventing Youth Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Kristine; Bean, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    Few youth suicide prevention programs are theory based and systematically evaluated. This study evaluated the pilot implementation of a community-based youth suicide prevention project guided by an ecological perspective. One hundred fifty-seven adults representing various constituencies from educators to health care providers and 131 ninth-grade…

  15. Primary prevention in public health: an analysis of basic assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, J; Wallack, L

    1985-01-01

    The common definition of primary prevention is straightforward; but how it is transformed into a framework to guide action is based on personal and societal feelings and beliefs about the basis for social organization. This article focuses on the two contending primary prevention strategies of health promotion and health protection. The contention between the two strategies stems from a basic disagreement about disease causality in modern society. Health promotion is based on the "lifestyle" theory of disease causality, which sees individual health status linked ultimately to personal decisions about diet, stress, and drug habits. Primary prevention, from this perspective, entails persuading individuals to forgo their risk-taking, self-destructive behavior. Health protection, on the other hand, is based on the "social-structural" theory of disease causality. This theory sees the health status of populations linked ultimately to the unequal distribution of social resources, industrial pollution, occupational stress, and "anti-health promotion" marketing practices. Primary prevention, from this perspective, requires changing existing social and, particularly, economic policies and structures. In order to provide a basis for choosing between these contending strategies, the demonstrated (i.e., past) impact of each strategy on the health of the public is examined. Two conclusions are drawn. First, the health promotion strategy shows little potential for improving the public health, because it systematically ignores the risk-imposing, other-destructive behavior of influential actors (policy-makers and institutions) in society. And second, effective primary prevention efforts entail an "upstream" approach that results in far-reaching sociopolitical and economic change.

  16. The economic effect of Planet Health on preventing bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Yan; Nichols, Lauren P; Austin, S Bryn

    2011-08-01

    To assess the economic effect of the school-based obesity prevention program Planet Health on preventing disordered weight control behaviors and to determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention in terms of its combined effect on prevention of obesity and disordered weight control behaviors. On the basis of the intervention's short-term effect on disordered weight control behaviors prevention, we projected the number of girls who were prevented from developing bulimia nervosa by age 17 years. We further estimated medical costs saved and quality-adjusted life years gained by the intervention over 10 years. As a final step, we compared the intervention costs with the combined intervention benefits from both obesity prevention (reported previously) and prevention of disordered weight control behaviors to determine the overall cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Middle schools. A sample of 254 intervention girls aged 10 to 14 years. The Planet Health program was implemented during the school years from 1995 to 1997 and was designed to promote healthful nutrition and physical activity among youth. Intervention costs, medical costs saved, quality-adjusted life years gained, and cost-effectiveness ratio. An estimated 1 case of bulimia nervosa would have been prevented. As a result, an estimated $33 999 in medical costs and 0.7 quality-adjusted life years would be saved. At an intervention cost of $46 803, the combined prevention of obesity and disordered weight control behaviors would yield a net savings of $14 238 and a gain of 4.8 quality-adjusted life years. Primary prevention programs, such as Planet Health, warrant careful consideration by policy makers and program planners. The findings of this study provide additional argument for integrated prevention of obesity and eating disorders.

  17. Preventing Depression in Adults With Subthreshold Depression: Health-Economic Evaluation Alongside a Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-Based Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntrock, Claudia; Berking, Matthias; Smit, Filip; Lehr, Dirk; Nobis, Stephanie; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; Ebert, David

    2017-01-04

    Psychological interventions for the prevention of depression might be a cost-effective way to reduce the burden associated with depressive disorders. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a Web-based guided self-help intervention to prevent major depressive disorder (MDD) in people with subthreshold depression (sD). A pragmatic randomized controlled trial was conducted with follow-up at 12 months. Participants were recruited from the general population via a large statutory health insurance company and an open access website. Participants were randomized to a Web-based guided self-help intervention (ie, cognitive-behavioral therapy and problem-solving therapy assisted by supervised graduate students or health care professionals) in addition to usual care or to usual care supplemented with Web-based psycho-education (enhanced usual care). Depression-free years (DFYs) were assessed by blinded diagnostic raters using the telephone-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis Disorders at 6- and 12-month follow-up, covering the period to the previous assessment. Costs were self-assessed through a questionnaire. Costs measured from a societal and health care perspective were related to DFYs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). In total, 406 participants were enrolled in the trial. The mean treatment duration was 5.84 (SD 4.37) weeks. On average, participants completed 4.93 of 6 sessions. Significantly more DFYs were gained in the intervention group (0.82 vs 0.70). Likewise, QALY health gains were in favor of the intervention, but only statistically significant when measured with the more sensitive SF-6D. The incremental per-participant costs were €136 (£116). Taking the health care perspective and assuming a willingness-to-pay of €20,000 (£17,000), the intervention's likelihood of being cost-effective was 99% for gaining a DFY and 64% or 99% for gaining an EQ-5D or a SF-6D QALY. Our study supports guidelines recommending Web-based treatment for s

  18. A comparison of four scoring methods based on the parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as used in the Dutch preventive child health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treffers Philip DA

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Validated questionnaires can support the identification of psychosocial problems by the Preventive Child Health Care (PCH system. This study assesses the validity and added value of four scoring methods used with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ for the identification of psychosocial problems among children aged 7–12 by the PCH. Methods We included 711 (of 814 children (response: 87% aged 7–12 undergoing routine health assessments in nine PCH services across the Netherlands. Child health professionals interviewed and examined children and parents. Prior to the interview, parents completed the SDQ and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL, which were not shown to the professionals. The CBCL and data about the child's current treatment status were used as criteria for the validity of the SDQ. We used four SDQ scoring approaches: an elevated SDQ Total Difficulties Score (TDS, parent-defined difficulties, an elevated score for emotional symptoms, conduct problems or hyperactivity in combination with a high impairment score, and a combined score: an elevated score for any of these three methods. Results The Cohen's Kappa ranged from 0.33 to 0.64 for the four scoring methods with the CBCL scores and treatment status, generally indicating a moderate to good agreement. All four methods added significantly to the identification of problems by the PCH. Classification based on the TDS yielded results similar to more complicated methods. Conclusion The SDQ is a valid tool for the identification of psychosocial problems by PCH. As a first step, the use of a simple classification based on the SDQ TDS is recommended.

  19. [Art, health and prevention: initial collaborations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Noemí; Orellana, Ana; Cano, Marta G; Antúnez, Noelia; Claver, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the first 2 years of the collaboration between the Faculty of Fine Arts of the Universidad Complutense in Madrid and Madrid Health, an autonomous organism of Madrid Council. This collaboration has allowed the development of joint experiences and projects among distinct professionals with highly diverse profiles: health professionals (sexologists, psychiatrists, nurses, etc.), and teachers, researchers, artists and students in the Faculty of Fine Arts. As a result, these experiences could be the beginning of future collaborations between the arts, health and prevention. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of health disparities on targeting cancer prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonderman, Alan B; Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer; Evans, Michele K

    2014-03-01

    Despite the advances in cancer medicine and the resultant 20% decline in cancer death rates for Americans since 1991, there remain distinct cancer health disparities among African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and the those living in poverty. Minorities and the poor continue to bear the disproportionate burden of cancer, especially in terms of stage at diagnosis, incidence, and mortality. Cancer health disparities are persistent reminders that state-of-the-art cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are not equally effective for and accessible to all Americans. The cancer prevention model must take into account the phenotype of accelerated aging associated with health disparities as well as the important interplay of biological and sociocultural factors that lead to disparate health outcomes. The building blocks of this prevention model will include interdisciplinary prevention modalities that encourage partnerships across medical and nonmedical entities, community-based participatory research, development of ethnically and racially diverse research cohorts, and full actualization of the prevention benefits outlined in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, the most essential facet should be a thoughtful integration of cancer prevention and screening into prevention, screening, and disease management activities for hypertension and diabetes mellitus because these chronic medical illnesses have a substantial prevalence in populations at risk for cancer disparities and cause considerable comorbidity and likely complicate effective treatment and contribute to disproportionate cancer death rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Evaluating return on investment in a school based health promotion and prevention program: the investment multiplier for the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, Simon; Dawber, James; Yeatman, Heather; Quinsey, Karen; Morris, Darcy

    2014-08-01

    Successful health promotion and disease prevention strategies in complex community settings such as primary schools rely on acceptance and ownership across community networks. Assessing multiplier impacts from investment on related community activity over time are suggested as key alongside evidence of program health effects on targeted groups of individuals in gauging community network engagement and ownership, dynamic impacts, and program long term success and return on investment. An Australian primary school based health promotion and prevention strategy, the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program (SAKGNP), which has been providing garden and kitchen classes for year 3-6 students since 2008, was evaluated between 2011 and 2012. Returns on Australian Federal Government investment for school infrastructure grants up to $60,000 are assessed up to and beyond a two year mutual obligation period with: (i) Impacts on student lifestyle behaviours, food choices and eating habits surveyed across students (n = 491 versus 260) and parents (n = 300 versus 234) in 28 SAKGNP and 14 matched schools, controlling for school and parent level confounders and triangulated with SAKGNP pre-post analysis; (ii) Multiplier impacts of investment on related school and wider community activity up to two years; and (iii) Evidence of continuation and program evolution in schools observed beyond two years. SAKGNP schools showed improved student food choices (p = 0.024) and kitchen lifestyle behaviour (p = 0.019) domains compared to controls and in pre-post analysis where 20.0% (58/290) reported eating fruit and vegetables more often and 18.6% (54/290) preparing food at home more often. No significant differences were found in case control analysis for eating habits or garden lifestyle behaviour domains, although 32.3% of children helped more in the garden (91/278) and 15.6% (45/289) ate meals together more often in pre-post analysis. The multiplier impact on total

  2. Evaluating the effectiveness of a clinical practice change intervention in increasing clinician provision of preventive care in a network of community-based mental health services: a study protocol of a non-randomized, multiple baseline trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlem, Kate; Bowman, Jennifer; Freund, Megan; Wye, Paula; McElwaine, Kathleen; Knight, Jenny; McElduff, Patrick; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John

    2013-08-06

    People with a mental illness experience substantial disparities in health, including increased rates of morbidity and mortality caused by potentially preventable chronic diseases. One contributing factor to such disparity is a higher prevalence of modifiable health risk behaviors, such as smoking, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, harmful alcohol consumption, and inadequate physical activity. Evidence supports the effectiveness of preventive care in reducing such risks, and guidelines recommend that preventive care addressing such risks be incorporated into routine clinical care. Although community-based mental health services represent an important potential setting for ensuring that people with a mental illness receive such care, research suggests its delivery is currently sub-optimal. A study will be undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of a clinical practice change intervention in increasing the routine provision of preventive care by clinicians in community mental health settings. A two-group multiple baseline design will be utilized to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategic intervention implemented over 12 months in increasing clinician provision of preventive care. The intervention will be implemented sequentially across the two groups of community mental health services to increase provision of client assessment, brief advice, and referral for four health risk behaviors (smoking, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, harmful alcohol consumption, and inadequate physical activity). Outcome measures of interest will be collected via repeated cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interviews undertaken on a weekly basis for 36 months with community mental health clients. This study is the first to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategic clinical practice change intervention in increasing routine clinician provision of preventive care for chronic disease behavioral risk factors within a network of community mental health services

  3. A community-based delivery system of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy and its effect on use of essential maternity care at health units in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Bygbjerg, I C; Magnussen, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    Community delivery of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is one potential option that could mitigate malaria in pregnancy. However, there is concern that this approach may lead to complacency among women with low access to essential care at health units. A non-random...

  4. Impact and Acceptability of the Coach and Teacher Training within a School-Based Sport-for-Health Smoking Prevention Intervention: Smokefree Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnham-Lee, Katy; Trigwell, Joanne; McGee, Ciara E.; Knowles, Zoe; Foweather, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact and acceptability of a three-hour bespoke training workshop for sports coaches and teachers to subsequently deliver a sport-for-health smoking prevention intervention in primary schools. Questionnaires were completed pre- and post-training by both teachers (N = 24) and coaches (N = 8), and post-intervention by…

  5. Design of an internet-based health economic evaluation of a preventive group-intervention for children of parents with mental illness or substance use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woolderink, M; Smit, H.F.E.; Zanden, R.; Beecham, J; Knapp, M.; Paulus, A; Evers, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Preventive interventions are developed for children of parents with mental and substance use disorders (COPMI), because these children have a higher risk of developing a psychological or behavioral disorder in the future. Mental health and substance use disorders contribute significantly

  6. Translating Evidence Based Violence and Drug Use Prevention to Obesity Prevention: Development and Construction of the Pathways Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Effective school-based obesity prevention programs are needed to prevent and reduce the growing obesity risk among youth. Utilizing the evidence-rich areas of violence and substance use prevention, translation science may provide an efficient means for developing curricula across multiple health behaviors. This paper introduces Pathways to Health,…

  7. Preventing childhood obesity: health in the balance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liverman, Catharyn T; Klopan, Jeffrey; Kraak, Vivica I

    2005-01-01

    ... for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The study was supported by Contract No. 200-2000-00629, T.O. #14 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; by Contract No. N01-OD-4-2139, T.O. #126 with the National Institutes of Health; and by Grant No. 04...

  8. OBESITY: health prevention strategies in school environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Ferreira Todendi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, obesity configures a public health problem which calls for attention from different sectors, given the proportion it assumes all over the world. Several studies relate this problem to metabolic health problems, including endocrinal, cardiovascular, lung, gastrointestinal, psychiatric, hematological disturbances, among others. Obesity is not only associated with genetic and environmental factors, but also with unhealthy lifestyles. In view of its social importance, it is ascertained, through analyses of studies, that there are not many health prevention strategies focused on this situation. As a result of this ascertainment, the proposal is for updating prevention actions in the realm of obese schoolchildren, resulting from a work conducted during the Master’s Degree lessons in Health Promotion at the University of Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC. The point in question is the fact that many schools pose no restrictions to products sold in their canteens. Food stuffs sold in schools should have adequate nutritional quality, and snacks prepared at school are extremely important in meeting all nutritional requirements. However, many children do not consume these school lunches, but they bring them from home or purchase them at the canteen, spending public resources, along with not taking in healthy foods and, as a consequence, leading to health problems over the years. For all this, it is of fundamental importance to carry out investigating processes with regard to how public actions and policies are being implemented towards this end, in view of the fact that obesity in schoolchildren is on a rising trend.

  9. Health Benefits of Water-based Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pools Operating Public Hot Tubs/Spas Recommendations for Hydrotherapy Tanks Preventing Pool Chemical-Associated Health Events Chloramines & ... arthritis have more health improvements after participating in hydrotherapy than with other activities 8 . Water-based exercise ...

  10. Mobile phone messaging for preventive health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodopivec-Jamsek, Vlasta; de Jongh, Thyra; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Atun, Rifat; Car, Josip

    2012-12-12

    Preventive health care promotes health and prevents disease or injuries by addressing factors that lead to the onset of a disease, and by detecting latent conditions to reduce or halt their progression. Many risk factors for costly and disabling conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases) can be prevented, yet healthcare systems do not make the best use of their available resources to support this process. Mobile phone messaging applications, such as Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Message Service (MMS), could offer a convenient and cost-effective way to support desirable health behaviours for preventive health care. To assess the effects of mobile phone messaging interventions as a mode of delivery for preventive health care, on health status and health behaviour outcomes. We searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), EMBASE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), PsycINFO (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (January 1993 to June 2009), LILACS (January 1993 to June 2009) and African Health Anthology (January 1993 to June 2009).We also reviewed grey literature (including trial registers) and reference lists of articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised controlled trials (QRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies, and interrupted time series (ITS) studies with at least three time points before and after the intervention. We included studies using SMS or MMS as a mode of delivery for any type of preventive health care. We only included studies in which it was possible to assess the effects of mobile phone messaging independent of other technologies or interventions. Two review authors independently assessed all studies against the inclusion criteria, with any disagreements resolved by a third review author. Study design features

  11. A population-based nationwide cross-sectional study on preventive health services utilization in Portugal--what services (and frequencies are deemed necessary by patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Martins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most of the strategies to induce a more rational use of preventive health services are oriented to the medical side of the doctor-patient relationship. However, the consultation model has changed, and patients now have a more important role in medical consultation. The aim of this study was to assess which healthcare services are deemed necessary, and with what frequency, by adults from the general Portuguese population. METHODS: DESIGN: Population-based nationwide cross-sectional study Setting: Portuguese population Participants: One thousand Portuguese adults, surveyed by computer-assisted telephone interviewing and selected by a stratified cluster sampling design. MEASUREMENTS: Proportions and population prevalence estimates were determined for each healthcare service, taking into account whether respondents considered them necessary, and with what frequency. RESULTS: Respondent ages ranged between 18 and 97 years, and 520 of 1000 (52% respondents were women. Among Portuguese adults, 99.2% (95% confidence interval (CI: 98.5 to 99.6 believe that they should undergo general routine blood and urine tests, to be repeated every 12.0 months on average (95% CI: 11.4 to 12.6; 87.4% (95% CI: 85.3 to 89.3 of the respondents reported having actually performed these tests. Of the 15 services surveyed, 14 were considered periodically necessary by more than 60% of respondents. Among the respondents, 37.7% (95% CI: 34.5 to 41.1 reported using healthcare services by their own initiative. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of Portuguese adults believe that they should utilize a great number of healthcare services, on a nearly annual basis; most actually follow this schedule. Our findings indicate a tendency towards the overuse of resources. Adequate patient-oriented strategies regarding the use of medical tests and preventive interventions--with appropriate information and discussion of risks and harms--are urgently needed, and crucial for achieving a more

  12. A Population-Based Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study on Preventive Health Services Utilization in Portugal—What Services (and Frequencies) Are Deemed Necessary by Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos; Azevedo, Luís F.; Ribeiro, Orquídea; Sá, Luísa; Santos, Paulo; Couto, Luciana; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Hespanhol, Alberto P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most of the strategies to induce a more rational use of preventive health services are oriented to the medical side of the doctor-patient relationship. However, the consultation model has changed, and patients now have a more important role in medical consultation. The aim of this study was to assess which healthcare services are deemed necessary, and with what frequency, by adults from the general Portuguese population. Methods Design: Population-based nationwide cross-sectional study Setting: Portuguese population Participants: One thousand Portuguese adults, surveyed by computer-assisted telephone interviewing and selected by a stratified cluster sampling design. Measurements: Proportions and population prevalence estimates were determined for each healthcare service, taking into account whether respondents considered them necessary, and with what frequency. Results Respondent ages ranged between 18 and 97 years, and 520 of 1000 (52%) respondents were women. Among Portuguese adults, 99.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 98.5 to 99.6) believe that they should undergo general routine blood and urine tests, to be repeated every 12.0 months on average (95% CI: 11.4 to 12.6); 87.4% (95% CI: 85.3 to 89.3) of the respondents reported having actually performed these tests. Of the 15 services surveyed, 14 were considered periodically necessary by more than 60% of respondents. Among the respondents, 37.7% (95% CI: 34.5 to 41.1) reported using healthcare services by their own initiative. Conclusions The majority of Portuguese adults believe that they should utilize a great number of healthcare services, on a nearly annual basis; most actually follow this schedule. Our findings indicate a tendency towards the overuse of resources. Adequate patient-oriented strategies regarding the use of medical tests and preventive interventions—with appropriate information and discussion of risks and harms—are urgently needed, and crucial for achieving a more rational use of

  13. Outlining a preventive oral health care system for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saekel, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    The most recent Chinese health care reform, scheduled to run until 2020, has been underway for a number of years. Oral health care has not been explicitly mentioned in the context of this reform. However, oral health is an integral part of general health and the under-servicing of the Chinese population in the area of dental care is particularly high. The article describes how this problem could be addressed. Based on present scientific knowledge,specifically on evidence-based strategies and long-term empirical experience from Western industrialised countries, as well as findings from Chinese pilot studies, the author outlines a preventive oral health care system tailored specifically to the conditions prevailing in China. He describes the background and rationale for a clearly structured, preventive system and summarises the scientific cornerstones on which this concept is founded. The single steps of this model, that are adapted specifically to China, are presented so as to facilitate a critical discussion on the pros and cons of the approach. The author concludes that, by implementing preventive oral care, China could gradually reduce the under-servicing of great parts of the population with dental care that largely avoids dental disease and preserves teeth at a price that is affordable to both public health and patients. This approach would minimise the danger of starting a cycle of re-restorations, owing to outdated treatment methods. The proposal would both fit in well with and add to the current blueprint for Chinese health care reform.

  14. Targeted Prevention of Common Mental Health Disorders in University Students: Randomised Controlled Trial of a Transdiagnostic Trait-Focused Web-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiat, Peter; Conrod, Patricia; Treasure, Janet; Tylee, Andre; Williams, Chris; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Background A large proportion of university students show symptoms of common mental disorders, such as depression, anxiety, substance use disorders and eating disorders. Novel interventions are required that target underlying factors of multiple disorders. Aims To evaluate the efficacy of a transdiagnostic trait-focused web-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of common mental disorders in university students. Method Students were recruited online (n = 1047, age: M = 21.8, SD = 4.2) and categorised into being at high or low risk for mental disorders based on their personality traits. Participants were allocated to a cognitive-behavioural trait-focused (n = 519) or a control intervention (n = 528) using computerised simple randomisation. Both interventions were fully automated and delivered online (trial registration: ISRCTN14342225). Participants were blinded and outcomes were self-assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks and at 12 weeks after registration. Primary outcomes were current depression and anxiety, assessed on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD7). Secondary outcome measures focused on alcohol use, disordered eating, and other outcomes. Results Students at high risk were successfully identified using personality indicators and reported poorer mental health. A total of 520 students completed the 6-week follow-up and 401 students completed the 12-week follow-up. Attrition was high across intervention groups, but comparable to other web-based interventions. Mixed effects analyses revealed that at 12-week follow up the trait-focused intervention reduced depression scores by 3.58 (pstudents at high risk. In high-risk students, between group effect sizes were 0.58 (depression) and 0.42 (anxiety). In addition, self-esteem was improved. No changes were observed regarding the use of alcohol or disordered eating. Conclusions This study suggests that a transdiagnostic web-based intervention for

  15. Targeted prevention of common mental health disorders in university students: randomised controlled trial of a transdiagnostic trait-focused web-based intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Musiat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large proportion of university students show symptoms of common mental disorders, such as depression, anxiety, substance use disorders and eating disorders. Novel interventions are required that target underlying factors of multiple disorders. AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy of a transdiagnostic trait-focused web-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of common mental disorders in university students. METHOD: Students were recruited online (n=1047, age: M=21.8, SD=4.2 and categorised into being at high or low risk for mental disorders based on their personality traits. Participants were allocated to a cognitive-behavioural trait-focused (n=519 or a control intervention (n=528 using computerised simple randomisation. Both interventions were fully automated and delivered online (trial registration: ISRCTN14342225. Participants were blinded and outcomes were self-assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks and at 12 weeks after registration. Primary outcomes were current depression and anxiety, assessed on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9 and Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD7. Secondary outcome measures focused on alcohol use, disordered eating, and other outcomes. RESULTS: Students at high risk were successfully identified using personality indicators and reported poorer mental health. A total of 520 students completed the 6-week follow-up and 401 students completed the 12-week follow-up. Attrition was high across intervention groups, but comparable to other web-based interventions. Mixed effects analyses revealed that at 12-week follow up the trait-focused intervention reduced depression scores by 3.58 (p<.001, 95%CI [5.19, 1.98] and anxiety scores by 2.87 (p=.018, 95%CI [1.31, 4.43] in students at high risk. In high-risk students, between group effect sizes were 0.58 (depression and 0.42 (anxiety. In addition, self-esteem was improved. No changes were observed regarding the use of alcohol or disordered eating. CONCLUSIONS

  16. Developing preventive mental health interventions for refugee families in resettlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, Stevan Merrill

    2011-09-01

    In refugee resettlement, positive psychosocial outcomes for youth and adults depend to a great extent on their families. Yet refugee families find few empirically based services geared toward them. Preventive mental health interventions that aim to stop, lessen, or delay possible negative individual mental health and behavioral sequelae through improving family and community protective resources in resettled refugee families are needed. This paper describes 8 characteristics that preventive mental health interventions should address to meet the needs of refugee families, including: Feasibility, Acceptability, Culturally Tailored, Multilevel, Time Focused, Prosaicness, Effectiveness, and Adaptability. To address these 8 characteristics in the complex environment of refugee resettlement requires modifying the process of developmental research through incorporating innovative mental health services research strategies, including: resilience framework, community collaboration, mixed methods with focused ethnography, and the comprehensive dynamic trial. A preventive intervention development cycle for refugee families is proposed based on a program of research on refugees and migrants using these services research strategies. Furthering preventive mental health for refugee families also requires new policy directives, multisystemic partnerships, and research training. 2011 © FPI, Inc.

  17. A school based community randomized trial of the effect of peer health education on primary prevention knowledge, attitude and behaviours towards HPV among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ferrara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: this study in the prospect of promoting adherence to the primary and secondary preven- tion programmes will research knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the student population attending high schools regarding HPV infections and will also promote health education sessions based on peer education.
    Methods: we carried out a cross-sectional kaP survey regarding HPV infection, HPV vaccination, and sexual health, of students and a peer educational intervention. To verify the effectiveness of peer educators in changing opinions and beliefs about HPV a self-com- pletion questionnaire was made and distributed pre (T1 and post (T2 peer educator intervention. The same questionnaires were assigned to the control group.
    Results: the sample consisted of 900 students, mean age was 16.6±1.4, having relationship 34.4%. at T1, 64.6% of students in experimental group said that they knew HPV, 83.4% how it is transmitted and 71.1% HPV vaccination, 54.7% perceived dangerousness with significant gender-related difference. at T2 the percentages increased. at T1, 14.1% of females were vaccinated at T2 they were 17.5%. The main factors associated with the students’ propensity to vaccination were: having at least one sister; being in favour of vaccinations in general; knowing that the vaccine is aimed at preventing cervical cancer; and being aware that they could be infected by HPV.
    Conclusion: both the HPV test and HPV vaccine need effective communication and monitoring of the spread of knowledge, especially among women identified as most in need of information and included in the age group at risk, in wich it is crucial to encourage informed choices. This underlines the need to plan adequate educational programmes....

  18. A community-based obesity prevention program for minority children: rationale and study design for Hip-Hop to Health Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Dyer, Alan R; VanHorn, Linda; KauferChristoffel, Katherine

    2002-02-01

    BACKGROUND; The increasing prevalence of overweight among children in the United States presents a national health priority. Higher rates of overweight/obesity among minority women place their children at increased risk. Although increased rates of overweight are observed in 4- to 5-year-old children, they are not observed in 2- to 3-year-old children. Therefore, early prevention efforts incorporating families are critical. The primary aim of Hip-Hop to Health Jr. is to alter the trajectory toward overweight/obesity among preschool African-American and Latino children. This 5-year randomized intervention is conducted in 24 Head Start programs, where each site is randomized to either a 14-week dietary/physical activity intervention or a general health intervention. This paper presents the rationale and design of the study. Efficacy of the intervention will be determined by weight change for the children and parent/caretaker. Secondary measures include reductions in dietary fat and increases in fiber, fruit/vegetable intake, and physical activity. Baseline data will be presented in future papers. The problem of overweight/obesity is epidemic in the United States. Behaviors related to diet and physical activity are established early in life and modeled by family members. Early intervention efforts addressing the child and family are needed to prevent obesity later in life. This paper describes a comprehensive, family-oriented obesity prevention program for minority preschool children. Copyright 2002 American Health Foundation and Elsevier Science (USA).

  19. To Prevent, React, and Rebuild: Health Research and the Prevention of Genocide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Reva N; Smith, James; Fishman, Paul; Larson, Eric B

    2004-01-01

    Objective To develop an approach to the primary prevention of genocide, based on established public health-based violence prevention methods derived from a variety of high-risk settings. Data Sources (1) Peer-reviewed literature in the fields of public health, violence/injury prevention, medicine, economics, sociology, psychology, history, and genocide studies, (2) demographic and health data bases made available by governments and international organizations, (3) reports on recent episodes of genocide published by international and nongovernmental organizations, (4) newspaper and journalistic accounts of recent and past genocides, (5) archival testimonies of genocide victims and perpetrators, and (6) court transcripts of international genocide prosecutions. Study Design The research was conducted as a medical-historical policy analysis synthesizing data within the following framework: (1) Assessment of current violence and injury prevention models for suitability in the prevention of extreme, population-wide violence, (2) analysis of morbidity and mortality data to quantify the impact of genocide on the health of populations, (3) making an inventory of the known societal risk factors for genocidal violence, (4) identification of the theorized, modifiable attitudinal risk factors for genocidal behavior within a population health model, and (5) assessment of existing projects targeting primary violence and injury prevention in high risk jurisdictions, for future adaptation within a structured, public health approach. Principal Findings Mortality rates due to genocidal violence are far in excess of other public health emergencies including malaria and HIV/AIDS. The immediate and long-range health consequences of genocide include the sequelae of infectious diseases, organ system failure, and psychiatric disorders, conferring an increased burden of disease on affected populations for multiple subsequent generations. The impact of genocide on local health economies is

  20. National Institutes of Health Pathways to Prevention Workshop: Advancing Research to Prevent Youth Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Todd D; Roche, Kathleen M; Chow, Sy-Miin; Schenck, Anna P; Byam, Leslie-Ann

    2016-12-06

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Pathways to Prevention Workshop "Advancing Research to Prevent Youth Suicide" was cosponsored by the NIH Office of Disease Prevention, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, and National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. A multidisciplinary working group developed the agenda, and an evidence-based practice center prepared an evidence report that addressed data systems relevant to suicide prevention efforts through a contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. During the workshop, experts discussed the evidence and participants commented during open forums. After considering the data from the evidence report, expert presentations, and public comments, an independent panel prepared a draft report that was posted on the NIH Office of Disease Prevention Web site for 5 weeks for public comment. This abridged version of the final report provides a road map for optimizing youth suicide prevention efforts by highlighting strategies for guiding the next decade of research in this area. These strategies include recommendations for improving data systems, enhancing data collection and analysis methods, and strengthening the research and practice community.

  1. Orthopedic Health: Joint Health and Care: Prevention, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Prevention Regular exercise, a balanced diet, and a healthful weight can help you reduce your risk of developing osteoarthritis, especially in the hips and knees, or suffering sports injuries. Exercise helps bone density, improves muscle strength and ...

  2. Impact of the Prevention Plan on Employee Health Risk Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Loeppke, Ronald; Edington, Dee W.; Bég, Sami

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of The Prevention Plan™ on employee health risks after 1 year of integrated primary prevention (wellness and health promotion) and secondary prevention (biometric and lab screening as well as early detection) interventions. The Prevention Plan is an innovative prevention benefit that provides members with the high-tech/high-touch support and encouragement they need to adopt healthy behaviors. Support services include 24/7 nurse hotlines, one-on-one health coach...

  3. Which factors play a role in Dutch health promotion professionals' decision to recruit actively primary schools to use a web-based smoking prevention programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Henricus-Paul; Oenema, Anke; Mercken, Liesbeth; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2013-12-03

    Municipal Health Promotion Organisations (MHPOs) play an important role in promoting and disseminating prevention programmes, such as smoking prevention programmes, in schools. This study identifies factors that may facilitate or hinder MHPOs' willingness to recruit actively primary schools to use a smoking prevention programme. In 2011, 31 Dutch MHPOs were invited to recruit schools to use a smoking prevention programme. All MHPO employees involved in smoking prevention activities (n = 68) were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing psychological factors and characteristics of their organisation that might affect their decision to be involved in active recruitment of schools. T-tests and multivariate analysis of variance assessed potential differences in psychological and organisational factors between active and non-active recruiters. A total of 45 professionals returned the questionnaire (66.2%). Active recruiters (n = 12) had more positive attitudes (p = 0.02), higher self-efficacy expectations (p primary schools, compared with non-active recruiters. Organisational factors did not discriminate between active and non-active recruiters. Primarily psychological factors seem to be associated with MHPOs' decision to recruit schools actively. This indicates that creating more positive attitude, self-efficacy beliefs and formation of plans may help in getting more MHPOs involved in active recruitment procedures.

  4. Basic webliography on health promotion and disease prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ferreira Junior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To introduce a basic webliography to access highly qualified evidence-based material on health promotion and disease prevention, aiming at the continuing education of health professionals. Methods: By means of Google® browser, applying the descriptors in sequence to progressively refine the search on Internet and key concepts to be learned, all previously defined by the authors themselves, we proceeded a qualitative analyses of the 20 first listed links for each searched issue and the final selection of the most scientifically relevant ones. Results: The 34 selected links are presented in 4 groups: 23 portals, 5 guides and recommendations, 4 scientific journals and 3 blogs that allow free access to health promotion and disease prevention related subjects, such as: concepts; national and international public policies; epidemiology, statistics and health indicators; diseases screening and prophylaxis; counseling for behavior change of health related habits; and interdisciplinary work. Among the selected links 10 (29% are written in English while the others are in Portuguese. Conclusions: The identification of reading materials on health promotion and disease prevention available on Internet, many in Portuguese, allowed us toselect relevant scientifically qualified literature and turn it accessible to health professionals, enabling the acquisition of new knowledge or quick update.

  5. Effectiveness of the population-based Check your health preventive programme conducted in primary care with 4 years follow-up [the CORE trial]: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Støvring, Henrik; Sandbaek, Annelli

    2014-08-29

    The periodic health check-up has been a fundamental part of routine medical practice for decades, despite a lack of consensus regarding its value in health promotion and disease prevention. A large-scale Danish population-based preventive programme 'Check your health' was developed based on available evidence of screening and successive accepted treatment, prevention for diseases and health promotion, and is closely aligned with the current health care system.The objective of the 'Check your health' [CORE] trial is to investigate effectiveness on health outcomes of a preventive health check offered at a population-level to all individuals aged 30-49 years, and to establish the cost-effectiveness. The trial will be conducted as a pragmatic household-cluster randomised controlled trial involving 10,505 individuals. All individuals within a well-defined geographical area in the Central Denmark Region, Denmark (DK) were randomised to be offered a preventive health check (Intervention group, n = 5250) or to maintain routine access to healthcare until a delayed intervention (Comparison group, n = 5255). The programme consists of a health examination which yields an individual risk profile, and according to this participants are assigned to one of the following interventions: (a) referral to a health promoting consultation in general practice, (b) behavioural programmes at the local Health Centre, or (c) no need for follow-up.The primary outcomes at 4 years follow-up are: ten-year-risk of fatal cardiovascular event (Heart-SCORE model), physical activity level (self-report and cardiorespiratory fitness), quality of life (SF12), sick leave and labour market attachment. Cost-effectiveness will be evaluated according to life years gained, direct costs and total health costs. Intention to treat analysis will be performed. Results from the largest Danish health check programme conducted within the current healthcare system, spanning the sectors which share responsibility for

  6. Health Literacy: Cancer Prevention Strategies for Early Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Robert A; Cosgrove, Susan C; Romney, Martha C; Plumb, James D; Brawer, Rickie O; Gonzalez, Evelyn T; Fleisher, Linda G; Moore, Bradley S

    2017-09-01

    Health literacy, the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand health information and services needed to make health decisions, is an essential element for early adults (aged 18-44 years) to make informed decisions about cancer. Low health literacy is one of the social determinants of health associated with cancer-related disparities. Over the past several years, a nonprofit organization, a university, and a cancer center in a major urban environment have developed and implemented health literacy programs within healthcare systems and in the community. Health system personnel received extensive health literacy training to reduce medical jargon and improve their patient education using plain language easy-to-understand written materials and teach-back, and also designed plain language written materials including visuals to provide more culturally and linguistically appropriate health education and enhance web-based information. Several sustainable health system policy changes occurred over time. At the community level, organizational assessments and peer leader training on health literacy have occurred to reduce communication barriers between consumers and providers. Some of these programs have been cancer specific, including consumer education in such areas as cervical cancer, skin cancer, and breast cancer that are targeted to early adults across the cancer spectrum from prevention to treatment to survivorship. An example of consumer-driven health education that was tested for health literacy using a comic book-style photonovel on breast cancer with an intergenerational family approach for Chinese Americans is provided. Key lessons learned from the health literacy initiatives and overall conclusions of the health literacy initiatives are also summarized. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Obesity Prevention: The Impact of Local Health Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo (Adam); Roy, Kakoli; Gotway Crawford, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between bodyweight status and provision of population-based prevention services. Data Sources The National Association of City and County Health Officials 2005 Profile survey data, linked with two cross-sections of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey in 2004 and 2005. Study Design Multilevel logistic regressions were used to examine the association between provision of obesity-prevention services and the change in risk of being obese or morbidly obese among BRFSS respondents. The estimation sample was stratified by sex. Low-income samples were also examined. Falsification tests were used to determine whether there is counterevidence. Principal Findings Provision of population-based obesity-prevention services within the jurisdiction of local health departments and specifically those provided by the local health departments are associated with reduced risks of obesity and morbid obesity from 2004 to 2005. The magnitude of the association appears to be stronger among low-income populations and among women. Results of the falsification tests provide additional support of the main findings. Conclusions Population-based obesity-prevention services may be useful in containing the obesity epidemic. PMID:22816510

  8. Health initiatives for the prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinert, Rüdiger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Mohr, Peter; Volkmer, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in white population worldwide. However, because the most prominent risk factor-solar UV-radiation and/or artificial UV from sunbeds-is known, skin cancer is highly preventable be primary prevention. This prevention needs, that the public is informed by simple and balanced messages about the possible harms and benefits of UV-exposure and how a person should behave under certain conditions of UV-exposure. For this purpose information and recommendations for the public must be age- and target-group specific to cover all periods of life and to reach all sub-groups of a population, continuously. There is a need that political institutions together with Health Institutions and Societies (e.g., European Commission, WHO, EUROSKIN, ICNIRP, etc.), which are responsible for primary prevention of skin cancer, find a common language to inform the public, in order not to confuse it. This is especially important in connection with the ongoing Vitamin D debate, where possible positive effects of UV have to be balanced with the well known skin cancer risk of UV. A continuously ongoing evaluation of interventions and programs in primary prevention is a pre-requisite to assess the effectiveness of strategies. There is surely no "no message fits all" approach, but balanced information in health initiatives for prevention of skin cancer, which use evidence-base strategies, will further be needed in the future to reduce the incidence, morbidity and mortality skin cancer.

  9. Investigating the factors that affect pistachio growers’ intention regarding prevention of aflatoxin based on the health belief model in the Sirjan rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Yazdanpanah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio is a valuable export product, but its export is faced with serious challenges due to aflatoxin. Given the importance of growers’ role in the prevention of aflatoxin in pistachio, the aim of this article is investigating pistachio growers’ intention regarding prevention of aflatoxin through the health belief model. The research population consists of 330 of pistachio growers in the Sirjan city in the Kerman province. Amongst the 330 samples, 120 of them were selected through simple random sampling. A questionnaire was the research tool and its validity of the questionnaire was approved by a panel of experts. Its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients (0.7 to 0.9. Also, the results of regression analysis revealed that the variables showing guide to action were the main predictor of growers’ intention. In addition to self-efficacy and perceived barriers, this variable can predict nearly 36% of the variance of pistachio growers’ intention regarding the prevention of aflatoxin. The results could be used for policy making and planning in relation to strategies to prevent the production of aflatoxin in pistachios.

  10. Attitudes and beliefs about mental illness among church-based lay health workers: experience from a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission trial in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Iheanacho, Theddeus; Kapadia, Daniel; Ezeanolue, Chinenye O.; Osuji, Alice A.; Ogidi, Amaka G.; Ike, Anulika; Patel, Dina; Stefanovics, Elina; Rosenheck, Robert; Obiefune, Michael; Ezeanolue, Echezona E.

    2015-01-01

    Common mental disorders are prevalent in Nigeria. Due to stigma and a limited number of trained specialists, only 10% of adults with mental illness in Nigeria receive any care. The Healthy Beginning Initiative is a community-based maternal/child health program that includes screening for perinatal depression and was implemented by lay, volunteer, church-based health advisors (CHAs). The aim of the study was to assess the beliefs and attitudes about mental illness among the CHAs. The study use...

  11. Design of an internet-based health economic evaluation of a preventive group-intervention for children of parents with mental illness or substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolderink, Marla; Smit, Filip; van der Zanden, Rianne; Beecham, Jennifer; Knapp, Martin; Paulus, Aggie; Evers, Silvia

    2010-08-10

    Preventive interventions are developed for children of parents with mental and substance use disorders (COPMI), because these children have a higher risk of developing a psychological or behavioral disorder in the future. Mental health and substance use disorders contribute significantly to the global burden of disease. Although the exact number of parents with a mental illness is unclear, the subject of mentally ill parents is gaining attention. Moreover there is a lack of interventions for COPMI-children, as well of (cost-) effectiveness studies evaluating COPMI interventions. Innovative interventions such as e-health provide a new field for exploration. There is no knowledge about the opportunities for using the internet to prevent problems in children at risk. In the current study we will focus on the (cost-) effectiveness of an online health prevention program for COPMI-children. We designed a randomized controlled trial to examine the (cost-) effectiveness of the Kopstoring intervention. Kopstoring is an online intervention for COPMI-children to strengthen their coping skills and prevent behavioral and psychological problems. We will compare the Kopstoring intervention with (waiting list) care as usual. This trial will be conducted entirely over the internet. An economic evaluation, from a societal perspective will be conducted, to examine the trial's cost-effectiveness. Power calculations show that 214 participants are needed, aged 16-25. Possible participants will be recruited via media announcements and banners on the internet. After screening and completing informed consent procedures, participants will be randomized. The main outcome is internalizing and externalizing symptoms as measured by the Youth Self Report. For the economic evaluation, healthcare costs and costs outside the healthcare sector will be measured at the same time as the clinical measures, at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. An extended measure for the intervention group will be provided at

  12. Design of an internet-based health economic evaluation of a preventive group-intervention for children of parents with mental illness or substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolderink Marla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive interventions are developed for children of parents with mental and substance use disorders (COPMI, because these children have a higher risk of developing a psychological or behavioral disorder in the future. Mental health and substance use disorders contribute significantly to the global burden of disease. Although the exact number of parents with a mental illness is unclear, the subject of mentally ill parents is gaining attention. Moreover there is a lack of interventions for COPMI-children, as well of (cost- effectiveness studies evaluating COPMI interventions. Innovative interventions such as e-health provide a new field for exploration. There is no knowledge about the opportunities for using the internet to prevent problems in children at risk. In the current study we will focus on the (cost- effectiveness of an online health prevention program for COPMI-children. Methods/Design We designed a randomized controlled trial to examine the (cost- effectiveness of the Kopstoring intervention. Kopstoring is an online intervention for COPMI-children to strengthen their coping skills and prevent behavioral and psychological problems. We will compare the Kopstoring intervention with (waiting list care as usual. This trial will be conducted entirely over the internet. An economic evaluation, from a societal perspective will be conducted, to examine the trial's cost-effectiveness. Power calculations show that 214 participants are needed, aged 16-25. Possible participants will be recruited via media announcements and banners on the internet. After screening and completing informed consent procedures, participants will be randomized. The main outcome is internalizing and externalizing symptoms as measured by the Youth Self Report. For the economic evaluation, healthcare costs and costs outside the healthcare sector will be measured at the same time as the clinical measures, at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. An extended

  13. Proactive prevention in occupational safety and health: how to identify tomorrow's prevention priorities and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, Angelika; Flaspöler, Eva; Reinert, Dietmar

    2018-04-17

    Global trends such as digitalisation, globalisation and demographic change are changing workplaces, and accordingly occupational safety and health (OSH) needs. To better prepare for the future and to foster proactive prevention, the German Social Accident Insurance (DGUV) established an OSH risk observatory (RO OSH). The RO OSH relies on an online survey and calls upon the expertise of labour inspectors. 398 labour inspectors participated in the first RO OSH enquiry. They rated developments with regard to their sector-specific relevance for OSH in the near future. The RO OSH also provides ideas for preventive measures that can be implemented by the German Social Accident Insurance Institutions. Work intensity, demographic aspects, and digitalisation play a major role for most or all sectors. However, familiar OSH issues such as musculoskeletal strain and noise also continue to be of major importance and require further consideration and specific solutions in prevention. For the DGUV, training and consulting bear great potential for proactive prevention in the above priority areas, e.g. by fostering a prevention culture and supporting companies in (psychosocial) risk assessment (also for mobile work). For instance, concepts for increasing physical activity at sedentary workplaces, and data security require continued research.

  14. Marriage, Cohabitation, and Men's Use of Preventive Health Care Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the 2011–2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), selected measures of preventive health care service use ... any gender and age. Data source and methods NHIS is a multipurpose health survey conducted continuously throughout ...

  15. Mobile Health, a Key Factor Enhancing Disease Prevention Campaigns: Looking for Evidences in Kidney Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Roque Matias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD failure and kidney diseases are increasing at an alarming rate all over the world. However, despite the remarkable advance in health technology, where it has become possible to successfully screen patients and predict kidney progression, a large portion of the world population is still unaware of their disease and risk exposure. Mobile Health (mHealth solutions associated with health campaigns and programs proved to be an effective mean to enhance awareness and behaviour change at individual and social level. Objective: The aim of this survey was to present the results of an environmental scan of what has been happening in the field of kidney disease prevention campaigns in recent years, with a focus on the use of mobile health as a tool to enhance the campaign's effects on targeting people and change their behaviour. Methodology: It was conducted a systematic and comprehensive review, combining experimental studies with theoretical perspectives, to look for evidence regarding the evaluation of kidney disease prevention campaigns. The databases consulted for the present survey were: MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, SAGE Journals Online, and Web of Science among other sources, for an analysis period from January 2000 to June 2016. Results: Concerning the 14 analyzed examples with impact on kidney disease prevention campaign evaluation, two main campaigns were referred: The World Kidney Day (WKD campaign, and the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP. The indicators used in this analisys were in most cases comparable regarding the campaign messages, objectives and interventions tools, although em both cases the use of mHealth or other technologies is residually comparing to other diseases prevention campaigns or programs. Conclusions: This review pointed to the inexistence of behavioural change evidence as a target of the kidney disease prevention campaigns and their evaluation. General

  16. Women's Health: The Biggest Threats to Women's Health are often Preventable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Women's health The biggest threats to women's health are often preventable. Here's what you need to know to live ... Clinic Staff Many of the leading threats to women's health can be prevented — if you know how. ...

  17. Insights in public health: Building support for an evidence-based teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention program adapted for foster youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tamara; Clark, Judith F; Nigg, Claudio R

    2015-01-01

    Hawai'i Youth Services Network (HYSN) was founded in 1980 and is incorporated as a 501(c) (3) organization. HYSN plays a key role in the planning, creation, and funding of local youth services. One of HYSN's focuses is teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention among foster youth. Foster youth are at a greater risk for teen pregnancy and STI due to a variety of complex factors including instability, trauma, and emancipation from the foster care system. This article highlights how HYSN is leveraging both federal and local funding, as well as other resources, in order to implement an evidence-based teen pregnancy and STI prevention program adapted for foster youth.

  18. Internet Use and Preventive Health Behaviors Among Couples in Later Life: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sangbo; Han, Sae Hwang; Gilligan, Megan

    2018-05-22

    The aim of this study was to examine the link between internet use and preventive health behaviors. We focused on couples to examine whether there were cross-partner associations between internet use and preventive health behaviors. The data for this study came from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study and the sample consisted of 5,143 pairs of coupled-individuals. Preventive health behaviors included cancer screenings (mammogram and prostate tests), cholesterol tests, and flu shots. Logistic multilevel actor-partner interdependence models were employed to test the study hypotheses. Internet use was associated with a higher likelihood of receiving prostate exams and cholesterol tests for husbands, net of demographic and health characteristics, and insurance status. We found that wives' internet use was associated with a higher likelihood of receiving flu shots and prostate exams for husbands, but husbands' internet use was not associated with wives' preventive health behaviors. Research linking internet use and preventive health behaviors is important because such behaviors are associated not only with health of the older population but also with substantial reductions in health care expenditures. Our findings suggested that internet use of older adults is associated with their own preventive health behaviors, as well as their spouses' preventive health behaviors. Interventions and programs to facilitate older adults' preventive health behaviors should consider couple-based approaches.

  19. Preventative Therapeutics: A Study of Risk and Prevention in Australian Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McLachlan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available his study investigates the preventative therapeutics of two major Australian mental health organisations - beyondblue and The Black Dog Institute. The aim of this study is to examine how the resilience-based programs of both organisations reconfigure clinical and preventative expertise into new forms of ‘anticipatory action' (Anderson 2010. First, this article situates beyondblue and the Black Dog Institute within their historical contexts to consider how issues of risk and protection have become essential to mental health care today. Second, it examines the institutional practices of beyondblue and the Black Dog Institute and the role of clinical and preventative expertise as enacted forms of authority. Finally, this study investigates the intellectual and biokeeping technologies promoted through both organisations“ resilience-based pedagogies. The view taken in this study is that such technologies actively participate in the making of new therapeutic cultures and practices. Moreover, as biomarkers continue to act as indicators of future states of ‘unhealth' (Dumit 2012: 112, biokeeping technologies will continue to act as essential elements in the governmentality of mental health and wellbeing.

  20. School-based smoking prevention programmes: ethical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Trofor, Antigona; Mihălţan, Florin; Santillan, Edna Arillo

    2011-01-01

    School-based health education has the potential to inform and educate young people, in order to promote healthy behaviours among them, which will help to prevent diseases and social problems. The present study gives an overview of several ethical issues which must be considered in different phases of school-based smoking prevention programs. This will help health educators, public health professionals and researchers in their activity of health education in schools. The ethical issues must be taken into consideration during all the activities and refer to the involvement of officials, schools, parents, young people who participate into the program, authors and persons/institutions responsible with the implementation, evaluation or funding of the programs. The application into practice of these ethical principles, influence the quality of the health education, its acceptability BY the target group and the correctness of results. Also, it prevents possible problems and misunderstandings between persons and institutions involved in the health education and smoking prevention process, which could seriously affect and even destroy implementation of such health education activities.

  1. Compliance With Infection Prevention Guidelines By Health Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    the health workers' curricular, provision of in-service training in infection ... cheaper infection prevention and control methods7. In Zambia ... Zambia Infection Prevention Guidelines in 2003. This ..... Control (IPC) Policies and Guidelines or.

  2. Prevention in Mental Health: Organizational and Ideological Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    Studied 33 community mental health centers to determine what types of organizational variables and ideological factors might affect whether a community health center conducted prevention programs. Results indicated organizational support and ideological support of mental health professionals were critical variables for prevention programs.…

  3. Effect of a school-based oral health education in preventing untreated dental caries and increasing knowledge, attitude, and practices among adolescents in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Syed Emdadul; Rahman, Mosiur; Itsuko, Kawashima; Mutahara, Mahmuda; Kayako, Sakisaka; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Islam, Md Jahirul; Mostofa, Md Golam

    2016-03-25

    There is a dearth of published literature that demonstrates the impact and effectiveness of school-based oral health education (OHE) program in Bangladesh and it is one of the most neglected activities in the field of public health. Keeping this in mind, the objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of OHE program in: 1) increasing oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices and 2) decreasing the prevalence of untreated dental caries among 6-8 grade school students in Bangladesh. This intervention study was conducted in Araihazar Thana, Narayanganj district, Bangladesh during April 2012 to March 2013. The total participants were 944 students from three local schools. At baseline, students were assessed for oral health knowledge, attitude and practices using a self-administered structured questionnaire and untreated dental caries was assessed using clinical examination. Follow up study was done after 6 months from baseline. McNemar's chi-square analysis was used to evaluate the impact of OHE program on four recurrent themes of oral health between the baseline and follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the impact of the intervention group on our outcome variables. Significant improvement was observed regarding school aged adolescents' self-reported higher knowledge, attitude and practices scores (p level of knowledge regarding oral health compared to baseline. Compared with baseline participants in the follow-up were 1.89 times (95 % CI = 1.44-2.87) more likely to have higher attitude towards oral health. In addition, OHE intervention was found to be significantly associated with higher level of practices toward oral health (AOR = 1.64; 95 % CI = 1.12, 3.38). This study indicated that OHE intervention was effective in increasing i) knowledge, ii) attitude, and iii) practices towards oral health; it also significantly reduced the prevalence of untreated dental caries among school aged adolescents from grade 6-8 in a

  4. The Role of Nurses in Community Awareness and Preventive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjaneh M. Fooladi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With access to multimedia through social networks at global level, one wonders why some of the preventive healthcare services such as children and adult immunizations, annual screening for men and women, prenatal and dental care for childbearing women and adolescents are not provided at a 100% rate. Community awareness is a crucial aspect of preventative healthcare and perhaps those responsible for implementing the national health initiatives seek to realize other key factors influencing community health. In a study of 190 community health nurses caring for blacks, Puerto Ricans and Southeast Asians, the confidence scores for cultural self-efficacy was high when nurses cared for blacks and they were low when they cared for Asians and Latinos. The lowest scores belonged to items related to knowledge of health beliefs and practices regarding respect, authority and modesty within each culture. Scores were higher when interpreters were used correctly to convey meaningful messages. Researchers concluded that nurses lacked confidence when caring for culturally diverse patients and found weaknesses across the nursing curriculum preparing nurses to care for various demographic groups.1 In most countries, including Iran, governmental agencies have the budget and the man- power to apply preplanned initiatives and provide community-based preventive healthcare services to address the majority of the preventable health related issues through satellite clinics, health department and outpatient facilities. Meanwhile, private sectors in metropolitan cities offer cure-based services to urban and suburban communities. Remote and rural areas should be the focus of primary care and preventive health services, because access to multimedia is limited, healthcare providers refuse to work in outreach areas, and unpaved roads are barriers to easy access to the locals and outsiders. To implement an effective community-based preventive program, recognition of resiliency

  5. "Macho men" and preventive health care: implications for older men in different social classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kristen W; Mouzon, Dawne M

    2011-06-01

    The gender paradox in mortality--where men die earlier than women despite having more socioeconomic resources--may be partly explained by men's lower levels of preventive health care. Stereotypical notions of masculinity reduce preventive health care; however, the relationship between masculinity, socioeconomic status (SES), and preventive health care is unknown. Using the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, the authors conduct a population-based assessment of masculinity beliefs and preventive health care, including whether these relationships vary by SES. The results show that men with strong masculinity beliefs are half as likely as men with more moderate masculinity beliefs to receive preventive care. Furthermore, in contrast to the well-established SES gradient in health, men with strong masculinity beliefs do not benefit from higher education and their probability of obtaining preventive health care decreases as their occupational status, wealth, and/or income increases. Masculinity may be a partial explanation for the paradox of men's lower life expectancy, despite their higher SES.

  6. Heart Disease Prevention: Does Oral Health Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Will taking care of my teeth help prevent heart disease? Answers from Thomas J. Salinas, D.D.S. Taking ... teeth isn't a proven way to prevent heart disease. While there appears to be some connection between ...

  7. Health and Prevention Enhancement (H-PEACE): a retrospective, population-based cohort study conducted at the Seoul National University Hospital Gangnam Center, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changhyun; Choe, Eun Kyung; Choi, Ji Min; Hwang, Yunji; Lee, Young; Park, Boram; Chung, Su Jin; Kwak, Min-Sun; Lee, Jong-Eun; Kim, Joo Sung; Park, Sue Kyung; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2018-04-19

    The Health and Prevention Enhancement (H-PEACE) study was designed to investigate the association of diagnostic imaging results, biomarkers and the predisease stage of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as malignancies and metabolic diseases, in an average-risk population in Korea. This study enrolled a large-scale retrospective cohort at the Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University Hospital, from October 2003 to December 2014. The baseline and follow-up information collected in the predisease stage of NCDs allows for evaluation of an individual's potential NCD risk, which is necessary for establishing personalised prevention strategies. A total of 91 336 health examinees were included in the cohort, and we repeatedly measured and collected information for 50.9% (n=46 484) of the cohort members. All participants completed structured questionnaires (lifestyle, medical history, mini-dietary assessment index, sex-specific variables and psychiatric assessment), doctors' physical examinations, laboratory blood and urine tests and digital chest X-ray imaging. For participants with available data, we also obtained information on specific diagnostic variables using advanced diagnostic tests, including coronary CT for coronary calcium scores, colonoscopy and brain MRI. Furthermore, 17 455 of the participants who provided informed consent and donated blood samples were enrolled into the Gene-environmental interaction and phenotype study, a subcohort of the H-PEACE, from October 2013, and we analysed genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism array data for 6579 of these blood samples. The data obtained from this cohort will be used to facilitate advanced and accurate diagnostic techniques related to NCDs while considering various phenotypes. Potential collaborators can access the dataset after receiving approval from our institutional review board. Applications can be submitted on the study homepage (http://en-healthcare.snuh.org/HPEACEstudy).

  8. Speeding the growth of primary mental health prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Wissow, Lawrence S

    2015-01-01

    While there is a strong case for primary prevention of mental health problems, relatively little mental health scholarship has been devoted to it in the last decade. Efforts to accelerate prevention scholarship could potentially benefit from strengthening pathways for interdisciplinary research; developing new training and working models for mental health professionals; developing a common language for public, policy, and scientific discussion of prevention; learning how to measure the common...

  9. Speeding the growth of primary mental health prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissow, Lawrence S

    2015-01-01

    While there is a strong case for primary prevention of mental health problems, relatively little mental health scholarship has been devoted to it in the last decade. Efforts to accelerate prevention scholarship could potentially benefit from strengthening pathways for interdisciplinary research; developing new training and working models for mental health professionals; developing a common language for public, policy, and scientific discussion of prevention; learning how to measure the common outcomes of heterogeneous interventions tailored to diverse communities.

  10. Study protocol for the optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial of Positive Choices: a school-based social marketing intervention to promote sexual health, prevent unintended teenage pregnancies and address health inequalities in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Ruth; Allen, Elizabeth; Campbell, Rona; Elbourne, Diana; Hadley, Alison; Lohan, Maria; Melendez-Torres, G J; Mercer, Catherine H; Morris, Steve; Young, Honor; Bonell, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy (TPS), England's under-18 conception rate has fallen by 55%, but a continued focus on prevention is needed to maintain and accelerate progress. The teenage birth rate remains higher in the UK than comparable Western European countries. Previous trials indicate that school-based social marketing interventions are a promising approach to addressing teenage pregnancy and improving sexual health. Such interventions are yet to be trialled in the UK. This study aims to optimise and establish the feasibility and acceptability of one such intervention: Positive Choices. Design: Optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial.Interventions: The Positive Choices intervention comprises a student needs survey, a student/staff led School Health Promotion Council (SHPC), a classroom curriculum for year nine students covering social and emotional skills and sex education, student-led social marketing activities, parent information and a review of school sexual health services.Systematic optimisation of Positive Choices will be carried out with the National Children's Bureau Sex Education Forum (NCB SEF), one state secondary school in England and other youth and policy stakeholders.Feasibility testing will involve the same state secondary school and will assess progression criteria to advance to the pilot cluster RCT.Pilot cluster RCT with integral process evaluation will involve six different state secondary schools (four interventions and two controls) and will assess the feasibility and utility of progressing to a full effectiveness trial.The following outcome measures will be trialled as part of the pilot:Self-reported pregnancy and unintended pregnancy (initiation of pregnancy for boys) and sexually transmitted infections,Age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, use of contraception at first and last sex and non-volitional sexEducational attainmentThe feasibility of linking administrative

  11. Prediction of Drug Attitude in Adolescents Based on Family Training Risk Factors for Mental Health in Society: Designing a Model for Prevention of Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Parsian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Substance abuse is one of the worst humanitarian issues in recent years which undermines the base and foundations of human society. Its prevention requires the application of multiple theories in various disciplines together with diverse methods and techniques. Several studies have been emphasized on the role of personal and familial variables as risk factors for substance use . However, this study was done in order to predict drug addiction attitude in adolescents according to the family training risk factors to prevent substance abuse and to design a model for the prevention of addiction .   Methods: This study is a descriptive and survey research performed on a sample of 373 male and female students selected randomly among the five high school students in Ghaemshahr city. Then a questionnaire including parenting styles, attitude to addiction and social problem solving skill as well as a socioeconomic questionnaire distributed among the students. For data analysis, the statistical method of descriptive statistics and path analysis has been used.   Results: Results of this study have shown that the component of parenting styles has a direct and positive impact on attitudes to drug addiction. In addition, there was a direct and positive non-significant relationship between the adaptive social problem solving skills and attitude to drug addiction and also direct and negative significant relationship between the non-adaptive social problem solving skills on this attitudes. A direct and negative significant relationship was also seen between parenting styles and attitude to drug addiction.   Conclusions: Based on the results of present study, the components of parenting styles have a direct and negative impact on attitudes to drug addiction. Also there is a direct and significant relationship between the components of non-adaptive social problem solving skills and the variable of social attitude in adolescents . But the

  12. School-based programmes for preventing smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael

    2013-04-30

    Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed public health goal, and schools provide a route to communicate with nearly all young people. School-based interventions have been delivered for close to 40 years. The primary aim of this review was to determine whether school smoking interventions prevent youth from starting smoking. Our secondary objective was to determine which interventions were most effective. This included evaluating the effects of theoretical approaches; additional booster sessions; programme deliverers; gender effects; and multifocal interventions versus those focused solely on smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, and Dissertation Abstracts for terms relating to school-based smoking cessation programmes. In addition, we screened the bibliographies of articles and ran individual MEDLINE searches for 133 authors who had undertaken randomised controlled trials in this area. The most recent searches were conducted in October 2012. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) where students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomised to intervention arm(s) versus a control group, and followed for at least six months. Participants had to be youth (aged 5 to 18). Interventions could be any curricula used in a school setting to deter tobacco use, and outcome measures could be never smoking, frequency of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked, or smoking indices. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Based on the type of outcome, we placed studies into three groups for analysis: Pure Prevention cohorts (Group 1), Change in Smoking Behaviour over time (Group 2) and Point Prevalence of Smoking (Group 3). One hundred and thirty-four studies involving 428,293 participants met the inclusion criteria. Some

  13. Evidence-Based Practices Project for Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Philip L.; Sudak, Howard S.; Silverman, Morton M.; Litts, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Suicide continues to be a serious public health problem. In response to this problem, a myriad of suicide prevention programs have been developed and employed across the United States. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of many of these programs is unknown because they have not been evaluated using rigorous methods. The Evidence-Based Practices…

  14. How to Prevent Heart Disease: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and your heart (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get How to Prevent ... your heart Stress and your heart Related Health Topics Blood Thinners Cholesterol Heart Diseases Heart Health Tests ...

  15. [Public health, prevention and federalism: insights from the implementation of the federal law on health insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüefli, Christian; Sager, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, the new Swiss law on health care insurance (KVG) introduced the coverage of certain preventive measures. This provided an opportunity to include research-based public health issues in federal health policy. The present article examines the problems with which the realization of those goals in a Federalist health care system with strong cantonal autonomy as it is found in Switzerland was confronted. Comparative qualitative case studies design (vaccination of school age children and screening-mammography). Switzerland's federalist health care system strongly hinders the realisation of the Confederation's public health goals. Prevention falls into the cantons' autonomy and the federal KVG (Krankenversicherungsgesetz; Health insurance law) only regulates the coverage of the services provided, but does not contain any instruments to assure implementation in consistency with the policy goals. Under those circumstances, conflicts of interest between the implementing actors, varying cantonal preferences, and scarce resources block the implementation of public health goals. The results imply stronger leadership of the Confederation in prevention policy and an improved consideration of implementation aspects in approving new measures to obligatory insurance coverage.

  16. School-based sexual health education interventions to prevent STI/HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, A Sadiq; Abraham, Charles; Denford, Sarah; Ball, Susan

    2016-10-10

    School-based sexual health education has the potential to provide an inclusive and comprehensive approach to promoting sexual health among young people. We reviewed evaluations of school-based sexual health education interventions in sub-Saharan Africa to assess effectiveness in reducing sexually transmitted infections and promoting condom use. We searched ten electronic databases, hand-searched key journals, and reference lists of included articles for potential studies. Data were extracted on outcomes, intervention characteristics, methods and study characteristics indicative of methodological quality. Where possible, data were synthesized using random effect meta-analysis. Intervention features found predominantly in effective interventions were noted. The initial search retrieved 21634 potentially relevant citations. Of these, 51 papers reporting on 31 interventions were included. No evaluation reported statistically significant effects on the incidence or prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus 2 infections. However, intervention participants reported statistically significant greater condom use in both randomised controlled trials and non-randomised trials for short (less than 6 months) follow-up periods (OR = 1.62, 95 % CI = 1.03-2.55 and OR = 2.88, 95 % CI = 1.41-5.90 respectively). For intermediate (6-10 months) and long-term (more than 10 months) follow-up periods, the effect was statistically significant (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI = 1.16-1.68) and marginally significant (OR = 1.22, 95 % CI = 0.99-1.50) among the randomised trials respectively. Only 12 of the 31 interventions reported implementation details, out of which seven reported on fidelity. School-based sexual health education has the potential to promote condom use among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. However, further work is needed to develop and evaluate interventions that have measurable effects on sexually transmitted infections.

  17. Health Issues for Gay Men: Prevention First

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Adult health Understand important health issues for gay men and men who have sex with men — ... Staff All men face certain health risks. However, gay men and men who have sex with men ...

  18. Designing Health Information Technology Tools to Prevent Gaps in Public Health Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jennifer D; Harding, Rose L; DeVoe, Jennifer E; Gold, Rachel; Angier, Heather; Sumic, Aleksandra; Nelson, Christine A; Likumahuwa-Ackman, Sonja; Cohen, Deborah J

    2017-06-23

    Changes in health insurance policies have increased coverage opportunities, but enrollees are required to annually reapply for benefits which, if not managed appropriately, can lead to insurance gaps. Electronic health records (EHRs) can automate processes for assisting patients with health insurance enrollment and re-enrollment. We describe community health centers' (CHC) workflow, documentation, and tracking needs for assisting families with insurance application processes, and the health information technology (IT) tool components that were developed to meet those needs. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and observation of clinic operations and insurance application assistance processes. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. We diagramed workflows and shared information with a team of developers who built the EHR-based tools. Four steps to the insurance assistance workflow were common among CHCs: 1) Identifying patients for public health insurance application assistance; 2) Completing and submitting the public health insurance application when clinic staff met with patients to collect requisite information and helped them apply for benefits; 3) Tracking public health insurance approval to monitor for decisions; and 4) assisting with annual health insurance reapplication. We developed EHR-based tools to support clinical staff with each of these steps. CHCs are uniquely positioned to help patients and families with public health insurance applications. CHCs have invested in staff to assist patients with insurance applications and help prevent coverage gaps. To best assist patients and to foster efficiency, EHR based insurance tools need comprehensive, timely, and accurate health insurance information.

  19. Outcomes from a community-based, participatory lay health advisor HIV/STD prevention intervention for recently arrived immigrant Latino men in rural North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Montaño, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Background Latinos in the United States are at increased risk for HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection. We evaluated the efficacy of a pilot, lay health advisor (LHA) intervention designed to increase condom use and HIV testing among Latino men. Methods Fifteen LHAs (mean age=35.6; range 23–60 years) from 15 Latino soccer teams were trained and worked with their teammates for 18 months. Another 15 teams served as the control group. Data were collected at baseline and 18-months post-LHA training from a random sample of teammates from intervention and control teams. Results Data were collected from 222 men (mean age=29 years) who participated in one of the 30 teams. Relative to the control condition, participants in the intervention reported more consistent condom use in the 30 days preceding follow-up (unadjusted analysis, intervention, 65.6% vs. control, 41.3%; P<.001). Participants in the intervention were more likely to report condom use (adjusted odds ratio=2.3; CI=1.2–4.3) and HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio=2.5; CI=1.5–4.3). Conclusions LHA interventions for Latino men that are developed in partnership with community members, rely on male-centered intrapersonal networks, and are culturally congruent can enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection. PMID:19824838

  20. Outcomes from a community-based, participatory lay health adviser HIV/STD prevention intervention for recently arrived immigrant Latino men in rural North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Bloom, Fred R; Leichliter, Jami S; Montaño, Jaime

    2009-10-01

    Latinos in the United States are at increased risk for HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection. We evaluated the efficacy of a pilot lay health adviser (LHA) intervention designed to increase condom use and HIV testing among Latino men. Fifteen LHAs (mean age = 35.6; range 23-60 years) from 15 Latino soccer teams were trained and worked with their teammates for 18 months. Another 15 teams served as the control group. Data were collected at baseline and at 18 months post-LHA training from a random sample of teammates from intervention and control teams. Data were collected from 222 men (mean age = 29 years) who participated in one of the 30 teams. Relative to the control condition, participants in the intervention reported more consistent condom use in the 30 days preceding follow-up (unadjusted analysis, intervention, 65.6% vs. control, 41.3%; p < .001). Participants in the intervention were more likely to report condom use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.3; confidence interval [CI = 1.2-4.3) and HIV testing (AOR = 2.5; CI = 1.5-4.3). LHA interventions for Latino men that are developed in partnership with community members, rely on male-centered intrapersonal networks, and are culturally congruent can enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection.

  1. Caries risk assessment tool and prevention protocol for public health nurses in mother and child health centers, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natapov, Lena; Dekel-Markovich, Dan; Granit-Palmon, Hadas; Aflalo, Efrat; Zusman, Shlomo Paul

    2018-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic disease in children. Caries risk assessment tools enable the dentists, physicians, and nondental health care providers to assess the individual's risk. Intervention by nurses in primary care settings can contribute to the establishment of oral health habits and prevention of dental disease. In Israel, Mother and Child Health Centers provide free preventive services for pregnant women and children by public health nurses. A caries prevention program in health centers started in 2015. Nurses underwent special training regarding caries prevention. A customized Caries Risk Assessment tool and Prevention Protocol for nurses, based on the AAPD tool, was introduced. A two-step evaluation was conducted which included a questionnaire and in-depth phone interviews. Twenty-eight (out of 46) health centers returned a completed questionnaire. Most nurses believed that oral health preventive services should be incorporated into their daily work. In the in-depth phone interviews, nurses stated that the integration of the program into their busy daily schedule was realistic and appropriate. The lack of specific dental module for computer program was mentioned as an implementation difficulty. The wide use of our tool by nurses supports its simplicity and feasibility which enables quick calculation and informed decision making. The nurses readily embraced the tool and it became an integral part of their toolkit. We provide public health nurses with a caries risk assessment tool and prevention protocol thus integrating oral health into general health of infants and toddlers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Prevention literacy: community-based advocacy for access and ownership of the HIV prevention toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard G; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Garcia, Jonathan; Gavigan, Kelly; Ramirez, Ana; Milnor, Jack; Terto, Veriano

    2016-01-01

    Critical technological advances have yielded a toolkit of HIV prevention strategies. This literature review sought to provide contextual and historical reflection needed to bridge the conceptual gap between clinical efficacy and community effectiveness (i.e. knowledge and usage) of existing HIV prevention options, especially in resource-poor settings. Between January 2015 and October 2015, we reviewed scholarly and grey literatures to define treatment literacy and health literacy and assess the current need for literacy related to HIV prevention. The review included searches in electronic databases including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Permutations of the following search terms were used: "treatment literacy," "treatment education," "health literacy," and "prevention literacy." Through an iterative process of analyses and searches, titles and/or abstracts and reference lists of retrieved articles were reviewed for additional articles, and historical content analyses of grey literature and websites were additionally conducted. Treatment literacy was a well-established concept developed in the global South, which was later partially adopted by international agencies such as the World Health Organization. Treatment literacy emerged as more effective antiretroviral therapies became available. Developed from popular pedagogy and grassroots efforts during an intense struggle for treatment access, treatment literacy addressed the need to extend access to underserved communities and low-income settings that might otherwise be excluded from access. In contrast, prevention literacy is absent in the recent surge of new biomedical prevention strategies; prevention literacy was scarcely referenced and undertheorized in the available literature. Prevention efforts today include multimodal techniques, which jointly comprise a toolkit of biomedical, behavioural, and structural/environmental approaches. However, linkages to community advocacy and mobilization

  3. Improvement in rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease management and prevention using a health centre-based continuous quality improvement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Anna P; Fittock, Marea; Schultz, Rosalie; Thompson, Dale; Dowden, Michelle; Clemens, Tom; Parnaby, Matthew G; Clark, Michele; McDonald, Malcolm I; Edwards, Keith N; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Bailie, Ross S

    2013-12-18

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a major health concern for Aboriginal Australians. A key component of RHD control is prevention of recurrent acute rheumatic fever (ARF) using long-term secondary prophylaxis with intramuscular benzathine penicillin (BPG). This is the most important and cost-effective step in RHD control. However, there are significant challenges to effective implementation of secondary prophylaxis programs. This project aimed to increase understanding and improve quality of RHD care through development and implementation of a continuous quality improvement (CQI) strategy. We used a CQI strategy to promote implementation of national best-practice ARF/RHD management guidelines at primary health care level in Indigenous communities of the Northern Territory (NT), Australia, 2008-2010. Participatory action research methods were employed to identify system barriers to delivery of high quality care. This entailed facilitated discussion with primary care staff aided by a system assessment tool (SAT). Participants were encouraged to develop and implement strategies to overcome identified barriers, including better record-keeping, triage systems and strategies for patient follow-up. To assess performance, clinical records were audited at baseline, then annually for two years. Key performance indicators included proportion of people receiving adequate secondary prophylaxis (≥80% of scheduled 4-weekly penicillin injections) and quality of documentation. Six health centres participated, servicing approximately 154 people with ARF/RHD. Improvements occurred in indicators of service delivery including proportion of people receiving ≥40% of their scheduled BPG (increasing from 81/116 [70%] at baseline to 84/103 [82%] in year three, p = 0.04), proportion of people reviewed by a doctor within the past two years (112/154 [73%] and 134/156 [86%], p = 0.003), and proportion of people who received influenza vaccination (57/154 [37%] to 86/156 [55%], p

  4. Dynamics behind the scale up of evidence-based obesity prevention: protocol for a multi-site case study of an electronic implementation monitoring system in health promotion practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Kathleen P; Groen, Sisse; Loblay, Victoria; Green, Amanda; Milat, Andrew; Persson, Lina; Innes-Hughes, Christine; Mitchell, Jo; Thackway, Sarah; Williams, Mandy; Hawe, Penelope

    2017-12-06

    The effectiveness of many interventions to promote health and prevent disease has been well established. The imperative has therefore shifted from amassing evidence about efficacy to scale-up to maximise population-level health gains. Electronic implementation monitoring, or 'e-monitoring', systems have been designed to assist and track the delivery of preventive policies and programs. However, there is little evidence on whether e-monitoring systems improve the dissemination, adoption, and ongoing delivery of evidence-based preventive programs. Also, given considerable difficulties with e-monitoring systems in the clinical sector, scholars have called for a more sophisticated re-examination of e-monitoring's role in enhancing implementation. In the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, the Population Health Information Management System (PHIMS) was created to support the dissemination of obesity prevention programs to 6000 childcare centres and elementary schools across all 15 local health districts. We have established a three-way university-policymaker-practice research partnership to investigate the impact of PHIMS on practice, how PHIMS is used, and how achievement of key performance indicators of program adoption may be associated with local contextual factors. Our methods encompass ethnographic observation, key informant interviews and participatory workshops for data interpretation at a state and local level. We use an on-line social network analysis of the collaborative relationships across local health district health promotion teams to explore the relationship between PHIMS use and the organisational structure of practice. Insights will be sensitised by institutional theory, practice theory and complex adaptive system thinking, among other theories which make sense of socio-technical action. Our working hypothesis is that the science of getting evidence-based programs into practice rests on an in-depth understanding of the role they play in the on

  5. Suicide Prevention Programs in the Schools: A Review and Public Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Mazza, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of school-based suicide prevention programs from a public health perspective. A literature review of empirical studies examining school-based suicide prevention programs was conducted. Studies were required to contain information pertaining to the implementation and outcomes of a…

  6. Prevention is Better than Cure: A Hands-On, Play-Based, Innovative, Health and Well-Being Program in Remote Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis Mathiasen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A key to improving the quality of life in remote communities is the empowerment of children who are at health and educational risk. Between 2002 and 2009, at a remote Aboriginal school, students and community members participated in an innovative, play-based health and well-being program aimed at helping children to become self-determining and responsible for their own health and well-being. Holistic in its approach, and broad in its scope, the multi-faceted program encompassed the fundamentals of personal hygiene; understanding of body systems; the importance of nutrition, hydration, sleep and exercise; brain care; the biology of emotions, with particular emphasis on anger management and the critical interplay between emotions and behavior; the impact of substances of abuse on the brain; as well as the Hospital Familiarization Program (HFP which prepares children for planned and unplanned hospitalization. Program outcomes included improved school attendance and student engagement; increased community awareness of the importance of a healthy lifestyle; improved self-concept, self-esteem and self-confidence; as well as increased respect and caring for self and others. A reduction in children’s fear and anxiety when facing hospitalization and visits to the doctor was also evident. Each year, 12,500 children throughout Western Australia enjoy the benefits of the HFP.

  7. Prevention is Better than Cure: A Hands-On, Play-Based, Innovative, Health and Well-Being Program in Remote Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiasen, Lis

    2014-10-16

    A key to improving the quality of life in remote communities is the empowerment of children who are at health and educational risk. Between 2002 and 2009, at a remote Aboriginal school, students and community members participated in an innovative, play-based health and well-being program aimed at helping children to become self-determining and responsible for their own health and well-being. Holistic in its approach, and broad in its scope, the multi-faceted program encompassed the fundamentals of personal hygiene; understanding of body systems; the importance of nutrition, hydration, sleep and exercise; brain care; the biology of emotions, with particular emphasis on anger management and the critical interplay between emotions and behavior; the impact of substances of abuse on the brain; as well as the Hospital Familiarization Program (HFP) which prepares children for planned and unplanned hospitalization. Program outcomes included improved school attendance and student engagement; increased community awareness of the importance of a healthy lifestyle; improved self-concept, self-esteem and self-confidence; as well as increased respect and caring for self and others. A reduction in children's fear and anxiety when facing hospitalization and visits to the doctor was also evident. Each year, 12,500 children throughout Western Australia enjoy the benefits of the HFP.

  8. [Internet-based resilience training and prevention of mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, D; Kunzler, A; Helmreich, I; Behrendt, D; Chmitorz, A; Lieb, K

    2018-05-30

    Resilience is associated with a positive and resource-oriented perspective. Therefore, it seems especially attractive for health promotion and prevention. In recent years, interventions to foster resilience have been increasingly developed, which train resilience factors and are mainly conducted in a face to face group format. The question is raised what potential internet-based interventions (i-interventions) that train resilience factors have for health promotion and prevention. Based on a narrative overview, the possibilities for i‑interventions that train resilience factors for health promotion and prevention are investigated and the state of research is described. The effects of the i‑interventions presented here, which aim at fostering resilience, on measures of mental health and well-being are heterogeneous and vary between low to high effects. Stronger evidence for the efficacy of these measures exists for more general i‑interventions that also train resilience factors but are conceptualized for the prevention of specific disorders, such as depression or for stress reduction. Given the heterogeneous nature of intervention contents, theoretical foundations and therapeutic methods used, the heterogeneity of the evidence is discussed. In addition, perspectives for the further development of resource-oriented resilience interventions are outlined.

  9. Evolution in obesity and chronic disease prevention practice in California public health departments, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarte, Liz; Ngo, Samantha; Banthia, Rajni; Flores, George; Prentice, Bob; Boyle, Maria; Samuels, Sarah E

    2014-11-13

    Local health departments (LHDs) are dedicating resources and attention to preventing obesity and associated chronic diseases, thus expanding their work beyond traditional public health activities such as surveillance. This study investigated practices of local health departments in California to prevent obesity and chronic disease. We conducted a web-based survey in 2010 with leaders in California's LHDs to obtain diverse perspectives on LHDs' practices to prevent obesity and chronic disease. The departmental response rate for the 2010 survey was 87% (53 of California's 61 LHDs). Although staff for preventing obesity and chronic disease decreased at 59% of LHDs and stayed the same at 26% of LHDs since 2006, LHDs still contributed the same (12%) or a higher (62%) level of effort in these areas. Factors contributing to internal changes to address obesity and chronic disease prevention included momentum in the field of obesity prevention, opportunities to learn from other health departments, participation in obesity and chronic disease prevention initiatives, and flexible funding streams for chronic disease prevention. LHDs that received foundation funding or had a lead person or organizational unit coordinating or taking the lead on activities related to obesity and chronic disease prevention were more likely than other LHDs to engage in some activities related to obesity prevention. California LHDs are increasing the intensity and breadth of obesity and chronic disease prevention. Findings provide a benchmark from which further changes in the activities and funding sources of LHD chronic disease prevention practice may be measured.

  10. Targeted prevention of common mental health disorders in university students: randomised controlled trial of a transdiagnostic trait-focused web-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiat, Peter; Conrod, Patricia; Treasure, Janet; Tylee, Andre; Williams, Chris; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    A large proportion of university students show symptoms of common mental disorders, such as depression, anxiety, substance use disorders and eating disorders. Novel interventions are required that target underlying factors of multiple disorders. To evaluate the efficacy of a transdiagnostic trait-focused web-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of common mental disorders in university students. Students were recruited online (n=1047, age: M=21.8, SD=4.2) and categorised into being at high or low risk for mental disorders based on their personality traits. Participants were allocated to a cognitive-behavioural trait-focused (n=519) or a control intervention (n=528) using computerised simple randomisation. Both interventions were fully automated and delivered online (trial registration: ISRCTN14342225). Participants were blinded and outcomes were self-assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks and at 12 weeks after registration. Primary outcomes were current depression and anxiety, assessed on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD7). Secondary outcome measures focused on alcohol use, disordered eating, and other outcomes. Students at high risk were successfully identified using personality indicators and reported poorer mental health. A total of 520 students completed the 6-week follow-up and 401 students completed the 12-week follow-up. Attrition was high across intervention groups, but comparable to other web-based interventions. Mixed effects analyses revealed that at 12-week follow up the trait-focused intervention reduced depression scores by 3.58 (pmental disorders with a low-intensity intervention. ControlledTrials.com ISRCTN14342225.

  11. Community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for parents improves health behaviors and food parenting practices among Hispanic, low-income parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterbach, Laura; Mena, Noereem Z; Greene, Geoffrey; Redding, Colleen A; De Groot, Annie; Tovar, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Given the current prevalence of childhood obesity among Hispanic populations, and the importance of parental feeding behaviors, we aimed to assess the impact of the evidence-based Healthy Children, Healthy Families (HCHF) intervention on responsive food parenting practices (FPPs) in a low-income Hispanic population. This community-based pilot study used a non-experimental pre/post within-subjects design. Parents ( n  = 94) of children aged 3-11 years old were recruited to participate in an 8-week, weekly group-based intervention. The intervention was delivered to nine groups of parents by trained paraprofessional educators over a two-year period. Children participated in a separate curriculum that covered topics similar to those covered in the parent intervention. Parents completed self-administered pre/post surveys, which included demographic questions, seven subscales from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire, and the 16-item HCHF Behavior Checklist. Descriptive statistics and paired samples t-tests were used to analyze data from parents that completed the intervention. Fifty-two, primarily Hispanic (93%) parents completed the intervention (39% attrition rate). For parents who completed the intervention, there was a significant increase in one of the feeding practice subscales: encouragement of balance and variety ( p  = 0.01). There were significant improvements in several parent and child diet and activity outcomes ( p  ≤ 0.01). Although attrition rates were high, parents completing the study reported enjoying and being satisfied with the intervention. For parents who completed the intervention, reported 'encouragement of balance and variety', in addition to several health behaviors significantly improved. Larger studies utilizing an experimental design, should further explore the impact of the HCHF curriculum on improving certain FPPs and health behaviors that contribute to obesity.

  12. Changing disease profile and preventive health care in India: Issues of economy, equity and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Kaneez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of preventive health care practices has increasingly been recognized in the wake of changing disease profile in India. The disease burden has been shifting from communicable to non-communicable diseases as a result of greater focus on achieving competitiveness in a fast globalizing economy. The rapid pace of social and technological changes has led to adverse life style choices resulting in higher incidence of heart diseases, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and deteriorating inter-personal relations and psychological well-being among individuals. Most of these health risks can considerably be reduced through disseminating science-based information on health promotion and disease prevention including exercise, nutrition, smoking and tobacco cessation, immunization, counseling, fostering good habits of health and hygiene, disease screening and preventive medicine. Prior evidences indicate that preventive health interventions can improve health outcomes in a great deal. In a regressive health delivery system of India where major health expenses on curative health is met by out-of-pocket money, preventive health services hold promise to be cost efficient, clinically effective and equity promoting. This article, therefore, examines in depth the issues and prospects of preventive and promotive health care services in realizing optimum health care needs of the people.

  13. A comprehensive review of HIV/STI prevention and sexual and reproductive health services among sex Workers in Conflict-Affected Settings: call for an evidence- and rights-based approach in the humanitarian response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alyssa; Shannon, Kate; Butler, Jennifer; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2017-01-01

    While the conditions in emergency humanitarian and conflict-affected settings often result in significant sex work economies, there is limited information on the social and structural conditions of sex work in these settings, and the impacts on HIV/STI prevention and access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for sex workers. Our objective was to comprehensively review existing evidence on HIV/STI prevention and access to SRH services for sex workers in conflict-affected settings globally. We conducted a comprehensive review of all peer review (both epidemiological and qualitative) and grey literature published in the last 15 years (2000-2015), focusing on 1) HIV/STI vulnerability or prevention, and/or 2) access to SRH services for sex workers in conflict-affected settings. Five databases were searched, using combinations of sex work, conflict/mobility, HIV/STI, and SRH service terms. Relevant peer-reviewed and grey literature were also hand-searched, and key papers were cross-referenced for additional material. Five hundred fifty one records were screened and 416 records reviewed. Of 33 records describing HIV/STI prevention and/or access to SRH services among sex workers in conflict-affected settings, 24 were from sub-Saharan Africa; 18 studies described the results of primary research (13 quantitative, 3 qualitative, 2 mixed-methods) and 15 were non-primary research (e.g., commentaries, policy reports, programmatic manuals). Available evidence indicated that within conflict-affected settings, SWs' capacity to engage in HIV/STI prevention and access SRH services is severely undermined by social and structural determinants including widespread violence and human rights violations, the collapse of livelihoods and traditional social structures, high levels of displacement, and difficulties accessing already scant health services due to stigma, discrimination and criminalization. This review identified significant gaps in HIV/STI and SRH research, policy

  14. Preventing the Epidemic of Mental Ill Health: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Robson , Anthony ,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Diet, lifestyle and environment do not just affect a person's health, they also determine the health of their children and possibly the health of their grandchildren. Mental ill health is an epidemic worldwide because of the combined effect of the modern diet and a sedentary lifestyle. Primary prevention of mental ill health starts, crucially, with optimal adult nutrition before the inception of pregnancy, includes breastfeeding, and continues throughout the life of th...

  15. The Union Health Center: a working model of clinical care linked to preventive occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, R; Plattus, B; Kellogg, L; Luo, J; Marcus, M; Mascolo, A; Landrigan, P J

    1997-03-01

    As health care provision in the United States shifts to primary care settings, it is vital that new models of occupational health services be developed that link clinical care to prevention. The model program described in this paper was developed at the Union Health Center (UHC), a comprehensive health care center supported by the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (now the Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees) serving a population of approximately 50,000 primarily minority, female garment workers in New York City. The objective of this paper is to describe a model occupational medicine program in a union-based comprehensive health center linking accessible clinical care with primary and secondary disease prevention efforts. To assess the presence of symptoms suggestive of occupational disease, a health status questionnaire was administered to female workers attending the UHC for routine health maintenance. Based on the results of this survey, an occupational medicine clinic was developed that integrated direct clinical care with worker and employer education and workplace hazard abatement. To assess the success of this new approach, selected cases of sentinel health events were tracked and a chart review was conducted after 3 years of clinic operation. Prior to initiation of the occupational medicine clinic, 64% (648) of the workers surveyed reported symptoms indicative of occupational illnesses. However, only 42 (4%) reported having been told by a physician that they had an occupational illness and only 4 (.4%) reported having field a workers' compensation claim for an occupational disease. In the occupational medicine clinic established at the UHC, a health and safety specialist acts as a case manager, coordinating worker and employer education as well as workplace hazard abatement focused on disease prevention, ensuring that every case of occupational disease is treated as a potential sentinel health event. As examples of the success

  16. From "best practice" to "next practice": the effectiveness of school-based health promotion in improving healthy eating and physical activity and preventing childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Christina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, we reported on the success of Comprehensive School Health (CSH in improving diets, activity levels, and body weights. The successful program was recognized as a "best practice" and has inspired the development of the Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating (APPLE Schools. The project includes 10 schools, most of which are located in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The present study examines the effectiveness of a CSH program adopted from a "best practice" example in another setting by evaluating temporal changes in diets, activity levels and body weight. Methods In 2008 and 2010, we surveyed grade 5 students from approximately 150 randomly selected schools from the Canadian province of Alberta and students from 10 APPLE Schools. Students completed the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire, questions on physical activity, and had their height and weight measured. Multilevel regression methods were used to analyze changes in diets, activity levels, and body weight between 2008 and 2010. Results In 2010 relative to 2008, students attending APPLE Schools were eating more fruits and vegetables, consuming fewer calories, were more physically active and were less likely obese. These changes contrasted changes observed among students elsewhere in the province. Conclusions These findings provide evidence on the effectiveness of CSH in improving health behaviors. They show that an example of "best practice" may lead to success in another setting. Herewith the study provides the evidence that investments for broader program implementation based on "best practice" are justified.

  17. From "best practice" to "next practice": the effectiveness of school-based health promotion in improving healthy eating and physical activity and preventing childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2005, we reported on the success of Comprehensive School Health (CSH) in improving diets, activity levels, and body weights. The successful program was recognized as a "best practice" and has inspired the development of the Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating (APPLE) Schools. The project includes 10 schools, most of which are located in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The present study examines the effectiveness of a CSH program adopted from a "best practice" example in another setting by evaluating temporal changes in diets, activity levels and body weight. Methods In 2008 and 2010, we surveyed grade 5 students from approximately 150 randomly selected schools from the Canadian province of Alberta and students from 10 APPLE Schools. Students completed the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire, questions on physical activity, and had their height and weight measured. Multilevel regression methods were used to analyze changes in diets, activity levels, and body weight between 2008 and 2010. Results In 2010 relative to 2008, students attending APPLE Schools were eating more fruits and vegetables, consuming fewer calories, were more physically active and were less likely obese. These changes contrasted changes observed among students elsewhere in the province. Conclusions These findings provide evidence on the effectiveness of CSH in improving health behaviors. They show that an example of "best practice" may lead to success in another setting. Herewith the study provides the evidence that investments for broader program implementation based on "best practice" are justified. PMID:22413778

  18. Environmental health: an opportunity for health promotion and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupka, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Variance in personal susceptibility to environmental hazards may be attributable to age, gender, previous or concomitant exposure, economic status, race, or genetic endowment. Water pollution sources can be either point sources (a well-defined source, e.g., factory waste water discharge) or non-point sources (more diffuse sources including agricultural, industrial, and urban runoff, domestic lawn care, and air pollution). Pollutants can migrate from disposal sites, underground injection wells, or underground storage systems and contaminate ground and surface drinking water sources. The annual cost of human exposure to outdoor air pollutants from all sources is estimated to be between $40 to $50 billion. The death toll from exposure to particulate air pollution generated by motor vehicles, burning coal, fuel oil, and wood is estimated to be responsible for as many as 100,000 fatalities annually in the United States. Through the identification of individuals and groups at greater risk, occupational and environmental health nurses can use primary and secondary prevention activities to protect susceptible individuals and communities from adverse exposures and environmentally related disease.

  19. Analysis of health promotion and prevention financing mechanisms in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Akihito; Wongwatanakul, Weranuch; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Prakongsai, Phusit; Yuasa, Motoyuki

    2017-08-01

    In the transition to the post-2015 agenda, many countries are striving towards universal health coverage (UHC). Achieving this, governments need to shift from curative care to promotion and prevention services. This research analyses Thailand's financing system for health promotion and prevention, and assesses policy options for health financing reforms. The study employed a mixed-methods approach and integrates multiple sources of evidence, including scientific and grey literature, expenditure data, and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in Thailand. The analysis was underpinned by the use of a well-known health financing framework. In Thailand, three agencies plus local governments share major funding roles for health promotion and prevention services: the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH), the National Health Security Office, the Thai Health Promotion Foundation and Tambon Health Insurance Funds. The total expenditure on prevention and public health in 2010 was 10.8% of the total health expenditure, greater than many middle-income countries that average 7.0-9.2%. MOPH was the largest contributor at 32.9%, the Universal Coverage scheme was the second at 23.1%, followed by the local governments and ThaiHealth at 22.8 and 7.3%, respectively. Thailand's health financing system for promotion and prevention is strategic and innovative due to the three complementary mechanisms in operation. There are several methodological limitations to determine the adequate level of spending. The health financing reforms in Thailand could usefully inform policymakers on ways to increase spending on promotion and prevention. Further comparative policy research is needed to generate evidence to support efforts towards UHC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Theory in Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael; Elise, Eifert

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality related to chronic diseases are a primary concern of health professionals, including Health Educators. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, over one half of the adult population in the United States suffer from one or more chronic conditions. Understanding the health risk behaviors that contribute to…

  1. Wellness Programs: Preventive Medicine to Reduce Health Care Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Gilbert R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A wellness program is a formalized approach to preventive health care that can positively affect employee lifestyle and reduce future health-care costs. Describes programs for health education, smoking cessation, early detection, employee assistance, and fitness, citing industry success figures. (eight references) (MLF)

  2. [Prevention of Mental Health as Part of a Holistic Health Management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toska, Marko; Behrendt, Dörte; Erzberger, Melanie

    2015-07-01

    Mental illnesses are increasingly common in workplace environments. But interventions that focus exclusively on reducing workplace-stressors are not enough. It takes long-term primary and secondary preventive, integrated solutions on an individual, role-based and organizational level. The promotion of resources of mental and physical health in everyday work can improve an efficient health development and thus should be fostered systematically. TPIII under psychenet starts at this need and systematically investigates two interventions (Employee Assistance Program, Blended Learning), that are intended to promote personal and job-related resources.This study contributes to the evidence base of an established prevention program which allows for broad dissemination building on existing capacities for broad dissemination. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. The outcomes of health-promoting communities: being active eating well initiative-a community-based obesity prevention intervention in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, K A; Kremer, P; Gibbs, L; Waters, E; Swinburn, B; de Silva, A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Health-Promoting Communities: Being Active Eating Well (HPC:BAEW, 2007-2010) initiative, which comprised community-based multi-component interventions adapted to community context in five separate communities. The intervention aimed to promote healthy eating, physical activity and stronger, healthier communities. A mixed method and multilevel quasi-experimental evaluation of the HPC:BAEW initiative captured process, impact and outcome data. The evaluation involved both cross-sectional (children and adolescents) and longitudinal designs (adults) with data collected pre- and post-intervention in intervention (n=2408 children and adolescents from 18 schools, n=501 adults from 22 workplaces) and comparison groups (n=3163 children and adolescents from 33 schools, n=318 adults from seven workplaces). Anthropometry, obesity-related behavioural and environmental data, information regarding community context and implementation factors were collected. The primary outcomes were differences in anthropometry (weight, waist, body mass index (BMI) and standardised BMI (BMI z-score)) over time compared with comparison communities. Baseline data was collected 2008/2009 and post-intervention collected in 2010 with an average intervention time frame of approximately 12 months. The strategies most commonly implemented were related to social marketing, stakeholder engagement, network and partnership development, community-directed needs assessment and capacity building. Analysis of post-intervention data showed gains in community capacity, but few impacts on environments, policy or individual knowledge, skills, beliefs and perceptions. Relative to the comparison group, one community achieved a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity, lower weight, waist circumference and BMI (Pinitiative, which attempted to expand a previously successful community-based intervention in Victoria into five new contexts and communities. Overall

  4. School-based programmes for preventing smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Perera, R

    2006-07-19

    Smoking rates in adolescents are rising in some countries. Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed goal of public health, but there is uncertainty about how to do this. Schools provide a route for communicating with a large proportion of young people, and school-based programmes for smoking prevention have been widely developed and evaluated. To review all randomized controlled trials of behavioural interventions in schools to prevent children (aged 5 to12) and adolescents (aged 13 to18) starting smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsyclNFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, Dissertation Abstracts and studies identified in the bibliographies of articles. Individual MEDLINE searches were made for 133 authors who had undertaken randomized controlled trials in this area. Types of studies: those in which individual students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomized to the intervention or control groups and followed for at least six months. Children (aged 5 to12) or adolescents (aged 13 to18) in school settings. Types of interventions: Classroom programmes or curricula, including those with associated family and community interventions, intended to deter use of tobacco. We included programmes or curricula that provided information, those that used social influences approaches, those that taught generic social competence, and those that included interventions beyond the school into the community. We included programmes with a drug or alcohol focus if outcomes for tobacco use were reported. Types of outcome measures: Prevalence of non-smoking at follow up among those not smoking at baseline. We did not require biochemical validation of self-reported tobacco use for study inclusion. We assessed whether identified citations were randomized controlled trials. We assessed the quality of design and execution, and

  5. Using the Health Belief Model for Bulimia Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodner, Michele

    1991-01-01

    Discusses application of the Health Belief Model to the prevention of bulimia, describing each model component. The article considers the individual's beliefs about bulimia and bulimic-like behaviors as a means of predicting the likelihood of behavior change to prevent clinically diagnosable bulimia. (SM)

  6. Wine Flavonoids in Health and Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Iva; Pérez-Gregorio, Rosa; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2017-02-14

    Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water) that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids bioavailability and their health

  7. Human rights-based approach to unintentional injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, J Morag; Ryan, Mark Andrew

    2018-06-01

    Unintentional injury remains an important global public health issue, and efforts to address it are often hampered by a lack of visibility, leadership, funding, infrastructure, capacity and evidence of effective solutions. The growing support for a socioecological model and a systems approach to prevention-along with the acknowledgement that injury prevention can be a byproduct of salutogenic design and activities-has increased opportunities to integrate unintentional injury prevention into other health promotion and disease prevention agendas. It has also helped to integrate it into the broader human development agenda through the Sustainable Development Goals. This growing support provides new opportunities to use a human rights-based approach to address the issue. The human rights-based approach is based on the idea that all members of society have social, economic and cultural rights and that governments are responsible and accountable for upholding those rights. It incorporates a systems approach, addresses inequity and places an emphasis on the most vulnerable corners of humanity. It also leverages legal statutes and provides organisations with the opportunity to build existing international goals and benchmarks into their monitoring efforts. This paper describes the approach and highlights how it can leverage attention and investment to address current challenges for unintentional injury. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Heat and health in Antwerp under climate change: Projected impacts and implications for prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez Martinez, Gerardo; Diaz, Julio; Hooyberghs, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Background Excessive summer heat is a serious environmental health problem in several European cities. Heat-related mortality and morbidity is likely to increase under climate change scenarios without adequate prevention based on locally relevant evidence. Methods We modelled the urban climate...... climate, and the calibration of existing prevention activities in light of locally relevant evidence....

  9. Acceptability and feasibility of mHealth and community-based directly observed antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in South African pregnant women under Option B+: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachega JB

    2016-04-01

    University, Cape Town, South Africa Objective: To examine the acceptability and feasibility of mobile health (mHealth/short message service (SMS and community-based directly observed antiretroviral therapy (cDOT as interventions to improve antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence for preventing mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission (PMTCT. Design and methods: A mixed-method approach was used. Two qualitative focus group discussions with HIV-infected pregnant women (n=20 examined the acceptability and feasibility of two ART adherence interventions for PMTCT: 1 SMS text messaging and 2 patient-nominated cDOT supporters. Additionally, 109 HIV-infected, pregnant South African women (18–30 years old receiving PMTCT services under single-tablet antiretroviral therapy regimen during pregnancy and breastfeeding and continuing for life (“Option B+” were interviewed about mobile phone access, SMS use, and potential treatment supporters. Setting: A community primary care clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants: HIV-infected pregnant women. Main outcomes: Acceptability and feasibility of mHealth and cDOT interventions. Results: Among the 109 women interviewed, individual mobile phone access and SMS use were high (>90%, and 88.1% of women were interested in receiving SMS ART adherence support messages such as reminders, motivation, and medication updates. Nearly all women (95% identified at least one person close to them to whom they had disclosed their HIV status and would nominate as a cDOT supporter. Focus group discussions revealed that cDOT supporters and adherence text messages were valued, but some concerns regarding supporter time availability and risk of unintended HIV status disclosure were expressed. Conclusion: mHealth and/or cDOT supporter as interventions to improve ART adherence are feasible in this setting. However, safe HIV status disclosure to treatment supporters and confidentiality of text messaging content about HIV and ART were

  10. Impact of participation in the California Healthcare-Associated Infection Prevention Initiative on adoption and implementation of evidence-based practices for patient safety and health care-associated infection rates in a cohort of acute care general hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Helen Ann; McMenamin, Sara B; Simon, Lisa Payne; Jacobsen, Diane; Vanneman, Megan; Shortell, Stephen; Milstein, Arnold

    2013-04-01

    In 2008, hospitals were selected to participate in the California Healthcare-Associated Infection Prevention Initiative (CHAIPI). This research evaluates the impact of CHAIPI on hospital adoption and implementation of evidence-based patient safety practices and reduction of health care-associated infection (HAI) rates. Statewide computer-assisted telephone surveys of California's general acute care hospitals were conducted in 2008 and 2010 (response rates, 80% and 76%, respectively). Difference-in-difference analyses were used to compare changes in process and HAI rate outcomes in CHAIPI hospitals (n = 34) and non-CHAIPI hospitals (n = 149) that responded to both waves of the survey. Compared with non-CHAIPI hospitals, CHAIPI hospitals demonstrated greater improvements between 2008 and 2010 in adoption (P = .021) and implementation (P = .012) of written evidence-based practices for overall patient safety and prevention of HAIs and in assessing their compliance (P = .033) with these practices. However, there were no significant differences in the changes in HAI rates between CHAIPI and non-CHAIPI hospitals over this time period. Participation in the CHAIPI collaborative was associated with significant improvements in evidence-based patient safety practices in hospitals. However, determining how evidence-based practices translate into changes in HAI rates may take more time. Our results suggest that all hospitals be offered the opportunity to participate in an active learning collaborative to improve patient safety. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Wine Flavonoids in Health and Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Fernandes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids

  12. Suicide Prevention: An Emerging Priority For Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Michael F; Grumet, Julie Goldstein

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is a significant public health problem. It is the tenth leading cause of death in the United States, and the rate has risen in recent years. Many suicide deaths are among people recently seen or currently under care in clinical settings, but suicide prevention has not been a core priority in health care. In recent years, new treatment and management strategies have been developed, tested, and implemented in some organizations, but they are not yet widely used. This article examines the feasibility of improving suicide prevention in health care settings. In particular, we consider Zero Suicide, a model for better identification and treatment of patients at risk for suicide. The approach incorporates new tools for screening, treatment, and support; it has been deployed with promising results in behavioral health programs and primary care settings. Broader adoption of improved suicide prevention care may be an effective strategy for reducing deaths by suicide. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. [Guidelines for the preventive health care of hairdressing apprentices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golińska-Zach, Aleksandra; Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2017-07-26

    Hairdressing is one of the most developing branch of the service industry in Poland. Providing representatives of this occupational group with preventive health care services it should be remembered that they are at risk of skin and respiratory diseases, which occur due to a quite frequent exposure to harmful agents in the work environment of hairdressers and hairdressing apprentices. Interestingly, a much lower number of researches concentrate on respiratory symptoms than on skin disorders in hairdressers. The authors of this article have carried out the first Polish follow-up study focused not only on skin disorders but also on respiratory tract symptoms in hairdressing apprentices. The results of the study have been reported in other publications while this paper presents a literature review based on EBSCO and PubMed databases, Elsevier and contained articles (on the subject discussed in this paper). On the basis of information obtained from the authors' own research evidence and from the literature review, the guidelines for the preventive health care of hairdressing apprentices were developed. It was confirmed that neither determination of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) nor performance of skin prick tests (SPTs) and patch tests for hairdressing factors are necessary. They should be performed as a part of preventive medical examination only in those apprentice candidates and trainees in this profession who report work-related symptoms and it is suspected that they result from exposure to particular factor in the work environment. Med Pr 2017;68(5):677-687. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. Guidelines for the preventive health care of hairdressing apprentices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Golińska-Zach

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hairdressing is one of the most developing branch of the service industry in Poland. Providing representatives of this occupational group with preventive health care services it should be remembered that they are at risk of skin and respiratory diseases, which occur due to a quite frequent exposure to harmful agents in the work environment of hairdressers and hairdressing apprentices. Interestingly, a much lower number of researches concentrate on respiratory symptoms than on skin disorders in hairdressers. The authors of this article have carried out the first Polish follow-up study focused not only on skin disorders but also on respiratory tract symptoms in hairdressing apprentices. The results of the study have been reported in other publications while this paper presents a literature review based on EBSCO and PubMed databases, Elsevier and contained articles (on the subject discussed in this paper. On the basis of information obtained from the authors’ own research evidence and from the literature review, the guidelines for the preventive health care of hairdressing apprentices were developed. It was confirmed that neither determination of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE nor performance of skin prick tests (SPTs and patch tests for hairdressing factors are necessary. They should be performed as a part of preventive medical examination only in those apprentice candidates and trainees in this profession who report work-related symptoms and it is suspected that they result from exposure to particular factor in the work environment. Med Pr 2017;68(5:677–687

  15. Health Issues for Lesbians: Prevention First

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the better. If you're a target of domestic violence, tell someone about the abuse, whether it's a friend, loved one, health care provider or other close contact. Consider calling a domestic violence hotline and creating a plan to leave ...

  16. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1, 2018 Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  17. Healthy Tweets: Use and Importance of Twitter for Health Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina M. Gomez Vasquez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Social media platforms have changed the way people stayinformed, communicate with others, and share ideas. These interactive social platforms are used for many purposes from being in contact with family and friends to promote products and services. However, little is known about the use and importance of social media for health prevention, especially for communication among Hispanic communities.The purpose of this paper is to analyze how social media platforms, especially Twitter, are used for health prevention and communication in Hispanic communities. In doing so, a quantitative content analysis was performed on 3000 tweets with the hashtag #prevención (prevention. Results indicate that most of the prevention messages shared among organizations and users on Twitter were informational messages and very few users promoted interactive communication and mobilization. Mass media and governmental institutions posted more messages to encourage health prevention, especially about publichealth and healthy cities. This study stresses the many social media platforms’ potentialities and functionalities, especially Twitter, that contribute to health prevention and communication. Findings are useful for organizations and users when planning prevention content or campaigns through these platforms.

  18. HIV/AIDS prevention, faith, and spirituality among black/African American and Latino communities in the United States: strengthening scientific faith-based efforts to shift the course of the epidemic and reduce HIV-related health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline Y; Parks, Carolyn P

    2013-06-01

    Black/African American and Latino communities are disproportionately affected by the domestic HIV/AIDS epidemic. Blacks/African Americans and Latinos are also more likely to report a formal, religious, or faith affiliation when compared with non-Hispanic whites. As such, faith leaders and their institutions have been identified in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy as having a vital role to serve in reducing: (1) HIV-related health disparities and (2) the number of new HIV infections by promoting non-judgmental support for persons living with and at risk for HIV/AIDS and by serving as trusted information resources for their congregants and communities. We describe faith doctrines and faith-science partnerships that are increasing in support of faith-based HIV prevention and service delivery activities and discuss the vital role of these faith-based efforts in highly affected black/African American and Latino communities.

  19. E-health interventions for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne

    2014-08-12

    Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.

  20. Decolonization in Prevention of Health Care-Associated Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Marin L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Colonization with health care-associated pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, Gram-negative organisms, and Clostridium difficile is associated with increased risk of infection. Decolonization is an evidence-based intervention that can be used to prevent health care-associated infections (HAIs). This review evaluates agents used for nasal topical decolonization, topical (e.g., skin) decolonization, oral decolonization, and selective digestive or oropharyngeal decontamination. Although the majority of studies performed to date have focused on S. aureus decolonization, there is increasing interest in how to apply decolonization strategies to reduce infections due to Gram-negative organisms, especially those that are multidrug resistant. Nasal topical decolonization agents reviewed include mupirocin, bacitracin, retapamulin, povidone-iodine, alcohol-based nasal antiseptic, tea tree oil, photodynamic therapy, omiganan pentahydrochloride, and lysostaphin. Mupirocin is still the gold standard agent for S. aureus nasal decolonization, but there is concern about mupirocin resistance, and alternative agents are needed. Of the other nasal decolonization agents, large clinical trials are still needed to evaluate the effectiveness of retapamulin, povidone-iodine, alcohol-based nasal antiseptic, tea tree oil, omiganan pentahydrochloride, and lysostaphin. Given inferior outcomes and increased risk of allergic dermatitis, the use of bacitracin-containing compounds cannot be recommended as a decolonization strategy. Topical decolonization agents reviewed included chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), hexachlorophane, povidone-iodine, triclosan, and sodium hypochlorite. Of these, CHG is the skin decolonization agent that has the strongest evidence base, and sodium hypochlorite can also be recommended. CHG is associated with prevention of infections due to Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms as well as Candida. Conversely, triclosan use is discouraged, and

  1. Health Workers' Knowledge of Preventing Mother-To-Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health Workers' Knowledge of Preventing Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. ... The proportion of health workers with poor, fair, and good knowledge of the national guidelines on PMTCT was 8.5%, 30.4% and 61.1% respectively. Knowledge of the national guidelines was significantly ...

  2. tanzania danida dental health programme progress in prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gramme have been reactivated. Three of these projects deal with prevention only and more specifically with dental health education of the population. These projects are the. Tanzania School Health Programme, our work. 8 with the MCH system and, the continuing educa- tion of dental personnel to reorient them towards.

  3. Evidence-based prevention of childhood malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdad, Aamer; Sadiq, Kamran; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2011-05-01

    Childhood malnutrition is prevalent in developing countries and contributes to one-third of all deaths in these countries. There have been advances in prevention of childhood malnutrition and the purpose of this article was to review the current evidence in the field. Multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplements during pregnancy reduce the incidence of maternal anemia and small for gestational-age babies. Recent evidence suggest that combined supplementation of MMNs with protein energy supplement is more effective than MMN supplementation alone. It is now recommended that HIV-infected mothers can exclusively breast-feed their infants for 6 months when the mother or infant is on effective antiretroviral therapy. Home fortification of complementary foods reduces the prevalence of anemia in infancy and combined supplementation of MMNs with lipid-based supplements improves growth in young children. Ready-to-use therapeutic foods have been successfully used to manage severe acute malnutrition in the community. Zinc supplementation is associated with a reduction in diarrhea and respiratory disease morbidity and improves linear growth. Vitamin A supplementation decreases the incidence of diarrhea and measles. Water supply, sanitation, and hygiene are important for the prevention of malnutrition because of their direct impact on infectious disease. There is clear evidence on the causes and consequences of malnutrition as well as effective interventions to prevent undernutrition. The next step is to implement these packages of interventions at large scale. A global effort is required that should entail unified and compelling advocacy among governments, lead organizations, and institutions.

  4. 75 FR 33983 - Establishing the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... integrative health-care strategy that incorporates the most effective and achievable means of improving the... smoking cessation, proper nutrition, appropriate exercise, mental health, behavioral health, substance-use... 13544 of June 10, 2010 Establishing the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council...

  5. Evidence-based obesity prevention in childhood and adolescence: critique of recent etiological studies, preventive interventions, and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J

    2012-07-01

    Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the "energy gap" that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers.

  6. Evidence-Based Obesity Prevention in Childhood and Adolescence: Critique of Recent Etiological Studies, Preventive Interventions, and Policies123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the “energy gap” that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers. PMID:22798005

  7. State practitioner insights into local public health challenges and opportunities in obesity prevention: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Katherine A; Lewis, Moira; Khoong, Elaine C; Lasee, Claire

    2014-03-13

    The extent of obesity prevention activities conducted by local health departments (LHDs) varies widely. The purpose of this qualitative study was to characterize how state obesity prevention program directors perceived the role of LHDs in obesity prevention and factors that impact LHDs' success in obesity prevention. From June 2011 through August 2011, we conducted 28 semistructured interviews with directors of federally funded obesity prevention programs at 22 state and regional health departments. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed to identify recurring themes and key quotations. Main themes focused on the roles of LHDs in local policy and environmental change and on the barriers and facilitators to LHD success. The role LHDs play in obesity prevention varied across states but generally reflected governance structure (decentralized vs centralized). Barriers to local prevention efforts included competing priorities, lack of local capacity, siloed public health structures, and a lack of local engagement in policy and environmental change. Structures and processes that facilitated prevention were having state support (eg, resources, technical assistance), dedicated staff, strong communication networks, and a robust community health assessment and planning process. These findings provide insight into successful strategies state and local practitioners are using to implement innovative (and evidence-informed) community-based interventions. The change in the nature of obesity prevention requires a rethinking of the state-local relationship, especially in centralized states.

  8. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and Utilization of Preventive Health Care Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Eno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined how (a health insurance coverage, and (b familiarity with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA’s or ObamaCare mandate of cost-free access to preventive health services, affect the use of preventive services by residents of a minority community. It was based on primary data collected from a survey conducted during March to April 2012 among a sample of self-identified African American adults in Tallahassee-Leon County area of northwest Florida. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 22 was used for running frequency analysis on the data set and multivariable regression modeling. The results showed that of 524 respondents, 382 (73% had health insurance while 142 (27% lacked insurance. Majority of insured respondents, 332 (87%, used preventive health services. However, the remaining 13% of respondents did not use preventive services because they were unfamiliar with the ACA provision of free access to preventive services for insured people. Regression analysis showed a high (91.04% probability that, among the insured, the use of preventive health services depended on the person’s age, income, and education. For uninsured residents, the lack of health insurance was the key reason for non-use of preventive health services, while among the insured, lack of knowledge about the ACA benefit of free access contributed to non-use of preventive services. Expansion of Medicaid eligibility can increase insurance coverage rates among African Americans and other minority populations. Health promotion and awareness campaigns about the law’s benefits by local and state health departments can enhance the use of preventive services.

  9. An Effective Family Skills-based Intervention for the Prevention of Health Problems in Children of Alcohol and Drug-Abusing Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol l. Kumpfer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is a need forwide-scale dissemination of effective family-focused skills trainingprograms for the prevention of multiple developmental problems and later substance misuse amonghigh-risk children. Independent reviews have found the author’s Strengthening Families Program (SFP tobe the most effective substance abuse prevention intervention. Cultural adaptations have resulted in successful SFP outcomes in many countries, including in Spain as detailed in the Orte article. This article reviews 30 year history of implementation and outcomes of SFP in different cultures with cultural adaptations. Methods: The SEM-tested Social Ecology Model (Kumpfer, Alvarado, &Whiteside, 2003 is presented and reveals that family factors (bonding, supervision, and communication are the most protective of later substanceuse.Hence, this causal theory served as the etiological theory behind the design of the 14-session SFP.Social cognitive behavior theory (Bandura, 1989 is the intervention theory. The Strengthening Families Program(SFP was the first family skills training program developed and found effective in a randomized control trial (RCT to improve outcomes for children of dug abusers.Many countries requested to replicate SFP; hence, staff training systems were developed and a cultural adaptation process. Results: Eight RCTs, four conducted by independent research teams, and hundreds of quasi-experimental studies in different countrieshave demonstrated SFP’s effectiveness in reducing substance use in adolescents with up to 10-yearfollow-ups. Comparative effectiveness reviews including ones using statistical meta-analysis by theOxford University Cochrane Collaboration Reviews, found SFP to be the most effective alcohol and drug prevention program (Foxcroft, et al., 2003. A cost-benefit analysis by Miller and Hendrie (2008 found SFP prevented the highest percentage of youth from using alcohol and drugs. Cultural adaptation is a mandated

  10. Technologies for HIV prevention and care: challenges for health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksud, Ivia; Fernandes, Nilo Martinez; Filgueiras, Sandra Lucia

    2015-09-01

    This article aims to consider some relevant challenges to the provision of "new prevention technologies" in health services in a scenario where the "advances" in the global response to AIDS control are visible. We take as material for analysis the information currently available on the HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), treatment as prevention (TASP) and over the counter. The methodology consisted of the survey and analysis of the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS: MEDLINE, LILACS, WHOLIS, PAHO, SciELO) articles that addressed the issue of HIV prevention and care in the context of so-called new prevention technologies. The results of the studies show that there is assistance on the ground of clinics for the treatment of disease responses, but there are several challenges related to the sphere of prevention. The articles list some challenges regarding to management, organization of services and the attention given by health professionals to users. The current context shows evidence of the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in reducing the risk of HIV transmission, but the challenges for the provision of preventive technologies in health services permeate health professionals and users in their individual dimensions and health services in organizational and structural dimension. Interventions should be made available in a context of community mobilization; there should be no pressure on people to make HIV testing, antiretroviral treatment or for prevention. In the management is responsible for the training of health professionals to inform, clarify and make available to users, partners and family information about the new antiretroviral use strategies.

  11. Mobile health applications for HIV prevention and care in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Jamie I; Wiens, Matthew; Kanters, Steve; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Lester, Richard T; Mills, Edward J

    2015-11-01

    More people have mobile phones in Africa than at any point in history. Mobile health (m-health), the use of mobile phones to support the delivery of health services, has expanded in recent years. Several models have been proposed for conceptualizing m-health in the fields of maternal-child health and chronic diseases. We conducted a literature review of m-health interventions for HIV prevention and care in African countries and present the findings in the context of a simplified framework. Our review identified applications of m-health for HIV prevention and care categorized by the following three themes: patient-care focused applications, such as health behavior change, health system-focused applications, such as reporting and data collection, and population health-focused applications, including HIV awareness and testing campaigns. The potential for m-health in Africa is numerous and should not be limited only to direct patient-care focused applications. Although the use of smart phone technology is on the rise in Africa, text messaging remains the primary mode of delivering m-health interventions. The rate at which mobile phone technologies are being adopted may outpace the rate of evaluation. Other methods of evaluation should be considered beyond only randomized-controlled trials.

  12. Framing preventive care messaging and cervical cancer screening in a health-insured population in South Africa: Implications for population-based communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonis, Leegale; Paramanund, Jithen; Basu, Debashis; Luiz, John

    2017-09-01

    The impact of health message framing on cervical cancer screening uptake is poorly understood. In a prospective randomized control study with 748 females, aged 21-65 years with no Pap smear in the previous 3 years, they randomly received a loss-framed, gain-framed, or neutral health message (control) regarding cervical cancer screening by email. Screening rate in the control group was 9.58 percent (CI: 9.29%-9.87%), 5.71 percent (CI: 5.48%-6.98%) in the gain-framed group, and 8.53 percent (CI: 8.24%-8.81%) in the loss-framed group. Statistically there was no difference between the three screening rates. Framing of health messages may not be a significant consideration when communicating through emails.

  13. A systematic review of school-based suicide prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Cara; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Katz, Laurence Y; Isaak, Corinne; Tilston-Jones, Toni; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-10-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among youth today. Schools are a cost-effective way to reach youth, yet there is no conclusive evidence regarding the most effective prevention strategy. We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on school-based suicide prevention programs. Studies were identified through MEDLINE and Scopus searches, using keywords such as "suicide, education, prevention and program evaluation." Additional studies were identified with a manual search of relevant reference lists. Individual studies were rated for level of evidence, and the programs were given a grade of recommendation. Five reviewers rated all studies independently and disagreements were resolved through discussion. Sixteen programs were identified. Few programs have been evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing suicide attempts. Most studies evaluated the programs' abilities to improve students' and school staffs' knowledge and attitudes toward suicide. Signs of Suicide and the Good Behavior Game were the only programs found to reduce suicide attempts. Several other programs were found to reduce suicidal ideation, improve general life skills, and change gatekeeper behaviors. There are few evidence-based, school-based suicide prevention programs, a combination of which may be effective. It would be useful to evaluate the effectiveness of general mental health promotion programs on the outcome of suicide. The grades assigned in this review are reflective of the available literature, demonstrating a lack of randomized controlled trials. Further evaluation of programs examining suicidal behavior outcomes in randomized controlled trials is warranted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Trauma Center Based Youth Violence Prevention Programs: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Judy Nanette; Nemeth, Lynne Sheri

    2016-12-01

    Youth violence recidivism remains a significant public health crisis in the United States. Violence prevention is a requirement of all trauma centers, yet little is known about the effectiveness of these programs. Therefore, this systematic review summarizes the effectiveness of trauma center-based youth violence prevention programs. A systematic review of articles from MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases was performed to identify eligible control trials or observational studies. Included studies were from 1970 to 2013, describing and evaluating an intervention, were trauma center based, and targeted youth injured by violence (tertiary prevention). The social ecological model provided the guiding framework, and findings are summarized qualitatively. Ten studies met eligibility requirements. Case management and brief intervention were the primary strategies, and 90% of the studies showed some improvement in one or more outcome measures. These results held across both social ecological level and setting: both emergency department and inpatient unit settings. Brief intervention and case management are frequent and potentially effective trauma center-based violence prevention interventions. Case management initiated as an inpatient and continued beyond discharge was the most frequently used intervention and was associated with reduced rearrest or reinjury rates. Further research is needed, specifically longitudinal studies using experimental designs with high program fidelity incorporating uniform direct outcome measures. However, this review provides initial evidence that trauma centers can intervene with the highest of risk patients and break the youth violence recidivism cycle. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Preventing Filipino Mental Health Disparities: Perspectives from Adolescents, Caregivers, Providers, and Advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Joyce R; Supan, Jocelyn; Lansang, Anjelica; Beyer, William; Kubicek, Katrina; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2014-12-01

    Filipino Americans are the second largest immigrant population and second largest Asian ethnic group in the U.S. Disparities in youth behavioral health problems and the receipt of mental health services among Filipino youth have been documented previously. However, few studies have elicited perspectives from community stakeholders regarding how to prevent mental health disparities among Filipino youth. The purpose of the current study is to identify intervention strategies for implementing mental health prevention programs among Filipino youth. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n=33) with adolescents, caregivers, advocates, and providers and focus groups (n=18) with adolescents and caregivers. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using a methodology of "coding consensus, co-occurrence, and comparison" and was rooted in grounded theory. Four recommendations were identified when developing mental health prevention strategies among Filipino populations: address the intergenerational gap between Filipino parents and children, provide evidence-based parenting programs, collaborate with churches in order to overcome stigma associated with mental health, and address mental health needs of parents. Findings highlight the implementation of evidence-based preventive parenting programs in faith settings as a community-identified and culturally appropriate strategy to prevent Filipino youth behavioral health disparities.

  16. Diversity and ambivalence in general practitioners' attitudes towards preventive health checks - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Anne; Christensen, Bo; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2012-01-01

    .The purpose of our study is to describe GPs' attitudes towards and concerns about providing preventive health checks and to describe their experiences with the health checks that they provide in daily practice. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted based on three semi-structured focus group...... practice. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that health checks are performed differently. Their quality differs, and the GPs perform the health check based on their personal attitude towards this service and prevention in general. Our analysis suggests that the doctors are basically uncertain about the best...... that there was great diversity in the content. The GPs were somewhat ambivalent towards health checks. Many GPs found the service beneficial for the patients. Concurrently, they had reservations about promoting ill-health, they questioned whether the health checks were a core mission of primary care, and they were...

  17. Injury prevention: a strategic priority for environmental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, D H; Morris, G P

    2010-10-01

    Injury results from the acute transfer of energy (or the acute lack of a vital element) from the environment to human tissue. It is thus, ipso facto, an 'environmental health' issue par excellence. This paper argues that injury consequently deserves consideration as a major strategic priority by environmental health professionals. Two international agreements concerning children's health and the environment have major implications for safety. The Children's Environmental Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE) and the European Environmental Health Strategy make reference to the need for improved evidence and greater co-operation between the environmental and health sectors. CEHAPE is particularly relevant to safety as it focuses on four regional priority goals, the second of which refers to the prevention and reduction of health consequences from injuries by promoting safe, secure and supportive human settlements for all children. The natural strategic 'home' for injury prevention may therefore lie within environmental health, a domain from which it has generally been excluded. In support of this assertion, Scotland's recent policy initiative on the environment and human health 'Good Places, Better Health' is cited, where injury in children up to 8 years of age is one of four child health priorities being tackled during its initial implementation. An important test of the initiative may be its capacity to inform policy, practice and research in the field of injury prevention and safety promotion. If successful, it will help to validate the environmental health approach to a field that remains relatively neglected by public agencies, policy makers, practitioners and researchers. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Institute of Public Health. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevention of Filipino Youth Behavioral Health Disparities: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Participating in “Incredible Years,” an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention, Los Angeles, California, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nicole; Supan, Jocelyn; Kreutzer, Cary B.; Samson, Allan; Coffey, Dean M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Evidence-based interventions for training parents are proven to prevent onset and escalation of childhood mental health problems. However, participation in such programs is low, especially among hard-to-reach, underserved populations such as Filipino Americans. Filipinos, the largest Asian subgroup in California, have significant behavioral health disparities compared with non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups. The purpose of this study was to learn about Filipinos’ barriers and facilitators to participating in “Incredible Years” (IY), a parenting program. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups in Los Angeles, California, in 2012; the groups consisted of 20 Filipino parents of children aged 6 to 12 years who recently completed the IY parenting program, which was offered as a prevention workshop. Three reviewers, including two co-authors (A.S., J.J.) and a research assistant used content analysis to independently code the interview transcripts and extract subthemes. Grounded theory analytic methods were used to analyze interview transcripts. Results Parents’ perceived benefits of participation in IY were learning more effective parenting techniques, networking with other parents, improved spousal relationships, and improvements in their children's behavior. Parents’ most common motivating factor for enrollment in IY was to improve their parenting skills and their relationships with their children. The most common barriers to participation were being uncomfortable sharing problems with others and the fear of being stigmatized by others judging their parenting skills. Participants said that parent testimonials would be the most effective way to promote IY. Many recommended outreach at schools, pediatricians’ offices, and churches. Conclusion Increasing Filipino American parent enrollment in IY in culturally relevant ways will reduce the incidence of mental health disorders among children in this growing population. PMID:26491813

  19. Getting a Base Tan: Does it Prevent Sunburn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanning: Does a base tan prevent sunburn? Should I go to a tanning salon before a sunny vacation to help prevent sunburn? Answers ... little evidence to support the idea that a base tan protects you against sunburn. A few sessions ...

  20. Effect of a community-based delivery of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy on treatment seeking for malaria at health units in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, A K; Schultz Hansen, K; Bygbjerg, I C

    2008-01-01

    whether traditional birth attendants, drug-shop vendors, community reproductive health workers and adolescent peer mobilizers can administer IPTp with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to pregnant women, reach those at greatest risk of malaria, and increase access and compliance with IPTp. STUDY DESIGN...... of the intervention on access to malaria treatment, antenatal care, other services and related costs. RESULTS: More women (67.5%) received two doses of SP through the community approach compared with health units (39.9%; P... in the community had sought malaria treatment (70.3%), suggesting the possibility that the novel approach had a positive impact on care seeking for malaria. Similarly, utilization of antenatal care, insecticide-treated nets and delivery care by women in the community was high. The total costs per woman receiving...

  1. Effect of a community-based delivery of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy on treatment seeking for malaria at health units in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Bygbjerg, Ib

    2008-01-01

    whether traditional birth attendants, drug-shop vendors, community reproductive health workers and adolescent peer mobilizers can administer IPTp with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to pregnant women, reach those at greatest risk of malaria, and increase access and compliance with IPTp. Study design...... of the intervention on access to malaria treatment, antenatal care, other services and related costs. Results: More women (67.5%) received two doses of SP through the community approach compared with health units (39.9%; P... in the community had sought malaria treatment (70.3%), suggesting the possibility that the novel approach had a positive impact on care seeking for malaria. Similarly, utilization of antenatal care, insecticide-treated nets and delivery care by women in the community was high. The total costs per woman receiving...

  2. Travel health risk perceptions and prevention behaviors of US study abroad students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartjes, Laurie B; Baumann, Linda C; Henriques, Jeffrey B

    2009-01-01

    The number of American study abroad students increased more than 150% in the past decade, along with growth in destinations with increased health risks. This study investigated travel health risk perceptions and prevention behaviors to guide interventions that address the emerging health needs of US study abroad students. A cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 318 American study abroad students using a Web-based survey. The primary source of travel health information was youth-oriented travel guidebooks (85%). The grand mean risk perception score for 18 travel health threats was 1.7 on a 1 to 4 scale, with top-rated threats being contaminated food/water, psychological distress, personal assault, and excessive sun exposure. Predeparture advice was received from primary care providers (52%) and travel health specialists (18%). Additional prevention measures were vaccines (42%) and medication (24%). Of 114 students listing their travel vaccinations, 11% described receiving a malaria vaccine and 4% a hepatitis C vaccine, although no such vaccines exist. Most respondents were confident/very confident in their ability to engage in prevention behaviors (94%). Health problems were primarily infectious disease (70%), psychological distress (10%), and injuries (8%). When asked if prior travel destinations involved areas where malaria transmission occurs, 20% responded, "Don't know." Identified gaps in travel health knowledge and prevention behaviors may produce hazardous consequences when combined with low-perceived risk, reliance on travel guidebooks for health information, and high ratings for prevention self-efficacy. Future research is needed to test the effectiveness of educational interventions designed for student travelers who would benefit from guided practice with destination-specific risk appraisal and prevention planning. Web-based educational resources are a good fit for this population because they are easily updated, available in all phases of

  3. The Prevalence of CKD in Rural Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Results From the First Nations Community Based Screening to Improve Kidney Health and Prevent Dialysis (FINISHED) Screen, Triage, and Treat Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komenda, Paul; Lavallee, Barry; Ferguson, Thomas W; Tangri, Navdeep; Chartrand, Caroline; McLeod, Lorraine; Gordon, Audrey; Dart, Allison; Rigatto, Claudio

    2016-10-01

    Indigenous Canadians have high rates of risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD), in particular diabetes. Furthermore, they have increased rates of complications associated with CKD, such as kidney failure and vascular disease. Our objective was to describe the prevalence of CKD in this population. Cross-sectional cohort. Indigenous (First Nations) Canadians 18 years or older screened as part of the First Nations Community Based Screening to Improve Kidney Health and Prevent Dialysis (FINISHED) project, an initiative completed in 2015 that accomplished community-wide screening in 11 rural communities in Manitoba, Canada. Indigenous ethnicity and geographic location (communities accessible by road compared with those accessible only by air). Prevalence of CKD, presumed based on a single ascertainment of urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥ 30mg/g and/or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)indigenous Canadians in comparison to the general population and a prevalence of severely increased albuminuria that was 5-fold higher. This is comparable to patients with diabetes and/or hypertension. Public health strategies to screen, triage, and treat all Canadian indigenous peoples with CKD should be considered. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Worldwide application of prevention science in adolescent health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Richard F; Fagan, Abigail A; Gavin, Loretta E; Greenberg, Mark T; Irwin, Charles E; Ross, David A; Shek, Daniel T L

    2015-01-01

    The burden of morbidity and mortality from non-communicable disease has risen worldwide and is accelerating in low-income and middle-income countries, whereas the burden from infectious diseases has declined. Since this transition, the prevention of non-communicable disease as well as communicable disease causes of adolescent mortality has risen in importance. Problem behaviours that increase the short-term or long-term likelihood of morbidity and mortality, including alcohol, tobacco, and other drug misuse, mental health problems, unsafe sex, risky and unsafe driving, and violence are largely preventable. In the past 30 years new discoveries have led to prevention science being established as a discipline designed to mitigate these problem behaviours. Longitudinal studies have provided an understanding of risk and protective factors across the life course for many of these problem behaviours. Risks cluster across development to produce early accumulation of risk in childhood and more pervasive risk in adolescence. This understanding has led to the construction of developmentally appropriate prevention policies and programmes that have shown short-term and long-term reductions in these adolescent problem behaviours. We describe the principles of prevention science, provide examples of efficacious preventive interventions, describe challenges and potential solutions to take efficacious prevention policies and programmes to scale, and conclude with recommendations to reduce the burden of adolescent mortality and morbidity worldwide through preventive intervention. PMID:22538180

  5. Primary Prevention Is? A Global Perspective on How Organizations Engaging Men in Preventing Gender-Based Violence Conceptualize and Operationalize Their Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Heather L; Casey, Erin A; Carlson, Juliana; Edleson, Jeffrey L; Tolman, Richard M

    2016-02-01

    Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that "primary prevention" is not a fixed term in the context of VAW and that front-line prevention work challenges rigidly delineated distinctions between levels of prevention. Much can be learned from global organizations' unique and contextualized approaches to the prevention of VAW. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. [[How to Prevent Emotional Burnout Syndrome in Health Professionals?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfimova, E V; Elfimov, M A; Berezkin, A S

    2016-01-01

    Working in conditions of physical and psychological overload, occupational hazard makes health workers vulnerable to the development of burnout syndrome. Currently, 67.6% of physicians in Russia suffer from emotional burnout syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by a certain symptoms, which have their predictors. Prevention and treatment of emotional burnout syndrome - a complex problem that can be solved with the participation of heads of medical institutions, full- time psychologists and psychotherapists with the direct involvement of health professionals.

  7. Contribution of community health workers to surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases in the Obala health district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouking, Marius Zambou; Binde, Thierry; Tadenfok, Carine Nouboudem; Ekani, Jean Marie Edengue; Ekra, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The establishment of effective community-based surveillance is an essential objective of all disease surveillance systems. Several studies and reports have found that the situation is far from optimal in several developing countries such as Cameroon. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to assess the contribution of community health workers to surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases in Obala health district. The performance of community health workers was measured using: the number of cases referred to the health center, the percentage of accomplished referrals, the percentage of cases referred by community health workers confirmed by the staff of health centers. A questionnaire containing forty-seven questions (open-ended and closed-ended) was used for interviews with community health workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 21 and Excel 2007. Counts and percentages are reported. Results The study showed that the age ranged of community health workers was from 24 to 61 years with an average of 37.9 years ± 6.7 years. The most represented age group was between 40 and 50 with a percentage of 38.6%. The male sex was more represented than the female sex (61.4% vs 38.6%) or a sex ratio male man of 1.7. Forty-five percent of community health workers were selected at a village meeting, 93.1% of community health workers were involved in the surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases and 87% experienced at least one preventable disease. Only 45.8% of them had the case definitions of the four diseases. Analysis of community health workers attendance at organized health committee meetings showed that 79% of community health workers attended at least one health committee meeting in 2015 and only 49% were monitored in 2015. Community health workers reported 42 suspected cases of measles, 37 of which actually went to the nearest Health Center, a baseline rate of 88%. Conclusion Community health workers play a key role in the control of

  8. [From Evidence to Health Policy Making: Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Nai-Ying

    2016-12-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), in combination with traditional prevention strategies (such as condom use, voluntary HIV counseling and testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections), has been shown to effectively prevent HIV infection. As of September 2015, the World Health Organization recommends that people at substantial risk of HIV infection should be offered PrEP as an additional prevention choice, as part of comprehensive prevention. This article introduces how to apply a systematic review using the methodology of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) to write clinical guidelines. With support from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control, the Taiwan AIDS Society published clinical guidelines for oral pre-exposure prophylaxis in Taiwan. Nurses are responsible to apply evidence-based knowledge and to use their professional influence to shape health policies related to HIV prevention.

  9. HOME Plus: Program design and implementation of a family-focused, community-based intervention to promote the frequency and healthfulness of family meals, reduce children's sedentary behavior, and prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flattum, Colleen; Draxten, Michelle; Horning, Melissa; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Garwick, Ann; Kubik, Martha Y; Story, Mary

    2015-04-29

    Involvement in meal preparation and eating meals with one's family are associated with better dietary quality and healthy body weight for youth. Given the poor dietary quality of many youth, potential benefits of family meals for better nutritional intake and great variation in family meals, development and evaluation of interventions aimed at improving and increasing family meals are needed. This paper presents the design of key intervention components and process evaluation of a community-based program (Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus) to prevent obesity. The HOME Plus intervention was part of a two-arm (intervention versus attention-only control) randomized-controlled trial. Ten monthly, two-hour sessions and five motivational/goal-setting telephone calls to promote healthy eating and increasing family meals were delivered in community-based settings in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area. The present study included 81 families (8-12 year old children and their parents) in the intervention condition. Process surveys were administered at the end of each intervention session and at a home visit after the intervention period. Chi-squares and t-tests were used for process survey analysis. The HOME Plus program was successfully implemented and families were highly satisfied. Parents and children reported that the most enjoyable component was cooking with their families, learning how to eat more healthfully, and trying new recipes/foods and cooking tips. Average session attendance across the ten months was high for families (68%) and more than half completed their home activities. Findings support the value of a community-based, family-focused intervention program to promote family meals, limit screen time, and prevent obesity. NCT01538615.

  10. 76 FR 16776 - Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and... a meeting is scheduled to be held for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and... advice to the National Prevention, Health Promotion and Public Health (the ``Council''). The Advisory...

  11. Influence of Health Education on Prevention of Drug Abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of health education on prevention of drug abuse. 192 adolescents comprising of male and females, randomly selected from two secondary schools and a university were used as sample with ages ranging from 12-22years with a mean of 17years. The questionnaire ...

  12. Preventing crime in cooperation with the mental health care profession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harte, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Although major mental disorders do not have a central position in many criminological theories, there seems to be an evident relationship between these disorders and criminal behavior. In daily practice police officers and mental health care workers work jointly to prevent nuisance and crime and to

  13. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk factors for stomach (gastric) cancer include certain health conditions (e.g., atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, H. pylori infection), genetic factors (e.g., Li-Fraumeni syndrome), or environmental factors (e.g., diet, smoking). Review the evidence on these and other risk factors and interventions to prevent stomach cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  14. Acceptability and feasibility of mHealth and community-based directly observed antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in South African pregnant women under Option B+: an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachega, Jean B; Skinner, Donald; Jennings, Larissa; Magidson, Jessica F; Altice, Frederick L; Burke, Jessica G; Lester, Richard T; Uthman, Olalekan A; Knowlton, Amy R; Cotton, Mark F; Anderson, Jean R; Theron, Gerhard B

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the acceptability and feasibility of mobile health (mHealth)/short message service (SMS) and community-based directly observed antiretroviral therapy (cDOT) as interventions to improve antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence for preventing mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission (PMTCT). Design and methods A mixed-method approach was used. Two qualitative focus group discussions with HIV-infected pregnant women (n=20) examined the acceptability and feasibility of two ART adherence interventions for PMTCT: 1) SMS text messaging and 2) patient-nominated cDOT supporters. Additionally, 109 HIV-infected, pregnant South African women (18–30 years old) receiving PMTCT services under single-tablet antiretroviral therapy regimen during pregnancy and breastfeeding and continuing for life (“Option B+”) were interviewed about mobile phone access, SMS use, and potential treatment supporters. Setting A community primary care clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants HIV-infected pregnant women. Main outcomes Acceptability and feasibility of mHealth and cDOT interventions. Results Among the 109 women interviewed, individual mobile phone access and SMS use were high (>90%), and 88.1% of women were interested in receiving SMS ART adherence support messages such as reminders, motivation, and medication updates. Nearly all women (95%) identified at least one person close to them to whom they had disclosed their HIV status and would nominate as a cDOT supporter. Focus group discussions revealed that cDOT supporters and adherence text messages were valued, but some concerns regarding supporter time availability and risk of unintended HIV status disclosure were expressed. Conclusion mHealth and/or cDOT supporter as interventions to improve ART adherence are feasible in this setting. However, safe HIV status disclosure to treatment supporters and confidentiality of text messaging content about HIV and ART were deemed crucial. PMID

  15. Public Health and Preventive Medicine Meet Integrative Health: Applications of Competency Mapping to Curriculum Education at the University of Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Eden V; Benn, Rita K; Warber, Sara L

    2015-11-01

    The University of Michigan School of Public Health Preventive Medicine Residency (UMSPH PMR) Integrative Medicine Program (IMP) was developed to incorporate integrative medicine (IM), public health, and preventive medicine principles into a comprehensive curriculum for preventive medicine residents and faculty. The objectives of this project were to (1) increase the preventive medicine workforce skill sets based in complementary and alternative medicine and IM that would address individual and population health issues; (2) address the increasing demand for evidence-based IM by training physicians to implement cost-effective primary and secondary prevention services and programs; and (3) share lessons learned, curriculum evaluations, and best practices with the larger cohort of funded IM PMR programs. The UMSPH PMR collaborated with University of Michigan IM faculty to incorporate existing IM competencies with those already established for preventive medicine and public health residency training as the first critical step for IMP curriculum integration. Essential teaching strategies incorporated didactic and practicum methods, and made use of seasoned IM faculty, along with newly minted preventive medicine integrative teaching faculty, and PMR resident learners as IM teachers. The major components of the IMP curriculum included resident participation in IMP Orientation Sessions, resident leadership in epidemiology graduate IM seminars, resident rotations in IM month-long clinical practicums, resident participation in interprofessional health system-wide IM clinical case conferences, and PMR faculty enrollment in the renowned Faculty Scholars Program in Integrative Healthcare. This paper describes the novel interdisciplinary collaborations and key curriculum components that resulted in the IMP, as well as evaluation of strengths, weaknesses, and lessons learned. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Viewpoint: Prevention is missing: is China's health reform reform for health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Le; Zhang, Xiaoli; Tan, Tengfei; Cheng, Jingmin

    2015-02-01

    Ancient China emphasized disease prevention. As a Chinese saying goes, 'it is more important to prevent the disease than to cure it'. Traditional Chinese medicine posits that diseases can be understood, thus, prevented. In today's China, the state of people's health seems worse than in the past. Thus the Chinese government undertook the creation of a new health system. Alas, we believe the results are not very satisfactory. The government seems to have overlooked rational allocation between resources for treatment and prevention. Public investment has been gradually limited to the domain of treatment. We respond to this trend, highlighting the importance of prevention and call for government and policymakers to adjust health policy and work out a solution suitable for improving the health of China's people.

  17. Towards Health in All Policies for Childhood Obesity Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Marie Hendriks

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The childhood obesity epidemic can be best tackled by means of an integrated approach, which is enabled by integrated public health policies, or Health in All Policies. Integrated policies are developed through intersectoral collaboration between local government policy makers from health and nonhealth sectors. Such intersectoral collaboration has been proved to be difficult. In this study, we investigated which resources influence intersectoral collaboration. The behavior change wheel framework was used to categorize motivation-, capability-, and opportunity-related resources for intersectoral collaboration. In-depth interviews were held with eight officials representing 10 non-health policy sectors within a local government. Results showed that health and non-health policy sectors did not share policy goals, which decreased motivation for intersectoral collaboration. Awareness of the linkage between health and nonhealth policy sectors was limited, and management was not involved in creating such awareness, which reduced the capability for intersectoral collaboration. Insufficient organizational resources and structures reduced opportunities for intersectoral collaboration. To stimulate intersectoral collaboration to prevent childhood obesity, we recommend that public health professionals should reframe health goals in the terminology of nonhealth policy sectors, that municipal department managers should increase awareness of public health in non-health policy sectors, and that flatter organizational structures should be established.

  18. Towards health in all policies for childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Kremers, Stef P J; Gubbels, Jessica S; Raat, Hein; de Vries, Nanne K; Jansen, Maria W J

    2013-01-01

    The childhood obesity epidemic can be best tackled by means of an integrated approach, which is enabled by integrated public health policies, or Health in All Policies. Integrated policies are developed through intersectoral collaboration between local government policy makers from health and nonhealth sectors. Such intersectoral collaboration has been proved to be difficult. In this study, we investigated which resources influence intersectoral collaboration. The behavior change wheel framework was used to categorize motivation-, capability-, and opportunity-related resources for intersectoral collaboration. In-depth interviews were held with eight officials representing 10 non-health policy sectors within a local government. Results showed that health and non-health policy sectors did not share policy goals, which decreased motivation for intersectoral collaboration. Awareness of the linkage between health and nonhealth policy sectors was limited, and management was not involved in creating such awareness, which reduced the capability for intersectoral collaboration. Insufficient organizational resources and structures reduced opportunities for intersectoral collaboration. To stimulate intersectoral collaboration to prevent childhood obesity, we recommend that public health professionals should reframe health goals in the terminology of nonhealth policy sectors, that municipal department managers should increase awareness of public health in non-health policy sectors, and that flatter organizational structures should be established.

  19. The role of health centers in preventive care provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemetova G.N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to assess the importance of the Centers of Health in the organization and provision of preventive care to the population, in the early detection of risk factors for the development of chronic non-communicable diseases and the development of a healthy lifestyle. Material and Methods. On the basis of the Health Center of Engels Center for Medical Prevention in the Saratov Region, the detection of risk factors for 2011-2015 was analyzed according to statistical reporting (form No. 68 and health cards (form025-CZ/y of 207 patients. To assess the satisfaction of visitors with the work of the Center, a specially developed questionnaire was conducted, which included 22 questions that characterize the patient profile, his attitude to the organization and the results of the survey, and the motivation to modify the way of life. Results. The study confirmed the important role of the Centers of Health in the organization and provision of preventive care to the population, the formation of a healthy lifestyle and the early detection of diseases and risk factors for their development. Conclusion. Only joint efforts of medical institutions, authorities, educational organizations, mass media can lead to the formation of the population's responsibility for their health and readiness to modify the way of life.

  20. Development of STEADI: a fall prevention resource for health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Judy A; Phelan, Elizabeth A

    2013-09-01

    Falls among people aged ≥65 years are the leading cause of both injury deaths and emergency department visits for trauma. Research shows that many falls are preventable. In the clinical setting, an effective fall intervention involves assessing and addressing an individual's fall risk factors. This individualized approach is recommended in the American and British Geriatrics Societies' (AGS/BGS) practice guideline. This article describes the development of STEADI (Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries), a fall prevention tool kit that contains an array of health care provider resources for assessing and addressing fall risk in clinical settings. As researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Injury Center, we reviewed relevant literature and conducted in-depth interviews with health care providers to determine current knowledge and practices related to older adult fall prevention. We developed draft resources based on the AGS/BGS guideline, incorporated provider input, and addressed identified knowledge and practice gaps. Draft resources were reviewed by six focus groups of health care providers and revised. The completed STEADI tool kit, Preventing Falls in Older Patients-A Provider Tool Kit, is designed to help health care providers incorporate fall risk assessment and individualized fall interventions into routine clinical practice and to link clinical care with community-based fall prevention programs.

  1. Factors associated with local public health agency participation in obesity prevention in southern States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Jeffrey J; Fields, Tina T

    2015-05-01

    Obesity rates in the southern US states are higher than in other states. Historically, large-scale community-based interventions in the United States have not proven successful. With local public health agencies (LPHAs) tasked with prevention, their role in obesity prevention is important, yet little research exists regarding what predicts the participation of LPHAs. Cross-sectional data from the 2008 National Association of City and County Health Officials profile study and two public health conceptual frameworks were used to assess structural and environmental predictors of LPHA participation in obesity prevention. The predictors were compared between southern and nonsouthern states. Univariate and weighted logistic regressions were performed. Analysis revealed that more LPHAs in southern states were engaged in nearly all of the 10 essential public health functions related to obesity prevention compared with nonsouthern states. Presence of community-based organizations and staffing levels were the only significant variables in two of the six logistic regression models. This study provides insights into the success rates of the obesity prevention efforts of LPHAs in southern and nonsouthern states. Future research is needed to understand why and how certain structural elements and any additional factors influence LPHA participation in obesity prevention.

  2. Promoting Mental Health and Preventing Mental Illness in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert 'Think Tank' convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your 'cluster' of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development.

  3. Project STYLE: a multisite RCT for HIV prevention among youths in mental health treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry K; Hadley, Wendy; Donenberg, Geri R; DiClemente, Ralph J; Lescano, Celia; Lang, Delia M; Crosby, Richard; Barker, David; Oster, Danielle

    2014-03-01

    The study examined the efficacy of family-based and adolescent-only HIV prevention programs in decreasing HIV risk and improving parental monitoring and sexual communication among youths in mental health treatment. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 721 adolescents (ages 13-18 years) and their caregivers from mental health settings in three U.S. cities were randomly assigned to one of three theory-based, structured group interventions: family-based HIV prevention, adolescent-only HIV prevention, and adolescent-only health promotion. Interventions were delivered during an all-day workshop. Assessments were completed at baseline and three months postintervention. Compared with those in the health intervention, adolescents in the HIV prevention interventions reported fewer unsafe sex acts (adjusted rate ratio=.49, p=.01), greater condom use (adjusted relative change=59%, p=.01), and greater likelihood of avoiding sex (adjusted odds ratio=1.44, p=.05). They also showed improved HIV knowledge (pprevention interventions reduced sexual risk behavior over three months in a large, diverse sample of youths in mental health treatment and that the family-based intervention improved parental monitoring and communication with teens about sex. These interventions show promise.

  4. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information...... been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health...... programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers...

  5. Organizational capacity for chronic disease prevention: a survey of Canadian public health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanusaik, Nancy; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Kishchuk, Natalie; Paradis, Gilles; Cameron, Roy

    2010-04-01

    There are no national data on levels of organizational capacity within the Canadian public health system to reduce the burden of chronic disease. Cross-sectional data were collected in a national survey (October 2004 to April 2005) of all 216 national, provincial and regional-level organizations engaged in chronic disease prevention through primary prevention or healthy lifestyle promotion. Levels of organizational capacity (defined as skills and resources to implement chronic disease prevention programmes), potential determinants of organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming were compared in western, central and eastern Canada and across three types of organizations (formal public health organizations, non-governmental organizations and grouped organizations). Forty percent of organizations were located in Central Canada. Approximately 50% were formal public health organizations. Levels of skill and involvement were highest for activities that addressed tobacco control and healthy eating; lowest for stress management, social determinants of health and programme evaluation. The few notable differences in skill levels by provincial grouping favoured Central Canada. Resource adequacy was rated low across the country; but was lowest in eastern Canada and among formal public health organizations. Determinants of organizational capacity (organizational supports and partnerships) were highest in central Canada and among grouped organizations. These data provide an evidence base to identify strengths and gaps in organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming in the organizations that comprise the Canadian public health system.

  6. Care provision to prevent chronic disease by community mental health clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlem, Kate M; Bowman, Jennifer A; Freund, Megan; Wye, Paula M; McElwaine, Kathleen M; Wolfenden, Luke; Campbell, Elizabeth M; Gillham, Karen E; Wiggers, John H

    2014-12-01

    People with a mental illness have higher prevalence of behavioral risks for chronic disease than the general population. Despite recommendations regarding the provision of preventive care by mental health services, limited research has examined the extent to which such care is provided. To examine mental health clinician provision of care for preventable chronic disease risks, and whether such care was associated with the availability of practice support strategies. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of 151 community mental health clinicians in New South Wales, Australia regarding the provision of three elements of preventive care (i.e., assessment, brief advice, and referral/follow-up) for four health risk behaviors (i.e., tobacco smoking, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, harmful alcohol consumption, and inadequate physical activity). Clinicians reported the availability of 16 strategies to support such care delivery. Data were collected in 2010 and analyzed in 2012-2013. Preventive care provision varied by both care element and risk behavior. Optimal care (each care element provided to at least 80% of clients for all health behaviors) was provided by few clinicians: assessment (8.6%), brief advice (24.5%), and referral/follow-up (9.9%). Less than half of clinicians reported more than four support strategies were available (44.4%). The availability of five or more strategies was associated with increased optimal preventive care. The provision of preventive care focused on chronic disease prevention in community mental health services is suboptimal. Interventions to increase the routine provision of such care should involve increasing the availability of evidence-based strategies to support care provision. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. School-based suicide prevention: content, process, and the role of trusted adults and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shashank V; Hartley, Samantha N; Kessler, Moira; Barstead, Maura

    2015-04-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of preventable death in youth, and numerous curricula and other prevention and intervention programs have been developed in the last 15 years. Comprehensive suicide prevention planning should include the 4 components of health promotion, prevention/education, intervention, and postvention. School-based suicide prevention and mental health education programs have become more common as an efficient and cost-effective way to reach youth. Process considerations that are based on the principles of therapeutic engagement with patients and families can provide mental health professionals with strategies that can assist education professionals, students, and the larger school community simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Adolescent Health Care in School-Based Health Centers. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2008

    2008-01-01

    School-based health centers (SBHCs) are considered one of the most effective strategies for delivering preventive care, including reproductive and mental health care services, to adolescents--a population long considered difficult to reach. National Assembly on School-Based Health Care (NASBHC) recommends practices and policies to assure…

  9. Cell phone-based health education messaging improves health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Runsen; Xiang, Yueying; Han, Tieguang; Yang, Guo-An; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-03-01

    The ubiquity of cell phones, which allow for short message service (SMS), provides new and innovative opportunities for disease prevention and health education. To explore the use of cell phone-based health education SMS to improve the health literacy of community residents in China. A multi-stage random sampling method was used to select representative study communities and participants ≥ 18 years old. Intervention participants were sent health education SMSs once a week for 1 year and controls were sent conventional, basic health education measures. Health literacy levels of the residents before and after the intervention were evaluated between intervention and control groups. Public health literacy scores increased 1.5 points, from 61.8 to 63.3, after SMS intervention for 1 year (P<0.01); the increase was greater for males than females (2.01 vs. 1.03; P<0.01) and for Shenzhen local residents than non-permanent residents (2.56 vs. 1.14; P<0.01). The frequency of high health literacy scores was greater for the intervention than control group (22.03% to 30.93% vs. 22.07% to 20.82%). With health literacy as a cost-effective index, the cost-effectiveness per intervention was 0.54. SMS may be a useful tool for improving health literacy.

  10. Childhood obesity prevention through a community-based cluster randomized controlled physical activity intervention among schools in china: the health legacy project of the 2nd world summer youth olympic Games (YOG-Obesity study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Xu, F; Ye, Q; Tse, L A; Xue, H; Tan, Z; Leslie, E; Owen, N; Wang, Y

    2018-04-01

    Childhood obesity has been becoming a worldwide public health problem. We conducted a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention program aiming at childhood obesity prevention in general student population in Nanjing of China, the host city of the 2nd World Summer Youth Olympic Games (YOG-Obesity study). This was a cluster randomized controlled intervention study. Participants were the 4th (mean age±s.e.: 9.0±0.01) and 7th (mean age±s.e.: 12.0±0.01) grade students (mean age±s.e.: 10.5±0.02) from 48 schools and randomly allocated (1:1) to intervention or control groups at school level. Routine health education was provided to all schools, whereas the intervention schools additionally received an 1-year tailored multi-component PA intervention program, including classroom curricula, school environment support, family involvement and fun programs/events. The primary outcome measures were changes in body mass index, obesity occurrence and PA. Overall, 9858 (97.7%) of the 10091 enrolled students completed the follow-up survey. Compared with the baseline, PA level increased by 33.13 min per week (s.e. 10.86) in the intervention group but decreased by 1.76 min per week (s.e. 11.53) in the control group (P=0.028). After adjustment for potential confounders, compared with the control group, the intervention group were more likely to have increased time of PA (adj. Odds ratio=1.15, 95% confidence interval=1.06-1.25), but had a smaller increase in mean body mass index (BMI) (0.22 (s.e. 0.02) vs 0.46 (0.02), P=0.01) and BMI z-score (0.07 (0.01) vs 0.16 (0.01), P=0.01), and were less likely to be obese (adj. Odds ratio=0.7, 95% confidence interval=0.6, 0.9) at study end. The intervention group had fewer new events of obesity/overweight but a larger proportion of formerly overweight/obese students having normal weight by study end. This large community-based PA intervention was feasible and effective in promoting PA and preventing obesity among the general

  11. Prevention and control of mental illnesses and mental health: National Action Plan for NCD Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtar, Sania; Minhas, Fareed A; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Badar, Asma; Mohamud, Khalif Bile

    2004-12-01

    As part of the National Action Plan for Non-communicable Disease Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan (NAP-NCD), mental illnesses have been grouped alongside non-communicable diseases (NCD) within a combined strategic framework in order to synchronize public health actions. The systematic approach for mental illnesses is centred on safeguarding the rights of the mentally ill, reducing stigma and discrimination, and de-institutionalisation and rehabilitation of the mentally ill in the community outlining roles of healthcare providers, the community, legislators and policy makers. The approach has implications for support functions in a number of areas including policy building, manpower and material development and research. Priority action areas for mental health as part of NAP-NCD include the integration of surveillance of mental illnesses in a comprehensive population-based NCD surveillance system; creating awareness about mental health as part of an integrated NCD behavioural change communication strategy; integration of mental health with primary healthcare; the development of sustainable public health infrastructure to support community mental health initiatives; building capacity of the health system in support of prevention and control activities; effective implementation of existing legislation and harmonizing working relationships with law enforcing agencies. NAP-NCD also stresses on the need to integrate mental health into health services as part of a sustainable and integrated medical education programme for all categories of healthcare providers and the availability of essential psychotropic drugs at all healthcare levels. It lays emphasis on protecting the interests of special groups such as prisoners, refugees and displaced persons, women, children and individuals with disabilities. Furthermore, it promotes need-based research for contemporary mental health issues.

  12. PRIMARY PREVENTION IS? A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ON HOW ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGING MEN IN PREVENTING GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE CONCEPTUALIZE AND OPERATIONALIZE THEIR WORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Heather L.; Casey, Erin A.; Carlson, Juliana; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Tolman, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that ‘primary prevention’ is not a fixed term in the context of VAW and that front-line prevention work challenges rigidly delineated distinctions between levels of prevention. Much can be learned from global organizations’ unique and contextualized approaches to the prevention of VAW. PMID:26333283

  13. Nature-based strategies for improving urban health and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Eugenia C. South; Charles C. Branas

    2015-01-01

    Place-based programs are being noticed as key opportunities to prevent disease and promote public health and safety for populations at-large. As one key type of place-based intervention, nature-based and green space strategies can play an especially large role in improving health and safety for dwellers in urban environments such as US legacy cities that lack nature...

  14. Comparing Dental and Pharmacy Students’ Perceptions on Public Health and Preventive Health Care Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Dogan, Fethi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A Public health course has an important role in the undergraduate education of pharmacy and dentistry in terms of emphasizing preventive care. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of pharmacy and dentistry students on a public health course and preventive health care. Methods: 173 students enrolled at Ege University, Faculties of Pharmacy and Dentistry completed a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and replied to 18 Likert type question to determine their perceptions on a public health course and preventive health care. The comments of the students were reviewed and categorized into key themes. Results: SWOT analysis and the results of quantitative Likert type questions supported each other. According to the quantitative results, there was no significant difference between the scores of students from both schools in terms of their statements about the public health course and preventive care. Both groups of students mentioned the contribution of the public health course to their professions in the future. They also appreciated the importance of preventive care in the health services. PMID:22347604

  15. Public Health Models for Preventing Child Maltreatment: Applications From the Field of Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Debbie; Lonne, Bob; Higgins, Daryl

    2016-10-01

    Contemporary approaches to child protection are dominated by individualized forensically focused interventions that provide limited scope for more holistic preventative responses to children at risk and the provision of support to struggling families and communities. However, in many jurisdictions, it is frequently shown, often through public inquiries and program reviews, that investigatory and removal approaches are failing in critically important ways, particularly regarding reducing the inequities that underpin neglect and abuse. Consequently, there have been increasing calls for a public health model for the protection of children, although there is often a lack of clarity as to what exactly this should entail. Yet, there are opportunities to learn from public health approaches successfully used in the field of injury prevention. Specifically, we advocate for the use of Haddon's Matrix, which provides a detailed theoretical and practical framework for the application of a comprehensive and integrated public health model to guide intervention program design and responses to child protection risk factors. A broad overview of the application of Haddon's Matrix's principles and methods is provided with examples of program and intervention design. It is argued that this framework provides the range of interventions necessary to address the complex social and structural factors contributing to inequity and the maltreatment of children. It also provides the foundation for a holistic and integrated system of prevention and intervention to contribute to system-level change and address child maltreatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Practicing preventive health: the underlying culture among low-income rural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimi, Mary W; Harpel, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Health disparities on the basis of geographic location, social economic factors and education levels are well documented. However, even when health care services are available, there is no guarantee that all persons will take preventive health measures. Understanding the cultural beliefs, practices, and lifestyle choices that determine utilization of health services is an important factor in combating chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate personal, cultural, and external barriers that interfered with participating in a community-based preventive outreach program that included health screening for obesity, diabetes, heart diseases, and hypertension when cost and transportation factors were addressed. Six focus groups were conducted in a rural community of Louisiana. Focus groups were divided into 2 categories: participants and nonparticipants. Three focus groups were completed with Dubach Health Outreach Project (DUHOP) participants and 3 were completed with nonparticipants. The focus group interviews were moderated by a researcher experienced in focus group interviews; a graduate student assisted with recording and note-taking during the sessions. Four main themes associated with barriers to participation in preventive services emerged from the discussions: (1) time, (2) low priority, (3) fear of the unknown, and (4) lack of companionship or support. Health concerns, free services, enjoyment, and free food were identified as motivators for participation. The findings of this study indicated that the resulting synergy between low-income status and a lack of motivation regarding health care prevention created a complicated practice of health care procrastination, which resulted in unnecessary emergency care and disease progression. To change this practice to proactive disease prevention and self care, a concerted effort will need to be implemented by policy makers, funding agents, health care providers, and community leaders and members.

  17. Optimizing the Primary Prevention of Type-2 Diabetes in Primary Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Interprofessional Relations; Primary Health Care/Organization & Administration; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/Prevention & Control; Primary Prevention/Methods; Risk Reduction Behavior; Randomized Controlled Trial; Life Style

  18. HIV/AIDS Prevention Activities of Faith-Based Christian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on these findings, it was recommended that the faith-based Christian organizations should collaborate with relevant agencies, community based workers and non-formal education providers to improve HIV/AIDS prevention service delivery in the study area. Keywords: Prevention, Activities, HIV/AIDS, Empowerment, ...

  19. The role of the health services in the prevention of alcohol-related facial injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, E E

    2009-10-01

    This paper outlines the preventive health strategic measures that are currently in place and it endeavours to consider how improvements can be made to our national preventive strategy with the goal of reducing alcohol-related facial injuries. It is based on a review of the literature sourced through PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane database. The main findings are that increased funding, legislative amendment and media involvement are key to improving the work of the health services in their struggle to limit the ever increasing alcohol-related incidents that are experienced by society today.

  20. How health risks prevention shapes collective identities: a micro-sociological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, D.; Bröer, C.; Boersma, J.

    2015-01-01

    Sociological theories of health risks in late modernity emphasise the individualisation and increasing anxiety that results from prevention policies, while bio-sociality theories point to the creation of new, biologically or medically based social identities. In this article, we outline an

  1. Identification of children with psychosocial problems differed between preventive child health care professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, A.G.C.; Jacobusse, G.W.; Hoekstra, F.; Brugman, E.; Crone, M.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether differences between individual Preventive Child Health Care (PCH) professionals in the percentage of children they identify as having psychosocial problems are larger than expected based on chance and whether such differences can be explained by differences in

  2. The Role of School Health Instruction in Preventing Injury: Making It Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Robert M.

    Reducing the incidence and severity of child and adolescent injuries requires a multifaceted approach involving broad-based health and social service agencies, including schools. Recognition of the need for injury prevention education began with the Industrial Revolution in the 1900s, and safety education was developed as a unit of health…

  3. [Knowledge about AIDS prevention among professionals and students in health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, A D; Viegas, C R; Sabka, E; Guerra, M; Baltazar, R

    1996-07-01

    This work is a exploratory research based on the analysis of the answers to the questionnaires of 52 students and health care professionals knowledge about AIDS sexual prevention, biosecurity, diagnosis tests, patients and workers rights and the modifications of nursing and medical care to this kind of disease.

  4. Evaluation of Three Osteoporosis Prevention Programs for Young Women: Application of the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, Donald H.; Turner, Lori; Wilroy, Jereme

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of theory-based osteoporosis prevention programs on calcium and vitamin D intakes and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Methods: Women (N = 152) aged 19 to 25 years were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: a brochure group (n = 51), a computer-tailored program group…

  5. Mental health: early intervention and prevention in children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membride, Heather

    It is estimated that 10% of children and young people have mental health problems so significant that they impact not only on their day-to-day life but, if left untreated, they will continue into adulthood. In this article, the author discusses mental health issues affecting children and young people and examines evidence-based early intervention and prevention programmes that have been shown to support better outcomes for children, young people and their families.

  6. PPACA and public health: creating a framework to focus on prevention and wellness and improve the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majette, Gwendolyn Roberts

    2011-01-01

    PPACA epitomizes comprehensive health care reform legislation. Public health, disease prevention, and wellness were integral considerations in its development. This article reveals the author's personal experiences while working on the framework for health care reform in the United States Senate and reviews activity in the United States House of Representatives. This insider's perspective delineates PPACA's positive effect on public health by examining the infrastructure Congress designed to focus on prevention, wellness, and public health, with a particular focus on the National Prevention, Health Promotion and Public Health Council; the National Prevention, Health Promotion, Public Health, and Integrative Health Care Strategy; and the Prevention and Public Health Fund. The Council, strategy, and fund are especially important because they reflect compliance with some of the Institute of Medicine's recommendations to improve public health in the United States, as well as international health and human rights norms that protect the right to health. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  7. Health promotion, preventive and curative aspects of diseases in astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhuvnesh Kumar; Subhakta, P K J P; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    The whole universe is intermingling into a unit in the period of globalization. Different cultures, life-styles and sciences are co-operating with each other in this situation. World Health Organization is working towards collaborating all prevalent medical sciences for attainment of good health and family welfare for each and every individual by 2020. Astrology is a part of Indian heritage. Astrology means the art of predicting or determining the influence of the planets and stars on human affairs. The origin of this word is from Greek word astron, star + logos (discourse). The account of deeds of good and bad during the present life and previous lives, their consequences of health or ill health during this life i.e. what, when and how the things takes place will be clearly known through Astrology. Highly advanced knowledge related to Astrology on medicine is preserved in Indian scriptures and the knowledge was transmitted from generation to generation. It is also a good source for health promotion, preventive, curative and other medical aspects. Brief direction related to astrological medical aspects is also available in Ayurvedic literature (Carakasamhită, Suśrutasamhhită, Aşţăngasangraha, Aşţăngahŗdaya, Sărngadharasamhită , Băvaprakăśa etc.) Some Ayurvedic practitioners, scholars and scientists realize the need of astrological knowledge related to medicine in the present time. In ancient times physician, astrologer and purŏhita (Hindu priest) simultaneously looked after the health and family welfare of individual, families and country. Astrologer guides medication and suitable time for the better cure of ailments. Even the medicinal herbs were collected and treated at appropriate time for their efficacy. Astrology and Ayurvĕda are inseparable sciences of life. Hence, in this article, a concise astrological evaluation related to health promotion, preventive and curative aspects of Astrology is being presented.

  8. Health Physics Positions Data Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y.; Carter, D.

    1992-05-01

    The Health Physics Positions (HPPOS) Data Base of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is a collection of summaries of NRC staff positions on a wide range of topics in radiation protection (health physics). The bases for the data base are 247 original documents in the form of letters, memoranda, and excerpts from technical reports. The HPPOS Data Base was developed by the NRC Headquarters and Regional Offices to help ensure uniformity in inspections, enforcement, and licensing actions

  9. Story Immersion in a Health Videogame for Childhood Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective Stories can serve as powerful tools for health interventions. Story immersion refers to the experience of being absorbed in a story. This is among the first studies to analyze story immersion's role in health videogames among children by addressing two main questions: Will children be more immersed when the main characters are similar to them? Do increased levels of immersion relate to more positive health outcomes? Subjects and Methods Eighty-seven 10–12-year-old African-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic children from Houston, TX, played a health videogame, “Escape from Diab” (Archimage, Houston, TX), featuring a protagonist with both African-American and Hispanic phenotypic features. Children's demographic information, immersion, and health outcomes (i.e., preference, motivation, and self-efficacy) were recorded and then correlated and analyzed. Results African-American and Hispanic participants reported higher immersion scores than Caucasian participants (P=0.01). Story immersion correlated positively (P valuesvideogame characters and players enhanced immersion and several health outcomes. Effectively embedding characters with similar phenotypic features to the target population in interactive health videogame narratives may be important when motivating children to adopt obesity prevention behaviors. PMID:24066276

  10. Story Immersion in a Health Videogame for Childhood Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Tom

    2012-02-15

    Stories can serve as powerful tools for health interventions. Story immersion refers to the experience of being absorbed in a story. This is among the first studies to analyze story immersion's role in health videogames among children by addressing two main questions: Will children be more immersed when the main characters are similar to them? Do increased levels of immersion relate to more positive health outcomes? Eighty-seven 10-12-year-old African-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic children from Houston, TX, played a health videogame, "Escape from Diab" (Archimage, Houston, TX), featuring a protagonist with both African-American and Hispanic phenotypic features. Children's demographic information, immersion, and health outcomes (i.e., preference, motivation, and self-efficacy) were recorded and then correlated and analyzed. African-American and Hispanic participants reported higher immersion scores than Caucasian participants ( P = 0.01). Story immersion correlated positively ( P values videogame characters and players enhanced immersion and several health outcomes. Effectively embedding characters with similar phenotypic features to the target population in interactive health videogame narratives may be important when motivating children to adopt obesity prevention behaviors.

  11. [Parents' actions for prevention of arterial hypertension educational technology for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo; Caetano, Joselany Afio; Moreira, Francisco Getúlio Alves

    2011-11-01

    This participatory research aimed to evaluate behavioral changes in fifteen parents of pre-school children to prevent the risk factors of arterial hypertension, by applying education technology for health that is based on the Health Beliefs Model at a private school in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil. The field research was carried out through educational workshops and data collection through questionnaires and interviews. After organizing the data into categories, analysis was based on the premises of health education. Through the application of education technology for health, significant changes were observed in the parents' habits, besides the roles they assumed as agents of change and multipliers of educational actions in the family. Although difficulties arose in the process of change, the parents were motivated to prevent the risk factors of arterial hypertension in themselves and their children. Thus, education technology for health based on the Health Beliefs Model proved to be efficient, as significant behavioral changes occurred and the parents were motivated to prevent arterial hypertension by means of a healthy lifestyle.

  12. Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy worldwide: health effects and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Stewart, Christine P.; West, Keith P.; Christian, Parul

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrients, vitamins and minerals accessible from the diet, are essential for biologic activity. Micronutrient status varies widely throughout pregnancy and across populations. Women in low-income countries often enter pregnancy malnourished, and the demands of gestation can exacerbate micronutrient deficiencies with health consequences to the fetus. Examples of efficacious single micronutrient interventions include folic acid to prevent neural tube defects, iodine to prevent cretinism, zinc to reduce of preterm birth, and iron to reduce the risk of low birth weight. Folic acid and vitamin D might also increase birth weight. While extensive mechanism and association research links antenatal multiple micronutrients to plausible materno-fetal health advantages, hypothesized benefits have often been absent, minimal or unexpected in trials. These findings suggest a role for population context in determining health responses and extensive gaps in knowledge. Multiple micronutrient supplements reduce risks of being born low birth weight, small for gestational age or stillborn in undernourished settings, and justify micronutrient interventions with antenatal care. Measurable health effects of gestational micronutrient exposure may persist into childhood but few data exists on potential long-term benefits. In this Review, we discuss micronutrient intake recommendations, risks and consequences of deficiencies, and the effects of interventions with a particular emphasis on offspring. PMID:27032981

  13. ACTIVITY OF HEALTH EDUCATION AIMED AT PREVENTING WORK ACCIDENTS WITH NEEDLESTICK MATERIALS: EXPERIENCE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Vangeris Silva Fernandes de Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health services are composed of complex work environments. For this reason, they present several risks to the health of workers and also of people being treated at these places. Among these risks, one that is peculiar to health services is the risk of occupational accidents with biological material involving sharps. Objective: This study aimed to describe a health education activity conducted in a Health Center of the Federal District, Brazil. Methods: This is an experience report that discusses the final paper of the discipline “Administration Applied to Nursing and Internship”, offered by the Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia. A lecture was prepared, aimed at health workers and support staff, on general aspects of occupational accidents involving sharps, as well as preventive aspects. Results: In each clinical room of the Health Center were fixed two posters: the first discussing the proper disposal of sharps and the second, in turn, was a message of reflection. 31 professionals attended the lecture as listeners. Conclusion: We understand the validity of the lecture delivered, based on scientific studies that highlight the need and shortage of health education activities that address the prevention of occupational accidents involving sharps among Health Professionals. Additionally, it is important mentioning that such activity demand was estimated by the workers of the Health Center in study.

  14. Military Parents' Personal Technology Usage and Interest in e-Health Information for Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jai, Tun-Min; McCool, Barent N; Reed, Debra B

    2016-03-01

    U.S. military families are experiencing high obesity rates similar to the civilian population. The Department of Defense's Military Health System (MHS) is one of the largest healthcare providers in the United States, serving approximately 9.2 million active duty service members, retirees, spouses, and children. The annual cost to the MHS for morbidities associated with being overweight exceeds $1 billion. The preschool age has been suggested as an opportune time to intervene for the prevention of obesity. Thus, this study investigated the current level of technology usage by military service member families and assessed their needs and interests in health/nutrition information. This needs assessment is crucial for researchers/educators to design further studies and intervention programs for obesity prevention in military families with young children. In total, 288 military parents (233 Army and 55 Air Force) at two military bases whose children were enrolled in military childcare centers in the southwestern United States participated in a Technology Usage in Military Family (TUMF) survey in 2013. Overall, both bases presented similar technology usage patterns in terms of computer and mobile device usage on the Internet. Air Force base parents had a slightly higher knowledge level of nutrition/health information than Army base parents. The TUMF survey suggested practical ways such as mobile applications/Web sites, social networks, games, etc., that health educators can use to disseminate nutrition/health information for obesity prevention among military families with young children.

  15. Health Prevention Program: the cornerstone for a safe work environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Andrade, Augusto; Benalcazar, Fernando L. [EnCanEcuador S.A., Quito (Ecuador)

    2004-07-01

    EnCana in Ecuador is deeply committed through the sustainable development by minimizing and controlling hazards, while contributing to the well being of the people and protecting the environment of the communities where we operate, the health and safety of our employees, as well as preventing any loss and ensuring business continuity. To ensure a safe work environment for all our employees and Contractors, the Company has conducted a complete Risk Evaluation, considering: physical, biological, chemical, ergonomics and psychosocial factors. Based on this Map of Risks, the exposure level and the age of the employee, the Medical Department established four different routines of medical exams (pre-occupational and occupational), which are conducted on a regular two years basis, or even in a shorter period of time, if required. Additionally, medical exams are conducted when an employee is transferred to a different position. All employees have their own records, which document their medical shape when enrolled, at any time while working, and when the person leaves the Company. This allows diagramming the history of employees, the following information: X Axis (horizontal) Age of the employee when enrolled, years (chronological) and position when the exams are conducted. Y Axis (vertical) Capability in terms of percentage, of different organs and physiology (audiometric, ears, lungs, etc.). All this information is processed by the EHS Department, which in conjunction with other departments, plan improvement Safety measures to avoid the exposure of the employees to those factors above mentioned, minimizing potential losses and reducing dramatically costs of accidents and absenteeism. Exactly the same concept is being implemented with Contractors, which must also comply with these requirements. Follow-up of all recommendations is conducted on a regular basis by the Employees, Contractors and Management (Executive) EHS Committees. (author)

  16. Examining the Feasibility and Effectiveness of a Community-Based Obesity Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Bera, Victoria; Elsemore, Johanna; Snelling, Anastasia

    2018-01-01

    Background: Latinos in the United States are at heightened risk for obesity and health disparities, yet community-based interventions to promote health are limited. Purpose: This research examined the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally relevant obesity prevention program (Vivir Sano), which included stress reduction and behavioral lifestyle…

  17. A systematic review of online youth mental health promotion and prevention interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Aleisha M; Kuosmanen, Tuuli; Barry, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth in the use of online technologies among youth provides an opportunity to increase access to evidence-based mental health resources. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a narrative synthesis of the evidence on the effectiveness of online mental health promotion and prevention interventions for youth aged 12-25 years. Searching a range of electronic databases, 28 studies conducted since 2000 were identified. Eight studies evaluating six mental health promotion interventions and 20 studies evaluating 15 prevention interventions were reviewed. The results from the mental health promotion interventions indicate that there is some evidence that skills-based interventions presented in a module-based format can have a significant impact on adolescent mental health, however, an insufficient number of studies limits this finding. The results from the online prevention interventions indicate the significant positive effect of computerized cognitive behavioral therapy on adolescents' and emerging adults' anxiety and depression symptoms. The rates of non-completion were moderate to high across a number of studies. Implementation findings provide some evidence that participant face-to-face and/or web-based support was an important feature in terms of program completion and outcomes. Additional research examining factors affecting exposure, adherence and outcomes is required. The quality of evidence across the studies varied significantly, thus highlighting the need for more rigorous, higher quality evaluations conducted with more diverse samples of youth. Although future research is warranted, this study highlights the potential of online mental health promotion and prevention interventions in promoting youth wellbeing and reducing mental health problems.

  18. Evaluation of complex community-based childhood obesity prevention interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacabeyli, D; Allender, S; Pinkney, S; Amed, S

    2018-05-16

    Multi-setting, multi-component community-based interventions have shown promise in preventing childhood obesity; however, evaluation of these complex interventions remains a challenge. The objective of the study is to systematically review published methodological approaches to outcome evaluation for multi-setting community-based childhood obesity prevention interventions and synthesize a set of pragmatic recommendations. MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched from inception to 6 July 2017. Papers were included if the intervention targeted children ≤18 years, engaged at least two community sectors and described their outcome evaluation methodology. A single reviewer conducted title and abstract scans, full article review and data abstraction. Directed content analysis was performed by three reviewers to identify prevailing themes. Thirty-three studies were included, and of these, 26 employed a quasi-experimental design; the remaining were randomized control trials. Body mass index was the most commonly measured outcome, followed by health behaviour change and psychosocial outcomes. Six themes emerged, highlighting advantages and disadvantages of active vs. passive consent, quasi-experimental vs. randomized control trials, longitudinal vs. repeat cross-sectional designs and the roles of process evaluation and methodological flexibility in evaluating complex interventions. Selection of study designs and outcome measures compatible with community infrastructure, accompanied by process evaluation, may facilitate successful outcome evaluation. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.

  19. Knowledge Based Health

    OpenAIRE

    Sasson, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we assess the underlying properties of a global knowledge hub to examine the extent to which the Norwegian health industry constitutes such a hub. We begin with a general discussion of the industry before we examine the underlying properties of global knowledge hubs: cluster attractiveness, educational attractiveness, talent attractiveness, R&D and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics. We conclude by providin...

  20. Genotype-based personalised nutrition for obesity prevention and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Typically, genotype-based personalised nutrition involves genotyping for a number of susceptibility SNPs associated with the prevention, or management, of a particular disease. Dietary advice is then personalised to the individual's genotype to ensure optimal prevention or treatment outcomes. To ensure evidence-based ...

  1. Nurse-Led School-Based Child Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.

    2015-01-01

    School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…

  2. Merging public relations with health communication in the context of university alcohol prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummette, John

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study is to determine whether social norms marketing should be further evaluated according to its ability to serve as a public relations tactic for universities. Based on a framework of social norms theory and strategic issues management, this study uses a web-based survey with university parents (N = 173) to identify relationships among exaggerated parental misperceptions of student binge drinking, parental awareness of alcohol prevention programs, and parental perceptions of organizational legitimacy. Findings from this study are used to make the argument that health communication and public relations should be viewed as interrelated concepts in the context of university alcohol prevention.

  3. Community-based prevention of stroke: nutritional improvement in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamori, Y; Horie, R

    1994-01-01

    (1) To demonstrate the importance of nutrition, especially sodium restriction and increased potassium and protein intakes, in the prevention of hypertension and stroke in a pilot study involving senior citizens. (2) To design a population-based intervention in the Shimane Prefecture of Japan concerning dietary factors such as low sodium and high potassium, protein, magnesium, calcium and dietary fibre in the prevention of stroke. The intervention study was carried out at a senior citizens' residence and included general health education along with a reduction of dietary salt intake and increases in vegetable and protein, especially from seafood. Sixty-three healthy senior citizens (average age: 74.8 +/- 7.7 years) had their daily meals modified to a low sodium/potassium ratio for four weeks without their knowledge by the use of a potassium chloride substitute for salt, soy sauce and bean paste, which contains much less sodium and more potassium. Monosodium L-glutamate monohydrate used for cooking was changed to monopotassium L-glutamate monohydrate. Blood pressure was measured with the patient in the sitting position. Daily dietary sodium and potassium intakes were assessed by flame photometry from 24-hour urine specimens. Extensive intervention programs were introduced into the Shimane Prefecture, which has a population of 750,000, through health education classes for housewives, home visits by health nurses and an educational TV program for dietary improvement. The mortality from stroke was monitored for 10 years and compared with the average in Japan. The blood pressure lowering effect of reducing the dietary sodium/potassium ratio was confirmed through a pilot intervention study at the senior citizens' residence. The mortality rates for stroke in the middle-aged population from the Shimane Prefecture during the 10 years after the introduction of dietary improvement had a steeper decline in hemorrhagic, ischemic and all strokes than the average for Japan.

  4. Adolescents' mental health and the Greek family: preventive aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierodiakonou, C S

    1988-03-01

    Preventive mental health measures can be properly planned only if the various factors leading to the adolescent's personality structure are extensively investigated. Starting with the specific attitudes of a couple towards genetic counselling, the disadvantages of urbanization and of the dissolution of the traditional extended family are discussed with regard to their effect on the younger members. Data are produced concerning the child-rearing practices of Greek in comparison to American parents and their effect on the adolescent's emotional life. Extreme dependence on the family, pressure for school achievements, lack of sexual education, etc. are characteristic of the stresses a Greek adolescent undergoes. Socio-cultural conditions, like immigration, adoption, etc. are shown to have a different psychological effect on an adolescent in Greece than in America. Specific stresses regarding the adolescent's future, like preparing for university entrance examinations, are discussed and preventive measures are proposed.

  5. Understanding, Treating, and Preventing STDs / Questions to Ask your Health Care Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventing STDs / Questions to Ask your Health Care Professional Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... sexual partner Questions to Ask Your Health Care Professional How can I prevent getting an STD? If ...

  6. Key-note speaker: Predictors of weight loss after preventive Health consultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lous, Jørgen; Freund, Kirsten S

    2018-01-01

    Invited key-note speaker ved conferencen: Preventive Medicine and Public Health Conference 2018, July 16-17, London.......Invited key-note speaker ved conferencen: Preventive Medicine and Public Health Conference 2018, July 16-17, London....

  7. Global Immunizations: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Janelle L B; Eden, Lacey M; Luthy, Karlen E; Schouten, Aimee E

    Immunizations are one of the most important health interventions of the 20th century, yet people in many areas of the world do not receive adequate immunizations. Approximately 3 million people worldwide die every year from vaccine-preventable diseases; about half of these deaths are young children and infants. Global travel is more common; diseases that were once localized now can be found in communities around the world. Multiple barriers to immunizations have been identified. Healthcare access, cost, and perceptions of safety and trust in healthcare are factors that have depressed global immunization rates. Several global organizations have focused on addressing these barriers as part of their efforts to increase immunization rates. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, The World Health Organization, and the United Nations Children's Emergency Fund each have a part of their organization that is concentrated on immunizations. Maternal child nurses worldwide can assist in increasing immunization rates. Nurses can participate in outreach programs to ease the burden of patients and families in accessing immunizations. Nurses can work with local and global organizations to make immunizations more affordable. Nurses can improve trust and knowledge about immunizations in their local communities. Nurses are a powerful influence in the struggle to increase immunization rates, which is a vital aspect of global health promotion and disease prevention.

  8. Vietnamese Oral Health Beliefs and Practices: Impact on the Utilization of Western Preventive Oral Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim Yen T; Smallidge, Dianne L; Boyd, Linda D; Rainchuso, Lori

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: Infrequent use of the Western health care by the Vietnamese may be explained by deeply-rooted traditional oral health beliefs and practices unique to the Asian culture. This study investigated Vietnamese oral health beliefs and practices and their relationship to the utilization of Western preventive oral health care services among Vietnamese-Americans. Methods: An exploratory, cross-sectional survey design with a convenience sample of 140 par-ticipants (n = 140) was used for this study. Participants were recruited on site of a Vietnamese-owned business, with questionnaires consisting of 28 questions that were distributed in hard copy by the principal investigator (PI) on multiple occasions and at various times of the day. Results: Spearman Rank Correlations tests showed participants who agreed with the statement, "Regular dental visits will help prevent dental problems," were more likely to utilize medical health services (pissues. No statistical significance was found between age, gender, pri-mary language, years spent in the United States, education level, religion and the Vietnamese survey participants' individual oral beliefs and practices. Conclusion: The results suggest that Vietnamese Americans holding the belief that dental visits help prevent oral health problems, were more likely to utilize Western health care services. The study also supports existing literature that Vietnamese oral health beliefs and practices impact the use of Western health care services. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  9. [SOCIAL IMPACT BONDS FOR HEALTH PROMOTION AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Roni S; Moran, Daniel S; Fire, Gil

    2018-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared obesity a global epidemic. WHO sheds much light on this matter in its publications on health promotion and preventative medicine. Lack of physical activity, an unbalanced diet and an unhealthy lifestyle are the leading causes of developing obesity and chronic diseases. In Israel, the growing rate of obesity is a reason for concern. About 500,000 diabetics, mainly as a result of obesity, live in Israel today and by 2030 the number is expected to rise to 2,000,000. Every third child born is expected to develop diabetes by the time they reach the age of 40 unless a profound change is made in health policy. The State of Israel recognizes its responsibility in promoting awareness against obesity as well as its role in prevention. In spite of the country's recognition of the problem, it still has not managed to implement long term solutions which address the issue. Therefore, creative and innovative solutions are called for. The social impact bond (SIB), a newly developed financial model is a possible solution. This model suggests the entry of private investors into the public sector, a field which is within the responsibility of the government. The private investor will be in charge of running a social program on a topic which will be finalized with the government. The private investor and the government will have a contract outlining the program and the criteria for the evaluation and the success of the program. To note, the private investor will only be paid according to the success of the program. Thus the purpose of SIB is in motion processes and is set to serve as a model for several years, and then the authorities will take over the responsibility and continue with the program that the SIB handled. In March 2016, a new SIB was launched in Israel to prevent Type 2 diabetes. This involves 2250 pre-diabetic adults who are at risk to develop Type 2 diabetes and will be identified by their Health Maintenance

  10. Preventive oral health practices of school pupils in Southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike O; Khami, Mohammad R; Onyejaka, Nneka; Popoola, Bamidele O; Adeyemo, Yewande Isabella

    2014-07-07

    One of the goals of the World Health Organisation goal is to ensure increased uptake of preventive oral self-care by 2020. This would require the design public health programmes that will ensure children place premium on preventive oral health care uptake. One effort in that direction is the need for countries to define baseline measures on use of preventive oral self-care measures by their population as well as identify factors that impact on its use. This study aims to determine the prevalence and the impact of age and sex on the use of recommended oral self-care measures by pupils in Southern Nigeria. Pupils age 8 to 16 years (N = 2,676) in two urban sites in Southern Nigeria completed a questionnaire about recommended oral self-care (use of fluoridated toothpaste, flossing, regularity of consuming sugary snacks between main meals), time of the last dental check-up and cigarette smoking habit. Chi square was used to test association between age (8-10years, 11-16 years), sex, and use of recommended oral self-care. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of use of recommended oral self-care. Only 7.8% of the study population practiced the recommended oral self-care. Older adolescents had an 8.0% increased odds (OR: 1.08; CI:0.81-1.43; p = 0.61) and males had a 20.0% decreased odds (OR: 0.80; CI:0.60-1.06; p = 0.12) of practicing recommended oral self-care though observed differences were not statistically significant. Very few respondents (12.7%) had visited the dental clinic for a check-up in the last one year. Majority of the respondents (92.2%) were non-smokers. The use of a combination of oral self-care approaches was very low for this study population. Age and sex were predictive factors for the use of components of the oral self-care measures but not significant predictors of use of recommended oral self-care. Future studies would be required to understand 'why' and 'how' age and sex impacts on the use of caries

  11. Basic webliography on health promotion and disease prevention - doi:10.5020/18061230.2009.p217

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Camargo Gonçalves da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To introduce a basic webliography to access highly qualified evidence-based material on health promotion and disease prevention, aiming at the continuing education of health professionals. Methods: By means of Google® browser, applying the descriptors in sequence to progressively refine the search on Internet and key concepts to be learned, all previously defined by the authors themselves, we proceeded a qualitative analyses of the 20 first listed links for each searched issue and the final selection of the most scientifically relevant ones. Results: The 34 selected links are presented in 4 groups: 23 portals, 5 guides and recommendations, 4 scientific journals and 3 blogs that allow free access to health promotion and disease prevention related subjects, such as: concepts; national and international public policies; epidemiology, statistics and health indicators; diseases screening and prophylaxis; counseling for behavior change of health related habits; and interdisciplinary work. Among the selected links 10 (29% are written in English while the others are in Portuguese. Conclusions: The identification of reading materials on health promotion and disease prevention available on Internet, many in Portuguese, allowed us to select relevant scientifically qualified literature and turn it accessible to health professionals, enabling the acquisition of new knowledge or quick update.

  12. Shift Work and Health: Current Problems and Preventive Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the problems to be tackled nowadays by occupational health with regards to shift work as well as the main guidelines at organizational and medical levels on how to protect workers’ health and well-being. Working time organization is becoming a key factor on account of new technologies, market globalization, economic competition, and extension of social services to general populations, all of which involve more and more people in continuous assistance and control of work processes over the 24 hours in a day. The large increase of epidemiological and clinical studies on this issue document the severity of this risk factor on human health and well being, at both social and psychophysical levels, starting from a disruption of biological circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycle and ending in several psychosomatic troubles and disorders, likely also including cancer, and extending to impairment of performance efficiency as well as family and social life. Appropriate interventions on the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria and careful health surveillance and social support for shift workers are important preventive and corrective measures that allow people to keep working without significant health impairment.

  13. Harnessing and blending the power of two research networks to improve prevention science and public health practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpool, Robin C.; Brownson, Ross C.; Mays, Glen P.; Crosby, Richard A.; Wyatt, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Strategic collaborations are essential in moving public health research and practice forward1, particularly in light of escalating fiscal and environmental challenges facing the public health community. This commentary provides background and context for an emerging partnership between two national networks, Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) and Public Health Practice-Based Research Networks (PBRNs), to impact public health practice. Supported by CDC, PRCs are celebrating over 25 years of transdisciplinary applied prevention research grounded in community and stakeholder engagement. Public Health PBRNs, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, conduct innovative public health services and systems research with public health agencies and community partners to improve public health decision-making. By utilizing each of the networks’ respective strengths and resources, collaborative ventures between PRCs and Public Health PBRNs can enhance the translation of applied prevention research to evidence-based practice and empirically investigate novel public health practices developed in the field. Three current PRC-Public Health PBRNs projects are highlighted and future research directions are discussed. Improving the interconnectedness of prevention research and public health practice is essential to improve the health of the Nation. PMID:24237918

  14. Visualising linked health data to explore health events around preventable hospitalisations in NSW Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falster, Michael O; Jorm, Louisa R; Leyland, Alastair H

    2016-09-07

    To explore patterns of health service use in the lead-up to, and following, admission for a 'preventable' hospitalisation. 266 950 participants in the 45 and Up Study, New South Wales (NSW) Australia Linked data on hospital admissions, general practitioner (GP) visits and other health events were used to create visual representations of health service use. For each participant, health events were plotted against time, with different events juxtaposed using different markers and panels of data. Various visualisations were explored by patient characteristics, and compared with a cohort of non-admitted participants matched on sociodemographic and health characteristics. Health events were displayed over calendar year and in the 90 days surrounding first preventable hospitalisation. The visualisations revealed patterns of clustering of GP consultations in the lead-up to, and following, preventable hospitalisation, with 14% of patients having a consultation on the day of admission and 27% in the prior week. There was a clustering of deaths and other hospitalisations following discharge, particularly for patients with a long length of stay, suggesting patients may have been in a state of health deterioration. Specialist consultations were primarily clustered during the period of hospitalisation. Rates of all health events were higher in patients admitted for a preventable hospitalisation than the matched non-admitted cohort. We did not find evidence of limited use of primary care services in the lead-up to a preventable hospitalisation, rather people with preventable hospitalisations tended to have high levels of engagement with multiple elements of the healthcare system. As such, preventable hospitalisations might be better used as a tool for identifying sicker patients for managed care programmes. Visualising longitudinal health data was found to be a powerful strategy for uncovering patterns of health service use, and such visualisations have potential to be more

  15. Rural Indonesian health care workers' constructs of infection prevention and control knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjadi, Brahmaputra; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2010-06-01

    Understanding the constructs of knowledge behind clinical practices in low-resource rural health care settings with limited laboratory facilities and surveillance programs may help in designing resource-appropriate infection prevention and control education. Multiple qualitative methods of direct observations, individual and group focus discussions, and document analysis were used to examine health care workers' knowledge of infection prevention and control practices in intravenous therapy, antibiotic therapy, instrument reprocessing, and hand hygiene in 10 rural Indonesian health care facilities. Awareness of health care-associated infections was low. Protocols were in the main based on verbal instructions handed down through the ranks of health care workers. The evidence-based knowledge gained across professional training was overridden by empiricism, nonscientific modifications, and organizational and societal cultures when resources were restricted or patients demanded inappropriate therapies. This phenomenon remained undetected by accreditation systems and clinical educators. Rural Indonesian health care workers would benefit from a formal introduction to evidence-based practice that would deconstruct individual protocols that include nonscientific knowledge. To achieve levels of acceptable patient safety, protocols would have to be both evidence-based and resource-appropriate. Copyright 2010 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Prevention and Treatment of Eating Disorders: The Health Care Network Anorexia and Bulimia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Angelika; Gumz, Antje; Kästner, Denise; Romer, Georg; Wegscheider, Karl; Löwe, Bernd

    2015-07-01

    The "Health care network anorexia and bulimia nervosa", a subproject of psychenet - the Hamburg network for mental health - aims to decrease the incidence of eating disorders as well as the risk for chronic illness courses. One focal project, therefore, evaluates a school-based prevention manual in a randomized controlled trial. The other one examines the impact of a systemic public health intervention on early treatment initiation in anorexia nervosa. The present article provides an overview about study design and interventions in both focal projects as well as preliminary results. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Targeting burn prevention in Ukraine: evaluation of base knowledge in burn prevention and first aid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelli, Liza; Mykychack, Iryna; Kushnir, Antin; Driscoll, Daniel N; Fuzaylov, Gennadiy

    2015-01-01

    Burn prevention has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a topic in need of further investigation and education throughout the world, with an increased need in low-income countries. It has been noted that implementing educational programs for prevention in high income countries has aided in lowering the rate of burn injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current education level of knowledge of prevention and first aid treatment of scald burns. A prevention campaign will target these educational needs as a part of an outreach program to improve burn care in Ukraine. The research team evaluated the current health structure in Ukraine and how it could benefit from the increased knowledge of burn prevention and first aid. A test was designed to assess the baseline level of knowledge with regard to first aid and scald prevention in parents, pregnant woman, and healthcare and daycare providers. A total of 14,456 tests were sent to pediatric clinics, obstetrician clinics, and daycare facilities to test respondents. A total of 6,120 completed tests were returned. Doctors presented with the highest level of knowledge averaging 77.0% on prevention and 67.5% on first aid while daycare workers presented the largest gap in knowledge at 65.0% in prevention and 54.3% in first aid. Interest in further educational materials was reported by 92% of respondents. The results of this study clearly show a lack of knowledge in first aid and prevention of scald burn injury in all the populations tested.

  18. Psychological health of operators in NPPs and accident prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Huayun

    2004-01-01

    Mental and physical health of operators of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is directly related to normal and safe operation of NPPs. The cognitive process, volitional character, attention, emotion, feeling and personality are important factors that affect operators' safe behavior. Alcohol, medical drugs and operators' biological rhythm are can also make great effects on their psychological health. By means of job-fitness psychological test, better candidates for operators could be primarily selected from point of psychological view. Psychological follow-up of post skill training, simulator training and practical work of operators can make NPPs prevent from operational accidents due to human errors to the greatest extent. It is helpful for NPPs to find and solve some psychological problems by means of psychological counseling, regulation or psychotherapy. (author)

  19. The effects of preventive mental health programmes in secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Bror Just

    2013-01-01

    The author wanted to test the effects of preventive mental health programmes in schools and established a longitudinal study with a test group and a control group, using Solomon's method. Data was collected through questionnaires prior to intervention and at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months after the intervention. The size of the effect on the various indices were estimated in terms of (a) differences in improvement of total percentage scores and (b) Cohen's d. From to to t1, t2 and t3 the intervention group showed significantly greater progress in six out of seven knowledge indexes, and 12 months later we found significant effects on the level of mental health problems.

  20. Health promotion and cardiovascular disease prevention in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Uchechukwu K A; Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary; Mensah, George A

    2013-01-01

    Recent population studies demonstrate an increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The mitigation or reversal of this trend calls for effective health promotion and preventive interventions. In this article, we review the core principles, challenges, and progress in promoting cardiovascular health with special emphasis on interventions to address physical inactivity, poor diet, tobacco use, and adverse cardiometabolic risk factor trends in SSA. We focus on the five essential strategies of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Successes highlighted include community-based interventions in Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, and Mauritius and school-based programs in Kenya, Namibia, and Swaziland. We address the major challenge of developing integrated interventions, and showcase partnerships opportunities. We conclude by calling for intersectoral partnerships for effective and sustainable intervention strategies to advance cardiovascular health promotion and close the implementation gap in accordance with the 2009 Nairobi Call to Action on Health Promotion. © 2013.

  1. Physiological health parameters among college students to promote chronic disease prevention and health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Black

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide physiologic health risk parameters by gender and age among college students enrolled in a U.S. Midwestern University to promote chronic disease prevention and ameliorate health. A total of 2615 college students between 18 and 25 years old were recruited annually using a series of cross-sectional designs during the spring semester over an 8-year period. Physiologic parameters measured included body mass index (BMI, percentage body fat (%BF, blood serum cholesterol (BSC, and systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure. These measures were compared to data from NHANES to identify differences in physiologic parameters among 18–25 year olds in the general versus college-enrolled population. A quantitative instrument assessed health behaviors related to physical activity, diet, and licit drug use. Results suggest that average physiologic parameters from 18 to 25 year olds enrolled in college were significantly different from parameters of 18–25 year olds in the general population. Generally, men reported higher percentiles for BMI, SBP, and DBP than women, but lower %BF and BSC percentiles than women at each age. SBP and DBP significantly increased with age and alcohol use. Students in the lowest (5th and highest percentiles (95th and 75th, for most age groups, demonstrated DBP, BMI, and %BF levels potentially problematic for health and future development of chronic disease based on percentiles generated for their peer group. Newly identified physiologic parameters may be useful to practitioners serving college students 18–25 years old from similar institutions in determining whether behavior change or treatment interventions are appropriate.

  2. PRIMARY PREVENTION IS? A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ON HOW ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGING MEN IN PREVENTING GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE CONCEPTUALIZE AND OPERATIONALIZE THEIR WORK

    OpenAIRE

    Storer, Heather L.; Casey, Erin A.; Carlson, Juliana; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Tolman, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, The Author(s) 2015. Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that “primary prevention” is not a fixed term in the context ...

  3. Leadership in Nigerian health system for cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbimi, R I

    2009-06-01

    Unacceptable health system outcomes are often related to problems with leadership because the ultimate responsibility for assigned work rests on leadership. In this paper, proper leadership at micro and macro-levels can have positive impact on the health and well being of citizens. While this may be readily obvious in other spheres, it has not been addressed adequately in the context of health care systems and its impact on health outcomes. In this paper, I discuss types of work and leadership systems in order to highlight the importance of leadership and leadership training in collaborative training and research for cancer management. The complexity of health systems highlight the expanded role of leadership in terms of capacity and capability to control the environmental risk factors for cancer, deploy adequate resources for the management of cancers, and ensure fruitful and productive post treatment life for citizens. Improved community awareness, better training of health care workers, improved working environment based on better interpersonal relationships between all cadres of health care workers, environmental health and safety initiatives and research on cancer are some of the areas where improved leadership can lead to better health outcomes. Effective leadership requires a set of skills that can be acquired with requisite operating environment, political will and adequate funding in order to generate the expected improvements in outcome.

  4. A public health approach to eating disorders prevention: It’s time for public health professionals to take a seat at the table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The societal burden of eating disorders is clear, and though there is a compelling need for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention, public health professionals have yet to take up the challenge. Discussion The article lays out an argument for what steps need to be taken to bring a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. First, stock is taken of what the field has achieved so far, using tools from the prevention science literature, and, second, a research plan of action is offered that plays to the unique strengths of public health, drawing on a triggers-to-action framework from public health law. Minimal participation was found from public health professionals in eating disorders prevention research, and the vast majority of prevention research to date was found to be concentrated within the disciplines of psychology and psychiatry. Extreme disciplinary concentration of the research has led to a preponderance of individually targeted prevention strategies with little research focused on environmental targets, particularly at the macro level. New environmental initiatives are now emerging, such as a government-sponsored mass media anti-dieting campaign, and legal bans on extremely thin models in advertising, but for the most part, they have yet to be evaluated. A triggers-to-action framework, which focuses on evidentiary base, practical considerations, and political will, developed in public health law provides a basis for a strategic research plan for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. Summary There is enormous potential for growth in the scope and diversity of eating disorder prevention research strategies, particularly those targeting the macro environment. A public health approach will require a strategic plan for research that leverages the macro environment for prevention. The full engagement of public health professionals will bring to the field the much broader

  5. A public health approach to eating disorders prevention: it's time for public health professionals to take a seat at the table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn

    2012-10-09

    The societal burden of eating disorders is clear, and though there is a compelling need for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention, public health professionals have yet to take up the challenge. The article lays out an argument for what steps need to be taken to bring a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. First, stock is taken of what the field has achieved so far, using tools from the prevention science literature, and, second, a research plan of action is offered that plays to the unique strengths of public health, drawing on a triggers-to-action framework from public health law. Minimal participation was found from public health professionals in eating disorders prevention research, and the vast majority of prevention research to date was found to be concentrated within the disciplines of psychology and psychiatry. Extreme disciplinary concentration of the research has led to a preponderance of individually targeted prevention strategies with little research focused on environmental targets, particularly at the macro level. New environmental initiatives are now emerging, such as a government-sponsored mass media anti-dieting campaign, and legal bans on extremely thin models in advertising, but for the most part, they have yet to be evaluated. A triggers-to-action framework, which focuses on evidentiary base, practical considerations, and political will, developed in public health law provides a basis for a strategic research plan for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. There is enormous potential for growth in the scope and diversity of eating disorder prevention research strategies, particularly those targeting the macro environment. A public health approach will require a strategic plan for research that leverages the macro environment for prevention. The full engagement of public health professionals will bring to the field the much broader range of preventive strategies and perspectives needed to

  6. Knowledge of Rabies Prevention in Vietnamese Public Health and Animal Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, K A T; Nguyen, H T T; Pham, T N; Van, K D; Hoang, T V; Olowokure, B

    2016-11-01

    Rabies is an invariably fatal, but preventable zoonotic disease. Despite a national programme for its prevention and control, the number of rabies associated deaths in Vietnam has increased in recent years. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 2012 to assess and compare the knowledge, awareness and practices of 189 public health workers (PHW) and animal health workers (AHW) attending a joint training course for professionals from provinces in northern Vietnam with the highest number of deaths from rabies. Questionnaires facilitating self-evaluation were provided, and total knowledge scores were calculated (maximum 38 points) and categorized into: 'high' (>30 points), 'moderate' (21-30) and 'low' (animal health and public health professionals attending joint training activities aimed at strengthening rabies prevention and control. To ensure effective prevention and control of rabies requires that AHW and PHW not only coordinate and collaborate, but have a common knowledge and understanding of rabies prevention and control measures. This study provides important baseline data in a relatively unexplored area of research that can focus future interventions and research. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Adoption of the Good Behaviour Game: An evidence-based intervention for the prevention of behaviour problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Marieke A. M.; Harting, Janneke; van der Wal, Marcel F.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: The Good Behaviour Game (GBG) has been shown to be effective in preventing childhood disruptive behaviours and their long-term unfavourable health-related outcomes. Like many other evidence-based preventive health programmes, however, its current use in Dutch primary

  8. Factors that influence the preventive care offered to adolescents accessing Public Oral Health Services, NSW, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoe AV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela V Masoe,1 Anthony S Blinkhorn,2 Jane Taylor,1 Fiona A Blinkhorn1 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Oral Health, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Population Oral Health, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW, Australia Background: Many adolescents are at risk of dental caries and periodontal disease, which may be controlled through health education and clinical preventive interventions provided by oral health and dental therapists (therapists. Senior clinicians (SCs can influence the focus of dental care in the New South Wales (NSW Public Oral Health Services as their role is to provide clinical support and advice to therapists, advocate for their communities, and inform Local Health District (LHD managers of areas for clinical quality improvement. The objective of this study was to record facilitating factors and strategies that are used by SCs to encourage therapists to provide preventive care and advice to adolescent patients. Methods: In-depth, semistructured interviews were undertaken with 16 SCs from all of the 15 NSW LHDs (nine rural and six metropolitan. A framework matrix was used to systematically code data and enable key themes to be identified for analysis. Results: All SCs from the 15 NSW Health LHDs participated in the study. Factors influencing SCs' ability to integrate preventive care into clinical practice were: 1 clinical leadership and administrative support, 2 professional support network, 3 clinical and educational resources, 4 the clinician's patient management aptitude, and 5 clinical governance processes. Clinical quality improvement and continuing professional development strategies equipped clinicians to manage and enhance adolescents' confidence toward self-care. Conclusion: This study shows that SCs have a clear understanding of strategies to enhance the therapist's offer of scientific-based preventive care to adolescents. The problem

  9. Magnesium in Disease Prevention and Overall Health12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral and the second most abundant intracellular divalent cation and has been recognized as a cofactor for >300 metabolic reactions in the body. Some of the processes in which magnesium is a cofactor include, but are not limited to, protein synthesis, cellular energy production and storage, reproduction, DNA and RNA synthesis, and stabilizing mitochondrial membranes. Magnesium also plays a critical role in nerve transmission, cardiac excitability, neuromuscular conduction, muscular contraction, vasomotor tone, blood pressure, and glucose and insulin metabolism. Because of magnesium’s many functions within the body, it plays a major role in disease prevention and overall health. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases including migraine headaches, Alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular accident (stroke), hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Good food sources of magnesium include unrefined (whole) grains, spinach, nuts, legumes, and white potatoes (tubers). This review presents recent research in the areas of magnesium and chronic disease, with the goal of emphasizing magnesium’s role in disease prevention and overall health. PMID:23674807

  10. Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hajj, Samar; Fisher, Brian; Smith, Jennifer; Pike, Ian

    2017-09-12

    Background : Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA) methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods : Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology-group analytics (GA). GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders' observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; Results : The GA methodology triggered the emergence of ' common g round ' among stakeholders. This common ground evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders' verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; Conclusion s : Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve ' common ground' among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications.

  11. Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Al-Hajj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods: Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology—group analytics (GA. GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders’ observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; Results: The GA methodology triggered the emergence of ‘common ground’ among stakeholders. This common ground evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders’ verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; Conclusions: Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve ‘common ground’ among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications.

  12. Preventing home health nursing assistant back and shoulder injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, E W; Hagenbach, G L; Marn, K K

    2000-10-01

    Franklin County Home Health Agency (St Albans, Vermont) undertook a performance improvement project in 1996 to reduce employee injuries. A review of recent injuries led to the prevention of licensed nursing assistants' (LNAs') back and shoulder injuries as the first priority. Root causes of injuries were agency communication, employee training, patient home environment, nursing assistant body mechanics, and failure to use safety measures. Given that injury causality is complex and multifactorial, a variety of improvement strategies were implemented over the following two to three years. IMPLEMENTATION OF POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS: Short-term (a few months), mid-term (six months), and long-term (one year) potential solutions to the LNA back and shoulder injury problem were charted. Safety and health training was the major focus of the team's short-term plan. Risk management forms were to be used to identify and follow up on hazardous situations. Project plans that were successfully implemented included revision of LNA plans of care, standardization of the return-to-work process after injury, development of guidelines for identifying unsafe patient lifts and transfers, improved follow-up of employee reports of injury-risk situations in patient homes, improved body mechanics screening of new employees, and a stronger injury-prevention training program for current employees. A less successful initiative was aimed at collecting more data about injuries and causal factors. Employee injuries were gradually reduced from 4-10 per quarter to 0-3 per quarter. Injury prevention requires commitment, persistence, and patience--but not expensive improvements. Multiple interventions increase the chances of success when there are many root causes and lack of evidence regarding the effectiveness of various approaches.

  13. Canaries in the coal mine: Interpersonal violence, gang violence, and violent extremism through a public health prevention lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, David P; Flavahan, Louise

    2017-08-01

    This paper asks what programmes and policies for preventing violent extremism (also called 'countering violent extremism', or CVE) can learn from the public health violence prevention field. The general answer is that addressing violent extremism within the wider domain of public health violence prevention connects the effort to a relevant field of research, evidence-based policy and programming, and a broader population reach. This answer is reached by examining conceptual alignments between the two fields at both the case-level and the theoretical level. To address extremist violence within the wider reach of violence prevention, having a shared model is seen as a first step. The World Health Organization uses the social-ecological framework for assessing the risk and protective factors for violence and developing effective public-health based programmes. This study illustrates how this model has been used for gang violence prevention and explores overlaps between gang violence prevention and preventing violent extremism. Finally, it provides policy and programme recommendations to align CVE with public health violence prevention.

  14. Health of Older Adults in Assisted Living and Implications for Preventive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Christine E; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Ward, Kimberly T; Reed, David; Golin, Carol; Lewis, Carmen L

    2017-10-01

    Older adults in residential care and assisted living (RC/AL) are less healthy than the general elderly population, and some have needs similar to those in nursing homes, making this an important group in which to assess potential overuse or underuse of preventive services. We determined the health status of RC/AL residents and distinguished characteristics between those who may and may not benefit from preventive services requiring a life expectancy ≥5 years. Cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of RC/AL residents using 2010 data from the National Survey of Residential Care Facilities. The primary outcome was the weighted frequency distribution of health states using three predictive mortality indices: Charlson Comorbidity Index, 4-year mortality index, and 9-year mortality index. A total of 666,700 of 733,300 (weighted) residents met criteria for inclusion. Based on the three indices, 10%-15% were in good health, 11%-70% in intermediate health, and 20%-76% in poor health. Using triangulation between 3 well-validated mortality indices, 10%-15% of RC/AL residents are in good health and highly likely to benefit from preventive services that require ≥5 year life expectancy. In addition, many residents have uncertain benefit and would benefit from shared decision making. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Scoping review of health promotion and disease prevention interventions addressed to elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplaga, Mariusz; Grysztar, Marcin; Rodzinka, Marcin; Kopec, Agnieszka

    2016-09-05

    The ageing of modern societies remains one of the greatest challenges for health and social systems. To respond to this challenge, we need effective strategies assuring healthy active life for elderly people. Health promotion and related activities are perceived as a key intervention, which can improve wellbeing in later life. The main aim of this study is the identification and classification of such interventions addressed to older adults and elderly. Therefore, the strategy based on the scoping review as a feasible tool for exploring this domain, summarizing research findings and identifying gaps of evidence, was applied. The scoping review relies on the analysis of previous reviews of interventions aimed at older adults (55-64 years old) and elderly persons (65 years and above) assessed for their effectiveness in the framework of a systematic review and/or meta-analysis. The search strategy was based on the identification of interventions reported as health promotion, primary disease prevention, screening or social support. In the analysis, the reviews published from January 2000 to April 2015 were included. The search strategy yielded 334 systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses addressed to target groups of interest, 182 of them assessed interventions belonging to health promotion, 219 to primary prevention, 34 to screening and 35 to social support. The studies focused on elderly (65 years and above) made up 40.4 % of all retrieved reviews and those addressing population of 55 years and above accounted for 24.0 %. Interventions focused on health maintenance and improvement in elderly and older adults represent frequently combined health promotion and disease prevention actions. Many interventions of this type are not addressed exclusively to elderly populations and/or older adults but are designed for the general population. The most common types of interventions addressed to elderly and older adults in the area of health promotion include health

  16. The use of e-health and m-health tools in health promotion and primary prevention among older adults: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmeijer, Ramon; Pavlova, Milena; Tambor, Marzena; Golinowska, Stanisława; Groot, Wim

    2016-09-05

    The use of e-health and m-health technologies in health promotion and primary prevention among older people is largely unexplored. This study provides a systematic review of the evidence on the scope of the use of e-health and m-health tools in health promotion and primary prevention among older adults (age 50+). A systematic literature review was conducted in October 2015. The search for relevant publications was done in the search engine PubMed. The key inclusion criteria were: e-health and m-health tools used, participants' age 50+ years, focus on health promotion and primary prevention, published in the past 10 years, in English, and full-paper can be obtained. The text of the publications was analyzed based on two themes: the characteristics of e-health and m-health tools and the determinants of the use of these tools by older adults. The quality of the studies reviewed was also assessed. The initial search resulted in 656 publications. After we applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 45 publications were selected for the review. In the publications reviewed, various types of e-health/m-health tools were described, namely apps, websites, devices, video consults and webinars. Most of the publications (60 %) reported studies in the US. In 37 % of the publications, the study population was older adults in general, while the rest of the publications studied a specific group of older adults (e.g. women or those with overweight). The publications indicated various facilitators and barriers. The most commonly mentioned facilitator was the support for the use of the e-health/m-health tools that the older adults received. E-health and m-health tools are used by older adults in diverse health promotion programs, but also outside formal programs to monitor and improve their health. The latter is hardly studied. The successful use of e-health/m-health tools in health promotion programs for older adults greatly depends on the older adults' motivation and support

  17. Estimated hospital costs associated with preventable health care-associated infections if health care antiseptic products were unavailable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmier JK

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jordana K Schmier,1 Carolyn K Hulme-Lowe,1 Svetlana Semenova,2 Juergen A Klenk,3 Paul C DeLeo,4 Richard Sedlak,5 Pete A Carlson6 1Health Sciences, Exponent, Inc., Alexandria, VA, 2EcoSciences, Exponent, Inc., Maynard, MA, 3Health Sciences, Exponent, Inc., Alexandria, VA, 4Environmental Safety, 5Technical and International Affairs, American Cleaning Institute, Washington, DC, 6Regulatory Affairs, Ecolab, Saint Paul, MN, USA Objectives: Health care-associated infections (HAIs pose a significant health care and cost burden. This study estimates annual HAI hospital costs in the US avoided through use of health care antiseptics (health care personnel hand washes and rubs; surgical hand scrubs and rubs; patient preoperative and preinjection skin preparations. Methods: A spreadsheet model was developed with base case inputs derived from the published literature, supplemented with assumptions when data were insufficient. Five HAIs of interest were identified: catheter-associated urinary tract infections, central line-associated bloodstream infections, gastrointestinal infections caused by Clostridium difficile, hospital- or ventilator-associated pneumonia, and surgical site infections. A national estimate of the annual potential lost benefits from elimination of these products is calculated based on the number of HAIs, the proportion of HAIs that are preventable, the proportion of preventable HAIs associated with health care antiseptics, and HAI hospital costs. The model is designed to be user friendly and to allow assumptions about prevention across all infections to vary or stay the same. Sensitivity analyses provide low- and high-end estimates of costs avoided. Results: Low- and high-end estimates of national, annual HAIs in hospitals avoided through use of health care antiseptics are 12,100 and 223,000, respectively, with associated hospital costs avoided of US$142 million and US$4.25 billion, respectively. Conclusion: The model presents a novel

  18. A Role for Health Communication in the Continuum of HIV Care, Treatment, and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Cecilia; Risher, Kathryn; Limaye, Rupali J.; Lith, Lynn Van; Gibbs, Susannah; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Celentano, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Health communication has played a pivotal role in HIV prevention efforts since the beginning of the epidemic. The recent paradigm of combination prevention, which integrates behavioral, biomedical, and structural interventions, offers new opportunities for employing health communication approaches across the entire continuum of care. We describe key areas where health communication can significantly enhance HIV treatment, care, and prevention, presenting evidence from interventions that include health communication components. These interventions rely primarily on interpersonal communication, especially individual and group counseling, both within and beyond clinical settings to enhance the uptake of and continued engagement in care. Many successful interventions mobilize a network of trained community supporters or accompagnateurs, who provide education, counseling, psychosocial support, treatment supervision and other pragmatic assistance across the care continuum. Community treatment supporters reduce the burden on overworked medical providers, engage a wider segment of the community, and offer a more sustainable model for supporting people living with HIV. Additionally, mobile technologies are increasingly seen as promising avenues for ongoing cost-effective communication throughout the treatment cascade. A broader range of communication approaches, traditionally employed in HIV prevention efforts, that address community and sociopolitical levels through mass media, school- or workplace-based education, and entertainment modalities may be useful to interventions seeking to address the full care continuum. Future interventions would benefit from development of a framework that maps appropriate communication theories and approaches onto each step of the care continuum in order to evaluate the efficacy of communication components on treatment outcomes. PMID:25007201

  19. [Application of health education of house-to-house visit in malaria prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-gang; Qu, Yan; Wang, Wen-guang; Tang, Song-yuan

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of health education of house-to-house visit in malaria prevention and control in the border and minority areas. A health education of house-to-house visit in malaria prevention and control was carried out, and baseline and follow up surveys were conducted by qualitative and quantitative methods to document the changes of local villagers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviors (KAP) of malaria prevention and control in 2 counties of Yunnan Province, and the results before and after the interventions were analyzed and compared. After the intervention, the cognition rates about malaria symptoms and signs, transmission mode, preventive measures and health-seeking behaviors were 99.3%, 98.9%, 79.9% and 99.3% respectively in the local residents, and those were 39.2%, 8.2%, 47.0% and 49.9% respectively before the intervention, and all the differences were statistically significant (P all house-to-house visit is an effective community-based health education approach.

  20. Rail base corrosion and cracking prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Rail base corrosion combined with fatigue or damage can significantly reduce rail life. Studies were done to examine the relative contribution of damage, corrosion, and fatigue on rail life. The combined effects can be separated into constituent fact...

  1. The potential health and economic benefits of preventing recurrent respiratory papillomatosis through quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Forhan, Sara E; Gottlieb, Sami L; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2008-08-18

    We estimated the health and economic benefits of preventing recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) through quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. We applied a simple mathematical model to estimate the averted costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) saved by preventing RRP in children whose mothers had been vaccinated at age 12 years. Under base case assumptions, the prevention of RRP would avert an estimated USD 31 (range: USD 2-178) in medical costs (2006 US dollars) and save 0.00016 QALYs (range: 0.00001-0.00152) per 12-year-old girl vaccinated. Including the benefits of RRP reduced the estimated cost per QALY gained by HPV vaccination by roughly 14-21% in the base case and by 100% in the sensitivity analyses. More precise estimates of the incidence of RRP are needed, however, to quantify this impact more reliably.

  2. Radiation health consequences for astronauts: mechanisms, monitoring and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyfakh, E.

    During space flights crews are exposed chronically to uneven irradiation of enhanced bioefficiency following with significant elevation for chromosomal aberrations as minimum. To protect in space rationally monitoring and preventing of health radiogenic individual primary consequences for astronauts are of high importance. Majority of Chernobyl-touched population has some common etiologic radiogenic mechanisms and radioloads with astronauts ones during long-term missions and former is able to be used well as the close ground-level model. Primary radiogenic deviations. Two radiogenic pathologies as lipoperoxic ( LP ) stress with coupled deficits for essential bioantioxidants ( BAO ) were typical for chronic low-dose Chernobyl-touched contingents. When BAO expenditure had led to their subnormal levels, radiogenic free radical chain -b ranched LP processes occurred in vivo hyperbolically. Catabolites and their free radicals of the abnormal LP cascade are known to be toxic, mutagenic / carcinogenic and teratogenic factors as such, as they are for retinol and tocopherol deficiencies. Both coupled pathogenic factors interrelated synergistically. Simultaneous dysbalances for LP and / or BAO systems were evaluated as the cause and markers for metabolic disregulations. Human LP stress was proved to be the most radiosensible known marker to mo nitor least invasively of blood microsamples in a ground lab via the developed PC Program. But for capsule conditions the best approach is assumed to be LP monitoring via skin ultraweak green-blue chemiluminescence ( CL ) caused by recombination of peroxyl radicals. CL from surfaces of organs was embedded first ( E. Neyfakh, 1964 - 71 ) to reflect their internal LP velocities in vivo and it is the non-invasive on-line simple method of the highest sensitivity, supplying with data transmissible to the ground directly. Related deviations. a) Radiogenic hypermutagenesis: LP catabolites and their free radicals are responsible for direct DNA

  3. Technical efficiency of women's health prevention programs in Bucaramanga, Colombia: a four-stage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Myriam; Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A; Heredia-Pi, Ileana

    2016-10-13

    Primary Health Care (PHC) is an efficient strategy to improve health outcomes in populations. Nevertheless, studies of technical efficiency in health care have focused on hospitals, with very little on primary health care centers. The objective of the present study was to use the Data Envelopment Analysis to estimate the technical efficiency of three women's health promotion and disease prevention programs offered by primary care centers in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Efficiency was measured using a four-stage data envelopment analysis with a series of Tobit regressions to account for the effect of quality outcomes and context variables. Input/output information was collected from the institutions' records, chart reviews and personal interviews. Information about contextual variables was obtained from databases from the primary health program in the municipality. A jackknife analysis was used to assess the robustness of the results. The analysis was based on data from 21 public primary health care centers. The average efficiency scores, after adjusting for quality and context, were 92.4 %, 97.5 % and 86.2 % for the antenatal care (ANC), early detection of cervical cancer (EDCC) and family planning (FP) programs, respectively. On each program, 12 of the 21 (57.1 %) health centers were found to be technically efficient; having had the best-practice frontiers. Adjusting for context variables changed the scores and reference rankings of the three programs offered by the health centers. The performance of the women's health prevention programs offered by the centers was found to be heterogeneous. Adjusting for context and health care quality variables had a significant effect on the technical efficiency scores and ranking. The results can serve as a guide to strengthen management and organizational and planning processes related to local primary care services operating within a market-based model such as the one in Colombia.

  4. Health Services Research for Drug and Alcohol Treatment and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Dennis; Roman, Paul M; Sorensen, James; Weisner, Constance

    2009-01-01

    Health services research is a multidisciplinary field that examines ways to organize, manage, finance, and deliver high-quality care. This specialty within substance abuse research developed from policy analyses and needs assessments that shaped federal policy and promoted system development in the 1970s. After the authorization of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), patient information systems supported studies of treatment processes and outcomes. Health services research grew substantially in the 1990s when NIAAA and NIDA moved into the National Institutes of Health and legislation allocated 15% of their research portfolio to services research. The next decade will emphasize research on quality of care, adoption and use of evidence-based practices (including medication), financing reforms and integration of substance abuse treatment with primary care and mental health services.

  5. Rail Base Corrosion and Cracking Prevention: Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-09

    EWI was engaged by the Federal Railroad Administration to research rail treatments to prevent rail base corrosion in corrosive environments. A coating system was selected in Phase 1 and recommended for field trials. In Phase 2, four railroads sponsor...

  6. Community Based Organizations in HIV/AIDS Prevention, Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Based Organizations in HIV/AIDS Prevention, Patient. ... behavioral change communication methods that may contribute significantly to overcoming ... Towards that objective, CBOs need both internal strengthening of programs and ...

  7. OECD Health Care Quality Indicator Project. The expert panel on primary care prevention and health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, Martin; Klazinga, Niek; Leatherman, Sheila; Hardy, Charlie; Bergmann, Eckhard; Pisco, Luis; Mattke, Soeren; Mainz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: This article describes a project undertaken as part of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)'s Healthcare Quality Indicator (HCQI) Project, which aimed to develop a set of quality indicators representing the domains of primary care, prevention and health

  8. Youth Suicide Prevention: Mental Health and Public Health Perspectives. A Presentation and Training Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This presentation and training aid provides a brief overview and discussion of the nature and scope of youth suicide, what prevention programs try to do, a framework for a public health approach, guides to programs and more. This material can be used for both handouts and as overheads for use with presentations. (GCP)

  9. Punica granatum (Pomegranate activity in health promotion and cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become one of the most fatal diseases in most countries. In spite of the medical care developing, cancer still remains a significant problem. The majority of the cancers are resistant to treatment. Thus, the research for novel, more efficient and less side effect treatment methods continues. Pomegranate contains strong antioxidant activity, with potential health interests. Research concern in pomegranate is increasing because of their anticancer potential due to possess rich in polyphenols. We highlight the pomegranate potential health benefits and mechanism of cancer progression inhibition. Pomegranate has indicated antiproliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effects on different cancer cell line in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial. The aim of this review is to evaluate functional properties and the medical benifits of pomegranate against various cancer diseases. In addition, pomegranate properties in in vitro and in vivo experimental human and animal clinical trials and its future use are explored. The available data suggest that Punica granatum (pomegranate might be used in the control and potential therapeutic for some disease conditions and benefits human health status. This review summarizes in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial studies highlighting the pomegranate role in prevent and treatment of breast, prostate, lung, colon, skin and hepatocellular cell cancers.

  10. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) activity in health promotion and cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Cancer has become one of the most fatal diseases in most countries. In spite of the medical care developing, cancer still remains a significant problem. The majority of the cancers are resistant to treatment. Thus, the research for novel, more efficient and less side effect treatment methods continues. Pomegranate contains strong antioxidant activity, with potential health interests. Research concern in pomegranate is increasing because of their anticancer potential due to possess rich in polyphenols. We highlight the pomegranate potential health benefits and mechanism of cancer progression inhibition. Pomegranate has indicated antiproliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effects on different cancer cell line in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial. The aim of this review is to evaluate functional properties and the medical benifits of pomegranate against various cancer diseases. In addition, pomegranate properties in in vitro and in vivo experimental human and animal clinical trials and its future use are explored. The available data suggest that Punica granatum (pomegranate) might be used in the control and potential therapeutic for some disease conditions and benefits human health status. This review summarizes in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial studies highlighting the pomegranate role in prevent and treatment of breast, prostate, lung, colon, skin and hepatocellular cell cancers. PMID:29441150

  11. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) activity in health promotion and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiri-Jahromi, Shahindokht

    2018-01-30

    Cancer has become one of the most fatal diseases in most countries. In spite of the medical care developing, cancer still remains a significant problem. The majority of the cancers are resistant to treatment. Thus, the research for novel, more efficient and less side effect treatment methods continues. Pomegranate contains strong antioxidant activity, with potential health interests. Research concern in pomegranate is increasing because of their anticancer potential due to possess rich in polyphenols. We highlight the pomegranate potential health benefits and mechanism of cancer progression inhibition. Pomegranate has indicated antiproliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effects on different cancer cell line in vitro , in vivo and clinical trial. The aim of this review is to evaluate functional properties and the medical benifits of pomegranate against various cancer diseases. In addition, pomegranate properties in in vitro and in vivo experimental human and animal clinical trials and its future use are explored. The available data suggest that Punica granatum (pomegranate) might be used in the control and potential therapeutic for some disease conditions and benefits human health status. This review summarizes in vitro , in vivo and clinical trial studies highlighting the pomegranate role in prevent and treatment of breast, prostate, lung, colon, skin and hepatocellular cell cancers.

  12. Technology-based suicide prevention: current applications and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D; June, Jennifer D; Kinn, Julie T

    2011-01-01

    This review reports on current and emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Technology-based programs discussed include interactive educational and social networking Web sites, e-mail outreach, and programs that use mobile devices and texting. We describe innovative applications such as virtual worlds, gaming, and text analysis that are currently being developed and applied to suicide prevention and outreach programs. We also discuss the benefits and limitations of technology-based applications and discuss future directions for their use.

  13. School-Based Caries Prevention, Tooth Decay, and the Community Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, R R; Niederman, R

    2018-04-01

    The school and community context can contribute to inequity in child oral health. Whether the school and community affect the effectiveness of school-based caries prevention is unknown. The association between the school and community environment and dental caries, as well as their moderating effects with school-based caries prevention, was assessed using multilevel mixed-effects regression. Data were derived from a 6-y prospective cohort study of children participating in a school-based caries prevention program. For the school and community, living in a dental-shortage area and the proportion of children receiving free or reduced lunch were significantly related to an increased risk of dental caries at baseline. Caries prevention was associated with a significant per-visit decrease in the risk of untreated caries, but the rate of total caries experience increased over time. Caries prevention was more effective in children who had prior dental care at baseline and in schools with a higher proportion of low socioeconomic status students. There was significant variation across schools in the baseline prevalence of dental caries and the effect of prevention over time, although effects were modest. The school and community environment have a direct impact on oral health and moderate the association between school-based caries prevention and dental caries. Knowledge Transfer Statement: School-based caries prevention can be an effective means to reduce oral health inequity by embedding dental care within schools. However, the socioeconomic makeup of schools and characteristics of the surrounding community can affect the impact of school-based care.

  14. Meeting Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Relation to Preventive Health Behavior and Health Status Among Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Hart

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity (PA with health status and preventive health behavior in adults. Methods A total of 5630 adults 18 years of age or older were included in this study. PA was assessed using a series of questions that categorized activities based on their metabolic equivalent values and then categorized individuals based on the reported frequency and duration of such activities. Participants reporting 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA per week were considered to have met the PA guidelines. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationships between meeting PA guidelines and health status and preventive health behavior, while controlling for confounding variables. Results Overall, 53.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.9 to 55.9% of adults reported meeting the recommended levels of PA. Among adults with good general health, 56.9% (95% CI, 54.7 to 59.1% reported meeting the recommended levels of PA versus 43.1% (95% CI, 40.9 to 45.3% who did not. Adults who met the PA guidelines were significantly more likely not to report high cholesterol, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, asthma, depression, or overweight. Furthermore, adults meeting the PA guidelines were significantly more likely to report having health insurance, consuming fruits daily, consuming vegetables daily, and not being a current cigarette smoker. Conclusions In this study, we found meeting the current guidelines for PA to have a protective relationship with both health status and health behavior in adults. Health promotion programs should focus on strategies that help individuals meet the current guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity PA.

  15. Long-term effects of adolescent marijuana use prevention on adult mental health services utilization: the midwestern prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel R; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Evaluated were effects of a drug abuse(1) prevention program, previously shown to prevent marijuana use in adolescence, on adulthood mental health service use. Analyses were conducted on 961 6th (41%) and 7th (59%) grade participants randomly assigned to intervention or control groups at baseline in 1984. These participants were followed-up through 2003 representing 15 waves of data collection. Eighty-five percent of participants were Caucasian and 56% were female. The hypothesis was that direct program effects on early adulthood mental health service use would be mediated by program effects on high school marijuana use trajectories. Structural equation models, imputing for missing data, demonstrated that MPP (Midwestern Prevention Project) program effects on mental health were mediated by the marijuana use growth curve intercept. Findings support the role of early adolescent drug use prevention programs in impacting later mental health problems. The study's limitations are noted.

  16. Women's Preventive Services Guidelines Affordable Care Act Expands Prevention Coverage for Women's Health and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in existing guidelines. Health Resources and Services Administration Women's Preventive Services Guidelines Non-grandfathered plans (plans or policies created or sold after March 23, 2010, or older plans or policies that ...

  17. Adapting Evidence-Based Prevention Approaches for Latino Adolescents: The Familia Adelante Program - Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Cervantes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral health is defined as the absence of mental illness or substance use problems and the presence of positive emotional well being. Although many U.S. Hispanic youth are at increased risk for substance abuse, suicidality, teen pregnancy, unsafe sexual practices and HIV, there exists a lack of available evidence-based practices for Hispanic youth which promotes behavioral health and HIV prevention. The objective of the current research was to adapt and revise the Familia Adelante (FA Program, a behavioral health, drug intervention and prevention program to incorporate an HIV prevention component. Through qualitative community based participatory methods, including an expert panel and members of the target population, the curriculum was redesigned to integrate effective HIV risk reduction strategies. The process of adapting the intervention is described in this paper, as well as recommendations for future research in program adaptation.

  18. First Steps towards Evidence-Based Preventive Home Visits: Experiences Gathered in a Swedish Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Löfqvist

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of preventive home visits is to promote overall health and wellbeing in old age. The aim of this paper was to describe the process of the development of evidence-based preventive home visits, targeting independent community-living older persons. The evidence base was generated from published studies and practical experiences. The results demonstrate that preventive home visits should be directed to persons 80 years old and older and involve various professional competences. The visits should be personalized, lead to concrete interventions, and be followed up. The health areas assessed should derive from a broad perspective and include social, psychological, and medical aspects. Core components in the protocol developed in this study captured physical, medical, psychosocial, and environmental aspects. Results of a pilot study showed that the protocol validly identified health risks among older people with different levels of ADL dependence.

  19. Assessing the quality of mental health promotion and prevention in Croatia: the case of Istria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihic, Josipa; Novak, Miranda; Hosman, Clemens; Domitrovich, Celene

    2017-06-01

    While the availability of mental health promotion and prevention programs worldwide is growing, there is divergence in their level of effectiveness that has led to increasing interest in the development of 'effect management' strategies. Mental health promotion and prevention science and practice has a relatively young history in Croatia, but major investments towards its development have been made over the last decade. This paper reports on a research project that took place within the Istrian Region. The long-term goal of the initiative is to establish quality assurance indicators for mental health promotion and prevention interventions. The current study involved adapting the Dutch Preffi 2.0 instrument for use in Croatia. The content of the Preffi reflects the literature regarding research-based effect predictors. An instrument allows users to assess whether programs have been designed and implemented in ways that maximize their ability to be effective. The Preffi scores can be used for improving a program and the quality with which it is implemented. The first aim of the study is to determine if independent researchers can use the Preffi reliably as a quality assessment instrument. The second aim is to use the Preffi to describe the quality of one cohort of mental health promotion and prevention programs. The study represents the first steps toward developing a strategy for quality assurance that strengthens community capacity for effective service delivery and that could inform other countries whose mental health promotion and prevention efforts are in early stages of development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Building an evidence base for occupational health interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Jos; Husman, Kaj; van Dijk, Frank; Jauhiainen, Merja; Pasternack, Iris; Vainio, Harri

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes arguments for building an evidence base for occupational health. Evidence is needed on the most effective ways of eliminating health hazards in the workplace and at work, enhancing healthy behavior or the empowerment of workers, and preventing and treating occupational

  1. Implications of the 2015 World Health Organization isoniazid preventive therapy recommendations on tuberculosis prevention efforts in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloo, Stella Anne

    2016-07-01

    The World Health Organization recently released guidelines recommending 36-month use of isoniazid preventive therapy in adults and adolescents living with HIV in resource-limited settings. Namibia continues to grapple with one of the highest incidences of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. Implementation of these guidelines requires considerations of TB epidemiology, health infrastructure, programmatic priorities and patient adherence. This article explores the challenges Namibia currently faces in its fight against TB and the implications of the new guidelines on Namibian TB prevention efforts.

  2. Protocols for pressure ulcer prevention: are they evidence-based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Lidice M; Grypdonck, Mieke H F; Defloor, Tom

    2010-03-01

    This study is a report of a study to determine the quality of protocols for pressure ulcer prevention in home care in the Netherlands. If pressure ulcer prevention protocols are evidence-based and practitioners use them correctly in practice, this will result a reduction in pressure ulcers. Very little is known about the evidence-based content and quality of the pressure ulcer prevention protocols. In 2008, current pressure ulcer prevention protocols from 24 home-care agencies in the Netherlands were evaluated. A checklist developed and validated by two pressure ulcer prevention experts was used to assess the quality of the protocols, and weighted and unweighted quality scores were computed and analysed using descriptive statistics. The 24 pressure ulcer prevention protocols had a mean weighted quality score of 63.38 points out of a maximum of 100 (sd 5). The importance of observing the skin at the pressure points at least once a day was emphasized in 75% of the protocols. Only 42% correctly warned against the use of materials that were 'less effective or that could potentially cause harm'. Pressure ulcer prevention commands a reasonable amount of attention in home care, but the incidence of pressure ulcers and lack of a consistent, standardized document for use in actual practice indicate a need for systematic implementation of national pressure ulcer prevention standards in the Netherlands to ensure adherence to the established protocols.

  3. [Guidelines for the prevention and control of tuberculosis in health care workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Irma; Dominguez, Jose; Rodríguez, Soledad; Matllo, Joan; Altet, Neus

    2015-12-21

    Tuberculosis remains one of the communicable diseases that cause increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. With an incidence rate of 13,04 per 100,000 population, Spain ranks third among the most affected European countries. These data show a tendency to decrease meaning that it may go unnoticed with the potential to miss the appropriate preventive measures in a suspected case. In centers where patients are treated with tuberculosis, health care worker presents risk of transmission. This risk is higher in some areas or work units. The Occupational health physicians' services, which monitorize the health of health care workers, use different strategies in order to prevent and detect tuberculosis infection. The national guidelines include the tuberculin skin test as a screening test for tuberculosis infection with mention of new diagnostic tests based on the in vitro detection of gamma interferon (IGRA) for certain cases. The purpose of this guide is to establish common criteria for IGRA tests, as a supplementary aid to the tuberculin skin test in health care workers, from the evidence available today. Recommendations for its use have been adapted to the different situations faced by the professionals involved in monitoring the health of health workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of a Community-Based Program for Oral Health and Nutrition on Cost-Effectiveness by Preventing Disability in Japanese Frail Elderly: A Quasi-Experimental Study Using Propensity Score Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomata, Yasutake; Watanabe, Takashi; Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Zhang, Shu; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2017-08-01

    In the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance (LTCI) system, a community-based program for oral health and nutrition (OHN program) has been implemented with the aim of reducing incident disability and care costs. However, the effectiveness of this program has not been confirmed epidemiologically. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the OHN program does reduce incident disability and care costs. A prospective study with a 28-month follow-up period was conducted using data from administrative databases at Tagajo City, Japan. Among frail elderly persons (aged 65 years or more) who were enrolled in the LTCI program in Tagajo, 64 participants in the OHN program and 128 controls (nonparticipants) were selected by propensity score matching. We used 2 types of outcome measure: composite outcome (incident disability and death) and care cost. Data on incident disability were retrieved from the public LTCI database. Care cost was defined as the total amount of LTCI service cost added to medical care cost. The hazard ratio of composite outcome was significantly lower for the intervention group than for the control group (hazard ratio = 0.32, 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.82). Even when we set incident disability as an outcome, the hazard ratio for the intervention group did not change (hazard ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.11-0.97). The mean cumulative care cost during the 28 months tended to be lower for the intervention group ($4893) than that for the control group ($5770), but this was not statistically significant by the gamma regression model (cost ratio = 0.85, P = .513). The mean care cost per unit follow-up period (1 month) for the intervention group was significantly lower (cost ratio = 0.54, P = .027). The results of this study suggest that the OHN program is effective for preventing incident disability and, consequently, for saving care costs per unit survival period. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post

  5. Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

  6. Fostering functioning of workers: A new challenge for prevention in occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amelsvoort, Ludovic G P M; de Brouwer, Carin P M; Heerkens, Yvonne F; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Kant, IJmert

    2017-01-01

    Given large changes in working conditions and society, occupational health care has to prioritize its efforts towards fostering health and functioning of workers and as such promote work participation. This requires that more emphasis is given on the application of biopsychological models in the care of workers. Although a biopsychological approach is often mentioned as essential part of occupational health care, it's application is often hampered in practice, by practical barriers and lack of practical knowledge. This is illustrated by a study that uncovered facilitating and hindering factors in the implementation process of a preventive strategy, proven effective in reducing the risk of long term sickness absence. To facilitate the use of biopsychological models in occupational health care, it is shown that setting up a training curriculum is possible, based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) grafted on available training in evidence based practice skills is possible. Furthermore, there is a need for elaboration of the personal factors relevant for workers and the relevant work-related environmental factors to support practical application of ICF in occupational health care. A paradigm shift in occupational health care can facilitate widespread implementation of the biopsychosocial approach in occupational health and may stimulate occupational health professionals to further integrate this approach in their daily practice.

  7. Pragmatic prevention of preterm birth and evidence based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyme, Udo B

    2016-07-01

    Effective prevention of preterm birth is one of the unsolved problems in modern medicine. In the Thuringia campaign 2000 based on a simple screening with intravaginal pH self-measurements, adequate medical diagnosis and immediate antimicrobial therapy of genital infection, the rate of newborns ever seen in any of the German states. Therefore, the regime should be implicated as a necessary step of optimizing and rationalizing the health care system. However, in the discussion we had to learn that the best way to inhibit progress is to cope with problems by preferring the most complicated policies under persistent renunciation of simple solutions. As long as we do not have other alternative safe, simple and cheap methods, do we really have to wait even more decades to come for a prospectively randomized double-blinded almost impracticable study to convince the latest skeptical scientist that we have plenty of evidence-based means to reduce the incidence of premature birth, now, by decreasing infectious morbidity in pregnancy and by the same action childbed fever as well? Insisting scholastically on nothing but the 100 % pure evidence sometimes can hamper innovations and potential benefit. Would a similar caution ever had allowed us for instance to introduce handwashing according to Semmelweis? Good news, the Government of the State of Thuringia has decided this year to reestablish a pH selfcare screening programme.

  8. Economic analysis of an internet-based depression prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Alexander; Marko-Holguin, Monika; Fogel, Joshua; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W

    2013-09-01

    interventions like CATCH-IT appears economically viable in the context of an Accountable Care Organization. Furthermore, while the cost of implementing an effective safety protocol is proportionally high for this intervention, CATCH-IT is still significantly cheaper to implement than current treatment options. Limitations of this research included diminished participation in follow-up surveys assessing willingness-to-pay. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVISION AND USE AND HEALTH POLICIES: This research emphasizes that preventive interventions have the potential to be cheaper to implement than treatment protocols, even before taking into account lost productivity due to illness. Research such as this business application analysis of the CATCH-IT program highlights the importance of supporting preventive medical interventions as the healthcare system already does for treatment interventions. This research is the first to analyze the economic costs of an Internet-based intervention. Further research into the costs and outcomes of such interventions is certainly warranted before they are widely adopted. Furthermore, more research regarding the safety of Internet-based programs will likely need to be conducted before they are broadly accepted.

  9. Exercise-Based School Obesity Prevention Programs: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetter, Georgette

    2009-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major health concerns for young people. Schools are particularly promising environments for preventing and treating obesity. The Institutes of Medicine recommends 60 minutes per day of physical activity for children and youth, including at least 30 minutes at school. Yet the amount of moderate to vigorous physical…

  10. Perceived Benefits and Challenges of Coordinated Approaches to Chronic Disease Prevention in State Health Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Sonia; Best, Leslie; Jones, Ellen; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chronic disease prevention efforts have historically been funded categorically according to disease or risk factor. Federal agencies are now progressively starting to fund combined programs to address common risk. The purpose of this study was to inform transitions to coordinated chronic disease prevention by learning views on perceived benefits and challenges of a coordinated approach to funding. Methods A national survey on evidence-based public health was conducted from March through May 2013 among state health department employees working in chronic disease prevention (N = 865). Participants were asked to rank the top 3 benefits and top 3 challenges in coordinating chronic disease approaches from provided lists and could provide additional responses. Descriptive analyses, χ2 tests, and analysis of variance were conducted. Results The most common perceived benefits of coordinated approaches to chronic disease prevention were improved health outcomes, common risk factors better addressed, and reduced duplication of program efforts. The most common perceived challenges were funding restrictions, such as disease-specific performance measures; competing priorities; lack of communication across programs; funding might be reduced; agency not structured for program coordination; and loss of disease-specific partner support. Rankings of benefits and challenges were similar across states and participant roles; the perceived challenges “lack of communication across programs” (P = .02) and “funding might be reduced” differed by program area (P organizational support for coordinated approaches, and create benefits for organizational partners. PMID:24809362

  11. Nutritional Preventive Behavior of Osteoporosis in Female Students: Applying Health Belief Model (HBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOsteoporosis is one of the most important health problems and it is of great importance to prevent this disease. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional preventive behavior of osteoporosis using health belief model in female students in Qom city, Iran.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was conducted on 265 tenth to twelfth grade female students in Qom city. The subjects were selected via multistage sampling method. To collect data, we used a standard questionnaire based on health belief model. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20.0 using independent t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and ANOVA. ResultsKnowledge and perceived self-efficacy had a positive and significant relationship with nutritional preventive behavior of osteoporosis (P=0.04, r=0.12 and P=0.004, r=0.18, respectively. However, perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers had a negative and significant relationship with nutritional preventive behavior of osteoporosis (P=0.02, r=-0.14 and P

  12. Emerging Ecological Approaches to Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health in the School Context: Next Steps from a Community Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J.; Rowe, Hillary L.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, ecological perspectives have become more visible in prevention, health promotion, and public health within the school context. Individually based approaches to understanding and changing behavior have been increasingly challenged by these perspectives because of their appreciation for contextual influences on individual behavior.…

  13. Health care-associated infection prevention in Japan: the role of safety culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Fumie; Sakihama, Tomoko; Saint, Sanjay; Greene, M Todd; Ratz, David; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2014-08-01

    Limited data exist on the use of infection prevention practices in Japan. We conducted a nationwide survey to examine the use of recommended infection prevention strategies and factors affecting their use in Japanese hospitals. Between April 1, 2012, and January 31, 2013, we surveyed 971 hospitals in Japan. The survey instrument assessed general hospital and infection prevention program characteristics and use of infection prevention practices, including practices specific to preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Logistic regression models were used to examine multivariable associations between hospital characteristics and the use of the various prevention practices. A total of 685 hospitals (71%) responded to the survey. Maintaining aseptic technique during catheter insertion and maintenance, avoiding routine central line changes, and using maximum sterile barrier precautions and semirecumbent positioning were the only practices regularly used by more than one-half of the hospitals to prevent CAUTI, CLABSI, and VAP, respectively. Higher safety-centeredness was associated with regular use of prevention practices across all infection types. Although certain practices were used commonly, the rate of regular use of many evidence-based prevention practices was low in Japanese hospitals. Our findings highlight the importance of fostering an organization-wide atmosphere that prioritizes patient safety. Such a commitment to patient safety should in turn promote the use of effective measures to reduce health care-associated infections in Japan. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilization of Preventive Health Care in Adults and Children With Eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Mark A; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2016-02-01

    Chronic disease is a barrier to delivery of preventive health care and health maintenance. However, health behaviors of adults and children with eczema, a chronic skin disorder, have not been examined. This study examined associations of eczema with vaccination, disease screening, health maintenance, and healthcare utilization. This study investigated 34,613 adults and 13,298 children from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, a prospective questionnaire-based study. Data were analyzed between August 2014 and January 2015. Adult eczema was associated with higher odds of vaccination for tetanus (OR [95% CI]=1.37 [1.22, 1.54]); influenza (1.23 [1.10, 1.37]); hepatitis A (1.21 [1.04, 1.41]) and B (1.21 [1.07, 1.35]); human papilloma virus (1.66 [1.32, 2.08]); and pneumonia (1.35 [1.19, 1.54]), but not herpes zoster virus (1.07 [0.87, 1.31]). Adult eczema was associated with increased measurement of blood glucose (1.29 [1.16, 1.44]); cholesterol (1.19 [1.06, 1.34]); blood pressure (1.84 [1.56, 2.08]); and HIV infection (1.50 [1.34, 1.70]), but not Pap smears (1.11 [0.95, 1.30]); colon cancer screening (p=0.17); or mammograms (p=0.63). Adults with eczema were more likely to interact with general doctors, mid-level providers, mental health professionals, eye doctors, podiatrists, chiropractors, therapists, obstetrician/gynecologists, and other specialists (p≤0.01). Childhood eczema was associated with higher rates of vaccination for influenza (pEczema in adults and children is associated with greater utilization of preventive health care and health maintenance, but not cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. INTERDISCIPLINARY MODULE IN PREVENTION AND HEALTH PROMOTION IN POPULATION HEALTH FOR OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY AND PHYSIOTHERAPY STUDENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jørgen

    -operate towards appropriate solutions. The groups suggest and present preventive and health promotion solutions and strategies especially designed for this particular situation. The groups are supervised by an interdisciplinary team of occupational therapy and physiotherapy lecturers. In addition......PURPOSE: The purpose is to provide physiotherapy and occupational therapy students at the University College Cvu vita in Holstebro, Denmark, the opportunity to develop competences for interdisciplinary working situations concerning promotion of population health. RELEVANCE: The Danish Ministry...... of the Interior and Health participates in co-operation within the European Union on health areas, which focuses on efforts with respect to public health (Article 152 of the Treaty on EU). The curricula for both educations underline the importance of preparing the students for interdisciplinary co...

  16. [Health prevention for children and adolescents in competitive sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhagen, A; Pommerening, S; Vogt, L; Banzer, W

    2009-12-01

    The promotion of sport talents in Germany is federally standardised. Apart from the training and management support, annual sports-medical investigations with standardised procedures are mandatory for athletes' health and safety. For the first time, this study evaluates the prevalence ratio of medical findings in Hessian top athletes. The data of all athletes presenting in one of the 27 licenced examination centres in Hesse during the period of investigation were evaluated for age, sex and sports discipline as well as medical findings and a trinomial classification of the sports-related health status. The completeness of this collection in the relevant period from November 2006 to October 2007 was assured by cross-checking the application charts of all related sports associations. Data of 1620 (m: 904, 14.8 +/- 2.5 years; w: 716, 14.3 +/- 2.6 years) of all 1713 athletes presenting during the evaluation period were used for analysis. Medical findings (e. g., resulting in follow-up evaluation or further consultations) were seen in 83.5 % of all athletes. A small group (3.6 %) was temporarily, and one single athlete was completely exempted from sports participation. These results underline (additionally to the preventive capability of sports-medical investigations) the need for an annual medical consultation of juvenile athletes. Further investigations should be extended to other districts and classes and might evaluate the direct and indirect costs of diseases.

  17. MD Anderson's Population Health Approaches to Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxhall, Lewis; Moreno, Mark; Hawk, Ernest

    2018-02-01

    Texas's size and unique population demographics present challenges to addressing the state's cancer burden. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center is one of 69 National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers across the United States. While these centers traditionally have focused on research, education and training, and providing research-driven patient care, they are in a unique position to collaboratively advance population health through cancer control. Unlike the traditional academic model of a three-legged stool representing research, education, and patient care, MD Anderson's mission includes a fourth leg that incorporates population health approaches. MD Anderson has leveraged state- and national-level data and freely available resources to develop population-health priorities and a set of evidence-based actions across policy, public and professional education, and community-based clinical service domains to address these priorities. Population health approaches complement dissemination and implementation research and treatment, and will be increasingly needed to address the growing cancer burden in Texas and the nation.

  18. CE: Original Research: Exploring Clinicians' Perceptions About Sustaining an Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Rebecca B; Cullen, Laura; Farrington, Michele; Matthews, Grace; Tucker, Sharon

    2018-05-01

    : Purpose: This study aimed to address the knowledge gap between implementing and sustaining evidence-based fall prevention practices for hospitalized patients by exploring perspectives of the interprofessional health care team. A qualitative design was used to capture insights from clinicians across disciplines in a large midwestern academic medical center. Four homogenous semistructured focus groups and three individual interviews involving a total of 20 clinicians were conducted between October 2013 and March 2014. Audio-recorded data were transcribed and analyzed using inductive qualitative analysis. Two primary themes emerged from participants regarding the sustainability of an evidence-based fall prevention program: communication patterns within the interprofessional health care team and influences of hospital organizational practices and elements. Several subthemes also emerged. Participants gave nursing staff primary responsibility for fall risk assessment and prevention. Individual professional perceptions and practices, as well as organizational characteristics, affect the sustainability of evidence-based fall prevention practices. While all team members recognized patient falls as a significant quality and safety issue, most believed that direct care nurses hold primary responsibility for leading fall prevention efforts. The data support the importance of effective interprofessional team communication and organizational practices in sustaining an evidence-based fall prevention program across inpatient units. Furthermore, the data call into question the wisdom in labeling quality indicators as "nursing sensitive"; the evidence indicates that a team approach is best.

  19. Stepwise Development of a Text Messaging-Based Bullying Prevention Program for Middle School Students (BullyDown)

    OpenAIRE

    Ybarra, Michele L; Prescott, Tonya L; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-01-01

    Background Bullying is a significant public health issue among middle school-aged youth. Current prevention programs have only a moderate impact. Cell phone text messaging technology (mHealth) can potentially overcome existing challenges, particularly those that are structural (e.g., limited time that teachers can devote to non-educational topics). To date, the description of the development of empirically-based mHealth-delivered bullying prevention programs are lacking in the literature. Obj...

  20. 75 FR 41787 - Requirement for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers To Provide Coverage of Preventive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Requirement for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers To Provide Coverage of Preventive Services... Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar interim final regulations with respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage offered in...

  1. Frontline work and the impact of solidarity: Encounters between children and professionals under Danish preventive health and social policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard

    2013-01-01

    Within recent years, Denmark has implemented a number of preventive policies based on the line of reasoning that it is better to prevent than to solve problems. Preventive policies express political intentions aimed at solving core welfare state problems related to health, education and welfare...... & Møller forthcoming in Critical Policy Studies) as well as a reproduction of social boundaries affecting variation between how professionals transform public worries into preventive action (Harrits & Møller re- invited in Public Management Review). One analysis suggested that an increase in social...

  2. Training medical providers in evidence-based approaches to suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHay, Tamara; Ross, Sarah; McFaul, Mimi

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a significant issue in the United States and worldwide, and its prevention is a public health imperative. Primary care practices are an important setting for suicide prevention, as primary care providers have more frequent contact with patients at risk for suicide than any other type of health-care provider. The Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, in partnership with the Suicide Prevention Resource Center, has developed a Suicide Prevention Toolkit and an associated training curriculum. These resources support the education of primary care providers in evidence-based strategies for identifying and treating patients at risk for suicide. The application of this curriculum to post-graduate medical training is presented here. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Program Development and Effectiveness of Workplace Health Promotion Program for Preventing Metabolic Syndrome among Office Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hosihn; Jung, Jiyeon; Cho, Jeonghyun; Chin, Dal Lae

    2017-08-04

    This paper aims to develop and analyze the effects of a socio-ecological model-based intervention program for preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) among office workers. The intervention program was developed using regular health examinations, a "health behavior and need" assessment survey among workers, and a focus group study. According to the type of intervention, subjects took part in three groups: health education via an intranet-based web magazine (Group 1), self-monitoring with the U-health system (Group 2), and the target population who received intensive intervention (Group 3). The intervention programs of Group 1 and Group 2, which relied on voluntary participation, did not show significant effects. In Group 3, which relied on targeted and proactive programs, showed a decrease in waist circumference and in fasting glucose ( p light of the effectiveness of the intensive intervention strategy for metabolic syndrome prevention among workers used in this study, companies should establish targeted and proactive health care programs rather than providing a healthcare system that is dependent on an individual's voluntary participation.

  4. Indian students' perspectives on obesity and school-based obesity prevention: a qualitative examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel; Tewari, Abha; Stigler, Melissa; Rodrigues, Lindsay; Arora, Monika; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Simmons, Rob; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2013-11-01

    Childhood obesity has recently been reported as a growing problem in low- and middle-income countries. One potential prevention strategy is to apply effective obesity prevention approaches from the United States and/or other Western countries into programs that can be implemented in developing countries such as India. The purpose of this study was to explore Indian students' perceptions of social-contextual factors related to obesity and whether they perceived a role for school-based obesity prevention. This study was conducted as a first step in a model to translate interventions from one culture to another. A total of 183 fourth- and fifth-grade students of middle socioeconomic status participated in focus group discussions. Analyses were guided by the essential principles of qualitative research and informed by social cognitive and social ecological theories. Results yielded five relevant themes: (a) student health behavior knowledge, (b) parental influence on health behavior, (c) school influence on health behavior, (d) media influence on health behavior, and (e) contexts for health promotion intervention. We found that students had moderate knowledge related to health behaviors (i.e., food intake and physical activity); that parents, schools, and the media are all important contributors to healthy and unhealthy behavior; and that schools can play an important role in the prevention of obesity. Results suggest that Indian middle socioeconomic status students are already moderately aware of the health benefits to nutritious food intake and physical activity, but parents, schools, and the media can influence unhealthy behaviors.

  5. A qualitative study of health problems, risk factors, and prevention among Emergency Medical Service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dropkin, Jonathan; Moline, Jacqueline; Power, Paul M; Kim, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors among Emergency Medical Service (EMS) workers are difficult to characterize and inconsistencies remain about their main health problems. To identify main work-related health problems among EMS workers in the United States; identify risk factors at the organizational, task, and exposure level; identify prevention strategies; examine these issues between participants (EMS workers and supervisors). Two types of qualitative research methods based on grounded theory were used: in-depth interviews with emergency medical technicians/paramedics (EMS workers) and focus groups (EMS workers and supervisors). Most participants reported similar health problems (musculoskeletal injuries) and the task related to these injuries, patient handling. Participants also reported similar physical exposures (ascending stairs with patients and patient weight). For organization/psychosocial factors, participants agreed that fitness, wages, breaks, and shift scheduling were linked with injuries, but overall, perceptions about these issues differed more than physical exposures. Lack of trust between EMS workers and supervisors were recurrent concerns among workers. However, not all organizational/psychosocial factors differed. EMS workers and supervisors agreed pre-employment screening could reduce injuries. Participants identified micro- and macro-level prevention opportunities. The grounded theory approach identified workers' main health problems, and the organizational factors and exposures linked with them. Perceptions about work organization/psychosocial exposures appeared more diverse than physical exposures. Prevention among all participants focused on mechanized equipment, but EMS workers also wanted more organizational support.

  6. Managing preventive occupational health and safety activities in Danish enterprises during a period of financial crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans H. K.; Bach, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    The onset of the financial crisis in 2008 has put pressure on enterprises that in turn have downsized and reorganized. Research has shown that economic recession has an effect on psychological and behavioral health that is attributed to working environment problems. The objective of this study is...... focus on the management of preventive workplace health and safety activities in enterprises during a period of economic recession....... is to unravel whether the onset of a general economic recession has had an impact on companies’ and public institutions’ preventive occupational health and safety activities. Hypotheses of the role of pro-cyclical and countercyclical effects are presented. This study is based on a survey of enterprise...... preventive occupational health safety activities. The baseline for the survey was established, in 2006 before the onset of the recession, with a follow up in 2011. Findings are discussed that support both the pro-cyclical and the countercyclical hypotheses. It is concluded that there is a need for a special...

  7. The Frequency, Contributing and Preventive Factors of Harassment towards Health Professionals in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Ghazanfari, Nahid; Najafi, Fereshteh; Tamizi, Zahra; Afshani, Shahla; Azadi, Ghazal

    2015-07-01

    There are high levels of sexual harassment in health care systems. Also, workplace violence occurs against ethnic and racial minorities. This study aimed to identify the frequency of and the factors contributing to and preventing sexual and racial harassment in the workplace towards health professionals in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 6500 out of 57000 health workers who were selected by multistage random sampling from some teaching hospitals in Iran. Data were collected using the questionnaire of "workplace violence in the health sector" developed by the International Labor Organization, International Council of Nurses, World Health Organization, and Public Services International. According to the findings, the frequencies of sexual harassment and racial harassment were, respectively, 4.7% and 12% for the 12 months prior to the study (2011). Among healthcare workers, nurses reported the highest rate of violence. The most important contributing factors in sexual and racial harassment were lack of security facilities (45.8%) and people's ignorance of employees' tasks (55.7%). The presence of security force, safety measures in the wards, and guards were noted as the most important preventive factor to harassment. Based on the results, the frequency of sexual and racial harassment is low, which can be attributed to underreporting due to cultural sensitivity or fear. So, identifying the reasons for refusal to report harassment, developing a clear mechanism for reporting and providing the necessary trainings to health workers are essential in order to deal with harassment.

  8. Perceptions of oral health, preventive care, and care-seeking behaviors among rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Virginia J; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank

    2014-12-01

    An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural adolescents. Semistructured individual interviews with 100 rural, minority, low socioeconomic status adolescents revealed their current perceptions of oral health and dental care access. Respondents age ranged from 12 to 18 years. The sample was 80% black and 52% male. Perceived threat from dental disease was low. Adolescents perceived regular brushing and flossing as superseding the need for preventive care. Esthetic reasons were most often cited as reasons to seek dental care. Difficulties accessing dental care include finances, transportation, fear, issues with Medicaid coverage and parental responsibility. In general, adolescents and their parents are in need of information regarding the importance of preventive dental care. Findings illuminate barriers to dental care faced by low-income rural adolescents and counter public perceptions of government-sponsored dental care programs as being "free" or without cost. The importance of improved oral health knowledge, better access to care, and school-based dental care is discussed. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  9. Preventing Medication Error Based on Knowledge Management Against Adverse Event

    OpenAIRE

    Hastuti, Apriyani Puji; Nursalam, Nursalam; Triharini, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Introductions: Medication error is one of many types of errors that could decrease the quality and safety of healthcare. Increasing number of adverse events (AE) reflects the number of medication errors. This study aimed to develop a model of medication error prevention based on knowledge management. This model is expected to improve knowledge and skill of nurses to prevent medication error which is characterized by the decrease of adverse events (AE). Methods: This study consisted of two sta...

  10. Dental Health Behavior in the Prevention of Pulmonary TB at Health Centre in Several Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indirawati Tjahja Notohartojo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary TB is an infectious disease of the respiratory tract caused by bacteria. Dental health professionals such as dentists and dental nurses are in charge of health personnel to prevent, treat, cure, teeth the mouth, so as not to arise or aggravate toothache. In doing their job as dental health workers is expected to use gloves or masks, and always wash their hands to avoid the transmission of pulmonary TB disease. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted involving 78 dental health professionals in 50 primary health centers that were chosen in six districts in three provinces of Banten, South Kalimantan and Gorontalo. Data were obtained by interviews and processed using SPSSResults: More than 90% dental health workers in work wore masks gloves and washed their hands after work. There was a signifi cant relationship between exercise with dental health professionals with a p value of 0.007, which means a signifi cant. Conclusion: In performing their duties, dental health workers have already used personal protective equipment such asmasks, gloves, and washed their hands and did enough exercise. Recommendation: need to increase knowledge about pulmonary TB in dental health professionals.

  11. Adolescents' responses to a school-based prevention program promoting healthy eating at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, R.C.J.; Bruin, H. de; Larsen, J.K.; Mensink, F.; Hoek, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To improve the effectiveness of school-based obesity prevention programs, it is essential to understand the views and behaviors of the target group. The present study aimed to get a better understanding of adolescents' food and health perceptions and their willingness to be involved in a

  12. Child and Parent Voices on a Community-Based Prevention Program (FAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Hill, Patricia; Gore, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Families and Schools Together (FAST) is a collaborative program involving schools, families, and community-based partners in efforts to prevent substance use, juvenile delinquency, school failure, child abuse and neglect, mental health problems, and violence. Although evaluated extensively, there remains a dearth of qualitative data on child and…

  13. Feasibility of a Prototype Web-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Prevention Program for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael E.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Seeley, John R.; Hayes, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the feasibility of a prototype Web-based acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) program for preventing mental health problems among college students. Participants: Undergraduate first-year students ("N" = 76) participated between May and November 2011. Methods: Participants were randomized to ACT or a…

  14. School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs in High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…

  15. Evidence-based guidelines, time-based health outcomes, and the Matthew effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.E. Essink-Bot (Marie-Louise); M.E. Kruijshaar (Michelle); J.J.M. Barendregt (Jan); L.G.A. Bonneux (Luc)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cardiovascular risk management guidelines are 'risk based'; health economists' practice is 'time based'. The 'medical' risk-based allocation model maximises numbers of deaths prevented by targeting subjects at high risk, for example, elderly and smokers. The time-based model

  16. Evidence-based guidelines, time-based health outcomes, and the Matthew effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Kruijshaar, Michelle E.; Barendregt, Jan J.; Bonneux, Luc G. A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk management guidelines are 'risk based'; health economists' practice is 'time based'. The 'medical' risk-based allocation model maximises numbers of deaths prevented by targeting subjects at high risk, for example, elderly and smokers. The time-based model maximises

  17. Determining Factors for Utilization of Preventive Health Services among Adults with Disabilities in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Li, Ya-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Taiwan has provided free health checks for adults since 1995. However, very little previous research has explored the use of preventive health services by physically and mentally disabled adults. The present study aimed to understand this use of preventive health services and the factors that influence it. Research participants included disabled…

  18. Designing a patient-centered personal health record to promote preventive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krist Alex H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based preventive services offer profound health benefits, yet Americans receive only half of indicated care. A variety of government and specialty society policy initiatives are promoting the adoption of information technologies to engage patients in their care, such as personal health records, but current systems may not utilize the technology's full potential. Methods Using a previously described model to make information technology more patient-centered, we developed an interactive preventive health record (IPHR designed to more deeply engage patients in preventive care and health promotion. We recruited 14 primary care practices to promote the IPHR to all adult patients and sought practice and patient input in designing the IPHR to ensure its usability, salience, and generalizability. The input involved patient usability tests, practice workflow observations, learning collaboratives, and patient feedback. Use of the IPHR was measured using practice appointment and IPHR databases. Results The IPHR that emerged from this process generates tailored patient recommendations based on guidelines from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and other organizations. It extracts clinical data from the practices' electronic medical record and obtains health risk assessment information from patients. Clinical content is translated and explained in lay language. Recommendations review the benefits and uncertainties of services and possible actions for patients and clinicians. Embedded in recommendations are self management tools, risk calculators, decision aids, and community resources - selected to match patient's clinical circumstances. Within six months, practices had encouraged 14.4% of patients to use the IPHR (ranging from 1.5% to 28.3% across the 14 practices. Practices successfully incorporated the IPHR into workflow, using it to prepare patients for visits, augment health behavior counseling, explain test results

  19. Adoption of Smart Structures for Prevention of Health Hazards in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Ayodeji; Aigbavboa, Clinton; Ngema, Wiseman

    2017-11-01

    The importance of building quality to the health and well-being of occupants and surrounding neighbors cannot be overemphasized. Smart structures were construed to proffer solution to various issues of sustainable development including social factors that is concerned with health and safety of people. Based on existing literature materials on building quality, smart structures and general aspect of sustainable developments, this study examined the benefits of smart structures in the prevention of various health issues in infrastructural buildings, which has been a concern for stakeholders in the architecture, engineering and construction industry. The criterion for indoor environmental quality was adopted and various health and bodily issues related to building quality were explained. The adoption of smart structure concept will help to manage physical, chemical, biological and psychological factors of building with a view to enhancing better quality of life of occupants.

  20. [Is it possible to improve the preventive usefulness of workers' health surveillance in the current regulatory framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Jareño, Mari Cruz; De Montserrat I Nonó, Jaume

    In Spain, the limited preventive usefulness of health surveillance is determined by the indiscriminate use of nonspecific "generic" health examinations aimed at producing a "fitness for work list", presumably allowing companies to comply with health and safety regulations. This study aimed to produce a technical interpretation of the Spanish Prevention of Risks at Work Act and propose a new conceptual framework to favour greater preventive usefulness of health surveillance within the current regulatory framework. Using qualitative techniques of content analysis, the text of the Law was studied, the key concepts that impeded the fulfilment of the preventive objectives of health surveillance were identified, and a technical interpretation adjusted to regulations was made in order to propose a new conceptual framework RESULTS: This conceptual framework would include: clearly differentiating health surveillance from health examinations (one of its instruments) and from fitness for work evaluations (an independent concept in itself); restricting mandatory health surveillance to situations in which it is "imperative" to carry it out because of the existence of a substantial risk to workers or third parties, including potentially vulnerable workers; and communicating the results of health surveillance through preventive recommendations to the company, reserving fitness for duty certificates -always based on clear, pre-established and justified criteria in relation to risk- for mandatory surveillance. The proposed new conceptual framework falls within the scope of the Spanish Prevention of Risks at Work Act, and its implementation could contribute to improving the preventive usefulness of health surveillance without the need to reform the legislation. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  1. Genomics in Public Health: Perspective from the Office of Public Health Genomics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridgely Fisk Green

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The national effort to use genomic knowledge to save lives is gaining momentum, as illustrated by the inclusion of genomics in key public health initiatives, including Healthy People 2020, and the recent launch of the precision medicine initiative. The Office of Public Health Genomics (OPHG at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC partners with state public health departments and others to advance the translation of genome-based discoveries into disease prevention and population health. To do this, OPHG has adopted an “identify, inform, and integrate” model: identify evidence-based genomic applications ready for implementation, inform stakeholders about these applications, and integrate these applications into public health at the local, state, and national level. This paper addresses current and future work at OPHG for integrating genomics into public health programs.

  2. Genomics in Public Health: Perspective from the Office of Public Health Genomics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ridgely Fisk; Dotson, W David; Bowen, Scott; Kolor, Katherine; Khoury, Muin J

    2015-01-01

    The national effort to use genomic knowledge to save lives is gaining momentum, as illustrated by the inclusion of genomics in key public health initiatives, including Healthy People 2020, and the recent launch of the precision medicine initiative. The Office of Public Health Genomics (OPHG) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) partners with state public health departments and others to advance the translation of genome-based discoveries into disease prevention and population health. To do this, OPHG has adopted an "identify, inform, and integrate" model: identify evidence-based genomic applications ready for implementation, inform stakeholders about these applications, and integrate these applications into public health at the local, state, and national level. This paper addresses current and future work at OPHG for integrating genomics into public health programs.

  3. The Prevention of Adolescent Smoking: A Public Health Priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harken, Laurel S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses ways to prevent adolescents from smoking by preparing them to deal with problematic situations. Focuses on problem-solving and decision-making skills. Prevention strategies are also discussed. (RB)

  4. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention strategies include avoiding known risk factors, adopting a healthy lifestyle, polyp removal, and aspirin. Get detailed information about risk factors for CRC and potential interventions for prevention in this summary for clinicians.

  5. Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer prevention strategies include quitting or avoiding exposure to smoking, occupational carcinogens, and radon. Get detailed information about risk factors and lung cancer prevention in this summary for clinicians.

  6. Diabetes mellitus: preliminary health-promotion activity based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of a service-learning-based health promotion elective in influencing knowledge of diabetes mellitus (DM) and ways to prevent it. Method: A computer-based quiz, an information poster, interactive models and a take-home information leaflet on DM were developed as part of an exhibit ...

  7. [Assessment and prevention of zoonoses: "one health approach"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonizzi, Luigi; Guarino, Marcella; Roncada, Paola; Colosio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Zoonotic pathologies represent diseases that can be transmittable from animals to humans and vice versa. In most cases zoonotic agents are bacteria or viruses and represent a huge problem for health. Zoonosis could represent easily solvable diseases such as simple infections or even deathly such as prion infections. They could be directly transmittable as tuberculosis or brucellosis or indirectly transmittable through vectors as biological fluids or foods from animal production. The increasing production and the globalization of animal food production have caused the spread of zoonosis worldwide turning this topic into a global problem. It is necessary to enforce the actual scientific collaboration between all countries in order to counteract the spread of these pathologies. About this topic WHO, FAO and OIE took part to the world project "one health" highlighting as most important topics the research on Rabies virus, influenza virus and on antibiotic resistance. In particular antibiotic resistance represents one of the most important topics of the last decade due to the inappropriate use of antibiotics, from animal production to human health. This last topic represents a serious problem for health system worldwide. This paper is mainly based on zoonoses such as avian flu, BSE and brucellosis and will describe the strategies used to limit their expansion.

  8. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Lin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT and construal level theory (CLT. We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future.

  9. Promote health or prevent disease? The effects of health-related advertising on eating behavior intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-03-27

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future.

  10. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future. PMID:25826394

  11. Reproductive health preventive screening among clinic vs. over-the-counter oral contraceptive users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Kristine; Grossman, Daniel; White, Kari; Amastae, Jon; Potter, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Interest is growing in moving oral contraceptives over-the-counter (OTC), although concerns exist about whether women would continue to get preventive health screening. Study Design We recruited cohorts of US-resident women who obtained oral contraceptives from US family planning clinics (n=532) and OTC from pharmacies in Mexico (n=514) and interviewed them four times over 9 months. Based on self-reports of having a Pap smear within 3 years or ever having had a pelvic exam, clinical breast exam and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), we assessed the prevalence of preventive screening using Poisson regression models. Results The prevalence of screening was high for both groups (>88% for Pap smear, pelvic exam and clinical breast exam and >71% for STI screening), while the prevalence ratios for screening were higher for clinic users, even after multivariable adjustment. Conclusions Results suggest that most women would obtain reproductive health preventive screening if oral contraceptives were available OTC, and also highlight the need to improve access to preventive screening for all low-income women. PMID:22520645

  12. School- and Community-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Interventions: Hot Idea, Hot Air, or Sham?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Behzadi, Pegah

    2017-06-01

    Suicide in young people is a significant health concern, with numerous community- and school-based interventions promising to prevent suicide currently being applied across Canada. Before widespread application of any one of these, it is essential to determine its effectiveness and safety. We systematically reviewed the global literature on one of the most common community suicide prevention interventions in Canada and summarized data on 2 commonly applied school-based suicide prevention programmes. None of these has demonstrated effectiveness in preventing youth suicide or safety in application. Concurrently with their widespread distribution in Canada, the suicide rate in young women has increased-the first time in over 3 decades. Policy and regulatory implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. Readability of pediatric health materials for preventive dental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riedy Christine A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the content and general readability of pediatric oral health education materials for parents of young children. Methods Twenty-seven pediatric oral health pamphlets or brochures from commercial, government, industry, and private nonprofit sources were analyzed for general readability ("usability" according to several parameters: readability, (Flesch-Kincaid grade level, Flesch Reading Ease, and SMOG grade level; thoroughness, (inclusion of topics important to young childrens' oral health; textual framework (frequency of complex phrases, use of pictures, diagrams, and bulleted text within materials; and terminology (frequency of difficult words and dental jargon. Results Readability of the written texts ranged from 2nd to 9th grade. The average Flesch-Kincaid grade level for government publications was equivalent to a grade 4 reading level (4.73, range, 2.4 – 6.6; F-K grade levels for commercial publications averaged 8.1 (range, 6.9 – 8.9; and industry published materials read at an average Flesch-Kincaid grade level of 7.4 (range, 4.7 – 9.3. SMOG readability analysis, based on a count of polysyllabic words, consistently rated materials 2 to 3 grade levels higher than did the Flesch-Kincaid analysis. Government sources were significantly lower compared to commercial and industry sources for Flesch-Kincaid grade level and SMOG readability analysis. Content analysis found materials from commercial and industry sources more complex than government-sponsored publications, whereas commercial sources were more thorough in coverage of pediatric oral health topics. Different materials frequently contained conflicting information. Conclusion Pediatric oral health care materials are readily available, yet their quality and readability vary widely. In general, government publications are more readable than their commercial and industry counterparts. The criteria for usability and results of the analyses

  14. Mindfulness-based prevention for eating disorders: A school-based cluster randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Melissa J; Wade, Tracey D

    2015-11-01

    Successful prevention of eating disorders represents an important goal due to damaging long-term impacts on health and well-being, modest treatment outcomes, and low treatment seeking among individuals at risk. Mindfulness-based approaches have received early support in the treatment of eating disorders, but have not been evaluated as a prevention strategy. This study aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a novel mindfulness-based intervention for reducing the risk of eating disorders among adolescent females, under both optimal (trained facilitator) and task-shifted (non-expert facilitator) conditions. A school-based cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in which 19 classes of adolescent girls (N = 347) were allocated to a three-session mindfulness-based intervention, dissonance-based intervention, or classes as usual control. A subset of classes (N = 156) receiving expert facilitation were analyzed separately as a proxy for delivery under optimal conditions. Task-shifted facilitation showed no significant intervention effects across outcomes. Under optimal facilitation, students receiving mindfulness demonstrated significant reductions in weight and shape concern, dietary restraint, thin-ideal internalization, eating disorder symptoms, and psychosocial impairment relative to control by 6-month follow-up. Students receiving dissonance showed significant reductions in socio-cultural pressures. There were no statistically significant differences between the two interventions. Moderate intervention acceptability was reported by both students and teaching staff. Findings show promise for the application of mindfulness in the prevention of eating disorders; however, further work is required to increase both impact and acceptability, and to enable successful outcomes when delivered by less expert providers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Preventative health, diversity, and inclusion: a qualitative study of client experience aboard a mobile health clinic in Boston, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchelle, Zoe; Rawlins, Yasmin; Hill, Caterina; Bennet, Jennifer; Perez, Leonor Xochitl; Oriol, Nancy

    2017-11-03

    There are approximately 2000 mobile health clinics operating in the United States. While researchers have established that mobile health clinics can be cost effective and improve outcomes, there is scant research examining the healthcare experience on a mobile health clinic from patients' perspectives. Data were gathered from interviews with 25 clients receiving care on a Boston-based mobile health clinic and analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Emerging patterns in the data revealed three relational and three structural factors most significant to participants' experience of care on The Family Van. Relational factors include providers who 1) Communicate understandably, 2) Create a culture of respect and inclusivity, and 3) Are diverse with knowledge of the community. Structural factors include 1) A focus on preventative health and managing chronic disease, 2) Expeditious, free, and multiple services, and 3) Location. The participant accounts in this report serve to expand on prior research exploring mobile health clinics' role in patients' healthcare, to more clearly define the most salient aspects of the mobile health clinic model for the patients they serve, and to give voice to patients too seldom heard in the academic literature.

  16. Health improvement and prevention study (HIPS - evaluation of an intervention to prevent vascular disease in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Gawaine

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health Improvement and Prevention Study (HIPS study aims to evaluate the capacity of general practice to identify patients at high risk for developing vascular disease and to reduce their risk of vascular disease and diabetes through behavioural interventions delivered in general practice and by the local primary care organization. Methods/Design HIPS is a stratified randomized controlled trial involving 30 general practices in NSW, Australia. Practices are randomly allocated to an 'intervention' or 'control' group. General practitioners (GPs and practice nurses (PNs are offered training in lifestyle counselling and motivational interviewing as well as practice visits and patient educational resources. Patients enrolled in the trial present for a health check in which the GP and PN provide brief lifestyle counselling based on the 5As model (ask, assess, advise, assist, and arrange and refer high risk patients to a diet education and physical activity program. The program consists of two individual visits with a dietician or exercise physiologist and four group sessions, after which patients are followed up by the GP or PN. In each practice 160 eligible patients aged between 40 and 64 years are invited to participate in the study, with the expectation that 40 will be eligible and willing to participate. Evaluation data collection consists of (1 a practice questionnaire, (2 GP and PN questionnaires to assess preventive care attitudes and practices, (3 patient questionnaire to assess self-reported lifestyle behaviours and readiness to change, (4 physical assessment including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure, (5 a fasting blood test for glucose and lipids, (6 a clinical record audit, and (7 qualitative data collection. All measures are collected at baseline and 12 months except the patient questionnaire which is also collected at 6 months. Study outcomes before and after the

  17. Prevention and early intervention to improve mental health in higher education students: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony F

    2010-05-01

    The age at which most young people are in higher education is also the age of peak onset for mental and substance use disorders, with these having their first onset before age 24 in 75% of cases. In most developed countries, over 50% of young people are in higher education. To review the evidence for prevention and early intervention in mental health problems in higher education students. The review was limited to interventions targeted to anxiety, depression and alcohol misuse. Interventions to review were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Interventions were included if they were designed to specifically prevent or intervene early in the general (non-health professional) higher education student population, in one or more of the following areas: anxiety, depression or alcohol misuse symptoms, mental health literacy, stigma and one or more behavioural outcomes. For interventions to prevent or intervene early for alcohol misuse, evidence of effectiveness is strongest for brief motivational interventions and for personalized normative interventions delivered using computers or in individual face-to-face sessions. Few interventions to prevent or intervene early with depression or anxiety were identified. These were mostly face-to-face, cognitive-behavioural/skill-based interventions. One social marketing intervention to raise awareness of depression and treatments showed some evidence of effectiveness. There is very limited evidence that interventions are effective in preventing or intervening early with depression and anxiety disorders in higher education students. Further studies, possibly involving interventions that have shown promise in other populations, are needed.

  18. Cost-benefit analysis of comprehensive mental health prevention programs in Japanese workplaces: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Sachiko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Kitamura, Fumihiko; Fukuda, Takashi; Inaba, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01

    We examined the implementation of mental health prevention programs in Japanese workplaces and the costs and benefits. A cross-sectional survey targeting mental health program staff at 11 major companies was conducted. Questionnaires explored program implementation based on the guidelines of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Labor, materials, outsourcing costs, overheads, employee mental discomfort, and absentee numbers, and work attendance were examined. Cost-benefit analyses were conducted from company perspectives assessing net benefits per employee and returns on investment. The surveyed companies employ an average of 1,169 workers. The implementation rate of the mental health prevention programs was 66% for primary, 51% for secondary, and 60% for tertiary programs. The program's average cost was 12,608 yen per employee and the total benefit was 19,530 yen per employee. The net benefit per employee was 6,921 yen and the return on investment was in the range of 0.27-16.85. Seven of the 11 companies gained a net benefit from the mental health programs.

  19. An ethical framework for identifying, preventing, and managing conflicts confronting leaders of academic health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2004-11-01

    Leaders of academic health centers (AHCs) hold positions that by their very nature have a high potential for ethical conflict. The authors offer an ethical framework for identifying, preventing, and managing conflicts in the leadership of AHCs. This framework is based on and implements both the ethical concept of AHCs as fiduciary organizations and also the legitimate interests of various stakeholders. The authors describe practical steps that can be tools for the preventive-ethics leadership of AHCs that enable leaders to avoid strategic ambiguity and strategic procrastination and replace these with transparency. The ethical framework is illustrated by applying it to an organizational case study. The major contribution of the ethical framework is that it transforms decision making from simply negotiating power struggles to explicitly identifying and making ethical decisions based on the legitimate interests and fiduciary responsibilities of all stakeholders.

  20. Prevention of Youth Violence: A Public Health Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Aradhana Bela; Berkowitz, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    The causes of youth violence are multifactorial and include biological, individual, familial, social, and economic factors. The influence of parents, family members, and important adults can shape the beliefs of the child toward violence in a significant manner. However, the influence of school and the neighborhood also have an important role in attitudes and behaviors of children toward violence. The complexity of factors related to violence requires a comprehensive public health approach. This article focuses on evidence-based models of intervention to reduce violence while emphasizing collective impact as a guiding principle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. HALOTHERAPY FOR PREVENTION AND MEDICAL REHABILITATION IN PEDIATRIC HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina V. Chervinskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of medical rehabilitation is the approach of model simulation of natural environment. Halotherapy is one of the nonpharmacological methods widely used in Russian public health care delivery including prophylaxis and rehabilitation in children. This method is based on the recreation of the air environment of a natural underground salt mine. The article presents an innovative method using a next generation of equipment for halotherapy: a guided halocomplex where the control on dosage regiments and aerodisperse medium parameters is implemented. The mechanisms of the effect of halotherapy are considered, the data of the clinical effectiveness for various paediatric diseases are outlined. 

  2. A health literate approach to the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard O; Thompson, Jessica R; Rothman, Russell L; McDougald Scott, Amanda M; Heerman, William J; Sommer, Evan C; Barkin, Shari L

    2013-12-01

    To describe a systematic assessment of patient educational materials for the Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW) trial, a childhood obesity prevention study targeting a low health literate population. Process included: (1) expert review of educational content, (2) assessment of the quality of materials including use of the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) tool, and (3) material review and revision with target population. 12 core modules were developed and assessed in an iterative process. Average readability was at the 6th grade reading level (SMOG Index 5.63 ± 0.76, and Fry graph 6.0 ± 0.85). SAM evaluation resulted in adjustments to literacy demand, layout & typography, and learning stimulation & motivation. Cognitive interviews with target population revealed additional changes incorporated to enhance participant's perception of acceptability and feasibility for behavior change. The GROW modules are a collection of evidence-based materials appropriate for parents with low health literacy and their preschool aged children, that target the prevention of childhood overweight/obesity. Most trials addressing the treatment or prevention of childhood obesity use written materials. Due to the ubiquitous prevalence of limited health literacy, our described methods may assist researchers in ensuring their content is both understood and actionable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Public health program planning logic model for community engaged type 2 diabetes management and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joseph F

    2014-02-01

    Diabetes remains a growing epidemic with widening health inequity gaps in disease management, self-management knowledge, access to care and outcomes. Yet there is a paucity of evaluation tools for community engaged interventions aimed at closing the gaps and improving health. The Guide to Community Preventive Services (the Community Guide) developed by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services (the Task Force) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends two healthcare system level interventions, case management interventions and disease management programs, to improve glycemic control. However, as a public health resource guide for diabetes interventions a model for community engagement is a glaringly absent component of the Community Guide recommendations. In large part there are few evidence-based interventions featuring community engagement as a practice and system-level focus of chronic disease and Type 2 diabetes management. The central argument presented in this paper is that the absence of these types of interventions is due to the lack of tools for modeling and evaluating such interventions, especially among disparate and poor populations. A conceptual model emphasizing action-oriented micro-level community engagement is needed to complement the Community Guide and serve as the basis for testing and evaluation of these kinds of interventions. A unique logic model advancing the Community Guide diabetes recommendations toward measureable and sustainable community engagement for improved Type 2 diabetes outcomes is presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. How best can we plan & implement HIV prevention? A review of successful evidence based practices & research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Around 2.5 million people become infected with HIV each year and its impact on human life and public health can only be tackled and reversed only by sound prevention strategies. Aim: This paper aims to provide the reader about different types of prevention strategies that are effective and practiced in various countries with special emphasis on evidence for success. It also highlights the importance of to the evidence based medicine& strategies. It describes about the importance of combination prevention, which encompasses complementary behavioral, biomedical and structural prevention strategies. Methods & Materials: Searches for peer reviewed journal articles was conducted using the search engines to gather the information from databases of medicine, health sciences and social sciences. Information for each strategy is organized & presented systematically with detailed discussion. Results: For a successful reduction in HIV transmission, there is a great need for combined effects of radical & sustainable behavioral changes among individuals who are potentially at risk. Second, combination prevention is essential for HIV prevention is neither simple nor simplistic. Reductions in HIV transmission need widespread and sustained efforts. A mix of communication channels are essential to disseminate messages to motivate people to engage in various methods of risk reduction. Conclusions: The effect of behavioral strategies could be increased by aiming for many goals that are achieved by use of multilevel approaches with populations both uninfected and infected with HIV. Combination prevention programs operate on different levels to address the specific, but diverse needs of the populations at risk of HIV infection.

  5. Infusing Oral Health Care into Nursing Curriculum: Addressing Preventive Health in Aging and Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Earle Hahn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to oral health care is essential for promoting and maintaining overall health and well-being, yet oral health disparities exist among vulnerable and underserved populations. While nurses make up the largest portion of the health care work force, educational preparation to address oral health needs of elders and persons with disabilities is limited across nursing curricula. This descriptive study reports on the interdisciplinary development, implementation, and testing of an oral health module that was included and infused into a graduate nursing curriculum in a three-phase plan. Phase 1 includes evaluation of a lecture presented to eight gerontological nurse practitioner (GNP students. Phase 2 includes evaluation of GNP students’ perceptions of learning, skills, and confidence following a one-time 8-hour practicum infused into 80 required practicum hours. The evaluation data show promise in preparing nurse practitioner students to assess and address preventive oral health needs of persons aging with disabilities such that further infusion and inclusion in a course for nurse practitioners across five specialties will implemented and tested in Phase 3.

  6. Infusing Oral Health Care into Nursing Curriculum: Addressing Preventive Health in Aging and Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Joan Earle; FitzGerald, Leah; Markham, Young Kee; Glassman, Paul; Guenther, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Access to oral health care is essential for promoting and maintaining overall health and well-being, yet oral health disparities exist among vulnerable and underserved populations. While nurses make up the largest portion of the health care work force, educational preparation to address oral health needs of elders and persons with disabilities is limited across nursing curricula. This descriptive study reports on the interdisciplinary development, implementation, and testing of an oral health module that was included and infused into a graduate nursing curriculum in a three-phase plan. Phase 1 includes evaluation of a lecture presented to eight gerontological nurse practitioner (GNP) students. Phase 2 includes evaluation of GNP students' perceptions of learning, skills, and confidence following a one-time 8-hour practicum infused into 80 required practicum hours. The evaluation data show promise in preparing nurse practitioner students to assess and address preventive oral health needs of persons aging with disabilities such that further infusion and inclusion in a course for nurse practitioners across five specialties will implemented and tested in Phase 3. PMID:22619708

  7. 76 FR 67731 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the... Public Health Service. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... scheduled to be held for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...

  8. 76 FR 26300 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the... Public Health Service. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... scheduled to be held for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...

  9. 76 FR 58007 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the... Public Health Service. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... scheduled to be held for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...

  10. 77 FR 15372 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the... Public Health Service. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... scheduled to be held for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...

  11. Intervention to Prevent Mental Ill-Health Among Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Michélsen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychological strain in working life is gaining ever more attention. Health care workers are often under extreme emotional stress, which can become so overwhelming that they show signs of mental ill-health. This project aimed to develop a model for sustainable psychological support within a hospital clinic to prevent mental ill-health among employees. Mental strains at work and mental ill-health among clinic employees were mapped out, after which interventions for psychological support were designed in collaboration with employees. The interventions were conducted over one year and evaluated. Throughout the process the clinic received continuous feedback. Both questionnaires and interviews were used. The results of identifying mental strains and conducting interventions showed that employees experienced mental strain at work and perceived a need for support. Intervention evaluations showed that the project provided support, new insights, and an increased acceptance for long-term prevention of mental strain. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies supported the results. The conclusion was that increased legitimacy for mental strain at work and continuous feedback between clinic management and employees, as well as organizational circumstances are important factors when developing long-term intervention programs with various forms of psychological support.

  12. Sustaining a Focus on Health Equity at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Through Organizational Structures and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Hazel D; Roberts, George W; Bouye, Karen E; Green, Yvonne; McDonald, Marian

    2016-01-01

    The public health infrastructure required for achieving health equity is multidimensional and complex. The infrastructure should be responsive to current and emerging priorities and capable of providing the foundation for developing, planning, implementing, and evaluating health initiatives. This article discusses these infrastructure requirements by examining how they are operationalized in the organizational infrastructure for promoting health equity at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, utilizing the nation's premier public health agency as a lens. Examples from the history of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's work in health equity from its centers, institute, and offices are provided to identify those structures and functions that are critical to achieving health equity. Challenges and facilitators to sustaining a health equity organizational infrastructure, as gleaned from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's experience, are noted. Finally, we provide additional considerations for expanding and sustaining a health equity infrastructure, which the authors hope will serve as "food for thought" for practitioners in state, tribal, or local health departments, community-based organizations, or nongovernmental organizations striving to create or maintain an impactful infrastructure to achieve health equity.

  13. Preventive youth health care in 11 European countries: An exploratory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieske, R.C.N.; Nijnuis, M.G.; Carmiggelt, B.C.; Wagenaar-Fischer, M.M.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To systematically identify similarities and differences in the way preventive youth health care (YHC) is organized in 11 European countries. Method Questionnaire survey to EUSUHM (European Union for School and University Health and Medicine) representatives. Results The greatest

  14. Core components for effective infection prevention and control programmes: new WHO evidence-based recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Storr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health care-associated infections (HAI are a major public health problem with a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. They represent also an important economic burden to health systems worldwide. However, a large proportion of HAI are preventable through effective infection prevention and control (IPC measures. Improvements in IPC at the national and facility level are critical for the successful containment of antimicrobial resistance and the prevention of HAI, including outbreaks of highly transmissible diseases through high quality care within the context of universal health coverage. Given the limited availability of IPC evidence-based guidance and standards, the World Health Organization (WHO decided to prioritize the development of global recommendations on the core components of effective IPC programmes both at the national and acute health care facility level, based on systematic literature reviews and expert consensus. The aim of the guideline development process was to identify the evidence and evaluate its quality, consider patient values and preferences, resource implications, and the feasibility and acceptability of the recommendations. As a result, 11 recommendations and three good practice statements are presented here, including a summary of the supporting evidence, and form the substance of a new WHO IPC guideline.

  15. Community-Based Promotional Campaign to Improve Uptake of Intermittent Preventive Antimalarial Treatment in Pregnancy in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gies, Sabine; Coulibaly, Sheick O.; Ky, Clotilde; Ouattara, Florence T.; Brabin, Bernard J.; d'Alessandro, Umberto

    2009-01-01

    Malaria preventive strategies in pregnancy were assessed in a health center randomized trial comparing intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) with and without community based promotional activities in rural Burkina Faso. The study involved 2,240 secundigravidae

  16. Pet Dogs and Children's Health: Opportunities for Chronic Disease Prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Anne M; Scribani, Melissa B; Krupa, Nicole; Jenkins, Paul; Nagykaldi, Zsolt; Olson, Ardis L

    2015-11-25

    Positive associations between having a pet dog and adult health outcomes have been documented; however, little evidence exists regarding the benefits of pet dogs for young children. This study investigates the hypothesis that pet dogs are positively associated with healthy weight and mental health among children. This cross-sectional study accrued a consecutive sample of children over 18 months in a pediatric primary care setting. The study enrolled 643 children (mean age, 6.7 years); 96% were white, 45% were female, 56% were privately insured, and 58% had pet dogs in the home. Before an annual visit, parents of children aged 4 to 10 years completed the DartScreen, a comprehensive Web-based health risk screener administered using an electronic tablet. The screener domains were child body mass index (BMI), physical activity, screen time, mental health, and pet-related questions. Children with and children without pet dogs did not differ in BMI (P = .80), screen time of 2 hours or less (P = 0.99), or physical activity (P = .07). A lower percentage of children with dogs (12%) met the clinical cut-off value of Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Disorders (SCARED-5) of 3 or more, compared with children without dogs (21%, P = .002). The mean SCARED-5 score was lower among children with dogs (1.13) compared with children without dogs (1.40; P = .01). This relationship was retained in multivariate analysis after controlling for several covariates. Having a pet dog in the home was associated with a decreased probability of childhood anxiety. Future studies need to establish whether this relationship is causal and, if so, how pet dogs alleviate childhood anxiety.

  17. Health Promotion for Adolescent Childhood Leukemia Survivors: Building on Prevention Science and eHealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Diane L.; Lindemulder, Susan J.; Goldberg, Linn; Stadler, Diane D.; Smith, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Teenage survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased morbidity likely due to their prior multicomponent treatment. Habits established in adolescence can impact individuals’ subsequent adult behaviors. Accordingly, healthy lifestyles, avoiding harmful actions, and appropriate disease surveillance are of heightened importance among teenage survivors. We review the findings from prevention science and their relevance to heath promotion. The capabilities and current uses of eHealth components including e-learning, serious video games, exergaming, behavior tracking, individual messaging, and social networking are briefly presented. The health promotion needs of adolescent survivors are aligned with those eHealth aspects to propose a new paradigm to enhance the wellbeing of adolescent ALL survivors. PMID:23109253

  18. Association Between Employee Dental Claims, Health Risks, Workplace Productivity, and Preventive Services Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Li, Xingquan; Schultz, Alyssa B

    2017-08-01

    This study examined differences in health risks and workplace outcomes among employees who utilized preventive dental services compared with other employees. A retrospective observational study of employees of a large financial services corporation, with data from health risk appraisal questionnaires, medical claims, pharmacy claims, and dental claims. Employees with no dental claims were significantly more likely to have a variety of health risk factors (such as obesity and tobacco use), health conditions (such as diabetes), absenteeism, and lost on-the-job productivity, and were significantly less likely to be compliant with clinical preventive services compared with those with preventive dental claims. Employees with preventive dental claims had fewer health risks and medical conditions and better health and productivity measures. Study employees underutilized free dental care; employers should incorporate preventive dental care awareness into their worksite wellness programs.

  19. State of infection prevention in US hospitals enrolled in the National Health and Safety Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Patricia W; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Herzig, Carolyn T A; Weiner, Lindsey M; Furuya, E Yoko; Dick, Andrew; Larson, Elaine

    2014-02-01

    This report provides a national cross-sectional snapshot of infection prevention and control programs and clinician compliance with the implementation of processes to prevent health care-associated infections (HAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs). All hospitals, except Veterans Affairs hospitals, enrolled in the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) were eligible to participate. Participation involved completing a survey assessing the presence of evidence-based prevention policies and clinician adherence and joining our NHSN research group. Descriptive statistics were computed. Facility characteristics and HAI rates by ICU type were compared between respondents and nonrespondents. Of the 3,374 eligible hospitals, 975 provided data (29% response rate) on 1,653 ICUs, and there were complete data on the presence of policies in 1,534 ICUs. The average number of infection preventionists (IPs) per 100 beds was 1.2. Certification of IP staff varied across institutions, and the average hours per week devoted to data management and secretarial support were generally low. There was variation in the presence of policies and clinician adherence to these policies. There were no differences in HAI rates between respondents and nonrespondents. Guidelines for IP staffing in acute care hospitals need to be updated. In future work, we will analyze the associations between HAI rates and infection prevention and control program characteristics, as well as the inplementation of and clinician adherence to evidence-based policies. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Web and Mobile Based HIV Prevention and Intervention Programs Pros and Cons - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakan, Sharareh; Mehraeen, Esmaeil; Noori, Tayebeh; Gozali, Elahe

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing growth of HIV positive people the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) can play an important role in controlling the spread of the AIDS. Web and Mobile are the new technologies that young people take advantage from them. In this study a review to investigate the web and mobile based HIV prevention and intervention programs was carried out. A scoping review was conducted including PubMed, Science direct, Web of Science and Proquest to find relevant sources that published in 2009 to 2016. To identify published, original research that reported the web and mobile-based HIV prevention and intervention programs, an organized search was conducted with the following search keywords in combination: HIV, AIDS, m-Health, Mobile phone, Cell phone, Smartphone, Mobile health, internet, and web. Using the employed strategies, 173 references retrieved. Searched articles were compared based on their titles and abstracts. To identify duplicated articles, the title and abstracts were considered and 101 duplicated references were excluded. By going through the full text of related papers, 35 articles were found to be more related to the questions of this paper from which 72 final included. The advantages of web and mobile-based interventions include the possibility to provide constancy in the delivery of an intervention, impending low cost, and the ability to spread the intervention to an extensive community. Online programs such as Chat room-based Education program, Web-based therapeutic education system, and Online seek information can use for HIV/AIDS prevention. To use of mobile for HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention, programs including in: Health system focused applications, Population health focused applications, and Health messaging can be used.

  1. Gender Differentials in Preventive Health Care: Incidences and Determinants among Pakistani Children

    OpenAIRE

    Faham Masud; Shujaat Farooq

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to estimate gender health differential with a focus on preventive health care. Using the Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (PDHS) of 2006-07, the study has targeted the children of age 12-23 months and found substantialsex differences in the immunization status of children where boys are more immunized than girls, reflecting gender biasness over preventive health provision. Through bi-variate and multi-variate analysis, the study found that a variety o...

  2. Primary mental health prevention themes in published research and academic programs in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Nakash, Ora; Razon, Liat; Levav, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan (CMHAP) 2013?2020 proposes the implementation of primary prevention strategies to reduce the mental health burden of disease. The extent to which Israeli academic programs and published research adhere to the principles spelled out by the CMHAP is unknown. Objective To investigate the presence of mental health primary prevention themes in published research and academic programs in Israel. Methods We searched for...

  3. The role of nutrition in caries prevention and maintenance of oral health during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Jevtić Marija; Pantelinac Jelena; Jovanović-Ilić Tatjana; Petrović Vasa; Grgić Olja; Blažić Larisa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Pregnancy may pose an increased risk for the development of caries and other oral health problems. Continuous screening of oral health status, implementing appropriate preventive measures (particularly oral hygiene, healthy diet plans and education) is of paramount importance not only for oral health but also for the general health status of the future mother and her offspring. Effects of Food on Caries Development. Caries prevention through h...

  4. The Process of Adoption of Evidence-based Tobacco Use Prevention Programs in California Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melissa A.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise Ann

    2014-01-01

    Although there are a number of research-validated substance use prevention programs available for wide-scale dissemination, very little is known about the factors that influence adoption of evidence-based prevention programs in schools. We tested a model of the mechanisms of program adoption in schools that was guided by diffusion of innovations and social ecological theories. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of school district and county office of education tobacco use prevention education coordinators throughout California. Structural equation modeling was used to test the effects of community- and organizational variables on the adoption of prevention programs via school administrators’ beliefs and the organization’s receipt of funding for the program. Results supported the hypothesis that the process of adoption begins with forming beliefs about the program, leading to adoption through the receipt of funding. In addition, we found direct effects of various community- and organizational-level factors on beliefs, receipt of funding, and adoption. These results are likely to inform policies that affect school districts’ use of evidence-based substance use prevention programming, which should ultimately lead to reductions in negative health outcomes among adolescents. Specifically, this study identifies various factors that could be targeted for improvement to enhance evidence-based program adoption. To our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically elucidate the process of adoption of evidence-based tobacco prevention programs in schools. PMID:24398826

  5. Feasibility and coverage of implementing intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnant women contacting private or public clinics in Tanzania: experience-based viewpoints of health managers in Mkuranga and Mufindi districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubyazi, Godfrey M; Magnussen, Pascal; Byskov, Jens; Bloch, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Evidence on healthcare managers' experience on operational feasibility of malaria intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in Africa is systematically inadequate. This paper elucidates the perspectives of District Council Health Management Team (CHMT)s regarding the feasibility of IPTp with SP strategy, including its acceptability and ability of district health care systems to cope with the contemporary and potential challenges. The study was conducted in Mkuranga and Mufindi districts. Data were collected between November 2005 and December 2007, involving focus group discussion (FGD) with Mufindi CHMT and in-depth interviews were conducted with few CHMT members in Mkuranga where it was difficult to summon all members for FGD. Participants in both districts acknowledged the IPTp strategy, considering the seriousness of malaria in pregnancy problem; government allocation of funds to support healthcare staff training programmes in focused antenatal care (fANC) issues, procuring essential drugs distributed to districts, staff remuneration, distribution of fANC guidelines, and administrative activities performed by CHMTs. The identified weaknesses include late arrival of funds from central level weakening CHMT's performance in health supervision, organising outreach clinics, distributing essential supplies, and delivery of IPTp services. Participants anticipated the public losing confidence in SP for IPTp after government announced artemither-lumefantrine (ALu) as the new first-line drug for uncomplicated malaria replacing SP. Role of private healthcare staff in IPTp services was acknowledged cautiously because CHMTs rarely supplied private clinics with SP for free delivery in fear that clients would be required to pay for the SP contrary to government policy. In Mufindi, the District Council showed a strong political support by supplementing ANC clinics with bottled water; in Mkuranga such support was

  6. Influence of faith-based organisations on HIV prevention strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... Keywords: Faith-based organisations, HIV prevention strategies, systematic review. ... 2017;17(3): 753-761. https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v17i3.18. Introduction. HIV (Human ... checked, and citations in key papers were hand searched9. ... that answered our research question: What is the influ- ence of ...