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Sample records for based fitting method

  1. Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process-based Chinese Resident Best Fitness Behavior Method Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    With explosive development in Chinese economy and science and technology, people's pursuit of health becomes more and more intense, therefore Chinese resident sports fitness activities have been rapidly developed. However, different fitness events popularity degrees and effects on body energy consumption are different, so bases on this, the paper researches on fitness behaviors and gets Chinese residents sports fitness behaviors exercise guide, which provides guidance for propelling to national fitness plan's implementation and improving Chinese resident fitness scientization. The paper starts from the perspective of energy consumption, it mainly adopts experience method, determines Chinese resident favorite sports fitness event energy consumption through observing all kinds of fitness behaviors energy consumption, and applies fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to make evaluation on bicycle riding, shadowboxing practicing, swimming, rope skipping, jogging, running, aerobics these seven fitness events. By calculating fuzzy rate model's membership and comparing their sizes, it gets fitness behaviors that are more helpful for resident health, more effective and popular. Finally, it gets conclusions that swimming is a best exercise mode and its membership is the highest. Besides, the memberships of running, rope skipping and shadowboxing practicing are also relative higher. It should go in for bodybuilding by synthesizing above several kinds of fitness events according to different physical conditions; different living conditions so that can better achieve the purpose of fitness exercises.

  2. Adaptive circle-ellipse fitting method for estimating tree diameter based on single terrestrial laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Guochao; Wang, Pei

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has been used to extract accurate forest biophysical parameters for inventory purposes. The diameter at breast height (DBH) is a key parameter for individual trees because it has the potential for modeling the height, volume, biomass, and carbon sequestration potential of the tree based on empirical allometric scaling equations. In order to extract the DBH from the single-scan data of TLS automatically and accurately within a certain range, we proposed an adaptive circle-ellipse fitting method based on the point cloud transect. This proposed method can correct the error caused by the simple circle fitting method when a tree is slanted. A slanted tree was detected by the circle-ellipse fitting analysis, then the corresponding slant angle was found based on the ellipse fitting result. With this information, the DBH of the trees could be recalculated based on reslicing the point cloud data at breast height. Artificial stem data simulated by a cylindrical model of leaning trees and the scanning data acquired with the RIEGL VZ-400 were used to test the proposed adaptive fitting method. The results shown that the proposed method can detect the trees and accurately estimate the DBH for leaning trees.

  3. Hybrid PSO-ASVR-based method for data fitting in the calibration of infrared radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Li, Chengwei

    2016-06-01

    The present paper describes a hybrid particle swarm optimization-adaptive support vector regression (PSO-ASVR)-based method for data fitting in the calibration of infrared radiometer. The proposed hybrid PSO-ASVR-based method is based on PSO in combination with Adaptive Processing and Support Vector Regression (SVR). The optimization technique involves setting parameters in the ASVR fitting procedure, which significantly improves the fitting accuracy. However, its use in the calibration of infrared radiometer has not yet been widely explored. Bearing this in mind, the PSO-ASVR-based method, which is based on the statistical learning theory, is successfully used here to get the relationship between the radiation of a standard source and the response of an infrared radiometer. Main advantages of this method are the flexible adjustment mechanism in data processing and the optimization mechanism in a kernel parameter setting of SVR. Numerical examples and applications to the calibration of infrared radiometer are performed to verify the performance of PSO-ASVR-based method compared to conventional data fitting methods.

  4. Comprehensive two-dimensional river ice model based on boundary-fitted coordinate transformation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-yu MAO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available River ice is a natural phenomenon in cold regions, influenced by meteorology, geomorphology, and hydraulic conditions. River ice processes involve complex interactions between hydrodynamic, mechanical, and thermal processes, and they are also influenced by weather and hydrologic conditions. Because natural rivers are serpentine, with bends, narrows, and straight reaches, the commonly-used one-dimensional river ice models and two-dimensional models based on the rectangular Cartesian coordinates are incapable of simulating the physical phenomena accurately. In order to accurately simulate the complicated river geometry and overcome the difficulties of numerical simulation resulting from both complex boundaries and differences between length and width scales, a two-dimensional river ice numerical model based on a boundary-fitted coordinate transformation method was developed. The presented model considers the influence of the frazil ice accumulation under ice cover and the shape of the leading edge of ice cover during the freezing process. The model is capable of determining the velocity field, the distribution of water temperature, the concentration distribution of frazil ice, the transport of floating ice, the progression, stability, and thawing of ice cover, and the transport, accumulation, and erosion of ice under ice cover. A MacCormack scheme was used to solve the equations numerically. The model was validated with field observations from the Hequ Reach of the Yellow River. Comparison of simulation results with field data indicates that the model is capable of simulating the river ice process with high accuracy.

  5. LEAST-SQUARES METHOD-BASED FEATURE FITTING AND EXTRACTION IN REVERSE ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of reverse engineering is to convert discrete data points into piecewise smooth, continuous surface models.Before carrying out model reconstruction it is significant to extract geometric features because the quality of modeling greatly depends on the representation of features.Some fitting techniques of natural quadric surfaces with least-squares method are described.And these techniques can be directly used to extract quadric surfaces features during the process of segmentation for point cloud.

  6. A chord error conforming tool path B-spline fitting method for NC machining based on energy minimization and LSPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan He

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Piecewise linear (G01-based tool paths generated by CAM systems lack G1 and G2 continuity. The discontinuity causes vibration and unnecessary hesitation during machining. To ensure efficient high-speed machining, a method to improve the continuity of the tool paths is required, such as B-spline fitting that approximates G01 paths with B-spline curves. Conventional B-spline fitting approaches cannot be directly used for tool path B-spline fitting, because they have shortages such as numerical instability, lack of chord error constraint, and lack of assurance of a usable result. Progressive and Iterative Approximation for Least Squares (LSPIA is an efficient method for data fitting that solves the numerical instability problem. However, it does not consider chord errors and needs more work to ensure ironclad results for commercial applications. In this paper, we use LSPIA method incorporating Energy term (ELSPIA to avoid the numerical instability, and lower chord errors by using stretching energy term. We implement several algorithm improvements, including (1 an improved technique for initial control point determination over Dominant Point Method, (2 an algorithm that updates foot point parameters as needed, (3 analysis of the degrees of freedom of control points to insert new control points only when needed, (4 chord error refinement using a similar ELSPIA method with the above enhancements. The proposed approach can generate a shape-preserving B-spline curve. Experiments with data analysis and machining tests are presented for verification of quality and efficiency. Comparisons with other known solutions are included to evaluate the worthiness of the proposed solution.

  7. A Design Method of Code Correlation Reference Waveform in GNSS Based on Least-Squares Fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengtao; Liu, Zhe; Tang, Xiaomei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-07-29

    The multipath effect is one of the main error sources in the Global Satellite Navigation Systems (GNSSs). The code correlation reference waveform (CCRW) technique is an effective multipath mitigation algorithm for the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signal. However, it encounters the false lock problem in code tracking, when applied to the binary offset carrier (BOC) signals. A least-squares approximation method of the CCRW design scheme is proposed, utilizing the truncated singular value decomposition method. This algorithm was performed for the BPSK signal, BOC(1,1) signal, BOC(2,1) signal, BOC(6,1) and BOC(7,1) signal. The approximation results of CCRWs were presented. Furthermore, the performances of the approximation results are analyzed in terms of the multipath error envelope and the tracking jitter. The results show that the proposed method can realize coherent and non-coherent CCRW discriminators without false lock points. Generally, there is performance degradation in the tracking jitter, if compared to the CCRW discriminator. However, the performance promotions in the multipath error envelope for the BOC(1,1) and BPSK signals makes the discriminator attractive, and it can be applied to high-order BOC signals.

  8. A Design Method of Code Correlation Reference Waveform in GNSS Based on Least-Squares Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengtao; Liu, Zhe; Tang, Xiaomei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-01-01

    The multipath effect is one of the main error sources in the Global Satellite Navigation Systems (GNSSs). The code correlation reference waveform (CCRW) technique is an effective multipath mitigation algorithm for the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signal. However, it encounters the false lock problem in code tracking, when applied to the binary offset carrier (BOC) signals. A least-squares approximation method of the CCRW design scheme is proposed, utilizing the truncated singular value decomposition method. This algorithm was performed for the BPSK signal, BOC(1,1) signal, BOC(2,1) signal, BOC(6,1) and BOC(7,1) signal. The approximation results of CCRWs were presented. Furthermore, the performances of the approximation results are analyzed in terms of the multipath error envelope and the tracking jitter. The results show that the proposed method can realize coherent and non-coherent CCRW discriminators without false lock points. Generally, there is performance degradation in the tracking jitter, if compared to the CCRW discriminator. However, the performance promotions in the multipath error envelope for the BOC(1,1) and BPSK signals makes the discriminator attractive, and it can be applied to high-order BOC signals. PMID:27483275

  9. Analysis of cylindrical ramp compression experiment with radiography based surface fitting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matthew R.; Lemke, R. W.; McBride, Ryan D.; Davis, Jean-Paul; Knudson, M. D.

    2012-03-01

    The shockless compression of a cylindrical liner Z-pinch is explored as a method to obtain high pressure states while minimizing the entropy production in the target material. Experiments with beryllium liners on the Z-machine resulted in radiographic profiles at four different times in the liner's trajectory. From these results, we infer the longitudinally and azimuthally averaged material density, material pressure, and magnetic pressure along with their uncertainties. By combining these results with magnetohydrodynamic simulation, we obtain a pressure versus density response in solid beryllium up to 2.4Mbar. We conclude that the pressure versus density response for material samples in the 10Mbar range is achievable on the Z-machine with improved radiographic capability.

  10. New Spectral Fitting Method for Full-Spectrum Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Retrieval Based on Principal Components Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjie Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The full-spectrum Solar-Induced chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF within the 650-800 nm spectral region can provide important information regarding physiological and biochemical activities in vegetation. This paper proposes a new Full-spectrum Spectral Fitting Method (F-SFM for the retrieval of SIF spectra based on Principal Components Analysis (PCA. Using F-SFM, both the full-spectrum reflectance and SIF within the 650-800 nm region were modeled by PCA based on a training dataset simulated by the Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes (SCOPE model, and the weighting coefficients of the principal components were estimated by the least-squares fitting method. An iterative process was employed to improve the accuracy of the estimation of the reflectance. In each iteration, the SIF spectra retrieved from the last run were removed from the total upwelling radiance to minimize the small contribution of the SIF to the apparent reflectance outside the absorption bands. Then, the F-SFM algorithm was tested using both simulated and field-measured data with different Spectral Resolutions (SRs and Signal-to-Noise Ratios (SNRs. For data with an SR of 0.3 nm and without noise, the Relative Root Mean Square Error (RRMSE was less than 14% within the spectral region that was studied, and the peak-value ratio (SIF735/SIF685 was accurately estimated with an RRMSE of 3.56%. In addition, the F-SFM algorithm proved less sensitive to the SR than the three-band Fraunhofer Line Discrimination (3 FLD and improved FLD (iFLD methods. In the case of the field spectral data with SRs of 3 nm and 0.3 nm, the double-peak shape and the diurnal variation trend of the SIF spectra could be reasonably reconstructed by F-SFM, and the retrieved SIF values at the O2-A and O2-B bands were consistent with those retrieved by 3FLD from data with a high SR (0.3 nm and SNR (1000. Therefore, the F-SFM method can provide full-spectrum SIF information with high accuracy even at

  11. Trigonometrical fitting conditions for two derivative Runge Kutta methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monovasilis, Th.; Kalogiratou, Z.; Simos, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    Trigonometrically fitted two derivative explicit Runge-Kutta methods are considered in this work. We give order conditions for trigonometrically fitted methods that use several evaluations of the f and the g functions. We present modified methods based on methods with several f evaluations and one g evaluation.

  12. Automated Model Fit Method for Diesel Engine Control Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is consider

  13. Automated Model Fit Method for Diesel Engine Control Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is

  14. Fitting methods for relaxation modulus of viscoelastic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Ji-an; YANG Cheng-ling; SHUAI Ci-jun

    2007-01-01

    Based on viscoelastic theory, two new computational methods of solving linear equations and minimum value of the 1-norm were put forward for transforming Kohlrausch-William-Watts (KWW) function of viscoelastic materials to the generalized Maxwell model. The computational methods for the Maxwell model fitting were achieved in MATLAB software. It is found that fitting precision of the two methods is very high. The method of solving linear equations needs more fitting points and more numbers of Maxwell units. It makes the program of finite element analysis complex. While the method of solving minimum value of 1-norm can obtain very high precision only using less fitting points. These methods can fit not only experimental curve of KWW function,but also the experimental data directly.

  15. Detecting outliers when fitting data with nonlinear regression - a new method based on robust nonlinear regression and the false discovery rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Harvey J; Brown, Ronald E

    2006-03-09

    Nonlinear regression, like linear regression, assumes that the scatter of data around the ideal curve follows a Gaussian or normal distribution. This assumption leads to the familiar goal of regression: to minimize the sum of the squares of the vertical or Y-value distances between the points and the curve. Outliers can dominate the sum-of-the-squares calculation, and lead to misleading results. However, we know of no practical method for routinely identifying outliers when fitting curves with nonlinear regression. We describe a new method for identifying outliers when fitting data with nonlinear regression. We first fit the data using a robust form of nonlinear regression, based on the assumption that scatter follows a Lorentzian distribution. We devised a new adaptive method that gradually becomes more robust as the method proceeds. To define outliers, we adapted the false discovery rate approach to handling multiple comparisons. We then remove the outliers, and analyze the data using ordinary least-squares regression. Because the method combines robust regression and outlier removal, we call it the ROUT method. When analyzing simulated data, where all scatter is Gaussian, our method detects (falsely) one or more outlier in only about 1-3% of experiments. When analyzing data contaminated with one or several outliers, the ROUT method performs well at outlier identification, with an average False Discovery Rate less than 1%. Our method, which combines a new method of robust nonlinear regression with a new method of outlier identification, identifies outliers from nonlinear curve fits with reasonable power and few false positives.

  16. Detecting outliers when fitting data with nonlinear regression – a new method based on robust nonlinear regression and the false discovery rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motulsky Harvey J

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonlinear regression, like linear regression, assumes that the scatter of data around the ideal curve follows a Gaussian or normal distribution. This assumption leads to the familiar goal of regression: to minimize the sum of the squares of the vertical or Y-value distances between the points and the curve. Outliers can dominate the sum-of-the-squares calculation, and lead to misleading results. However, we know of no practical method for routinely identifying outliers when fitting curves with nonlinear regression. Results We describe a new method for identifying outliers when fitting data with nonlinear regression. We first fit the data using a robust form of nonlinear regression, based on the assumption that scatter follows a Lorentzian distribution. We devised a new adaptive method that gradually becomes more robust as the method proceeds. To define outliers, we adapted the false discovery rate approach to handling multiple comparisons. We then remove the outliers, and analyze the data using ordinary least-squares regression. Because the method combines robust regression and outlier removal, we call it the ROUT method. When analyzing simulated data, where all scatter is Gaussian, our method detects (falsely one or more outlier in only about 1–3% of experiments. When analyzing data contaminated with one or several outliers, the ROUT method performs well at outlier identification, with an average False Discovery Rate less than 1%. Conclusion Our method, which combines a new method of robust nonlinear regression with a new method of outlier identification, identifies outliers from nonlinear curve fits with reasonable power and few false positives.

  17. Overconstrained library-based fitting method reveals age- and disease-related differences in transcutaneous Raman spectra of murine bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jason R.; Inzana, Jason A.; Awad, Hani A.; Berger, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely on measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent on its chemical composition. Raman spectroscopy has been used extensively in ex vivo studies to measure the chemical composition of bone. Recently, spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) has been utilized to measure bone transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make noninvasive, in vivo measurements of bone with SORS that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based on fitting with spectral libraries. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both bone and soft tissue. The algorithm was utilized to transcutaneously detect biochemical differences in the tibiae of wild-type mice between 1 and 7 months of age and between the tibiae of wild-type mice and a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta. These results represent the first diagnostically sensitive, transcutaneous measurements of bone using SORS. PMID:23817761

  18. "Best fit" framework synthesis: refining the method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christopher; Booth, Andrew; Leaviss, Joanna; Rick, Jo

    2013-03-13

    Following publication of the first worked example of the "best fit" method of evidence synthesis for the systematic review of qualitative evidence in this journal, the originators of the method identified a need to specify more fully some aspects of this particular derivative of framework synthesis. We therefore present a second such worked example in which all techniques are defined and explained, and their appropriateness is assessed. Specified features of the method include the development of new techniques to identify theories in a systematic manner; the creation of an a priori framework for the synthesis; and the "testing" of the synthesis. An innovative combination of existing methods of quality assessment, analysis and synthesis is used to complete the process. This second worked example was a qualitative evidence synthesis of employees' views of workplace smoking cessation interventions, in which the "best fit" method was found to be practical and fit for purpose. The method is suited to producing context-specific conceptual models for describing or explaining the decision-making and health behaviours of patients and other groups. It offers a pragmatic means of conducting rapid qualitative evidence synthesis and generating programme theories relating to intervention effectiveness, which might be of relevance both to researchers and policy-makers.

  19. The benefit method: fitting hearing aids in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svard, I; Spens, K E; Back, L; Ahlner, B H; Barrenas, M L

    2005-01-01

    The most common complaint among individuals with hearing impairment is the inability to follow a conversation when several people are talking simultaneously, a noisy listening situation which is completely different from the quiet surrounding of the conventional pure tone audiometry used as basis for the hearing aid settings. The purpose of this report was to present important characteristics of the BeneFit Method (BFM), a procedure that fits the hearing aid under simulated conditions of competing speech and also a clinical pilot evaluation study comparing the BFM to the NAL-R recommendations and also to the Logic procedure, a GN resound proprietary fitting algorithm representing a modern digital hearing aid fitting procedure. Speech recognition scores in noise (SRSN) using monosyllabic words presented under different background noise levels were evaluated on 21 randomly selected subjects with hearing impairment. The subjects were fitted with the same type of hearing aid Danalogic 163D according to the BFM procedure as well as the logic procedure, the latter developed and recommended by the manufacturer. A comparison of the SRSN when using the subjects' current hearing aid fitted according to the NAL-R procedure was also made. Only the BFM procedure provided a significant SRSN improvement compared to the unaided condition (Ppatients performed significantly higher SRSN when fitted according to the BFM, than when fitted according the Logic or NAL-R procedures. The BFM procedure, which is based on individual and functional detection of hearing thresholds in noise levels corresponding to a cocktail party condition, can improve SRSN significantly. Hearing aids should be fitted under conditions similar to those when the hearing disability is perceived the most, i.e, in an environment with background noise.

  20. A novel phase-unwrapping method based on pixel clustering and local surface fitting with application to Dixon water-fat MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Junying; Mei, Yingjie; Liu, Biaoshui; Guan, Jijing; Liu, Xiaoyun; Wu, Ed X; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan; Feng, Yanqiu

    2017-03-01

    To develop and evaluate a novel 2D phase-unwrapping method that works robustly in the presence of severe noise, rapid phase changes, and disconnected regions. The MR phase map usually varies rapidly in regions adjacent to wraps. In contrast, the phasors can vary slowly, especially in regions distant from tissue boundaries. Based on this observation, this paper develops a phase-unwrapping method by using a pixel clustering and local surface fitting (CLOSE) approach to exploit different local variation characteristics between the phase and phasor data. The CLOSE approach classifies pixels into easy-to-unwrap blocks and difficult-to-unwrap residual pixels first, and then sequentially performs intrablock, interblock, and residual-pixel phase unwrapping by a region-growing surface-fitting method. The CLOSE method was evaluated on simulation and in vivo water-fat Dixon data, and was compared with phase region expanding labeler for unwrapping discrete estimates (PRELUDE). In the simulation experiment, the mean error ratio by CLOSE was less than 1.50%, even in areas with signal-to-noise ratio equal to 0.5, phase changes larger than π, and disconnected regions. For 350 in vivo knee and ankle images, the water-fat swap ratio of CLOSE was 4.29%, whereas that of PRELUDE was 25.71%. The CLOSE approach can correctly unwrap phase with high robustness, and benefit MRI applications that require phase unwrapping. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Exponentially fitted explicit Runge-Kutta-Nystrom methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, J. M.

    2004-05-01

    Exponentially fitted Runge-Kutta-Nystrom (EFRKN) methods for the numerical integration of second-order IVPs with oscillatory solutions are derived. These methods integrate exactly differential systems whose solutions can be expressed as linear combinations of the set of functions {exp(λt),exp(-λt)}, , or equivalently {sin(ωt),cos(ωt)} when λ=iω, . Explicit EFRKN methods with two and three stages and algebraic orders 3 and 4 are constructed. In addition, a 4(3) embedded pair of explicit EFRKN methods based on the FSAL technique is obtained, which permits to introduce an error and step length control with a small cost added. Some numerical experiments show the efficiency of our explicit EFRKN methods when they are compared with other exponential fitting type codes proposed in the scientific literature.

  2. Curve fitting methods for solar radiation data modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul, E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder, E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Information Technology, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    This paper studies the use of several type of curve fitting method to smooth the global solar radiation data. After the data have been fitted by using curve fitting method, the mathematical model of global solar radiation will be developed. The error measurement was calculated by using goodness-fit statistics such as root mean square error (RMSE) and the value of R{sup 2}. The best fitting methods will be used as a starting point for the construction of mathematical modeling of solar radiation received in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) Malaysia. Numerical results indicated that Gaussian fitting and sine fitting (both with two terms) gives better results as compare with the other fitting methods.

  3. Curve fitting methods for solar radiation data modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder

    2014-10-01

    This paper studies the use of several type of curve fitting method to smooth the global solar radiation data. After the data have been fitted by using curve fitting method, the mathematical model of global solar radiation will be developed. The error measurement was calculated by using goodness-fit statistics such as root mean square error (RMSE) and the value of R2. The best fitting methods will be used as a starting point for the construction of mathematical modeling of solar radiation received in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) Malaysia. Numerical results indicated that Gaussian fitting and sine fitting (both with two terms) gives better results as compare with the other fitting methods.

  4. A Leveled Task Allocation Method Based on Fitness for Multiple Agents%基于适应度的多 Agent层次任务分配方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶雪丽; 郑延斌

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the task allocation in dynamic environment ,proposed a level task allocation method is proposed ,.Appropriate tasks are allocated to agents by using the global allocation method based on fitness .When ta environment changes ,the matching issues among tasks and agents are solved through local adjustment based on ability and preferences ,which makes each agent be able to choose desired task to be performed according to local information .So the robustness and multi‐agent utility of the allocation algorithm are improved .Simulation results show that the method is feasible and effective to solve the task allocation problem in a dynamic environment .%  为了解决动态环境中的任务分配问题,提出了一种层次任务分配方法,利用基于适应度的全局分配方法为Agent分配合适的任务,当环境发生变换时,通过基于能力和偏好的局部调整来解决任务和Agent之间的匹配问题,使得每个Agent能够根据局部信息选择理想的任务来执行,提高了分配算法的鲁棒性和多Agent整体效用。仿真实验表明该方法是可行且有效的,能够解决动态环境中的任务分配问题。

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Fitted-Stable Finite Difference Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gemechis

    A fitted-stable central difference method is presented for solving singularly perturbed two point ... with exact solutions. The error bound and convergence of the proposed method has also ... explicit method involving the reduction of order for ...

  6. A matrix-based method of moments for fitting the multivariate random effects model for meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dan; White, Ian R; Riley, Richard D

    2013-03-01

    Multivariate meta-analysis is becoming more commonly used. Methods for fitting the multivariate random effects model include maximum likelihood, restricted maximum likelihood, Bayesian estimation and multivariate generalisations of the standard univariate method of moments. Here, we provide a new multivariate method of moments for estimating the between-study covariance matrix with the properties that (1) it allows for either complete or incomplete outcomes and (2) it allows for covariates through meta-regression. Further, for complete data, it is invariant to linear transformations. Our method reduces to the usual univariate method of moments, proposed by DerSimonian and Laird, in a single dimension. We illustrate our method and compare it with some of the alternatives using a simulation study and a real example. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. New Phase Fitted and Amplification Fitted Numerov-Type Methods for Periodic IVPs with Two Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglei Fang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase fitted and amplification fitted Numerov-type methods for periodic initial value problems with two frequencies are investigated. A one-frequency method and a two-frequency method are constructed. The two new methods both have algebraic order five and are dispersive of order six and dissipative of order five. The two-dimensional absolute stability region for the one-frequency method and the three-dimensional absolute stability region for the two-frequency method are plotted. Numerical experiments are reported to show the efficiency and competence of the two new methods.

  8. Fitting methods to paradigms: are ergonomics methods fit for systems thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Walker, Guy H; M Read, Gemma J; Goode, Natassia; Stanton, Neville A

    2017-02-01

    The issues being tackled within ergonomics problem spaces are shifting. Although existing paradigms appear relevant for modern day systems, it is worth questioning whether our methods are. This paper asks whether the complexities of systems thinking, a currently ubiquitous ergonomics paradigm, are outpacing the capabilities of our methodological toolkit. This is achieved through examining the contemporary ergonomics problem space and the extent to which ergonomics methods can meet the challenges posed. Specifically, five key areas within the ergonomics paradigm of systems thinking are focused on: normal performance as a cause of accidents, accident prediction, system migration, systems concepts and ergonomics in design. The methods available for pursuing each line of inquiry are discussed, along with their ability to respond to key requirements. In doing so, a series of new methodological requirements and capabilities are identified. It is argued that further methodological development is required to provide researchers and practitioners with appropriate tools to explore both contemporary and future problems. Practitioner Summary: Ergonomics methods are the cornerstone of our discipline. This paper examines whether our current methodological toolkit is fit for purpose given the changing nature of ergonomics problems. The findings provide key research and practice requirements for methodological development.

  9. Model-based estimation of individual fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, W.A.; Cooch, E.G.; Cam, E.

    2002-01-01

    Fitness is the currency of natural selection, a measure of the propagation rate of genotypes into future generations. Its various definitions have the common feature that they are functions of survival and fertility rates. At the individual level, the operative level for natural selection, these rates must be understood as latent features, genetically determined propensities existing at birth. This conception of rates requires that individual fitness be defined and estimated by consideration of the individual in a modelled relation to a group of similar individuals; the only alternative is to consider a sample of size one, unless a clone of identical individuals is available. We present hierarchical models describing individual heterogeneity in survival and fertility rates and allowing for associations between these rates at the individual level. We apply these models to an analysis of life histories of Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla ) observed at several colonies on the Brittany coast of France. We compare Bayesian estimation of the population distribution of individual fitness with estimation based on treating individual life histories in isolation, as samples of size one (e.g. McGraw & Caswell, 1996).

  10. General broken lines as advanced track fitting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinwort, Claus

    2012-01-15

    In HEP experiments the description of the trajectory of a charged particle is obtained from a fit to measurements in tracking detectors. The parametrization of the trajectory has to account for bending in the magnetic field, energy loss and multiple scattering in the detector material. General broken lines implement a track model with proper description of multiple scattering leading to linear equations with a special structure of the corresponding matrix allowing for a fast solution with the computing time depending linearly on the number of measurements. The calculation of the full covariance matrix along the trajectory enables the application to track based alignment and calibration of large detectors with global methods. (orig.)

  11. Conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis according to FITS concept: presentation of the method and preliminary, short term radiological and clinical results based on SOSORT and SRS criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Conservative scoliosis therapy according to the FITS Concept is applied as a unique treatment or in combination with corrective bracing. The aim of the study was to present author's method of diagnosis and therapy for idiopathic scoliosis FITS-Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis and to analyze the early results of FITS therapy in a series of consecutive patients. Methods The analysis comprised separately: (1) single structural thoracic, thoracolumbar or lumbar curves and (2) double structural scoliosis-thoracic and thoracolumbar or lumbar curves. The Cobb angle and Risser sign were analyzed at the initial stage and at the 2.8-year follow-up. The percentage of patients improved (defined as decrease of Cobb angle of more than 5 degrees), stable (+/- 5 degrees), and progressed (increase of Cobb angle of more than 5 degrees) was calculated. The clinical assessment comprised: the Angle of Trunk Rotation (ATR) initial and follow-up value, the plumb line imbalance, the scapulae level and the distance from the apical spinous process of the primary curve to the plumb line. Results In the Group A: (1) in single structural scoliosis 50,0% of patients improved, 46,2% were stable and 3,8% progressed, while (2) in double scoliosis 50,0% of patients improved, 30,8% were stable and 19,2% progressed. In the Group B: (1) in single scoliosis 20,0% of patients improved, 80,0% were stable, no patient progressed, while (2) in double scoliosis 28,1% of patients improved, 46,9% were stable and 25,0% progressed. Conclusion Best results were obtained in 10-25 degrees scoliosis which is a good indication to start therapy before more structural changes within the spine establish. PMID:22122964

  12. Conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis according to FITS concept: presentation of the method and preliminary, short term radiological and clinical results based on SOSORT and SRS criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Białek Marianna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conservative scoliosis therapy according to the FITS Concept is applied as a unique treatment or in combination with corrective bracing. The aim of the study was to present author's method of diagnosis and therapy for idiopathic scoliosis FITS-Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis and to analyze the early results of FITS therapy in a series of consecutive patients. Methods The analysis comprised separately: (1 single structural thoracic, thoracolumbar or lumbar curves and (2 double structural scoliosis-thoracic and thoracolumbar or lumbar curves. The Cobb angle and Risser sign were analyzed at the initial stage and at the 2.8-year follow-up. The percentage of patients improved (defined as decrease of Cobb angle of more than 5 degrees, stable (+/- 5 degrees, and progressed (increase of Cobb angle of more than 5 degrees was calculated. The clinical assessment comprised: the Angle of Trunk Rotation (ATR initial and follow-up value, the plumb line imbalance, the scapulae level and the distance from the apical spinous process of the primary curve to the plumb line. Results In the Group A: (1 in single structural scoliosis 50,0% of patients improved, 46,2% were stable and 3,8% progressed, while (2 in double scoliosis 50,0% of patients improved, 30,8% were stable and 19,2% progressed. In the Group B: (1 in single scoliosis 20,0% of patients improved, 80,0% were stable, no patient progressed, while (2 in double scoliosis 28,1% of patients improved, 46,9% were stable and 25,0% progressed. Conclusion Best results were obtained in 10-25 degrees scoliosis which is a good indication to start therapy before more structural changes within the spine establish.

  13. A viable method for goodness-of-fit test in maximum likelihood fit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; GAO Yuan-Ning; HUO Lei

    2011-01-01

    A test statistic is proposed to perform the goodness-of-fit test in the unbinned maximum likelihood fit. Without using a detailed expression of the efficiency function, the test statistic is found to be strongly correlated with the maximum likelihood function if the efficiency function varies smoothly. We point out that the correlation coefficient can be estimated by the Monte Carlo technique. With the established method, two examples are given to illustrate the performance of the test statistic.

  14. A non-exercise testing method for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness: associations with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a pooled analysis of eight population-based cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Hamer, Mark; O'Donovan, Gary; Batty, George David; Kivimaki, Mika

    2013-03-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a key predictor of chronic disease, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD), but its assessment usually requires exercise testing which is impractical and costly in most health-care settings. Non-exercise testing cardiorespiratory fitness (NET-F)-estimating methods are a less resource-demanding alternative, but their predictive capacity for CVD and total mortality has yet to be tested. The objective of this study is to examine the association of a validated NET-F algorithm with all-cause and CVD mortality. The participants were 32,319 adults (14,650 men) aged 35-70 years who took part in eight Health Survey for England and Scottish Health Survey studies between 1994 and 2003. Non-exercise testing cardiorespiratory fitness (a metabolic equivalent of VO2max) was calculated using age, sex, body mass index (BMI), resting heart rate, and self-reported physical activity. We followed participants for mortality until 2008. Two thousand one hundred and sixty-five participants died (460 cardiovascular deaths) during a mean 9.0 [standard deviation (SD) = 3.6] year follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders including diabetes, hypertension, smoking, social class, alcohol, and depression, a higher fitness score according to the NET-F was associated with a lower risk of mortality from all-causes (hazard ratio per SD increase in NET-F 0.85, 95% confidence interval: 0.78-0.93 in men; 0.88, 0.80-0.98 in women) and CVD (men: 0.75, 0.63-0.90; women: 0.73, 0.60-0.92). Non-exercise testing cardiorespiratory fitness had a better discriminative ability than any of its components (CVD mortality c-statistic: NET-F = 0.70-0.74; BMI = 0.45-0.59; physical activity = 0.60-0.64; resting heart rate = 0.57-0.61). The sensitivity of the NET-F algorithm to predict events occurring in the highest risk quintile was better for CVD (0.49 in both sexes) than all-cause mortality (0.44 and 0.40 for men and women, respectively). The specificity for all

  15. comparison of estimation methods for fitting weibull distribution to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN FORESTRY, WILDLIFE AND ENVIRONMENT VOLUME 7, No.2 SEPTEMBER, 2015. ... method was more accurate in fitting the Weibull distribution to the natural stand. ... appropriate for mixed age group.

  16. A matrix-based method of moments for fitting multivariate network meta-analysis models with multiple outcomes and random inconsistency effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dan; Bujkiewicz, Sylwia; Law, Martin; Riley, Richard D; White, Ian R

    2017-08-14

    Random-effects meta-analyses are very commonly used in medical statistics. Recent methodological developments include multivariate (multiple outcomes) and network (multiple treatments) meta-analysis. Here, we provide a new model and corresponding estimation procedure for multivariate network meta-analysis, so that multiple outcomes and treatments can be included in a single analysis. Our new multivariate model is a direct extension of a univariate model for network meta-analysis that has recently been proposed. We allow two types of unknown variance parameters in our model, which represent between-study heterogeneity and inconsistency. Inconsistency arises when different forms of direct and indirect evidence are not in agreement, even having taken between-study heterogeneity into account. However, the consistency assumption is often assumed in practice and so we also explain how to fit a reduced model which makes this assumption. Our estimation method extends several other commonly used methods for meta-analysis, including the method proposed by DerSimonian and Laird (). We investigate the use of our proposed methods in the context of both a simulation study and a real example. © 2017, The Authors Biometrics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Biometric Society.

  17. Simplified QCD fit method for BSM analysis of HERA data

    CERN Document Server

    Turkot, Oleksii; Zarnecki, Aleksander Filip

    2016-01-01

    The high-precision HERA data can be used as an input to a QCD analysis within the DGLAP formalism to obtain the detailed description of the proton structure in terms of the parton distribution functions (PDFs). However, when searching for Beyond Standard Model (BSM) contributions in the data one should take into account the possibility that the PDF set may already have been biased by partially or totally absorbing previously unrecognised new physics contributions. The ZEUS Collaboration has proposed a new approach to the BSM analysis of the inclusive $ep$ data based on the simultaneous QCD fits of parton distribution functions together with contributions of new physics processes. Unfortunately, limit setting procedure in the frequentist approach is very time consuming in this method, as full QCD analysis has to be repeated for numerous data replicas. We describe a simplified approach, based on the Taylor expansion of the cross section predictions in terms of PDF parameters, which allowed us to reduce the calc...

  18. vFitness: a web-based computing tool for improving estimation of in vitro HIV-1 fitness experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeter Lisa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The replication rate (or fitness between viral variants has been investigated in vivo and in vitro for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. HIV fitness plays an important role in the development and persistence of drug resistance. The accurate estimation of viral fitness relies on complicated computations based on statistical methods. This calls for tools that are easy to access and intuitive to use for various experiments of viral fitness. Results Based on a mathematical model and several statistical methods (least-squares approach and measurement error models, a Web-based computing tool has been developed for improving estimation of virus fitness in growth competition assays of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. Conclusions Unlike the two-point calculation used in previous studies, the estimation here uses linear regression methods with all observed data in the competition experiment to more accurately estimate relative viral fitness parameters. The dilution factor is introduced for making the computational tool more flexible to accommodate various experimental conditions. This Web-based tool is implemented in C# language with Microsoft ASP.NET, and is publicly available on the Web at http://bis.urmc.rochester.edu/vFitness/.

  19. Exponentially Fitted Variants of Euler's Method for ODEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, V.; Tomar, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    A new class of Euler's method for the numerical solution of ordinary differential equations is presented in this article. The methods are iterative in nature and admit their geometric derivation from an exponentially fitted osculating straight line. They are single-step methods and do not require evaluation of any derivatives. The accuracy and…

  20. HERMITE SCATTERED DATA FITTING BY THE PENALIZED LEAST SQUARES METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianhe Zhou; Danfu Han

    2009-01-01

    Given a set of scattered data with derivative values. If the data is noisy or there is an extremely large number of data, we use an extension of the penalized least squares method of von Golitschek and Schumaker[Serdica, 18 (2002), pp.1001-1020]to fit the data. We show that the extension of the penalized least squares method produces a unique spline to fit the data. Also we give the error bound for the extension method. Some numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Estimating initial contaminant mass based on fitting mass-depletion functions to contaminant mass discharge data: Testing method efficacy with SVE operations data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainhagu, J.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2016-09-01

    The mass of contaminant present at a site, particularly in the source zones, is one of the key parameters for assessing the risk posed by contaminated sites, and for setting and evaluating remediation goals and objectives. This quantity is rarely known and is challenging to estimate accurately. This work investigated the efficacy of fitting mass-depletion functions to temporal contaminant mass discharge (CMD) data as a means of estimating initial mass. Two common mass-depletion functions, exponential and power functions, were applied to historic soil vapor extraction (SVE) CMD data collected from 11 contaminated sites for which the SVE operations are considered to be at or close to essentially complete mass removal. The functions were applied to the entire available data set for each site, as well as to the early-time data (the initial 1/3 of the data available). Additionally, a complete differential-time analysis was conducted. The latter two analyses were conducted to investigate the impact of limited data on method performance, given that the primary mode of application would be to use the method during the early stages of a remediation effort. The estimated initial masses were compared to the total masses removed for the SVE operations. The mass estimates obtained from application to the full data sets were reasonably similar to the measured masses removed for both functions (13 and 15% mean error). The use of the early-time data resulted in a minimally higher variation for the exponential function (17%) but a much higher error (51%) for the power function. These results suggest that the method can produce reasonable estimates of initial mass useful for planning and assessing remediation efforts.

  2. Revealing the powdering methods of black makeup in Ancient Egypt by fitting microstructure based Fourier coefficients to the whole x-ray diffraction profiles of galena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungár, T.; Martinetto, P.; Ribárik, G.; Dooryhée, E.; Walter, Ph.; Anne, M.

    2002-02-01

    Galena (PbS) is a major ingredient in ancient Egyptian eye makeup. The microstructure of PbS in Egyptian cosmetic powders is used as a fingerprint and is matched with the microstructures produced artificially in geological galena minerals. The microstructure of PbS is determined by x-ray diffraction peak profile analysis in terms of dislocation density, crystallite size, and size distribution. High-resolution powder diffractograms were measured at the ESRF Grenoble synchrotron source with high resolution and high peak-to-background ratios. The Fourier coefficients of the first nine measured reflections of galena are fitted using physically based Fourier coefficients of strain and size functions. Strain anisotropy is accounted for by the dislocation model of the mean square strain. The x-ray data are supplemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, and are compared with archæological documents. It enables us to describe the procedures of eye makeup manufacturing in the Middle and New Kingdoms of Egypt some 2000 years before Christ.

  3. A review of methods for evaluating the fit of item score patterns on a test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    1999-01-01

    Methods are discussed that can be used to investigate the fit of an item score pattern to a test model. Model-based tests and personality inventories are administered to more than 100 million people a year and, as a result, individual fit is of great concern. Item Response Theory (IRT) modeling and

  4. A review of methods for evaluating the fit of item score patterns on a test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Rob R.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    1999-01-01

    Methods are discussed that can be used to investigate the fit of an item score pattern to a test model. Model-based tests and personality inventories are administered to more than 100 million people a year and, as a result, individual fit is of great concern. Item Response Theory (IRT) modeling and

  5. Thickness and fit of mouthguards according to heating methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuhashi, Fumi; Koide, Kaoru; Takahashi, Mutsumi

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in the thickness and fit of mouthguards made by four different heating methods of the mouthguard sheet material. A Sports Mouthguard(®) of 3.8-mm thickness was used in this study. Four heating methods were performed. In one method, the sheet was heated only one side. In the other methods, one side of the sheet was heated first until the center of the sheet was displaced by 0.5 cm, 1.0 cm, and 1.5 cm from the baseline, and then turned upside down and heated. The sheets were adapted using a vacuum former when the heated sheets hung 1.5 cm from the baseline. We measured the thickness and fit of the mouthguard at the areas of the central incisor and first molar. The difference in thickness at the central incisor and first molar regions was analyzed by two-way anova. The difference in fit with different heating methods was analyzed by one-way anova. The results showed that the thickness of the mouthguard differed in the central incisor and first molar areas (P heating methods. The fit of the mouthguard at the central incisor and first molar areas was significantly different among the heating methods (P heated surface of the sheet contacted the surface of the working model. This finding may help to fabricate accurate mouthguards.

  6. A Data Forward Stepwise Fitting Algorithm Based on Orthogonal Function System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Han-Ju

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Data fitting is the main method of functional data analysis, and it is widely used in the fields of economy, social science, engineering technology and so on. Least square method is the main method of data fitting, but the least square method is not convergent, no memory property, big fitting error and it is easy to over fitting. Based on the orthogonal trigonometric function system, this paper presents a data forward stepwise fitting algorithm. This algorithm takes forward stepwise fitting strategy, each time using the nearest base function to fit the residual error generated by the previous base function fitting, which makes the residual mean square error minimum. In this paper, we theoretically prove the convergence, the memory property and the fitting error diminishing character for the algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is effective, and the fitting performance is better than that of the least square method and the forward stepwise fitting algorithm based on the non-orthogonal function system.

  7. A New Curve Fitting Method for Forming Limit Experimental Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jieshi CHEN; Xianbin ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    The forming limit curve (FLC) can be obtained by. means of curve fitting the limit strain points of different strain paths. The theory of percent regression analysis is applied to the curve fitting of forming limit experimental data.Forecast intervals of FLC percentiles can be calculated. Thus reliability and confidence level can be considered. The theoretical method to get the limits of limit strain points distributing region is presented, and the FLC position can be adjusted according to practical requirement. Method for establishing FLC with high reliability using small samples is presented at the same time. This method can make full use of the current experimental data and the previous data.Compared with the traditional method that can only use current experimental data, fewer specimens are required in the present method to obtain the same precision and the result is more accurate with the same number of specimens.

  8. New method of best-fitting on curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyusojin, Akira; Akimoto, Yoshinori

    1993-09-01

    With the coordinates measuring machine the measured points are obtained as a series of points consist of the original feature and the deviations caused by misalignment i. e. translated deviation and angular deviation. To evaluate the form deviation accurately it is required to best-fit the measured feature to the ideal feature. Conventional best-fitting has been done to minimize the sum of squares of deviations between measured feature and ideal feature by translating and rotating the measured feature. It is possible for the curved line but too difficult for the curved surface. This paper gives a new method of best-fitting using datums which minimize the sum of squares in its normal direction. The datum is defined as straight line for the curved line and plane for the curved surface. When the datum of measured feature is coincided with that of the ideal feature the deviations caused by misslignment are eliminated. In order to confirm the reliability of this method computer simulations and practical measurements were made. Then close agreement was obtained. Key words: coordinate measuring machine best-fitting curved surface datum method of least-squares form deviation software on the measurement accuracy y C) - Measured feature . /Ideal feature -I. Fig. 1 Conventional bestfitting method Ideal Measured feature feature eviation a) curved line Fig. 2 Designation of form deviation 54 / SPIE Vol. 2101 Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (1993) b) curved surface

  9. SELECTION OF REFERENCE PLANE BY THE LEAST SQUARES FITTING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Podulka

    2016-06-01

    For least squares polynomial fittings it was found that applied method for cylinder liners gave usually better robustness for scratches, valleys and dimples occurrence. For piston skirt surfaces better edge-filtering results were obtained. It was also recommended to analyse the Sk parameters for proper selection of reference plane in surface topography measurements.

  10. 基于JavaScript技术在最小二乘法拟合上的实现%Realization of The Least Square Method Fitting based on JavaScript Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞聪; 龙坤; 罗棋; 杜瑞林

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a JavaScript scripting language to achieve a least square method to fit the way based on, through matrix transpose, inverse matrix matrix operations, the vector can be calculated coefficient constant. The principle of free falling body formula to fit the data, finally get the g value accuracy to 15 digits after the decimal point, in line with expectations. This method of least squares fitting of the client browser to make the study section of the in-stallation of specialized software to get rid of the cumbersome, so that the realization of matrix computing, least square fitting method is simple.%本文提出了一种基于JavaScript脚本语言实现最小二乘法拟合的方式,通过转置矩阵、逆矩阵等相关矩阵运算,得到结果向量,即可求出需要的系数常量。实验采用自由落体原理公式进行数据拟合,最后得到的 g 值精确度达到小数点后15位,符合预期目标。这种在客户端浏览器实现最小二乘法拟合的方式使考研人员摆脱了安装专门软件的繁琐,使实现矩阵运算、最小二乘法拟合变得简单。

  11. A New Family of Phase-Fitted and Amplification-Fitted Runge-Kutta Type Methods for Oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxia Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve initial value problems of differential equations with oscillatory solutions, this paper improves traditional Runge-Kutta (RK methods by introducing frequency-depending weights in the update. New practical RK integrators are obtained with the phase-fitting and amplification-fitting conditions and algebraic order conditions. Two of the new methods have updates that are also phase-fitted and amplification-fitted. The linear stability and phase properties of the new methods are examined. The results of numerical experiments on physical and biological problems show the robustness and competence of the new methods compared to some highly efficient integrators in the literature.

  12. Validating the JobFit system functional assessment method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenny Legge; Robin Burgess-Limerick

    2007-05-15

    Workplace injuries are costing the Australian coal mining industry and its communities $410 Million a year. This ACARP study aims to meet those demands by developing a safe, reliable and valid pre-employment functional assessment tool. All JobFit System Pre-Employment Functional Assessments (PEFAs) consist of a musculoskeletal screen, balance test, aerobic fitness test and job-specific postural tolerances and material handling tasks. The results of each component are compared to the applicant's job demands and an overall PEFA score between 1 and 4 is given with 1 being the better score. The reliability study and validity study were conducted concurrently. The reliability study examined test-retest, intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of the JobFit System Functional Assessment Method. Overall, good to excellent reliability was found, which was sufficient to be used for comparison with injury data for determining the validity of the assessment. The overall assessment score and material handling tasks had the greatest reliability. The validity study compared the assessment results of 336 records from a Queensland underground and open cut coal mine with their injury records. A predictive relationship was found between PEFA score and the risk of a back/trunk/shoulder injury from manual handling. An association was also found between PEFA score of 1 and increased length of employment. Lower aerobic fitness test results had an inverse relationship with injury rates. The study found that underground workers, regardless of PEFA score, were more likely to have an injury when compared to other departments. No relationship was found between age and risk of injury. These results confirm the validity of the JobFit System Functional Assessment method.

  13. A direct potential fitting RKR method: Semiclassical vs. quantal comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellinghuisen, Joel

    2016-12-01

    Quantal and semiclassical (SC) eigenvalues are compared for three diatomic molecular potential curves: the X state of CO, the X state of Rb2, and the A state of I2. The comparisons show higher levels of agreement than generally recognized, when the SC calculations incorporate a quantum defect correction to the vibrational quantum number, in keeping with the Kaiser modification. One particular aspect of this is better agreement between quantal and SC estimates of the zero-point vibrational energy, supporting the need for the Y00 correction in this context. The pursuit of a direct-potential-fitting (DPF) RKR method is motivated by the notion that some of the limitations of RKR potentials may be innate, from their generation by an exact inversion of approximate quantities: the vibrational energy Gυ and rotational constant Bυ from least-squares analysis of spectroscopic data. In contrast, the DPF RKR method resembles the quantal DPF methods now increasingly used to analyze diatomic spectral data, but with the eigenvalues obtained from SC phase integrals. Application of this method to the analysis of 9500 assigned lines in the I2A ← X spectrum fails to alter the quantal-SC disparities found for the A-state RKR curve from a previous analysis. On the other hand, the SC method can be much faster than the quantal method in exploratory work with different potential functions, where it is convenient to use finite-difference methods to evaluate the partial derivatives required in nonlinear fitting.

  14. Optimal fitting of gas turbine performance based on improved Levenberg-Marquardt method%基于改进Levenberg-Marquardt算法的燃气轮机特性拟合优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺星; 刘永葆; 孙丰瑞

    2012-01-01

    基于改进的Levenberg-Marquardt算法,对燃气轮机部件精确特性获取中的特性曲线拟合问题进行了研究,引入一种新的阻尼因子λ迭代方法,使改进的Levenberg-Marquardt算法能很快接近最优解,并能跳出局部最优的陷阱,在保证解质量的同时提高了收敛速度.建立了燃气轮机特性拟合数学模型,并应用改进Levenberg-Marquardt算法获取燃气轮机部件的特性方程.实例计算结果表明:较普通Levenberg-Marquardt而言,改进的Levenberg-Marquardt算法拟合效果更好.%New methods of curve fitting for obtaining the precise performance of the gas turbine were given based on an improved Levenberg-Marquardt method.A new damper factor was applied to iteration to make the improved Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm up to the optimal solution quickly and a-way from the trap of locally optimal solution.It could insure the solution quality and improve the convergence speed.The fitting model was established and the algorithm was used to acquire the precise performance.The results show that the fitting method of the improved Levenberg-Marquardt-based performance is more effective.

  15. New Methods of Fitting the Membership Function of Oceanic Water Masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fengqi; XIE Jun; LI Yao

    2004-01-01

    After reviewing the analytical theories of T-S curve, some methods of T-S relationship, and fuzzy sets for studying water masses, new methods of fitting the membership function of oceanic water masses are presented based on the characteristics of T-S curve family of oceanic water masses. The membership functions of oceanic Subsurface Water Mass with high salinity and Intermediate Water Mass with low salinity are fitted and discussed using the new methods. The proposed methods are useful in analyzing the mixing and modifying processes of these water masses, especially in tracing their sources.The principles and formulae of the new methods and examples are given.

  16. On the generation of P-stable exponentially fitted Runge-Kutta-Nystrom methods by exponentially fitted Runge-Kutta methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vyver, Hans

    2006-04-01

    This paper provides an investigation of the stability properties of a family of exponentially fitted Runge-Kutta-Nystrom (EFRKN) methods. P-stability is a very important property usually demanded for the numerical solution of stiff oscillatory second-order initial value problems. P-stable EFRKN methods with arbitrary high order are presented in this work. We have proved our results based on a symmetry argument.

  17. dN/dS-based methods detect positive selection linked to trade-offs between different fitness traits in the coat protein of potato virus Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moury, Benoît; Simon, Vincent

    2011-09-01

    The dN/dS ratio between nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates has been used extensively to identify codon positions involved in adaptive processes. However, the accuracy of this approach has been questioned, and very few studies have attempted to validate experimentally its predictions. Using the coat protein (CP) of Potato virus Y (PVY; genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae) as a case study, we identified several candidate positively selected codon positions that differed between clades. In the CP of the N clade of PVY, positive selection was detected at codon positions 25 and 68 by both the softwares PAML and HyPhy. We introduced nonsynonymous substitutions at these positions in an infectious cDNA clone of PVY and measured the effect of these mutations on virus accumulation in its two major cultivated hosts, tobacco and potato, and on its efficiency of transmission from plant to plant by aphid vectors. The mutation at codon position 25 significantly modified the virus accumulation in the two hosts, whereas the mutation at codon position 68 significantly modified the virus accumulation in one of its hosts and its transmissibility by aphids. Both mutations were involved in adaptive trade-offs. We suggest that our study was particularly favorable to the detection of adaptive mutations using dN/dS estimates because, as obligate parasites, viruses undergo a continuous and dynamic interaction with their hosts that favors the recurrent selection of adaptive mutations and because trade-offs between different fitness traits impede (or at least slow down) the fixation of these mutations and maintain polymorphism within populations.

  18. Web-Based Programs Assess Cognitive Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The National Space Biomedical Research Institute, based in Houston and funded by NASA, began funding research for Harvard University researchers to design Palm software to help astronauts monitor and assess their cognitive functioning. The MiniCog Rapid Assessment Battery (MRAB) was licensed by the Criteria Corporation in Los Angeles and adapted for Web-based employment testing. The test battery assesses nine different cognitive functions and can gauge the effect of stress-related deficits, such as fatigue, on various tasks. The MRAB can be used not only for pre-employment testing but also for repeat administrations to measure day-to-day job readiness in professions where alertness is critical.

  19. [ALPHA-fitness test battery: health-related field-based fitness tests assessment in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J R; España Romero, V; Castro Piñero, J; Artero, E G; Ortega, F B; Cuenca García, M; Jiménez Pavón, D; Chillón, P; Girela Rejón, Ma J; Mora, J; Gutiérrez, A; Suni, J; Sjöstrom, M; Castillo, M J

    2011-01-01

    Hereby we summarize the work developed by the ALPHA (Assessing Levels of Physical Activity) Study and describe the tests included in the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents. The evidence-based ALPHA-Fitness test battery include the following tests: 1) the 20 m shuttle run test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness; 2) the handgrip strength and 3) standing broad jump to assess musculoskeletal fitness, and 4) body mass index, 5) waist circumference; and 6) skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) to assess body composition. Furthermore, we include two versions: 1) the high priority ALPHA health-related fitness test battery, which comprises all the evidence-based fitness tests except the measurement of the skinfold thickness; and 2) the extended ALPHA health-related fitness tests battery for children and adolescents, which includes all the evidence-based fitness tests plus the 4 x 10 m shuttle run test to assess motor fitness.

  20. Observer variation factor on advanced method for accurate, robust, and efficient spectral fitting of java based magnetic resonance user interface for MRS data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Suk Jun [Dept. of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Health Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Seung Man [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Gimcheon University, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The purpose of this study was examined the measurement error factor on AMARES of jMRUI method for magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) quantitative analysis by skilled and unskilled observer method and identified the reason of independent observers. The Point-resolved spectroscopy sequence was used to acquired magnetic resonance spectroscopy data of 10 weeks male Sprague-Dawley rat liver. The methylene protons ((-CH2-)n) of 1.3 ppm and water proton (H2O) of 4.7 ppm ratio was calculated by LCModel software for using the reference data. The seven unskilled observers were calculated total lipid (methylene/water) using the jMRUI AMARES technique twice every 1 week, and we conducted interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) statistical analysis by SPSS software. The inter-observer reliability (ICC) of Cronbach's alpha value was less than 0.1. The average value of seven observer's total lipid (0.096±0.038) was 50% higher than LCModel reference value. The jMRUI AMARES analysis method is need to minimize the presence of the residual metabolite by identified metabolite MRS profile in order to obtain the same results as the LCModel.

  1. Method and application of plane linear fitting based on shortest orthogonal distance%基于正交距离最短的平面线形拟合方法及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利朋; 刘成龙; 杨雪峰

    2014-01-01

    Linear fitting is very important in track adjustment.Given the error of horizontal coordinates in meas-ured points of tracks,the method of line-fitting and circular curve-fitting was proposed based on shortest or-thogonal distance.Then the principle of the method was introduced.The main method in linear fitting is ordinary least squares at the moment,which mainly considers the error of a specific direction.According to two norms, shortest orthogonal distance and least squares,this paper proved that the method of orthogonal distance least squares considered the error of horizontal coordinates and was more effective than ordinary least squares on whole.The results of data fitting,according to different methods,show that orthogonal distance least squares method has higher posteriori precision,and the residual errors represent variation of track lining.Meanwhile,the former method has a smaller roundness,which shows the small interval of adjustment.The results in this paper prove that the orthogonal distance least squares method has advantages over the ordinary least squares in stand-ardization and optimization of existing railway lines.%线形拟合在轨道的调整中具有非常重要的作用,考虑到铁路轨道测量实测点的平面坐标x和y中均包含误差,提出基于正交距离最短的直线和圆曲线线形拟合方法,并对利用该方法进行拟合的原理进行阐述。目前常用的线形拟合方法是普通最小二乘法,主要考虑x或y某一个方向上的误差。按照正交距离最短和最小二乘2个准则,论证了同时考虑x和y2个方向误差的正交距离最小二乘法要优于普通最小二乘法。通过实例计算分析,2种方法对于同一组线形测量数据的拟合结果表明,正交距离最小二乘法的验后精度高于或接近普通最小二乘法,而且残差即为轨道点至拟合线形的拨道量,同时前者具有更小的圆度,说明调整量区间更小。以上内容证

  2. A viable method for goodness-of-fit test in maximum likelihood fit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋; 高原宁; 霍雷

    2011-01-01

    A test statistic is proposed to perform the goodness-of-fit test in the unbinned maximum likelihood fit. Without using a detailed expression of the efficiency function, the test statistic is found to be strongly correlated with the maximum likelihood func

  3. Method of forming shrink-fit compression seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorski, T. J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method for making a glass-to-metal seal is described. A domed metal enclosure having a machined seal ring is fitted to a glass post machined to a slight taper and to a desired surface finish. The metal part is then heated by induction in a vacuum. As the metal part heats and expands relative to the glass post, the metal seal ring, possessing a higher coefficient of expansion than the glass post, slides down the tapered post. Upon cooling, the seal ring crushes against the glass post forming the seal. The method results in a glass-to-metal seal possessing extremely good leak resistance, while the parts are kept clean and free of the contaminants.

  4. Classification and methodical features of fitness and wellness facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beliak Yu. I.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : health and fitness use a large arsenal of different sports and physical activity. Development of fitness industry promotes its expansion and requires classification and methodological features that lead to the use of appropriate fitness programs. Material : more than 60 literature and video of 42 prestigious international fitness - conventions lessons were analyzed. Results : the evolution of species fitness and wellness, as well as the character used in those funds. Conclusions : as a means of improving classification attribute fitness appropriate to use their orientation, according to which they are divided into aerobic, strength exercises that promote flexibility and psychomotor coordination. The main methodological features fitness facilities are highlighted: the variety and interchangeability, clear regulation, the ability to transform, to exercise a selective effect on the body, the ability to solve a wide range of tasks, innovation.

  5. Ellipse Fitting Based Approach for Extended Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of sensors’ resolution, traditional object tracking technology, which ignores object’s physical extension, gradually becomes inappropriate. Extended object tracking (EOT technology is able to obtain more information about the object through jointly estimating both centroid’s dynamic state and physical extension of the object. Random matrix based approach is a promising method for EOT. It uses ellipse/ellipsoid to describe the physical extension of the object. In order to reduce the physical extension estimation error when object maneuvers, the relationship between ellipse/ellipsoid and symmetrical positive definite matrix is analyzed at first. On this basis, ellipse/ellipsoid fitting based approach (EFA for EOT is proposed based on the measurement model and centroid’s dynamic model of random matrix based EOT approach. Simulation results show that EFA is effective. The physical extension estimation error of EFA is lower than those of random matrix based approaches when object maneuvers. Besides, the estimation error of centroid’s dynamic state of EFA is also lower.

  6. An examination of resource-based and fit-based theories of stereotyping under cognitive load and fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolan, MA; Haslam, SA; Spears, R; Oakes, PJ

    1999-01-01

    Should stereotyping be characterised as an act of cognitive miserliness of one of rational meaning-seeking? This paper uses a cognitive load paradigm to investigate the adequacy of popular resource-based explanations of stereotyping in comparison to art alternative fit-based or meaning-based explana

  7. 基于线性拟合的区间轨道电路传输特性%The Transmission Characteristics of the Section Track Circuit Based on the Linear Fitting Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟景辉; 谢保锋; 高利民

    2011-01-01

    分析不同载频的区间轨道电路检测数据散点图,提出采片用线性拟合方法分析区间轨道电路传输特性.对不同载频不同时期的区间轨道电路检测数据进行线性拟合处理,提取衰减系数、波动系数和相关系数 3个特性指标.将特性指标转化为随时变化而变化的趋势图,用以研究区间轨道电路传输特性的变化趋势,并判断补偿电容工作状态.提出基于历史数据库的区间轨道电路动态性能评判方法,该方法与现有的标准曲线对比法相比,减少了数据需要量,增加了趋势分析功能.%According to the analysis of the scatter diagram which was drawn based on the inspection data of the section track circuit with different carrier frequencies, the linear fitting method was proposed to analyze the transmission characteristics of the section track circuit. The inspection data of the section track circuit with different carrier frequencies in different periods were processed with linear fitting method to extract three characteristic indexes, namely, the attenuation coefficient, the fluctuation coefficient and the correlation coefficient. The characteristic indexes were transformed into time-varied trend chart to research the variation trend for the transmission characteristics of the section track circuit and to judge the working state of the compensation capacitors. The method based on historical database was proposed to evaluate the dynamic performance of the section track circuit. Compared with the existing standard curve contrast method, this method demands less data and adds the function of trend analysis.

  8. Self-reported physical fitness of older persons: A substitute for performance-based measures of physical fitness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanHeuvelen, M.J.G.; Kempen, G.I J M; Ormel, J.; deGreef, M.H.G.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the validity of self-report measures of physical fitness as substitutes for performance-based tests, self-reports and performance-based tests of physical fitness were compared. Subjects were a community-based sample of older adults (N = 624) aged 57 and over. The performance-based tests

  9. Self-reported physical fitness of older persons : A substitute for performance-based measures of physical fitness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanHeuvelen, MJG; Kempen, GIJM; Ormel, J; de Greef, M.H.G.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the validity of self-report measures of physical fitness as substitutes for performance-based tests, self-reports and performance-based tests of physical fitness were compared. Subjects were a community-based sample of older adults (N = 624) aged 57 and over. The performance-based tests

  10. Robust ellipse fitting based on sparse combination of data points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junli; Zhang, Miaohua; Liu, Ding; Zeng, Xianju; Ojowu, Ode; Zhao, Kexin; Li, Zhan; Liu, Han

    2013-06-01

    Ellipse fitting is widely applied in the fields of computer vision and automatic industry control, in which the procedure of ellipse fitting often follows the preprocessing step of edge detection in the original image. Therefore, the ellipse fitting method also depends on the accuracy of edge detection besides their own performance, especially due to the introduced outliers and edge point errors from edge detection which will cause severe performance degradation. In this paper, we develop a robust ellipse fitting method to alleviate the influence of outliers. The proposed algorithm solves ellipse parameters by linearly combining a subset of ("more accurate") data points (formed from edge points) rather than all data points (which contain possible outliers). In addition, considering that squaring the fitting residuals can magnify the contributions of these extreme data points, our algorithm replaces it with the absolute residuals to reduce this influence. Moreover, the norm of data point errors is bounded, and the worst case performance optimization is formed to be robust against data point errors. The resulting mixed l1-l2 optimization problem is further derived as a second-order cone programming one and solved by the computationally efficient interior-point methods. Note that the fitting approach developed in this paper specifically deals with the overdetermined system, whereas the current sparse representation theory is only applied to underdetermined systems. Therefore, the proposed algorithm can be looked upon as an extended application and development of the sparse representation theory. Some simulated and experimental examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed ellipse fitting approach.

  11. On Physique and Physical Fitness Training Methods Based on the Students' Physique Testing%基于大学生体质测试的体质体能训练方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛运海

    2015-01-01

    体质指人体的质量,是人体健康状况和对外界的适应能力。它是在遗传性和获得性基础上表现出来的人体形态结构、生理功能和心理因素综合的、相对稳定的特征。体能即人体适应环境的能力,也是人体在竞赛中体力发挥的最好状态,标志无氧训练、有氧训练和机体能量代谢的综合水平。文章通过理论与实践探讨,使大学体育教师和大学生结合自身身心特点与体质测试实际,学会体质体能训练处方的拟定,以促进体育教学与运动锻炼综合能力的全面提高。%Physique refers to the quality of a human's body, health and ability to adapt to the outside world. Based on hereditary and acquisition, it is a set of complex and comparatively stable characteristics showing body structure, physiological function and psychological status. A general term which describes human body's physical quality level, physical fitness refers to the body's ability to adapt to the environment; it also denotes the highest degree an athlete can play to, and it marks the overall level of an athlete's anaerobic training, aerobic training and energy metabolism. The article aims to foster university physical education and help teachers as well as college students to master the basic concept of physical fitness and training methods by discussing relative practices and theories. In the end, by combining the college students' physical and mental characteristics and physical tests, it aims to help college students to formulate physique and physical fitness training methods, thus promote the physical education and the students' abilities to exercise.

  12. Method of Datum Plane Fitting for Tolerances Based on 3D Convex Hulls%基于三维凸包的公差基准平面拟合方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇颖; 刘检华; 唐承统; 蒋科; 刘海博

    2015-01-01

    针对目前基于离散采样点进行基准平面拟合时没有考虑基准平面受约束的问题,提出一种基于三维凸包的带约束的基准平面拟合方法.该方法利用计算几何中的凸包理论,使用增量算法快速构建平面特征离散采样点的三维凸包.其次根据基准平面的定义,确定基准平面处于不同基准优先级时被其他基准特征约束的自由度以及建立基准的方法.在此基础上利用三维凸包建立基准平面无约束、转动约束、平动约束的数学模型,结合基准的相关实体要求实现了基准平面变动空间的求解.试验结果表明:采用一组采样数据建立基准平面时,所提出的算法与传统的最小二乘法进行比较更加符合基准平面的建立原则,保证了基准平面的准确性,满足了工程需求.%In order to fit datum plane with discrete sampling points, a method used to fit the datum plane based on 3D convex hull theory is proposed. A 3D convex hull of discrete sampling points is set up through using incremental algorithm in computational geometry. Second, according the definition of datum plane in ASME, the constrained freedom of datum plane is confirmed through analyzing the priority of datum plane and the features of other datum. The fitting mathematical model of datum plane is established through using the constrained freedom of datum plane and the points (edges) of convex hull. And finally, variable domain of datum plane is obtained through analyzing material requirement of datum plane. The experiment proves that the algorithm proposed in this paper is principles compared with the traditional least square method when use the same group of sampling points to establish the datum plane, ensures the accuracy of datum plane, meet the engineering requirements.

  13. 基于最小均方误差的圆弧分段曲线拟合方法%METHOD OF CIRCULAR ARC FRAGMENTED CURVE-FITTING BASED ON LEAST MEAN-SQUARE ERROR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂嘉文; 徐守时; 谭勇

    2001-01-01

    We present a method of circular arc fragmented curve-fittingbased on least mean-square error rule in this paper. This method adopts self-adaptive gauss filter to process original curve smoothly to eliminate noise effects, and proposes a fragrmented algorithm that is adaptive to circular arc. Based on this algorithm, we use the circular arc as basic element to fit curve accroding to least mean-square error rule. The experiment results indicate that this method can eliminate noise effects as well as preserve the local characteristics of curve.%提出了一种基于最小均方误差准则的圆弧分段曲线拟合方法。该方法采用自适应高斯滤波器对原始曲线进行平滑处理以消除噪声影响,并提出了一种适合于圆弧曲线拟合的分段算法。在该算法的基础上根据最小均方误差准则,以圆弧作为基元对曲线进行拟合。实验结果表明,该方法能够较好地消除噪声影响并保留曲线的局部特征。

  14. Methodical fitting for mathematical models of rubber-like materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrade, Michel; Saccomandi, Giuseppe; Sgura, Ivonne

    2017-02-01

    A great variety of models can describe the nonlinear response of rubber to uniaxial tension. Yet an in-depth understanding of the successive stages of large extension is still lacking. We show that the response can be broken down in three steps, which we delineate by relying on a simple formatting of the data, the so-called Mooney plot transform. First, the small-to-moderate regime, where the polymeric chains unfold easily and the Mooney plot is almost linear. Second, the strain-hardening regime, where blobs of bundled chains unfold to stiffen the response in correspondence to the `upturn' of the Mooney plot. Third, the limiting-chain regime, with a sharp stiffening occurring as the chains extend towards their limit. We provide strain-energy functions with terms accounting for each stage that (i) give an accurate local and then global fitting of the data; (ii) are consistent with weak nonlinear elasticity theory and (iii) can be interpreted in the framework of statistical mechanics. We apply our method to Treloar's classical experimental data and also to some more recent data. Our method not only provides models that describe the experimental data with a very low quantitative relative error, but also shows that the theory of nonlinear elasticity is much more robust that seemed at first sight.

  15. Model-Free CUSUM Methods for Person Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

    2009-01-01

    This article demonstrates the use of a new class of model-free cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistics to detect person fit given the responses to a linear test. The fundamental statistic being accumulated is the likelihood ratio of two probabilities. The detection performance of this CUSUM scheme is compared to other model-free person-fit statistics…

  16. StayFit: a wearable application for Gym based power training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheedhar, Maram; Gaurav, Aman; Jilla, Vivek; Tiwari, Vijay N; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2016-08-01

    Comprehensive fitness training involves both cardiorespiratory and power components. Often power/muscle strength training is confused with cardiorespiratory endurance training. However, each of them target different physiological aspects of fitness. Although, wearable based fitness trackers designed towards cardiorespiratory endurance training are available in the market, a dedicated wearable based fitness application designed for power training/tracking is still not readily available to fitness enthusiasts. With growing usage of wearable technology to manage and track personal health, it is imperative to develop health/fitness applications for wearables. A wearable based application for power training will allow the user to track build-up of muscle strength unobtrusively over a period of time. This work provides a framework and design for automatic detection, counting repetitions of strength training Gym exercises (covering all the major muscle groups), estimate personalized calories spent in each session and track power on a standalone Gear watch (both analysis and display including User Experience(UX) design). Our proposed method detects activity with ~96% sensitivity and ~96% specificity on an average and count repetitions with an overall accuracy of >95% using motion sensor data (accelerometer, gyroscope) for eight major Gym exercises. Additionally, using heart rate sensor data we have provided a mechanism to individually track the power/muscle strength of a person. This work will give further impetus towards developing wearable based systems for personalized fitness tracking and training. This will also give an option for wearable users to address both the crucial aspects of fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscle strength).

  17. Idea of integrating fitness concepts and methods into human anatomy teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Guojian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the author′s many years of experience and practice in teaching human anatomy,it is summed up that an idea of integrating fitness concepts and methods into teaching of human anatomy is envisaged.It is beneficial to the cultivation of undergraduates majoring in sports about thoughts of lifelong physical education,enable students to master the basic structure based on human body and learn and master physical fitness related basic theory and practical operation skills in order to be social competitive sports workers with practical skills.

  18. Separating Overlapped Peaks of SF6 Decomposed Products Based on Iterative Curve-fitting Method%曲线拟合法用于SF6分解组分的重叠色谱峰分离研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓星; 谢颜斌; 姚尧

    2008-01-01

    The SF6 decomposed products are very alike, so the peaks of the SF6 decomposed products are overlapped. It make us hard to quantitatively calculate. This paper introduced a method to separate the overlapped chromatogram peaks with iterative curve-fitting and Gauss function, and deduced the formula of the iterative curve-fitting;provided a method to calculate the initial value of the peaks intensity and width by iterative formula, and confirm the final peaks intensity and width to separate the overlapped signals. By the analysis of the real chromatogram data, it proved the validity of this method on the main components used in distinguishing the GIS internal defects. This method overcomes the influence of SF6 peak to the other thin concentration peaks, so it can be used in the study of the quantitative analysis of the decomposed products on different failures and different voltages.

  19. Field-based fitness assessment in young people: the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castro-Piñero, José; España-Romero, Vanesa; Artero, Enrique G; Ortega, Francisco B; Cuenca, Magdalena M; Jimenez-Pavón, David; Chillón, Palma; Girela-Rejón, María J; Mora, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Angel; Suni, Jaana; Sjöström, Michael; Castillo, Manuel J

    2011-05-01

    The present study summarises the work developed by the ALPHA (Assessing Levels of Physical Activity) study and describes the procedures followed to select the tests included in the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents. The authors reviewed physical fitness and health in youth findings from cross-sectional studies. The authors also performed three systematic reviews dealing with (1) the predictive validity of health-related fitness, (2) the criterion validity of field-based fitness tests and (3) the reliability of field-based fitness tests in youth. The authors also carried out 11-methodological studies to determine the criterion validity and the reliability of several field-based fitness tests for youth. Finally, the authors performed a study in the school setting to examine the reliability, feasibility and safety of the selected tests. The selected fitness tests were (1) the 20 m shuttle run test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness; (2) the handgrip strength and (3) standing broad jump to assess musculoskeletal fitness, and (4) body mass index, (5) skinfold thickness and (5) waist circumference to assess body composition. When there are time limits, the authors propose the high-priority ALPHA health-related fitness test battery, which comprises all the evidence-based fitness tests except the measurement of the skinfold thickness. The time required to administer this battery to a group of 20 youth by one physical education teacher is less than 2 h. In conclusion, the ALPHA fitness tests battery is valid, reliable, feasible and safe for the assessment of health-related physical fitness in children and adolescents to be used for health monitoring purposes at population level.

  20. A new method for fitting the complicated water level process of the lower Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN YongSheng; WU JiChun; ZUO YiJun; CHEN JieRen

    2009-01-01

    evel processes of the lower Yellow River are fitted by this method,and all the fitting precisions are markedly higher than the precision by the other existing methods.Every component term in the fitting model has clear physical meaning.

  1. Effects of Sample Size, Estimation Methods, and Model Specification on Structural Equation Modeling Fit Indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xitao; Wang, Lin; Thompson, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation study investigated the effects on 10 structural equation modeling fit indexes of sample size, estimation method, and model specification. Some fit indexes did not appear to be comparable, and it was apparent that estimation method strongly influenced almost all fit indexes examined, especially for misspecified models. (SLD)

  2. An effective fractal image compression algorithm based on plane fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Guo Xing; Zhang Dan-Dan

    2012-01-01

    A new method using plane fitting to decide whether a domain block is similar enough to a given range block is proposed in this paper.First,three coefficients are computed for describing each range and domain block.Then,the best-matched one for every range block is obtained by analysing the relation between their coefficients.Experimental results show that the proposed method can shorten encoding time markedly,while the retrieved image quality is still acceptable.In the decoding step,a kind of simple line fitting on block boundaries is used to reduce blocking effects.At the same time,the proposed method can also achieve a high compression ratio.

  3. Brazilian Cardiorespiratory Fitness Classification Based on Maximum Oxygen Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdy, Artur Haddad; Caixeta, Ananda

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is the most complete tool available to assess functional aerobic capacity (FAC). Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max), an important biomarker, reflects the real FAC. Objective To develop a cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) classification based on VO2 max in a Brazilian sample of healthy and physically active individuals of both sexes. Methods We selected 2837 CEPT from 2837 individuals aged 15 to 74 years, distributed as follows: G1 (15 to 24); G2 (25 to 34); G3 (35 to 44); G4 (45 to 54); G5 (55 to 64) and G6 (65 to 74). Good CRF was the mean VO2 max obtained for each group, generating the following subclassification: Very Low (VL): VO2 105%. Results Men VL 105% G1 53.13 G2 49.77 G3 47.67 G4 42.52 G5 37.06 G6 31.50 Women G1 40.85 G2 40.01 G3 34.09 G4 32.66 G5 30.04 G6 26.36 Conclusions This chart stratifies VO2 max measured on a treadmill in a robust Brazilian sample and can be used as an alternative for the real functional evaluation of physically and healthy individuals stratified by age and sex. PMID:27305285

  4. Development of an Agent-Based Model (ABM) to Simulate the Immune System and Integration of a Regression Method to Estimate the Key ABM Parameters by Fitting the Experimental Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xuming; Chen, Jinghang; Miao, Hongyu; Li, Tingting; Zhang, Le

    2015-01-01

    Agent-based models (ABM) and differential equations (DE) are two commonly used methods for immune system simulation. However, it is difficult for ABM to estimate key parameters of the model by incorporating experimental data, whereas the differential equation model is incapable of describing the complicated immune system in detail. To overcome these problems, we developed an integrated ABM regression model (IABMR). It can combine the advantages of ABM and DE by employing ABM to mimic the multi-scale immune system with various phenotypes and types of cells as well as using the input and output of ABM to build up the Loess regression for key parameter estimation. Next, we employed the greedy algorithm to estimate the key parameters of the ABM with respect to the same experimental data set and used ABM to describe a 3D immune system similar to previous studies that employed the DE model. These results indicate that IABMR not only has the potential to simulate the immune system at various scales, phenotypes and cell types, but can also accurately infer the key parameters like DE model. Therefore, this study innovatively developed a complex system development mechanism that could simulate the complicated immune system in detail like ABM and validate the reliability and efficiency of model like DE by fitting the experimental data.

  5. Reconstruction of RHESSI Solar Flare Images with a Forward Fitting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Schmahl, Ed; RHESSI Team

    2002-11-01

    We describe a forward-fitting method that has been developed to reconstruct hard X-ray images of solar flares from the Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), a Fourier imager with rotation-modulated collimators that was launched on 5 February 2002. The forward-fitting method is based on geometric models that represent a spatial map by a superposition of multiple source structures, which are quantified by circular gaussians (4 parameters per source), elliptical gaussians (6 parameters), or curved ellipticals (7 parameters), designed to characterize real solar flare hard X-ray maps with a minimum number of geometric elements. We describe and demonstrate the use of the forward-fitting algorithm. We perform some 500 simulations of rotation-modulated time profiles of the 9 RHESSI detectors, based on single and multiple source structures, and perform their image reconstruction. We quantify the fidelity of the image reconstruction, as function of photon statistics, and the accuracy of retrieved source positions, widths, and fluxes. We outline applications for which the forward-fitting code is most suitable, such as measurements of the energy-dependent altitude of energy loss near the limb, or footpoint separation during flares.

  6. METHOD OF DETERMINING THE ORIFICE AREA OF VALVE HEAD LOCKING PAIRS OF WATER FITTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre P. Svintsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important tasks when designing the water fittings is to calculate the orifice area of locking pair for passing the calculated water flow at a calculated pressure. The method of determining the orifice area with smoothly changing shape based on the piecewise-element method is proposed. This method is characterized by a comparative simplicity and sufficient accuracy for engineering calculations to determine the orifice area of the disk type locking pairs for the valve head. The proposed method allows us to determine the required size of the orifice area for passing the calculated water flow and also to determine the water flow rate depending on the opening level of orifice. The authors carried out the necessary calculations and manufactured ceramic disk type locking pairs by using the proposed method. Bench tests of water fittings with valve heads those are having orifices with smoothly changing shapes (in the form of bent blob showed that water flow is changing almost in proportional to the tap opening. This method can be used not only for the designing of the water fittings and also for the shut-off valves of various purposes.

  7. Fitting method of pseudo-polynomial for solving nonlinear parametric adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶华学; 宫秀军; 郭金运

    2001-01-01

    The optimal condition and its geometrical characters of the least-square adjustment were proposed. Then the relation between the transformed surface and least-squares was discussed. Based on the above, a non-iterative method, called the fitting method of pseudo-polynomial, was derived in detail. The final least-squares solution can be determined with sufficient accuracy in a single step and is not attained by moving the initial point in the view of iteration. The accuracy of the solution relys wholly on the frequency of Taylor's series. The example verifies the correctness and validness of the method.

  8. Polynomial fitting of tight-binding method in carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haa, Wai Kang; Yeak, Su Hoe

    2017-04-01

    Carbon is very unique in among the elements and its ability to form strong chemical bonds with a variety number such as two carbons (graphene) and four carbons (diamond). This combination of strong bonds with tight mass and high melting point makes them technologically and scientifically important in nanoscience development. Tight-binding model (TB) is one of the semi-empirical approximations used in quantum mechanical world which is restricted to the Linear Combinations of Localized Atomic Orbitals (LCAO). Currently, there are many approaches in tight-binding calculation. In this paper, we have reproduced a polynomial scaling function by fitting to the TB model. The model is then applied into carbon molecules and obtained the energy bands of the system. The elements of the overlap Hamiltonian matrix in the model will be depending on the parameter of the polynomials. Our purpose is to find out a set of parameters in the polynomial which were commonly fit to an independently calculated band structure. We used minimization approach to calculate the polynomial coefficients which involves differentiation of eigenvalues in the eigensystem. The algorithm of fitting the parameters is carried out in FORTRAN.

  9. Validation methods for low-resolution fitting of atomic structures to electron microscopy data

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiao-Ping; Volkmann, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Fitting of atomic-resolution structures into reconstructions from electron cryo-microscopy is routinely used to understand the structure and function of macromolecular machines. Despite the fact that a plethora of fitting methods has been developed over recent years, standard protocols for quality assessment and validation of these fits have not been established. Here, we present the general concepts underlying current validation ideas as they relate to fitting of atomic-resolution models int...

  10. Numerical simulation of flow field using VOF method based on body-fitted grid%基于贴体网格的VOF方法数模流场研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任冰; 李雪艳; 王国玉; 王永学

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种基于VOF方法的模拟具有复杂边界形状结构物附近流场的新算法,BFC—SIMPLE—VOF算法。采用坐标变换方法实现了任意复杂区域的结构化网格划分,在贴体网格下对二维不可压缩粘性流体的控制方程进行了离散。提出了基于交错网格的修正SIMPLE算法来迭代求解压力一速度场,修正了贴体坐标下的界面跟踪方法(VOF方法)。对带有弧形防浪墙的防波堤结构附近的流场和压力场进行了数值计算,并与在笛卡尔坐标网格下采用部分单元体近似描述结构物边界的原算法的计算结果进行了比较分析。%In the present study, a new algorithm-BFC-SIMPLE-VOF method based on VOF method was developed to model the flow field around the complex structures. Structured grids are achieved by the orthogonal coordinate transform method in the arbitrary complex region. The two-dimensional incompressible viscous flow was analyzed by solving Navier-Stokes equations on body-fitted curvilinear grids. The transformed SIMPLE scheme was adopted to modified the pressure-velocity field and the transformed VOF method was used to trace the free surface. The flow field and pressure field around the breakwater with curving wave wall were simulated using the new algorithm that was advanced in the paper, and was compared with the value that was achieved by the traditional rectangular grid which are approximated by steps.

  11. Substantiation of effectiveness of trainings on health related methodic for students with weakened motor fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin V.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out methodic, facilitating successful conduct of health related trainings of students withy weakened motor (physical fitness. Material: in the research 47 students with weakened motor fitness participated. Analysis of indicators of morbidity frequency and duration was carried out on the base of medical records’ studying during all academic year. Experimental methodic consisted of three chapters: execution of specifically selected Hatha yoga static postures, breathing exercises and boxing techniques. Breathing exercises were grouped in four complexes. Every complex was fulfilled during 6 trainings, after each of them the next followed. Results: it was found that frequency and duration of diseases statistically confidently decreased in academic year. It was shown that formation of healthy life style skills statistically confidently improved. Conclusions: we have determined: increased students’ interest to physical culture practicing; reduction of frequency and duration of diseases; higher level of formation of healthy life style skills.

  12. Regularization Methods for Fitting Linear Models with Small Sample Sizes: Fitting the Lasso Estimator Using R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Holmes Finch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and data analysts are sometimes faced with the problem of very small samples, where the number of variables approaches or exceeds the overall sample size; i.e. high dimensional data. In such cases, standard statistical models such as regression or analysis of variance cannot be used, either because the resulting parameter estimates exhibit very high variance and can therefore not be trusted, or because the statistical algorithm cannot converge on parameter estimates at all. There exist an alternative set of model estimation procedures, known collectively as regularization methods, which can be used in such circumstances, and which have been shown through simulation research to yield accurate parameter estimates. The purpose of this paper is to describe, for those unfamiliar with them, the most popular of these regularization methods, the lasso, and to demonstrate its use on an actual high dimensional dataset involving adults with autism, using the R software language. Results of analyses involving relating measures of executive functioning with a full scale intelligence test score are presented, and implications of using these models are discussed.

  13. Prediction of Pressing Quality for Press-Fit Assembly Based on Press-Fit Curve and Maximum Press-Mounting Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict pressing quality of precision press-fit assembly, press-fit curves and maximum press-mounting force of press-fit assemblies were investigated by finite element analysis (FEA. The analysis was based on a 3D Solidworks model using the real dimensions of the microparts and the subsequent FEA model that was built using ANSYS Workbench. The press-fit process could thus be simulated on the basis of static structure analysis. To verify the FEA results, experiments were carried out using a press-mounting apparatus. The results show that the press-fit curves obtained by FEA agree closely with the curves obtained using the experimental method. In addition, the maximum press-mounting force calculated by FEA agrees with that obtained by the experimental method, with the maximum deviation being 4.6%, a value that can be tolerated. The comparison shows that the press-fit curve and max press-mounting force calculated by FEA can be used for predicting the pressing quality during precision press-fit assembly.

  14. Novel wavelet threshold denoising method in axle press-fit zone ultrasonic detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chaoyong; Gao, Xiaorong; Peng, Jianping; Wang, Ai

    2017-02-01

    Axles are important part of railway locomotives and vehicles. Periodic ultrasonic inspection of axles can effectively detect and monitor axle fatigue cracks. However, in the axle press-fit zone, the complex interface contact condition reduces the signal-noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, the probability of false positives and false negatives increases. In this work, a novel wavelet threshold function is created to remove noise and suppress press-fit interface echoes in axle ultrasonic defect detection. The novel wavelet threshold function with two variables is designed to ensure the precision of optimum searching process. Based on the positive correlation between the correlation coefficient and SNR and with the experiment phenomenon that the defect and the press-fit interface echo have different axle-circumferential correlation characteristics, a discrete optimum searching process for two undetermined variables in novel wavelet threshold function is conducted. The performance of the proposed method is assessed by comparing it with traditional threshold methods using real data. The statistic results of the amplitude and the peak SNR of defect echoes show that the proposed wavelet threshold denoising method not only maintains the amplitude of defect echoes but also has a higher peak SNR.

  15. CFAR Detector Based on Goodness-of-Fit Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaobo; Pi, Yiming; Cao, Zhenglin

    This paper develops a complete architecture for constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection based on a goodness-of-fit (GOF) test. This architecture begins with a logarithmic amplifier, which transforms the background distribution, whether Weibull or lognormal into a location-scale (LS) one, some relevant properties of which are exploited to ensure CFAR. A GOF test is adopted at last to decide whether the samples under test belong to the background or are abnormal given the background and so should be declared to be a target of interest. The performance of this new CFAR scheme is investigated both in homogeneous and multiple interfering targets environment.

  16. An Expert Fitness Diagnosis System Based on Elastic Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Tseng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an expert diagnosis system based on cloud computing. It classifies a user’s fitness level based on supervised machine learning techniques. This system is able to learn and make customized diagnoses according to the user’s physiological data, such as age, gender, and body mass index (BMI. In addition, an elastic algorithm based on Poisson distribution is presented to allocate computation resources dynamically. It predicts the required resources in the future according to the exponential moving average of past observations. The experimental results show that Naïve Bayes is the best classifier with the highest accuracy (90.8% and that the elastic algorithm is able to capture tightly the trend of requests generated from the Internet and thus assign corresponding computation resources to ensure the quality of service.

  17. An Expert Fitness Diagnosis System Based on Elastic Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kevin C.; Wu, Chia-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an expert diagnosis system based on cloud computing. It classifies a user's fitness level based on supervised machine learning techniques. This system is able to learn and make customized diagnoses according to the user's physiological data, such as age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). In addition, an elastic algorithm based on Poisson distribution is presented to allocate computation resources dynamically. It predicts the required resources in the future according to the exponential moving average of past observations. The experimental results show that Naïve Bayes is the best classifier with the highest accuracy (90.8%) and that the elastic algorithm is able to capture tightly the trend of requests generated from the Internet and thus assign corresponding computation resources to ensure the quality of service. PMID:24723842

  18. Comparison of two quantitative fit-test methods using N95 filtering facepiece respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sietsema, Margaret; Brosseau, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    Current regulations require annual fit testing before an employee can wear a respirator during work activities. The goal of this research is to determine whether respirator fit measured with two TSI Portacount instruments simultaneously sampling ambient particle concentrations inside and outside of the respirator facepiece is similar to fit measured during an ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter quantitative fit test. Sixteen subjects (ten female; six male) were recruited for a range of facial sizes. Each subject donned an N95 filtering facepiece respirator, completed two fit tests in random order (ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter quantitative fit test and two-instrument real-time fit test) without removing or adjusting the respirator between tests. Fit tests were compared using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The real-time two-instrument method fit factors were similar to those measured with the single-instrument quantitative fit test. The first four exercises were highly correlated (r > 0.7) between the two protocols. Respirator fit was altered during the talking or grimace exercise, both of which involve facial movements that could dislodge the facepiece. Our analyses suggest that the new real-time two-instrument methodology can be used in future studies to evaluate fit before and during work activities.

  19. On the accuracy of population analyses based on fitted densities().

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Lande, Aurélien; Clavaguéra, Carine; Köster, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Population analyses are part of the theoretical chemist's toolbox. They provide means to extract information about the repartition of the electronic density among molecules or solids. The values of atomic multipoles in a molecule can shed light on its electrostatic properties and may help to predict how different molecules could interact or to rationalize chemical reactivity for instance. Not being physical observables to which a quantum mechanical operator can be associated, atomic charges and higher order atomic multipoles cannot be defined unambiguously in a molecule, and therefore, several population schemes (PS) have been devised in the last decades. In the context of density functional theory (DFT), PS based on the electron density seem to be best grounded. In particular, some groups have proposed various iterative schemes the outcomes of which are very encouraging. Modern implementations of DFT that are for example based on density fitting techniques permit the investigation of molecular systems comprising of hundreds of atoms. However, population analyses following iterative schemes may become very CPU time consuming for such large systems. In this article, we investigate if the computationally less expensive analyses of the variationally fitted electronic densities can be safely carried out instead of the Kohn-Sham density. It is shown that as long as flexible auxiliary function sets including f and g functions are used, the multipoles extracted from the fitted densities are extremely close to those obtained from the KS density. We further assess if the multipoles obtained through the Hirshfeld's approach, in its standard or iterative form, can be a useful approach to calculate interaction energies in non-covalent complexes. Relative energies computed with the AMOEBA polarizable forced field combined to iterative Hirshfeld multipoles are encouraging.

  20. The fitness of apps: a theory-based examination of mobile fitness app usage over 5 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsook

    2017-01-01

    Background There are thousands of fitness-related smartphone applications (“apps”) available for free and purchase, but there is uncertainty if these apps help individuals achieve and maintain personal fitness. Technology usage attrition is also a concern among research studies on health technologies. Methods Usage of three fitness apps was examined over 5 months to assess adherence and effectiveness. Initially, 64 participants downloaded three free apps available on Android and iOS and 47 remained in the study until posttest. With a one group pre-posttest design and checkpoints at months 1, 3, and 5, exercise and exercise with fitness apps were examined in the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) using a validated survey. Apps were selected based on their function from the Functional Triad. Perceived fitness was also measured. T-tests, sign tests, Fisher’s exact tests, and linear and logistic regression were used to compare pre to posttests and users to non-users of the apps. Results Forty-seven participants completed both pre and posttests. Individual item scores indicated no significant change pre to posttest except for decreases observed in usefulness of using apps for exercise (attitude) (−0.78, P<0.01), peer influence on exercise (subjective norm) (−0.51, P<0.05), peer influence on exercise with apps (subjective norm) (−1.02, P<0.01), perceived difficulties in exercising with apps (perceived behavioral control) (−1.29, P<0.001), and the expected frequency of exercise with apps over the next 2 weeks (behavioral intention) (P<0.0001 in a sign test). Subscale total scores indicated significant decreases in subjective norm regarding exercise (−0.72, P<0.05), subjective norm regarding exercise with apps (−1.72, P<0.01), and perceived behavioral control over exercising with apps (−2.56, P<0.01) between pre and posttest. When comparing app users (n=32) to non-users (n=15), there was only a significant difference in subscale total

  1. Robust goodness-of-fit tests for AR(p) models based on L1-norm fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋建成; 郑忠国

    1999-01-01

    A robustified residual autocorrelation is defined based on L1-regression. Under very general conditions,the asymptotic distribution of the robust residual autocorrelation is obtained. A robustified portmanteau statistic is then constructed which can be used in checking the goodness-of-fit of AR(p) models when using L1-norm fitting. Empirical results show that L1-norm estimators and the proposed portmanteau statistic are robust against outliers, error distributions, and accuracy for a given finite sample.

  2. Quasi -geoid of Jinzhou through GPS Height Fitting Method Based on Curved Surface%运用GPS曲面拟合高程精化锦州市区似大地水准面

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦志伟; 李福金

    2012-01-01

    利用已完成的锦州市区基础控制成果对锦州市似大地水准面精化进行了研究。介绍了GPS高程的应用理论,大地水准高的计算方法以及利用曲面拟合法计算大地水准面高,并对结果进行了分析,绘制出高程异常等值线图。%The paper studies the quasi-geoid of Jinzhou through its finished basic control result. The paper introduces the application theory of GPS height and hoth the general method and the curved surface fitting method to measure geodetic height. At last,the paper analyzes the result,and the map ot geoid contour is drawn.

  3. 基于力量基础的花样游泳运动员体能训练方法研究%Research on Methods to Train Physical Fitness of Synchronized Swimmers Based on Strength Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱政

    2015-01-01

    Currently,synchronized swimming is in full swing in China.To further improve the competitive level of China's synchronized swimmers,the paper studies methods of training physical fitness of synchronized swimmers with the methods of literature and logical analysis.The paper hopes to provide reference in future synchronized swimming training among swimmers and coaches.%当前我国花样游泳正处于上升的状态,为进一步的提高当前我国花样游泳运动员的竞技水平,文章采用文献资料法、逻辑分析法对花样游泳运动员的体能训练方法进行了研究,以期能对今后的运动员与教练员花样游泳训练提供借鉴。

  4. HIGH ORDER ONE-STEP A-STABLE EXPONENTIALLY FITTED METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangFengiian; ChenXinming; LuoYiping

    1999-01-01

    In this paper,the necessary and sutlicient conditions for general one-step methoos to be exponentially fitted at q0∈C are given, A class of multtderivative hybrid one-step methods of order at least s+1 is constructed with s+1 parameters,where s is the order of derivative. The necessary and sufficient conditions for these methods to be A-stable and exponentially fitted is proved, Furthermore,a class of A-stable 2 parameters hybrid one-step methods of order at least 8 are constructed,which use 4th order derivative,These methods are exponentially fitted at q0 if and only its fitted function f(q) satisfies f(q0)= 0, Finally,an A-stable exponentlally fitted method of order 8 is obtained.

  5. A comparative analysis on computational methods for fitting an ERGM to biological network data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Saha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Exponential random graph models (ERGM based on graph theory are useful in studying global biological network structure using its local properties. However, computational methods for fitting such models are sensitive to the type, structure and the number of the local features of a network under study. In this paper, we compared computational methods for fitting an ERGM with local features of different types and structures. Two commonly used methods, such as the Markov Chain Monte Carlo Maximum Likelihood Estimation and the Maximum Pseudo Likelihood Estimation are considered for estimating the coefficients of network attributes. We compared the estimates of observed network to our random simulated network using both methods under ERGM. The motivation was to ascertain the extent to which an observed network would deviate from a randomly simulated network if the physical numbers of attributes were approximately same. Cut-off points of some common attributes of interest for different order of nodes were determined through simulations. We implemented our method to a known regulatory network database of Escherichia coli (E. coli.

  6. Combining optimization methods with response spectra curve-fitting toward improved damping ratio estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewick, Patrick T.; Smyth, Andrew W.

    2016-12-01

    The authors have previously shown that many traditional approaches to operational modal analysis (OMA) struggle to properly identify the modal damping ratios for bridges under traffic loading due to the interference caused by the driving frequencies of the traffic loads. This paper presents a novel methodology for modal parameter estimation in OMA that overcomes the problems presented by driving frequencies and significantly improves the damping estimates. This methodology is based on finding the power spectral density (PSD) of a given modal coordinate, and then dividing the modal PSD into separate regions, left- and right-side spectra. The modal coordinates were found using a blind source separation (BSS) algorithm and a curve-fitting technique was developed that uses optimization to find the modal parameters that best fit each side spectra of the PSD. Specifically, a pattern-search optimization method was combined with a clustering analysis algorithm and together they were employed in a series of stages in order to improve the estimates of the modal damping ratios. This method was used to estimate the damping ratios from a simulated bridge model subjected to moving traffic loads. The results of this method were compared to other established OMA methods, such as Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) and BSS methods, and they were found to be more accurate and more reliable, even for modes that had their PSDs distorted or altered by driving frequencies.

  7. Mastoid cavity dimensions and shape: method of measurement and virtual fitting of implantable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handzel, Ophir; Wang, Haobing; Fiering, Jason; Borenstein, Jeffrey T; Mescher, Mark J; Swan, Erin E Leary; Murphy, Brian A; Chen, Zhiqiang; Peppi, Marcello; Sewell, William F; Kujawa, Sharon G; McKenna, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Temporal bone implants can be used to electrically stimulate the auditory nerve, to amplify sound, to deliver drugs to the inner ear and potentially for other future applications. The implants require storage space and access to the middle or inner ears. The most acceptable space is the cavity created by a canal wall up mastoidectomy. Detailed knowledge of the available space for implantation and pathways to access the middle and inner ears is necessary for the design of implants and successful implantation. Based on temporal bone CT scans a method for three-dimensional reconstruction of a virtual canal wall up mastoidectomy space is described. Using Amira software the area to be removed during such surgery is marked on axial CT slices, and a three-dimensional model of that space is created. The average volume of 31 reconstructed models is 12.6 cm(3) with standard deviation of 3.69 cm(3), ranging from 7.97 to 23.25 cm(3). Critical distances were measured directly from the model and their averages were calculated: height 3.69 cm, depth 2.43 cm, length above the external auditory canal (EAC) 4.45 cm and length posterior to EAC 3.16 cm. These linear measurements did not correlate well with volume measurements. The shape of the models was variable to a significant extent making the prediction of successful implantation for a given design based on linear and volumetric measurement unreliable. Hence, to assure successful implantation, preoperative assessment should include a virtual fitting of an implant into the intended storage space. The above-mentioned three-dimensional models were exported from Amira to a Solidworks application where virtual fitting was performed. Our results are compared to other temporal bone implant virtual fitting studies. Virtual fitting has been suggested for other human applications.

  8. Spectral fitting of NMR spectra using an alternating optimization method with a priori knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Z; Bruner, A P; Li, J; Scott, K N; Liu, Z S; Stopka, C B; Kim, H W; Wilson, D C

    1999-09-01

    As alternatives to the fast Fourier transform, advanced parametric methods based on the damped sinusoidal data model have been devised to better quantify the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy time-domain data. Previously, linear prediction (LP) fitting methods using Householder triangularization and singular value decomposition (SVD) techniques have been applied to the NMR spectroscopy data analysis. In this paper, we propose an alternating optimization method to quantify the time-domain NMR spectroscopy data. The proposed algorithm uses the a priori knowledge of the possible frequency intervals of the damped sinusoids to obtain more accurate parameter estimates when the NMR spectroscopy data are obtained under low signal-to-noise ratio conditions and the peaks are close together. None of the LP and SVD type of methods can use such approximate a priori knowledge. We have shown with measured NMR spectroscopy data that the proposed algorithm can be used to obtain accurate parameter estimates of frequencies, amplitudes, and damping ratios of the damped sinusoids and therefore the ultimate fit of the spectrum by using the a priori knowledge about the possible frequency intervals of the damped sinusoids. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. Fitting Multilevel Models with Ordinal Outcomes: Performance of Alternative Specifications and Methods of Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel J.; Sterba, Sonya K.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has compared methods of estimation for fitting multilevel models to binary data, but there are reasons to believe that the results will not always generalize to the ordinal case. This article thus evaluates (a) whether and when fitting multilevel linear models to ordinal outcome data is justified and (b) which estimator to employ…

  10. Computer program for fitting low-order polynomial splines by method of least squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    FITLOS is computer program which implements new curve fitting technique. Main program reads input data, calls appropriate subroutines for curve fitting, calculates statistical analysis, and writes output data. Method was devised as result of need to suppress noise in calibration of multiplier phototube capacitors.

  11. Methods of Fitting a Straight Line to Data: Examples in Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Gilroy, Edward J.

    1984-01-01

    Three methods of fitting straight lines to data are described and their purposes are discussed and contrasted in terms of their applicability in various water resources contexts. The three methods are ordinary least squares (OLS), least normal squares (LNS), and the line of organic correlation (OC). In all three methods the parameters are based on moment statistics of the data. When estimation of an individual value is the objective, OLS is the most appropriate. When estimation of many values is the objective and one wants the set of estimates to have the appropriate variance, then OC is most appropriate. When one wishes to describe the relationship between two variables and measurement error is unimportant, then OC is most appropriate. Where the error is important in descriptive problems or in calibration problems, then structural analysis techniques may be most appropriate. Finally, if the problem is one of describing some geographic trajectory, then LNS is most appropriate.

  12. Comparison of cosmological parameter inference methods applied to supernovae lightcurves fitted with SALT2

    CERN Document Server

    March, M C; Feroz, F; Hobson, M P

    2012-01-01

    We present a comparison of two methods for cosmological parameter inference from supernovae Ia lightcurves fitted with the SALT2 technique. The standard chi-square methodology and the recently proposed Bayesian hierarchical method (BHM) are each applied to identical sets of simulations based on the 3-year data release from the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS3), and also data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Low Redshift sample and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), assuming a concordance LCDM cosmology. For both methods, we find that the recovered values of the cosmological parameters, and the global nuisance parameters controlling the stretch and colour corrections to the supernovae lightcurves, suffer from small biasses. The magnitude of the biasses is similar in both cases, with the BHM yielding slightly more accurate results, in particular for cosmological parameters when applied to just the SNLS3 single survey data sets. Most notably, in this case, the biasses in the recovered matter density $\\...

  13. DETERMINATION OF THE PERIOD OF A TORSION PENDULUM BY THE FITTING METHOD IN REAL TIME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    A phenomenological study on the fitting method in real time has been done, and the method was applied to process and analyze the extensive data of a long period torsion pendulum used to determine Newtonian gravitational constant G. The result shows that the fitting method in real time is effective to determine the period of a torsion pendulum with a relative precision of 10-5 orders.

  14. Nonlinear Fitting Method of Long-Term Distributions for Statistical Analysis of Extreme Negative Surge Elevations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Sheng; LI Fengli; JIAO Guiying

    2003-01-01

    Hydrologic frequency analysis plays an important role in coastal and ocean engineering for structural design and disaster prevention in coastal areas. This paper proposes a Nonlinear Least Squares Method (NLSM), which estimates the three unknown parameters of the Weibull distribution simultaneously by an iteration method. Statistical test shows that the NLSM fits each data sample well. The effects of different parameter-fitting methods, distribution models, and threshold values are also discussed in the statistical analysis of storm set-down elevation. The best-fitting probability distribution is given and the corresponding return values are estimated for engineering design.

  15. Global Fits of the CKM Matrix with the SCAN Method

    CERN Document Server

    Eigen, G; Hitlin, D G; Porter, F C

    2015-01-01

    We present a Scan Method analysis of the allowed region of the rho bar - eta bar plane using the latest input measurements of the CKM matrix elements, sin 2 beta, B0(s,d) mixing, epsilon(K), alpha and gamma. In this approach, we make no assumptions as to the distribution of theory uncertainties; rather, we scan over the range of plausible theoretical uncertainties and determine confidence level contours in the rho bar eta bar plane. We determine alpha from branching fraction and CP asymmetry measurements of B decays to all light pseudoscalar-pseudoscalar, pesudoscalar-vector, vector-vector and a1-psudoscalar mesons and determine gamma from D(*)K(*), D(*) pi and D rho modes, thereby including correlations between the angles of the unitarity triangle. We parametrize the individual decay amplitudes in terms of color-allowed tree, color-suppressed tree, gluonic penguin, singlet penguin, electroweak penguin, as well as W-exchange and W-annihilation amplitudes. Our procedure accounts for all correlations among the ...

  16. CUSUM-Based Person-Fit Statistics for Adaptive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith M. L. A.; Meijer, Rob R.

    2001-01-01

    Proposed person-fit statistics that are designed for use in a computerized adaptive test (CAT) and derived critical values for these statistics using cumulative sum (CUSUM) procedures so that item-score patterns can be classified as fitting or misfitting. Compared nominal Type I errors with empirical Type I errors through simulation studies. (SLD)

  17. CUSUM-based person-fit statistics for adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen-Stoop, van Edith M.L.A.; Meijer, Rob R.

    2001-01-01

    Item scores that do not fit an assumed item response theory model may cause the latent trait value to be inaccurately estimated. Several person-fit statistics for detecting nonfitting score patterns for paper-and-pencil tests have been proposed. In the context of computerized adaptive tests (CAT), t

  18. A new method for fitting the complicated water level process of the lower Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With the view of effectively fitting the complicated water level process of the lower Yellow River, polynomial regression, stepwise regression, parameters by ridge estimate and so on, are logically integrated. And the progressive transformation is introduced. Then a new method is put forward. The core difference of this new method from the same kind of methods lies in that in this method the strong coupling effect of weak influencing factors which is common in a complicated water level process is considered, that many effective methods are synthetically used to reduce the fitting model error, and that the necessary progressive transformation is introduced. The advantages of many theories and methods are logically integrated in this method, and the method can be easily used. The rationality and necessity of each step in this method are ensured by sufficient theories, so this method can be widely used to effectively simulate the inherent relations in the same kind of complicated data. Furthermore, many complicated water level processes of the lower Yellow River are fitted by this method, and all the fitting precisions are markedly higher than the precision by the other existing methods. Every component term in the fitting model has clear physical meaning.

  19. A method for the assessment of fitness in aerobically taxing occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, E M; Imbriani, M; Criffo, A

    1996-01-01

    A good level of physical fitness is a fundamental prerequisite of many occupations, hence the importance of valid methods of fitness assessment. A method, using submaximal treadmill exercise, was tested in a group of Urban Police Officers. Physiology variables and subjective perceptions were monitored. The trend of individual variables provided a means to define the "critical" capacity which corresponded to a mean value of 6.8 MET (a "heavy activity" according to Haskell's classification). This level is proposed as a predictor of endurance and could be used in follow-up fitness assessments.

  20. Training Methods and Training Instructors' Qualification Are Related to Recruits' Fitness Development During Basic Military Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Lilian; Hofstetter, Marie-Claire; Mäder, Urs; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Adequate physical fitness is essential for successful military service. Military organizations worldwide therefore make continuous efforts to improve their army's physical training (PT) programs. To investigate the effect of the training methods and the qualification of PT instructors on the development of recruits' physical fitness, the present study compared the outcomes of 2 training groups. Both study groups participated in approximately 145 minutes per week of PT. The control group executed the standard army PT prepared and supervised by army PT instructors. Content of the PT in the intervention group was similar to that of the control group, but their training sessions' methods were different. Their training sessions were organized, prepared, and delivered by more and better-qualified supervisors (tertiary-educated physical education teachers). After 10 weeks of training, the participants of the intervention group experienced a significantly greater physical fitness improvement than those of the control group (positive change in endurance 32 and 17%, balance 30 and 21%, and core strength 74 and 45%, respectively). In both groups, the recruits with the lowest initial fitness levels significantly increased their performance. In the intervention group, but not the control, one-third of the recruits with the highest initial fitness levels were able to further improve their general fitness performance. This study demonstrates that the training methods and quality of instruction during PT sessions are relevant for recruits' fitness development in basic military training.

  1. The Method of Gun Rotated Precision Detection Based on Multipoint Spatial Linear Fitting%基于多点空间直线拟合的调炮精度检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛; 霍李; 宫新宇; 杭小初; 侯习平

    2015-01-01

    针对火炮身管上标记两个点检测调炮精度受制于单个空间点坐标测量精度的问题,提出通过增加身管上标记点的冗余数量来提高调炮精度的检测方法。应用最小二乘原理对多个空间点进行直线拟合,并采用Monte Carlo方法对身管指向的测量精度进行分析。结果表明:标记4个点、5个点、6个点和7个点与标记2个点(传统方法)相比,其身管指向的测量精度分别提高了约6豫、18豫、19豫和21豫。该方法适用于对调炮精度检测要求较高的场合,综合考虑工作效率和测量精度这两个因素,推荐标记5个点测量身管指向。%According to the problem that gun rotated precision detection of two markers on the gun tube is bound to the accuracy of single spatial point coordinate measurement,a method of improving the gun rotated precision detection by increasing the redundancy numbers of marker on the gun tube is put forward. The least square method is applied in linear fitting for multipoint in space,and Monte Carlo method is adopted to analyze accuracy of the gun tube direction measurement. The result shows that the accuracy of the gun tube direction measurement of smarting four points,five points,six points and seven points approximately improved by 6%,18%,19%,21% respectively in compared with two points (traditional method). This method is suitable for the application which requests high gun rotated precision detection. Therefore,considering such two factors of working efficiency and test precision,we suggest marking five points on the gun tube for measuring the gun tube direction.

  2. A shock-fitting technique for cell-centered finite volume methods on unstructured dynamic meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dongyang; Xu, Chunguang; Dong, Haibo; Liu, Jun

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the shock-fitting technique is further developed on unstructured dynamic meshes. The shock wave is fitted and regarded as a special boundary, whose boundary conditions and boundary speed (shock speed) are determined by solving Rankine-Hugoniot relations. The fitted shock splits the entire computational region into subregions, in which the flows are free from shocks and flow states are solved by a shock-capturing code based on arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian algorithm. Along with the motion of the fitted shock, an unstructured dynamic meshes algorithm is used to update the internal node's position to maintain the high quality of computational meshes. The successful applications prove the present shock-fitting to be a valid technique.

  3. Technical Note: Review of methods for linear least-squares fitting of data and application to atmospheric chemistry problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Cantrell

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The representation of data, whether geophysical observations, numerical model output or laboratory results, by a best fit straight line is a routine practice in the geosciences and other fields. While the literature is full of detailed analyses of procedures for fitting straight lines to values with uncertainties, a surprising number of scientists blindly use the standard least squares method, such as found on calculators and in spreadsheet programs, that assumes no uncertainties in the x values. Here, the available procedures for estimating the best fit straight line to data, including those applicable to situations for uncertainties present in both the x and y variables, are reviewed. Representative methods that are presented in the literature for bivariate weighted fits are compared using several sample data sets, and guidance is presented as to when the somewhat more involved iterative methods are required, or when the standard least-squares procedure would be expected to be satisfactory. A spreadsheet-based template is made available that employs one method for bivariate fitting.

  4. Technical Note: Review of methods for linear least-squares fitting of data and application to atmospheric chemistry problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Cantrell

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The representation of data, whether geophysical observations, numerical model output or laboratory results, by a best fit straight line is a routine practice in the geosciences and other fields. While the literature is full of detailed analyses of procedures for fitting straight lines to values with uncertainties, a surprising number of scientists blindly use the standard least-squares method, such as found on calculators and in spreadsheet programs, that assumes no uncertainties in the x values. Here, the available procedures for estimating the best fit straight line to data, including those applicable to situations for uncertainties present in both the x and y variables, are reviewed. Representative methods that are presented in the literature for bivariate weighted fits are compared using several sample data sets, and guidance is presented as to when the somewhat more involved iterative methods are required, or when the standard least-squares procedure would be expected to be satisfactory. A spreadsheet-based template is made available that employs one method for bivariate fitting.

  5. Adaptive Redundant Lifting Wavelet Transform Based on Fitting for Fault Feature Extraction of Roller Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqing Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A least square method based on data fitting is proposed to construct a new lifting wavelet, together with the nonlinear idea and redundant algorithm, the adaptive redundant lifting transform based on fitting is firstly stated in this paper. By variable combination selections of basis function, sample number and dimension of basis function, a total of nine wavelets with different characteristics are constructed, which are respectively adopted to perform redundant lifting wavelet transforms on low-frequency approximate signals at each layer. Then the normalized lP norms of the new node-signal obtained through decomposition are calculated to adaptively determine the optimal wavelet for the decomposed approximate signal. Next, the original signal is taken for subsection power spectrum analysis to choose the node-signal for single branch reconstruction and demodulation. Experiment signals and engineering signals are respectively used to verify the above method and the results show that bearing faults can be diagnosed more effectively by the method presented here than by both spectrum analysis and demodulation analysis. Meanwhile, compared with the symmetrical wavelets constructed with Lagrange interpolation algorithm, the asymmetrical wavelets constructed based on data fitting are more suitable in feature extraction of fault signal of roller bearings.

  6. Estimating selection through male fitness: three complementary methods illuminate the nature and causes of selection on flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Emily J; Weis, Arthur E

    2016-02-24

    Our understanding of selection through male fitness is limited by the resource demands and indirect nature of the best available genetic techniques. Applying complementary, independent approaches to this problem can help clarify evolution through male function. We applied three methods to estimate selection on flowering time through male fitness in experimental populations of the annual plant Brassica rapa: (i) an analysis of mating opportunity based on flower production schedules, (ii) genetic paternity analysis, and (iii) a novel approach based on principles of experimental evolution. Selection differentials estimated by the first method disagreed with those estimated by the other two, indicating that mating opportunity was not the principal driver of selection on flowering time. The genetic and experimental evolution methods exhibited striking agreement overall, but a slight discrepancy between the two suggested that negative environmental covariance between age at flowering and male fitness may have contributed to phenotypic selection. Together, the three methods enriched our understanding of selection on flowering time, from mating opportunity to phenotypic selection to evolutionary response. The novel experimental evolution method may provide a means of examining selection through male fitness when genetic paternity analysis is not possible.

  7. Characterisation of group behaviour surface texturing with multi-layers fitting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhengyang; Fu, Yonghong; Ji, Jinghu; Wang, Hao

    2016-07-01

    Surface texturing was widely applied in improving the tribological properties of mechanical components, but study of measurement of this technology was still insufficient. This study proposed the multi-layers fitting (MLF) method to characterise the dimples array texture surface. Based on the synergistic effect among the dimples, the 3D morphology of texture surface was rebuilt by 2D stylus profiler in the MLF method. The feasible regions of texture patterns and sensitive parameters were confirmed by non-linear programming, and the processing software of MLF method was developed based on the Matlab®. The characterisation parameters system of dimples was defined mathematically, and the accuracy of MLF method was investigated by comparison experiment. The surface texture specimens were made by laser surface texturing technology, in which high consistency of dimples' size and distribution was achieved. Then, 2D profiles of different dimples were captured by employing Hommel-T1000 stylus profiler, and the data were further processed by MLF software to rebuild 3D morphology of single dimple. The experiment results indicated that the MLF characterisation results were similar to those of Wyko T1100, the white light interference microscope. It was also found that the stability of MLF characterisation results highly depended on the number of captured cross-sections.

  8. A fast autofocus sharpness function of microvision system based on the Robert function and Gauss fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Xiaopeng; Wang, Pu; Shan, Peng; Li, Huiguang; Li, Zhiquan

    2017-06-29

    For the microvision system, a new autofocus evaluation function based on the Robert function is proposed by increasing the threshold value. Compared with the traditional evaluation function, the new focus function reduces the local extreme value and increases the steepness of the focusing curve. According to the characteristics of the focusing evaluation function, the focus curve can be divided into two stages: the gentle area and the steep area. In the gentle area, there will be set a large step-length to realize the fast search. In the steep area, the data will be fitted by Gauss method, and on the basis of the fitting results, the motor of microvision system was directly driven to achieve the focal plane and this method has been improved in real-time and accuracy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Comparison of three NDVI time-series fitting methods in crop phenology detection in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Tao, Fulu

    2014-03-01

    Phenological changes of cropland are the pivotal basis for farm management, agricultural production, and climate change research. Over the past decades, a range of methods have been used to extract phenological events based on satellite derived continuous vegetation index time series, however, large uncertainties still exist. In this study, three smoothing methods were compared to reduce the potential uncertainty and to quantify crop green-up dates over Northeast China. The results indicated that the crop spring onset dates estimated by three methods show variance in the dates, but with similar spatial pattern. In 60% of the study area, the standard deviation (SD) of the estimated starting date from different method is less than 10 days, while 39.5% of total pixels have SDs between 10days and 30 days. Through comparative analysis against the observation phenological data, we concluded that Asymmetric Gaussians produced the most approximative results of all, followed by Double Logistic algorithm, and Savizky-Glolay algorithm performed worst. The starting dates of crops occur mostly between May and June in this region. The Savitzky-Golay has the earliest estimates, while the Asymmetric Gaussians and Double logistic fitting method show similar and later estimates, which are more consistent with the observed data.

  10. Evolutionary fitness as a function of pubertal age in 22 subsistence-based traditional societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawlik Aneta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context The age of puberty has fallen over the past 130 years in industrialized, western countries, and this fall is widely referred to as the secular trend for earlier puberty. The current study was undertaken to test two evolutionary theories: (a the reproductive system maximizes the number of offspring in response to positive environmental cues in terms of energy balance, and (b early puberty is a trade-off response for high mortality rate and reduced resource availability. Methods Using a sample of 22 natural-fertility societies of mostly tropical foragers, horticulturalists, and pastoralists from Africa, South America, Australia, and Southeastern Asia, this study compares indices of adolescence growth and menarche with those of fertility fitness in these non-industrial, traditional societies. Results The average age at menarche correlated with the first reproduction, but did not correlate with the total fertility rate TFR or reproductive fitness. The age at menarche correlated negatively with their average adult body mass, and the average adult body weight positively correlated with reproductive fitness. Survivorship did not correlate with the age at menarche or age indices of the adolescent growth spurt. The population density correlated positively with the age at first reproduction, but not with menarche age, TFR, or reproductive fitness. Conclusions Based on our analyses, we reject the working hypotheses that reproductive fitness is enhanced in societies with early puberty or that early menarche is an adaptive response to greater mortality risk. Whereas body mass is a measure of resources is tightly associated with fitness, the age of menarche is not.

  11. Simulation of a free-surface and seepage face using boundary-fitted coordinate system method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Kun; Leap, Darrell I.

    1997-09-01

    The boundary-fitted coordinate (BFC) system method is applied to simulate steady groundwater seepage with a free-surface and seepage face using the finite-difference method. The BFC system method eliminates the difficulty of fitting finite-difference grids to a changeable free-surface which is not known a priori but will be obtained as part of a solution. Also, grid generation with this approach is simpler than with the finite-element method. At each iterative sweep, the changeable free-surface becomes a part of the boundary-fitted grid lines, making boundary condition implementation easy and accurate. An example problem demonstrating the simulation procedure and numerical results compares very well with the analytical solution.

  12. Tests of Fit Based on the Correlation Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-04

    function. Regional Conference Series in Appl. Math., 9. Philadelphia: SIAM. 2. Gerlach, B., (1979). A consistent correlation-type goodness-of-fit test; with...the distribution of quadratic forms in normal variables. Biometrika, 48, 419-426. 4. Sarkadi, K., (1975). The consistency of the Shapiro- Francia test

  13. 基于Helmert变换的GPS动力学轨道平滑%Orbit Fitting Based on Helmert Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Junping; 王解先

    2009-01-01

    Orbit fitting is used in many GPS applications. For example, in Precise Point Positioning (PPP), GPS orbits (SP3 orbits) are normally retrieved either from IGS or from one of its Analysis Centers (ACs) with 15 minutes' sampling, which is much bigger than the normal observation sampling. Therefore, algorithms should be derived to fit GPS orbits to the observation time. Many methods based on interpolation were developed. Using these methods the orbits fit well at the sampling points.However, these methods ignore the physical motion model of GPS satellites. Therefore, the trajectories may not fit the true orbits at the periods in between 2 sampling epochs. To solve this problem, we develop a dynamic approach, in which a model based on Helmert transformation is developed in GPS orbit fitting. In this orbit fitting approach, GPS orbits at sampling points are treated as pseudo-observations. Thereafter, Helmert transformation is built up between the pseudo-observations and dynamically integrated orbits at each epoch. A set of Helmert parameters together with corrections of GPS initial orbits are then modeled as unknown parameters. Results show that the final fit orbits have the same precision as the IGS final orbits.

  14. A second-order boundary-fitted projection method for free-surface flow computations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, B.; Prosperetti, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to the high-fidelity simulation of axisymmetric free-surface flows. A boundary-fitted grid is coupled with a new projection method for the solution of the Navier–Stokes equations with second-order accuracy in space and time. Two variants of this new method are dev

  15. Radio diagnostics of the solar flaring loop parameters by the forward fitting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgachev, A. S.; Kuznetsov, S. A.; Melnikov, V. F.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical methods for solving the inverse problem of determining solar flaring loop physical parameters are sought and developed. This problem can be solved by fitting theoretically calculated radio emission characteristics (the flux or the degree of circular polarization) to the observed characteristics. Such a fitting is reduced to the solution of a system of equations with the observed and theoretically calculated radio emission characteristics on the right- and left-hand sides, respectively. The genetic algorithm method, which demonstrated good accuracy and calculation time when five parameters of a model flaring loop were recovered, has been used in fitting. After testing this method on the model sources, an algorithm was used to recover four parameters of the real flaring loop using the Nobeyama Radioheliograph data.

  16. Strong inverse association between physical fitness and overweight in adolescents: a large school-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auguste Robert

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies examining the relationship between physical fitness and obesity in children have had mixed results despite their interrelationship making intuitive sense. We examined the relationship between physical fitness and overweight and obesity in a large sample of adolescents in the Republic of Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region. Methods All students of four grades of all secondary schools performed nine physical fitness tests. These tests assessed agility, strength and endurance, and included the multistage shuttle run, a validated measure of maximal oxygen uptake. Weight and height were measured, body mass index (BMI calculated, and "overweight" and "obesity" were defined based on the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force. We defined "lean" weight as age- and sex-specific BMI th percentile. Age- and sex-specific percentiles for each fitness test were calculated. "Good" performance was defined as a result ≥75th percentile. Results Data were available in 2203 boys and 2143 girls from a total of 4599 eligible students aged 12–15 years. The prevalence of overweight (including obesity was 11.2% (95% confidence interval: 9.9–12.4 in boys and 17.5% (15.9–19.1 in girls. For 7 of the 9 tests, the relationship between BMI and fitness score, as assessed by locally weighted regression, was characterized by a marked inverse J shape. Students with normal body weight achieved "good" performance markedly more often than overweight or obese students on 7 of the 9 tests of fitness and more often than lean children. For example, good performance for the multistage shuttle run was achieved by 25.6% (SE: 2.1 of lean students, 29.6% (0.8 of normal weight students, 7.9% (1.3 of overweight students and 1.2% (0.9 of obese students. Conclusion This cross-sectional study shows a strong inverse relationship between fitness and excess body weight in adolescents. Improving fitness in adolescents, likely through increasing

  17. Fitting a distribution to censored contamination data using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods and samples selected with unequal probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael S; Ebel, Eric D

    2014-11-18

    The fitting of statistical distributions to chemical and microbial contamination data is a common application in risk assessment. These distributions are used to make inferences regarding even the most pedestrian of statistics, such as the population mean. The reason for the heavy reliance on a fitted distribution is the presence of left-, right-, and interval-censored observations in the data sets, with censored observations being the result of nondetects in an assay, the use of screening tests, and other practical limitations. Considerable effort has been expended to develop statistical distributions and fitting techniques for a wide variety of applications. Of the various fitting methods, Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods are common. An underlying assumption for many of the proposed Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods is that the data represent independent and identically distributed (iid) observations from an assumed distribution. This condition is satisfied when samples are collected using a simple random sampling design. Unfortunately, samples of food commodities are generally not collected in accordance with a strict probability design. Nevertheless, pseudosystematic sampling efforts (e.g., collection of a sample hourly or weekly) from a single location in the farm-to-table continuum are reasonable approximations of a simple random sample. The assumption that the data represent an iid sample from a single distribution is more difficult to defend if samples are collected at multiple locations in the farm-to-table continuum or risk-based sampling methods are employed to preferentially select samples that are more likely to be contaminated. This paper develops a weighted bootstrap estimation framework that is appropriate for fitting a distribution to microbiological samples that are collected with unequal probabilities of selection. An example based on microbial data, derived by the Most Probable Number technique, demonstrates the method and highlights the

  18. A Simulated Annealing based Optimization Algorithm for Automatic Variogram Model Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani-Mohammadi, Saeed; Safa, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Fitting a theoretical model to an experimental variogram is an important issue in geostatistical studies because if the variogram model parameters are tainted with uncertainty, the latter will spread in the results of estimations and simulations. Although the most popular fitting method is fitting by eye, in some cases use is made of the automatic fitting method on the basis of putting together the geostatistical principles and optimization techniques to: 1) provide a basic model to improve fitting by eye, 2) fit a model to a large number of experimental variograms in a short time, and 3) incorporate the variogram related uncertainty in the model fitting. Effort has been made in this paper to improve the quality of the fitted model by improving the popular objective function (weighted least squares) in the automatic fitting. Also, since the variogram model function (£) and number of structures (m) too affect the model quality, a program has been provided in the MATLAB software that can present optimum nested variogram models using the simulated annealing method. Finally, to select the most desirable model from among the single/multi-structured fitted models, use has been made of the cross-validation method, and the best model has been introduced to the user as the output. In order to check the capability of the proposed objective function and the procedure, 3 case studies have been presented.

  19. Quadrilateral mesh fitting that preserves sharp features based on multi-normals for Laplacian energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Imai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Because the cost of performance testing using actual products is expensive, manufacturers use lower-cost computer-aided design simulations for this function. In this paper, we propose using hexahedral meshes, which are more accurate than tetrahedral meshes, for finite element analysis. We propose automatic hexahedral mesh generation with sharp features to precisely represent the corresponding features of a target shape. Our hexahedral mesh is generated using a voxel-based algorithm. In our previous works, we fit the surface of the voxels to the target surface using Laplacian energy minimization. We used normal vectors in the fitting to preserve sharp features. However, this method could not represent concave sharp features precisely. In this proposal, we improve our previous Laplacian energy minimization by adding a term that depends on multi-normal vectors instead of using normal vectors. Furthermore, we accentuate a convex/concave surface subset to represent concave sharp features.

  20. Recognition of Banknote Fitness Based on a Fuzzy System Using Visible Light Reflection and Near-infrared Light Transmission Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seung Yong; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung; Jeong, Dae Sik; Yoon, Sungsoo

    2016-06-11

    Fitness classification is a technique to assess the quality of banknotes in order to determine whether they are usable. Banknote classification techniques are useful in preventing problems that arise from the circulation of substandard banknotes (such as recognition failures, or bill jams in automated teller machines (ATMs) or bank counting machines). By and large, fitness classification continues to be carried out by humans, and this can cause the problem of varying fitness classifications for the same bill by different evaluators, and requires a lot of time. To address these problems, this study proposes a fuzzy system-based method that can reduce the processing time needed for fitness classification, and can determine the fitness of banknotes through an objective, systematic method rather than subjective judgment. Our algorithm was an implementation to actual banknote counting machine. Based on the results of tests on 3856 banknotes in United States currency (USD), 3956 in Korean currency (KRW), and 2300 banknotes in Indian currency (INR) using visible light reflection (VR) and near-infrared light transmission (NIRT) imaging, the proposed method was found to yield higher accuracy than prevalent banknote fitness classification methods. Moreover, it was confirmed that the proposed algorithm can operate in real time, not only in a normal PC environment, but also in an embedded system environment of a banknote counting machine.

  1. Recognition of Banknote Fitness Based on a Fuzzy System Using Visible Light Reflection and Near-infrared Light Transmission Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Yong Kwon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fitness classification is a technique to assess the quality of banknotes in order to determine whether they are usable. Banknote classification techniques are useful in preventing problems that arise from the circulation of substandard banknotes (such as recognition failures, or bill jams in automated teller machines (ATMs or bank counting machines. By and large, fitness classification continues to be carried out by humans, and this can cause the problem of varying fitness classifications for the same bill by different evaluators, and requires a lot of time. To address these problems, this study proposes a fuzzy system-based method that can reduce the processing time needed for fitness classification, and can determine the fitness of banknotes through an objective, systematic method rather than subjective judgment. Our algorithm was an implementation to actual banknote counting machine. Based on the results of tests on 3856 banknotes in United States currency (USD, 3956 in Korean currency (KRW, and 2300 banknotes in Indian currency (INR using visible light reflection (VR and near-infrared light transmission (NIRT imaging, the proposed method was found to yield higher accuracy than prevalent banknote fitness classification methods. Moreover, it was confirmed that the proposed algorithm can operate in real time, not only in a normal PC environment, but also in an embedded system environment of a banknote counting machine.

  2. The Sequential Empirical Bayes Method: An Adaptive Constrained-Curve Fitting Algorithm for Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying Chen; Shao-Jing Dong; Terrence Draper; Ivan Horvath; Keh-Fei Liu; Nilmani Mathur; Sonali Tamhankar; Cidambi Srinivasan; Frank X. Lee; Jianbo Zhang

    2004-05-01

    We introduce the ''Sequential Empirical Bayes Method'', an adaptive constrained-curve fitting procedure for extracting reliable priors. These are then used in standard augmented-{chi}{sup 2} fits on separate data. This better stabilizes fits to lattice QCD overlap-fermion data at very low quark mass where a priori values are not otherwise known. Lessons learned (including caveats limiting the scope of the method) from studying artificial data are presented. As an illustration, from local-local two-point correlation functions, we obtain masses and spectral weights for ground and first-excited states of the pion, give preliminary fits for the a{sub 0} where ghost states (a quenched artifact) must be dealt with, and elaborate on the details of fits of the Roper resonance and S{sub 11}(N{sup 1/2-}) previously presented elsewhere. The data are from overlap fermions on a quenched 16{sup 3} x 28 lattice with spatial size La = 3.2 fm and pion mass as low as {approx}180 MeV.

  3. Methodology review: evaluating person fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2001-01-01

    Person-fit methods based on classical test theory-and item response theory (IRT), and methods investigating particular types of response behavior on tests, are examined. Similarities and differences among person-fit methods and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Sound person-fit

  4. The research of spectrophotometric color matching based on multi-peaks Gaussian fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Lv, Xuliang; Wang, Jing; Yang, Gaofeng; Jiang, Xiaojun

    2013-08-01

    Spectrophotometric color matching is an important method for computer color matching, which is more accurate but difficult than tri-stimulus values color matching, because which will result in metamerism. The fundamental theory of computer color matching is the linear relationship between Kubelka-Munk function and concentration of dye. In fact, the spectral reflectivity of every pixel in hyperspectral image composed of subpixel mixing in instantaneous field of view. According to the Glassman laws of color mixing, the mixed pixel's spectral reflectivity equals to the algebra sum of each reflectivity of subpixel multiply its area percentage. In this case, spectrophotometric color matching match the spectral reflectivity curve by adjusting the combined form of subpixel which constitute the pixel. According to numerical methods for Multi-peaks Guassian fitting, the spectral reflectivity curve can be fit as the sum of several characteristic peak, which accord with Normal Distribution. Then the spectrophotometric color matching can simplify the solution with infinite wavelength into solving the linear equations with finite known peak intensity. By using Imaging Spectrometer measure the color samples in standard color cards from different distance, the spectral reflectivity curve of each single color sample and the mixed color samples can be gotten, and the experiments results show that the spectrophotometric color matching based on Multi-peaks Gaussian fitting is superior to the tri-stimulus values color matching, and which is easy to operate.

  5. Methods for fitting a parametric probability distribution to most probable number data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael S; Ebel, Eric D

    2012-07-01

    Every year hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of samples are collected and analyzed to assess microbial contamination in food and water. The concentration of pathogenic organisms at the end of the production process is low for most commodities, so a highly sensitive screening test is used to determine whether the organism of interest is present in a sample. In some applications, samples that test positive are subjected to quantitation. The most probable number (MPN) technique is a common method to quantify the level of contamination in a sample because it is able to provide estimates at low concentrations. This technique uses a series of dilution count experiments to derive estimates of the concentration of the microorganism of interest. An application for these data is food-safety risk assessment, where the MPN concentration estimates can be fitted to a parametric distribution to summarize the range of potential exposures to the contaminant. Many different methods (e.g., substitution methods, maximum likelihood and regression on order statistics) have been proposed to fit microbial contamination data to a distribution, but the development of these methods rarely considers how the MPN technique influences the choice of distribution function and fitting method. An often overlooked aspect when applying these methods is whether the data represent actual measurements of the average concentration of microorganism per milliliter or the data are real-valued estimates of the average concentration, as is the case with MPN data. In this study, we propose two methods for fitting MPN data to a probability distribution. The first method uses a maximum likelihood estimator that takes average concentration values as the data inputs. The second is a Bayesian latent variable method that uses the counts of the number of positive tubes at each dilution to estimate the parameters of the contamination distribution. The performance of the two fitting methods is compared for two

  6. The Effect of Missing Data Handling Methods on Goodness of Fit Indices in Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Alper

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the effect of missing data on goodness of fit statistics in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). For this aim, four missing data handling methods; listwise deletion, full information maximum likelihood, regression imputation and expectation maximization (EM) imputation were examined in terms of…

  7. The Recovery of Weak Impulsive Signals Based on Stochastic Resonance and Moving Least Squares Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuosheng Jiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a stochastic resonance (SR-based method for recovering weak impulsive signals is developed for quantitative diagnosis of faults in rotating machinery. It was shown in theory that weak impulsive signals follow the mechanism of SR, but the SR produces a nonlinear distortion of the shape of the impulsive signal. To eliminate the distortion a moving least squares fitting method is introduced to reconstruct the signal from the output of the SR process. This proposed method is verified by comparing its detection results with that of a morphological filter based on both simulated and experimental signals. The experimental results show that the background noise is suppressed effectively and the key features of impulsive signals are reconstructed with a good degree of accuracy, which leads to an accurate diagnosis of faults in roller bearings in a run-to failure test.

  8. Fitting methods for baryon acoustic oscillations in the Lyman-α forest fluctuations in BOSS data release 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkby, David; Margala, Daniel; Blomqvist, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 92697 (United States); Slosar, Anže [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Blgd 510, Upton NY 11375 (United States); Bailey, Stephen; Carithers, Bill [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Busca, Nicolás G.; Bautista, Julian E. [APC, Université Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, rue A. Domon and L. Duquet, Paris (France); Delubac, Timothée; Rich, James; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Brownstein, Joel R.; Dawson, Kyle S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Croft, Rupert A.C. [Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Font-Ribera, Andreu [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Miralda-Escudé, Jordi [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Nichol, Robert C. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick, E-mail: dkirkby@uci.edu [Université Paris 6 et CNRS, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis blvd. Arago, 75014 Paris (France); and others

    2013-03-01

    We describe fitting methods developed to analyze fluctuations in the Lyman-α forest and measure the parameters of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). We apply our methods to BOSS Data Release 9. Our method is based on models of the three-dimensional correlation function in physical coordinate space, and includes the effects of redshift-space distortions, anisotropic non-linear broadening, and broadband distortions. We allow for independent scale factors along and perpendicular to the line of sight to minimize the dependence on our assumed fiducial cosmology and to obtain separate measurements of the BAO angular and relative velocity scales. Our fitting software and the input files needed to reproduce our main BOSS Data Release 9 results are publicly available.

  9. The fitness of apps: a theory-based examination of mobile fitness app usage over 5 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Lynn Katherine; Kim, Jinsook

    2017-01-01

    There are thousands of fitness-related smartphone applications ("apps") available for free and purchase, but there is uncertainty if these apps help individuals achieve and maintain personal fitness. Technology usage attrition is also a concern among research studies on health technologies. Usage of three fitness apps was examined over 5 months to assess adherence and effectiveness. Initially, 64 participants downloaded three free apps available on Android and iOS and 47 remained in the study until posttest. With a one group pre-posttest design and checkpoints at months 1, 3, and 5, exercise and exercise with fitness apps were examined in the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) using a validated survey. Apps were selected based on their function from the Functional Triad. Perceived fitness was also measured. T-tests, sign tests, Fisher's exact tests, and linear and logistic regression were used to compare pre to posttests and users to non-users of the apps. Forty-seven participants completed both pre and posttests. Individual item scores indicated no significant change pre to posttest except for decreases observed in usefulness of using apps for exercise (attitude) (-0.78, Papps (subjective norm) (-1.02, Papps (perceived behavioral control) (-1.29, Papps over the next 2 weeks (behavioral intention) (Papps (-1.72, Papps (-2.56, Papp users (n=32) to non-users (n=15), there was only a significant difference in subscale total scores at posttest for attitude toward exercising using apps, which was significantly more favorable among users than non-users (32.3 vs. 27.6, PApp usage and effectiveness appears to have a connection to usefulness (attitude) and to perceived difficulties of exercising using apps (perceived behavioral control). Exercise and exercise using apps are not influenced by peer influence (subjective norm). Intention to exercise using these particular apps decreased (behavioral intention). Those who utilized the apps were more likely to have

  10. Sub-band denoising and spline curve fitting method for hemodynamic measurement in perfusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong-Dun; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Hsu, Yuan-Yu; Chen, Chi-Chen; Chen, Ing-Yi; Wu, Liang-Chi; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Lin, Kang-Ping

    2003-05-01

    In clinical research, non-invasive MR perfusion imaging is capable of investigating brain perfusion phenomenon via various hemodynamic measurements, such as cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and mean trasnit time (MTT). These hemodynamic parameters are useful in diagnosing brain disorders such as stroke, infarction and periinfarct ischemia by further semi-quantitative analysis. However, the accuracy of quantitative analysis is usually affected by poor signal-to-noise ratio image quality. In this paper, we propose a hemodynamic measurement method based upon sub-band denoising and spline curve fitting processes to improve image quality for better hemodynamic quantitative analysis results. Ten sets of perfusion MRI data and corresponding PET images were used to validate the performance. For quantitative comparison, we evaluate gray/white matter CBF ratio. As a result, the hemodynamic semi-quantitative analysis result of mean gray to white matter CBF ratio is 2.10 +/- 0.34. The evaluated ratio of brain tissues in perfusion MRI is comparable to PET technique is less than 1-% difference in average. Furthermore, the method features excellent noise reduction and boundary preserving in image processing, and short hemodynamic measurement time.

  11. ParFit: A Python-Based Object-Oriented Program for Fitting Molecular Mechanics Parameters to ab Initio Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariev, Federico; De Silva, Nuwan; Gordon, Mark S; Windus, Theresa L; Dick-Perez, Marilu

    2017-03-27

    A newly created object-oriented program for automating the process of fitting molecular-mechanics parameters to ab initio data, termed ParFit, is presented. ParFit uses a hybrid of deterministic and stochastic genetic algorithms. ParFit can simultaneously handle several molecular-mechanics parameters in multiple molecules and can also apply symmetric and antisymmetric constraints on the optimized parameters. The simultaneous handling of several molecules enhances the transferability of the fitted parameters. ParFit is written in Python, uses a rich set of standard and nonstandard Python libraries, and can be run in parallel on multicore computer systems. As an example, a series of phosphine oxides, important for metal extraction chemistry, are parametrized using ParFit. ParFit is in an open source program available for free on GitHub ( https://github.com/fzahari/ParFit ).

  12. Three-Step Predictor-Corrector of Exponential Fitting Method for Nonlinear Schr(o)dinger Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    We develop the three-step explicit and implicit schemes of exponential fitting methods. We use the threestep explicit exponential fitting scheme to predict an approximation, then use the three-step implicit exponential fitting scheme to correct this prediction. This combination is called the three-step predictor-corrector of exponential fitting method. The three-step predictor-corrector of exponential fitting method is applied to numerically compute the coupled nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation and the nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation with varying coefficients. The numerical results show that the scheme is highly accurate.

  13. Machine Learning methods in fitting first-principles total energies for substitutionally disordered solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Yao, Sanxi; Widom, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) provides an accurate and first-principles description of solid structures and total energies. However, it is highly time-consuming to calculate structures with hundreds of atoms in the unit cell and almost not possible to calculate thousands of atoms. We apply and adapt machine learning algorithms, including compressive sensing, support vector regression and artificial neural networks to fit the DFT total energies of substitutionally disordered boron carbide. The nonparametric kernel method is also included in our models. Our fitted total energy model reproduces the DFT energies with prediction error of around 1 meV/atom. The assumptions of these machine learning models and applications of the fitted total energies will also be discussed. Financial support from McWilliams Fellowship and the ONR-MURI under the Grant No. N00014-11-1-0678 is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. Interference-aided spectrum fitting method for accurately film thickness determination

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xingxing; Xia, Hui; Zhang, Xutao; Ji, Ruonan; Li, Tianxin; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A new approach was proposed to accurately determine the thickness of film, especially for ultra-thin film, through spectrum fitting with the assistance of interference layer. The determination limit can reach even less than 1 nm. Its accuracy is far better than traditional methods. This determination method is verified by experiments and the determination limit is at least 3.5 nm compared with the results of AFM. Furthermore, double-interference-aided spectra fitting method is proposed to reduce the requirements of determination instruments, which allow one to determine the film thickness with a low precision common spectrometer and largely lower the cost. It is a very high precision determination method for on-site and in-situ applications, especially for ultra-thin films.

  15. Effect of a primary health-care-based controlled trial for cardiorespiratory fitness in refugee women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Sven-Erik

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Refugee women have a high risk of coronary heart disease with low physical activity as one possible mediator. Furthermore, cultural and environmental barriers to increasing physical activity have been demonstrated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of an approximate 6-month primary health care- and community-based exercise intervention versus an individual written prescription for exercise on objectively assessed cardiorespiratory fitness in low-active refugee women. Methods A controlled clinical trial, named "Support for Increased Physical Activity", was executed among 243 refugee women recruited between November 2006 and April 2008 from two deprived geographic areas in southern Stockholm, Sweden. One geographic area provided the intervention group and the other area the control group. The control group was on a higher activity level at both baseline and follow-up, which was taken into consideration in the analysis by applying statistical models that accounted for this. Relative aerobic capacity and fitness level were assessed as the two main outcome measures. Results The intervention group increased their relative aerobic capacity and the percentage with an acceptable fitness level (relative aerobic capacity > 23 O2ml·kg·min-1 to a greater extent than the control group between baseline and the 6-month follow-up, after adjusting for possible confounders (P = 0.020. Conclusions A combined primary health-care and community-based exercise programme (involving non-profit organizations can be an effective strategy to increase cardiorespiratory fitness among low-active refugee women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00747942

  16. Assessing the Goodness of Fit of Phylogenetic Comparative Methods: A Meta-Analysis and Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhwueng, Dwueng-Chwuan

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs) have been applied widely in analyzing data from related species but their fit to data is rarely assessed. Can one determine whether any particular comparative method is typically more appropriate than others by examining comparative data sets? I conducted a meta-analysis of 122 phylogenetic data sets found by searching all papers in JEB, Blackwell Synergy and JSTOR published in 2002-2005 for the purpose of assessing the fit of PCMs. The number of species in these data sets ranged from 9 to 117. I used the Akaike information criterion to compare PCMs, and then fit PCMs to bivariate data sets through REML analysis. Correlation estimates between two traits and bootstrapped confidence intervals of correlations from each model were also compared. For phylogenies of less than one hundred taxa, the Independent Contrast method and the independent, non-phylogenetic models provide the best fit.For bivariate analysis, correlations from different PCMs are qualitatively similar so that actual correlations from real data seem to be robust to the PCM chosen for the analysis. Therefore, researchers might apply the PCM they believe best describes the evolutionary mechanisms underlying their data.

  17. Assessing the Goodness of Fit of Phylogenetic Comparative Methods: A Meta-Analysis and Simulation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwueng-Chwuan Jhwueng

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs have been applied widely in analyzing data from related species but their fit to data is rarely assessed.Can one determine whether any particular comparative method is typically more appropriate than others by examining comparative data sets?I conducted a meta-analysis of 122 phylogenetic data sets found by searching all papers in JEB, Blackwell Synergy and JSTOR published in 2002-2005 for the purpose of assessing the fit of PCMs. The number of species in these data sets ranged from 9 to 117.I used the Akaike information criterion to compare PCMs, and then fit PCMs to bivariate data sets through REML analysis. Correlation estimates between two traits and bootstrapped confidence intervals of correlations from each model were also compared.For phylogenies of less than one hundred taxa, the Independent Contrast method and the independent, non-phylogenetic models provide the best fit.For bivariate analysis, correlations from different PCMs are qualitatively similar so that actual correlations from real data seem to be robust to the PCM chosen for the analysis. Therefore, researchers might apply the PCM they believe best describes the evolutionary mechanisms underlying their data.

  18. Least-Squares Fitting Methods for Estimating the Winding Rate in Twisted Magnetic-Flux Tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Crouch, Ashley D

    2012-01-01

    We investigate least-squares fitting methods for estimating the winding rate of field lines about the axis of twisted magnetic-flux tubes. These methods estimate the winding rate by finding the values for a set of parameters that correspond to the minimum of the discrepancy between magnetic-field measurements and predictions from a twisted flux-tube model. For the flux-tube model used in the fitting, we assume that the magnetic field is static, axisymmetric, and does not vary in the vertical direction. Using error-free, synthetic vector magnetic-field data constructed with models for twisted magnetic-flux tubes, we test the efficacy of fitting methods at recovering the true winding rate. Furthermore, we demonstrate how assumptions built into the flux-tube models used for the fitting influence the accuracy of the winding-rate estimates. We identify the radial variation of the winding rate within the flux tube as one assumption that can have a significant impact on the winding-rate estimates. We show that the e...

  19. Correcting for telluric absorption: Methods, case studies, and release of the TelFit code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullikson, Kevin; Kraus, Adam [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Dodson-Robinson, Sarah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 217 Sharp Lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Ground-based astronomical spectra are contaminated by the Earth's atmosphere to varying degrees in all spectral regions. We present a Python code that can accurately fit a model to the telluric absorption spectrum present in astronomical data, with residuals of ∼3%-5% of the continuum for moderately strong lines. We demonstrate the quality of the correction by fitting the telluric spectrum in a nearly featureless A0V star, HIP 20264, as well as to a series of dwarf M star spectra near the 819 nm sodium doublet. We directly compare the results to an empirical telluric correction of HIP 20264 and find that our model-fitting procedure is at least as good and sometimes more accurate. The telluric correction code, which we make freely available to the astronomical community, can be used as a replacement for telluric standard star observations for many purposes.

  20. High-resolution modeling of protein structures based on flexible fitting of low-resolution structural data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjun; Tekpinar, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    To circumvent the difficulty of directly solving high-resolution biomolecular structures, low-resolution structural data from Cryo-electron microscopy (EM) and small angle solution X-ray scattering (SAXS) are increasingly used to explore multiple conformational states of biomolecular assemblies. One promising venue to obtain high-resolution structural models from low-resolution data is via data-constrained flexible fitting. To this end, we have developed a new method based on a coarse-grained Cα-only protein representation, and a modified form of the elastic network model (ENM) that allows large-scale conformational changes while maintaining the integrity of local structures including pseudo-bonds and secondary structures. Our method minimizes a pseudo-energy which linearly combines various terms of the modified ENM energy with an EM/SAXS-fitting score and a collision energy that penalizes steric collisions. Unlike some previous flexible fitting efforts using the lowest few normal modes, our method effectively utilizes all normal modes so that both global and local structural changes can be fully modeled with accuracy. This method is also highly efficient in computing time. We have demonstrated our method using adenylate kinase as a test case which undergoes a large open-to-close conformational change. The EM-fitting method is available at a web server (http://enm.lobos.nih.gov), and the SAXS-fitting method is available as a pre-compiled executable upon request.

  1. An Improved Iterative Fitting Method to Estimate Nocturnal Residual Layer Height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The planetary boundary layer (PBL is an atmospheric region near the Earth’s surface. It is significant for weather forecasting and for the study of air quality and climate. In this study, the top of nocturnal residual layers—which are what remain of the daytime mixing layer—are estimated by an elastic backscatter Lidar in Wuhan (30.5°N, 114.4°E, a city in Central China. The ideal profile fitting method is widely applied to determine the nocturnal residual layer height (RLH from Lidar data. However, the method is seriously affected by an optical thick layer. Thus, we propose an improved iterative fitting method to eliminate the optical thick layer effect on RLH detection using Lidar. Two typical case studies observed by elastic Lidar are presented to demonstrate the theory and advantage of the proposed method. Results of case analysis indicate that the improved method is more practical and precise than profile-fitting, gradient, and wavelet covariance transform method in terms of nocturnal RLH evaluation under low cloud conditions. Long-term observations of RLH performed with ideal profile fitting and improved methods were carried out in Wuhan from 28 May 2011 to 17 June 2016. Comparisons of Lidar-derived RLHs with the two types of methods verify that the improved solution is practical. Statistical analysis of a six-year Lidar signal was conducted to reveal the monthly average values of nocturnal RLH in Wuhan. A clear RLH monthly cycle with a maximum mean height of about 1.8 km above ground level was observed in August, and a minimum height of about 0.7 km was observed in January. The variation in monthly mean RLH displays an obvious quarterly dependence, which coincides with the annual variation in local surface temperature.

  2. Research on the manufacturing of electrical power fittings based on metal droplet deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, SuLi; Wei, ZhengYing; Jun, Du; Zhao, Guangxi; Wang, Xin; Lu, BingHeng

    2017-06-01

    Molten metal droplets deposition is an additive process in which parts are produced from molten materials in a single operation without the use of any mold or other tooling. Near-net shaped parts are fabricated by sequentially depositing molten droplets layer by layer. For larger inventories, higher purchase cost, and lower production efficiency of Electrical power fittings now; this paper puts forward an innovation method to manufacture Electrical power fittings using the process of metal droplet deposition, meeting the needs of electrical repairs, while reducing installation costs and achieving zero inventories. In accordance with the structure features, through reasonable selection of process parameters, the typical thin-walled parts and ball head rings of Electrical power fittings were realized; meanwhile, microstructure analysis and performance tests of the parts were carried out. The result showed that the structures were reasonable and the mechanical properties were excellent. The works should be helpful for the process optimization and non-destructive detection of drop-based rapid prototyping techniques.

  3. Accurate Frequency Estimation Based On Three-Parameter Sine-Fitting With Three FFT Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple DFT-based golden section searching algorithm (DGSSA for the single tone frequency estimation. Because of truncation and discreteness in signal samples, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT and Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT are inevitable to cause the spectrum leakage and fence effect which lead to a low estimation accuracy. This method can improve the estimation accuracy under conditions of a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and a low resolution. This method firstly uses three FFT samples to determine the frequency searching scope, then – besides the frequency – the estimated values of amplitude, phase and dc component are obtained by minimizing the least square (LS fitting error of three-parameter sine fitting. By setting reasonable stop conditions or the number of iterations, the accurate frequency estimation can be realized. The accuracy of this method, when applied to observed single-tone sinusoid samples corrupted by white Gaussian noise, is investigated by different methods with respect to the unbiased Cramer-Rao Low Bound (CRLB. The simulation results show that the root mean square error (RMSE of the frequency estimation curve is consistent with the tendency of CRLB as SNR increases, even in the case of a small number of samples. The average RMSE of the frequency estimation is less than 1.5 times the CRLB with SNR = 20 dB and N = 512.

  4. A multiple threshold method for fitting the generalized Pareto distribution to rainfall time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidda, R.

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies indicate the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) as a suitable distribution function to reliably describe the exceedances of daily rainfall records above a proper optimum threshold, which should be selected as small as possible to retain the largest sample while assuring an acceptable fitting. Such an optimum threshold may differ from site to site, affecting consequently not only the GPD scale parameter, but also the probability of threshold exceedance. Thus a first objective of this paper is to derive some expressions to parameterize a simple threshold-invariant three-parameter distribution function which assures a perfect overlapping with the GPD fitted on the exceedances over any threshold larger than the optimum one. Since the proposed distribution does not depend on the local thresholds adopted for fitting the GPD, it is expected to reflect the on-site climatic signature and thus appears particularly suitable for hydrological applications and regional analyses. A second objective is to develop and test the Multiple Threshold Method (MTM) to infer the parameters of interest by using exceedances over a wide range of thresholds applying again the concept of parameters threshold-invariance. We show the ability of the MTM in fitting historical daily rainfall time series recorded with different resolutions and with a significative percentage of heavily quantized data. Finally, we prove the supremacy of the MTM fit against the standard single threshold fit, often adopted for partial duration series, by evaluating and comparing the performances on Monte Carlo samples drawn by GPDs with different shape and scale parameters and different discretizations.

  5. Fast hybrid fitting energy-based active contour model for target detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengwei Wang; Tianxu Zhang; Luxin Yan

    2011-01-01

    A novel hybrid fitting energy-based active contour model in the level set framework is proposed.The method fuses the region and boundary information of the target to achieve accurate and robust detection performance.A special extra term that penalizes the deviation of the level set function from a signed distance function is also included in our method. This term allows the time-consuming redistancing operation to be removed completely.Moreover,a fast unconditionally stable numerical scheme is introduced to solve the problem.Experimental results on real infrared images show that our method can improve target detection performance efficiently in terms of the number of iterations and the wasted central processing unit(CPU) time.

  6. CF-Pursuit: A Pursuit Method with a Clothoid Fitting and a Fuzzy Controller for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxiao Shan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple and efficient geometric controllers, like Pure-Pursuit, have been widely used in various types of autonomous vehicles to solve tracking problems. In this paper, we have developed a new pursuit method, named CFPursuit, which has been based on Pure-Pursuit but with certain differences. In CF-Pursuit, in order to reduce fitting errors, we used a clothoid C1 curve to replace the circle employed in Pure-Pursuit. This improvement to the fitting method helps the Pursuit method to decrease tracking errors. As regards the selection of look-ahead distance, we employed a fuzzy system to directly consider the path’s curvature. There are three input variables in this fuzzy system, 6mcurvature, 9mcurvature and 12mcurvature, calculated from the clothoid fit with the current position and the goal position on the defined path. A Sugeno fuzzy model was adapted to output a reasonable look-ahead distance using the experiences of human drivers as well as our own tests. Compared with some other geometric controllers, CF-Pursuit performs better in robustness, cross track errors and stability. The results from field tests have proven the CF-Pursuit is a practical and efficient geometric method for the path tracking problems of autonomous vehicles.

  7. PSO-tuned PID controller for coupled tank system via priority-based fitness scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hazriq Izzuan; Hussien, Sharifah Yuslinda Syed; Selamat, Nur Asmiza; Abidin, Amar Faiz Zainal; Aras, Mohd Shahrieel Mohd; Nasir, Mohamad Na'im Mohd; Bohari, Zul Hasrizal

    2015-05-01

    The industrial applications of Coupled Tank System (CTS) are widely used especially in chemical process industries. The overall process is require liquids to be pumped, stored in the tank and pumped again to another tank. Nevertheless, the level of liquid in tank need to be controlled and flow between two tanks must be regulated. This paper presents development of an optimal PID controller for controlling the desired liquid level of the CTS. Two method of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm will be tested in optimizing the PID controller parameters. These two methods of PSO are standard Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Priority-based Fitness Scheme in Particle Swarm Optimization (PFPSO). Simulation is conducted within Matlab environment to verify the performance of the system in terms of settling time (Ts), steady state error (SSE) and overshoot (OS). It has been demonstrated that implementation of PSO via Priority-based Fitness Scheme (PFPSO) for this system is potential technique to control the desired liquid level and improve the system performances compared with standard PSO.

  8. Assessment of volumetric changes with a best-fit method in three-dimensional stereophotograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongkosuwito, E M; Goos, J A C; Wattel, E; van der Wal, K G H; van Adrichem, L N A; van Neck, J W

    2012-07-01

    Different three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry systems and analyzing methods exist that often use landmarks for comparison. Measurement errors in landmark or surface comparison are mostly within 1 mm, which seems clinically acceptable. The aim of this study was to validate a three-dimensional stereophotogrammetric best-fit method of assessing volumetric changes and to compare three devices. The validation of the best-fit method was at first done on a life-size dummy head. Scans were made in the ideal position, as well as in four additional positions, and a scan was made in which a soft putty specimen was added to the dummy head. The comparison was executed with a best-fit method using triangulation. Student's t tests were used to detect statistically significant differences. Second, comparisons were made among scans of a white man in the ideal position and with volume changes added. The different positions tested for the dummy head showed no significant volume differences within each system or among systems. The differences found when adding a soft putty specimen fell into the same range as the differences between various positions. The differences within a live situation were 10 times greater compared with the dummy-head situation. In a dummy-head situation, the different systems gave similar results when tested with a best-fit method. However, in live situations the differences may become 10 times greater, possibly due to different facial expressions. These differences may become clinically relevant and, therefore, further research in volumetric changes is needed.

  9. Inverse problem theory methods for data fitting and model parameter estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Tarantola, A

    2002-01-01

    Inverse Problem Theory is written for physicists, geophysicists and all scientists facing the problem of quantitative interpretation of experimental data. Although it contains a lot of mathematics, it is not intended as a mathematical book, but rather tries to explain how a method of acquisition of information can be applied to the actual world.The book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date description of the methods to be used for fitting experimental data, or to estimate model parameters, and to unify these methods into the Inverse Problem Theory. The first part of the book deals wi

  10. A novel curve fitting method for AV optimisation of biventricular pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbi, Hakim-Moulay; Jones, Siana; Sohaib, S M Afzal; Finegold, Judith A; Siggers, Jennifer H; Stegemann, Berthold; Whinnett, Zachary I; Francis, Darrel P

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we designed and tested a new algorithm, which we call the 'restricted parabola', to identify the optimum atrioventricular (AV) delay in patients with biventricular pacemakers. This algorithm automatically restricts the hemodynamic data used for curve fitting to the parabolic zone in order to avoid inadvertently selecting an AV optimum that is too long.We used R, a programming language and software environment for statistical computing, to create an algorithm which applies multiple different cut-offs to partition curve fitting of a dataset into a parabolic and a plateau region and then selects the best cut-off using a least squares method. In 82 patients, AV delay was adjusted and beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured non-invasively using our multiple-repetition protocol. The novel algorithm was compared to fitting a parabola across the whole dataset to identify how many patients had a plateau region, and whether a higher hemodynamic response was achieved with one method.In 9/82 patients, the restricted parabola algorithm detected that the pattern was not parabolic at longer AV delays. For these patients, the optimal AV delay predicted by the restricted parabola algorithm increased SBP by 1.36 mmHg above that predicted by the conventional parabolic algorithm (95% confidence interval: 0.65 to 2.07 mmHg, p-value = 0.002).AV optima selected using our novel restricted parabola algorithm give a greater improvement in acute hemodynamics than fitting a parabola across all tested AV delays. Such an algorithm may assist the development of automated methods for biventricular pacemaker optimisation.

  11. Clustering Time Series Gene Expression Data Based on Sum-of-Exponentials Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giurcăneanu Ciprian Doru

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method based on fitting a sum-of-exponentials model to the nonuniformly sampled data, for clustering the time series of gene expression data. The structure of the model is estimated by using the minimum description length (MDL principle for nonlinear regression, in a new form, incorporating a normalized maximum-likelihood (NML model for a subset of the parameters. The performance of the structure estimation method is studied using simulated data, and the superiority of the new selection criterion over earlier criteria is demonstrated. The accuracy of the nonlinear estimates of the model parameters is analyzed with respect to the Cramér-Rao lower bounds. Clustering examples of gene expression data sets from a developmental biology application are presented, revealing gene grouping into clusters according to functional classes.

  12. An Operator Splitting Method with FDM and FEM for the Convection—Diffusion Equation Using Boundary—fitted Coordinate System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-MinZHAN; Yao-SongCHEN

    1996-01-01

    An operator splitting method combining finite difference method and finite element method is proposed in this paper by using boundary-fitted coordinate system.The governing equation is split into advection and diffusion equations and solved by finit difference method using boundary-fitted coordinate system and finite element method respectively.An example for which analytic solution is available is used to verified the proposed methods and the agreement is very good.Numerical results show that it is very efficient.

  13. OCT-based profiler for automating ocular surface prosthetic fitting (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujat, Mircea; Patel, Ankit H.; Maguluri, Gopi N.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Patel, Chirag; Agranat, Josh; Tomashevskaya, Olga; Bonte, Eugene; Ferguson, R. Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The use of a Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Environment (PROSE) device is a revolutionary treatment for military patients that have lost their eyelids due to 3rd degree facial burns and for civilians who suffer from a host of corneal diseases. However, custom manual fitting is often a protracted painful, inexact process that requires multiple fitting sessions. Training for new practitioners is a long process. Automated methods to measure the complete corneal and scleral topology would provide a valuable tool for both clinicians and PROSE device manufacturers and would help streamline the fitting process. PSI has developed an ocular anterior-segment profiler based on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), which provides a 3D measure of the surface of the sclera and cornea. This device will provide topography data that will be used to expedite and improve the fabrication process for PROSE devices. OCT has been used to image portions of the cornea and sclera and to measure surface topology for smaller contact lenses [1-3]. However, current state-of-the-art anterior eye OCT systems can only scan about 16 mm of the eye's anterior surface, which is not sufficient for covering the sclera around the cornea. In addition, there is no systematic method for scanning and aligning/stitching the full scleral/corneal surface and commercial segmentation software is not optimized for the PROSE application. Although preliminary, our results demonstrate the capability of PSI's approach to generate accurate surface plots over relatively large areas of the eye, which is not currently possible with any other existing platform. Testing the technology on human volunteers is currently underway at Boston Foundation for Sight.

  14. How do innovative students fit into evidence-based education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Birthe

    This paper discusses pedagogical contradictions introduced on account of a conflict between the ‘global innovation discourse’ and the development of an ‘evidence discourse’ within the education policy that frames our understanding of “innovative students” in the Nordic countries. Two dominating......, competences and learning outcomes, all based on the assumption that assessing and testing student learning will improve learning, and furthermore, this is done without questioning whether the subject knowledge or competence to be developed are in fact possible to test or evaluate. This discourse is linked...... to evidence-based policy and practice, which is regarded as the new epistemological basis for educational policy. Both educational discourses imply a growing political interest in pedagogy. In order to teach students from kindergarten through to PhD level how to innovate, new collaborations and partnerships...

  15. Digital signal processor-based high-precision on-line Voigt lineshape fitting for direct absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Zheng, Deyan; Cao, Zhang; Cai, Weiwei

    2014-12-01

    To realize on-line high-accuracy measurement in direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS), a system-on-chip, high-precision digital signal processor-based on-line Voigt lineshape fitting implementation is introduced in this paper. Given that the Voigt lineshape is determined by the Gauss full width at half maximum (FWHM) and Lorentz FWHM, a look-up table, which covers a range of combinations of both, is first built to achieve rapid and accurate calculation of Voigt lineshape. With the look-up table and raw absorbance data in hand, Gauss-Newton nonlinear fitting module is implemented to obtain the parameters including both the Gauss and Lorentz FWHMs, which can be used to calculate the integrated absorbance. To realize the proposed method in hardware, a digital signal processor (DSP) is adopted to fit the Voigt lineshape in a real-time DAS measurement system. In experiment, temperature and H2O concentration of a flat flame are recovered from the transitions of 7444.36 cm(-1) and 7185.6 cm(-1) by the DSP-based on-line Voigt lineshape fitting and on-line integral of the raw absorbance, respectively. The results show that the proposed method can not only fit the Voigt lineshape on-line but also improve the measurement accuracy compared with those obtained from the direct integral of the raw absorbance.

  16. How do innovative students fit into evidence-based education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Birthe

    that use new artistic objects or forms, and/or new methods and devices. This discourse influences education’s political agenda, which aims at creating an entrepreneurial mindset and/or stressing the importance of creativity. On the other hand, the evidence discourse stresses the importance of basic skills...... and contradictory global education discourses have made a growing impact on education politics. The innovation discourse, which stresses the importance of generating ideas , creativity, innovation and, in general, the ability to make or bring something new into existence, in the form of solutions to problems......This paper discusses pedagogical contradictions introduced on account of a conflict between the ‘global innovation discourse’ and the development of an ‘evidence discourse’ within the education policy that frames our understanding of “innovative students” in the Nordic countries. Two dominating...

  17. Scenario-based fitted Q-iteration for adaptive control of water reservoir systems under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Federica; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Over recent years, mathematical models have largely been used to support planning and management of water resources systems. Yet, the increasing uncertainties in their inputs - due to increased variability in the hydrological regimes - are a major challenge to the optimal operations of these systems. Such uncertainty, boosted by projected changing climate, violates the stationarity principle generally used for describing hydro-meteorological processes, which assumes time persisting statistical characteristics of a given variable as inferred by historical data. As this principle is unlikely to be valid in the future, the probability density function used for modeling stochastic disturbances (e.g., inflows) becomes an additional uncertain parameter of the problem, which can be described in a deterministic and set-membership based fashion. This study contributes a novel method for designing optimal, adaptive policies for controlling water reservoir systems under climate-related uncertainty. The proposed method, called scenario-based Fitted Q-Iteration (sFQI), extends the original Fitted Q-Iteration algorithm by enlarging the state space to include the space of the uncertain system's parameters (i.e., the uncertain climate scenarios). As a result, sFQI embeds the set-membership uncertainty of the future inflow scenarios in the action-value function and is able to approximate, with a single learning process, the optimal control policy associated to any scenario included in the uncertainty set. The method is demonstrated on a synthetic water system, consisting of a regulated lake operated for ensuring reliable water supply to downstream users. Numerical results show that the sFQI algorithm successfully identifies adaptive solutions to operate the system under different inflow scenarios, which outperform the control policy designed under historical conditions. Moreover, the sFQI policy generalizes over inflow scenarios not directly experienced during the policy design

  18. Improving the full spectrum fitting method: accurate convolution with Gauss-Hermite functions

    CERN Document Server

    Cappellari, Michele

    2016-01-01

    I start by providing an updated summary of the penalized pixel-fitting (pPXF) method, which is used to extract the stellar and gas kinematics, as well as the stellar population of galaxies, via full spectrum fitting. I then focus on the problem of extracting the kinematics when the velocity dispersion $\\sigma$ is smaller than the velocity sampling $\\Delta v$, which is generally close to the instrumental resolution $\\sigma_{\\rm inst}$, by design. The same situation arises when measuring line-of-sight velocities of individual stars. The standard approach is mathematically equivalent to convolving with a discretized kernel, via direct summation, while fitting for the kernel parameters. However, this approach obviously becomes seriously inaccurate when $\\sigma<\\Delta v/2$, due to undersampling. Oversampling can be used to prevent this, but it has drawbacks. Here I present a better alternative, which is not only more accurate and efficient, but even simpler to implement. It consists of avoiding the evaluation o...

  19. Automatic Curve Fitting Based on Radial Basis Functions and a Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Trejo-Caballero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Curve fitting is a very challenging problem that arises in a wide variety of scientific and engineering applications. Given a set of data points, possibly noisy, the goal is to build a compact representation of the curve that corresponds to the best estimate of the unknown underlying relationship between two variables. Despite the large number of methods available to tackle this problem, it remains challenging and elusive. In this paper, a new method to tackle such problem using strictly a linear combination of radial basis functions (RBFs is proposed. To be more specific, we divide the parameter search space into linear and nonlinear parameter subspaces. We use a hierarchical genetic algorithm (HGA to minimize a model selection criterion, which allows us to automatically and simultaneously determine the nonlinear parameters and then, by the least-squares method through Singular Value Decomposition method, to compute the linear parameters. The method is fully automatic and does not require subjective parameters, for example, smooth factor or centre locations, to perform the solution. In order to validate the efficacy of our approach, we perform an experimental study with several tests on benchmarks smooth functions. A comparative analysis with two successful methods based on RBF networks has been included.

  20. Salsa dance and Zumba fitness:Acute responses during community-based classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pablo A. Domene; Hannah J. Moir; Elizabeth Pummell; Chris Easton

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research interest in both partnered Latin dance and non-partnered Latin-themed aerobic dance has increased in recent years, likely a result of the gaining popularity of these types of instructor-led group classes among the mainstream dance and fitness audiences;however, the efficacy of these activities for the purposes of health promotion currently remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to simultaneously assess the physiological responses and psychological experiences during salsa dance and Zumba fitness in a community sample of physically inactive women. Methods: Twenty-four participants, aged 22–56 years, visited the laboratory to perform a graded exercise test for determination of maximal oxygen uptake and maximal heart rate. The participants then attended 2 partnered salsa dance and 2 non-partnered Zumba fitness classes each in a counterbalanced order over a 2-week period. The 1-h classes were taught by certified instructors in established venues in the Royal Borough of Kingston and the surrounding communities of London, UK. Physiological data were collected using a wrist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X+acceler-ometer with accompanying heart rate monitor and were processed using previously validated dance-specific techniques. Psychological experiences were measured via the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale. Results: There was a significantly higher (p Conclusion: The acute responses to classes of partnered Latin dance and non-partnered Latin-themed aerobic dance suggest that in physically inactive women participation is indeed efficacious in terms of community-based physical activity and psychosocial health promotion.

  1. Using the Bootstrap Method to Evaluate the Critical Range of Misfit for Polytomous Rasch Fit Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Hyunsoo

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply the bootstrap procedure to evaluate how the bootstrapped confidence intervals (CIs) for polytomous Rasch fit statistics might differ according to sample sizes and test lengths in comparison with the rule-of-thumb critical value of misfit. A total of 25 simulated data sets were generated to fit the Rasch measurement and then a total of 1,000 replications were conducted to compute the bootstrapped CIs under each of 25 testing conditions. The results showed that rule-of-thumb critical values for assessing the magnitude of misfit were not applicable because the infit and outfit mean square error statistics showed different magnitudes of variability over testing conditions and the standardized fit statistics did not exactly follow the standard normal distribution. Further, they also do not share the same critical range for the item and person misfit. Based on the results of the study, the bootstrapped CIs can be used to identify misfitting items or persons as they offer a reasonable alternative solution, especially when the distributions of the infit and outfit statistics are not well known and depend on sample size.

  2. Fitness Landscape Analysis for Dynamic Resource Allocation in Multiuser OFDM Based Cognitive Radio Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Dong; Leung, Cyril

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive Radio (CR) is a promising technique for improving the spectrum efficiency in future wireless network. The downlink transmission in a multiuser Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation (MU-OFDM) based CR system is investigated. Optimal allocating transmit power, bits and subcarriers among cognitive radio users can achieve high throughput while satisfying the given quality of services (QoS) requirements. The problem of dynamic allocation of transmit power, bits and secondary users in multiuser OFDM systems is a combinatorial optimization problem and is computationally complex. Accordingly, a simple while efficient algorithm is needed. It has been shown that memetic algorithms (MAs) outperform other traditional algorithms for many combinatorial optimization problems. On the other hand, the performance of MAs is highly dependent on specific problems. In order to achieve better performance, we need to select appropriate local search method and evolutionary operators for a memetic algorithm. Fitness lands...

  3. Numerical solution of a diffusion problem by exponentially fitted finite difference methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Raffaele; Paternoster, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    This paper is focused on the accurate and efficient solution of partial differential differential equations modelling a diffusion problem by means of exponentially fitted finite difference numerical methods. After constructing and analysing special purpose finite differences for the approximation of second order partial derivatives, we employed them in the numerical solution of a diffusion equation with mixed boundary conditions. Numerical experiments reveal that a special purpose integration, both in space and in time, is more accurate and efficient than that gained by employing a general purpose solver.

  4. A critical appraisal of the SED fitting method to estimate photometric redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Massarotti, M; Buzzoni, A

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the stability of the photometric redshift estimate obtained with the SED fitting method with respect to the choice of the galaxy templates. Within the observational uncertainty and photometric errors, we find satisfactory agreement among different sets of theoretical and empirical templates using the Hubble Deep Field North as a target galaxy sample. Our results suggest that, especially at high redshift, the description of the physical processes of photon absorption in the interstellar and intergalactic medium plays a dominant role in the redshift estimate. The specific choice of the template set, as long as this includes both normal and starburst galaxies, is in comparison a minor issue.

  5. Dynamic modeling and analysis of vortex filament motion using a novel curve-fitting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Joo Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Applications of a novel curve-fitting technique are presented to efficiently predict the motion of the vortex filament, which is trailed from a rigid body such as wings and rotors. The governing equations of the motion, when a Lagrangian approach with the present curve-fitting method is applied, can be transformed into an easily solvable form of the system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The applicability of Bézier curves, B-spline, and Lagrange interpolating polynomials is investigated. Local Lagrange interpolating polynomials with a shift operator are proposed as the best selection for applications, since it provides superior system characteristics with minimum computing time, compared to other methods. In addition, the Gauss quadrature formula with local refinement strategy has been developed for an accurate prediction of the induced velocity computed with the line integration of the Biot–Savart law. Rotary-wing problems including a vortex ring problem are analyzed to show the efficiency, accuracy, and flexibility in the applications of the proposed method.

  6. Research on fitting method of pointer meters scales center straight-line%指针表刻度中心直线拟合方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学聪; 汪仁煌; 刘洪江

    2012-01-01

    重点研究直线图像的直线方程拟合方法,提出了一种基于最小距离直线拟合新方法,用于拟合指针表刻度直线.对采集的仪表图像做预处理后,获得仪表各刻度直线的二值图像.使用最小距离直线拟合方法拟合各刻度中心直线,使用刻度拟合直线相交点对拟合直线进行最小二乘修正,提高刻度中心直线的拟合精度.仿真结果表明,该直线拟合方法能快速确定高精度指针表刻度线图像的精确直线方程,有利于提高指针表读数的精度.%The straight-line equation fitting method of the straight-line image is researched in detail, and a straight-line fitting method is proposed based on the least distance for fitting pointer meters scales center straight-line. After pre-processing of pointer meters image, the meter scale linear binary image is obtained. Firstly, the least distance straight-line fitting method is used to fitting each scale center straight-line, then the crosspoints of the scale fitting straight-line is used to fix the fitting line on the least-square correction, and the scale center straight-line fitting precision is improved. Simulation results show that the linear fitting method can rapidly determine the precise equation of the scale center straight-line of the high-precision pointer meters and improve effectively the accuracy of meter readout.

  7. Project-Method Fit: Exploring Factors That Influence Agile Method Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Diana K.

    2013-01-01

    While the productivity and quality implications of agile software development methods (SDMs) have been demonstrated, research concerning the project contexts where their use is most appropriate has yielded less definitive results. Most experts agree that agile SDMs are not suited for all project contexts. Several project and team factors have been…

  8. Reliable Prediction of Insulin Resistance by a School-Based Fitness Test in Middle-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen DavidB

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 Determine the predictive value of a school-based test of cardiovascular fitness (CVF for insulin resistance (IR; (2 compare a "school-based" prediction of IR to a "laboratory-based" prediction, using various measures of fitness and body composition. Methods. Middle school children ( performed the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER, a school-based CVF test, and underwent evaluation of maximal oxygen consumption treadmill testing ( max, body composition (percent body fat and BMI z score, and IR (derived homeostasis model assessment index []. Results. PACER showed a strong correlation with max/kg ( = 0.83, and with ( = , . Multivariate regression analysis revealed that a school-based model (using PACER and BMI z score predicted IR similar to a laboratory-based model (using max/kg of lean body mass and percent body fat. Conclusions. The PACER is a valid school-based test of CVF, is predictive of IR, and has a similar relationship to IR when compared to complex laboratory-based testing. Simple school-based measures of childhood fitness (PACER and fatness (BMI z score could be used to identify childhood risk for IR and evaluate interventions.

  9. Reconstructing The Star Formation Histories Of Galaxies Through Sed Fitting Using The Dense Basis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Kartheik; Gawiser, Eric

    2017-06-01

    The Dense Basis SED fitting method reveals previously inaccessible information about the number and duration of star formation episodes and the timing of stellar mass assembly as well as uncertainties in these quantities, in addition to accurately recovering traditional SED parameters including M*, SFR and dust attenuation. This is done using basis Star Formation Histories (SFHs) chosen by comparing the goodness-of-fit of mock galaxy SEDs to the goodness-of-reconstruction of their SFHs, trained and validated using three independent datasets of mock galaxies at z=1 from SAMs, Hydrodynamic simulations and stochastic realizations. Of the six parametrizations of SFHs considered, we reject the traditional parametrizations of constant and exponential SFHs and suggest four novel improvements, quantifying the bias and scatter of each parametrization. We then apply the method to a sample of 1100 CANDELS GOODS-S galaxies at 110^9 M_sun, in contrast to current simulations. About 40% of the CANDEL galaxies have SFHs whose maximum occurs at or near the epoch of observation. These results are presented in Iyer and Gawiser (2017, ApJ 838 127), available at https://arxiv.org/abs/1702.04371

  10. Wave system fitting: A new method for force measurements in shock tunnels with long test duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Changtong; Wang, Yunpeng; Wang, Chun; Jiang, Zonglin

    2015-10-01

    Force measurements in shock tunnels are difficult due to the existence of vibrations excited by a sudden aerodynamic loading. Accelerometer inertia compensation could reduce its negative effect to some extent, but has inherent problems. A new signal decomposition method, wave system fitting (WSF), is proposed to remove vibration waves of low frequency. The WSF is accelerometer-free. It decomposes the balance signal and can separate vibration waves without the influence on the DC component, and it does work no matter the cycle of the sample signal is complete or not. As a standard signal post-processing tool in JF-12, the application results show that it works reliably with high accuracy, and it can also explain puzzling signals encountered in JF-12. WSF method is especially useful and irreplaceable whenever only a few cycles of a periodic signal could be obtained, as is usual for shock tunnels.

  11. Incompressible turbulent flow calculation in body-fitted coordinates using block-implicit finite difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zeming; Chen, Xuechun; Wu, Yulin

    The block-implicit finite-difference method is used to calculate 3D incompressible turbulent flows in the body-fitted coordinate system. In the numerical discretization the hybrid difference scheme is used to treat Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The iterative solution of velocities and pressure on the flow field is obtained by solving simultaneously the Reynolds-averaged N-S equations and continuity equation for each cell. In the iterative process the Gauss-Seidel method is used to solve nonlinear algebraic equations. The turbulent flow is simulated by the k-epsilon turbulence modeling in conjunction with Reynolds equations. The turbulent flow of a curved duct with square cross sections is treated in detail.

  12. Empirical models of Total Electron Content based on functional fitting over Taiwan during geomagnetic quiet condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kakinami

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Empirical models of Total Electron Content (TEC based on functional fitting over Taiwan (120° E, 24° N have been constructed using data of the Global Positioning System (GPS from 1998 to 2007 during geomagnetically quiet condition (Dst>−30 nT. The models provide TEC as functions of local time (LT, day of year (DOY and the solar activity (F, which are represented by 1–162 days mean of F10.7 and EUV. Other models based on median values have been also constructed and compared with the models based on the functional fitting. Under same values of F parameter, the models based on the functional fitting show better accuracy than those based on the median values in all cases. The functional fitting model using daily EUV is the most accurate with 9.2 TECu of root mean square error (RMS than the 15-days running median with 10.4 TECu RMS and the model of International Reference Ionosphere 2007 (IRI2007 with 14.7 TECu RMS. IRI2007 overestimates TEC when the solar activity is low, and underestimates TEC when the solar activity is high. Though average of 81 days centered running mean of F10.7 and daily F10.7 is often used as indicator of EUV, our result suggests that average of F10.7 mean from 1 to 54 day prior and current day is better than the average of 81 days centered running mean for reproduction of TEC. This paper is for the first time comparing the median based model with the functional fitting model. Results indicate the functional fitting model yielding a better performance than the median based one. Meanwhile we find that the EUV radiation is essential to derive an optimal TEC.

  13. An Empirical Investigation of Methods for Assessing Item Fit for Mixed Format Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Kyong Hee; Lee, Won-Chan; Ansley, Timothy N.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical information regarding performance of model-fit procedures has been a persistent need in measurement practice. Statistical procedures for evaluating item fit were applied to real test examples that consist of both dichotomously and polytomously scored items. The item fit statistics used in this study included the PARSCALE's G[squared],…

  14. Interpolating moving least-squares methods for fitting potential energy surfaces: a strategy for efficient automatic data point placement in high dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Richard; Thompson, Donald L; Wagner, Albert F; Minkoff, Michael

    2008-02-28

    An accurate and efficient method for automated molecular global potential energy surface (PES) construction and fitting is demonstrated. An interpolating moving least-squares (IMLS) method is developed with the flexibility to fit various ab initio data: (1) energies, (2) energies and gradients, or (3) energies, gradients, and Hessian data. The method is automated and flexible so that a PES can be optimally generated for trajectories, spectroscopy, or other applications. High efficiency is achieved by employing local IMLS in which fitting coefficients are stored at a limited number of expansion points, thus eliminating the need to perform weighted least-squares fits each time the potential is evaluated. An automatic point selection scheme based on the difference in two successive orders of IMLS fits is used to determine where new ab initio data need to be calculated for the most efficient fitting of the PES. A simple scan of the coordinate is shown to work well to identify these maxima in one dimension, but this search strategy scales poorly with dimension. We demonstrate the efficacy of using conjugate gradient minimizations on the difference surface to locate optimal data point placement in high dimensions. Results that are indicative of the accuracy, efficiency, and scalability are presented for a one-dimensional model potential (Morse) as well as for three-dimensional (HCN), six-dimensional (HOOH), and nine-dimensional (CH4) molecular PESs.

  15. Marginal and internal fit of zirconia copings obtained using different digital scanning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Oliveira PEDROCHE

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the marginal and internal fit of zirconia copings obtained with different digital scanning methods. A human mandibular first molar was set in a typodont with its adjacent and antagonist teeth and prepared for an all-ceramic crown. Digital impressions were made using an intraoral scanner (3Shape. Polyvinyl siloxane impressions and Type IV gypsum models were also obtained and scanned with a benchtop laboratory scanner (3Shape D700. Ten zirconia copings were fabricated for each group using CAD-CAM technology. The marginal and internal fit of the zirconia copings was assessed by the silicone replica technique. Four sections of each replica were obtained, and each section was evaluated at four points: marginal gap (MG, axial wall (AW, axio-occlusal edge (AO and centro-occlusal wall (CO, using an image analyzing software. The data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05. They showed statistically significant differences for MG, AO and CO. Regarding MG, intraoral scanning showed lower gap values, whereas gypsum model scanning showed higher gap values. Regarding AO and CO, intraoral digital scanning showed lower gap values. Polyvinyl siloxane impression scanning and gypsum model scanning showed higher gap values and were statistically similar. It can be concluded that intraoral digital scanning provided a lower mean gap value, in comparison with conventional impressions and gypsum casts scanned with a standard benchtop laboratory scanner.

  16. Reliable Prediction of Insulin Resistance by a School-Based Fitness Test in Middle-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Varness

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 Determine the predictive value of a school-based test of cardiovascular fitness (CVF for insulin resistance (IR; (2 compare a “school-based” prediction of IR to a “laboratory-based” prediction, using various measures of fitness and body composition. Methods. Middle school children (n=82 performed the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER, a school-based CVF test, and underwent evaluation of maximal oxygen consumption treadmill testing (VO2 max, body composition (percent body fat and BMI z score, and IR (derived homeostasis model assessment index [HOMAIR]. Results. PACER showed a strong correlation with VO2 max/kg (rs = 0.83, P<.001 and with HOMAIR (rs = −0.60, P<.001. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that a school-based model (using PACER and BMI z score predicted IR similar to a laboratory-based model (using VO2 max/kg of lean body mass and percent body fat. Conclusions. The PACER is a valid school-based test of CVF, is predictive of IR, and has a similar relationship to IR when compared to complex laboratory-based testing. Simple school-based measures of childhood fitness (PACER and fatness (BMI z score could be used to identify childhood risk for IR and evaluate interventions.

  17. Person-fit statistics, response sets and survey participation in a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Jörg M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Person-fit methodology is a promising technique for identifying subjects whose test scores have questionable validity. Less is known however about this technique’s ability to predict survey participation longitudinally. This study presents theory-derived expectations related to social desirability, the tendency for extreme responding and traitedness for specific deviating answer patterns and an expected consistence of person-fit scores across 27 personality scales. Data from 5,114 subjects (Amelang, 1997 were reanalysed with a polytomous-Rasch model to estimate scale scores and von Davier and Molenaar’s (2003 person-fit statistics. The person-fit statistics of the 27 scales were examined together with the 27 person parameter scores in one common factor analysis. The person-fit scores served as indicators of the latent factor ‘scalability’ while the person-parameter scores were considered to index the bias introduced by social desirability. The sign of factor loadings showed consistency and validity of the tendency for social desirability and extreme responding. Moreover, the personfit- based subject classification derived from the baseline data was able to predict subjects’ participation at a 8,5-year follow-up. However, the nature of those associations was contrary to our predictions. The discussion addresses explanations and practical implications, but also the limitations pertaining to the identification and interpretation of person-fit scores.

  18. Phonon-based mesh optimization for the Monte Carlo on-the-fly thermal scattering temperature fit coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlou, Andrew T., E-mail: pavloa2@rpi.edu; Ji, Wei, E-mail: jiw2@rpi.edu

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Thermal scattering data are fit using linear least squares regression. • Mesh points are optimally selected from phonon frequency distributions. • New meshes give more accurate fits of thermal data than our previous work. • Coefficient data storage is significantly reduced compared to current methods. - Abstract: In a series of papers, we have introduced a new sampling method for Monte Carlo codes for the low-energy secondary scattering parameters that greatly reduces data storage requirements. The method is based on the temperature dependence of the energy transfer (beta) and squared momentum transfer (alpha) between a neutron and a target nuclide. Cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) in beta and alpha are constructed for a range of temperatures on a mesh of incident energies in the thermal range and temperature fits are created for beta and alpha at discrete CDF probability lines. The secondary energy and angle distributions generated from the fit coefficients showed good agreement with the standard Monte Carlo sampling. However, some discrepancies still existed because the CDF probability mesh values were selected uniformly and arbitrarily. In this paper, a physics-based approach for optimally selecting the CDF probability meshes for the on-the-fly sampling method is introduced, using bound carbon in graphite as the example nuclide. This approach is based on the structure of the phonon frequency distribution of thermal excitations. From the study, it was determined that low (<0.1) and high (>0.9) beta CDF probabilities are important to the structure of the beta probability density functions (PDFs) while very low (<1 × 10{sup −4}) alpha CDF probabilities are important to the structure of the alpha PDFs. The final meshes contain 200 probability values for both beta and alpha. This results in 14.5 MB of total data storage for the on-the-fly coefficients which are used for any temperature realization. This is a significant reduction in

  19. 应用激光扫描法测量激光快速成形技术制作全口义齿钛基托的适合性研究%The fitness of laser rapid formed titanium denture base examined by laser scan method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴江; 赵湘辉; 沈丽娟; 高勃

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the fitness of titanium complete denture base fabricated by laser rapid forming (LRF). Methods: Titanium denture base was designed and fabricated by LRF. After suitable treatment, the titanium base was fixed on the surface of the plaster cast. The fringe around the Ti base and the plaster cast was sealed by wax. Then dental flasking method was used and after the gypsum was solidified, the maxillary edentulous plaster east was removed. Another plaster cast which duplicated the surface of the Ti base was then made on the same plane in the flask. Both of the plaster casts were located in the same place of the LSH600 laser scan worktable and then the tissue surface of both casts was recorded as point clouds data. The data were automatically compared to calculate the discrepancies between those of titanium denture base and plaster east by applying reverse engineering software Surfacer 10.0. The situation of coincidence between 2 groups of data was distinguished by different color representing the distance between different regions.The traditional-made titanium denture base was set as the control. Results: By laser scan method and 3-dimentional computing, for LRF base plate, the maximum error was 0.646 mm and the average error was 0.334 mm. Whereas for the traditional one, the maximum error was 0. 352 mm and the average error was 0.135 mm. Conclusion: Comparing with the traditional method, the fitness of titanium denture base fabricated with LRF needs to be improved on the accuracy.%目的:评价新型激光快速成形方法制作全口义齿钛基托的适合性.方法:应用激光快速成形技术制作标准上半口无牙颌钛基托,将制作的基托置于无牙颌模型上,蜡封闭边缘后,装盒;待石膏凝固后,取出无牙颌模型,再次在型盒内灌制超硬石膏模型.待模型结固后,将两个模型分别置于LSH600三维激光扫描仪工作台上的同一位置并固定,利用三维激光扫描模型组织面,获得

  20. Aerobic Fitness for Young Athletes: Combining Game-based and High-intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C B; Kinugasa, T; Gill, N; Kilding, A E

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the effect of game-based training (GT) vs. a mix of game-based training and high-intensity interval training (MT) on physical performance characteristics. 26 young athletes (13.9±0.3 years) were assigned to either GT (n=13) or MT (n=13) for 6 weeks. Game-based training consisted of 2×8-11 min 3 vs. 3 'bucketball' SSGs separated by 3 min of passive rest twice per week, while MT consisted of one SSGs session and one high-intensity session of 15 s runs at 90-95% of the speed reached at the end of the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (VIFT) interspersed with 15 s passive recovery. Peak oxygen uptake (V˙ O2peak), VIFT, jump height, and speed were assessed pre- and post-training. Following training, V˙ O2peak (5.5±3.3%; ES=large) improved after MT, whereas VIFT improved after MT (6.6±3.2%; ES, large) and GT (4.2±5.5%, ES=small). 5-m sprint improved after GT (ES=small), while 20 m sprint and jump height were unchanged. In conclusion, while MT and GT were both effective at increasing performance parameters, greater effects were seen following MT. Therefore, MT should be considered as the preferred training method for improving aerobic power in young athletes.

  1. [A study of coordinates transform iterative fitting method to extract bio-impedance model parameters bio-impedance model parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming; Yang, Yuxing; Yuan, Shiying

    2006-02-01

    A new algorithm, the coordinates transform iterative optimizing method based on the least square curve fitting model, is presented. This arithmetic is used for extracting the bio-impedance model parameters. It is superior to other methods, for example, its speed of the convergence is quicker, and its calculating precision is higher. The objective to extract the model parameters, such as Ri, Re, Cm and alpha, has been realized rapidly and accurately. With the aim at lowering the power consumption, decreasing the price and improving the price-to-performance ratio, a practical bio-impedance measure system with double CPUs has been built. It can be drawn from the preliminary results that the intracellular resistance Ri increased largely with an increase in working load during sitting, which reflects the ischemic change of lower limbs.

  2. Effect of Sn on the optical band gap determined using absorption spectrum fitting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heera, Pawan, E-mail: sramanb70@mailcity.com [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, INDIA, 171005 (India); Govt. College Amb, Himachal Pradesh, INDIA,177203 (India); Kumar, Anup, E-mail: kumar.anup.sml@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, INDIA, 171005 (India); Physics Department, Govt. College, Kullu, H. P., INDIA, 175101 (India); Sharma, Raman, E-mail: pawanheera@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, INDIA, 171005 (India)

    2015-05-15

    We report the preparation and the optical studies on tellurium rich glasses thin films. The thin films of Se{sub 30}Te{sub 70-x} Sn{sub x} system for x= 0, 1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 glassy alloys prepared by melt quenching technique are deposited on the glass substrate using vacuum thermal evaporation technique. The analysis of absorption spectra in the spectral range 400nm–4000 nm at room temperature obtained from UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer [Perkin Elmer Lamda-750] helps us in the optical characterization of the thin films under study. The absorption spectrum fitting method is applied by using the Tauc’s model for estimating the optical band gap and the width of the band tail of the thin films. The optical band gap is calculated and is found to decrease with the Sn content.

  3. A curve fitting method for extrinsic camera calibration from a single image of a cylindrical object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, A. W.; Zagar, B. G.

    2013-08-01

    An important step in the process of optical steel coil quality assurance is to measure the proportions of width and radius of steel coils as well as the relative position and orientation of the camera. This work attempts to estimate these extrinsic parameters from single images by using the cylindrical coil itself as the calibration target. Therefore, an adaptive least-squares algorithm is applied to fit parametrized curves to the detected true coil outline in the acquisition. The employed model allows for strictly separating the intrinsic and the extrinsic parameters. Thus, the intrinsic camera parameters can be calibrated beforehand using available calibration software. Furthermore, a way to segment the true coil outline in the acquired images is motivated. The proposed optimization method yields highly accurate results and can be generalized even to measure other solids which cannot be characterized by the identification of simple geometric primitives.

  4. Method of Characteristics Calculations and Computer Code for Materials with Arbitrary Equations of State and Using Orthogonal Polynomial Least Square Surface Fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T. S.

    1974-01-01

    A numerical scheme using the method of characteristics to calculate the flow properties and pressures behind decaying shock waves for materials under hypervelocity impact is developed. Time-consuming double interpolation subroutines are replaced by a technique based on orthogonal polynomial least square surface fits. Typical calculated results are given and compared with the double interpolation results. The complete computer program is included.

  5. Improved Physical Fitness among Older Female Participants in a Nationally Disseminated, Community-Based Exercise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Heidkamp-Young, Eleanor; Kuder, Julia; Nelson, Miriam E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Strength training (ST) is an important health behavior for aging women; it helps maintain strength and function and reduces risk for chronic diseases. This study assessed change in physical fitness following participation in a ST program implemented and evaluated by community leaders. Method: The StrongWomen Program is a nationally…

  6. Improved Physical Fitness among Older Female Participants in a Nationally Disseminated, Community-Based Exercise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Heidkamp-Young, Eleanor; Kuder, Julia; Nelson, Miriam E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Strength training (ST) is an important health behavior for aging women; it helps maintain strength and function and reduces risk for chronic diseases. This study assessed change in physical fitness following participation in a ST program implemented and evaluated by community leaders. Method: The StrongWomen Program is a nationally…

  7. MMAS Versus Population-Based EA on a Family of Dynamic Fitness Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissovoi, Andrei; Witt, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the behavior of a population-based EA and the Max–Min Ant System (MMAS) on a family of deterministically-changing fitness functions, where, in order to find the global optimum, the algorithms have to find specific local optima within each of a series of phases. In particular, we prove...

  8. MMAS vs. Population-based EA on a family of dynamic fitness functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissovoi, Andrei; Witt, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    We study the behavior of a population-based EA and the Max-Min Ant System (MMAS) on a family of deterministically-changing fitness functions, where, in order to find the global optimum, the algorithms have to find specific local optima within each of a series of phases. In particular, we prove...

  9. Community based lifestyle intervention improves body weight, anthropometric, and fitness parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifestyle modification of nutrition, physical activity and behavior is a proven methodology for weight loss and health improvement. We examined a community based lifestyle intervention (CBLI) program on anthropometric, fitness and biologic outcomes in 41 (2 men, 39 women) overweight and obese (BMI =...

  10. Recommendations regarding higher axlemass limits for axles fitted with wide base tyres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, MP

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation into possible higher axle mass limits for axles and axle units fitted with wide base tyres, i.e. tyres with nominal section widths of 385 mm, 425 mm and 445 mm, by comparing the road wear caused...

  11. Satellite image blind restoration based on surface fitting and multivariate model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin-bing; YANG Shi-zhi; WANG Xian-hua; QIAO Yan-li

    2009-01-01

    Owing to the blurring effect from atmosphere and camera system in the satellite imaging a blind image restoration algo-rithm is proposed which includes the modulation transfer function (MTF) estimation and the image restoration. In the MTF estimation stage, based on every degradation process of satellite imaging-chain, a combined parametric model of MTF is given and used to fit the surface of normalized logarithmic amplitude spectrum of degraded image. In the image restoration stage, a maximum a posteriori (MAP) based edge-preserving image restoration method is presented which introduces multivariate Laplacian model to characterize the prior distribution of wavelet coefficients of original image. During the image restoration, in order to avoid solving high nonlinear equations, optimization transfer algorithm is adopted to decom-pose the image restoration procedure into two simple steps: Landweber iteration and wavelet thresholding denoising. In the numerical experiment, the satellite image restoration results from SPOT-5 and high resolution camera (HR) of China & Brazil earth resource satellite (CBERS-02B) ane compared, and the proposed algorithm is superior in the image edge preservation and noise inhibition.

  12. Robust phase-domain transmission line representation based on time-domain fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobre, Diana M.; Neves, Washington L.A. [Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Electrical Engineering Department, Av Aprigio Veloso, 882 Campina Grande, PB 58.109-970 (Brazil); Boaventura, Wallace do C. [Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Electrical Engineering Department, Av Antonio Carlos, 6627 Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG 31.270-010 (Brazil)

    2006-05-15

    This work presents a methodology for deriving a phase-domain transmission line representation based on time-domain fitting. A polynomial matrix in the discrete-time domain describes the resulting model. The robustness of the representation, its stability and passivity, is attained by imbedding a set of constraints in the solution of the fitting equations, which are solved using quadratic programming. Results demonstrating from transient simulations the features of the derived representation are presented for the case of an asymmetric, untransposed two-phase transmission line. (author)

  13. Group Targets Tracking Using Multiple Models GGIW-CPHD Based on Best-Fitting Gaussian Approximation and Strong Tracking Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma Gaussian inverse Wishart cardinalized probability hypothesis density (GGIW-CPHD algorithm was always used to track group targets in the presence of cluttered measurements and missing detections. A multiple models GGIW-CPHD algorithm based on best-fitting Gaussian approximation method (BFG and strong tracking filter (STF is proposed aiming at the defect that the tracking error of GGIW-CPHD algorithm will increase when the group targets are maneuvering. The best-fitting Gaussian approximation method is proposed to implement the fusion of multiple models using the strong tracking filter to correct the predicted covariance matrix of the GGIW component. The corresponding likelihood functions are deduced to update the probability of multiple tracking models. From the simulation results we can see that the proposed tracking algorithm MM-GGIW-CPHD can effectively deal with the combination/spawning of groups and the tracking error of group targets in the maneuvering stage is decreased.

  14. Pulmonary lobe segmentation based on ridge surface sampling and shape model fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, James C., E-mail: jross@bwh.harvard.edu [Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Surgical Planning Lab, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Laboratory of Mathematics in Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02126 (United States); Kindlmann, Gordon L. [Computer Science Department and Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Okajima, Yuka; Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Díaz, Alejandro A. [Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 and Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Silverman, Edwin K. [Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 and Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Washko, George R. [Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Dy, Jennifer [ECE Department, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Estépar, Raúl San José [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Surgical Planning Lab, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Laboratory of Mathematics in Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02126 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Performing lobe-based quantitative analysis of the lung in computed tomography (CT) scans can assist in efforts to better characterize complex diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While airways and vessels can help to indicate the location of lobe boundaries, segmentations of these structures are not always available, so methods to define the lobes in the absence of these structures are desirable. Methods: The authors present a fully automatic lung lobe segmentation algorithm that is effective in volumetric inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography (CT) datasets. The authors rely on ridge surface image features indicating fissure locations and a novel approach to modeling shape variation in the surfaces defining the lobe boundaries. The authors employ a particle system that efficiently samples ridge surfaces in the image domain and provides a set of candidate fissure locations based on the Hessian matrix. Following this, lobe boundary shape models generated from principal component analysis (PCA) are fit to the particles data to discriminate between fissure and nonfissure candidates. The resulting set of particle points are used to fit thin plate spline (TPS) interpolating surfaces to form the final boundaries between the lung lobes. Results: The authors tested algorithm performance on 50 inspiratory and 50 expiratory CT scans taken from the COPDGene study. Results indicate that the authors' algorithm performs comparably to pulmonologist-generated lung lobe segmentations and can produce good results in cases with accessory fissures, incomplete fissures, advanced emphysema, and low dose acquisition protocols. Dice scores indicate that only 29 out of 500 (5.85%) lobes showed Dice scores lower than 0.9. Two different approaches for evaluating lobe boundary surface discrepancies were applied and indicate that algorithm boundary identification is most accurate in the vicinity of fissures detectable on CT. Conclusions: The

  15. Physical fitness normative values for 6-18-year-old Greek boys and girls, using the empirical distribution and the lambda, mu, and sigma statistical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambalis, Konstantinos D; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Psarra, Glykeria; Daskalakis, Stelios; Kavouras, Stavros A; Geladas, Nickos; Tokmakidis, Savas; Sidossis, Labros S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the this study was to establish age- and gender-specific physical fitness normative values and to compare percentiles and Z scores values in a large, nationwide sample of Greek children aged 6-18 years. From March 2014 to May 2014, a total of 424,328 boys and girls aged 6-18 years who attended school in Greece were enrolled. The studied sample was representative, in terms of age-sex distribution and geographical region. Physical fitness tests (i.e. 20 m shuttle run test (SRT), standing long jump, sit and reach, sit-ups, and 10 × 5 m SRT) were performed and used to calculate normative values, using the percentiles of the empirical distributions and the lambda, mu, and sigma statistical method. Normative values were presented as tabulated percentiles for five health-related fitness tests based on a large data set comprising 424,328 test performances. Boys typically scored higher than girls on cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and speed/agility, but lower on flexibility (all p values <0.001). Older boys and girls had better performances than younger ones (p < 0.001). Physical fitness tests' performances tended to peak at around the age of 15 years in both sexes. The presented population-based data are the most up-to-date sex- and age-values for the health-related fitness of children and adolescents in Greece and can be used as standard values for fitness screening and surveillance systems and for comparisons among the same health-related fitness scores of children from other countries similar to Greece. Schools need to make efforts to improve the fitness level of the schoolchildren through the physical education curriculum to prevent cardiovascular risk.

  16. Comparison of fitting methods and b-value sampling strategies for intravoxel incoherent motion in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gene Young; Moy, Linda; Zhang, Jeff L; Baete, Steven; Lattanzi, Riccardo; Moccaldi, Melanie; Babb, James S; Kim, Sungheon; Sodickson, Daniel K; Sigmund, Eric E

    2015-10-01

    To compare fitting methods and sampling strategies, including the implementation of an optimized b-value selection for improved estimation of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters in breast cancer. Fourteen patients (age, 48.4 ± 14.27 years) with cancerous lesions underwent 3 Tesla breast MRI examination for a HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board approved diffusion MR study. IVIM biomarkers were calculated using "free" versus "segmented" fitting for conventional or optimized (repetitions of key b-values) b-value selection. Monte Carlo simulations were performed over a range of IVIM parameters to evaluate methods of analysis. Relative bias values, relative error, and coefficients of variation (CV) were obtained for assessment of methods. Statistical paired t-tests were used for comparison of experimental mean values and errors from each fitting and sampling method. Comparison of the different analysis/sampling methods in simulations and experiments showed that the "segmented" analysis and the optimized method have higher precision and accuracy, in general, compared with "free" fitting of conventional sampling when considering all parameters. Regarding relative bias, IVIM parameters fp and Dt differed significantly between "segmented" and "free" fitting methods. IVIM analysis may improve using optimized selection and "segmented" analysis, potentially enabling better differentiation of breast cancer subtypes and monitoring of treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sprint interval training (SIT) is an effective method to maintain cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and glucose homeostasis in Scottish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R; Buchan, D S; Baker, J S; Young, J; Sculthorpe, N; Grace, F M

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the physiological impact of a school based sprint interval training (SIT) intervention in replacement of standard physical education (SPE) class on cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) and glucose homeostasis during the semester following summer vacation. Participants (n=49) were randomly allocated to either intervention (SIT; n=26, aged 16.9 ± 0.3 yrs) or control group who underwent standard physical education (SPE; n=23, aged 16.8 ± 0.6 yrs). CRF (VO2max) and glucose homeostasis were obtained prior-to and following 7 weeks of SIT exercise. Significant group x time interaction was observed for CRF (P SIT exercise is an effective method of maintaining (but not improving) CRF and fasting insulin homeostasis amongst school-going adolescents. SIT exercise demonstrates potential as a time efficient physiological adjunct to standard PE class in order to maintain CRF during the school term.

  18. Effectiveness of mindfulness based mental fitness training: an impact evaluation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhad Anant Pawar

    2016-08-01

    Results: The students who underwent MBMFT (group-I had significantly (p<0.05 higher FFMQ scores at 08 weeks (130.10+/-9.69 as compared to baseline scores (122.55+/-12.7 and scores of the group II (117.95+/-10.1. Group I students also had lower perceived stress scores at the end of 08 weeks of MBMFT. Personal resilience was assessed only for Group-I using Personal Resilience Questionnaire (PRQ. The PRQ score increased significantly (p= 0.000 from mean baseline score of 157.76+/-10.14 to 166.31+/-13.01 at the end of 8 weeks. Conclusions: Mindfulness based Mental Fitness Training is an effective method which can be used to enhance the ability of personnel to combat stress. Future large scale multi centric research is required to further validate the effectiveness of MBMFT and to assess feasibility of inclusion of MBMFT as regular aspect in training institutions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3433-3439

  19. The effect of a multi-component camp-based weight-loss program on children's motor skills and physical fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Huang, Tao; Larsen, Lisbeth Runge

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many weight-loss programs in children are performed without specific foci on training both physical fitness and motor skills. The aim of this study was to describe the effect of a one-year weight-loss program on children's motor skills and physical fitness. METHODS: Participants...... included 115 overweight fifth-grade children (12.0 years) randomized into either a Day-Camp Intervention Arm (DCIA), with a subsequent family-based support program or a low-intense Standard Intervention Arm (SIA). Physical fitness was assessed by vertical jump, hand grip strength, and a progressive cardio...... the DCIA compared to the SIA. Contrary to the expected, children from the SIA improved aiming and catching skills relative to the DCIA children. Overall z-scores of the physical fitness components and cardio-respiratory fitness improved more in children from the DCIA compared to children from the SIA...

  20. Unifying distance-based goodness-of-fit indicators for hydrologic model assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qinbo; Reinhardt-Imjela, Christian; Chen, Xi; Schulte, Achim

    2014-05-01

    The goodness-of-fit indicator, i.e. efficiency criterion, is very important for model calibration. However, recently the knowledge about the goodness-of-fit indicators is all empirical and lacks a theoretical support. Based on the likelihood theory, a unified distance-based goodness-of-fit indicator termed BC-GED model is proposed, which uses the Box-Cox (BC) transformation to remove the heteroscedasticity of model errors and the generalized error distribution (GED) with zero-mean to fit the distribution of model errors after BC. The BC-GED model can unify all recent distance-based goodness-of-fit indicators, and reveals the mean square error (MSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE) that are widely used goodness-of-fit indicators imply statistic assumptions that the model errors follow the Gaussian distribution and the Laplace distribution with zero-mean, respectively. The empirical knowledge about goodness-of-fit indicators can be also easily interpreted by BC-GED model, e.g. the sensitivity to high flow of the goodness-of-fit indicators with large power of model errors results from the low probability of large model error in the assumed distribution of these indicators. In order to assess the effect of the parameters (i.e. the BC transformation parameter λ and the GED kurtosis coefficient β also termed the power of model errors) of BC-GED model on hydrologic model calibration, six cases of BC-GED model were applied in Baocun watershed (East China) with SWAT-WB-VSA model. Comparison of the inferred model parameters and model simulation results among the six indicators demonstrates these indicators can be clearly separated two classes by the GED kurtosis β: β >1 and β ≤ 1. SWAT-WB-VSA calibrated by the class β >1 of distance-based goodness-of-fit indicators captures high flow very well and mimics the baseflow very badly, but it calibrated by the class β ≤ 1 mimics the baseflow very well, because first the larger value of β, the greater emphasis is put on

  1. Is Model Fitting Necessary for Model-Based fMRI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Wilson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Model-based analysis of fMRI data is an important tool for investigating the computational role of different brain regions. With this method, theoretical models of behavior can be leveraged to find the brain structures underlying variables from specific algorithms, such as prediction errors in reinforcement learning. One potential weakness with this approach is that models often have free parameters and thus the results of the analysis may depend on how these free parameters are set. In this work we asked whether this hypothetical weakness is a problem in practice. We first developed general closed-form expressions for the relationship between results of fMRI analyses using different regressors, e.g., one corresponding to the true process underlying the measured data and one a model-derived approximation of the true generative regressor. Then, as a specific test case, we examined the sensitivity of model-based fMRI to the learning rate parameter in reinforcement learning, both in theory and in two previously-published datasets. We found that even gross errors in the learning rate lead to only minute changes in the neural results. Our findings thus suggest that precise model fitting is not always necessary for model-based fMRI. They also highlight the difficulty in using fMRI data for arbitrating between different models or model parameters. While these specific results pertain only to the effect of learning rate in simple reinforcement learning models, we provide a template for testing for effects of different parameters in other models.

  2. Is Model Fitting Necessary for Model-Based fMRI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert C; Niv, Yael

    2015-06-01

    Model-based analysis of fMRI data is an important tool for investigating the computational role of different brain regions. With this method, theoretical models of behavior can be leveraged to find the brain structures underlying variables from specific algorithms, such as prediction errors in reinforcement learning. One potential weakness with this approach is that models often have free parameters and thus the results of the analysis may depend on how these free parameters are set. In this work we asked whether this hypothetical weakness is a problem in practice. We first developed general closed-form expressions for the relationship between results of fMRI analyses using different regressors, e.g., one corresponding to the true process underlying the measured data and one a model-derived approximation of the true generative regressor. Then, as a specific test case, we examined the sensitivity of model-based fMRI to the learning rate parameter in reinforcement learning, both in theory and in two previously-published datasets. We found that even gross errors in the learning rate lead to only minute changes in the neural results. Our findings thus suggest that precise model fitting is not always necessary for model-based fMRI. They also highlight the difficulty in using fMRI data for arbitrating between different models or model parameters. While these specific results pertain only to the effect of learning rate in simple reinforcement learning models, we provide a template for testing for effects of different parameters in other models.

  3. Electron Energy Resolution of the ATLAS TILECAL Modules with Fit Filter Method (July 2002 test beam)

    CERN Document Server

    Kulchitskii, Yu A; Vinogradov, V B

    2006-01-01

    The constructed ATLAS detector at the LHC will have the great physics discovery potential, in particular in the detection of a heavy Higgs boson. Calorimeters will play a crucial role in it. It is necessary to have confidence that the calorimeters will perform as expected. With the aim of understanding of performance of the ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter to electrons 12\\% of modules have been exposed in electron beams with various energies by three possible ways: cell-scan at $\\theta =20^o$ at the centers of the front face cells, $\\eta$-scan and tilerow scan at $\\theta = 90^o$ for the module side cells. We have extracted the electron energy resolutions of the $EBM-$ (ANL-44), $EBM+$ (IFA-42) and $BM$ (JINR-55) Modules of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at energies E = 10, 20, 50, 100 and 180 GeV and $\\theta = 20^o$ and $90^o $ and $\\eta$ scan from the July 2002 testbeam run data using the fit filter method of the PMT signal reconstruction. We have determined the statistical and constant terms for the electron ene...

  4. Energy Calibration of the TILECAL Modules with the Fit Filter Method (July 2002 Test Beam Data)

    CERN Document Server

    Kulchitskii, Yu A; Vinogradov, V B

    2005-01-01

    The constructed ATLAS detector at the LHC will have the great physics discovery potential, in particular in the detection of a heavy Higgs boson. Calorimeters will play a crucial role in it. The important question of calorimetry is the calibration in the electromagnetic energy scale. With the aim of establishing of this scale and understanding of performance of the ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter to electrons 12\\% of modules have been exposed in electron beams with various energies by three possible ways: cell-scan at $\\theta =20^o$ at the centers of the front face cells, $\\eta$-scan and tilerow scan at $\\theta = 90^o$ for the module side cells. Our work is devoted to the determination of the electromagnetic energy calibration constants of the EBM$-$ (ANL-44), EBM$+$ (IFA-42), BM (JINR-55) TILECAL modules at energies E = 10, 20, 50, 100 and 180 GeV and $\\theta = 20^o$ and $90^o$ and $\\eta$ scans on the basis of the July 2002 testbeam run data using the fit filter method of the PMT signal reconstruction. The o...

  5. SiFTO: An Empirical Method for Fitting SNe Ia Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Conley, A; Hsiao, E Y; Guy, J; Astier, Pierre; Balam, D; Balland, C; Basa, S; Carlberg, R G; Fouchez, D; Hardin, D; Howell, D A; Hook, I M; Pain, R; Perrett, K; Pritchet, C J; Regnault, N

    2008-01-01

    We present SiFTO, a new empirical method for modeling type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) light curves by manipulating a spectral template. We make use of high-redshift SN observations when training the model, allowing us to extend it bluer than rest frame U. This increases the utility of our high-redshift SN observations by allowing us to use more of the available data. We find that when the shape of the light curve is described using a stretch prescription, applying the same stretch at all wavelengths is not an adequate description. SiFTO therefore uses a generalization of stretch which applies different stretch factors as a function of both the wavelength of the observed filter and the stretch in the rest-frame B band. We compare SiFTO to other published light-curve models by applying them to the same set of SN photometry, and demonstrate that SiFTO and SALT2 perform better than the alternatives when judged by the scatter around the best fit luminosity distance relationship. We further demonstrate that when SiFTO ...

  6. Multiple Harmonics Fitting Algorithms Applied to Periodic Signals Based on Hilbert-Huang Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of multipurpose measurement equipment is transforming the role of computers in instrumentation. The new features involve mixed devices, such as kinds of sensors, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, and digital signal processing techniques, that are able to substitute typical discrete instruments like multimeters and analyzers. Signal-processing applications frequently use least-squares (LS sine-fitting algorithms. Periodic signals may be interpreted as a sum of sine waves with multiple frequencies: the Fourier series. This paper describes a new sine fitting algorithm that is able to fit a multiharmonic acquired periodic signal. By means of a “sinusoidal wave” whose amplitude and phase are both transient, the “triangular wave” can be reconstructed on the basis of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT. This method can be used to test effective number of bits (ENOBs of analog-to-digital converter (ADC, avoiding the trouble of selecting initial value of the parameters and working out the nonlinear equations. The simulation results show that the algorithm is precise and efficient. In the case of enough sampling points, even under the circumstances of low-resolution signal with the harmonic distortion existing, the root mean square (RMS error between the sampling data of original “triangular wave” and the corresponding points of fitting “sinusoidal wave” is marvelously small. That maybe means, under the circumstances of any periodic signal, that ENOBs of high-resolution ADC can be tested accurately.

  7. Indirect Methods of Assessing Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Rowers: Practical Implications for Evaluating Physical Fitness in a Training Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusiewicz, Andrzej; Borkowski, Lech; Sitkowski, Dariusz; Burkhard-Jagodzińska, Krystyna; Szczepańska, Beata; Ładyga, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of indirect methods of assessment of VO2max for estimation of physical capacity of trained male and female rowers during a training cycle. A group of 8 female and 14 male rowers performed the maximal intensity test simulating the regatta distance (a 2 km test) and a submaximal incremental exercise test on a rowing ergometer. The suitability of the indirect methods of predicting VO2max during the training cycle was evaluated by performing the tests twice: in females at an interval of five months and in males at an interval of seven months. To indirectly estimate VO2max, regression formulas obtained for the linear relationship between the examined effort indices were utilized based on 1) mean power obtained in the 2 km test, and 2) submaximal exercises after the estimation of PWC170. Although the suitability of the two indirect methods of assessment of VO2max was statisticaly confirmed, their usefulness for estimation of changes in physical fitness of trained rowers during the training cycle was rather low. Such an opinion stems from the fact that the total error of these methods (range between 4.2-7.7% in female and 5.1-7.4% in male rowers) was higher than the real differences in VO2max values determined in direct measurements (between the first and the second examination maximal oxygen uptake rose by 3.0% in female rowers and decreased by 4.3% in male rowers).

  8. Quantitative Description of a Protein Fitness Landscape Based on Molecular Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meini, María-Rocío; Tomatis, Pablo E; Weinreich, Daniel M; Vila, Alejandro J

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the driving forces behind protein evolution requires the ability to correlate the molecular impact of mutations with organismal fitness. To address this issue, we employ here metallo-β-lactamases as a model system, which are Zn(II) dependent enzymes that mediate antibiotic resistance. We present a study of all the possible evolutionary pathways leading to a metallo-β-lactamase variant optimized by directed evolution. By studying the activity, stability and Zn(II) binding capabilities of all mutants in the preferred evolutionary pathways, we show that this local fitness landscape is strongly conditioned by epistatic interactions arising from the pleiotropic effect of mutations in the different molecular features of the enzyme. Activity and stability assays in purified enzymes do not provide explanatory power. Instead, measurement of these molecular features in an environment resembling the native one provides an accurate description of the observed antibiotic resistance profile. We report that optimization of Zn(II) binding abilities of metallo-β-lactamases during evolution is more critical than stabilization of the protein to enhance fitness. A global analysis of these parameters allows us to connect genotype with fitness based on quantitative biochemical and biophysical parameters.

  9. Quantitative Description of a Protein Fitness Landscape Based on Molecular Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meini, María-Rocío; Tomatis, Pablo E.; Weinreich, Daniel M.; Vila, Alejandro J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the driving forces behind protein evolution requires the ability to correlate the molecular impact of mutations with organismal fitness. To address this issue, we employ here metallo-β-lactamases as a model system, which are Zn(II) dependent enzymes that mediate antibiotic resistance. We present a study of all the possible evolutionary pathways leading to a metallo-β-lactamase variant optimized by directed evolution. By studying the activity, stability and Zn(II) binding capabilities of all mutants in the preferred evolutionary pathways, we show that this local fitness landscape is strongly conditioned by epistatic interactions arising from the pleiotropic effect of mutations in the different molecular features of the enzyme. Activity and stability assays in purified enzymes do not provide explanatory power. Instead, measurement of these molecular features in an environment resembling the native one provides an accurate description of the observed antibiotic resistance profile. We report that optimization of Zn(II) binding abilities of metallo-β-lactamases during evolution is more critical than stabilization of the protein to enhance fitness. A global analysis of these parameters allows us to connect genotype with fitness based on quantitative biochemical and biophysical parameters. PMID:25767204

  10. Fitting statistical distributions the generalized lambda distribution and generalized bootstrap methods

    CERN Document Server

    Karian, Zaven A

    2000-01-01

    Throughout the physical and social sciences, researchers face the challenge of fitting statistical distributions to their data. Although the study of statistical modelling has made great strides in recent years, the number and variety of distributions to choose from-all with their own formulas, tables, diagrams, and general properties-continue to create problems. For a specific application, which of the dozens of distributions should one use? What if none of them fit well?Fitting Statistical Distributions helps answer those questions. Focusing on techniques used successfully across many fields, the authors present all of the relevant results related to the Generalized Lambda Distribution (GLD), the Generalized Bootstrap (GB), and Monte Carlo simulation (MC). They provide the tables, algorithms, and computer programs needed for fitting continuous probability distributions to data in a wide variety of circumstances-covering bivariate as well as univariate distributions, and including situations where moments do...

  11. Linear-fitting-based similarity coefficient map for tissue dissimilarity analysis in -w magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-De; Wu, Shi-Bin; Wang, Hao-Yu; Wei, Xin-Hua; Chen, Xin; Pan, Wan-Long; Hu, Jiani; Xie, Yao-Qin

    2015-12-01

    Similarity coefficient mapping (SCM) aims to improve the morphological evaluation of weighted magnetic resonance imaging However, how to interpret the generated SCM map is still pending. Moreover, is it probable to extract tissue dissimilarity messages based on the theory behind SCM? The primary purpose of this paper is to address these two questions. First, the theory of SCM was interpreted from the perspective of linear fitting. Then, a term was embedded for tissue dissimilarity information. Finally, our method was validated with sixteen human brain image series from multi-echo . Generated maps were investigated from signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and perceived visual quality, and then interpreted from intra- and inter-tissue intensity. Experimental results show that both perceptibility of anatomical structures and tissue contrast are improved. More importantly, tissue similarity or dissimilarity can be quantified and cross-validated from pixel intensity analysis. This method benefits image enhancement, tissue classification, malformation detection and morphological evaluation. Project supported in part by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2015AA043203 and 2012AA02A604), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 81171402, 61471349, and 81501463), the Innovative Research Team Program of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2011S013), the Science and Technological Program for Higher Education, Science and Research, and Health Care Institutions of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2011108101001), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2014A030310360), the Fundamental Research Program of Shenzhen City, China (Grant No. JCYJ20140417113430639), and Beijing Center for Mathematics and Information Interdisciplinary Sciences, China.

  12. A plant cell division algorithm based on cell biomechanics and ellipse-fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Metadel K.; Verboven, Pieter; Defraeye, Thijs; Fanta, Solomon Workneh; Hertog, Maarten L. A. T. M.; Carmeliet, Jan; Nicolai, Bart M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The importance of cell division models in cellular pattern studies has been acknowledged since the 19th century. Most of the available models developed to date are limited to symmetric cell division with isotropic growth. Often, the actual growth of the cell wall is either not considered or is updated intermittently on a separate time scale to the mechanics. This study presents a generic algorithm that accounts for both symmetrically and asymmetrically dividing cells with isotropic and anisotropic growth. Actual growth of the cell wall is simulated simultaneously with the mechanics. Methods The cell is considered as a closed, thin-walled structure, maintained in tension by turgor pressure. The cell walls are represented as linear elastic elements that obey Hooke's law. Cell expansion is induced by turgor pressure acting on the yielding cell-wall material. A system of differential equations for the positions and velocities of the cell vertices as well as for the actual growth of the cell wall is established. Readiness to divide is determined based on cell size. An ellipse-fitting algorithm is used to determine the position and orientation of the dividing wall. The cell vertices, walls and cell connectivity are then updated and cell expansion resumes. Comparisons are made with experimental data from the literature. Key Results The generic plant cell division algorithm has been implemented successfully. It can handle both symmetrically and asymmetrically dividing cells coupled with isotropic and anisotropic growth modes. Development of the algorithm highlighted the importance of ellipse-fitting to produce randomness (biological variability) even in symmetrically dividing cells. Unlike previous models, a differential equation is formulated for the resting length of the cell wall to simulate actual biological growth and is solved simultaneously with the position and velocity of the vertices. Conclusions The algorithm presented can produce different

  13. SCAN-based hybrid and double-hybrid density functionals from models without fitted parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Kerwin; Chai, Jeng-Da

    2015-01-01

    By incorporating the nonempirical SCAN semilocal density functional [Sun, Ruzsinszky, and Perdew, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 036402 (2015)] in the underlying expression of four existing hybrid and double-hybrid models, we propose one hybrid (SCAN0) and three double-hybrid (SCAN0-DH, SCAN-QIDH, and SCAN0-2) density functionals, which are free from any fitted parameters. The SCAN-based double-hybrid functionals consistently outperform their parent SCAN semilocal functional for self-interaction probl...

  14. Research on GPS elevation abnormal fitting based on least squares collocation method and BP neural network%基于最小二乘配置法的BP神经网络GPS高呈异常拟合方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈雪峰; 高成发; 潘树国

    2011-01-01

    传统的BP神经网络在GPS高程异常拟合应用有其一定的局限性,特别是在对于外推高程异常值方面,传统的BP神经网络的不足表现得尤为明显.针对高程异常的特性,既有趋势性也有随机性,结合BP神经网络的优点,提出一种改进型的BP神经网络高程异常拟合方法,利用最小二乘配置法综合考虑高程异常的趋势性和随机性的特点,采用BP神经网络方法对包括最小二乘配置法的模型误差的综合误差进行优化减弱,最后可得到新的高程异常.通过实例,将文中提出的新方法与曲面拟合法以及传统BP神经网络拟合法在内插和外推2方面进行比较分析,结果表明文中提出的新方法拟合效果最佳.%Traditional BP neural network has its limitations in the application of fitting GPS height anoma ly. Especially in regard to extrapolate the value of height anomaly, the lack of traditional BP neural net work has been particularly evident. Because of the characteristics of height anomaly, which has tendency and randomicity, combined with the advantages of BP neural network, an improved BP neural network height anomaly fitting method is presented in this paper. Least squares collocation method for comprehen sive consideration the tendency and randomicity of height anomaly is used and then get a new height anom aly by BP neural network fitting height anomaly errors. The new method presented in the paper has been demonstrated that the accuracy of this fitting model is better than surface fitting mode and traditional BP neural network fitting mode through comparative analysis in interpolation and extrapolation.

  15. Multiple phase transitions in an agent-based evolutionary model with neutral fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dawn M; Scott, Adam D; Bahar, Sonya

    2017-04-01

    Null models are crucial for understanding evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptive radiation. We analyse an agent-based null model, considering a case without selection-neutral evolution-in which organisms are defined only by phenotype. Universal dynamics has previously been demonstrated in a related model on a neutral fitness landscape, showing that this system belongs to the directed percolation (DP) universality class. The traditional null condition of neutral fitness (where fitness is defined as the number of offspring each organism produces) is extended here to include equal probability of death among organisms. We identify two types of phase transition: (i) a non-equilibrium DP transition through generational time (i.e. survival), and (ii) an equilibrium ordinary percolation transition through the phenotype space (based on links between mating organisms). Owing to the dynamical rules of the DP reaction-diffusion process, organisms can only sparsely fill the phenotype space, resulting in significant phenotypic diversity within a cluster of mating organisms. This highlights the necessity of understanding hierarchical evolutionary relationships, rather than merely developing taxonomies based on phenotypic similarity, in order to develop models that can explain phylogenetic patterns found in the fossil record or to make hypotheses for the incomplete fossil record of deep time.

  16. Adaptive Strategies and Person-Environment Fit among Functionally Limited Older Adults Aging in Place: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Lien

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Older adults prefer to age in place, necessitating a match between person and environment, or person-environment (P-E fit. In occupational therapy practice, home modifications can support independence, but more knowledge is needed to optimize interventions targeting the housing situation of older adults. In response, this study aimed to explore the accessibility and usability of the home environment to further understand adaptive environmental behaviors. Mixed methods data were collected using objective and perceived indicators of P-E fit among 12 older adults living in community-dwelling housing. Quantitative data described objective P-E fit in terms of accessibility, while qualitative data explored perceived P-E fit in terms of usability. While accessibility problems were prevalent, participants’ perceptions of usability revealed a range of adaptive environmental behaviors employed to meet functional needs. A closer examination of the P-E interaction suggests that objective accessibility does not always stipulate perceived usability, which appears to be malleable with age, self-perception, and functional competency. Findings stress the importance of evaluating both objective and perceived indicators of P-E fit to provide housing interventions that support independence. Further exploration of adaptive processes in older age may serve to deepen our understanding of both P-E fit frameworks and theoretical models of aging well.

  17. Multiperiodicity, modulations and flip-flops in variable star light curves I. Carrier fit method

    CERN Document Server

    Pelt, J; Mantere, M J; Tuominen, I

    2011-01-01

    The light curves of variable stars are commonly described using simple trigonometric models, that make use of the assumption that the model parameters are constant in time. This assumption, however, is often violated, and consequently, time series models with components that vary slowly in time are of great interest. In this paper we introduce a class of data analysis and visualization methods which can be applied in many different contexts of variable star research, for example spotted stars, variables showing the Blazhko effect, and the spin-down of rapid rotators. The methods proposed are of explorative type, and can be of significant aid when performing a more thorough data analysis and interpretation with a more conventional method.Our methods are based on a straightforward decomposition of the input time series into a fast "clocking" periodicity and smooth modulating curves. The fast frequency, referred to as the carrier frequency, can be obtained from earlier observations (for instance in the case of p...

  18. Exponential-fitted methods for integrating stiff systems of ordinary differential equations: Applications to homogeneous gas-phase chemical kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, D. T.

    1984-01-01

    Conventional algorithms for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are based on the use of polynomial functions as interpolants. However, the exact solutions of stiff ODEs behave like decaying exponential functions, which are poorly approximated by polynomials. An obvious choice of interpolant are the exponential functions themselves, or their low-order diagonal Pade (rational function) approximants. A number of explicit, A-stable, integration algorithms were derived from the use of a three-parameter exponential function as interpolant, and their relationship to low-order, polynomial-based and rational-function-based implicit and explicit methods were shown by examining their low-order diagonal Pade approximants. A robust implicit formula was derived by exponential fitting the trapezoidal rule. Application of these algorithms to integration of the ODEs governing homogenous, gas-phase chemical kinetics was demonstrated in a developmental code CREK1D, which compares favorably with the Gear-Hindmarsh code LSODE in spite of the use of a primitive stepsize control strategy.

  19. Level set segmentation of brain magnetic resonance images based on local Gaussian distribution fitting energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Chen, Yunjie; Pan, Xiaohua; Hong, Xunning; Xia, Deshen

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents a variational level set approach in a multi-phase formulation to segmentation of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images with intensity inhomogeneity. In our model, the local image intensities are characterized by Gaussian distributions with different means and variances. We define a local Gaussian distribution fitting energy with level set functions and local means and variances as variables. The means and variances of local intensities are considered as spatially varying functions. Therefore, our method is able to deal with intensity inhomogeneity without inhomogeneity correction. Our method has been applied to 3T and 7T MR images with promising results.

  20. Serengeti real estate: density vs. fitness-based indicators of lion habitat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, Anna; Fryxell, John M; Eberly, Lynn; Packer, Craig

    2009-10-01

    Habitat quality is typically inferred by assuming a direct relationship between consumer density and resource abundance, although it has been suggested that consumer fitness may be a more accurate measure of habitat quality. We examined density vs. fitness-based measures of habitat quality for lions in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. A 40-year average of female reproductive success (yearling cubs per female) was best explained by proximity to river confluences, whereas patterns of productivity (yearling cubs per km(2)) and adult female density (individuals per km(2)) were associated with more general measures of habitat quality and areas of shelter in poor habitat. This suggests that density may not accurately distinguish between high-quality 'source' areas and low-quality sites that merely provide refuges for effectively non-reproductive individuals. Our results indicate that density may be a misleading indicator of real estate value, particularly for populations that do not conform to an ideal free distribution.

  1. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness.

  2. Testing the no-hair theorem with the continuum-fitting and the iron line methods: a short review

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo; Steiner, James F

    2015-01-01

    The continuum-fitting and the iron line methods are leading techniques capable of probing the spacetime geometry around astrophysical black hole candidates and testing the no-hair theorem. In the present paper, we review the two approaches, from the astrophysical models and their assumptions, to the constraining power with present and future facilities.

  3. [The Research of Oxygen Measurement by TDLAS Based on Levenberg-Marquardt Nonlinear Fitting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie; Zhai, Chang; Wang, Xiao-niu; Huang, Wen-ping

    2015-06-01

    Oxygen concentration is an important monitoring parameter in industrial process. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was used to measure concentration of oxygen gas in industrial process by online monitoring. In this paper, we use the characteristic absorption peak of Oxygen at 760 nm to measure the oxygen concentration. Because of the strong coherence of laser, the detection sensitivity of TDLAS is severely restricted by optical interference noise. Especially at low concentrations, there is larger error by extraction signal in the absorption peak waveform because of the background fluctuation caused by optical interference. In response to this situation, Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear fitting algorithm was proposed, and the use of the absorption line-derivative form of Lorenz line to fit the second harmonic signal and to extract the peak amplitude. On the other hand, Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear fitting method needs a large amount of calculation. In order to develop the TDLAS analyzer can achieve real-time monitoring of the site, we use the C28 series of DSQ for data processing which support floating-point arithmetic, and the instrument achieve real-time monitoring capabilities in industrial process. Experimental results show that the algorithm can effectively extract the absorption peak characteristic value of the 2nd harmonic signal and overcome the background noise, The ratio of calculated by algorithm to actual oxygen concentration is nearly 1.01, the linear error of the concentration measurement is 1.18%.

  4. Using proper regression methods for fitting the Langmuir model to sorption data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Langmuir model, originally developed for the study of gas sorption to surfaces, is one of the most commonly used models for fitting phosphorus sorption data. There are good theoretical reasons, however, against applying this model to describe P sorption to soils. Nevertheless, the Langmuir model...

  5. Spatiotemporal Dynamics and Fitness Analysis of Global Oil Market: Based on Complex Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minggang; Fang, Guochang; Shao, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    We study the overall topological structure properties of global oil trade network, such as degree, strength, cumulative distribution, information entropy and weight clustering. The structural evolution of the network is investigated as well. We find the global oil import and export networks do not show typical scale-free distribution, but display disassortative property. Furthermore, based on the monthly data of oil import values during 2005.01–2014.12, by applying random matrix theory, we investigate the complex spatiotemporal dynamic from the country level and fitness evolution of the global oil market from a demand-side analysis. Abundant information about global oil market can be obtained from deviating eigenvalues. The result shows that the oil market has experienced five different periods, which is consistent with the evolution of country clusters. Moreover, we find the changing trend of fitness function agrees with that of gross domestic product (GDP), and suggest that the fitness evolution of oil market can be predicted by forecasting GDP values. To conclude, some suggestions are provided according to the results. PMID:27706147

  6. About estimation of fitted parameters' statistical uncertainties in EXAFS. Critical approach on usual and Monte Carlo methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curis, Emmanuel; Bénazeth, Simone

    2005-05-01

    An important step in X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis is the fitting of a model to the experimental spectra, with a view to obtaining structural parameters. It is important to estimate the errors on these parameters, and three methods are used for this purpose. This article presents the conditions for applying these methods. It is shown that the usual equation Sigma = 2H(-1) is not applicable for fitting in R space or on filtered XAS data; a formula is established to treat these cases, and the equivalence between the usual formula and the brute-force method is evidenced. Lastly, the problem of the nonlinearity of the XAS models and a comparison with Monte Carlo methods are addressed.

  7. Fitted Fourier-pseudospectral methods for solving a delayed reaction-diffusion partial differential equation in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, A. M. A.; Bashier, E. B. M.; Hashim, M. H. A.; Patidar, K. C.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we design and analyze a fitted numerical method to solve a reaction-diffusion model with time delay, namely, a delayed version of a population model which is an extension of the logistic growth (LG) equation for a food-limited population proposed by Smith [F.E. Smith, Population dynamics in Daphnia magna and a new model for population growth, Ecology 44 (1963) 651-663]. Seeing that the analytical solution (in closed form) is hard to obtain, we seek for a robust numerical method. The method consists of a Fourier-pseudospectral semi-discretization in space and a fitted operator implicit-explicit scheme in temporal direction. The proposed method is analyzed for convergence and we found that it is unconditionally stable. Illustrative numerical results will be presented at the conference.

  8. Track reconstruction for the Mu3e experiment based on a novel Multiple Scattering fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlinskiy Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mu3e experiment is designed to search for the lepton flavor violating decay μ+ → e+e+e−. The aim of the experiment is to reach a branching ratio sensitivity of 10−16. In a first phase the experiment will be performed at an existing beam line at the Paul-Scherrer Institute (Switzerland providing 108 muons per second, which will allow to reach a sensitivity of 2 · 10−15. The muons with a momentum of about 28 MeV/c are stopped and decay at rest on a target. The decay products (positrons and electrons with energies below 53MeV are measured by a tracking detector consisting of two double layers of 50 μm thin silicon pixel sensors. The high granularity of the pixel detector with a pixel size of 80 μm × 80 μm allows for a precise track reconstruction in the high multiplicity environment of the Mu3e experiment, reaching 100 tracks per reconstruction frame of 50 ns in the final phase of the experiment. To deal with such high rates and combinatorics, the Mu3e track reconstruction uses a novel fit algorithm that in the simplest case takes into account only the multiple scattering, which allows for a fast online tracking on a GPU based filter farm. An implementation of the 3-dimensional multiple scattering fit based on hit triplets is described. The extension of the fit that takes into account energy losses and pixel size is used for offline track reconstruction. The algorithm and performance of the offline track reconstruction based on a full Geant4 simulation of the Mu3e detector are presented.

  9. Estimating the directions of arrival based on multi-subarray subspace fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Weiqing; LIU Xiaodong; ZHANG Dongsheng; LIAO Zheng; ZHANG Fangsheng

    2006-01-01

    A multi-subarray subspace fitting method which take mutual coupling among array elements into account to estimate the directions of arrival was presented. The mutual coupling matrix of uniform linear arrays is modeled with a banded symmetric Toeplitz matrix. According to the DOF (Degree of Freedom) of mutual coupling matrix, part of the array elements at the two sides are neglected. The theoretical characteristics of ESPRIT algorithm, one of the subspace fitting algorithms, are studied. For large N and uniform linear array, the MCLS-ESPRIT estimation error is asymptotically jointly Gaussian distributed with zero means, and its covariance expression is obtained. It is known from the simulation that there exists a subarray with lowest estimation error for certain number of the array elements and the signal sources, and its performance of estimating the directions of arrival is close to the ideal situation when mutual coupling does not exist while its variance has some increase. The method has been applied to bathymetric sidescan sonar with high resolution, and good results have been obtained. At the cost of increasing the number of the array elements, the method can reduce the affection of the mutual coupling among array elements.

  10. Indirect Methods of Assessing Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Rowers: Practical Implications for Evaluating Physical Fitness in a Training Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klusiewicz Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of indirect methods of assessment of VO2max for estimation of physical capacity of trained male and female rowers during a training cycle. A group of 8 female and 14 male rowers performed the maximal intensity test simulating the regatta distance (a 2 km test and a submaximal incremental exercise test on a rowing ergometer. The suitability of the indirect methods of predicting VO2max during the training cycle was evaluated by performing the tests twice: in females at an interval of five months and in males at an interval of seven months. To indirectly estimate VO2max, regression formulas obtained for the linear relationship between the examined effort indices were utilized based on 1 mean power obtained in the 2 km test, and 2 submaximal exercises after the estimation of PWC170. Although the suitability of the two indirect methods of assessment of VO2max was statisticaly confirmed, their usefulness for estimation of changes in physical fitness of trained rowers during the training cycle was rather low. Such an opinion stems from the fact that the total error of these methods (range between 4.2-7.7% in female and 5.1-7.4% in male rowers was higher than the real differences in VO2max values determined in direct measurements (between the first and the second examination maximal oxygen uptake rose by 3.0% in female rowers and decreased by 4.3% in male rowers.

  11. METHOD OF ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPETITION’S LEVEL AMONG FITNESS CLUBS ON THE LOCAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Krasnov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the author’s method of assessment of the level of competition among tness clubs on the local market in conditions of limited information about the economic performance of competitors. Reveals the mechanism of dening the boundaries of the local market of the tness club and determine its capacity and structure. Shows the author’s view of possible variants of structure of tness clubs’ market. Presents the coefcients for calculation the limit value of customers of tness clubs for different price market segments. The possibility of applying the proposed methodology is illustrated by the example of the tness club. Demonstrates the necessity of the described methodology for developing the ways of increasing the competitiveness of tness clubs based on price and non-price methods.

  12. Multi-path planning algorithm based on fitness sharing and species evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-juan; LI Xue-lian; HAO Yan-ling

    2003-01-01

    A new algorithm is proposed for underwater vehicles multi-path planning. This algorithm is based on fitness sharing genetic algorithm, clustering and evolution of multiple populations, which can keep the diversity of the solution path, and decrease the operating time because of the independent evolution of each subpopulation. The multi-path planning algorithm is demonstrated by a number of two-dimensional path planning problems. The results show that the multi-path planning algorithm has the following characteristics: high searching capability, rapid convergence and high reliability.

  13. Methods in Logic Based Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    1999-01-01

    Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC-design met......Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...

  14. A highly accurate dynamic contact angle algorithm for drops on inclined surface based on ellipse-fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z N; Wang, S Y

    2015-02-01

    To improve the accuracy in the calculation of dynamic contact angle for drops on the inclined surface, a significant number of numerical drop profiles on the inclined surface with different inclination angles, drop volumes, and contact angles are generated based on the finite difference method, a least-squares ellipse-fitting algorithm is used to calculate the dynamic contact angle. The influences of the above three factors are systematically investigated. The results reveal that the dynamic contact angle errors, including the errors of the left and right contact angles, evaluated by the ellipse-fitting algorithm tend to increase with inclination angle/drop volume/contact angle. If the drop volume and the solid substrate are fixed, the errors of the left and right contact angles increase with inclination angle. After performing a tremendous amount of computation, the critical dimensionless drop volumes corresponding to the critical contact angle error are obtained. Based on the values of the critical volumes, a highly accurate dynamic contact angle algorithm is proposed and fully validated. Within nearly the whole hydrophobicity range, it can decrease the dynamic contact angle error in the inclined plane method to less than a certain value even for different types of liquids.

  15. Modelling population dynamics model formulation, fitting and assessment using state-space methods

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, K B; Morgan, B J T; King, R; Borchers, D L; Cole, D J; Besbeas, P; Gimenez, O; Thomas, L

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a unifying framework for estimating the abundance of open populations: populations subject to births, deaths and movement, given imperfect measurements or samples of the populations.  The focus is primarily on populations of vertebrates for which dynamics are typically modelled within the framework of an annual cycle, and for which stochastic variability in the demographic processes is usually modest. Discrete-time models are developed in which animals can be assigned to discrete states such as age class, gender, maturity,  population (within a metapopulation), or species (for multi-species models). The book goes well beyond estimation of abundance, allowing inference on underlying population processes such as birth or recruitment, survival and movement. This requires the formulation and fitting of population dynamics models.  The resulting fitted models yield both estimates of abundance and estimates of parameters characterizing the underlying processes.  

  16. A comparison of field methods to assess cardiorespiratory fitness among neophyte exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alonzo, Karen T; Marbach, Kate; Vincent, Linda

    2006-07-01

    There is evidence to suggest that aerobic fitness levels among adults have declined markedly over the past 2 to 3 decades. Submaximal field measures of aerobic fitness, such as step tests, may now be seen as aversive by contemporary neophyte exercisers. In this study, a single-factor within-subjects (repeated measures) factorial design was used to compare three field measures of cardiorespiratory fitness among sedentary women: (a) the Queen's College step test (QCST), (b) the Rockport 1-mile walk (RW), and (c) a nonexercise estimation of VO(2) max (NE). The sample consisted of 31 racially and ethnically diverse female college students (mean age of 24.8 years). No significant within-subjects differences were found in the three measures of V0(2) max (F = 1.89, p = .17) among Black, Hispanic, White non-Hispanic, or Asian women, but relative perceived exertion scores were significantly higher for the QCST than for the RW (t = 9.79, p < .001) for all groups. The mean calculated VO(2) max for the QCST was 35.90 ml/kg/min for the subset of women ages 18 to 25 and 31.85 for those ages 26 to 46. These values represent a "poor" to "below average" score for aerobic capacity among women in both age groups. Data from this preliminary study suggest that both the RW test and the NE test are comparable to the QCST as valid and reliable field measures of aerobic fitness and appear to be good alternatives to step testing among sedentary individuals.

  17. Effects of extra school-based physical education on overall physical fitness development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rexen, C T; Ersbøll, A K; Møller, N C

    2015-01-01

    First, this study aimed to investigate if four extra physical education (PE) lessons per week improved children's development in physical fitness. Second, to investigate if the extra PE lessons improved development in physical fitness for children with lower levels of fitness at baseline. This st......First, this study aimed to investigate if four extra physical education (PE) lessons per week improved children's development in physical fitness. Second, to investigate if the extra PE lessons improved development in physical fitness for children with lower levels of fitness at baseline...... = 536, extra PE = 711). Development in fitness was analyzed using a composite z-score from six fitness tests. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression was used to examine the association between school type and development in fitness. Extra PE increased the total development of composite z-score units...

  18. Estimation of plate material properties by means of a complex wavenumber fit using Hankel's functions and the image source method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozen, N. B.; Leclère, Q.; Ege, K.; Gerges, Y.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a new wave fitting approach to estimate the frequency dependent material properties of thin isotropic plate structures from an experimentally obtained vibrational field, exciting the plate at a single point. The method projects the measurement data on to an analytical image source model, in which Hankel's functions are used for a description of the wave fields emanating from the point of excitation, including the reflected wave fields from the edges of the finite plate. By minimizing the error between the projected field and the measured field, varying the complex wave number and the source strengths of the image sources, an optimum fit is searched for. Thus the source strengths of the image sources do not need to be determined theoretically, but are estimated from the fit on to the experimental data instead (thus avoiding difficulties in theoretically assessing the reflection coefficient of the edges of the plate). The approach uses a complex wavenumber fit, enabling the determination of the dynamic stiffness of the plate structure and its damping properties as function of frequency. The method is especially suited for plates with a sufficient amount of damping, excited at high frequencies.

  19. A multiple threshold method for fitting the generalized Pareto distribution and a simple representation of the rainfall process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidda, R.

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies indicate the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) as a suitable distribution function to reliably describe the exceedances of daily rainfall records above a proper optimum threshold, which should be selected as small as possible to retain the largest sample while assuring an acceptable fitting. Such an optimum threshold may differ from site to site, affecting consequently not only the GPD scale parameter, but also the probability of threshold exceedance. Thus a first objective of this paper is to derive some expressions to parameterize a simple threshold-invariant three-parameter distribution function which is able to describe zero and non zero values of rainfall time series by assuring a perfect overlapping with the GPD fitted on the exceedances of any threshold larger than the optimum one. Since the proposed distribution does not depend on the local thresholds adopted for fitting the GPD, it will only reflect the on-site climatic signature and thus appears particularly suitable for hydrological applications and regional analyses. A second objective is to develop and test the Multiple Threshold Method (MTM) to infer the parameters of interest on the exceedances of a wide range of thresholds using again the concept of parameters threshold-invariance. We show the ability of the MTM in fitting historical daily rainfall time series recorded with different resolutions. Finally, we prove the supremacy of the MTM fit against the standard single threshold fit, often adopted for partial duration series, by evaluating and comparing the performances on Monte Carlo samples drawn by GPDs with different shape and scale parameters and different discretizations.

  20. Confirmation Via the Continuum-Fitting Method that the Spin of the Black Hole in Cygnus X-1 is Extreme

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, Lijun; Remillard, Ronald A; Steiner, James F; Reid, Mark J; Orosz, Jerome A; Narayan, Ramesh; Hanke, Manfred; García, Javier

    2013-01-01

    In Gou et al. (2011), we reported that the black hole primary in the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 is a near-extreme Kerr black hole with a spin parameter a*>0.95(3{\\sigma}). We confirm this result while setting a new and more stringent limit: a*>0.983 at the 3{\\sigma}(99.7%) level of confidence. The earlier work, which was based on an analysis of all three useful spectra that were then available, was possibly biased by the presence in these spectra of a relatively strong Compton power-law component: The fraction of the thermal seed photons scattered into the power law was f_s=23-31%, while the upper limit for reliable application of the continuum-fitting method is f_s0.95 to a*>0.98, allowing us to conservatively conclude that the spin of the black hole is a*>0.983 (3{\\sigma}).

  1. Analytic energy gradients for the coupled-cluster singles and doubles method with the density-fitting approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkaya, Uğur; Sherrill, C David

    2016-05-07

    An efficient implementation is presented for analytic gradients of the coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) method with the density-fitting approximation, denoted DF-CCSD. Frozen core terms are also included. When applied to a set of alkanes, the DF-CCSD analytic gradients are significantly accelerated compared to conventional CCSD for larger molecules. The efficiency of our DF-CCSD algorithm arises from the acceleration of several different terms, which are designated as the "gradient terms": computation of particle density matrices (PDMs), generalized Fock-matrix (GFM), solution of the Z-vector equation, formation of the relaxed PDMs and GFM, back-transformation of PDMs and GFM to the atomic orbital (AO) basis, and evaluation of gradients in the AO basis. For the largest member of the alkane set (C10H22), the computational times for the gradient terms (with the cc-pVTZ basis set) are 2582.6 (CCSD) and 310.7 (DF-CCSD) min, respectively, a speed up of more than 8-folds. For gradient related terms, the DF approach avoids the usage of four-index electron repulsion integrals. Based on our previous study [U. Bozkaya, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 124108 (2014)], our formalism completely avoids construction or storage of the 4-index two-particle density matrix (TPDM), using instead 2- and 3-index TPDMs. The DF approach introduces negligible errors for equilibrium bond lengths and harmonic vibrational frequencies.

  2. Methods in Logic Based Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    1999-01-01

    Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...

  3. Fitness World - Fremtidig overlevelse

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Kasper; Klink, Nikolaj; Nielsen, Mie; Carlson, Andre; Boy, Mikkel; Hansen, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Our project is a case study with Fitness World as a baseline. Our project will enhance Fitness Worlds penetration on their current position on the market. Our empiricism includes both qualitative and quantitative methodical approaches by the use of an expert interview and a questionnaire survey. These methods contribute and generate general knowledge about the fitness culture in Denmark and the customers in the fitness industry. We have stated a possible strategic opportunity for Fitness Worl...

  4. Entropy-based benchmarking methods

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We argue that benchmarking sign-volatile series should be based on the principle of movement and sign preservation, which states that a bench-marked series should reproduce the movement and signs in the original series. We show that the widely used variants of Denton (1971) method and the growth preservation method of Causey and Trager (1981) may violate this principle, while its requirements are explicitly taken into account in the pro-posed entropy-based benchmarking methods. Our illustrati...

  5. Activity based costing (ABC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Saveta Tudorache

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the need and advantages are presented of using the Activity BasedCosting method, need arising from the need of solving the information pertinence issue. This issue has occurreddue to the limitation of classic methods in this field, limitation also reflected by the disadvantages ofsuch classic methods in establishing complete costs.

  6. Service-Learning and Social Work Competency-Based Education: A "Goodness of Fit"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Phillips

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As social work education moves to a competency-based approach, faculty are increasing their use of pedagogical tools designed to provide students with opportunities, in addition to traditional field placements, to develop practice skills. Faculty are no doubt turning to service-learning, and other forms of experiential education, to provide these opportunities and to offer an additional means for departments to demonstrate and measure student practice behaviors. To help focus the use of service-learning in social work education, this article uses sources from the larger service-learning field and from social work scholarship to examine the nature of service-learning, to review current service-learning trends, to summarize its use in social work education, and to raise questions about its goodness of fit with competency-based education.

  7. Fitness analysis method for magnesium in drinking water with atomic absorption using quadratic curve calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Pérez-López

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of the importance of quantitative chemical analysis in research, quality control, sales of services and other areas of interest , and the limiting of some instrumental analysis methods for quantification with linear calibration curve, sometimes because the short linear dynamic ranges of the analyte, and sometimes by limiting the technique itself, is that there is a need to investigate a little more about the convenience of using quadratic curves for analytical quantification, which seeks demonstrate that it is a valid calculation model for chemical analysis instruments. To this was taken as an analysis method based on the technique and atomic absorption spectroscopy in particular a determination of magnesium in a sample of drinking water Tacares sector Northern Grecia, employing a nonlinear calibration curve and a curve specific quadratic behavior, which was compared with the test results obtained for the same analysis with a linear calibration curve. The results show that the methodology is valid for the determination referred to, with all confidence, since the concentrations are very similar, and as used hypothesis testing can be considered equal.

  8. “KMS-Fit”: a case-based exploration of task/technology fit in an applied knowledge management context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Turner

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of Task/Technology Fit (TTF posits that as the degree of overlap increases between the task domain, and the ways in which the capabilities of an information system (IS are suited to activities within that domain, performance gains experienced via use of the IS should also increase. This research proposes an expanded TTF model that is applicable to the context of Knowledge Management (KM and Knowledge Management Systems (KMS. In particular, additional individual, technological, and social factors and interrelationships between these factors could provide greater explanatory power of IS user behaviors, perceptions, and outcomes within the realm of knowledge work.A mixed-method field study approach was employed at a large government organization, currently in the process of developing and fielding a new KMS to support knowledge-intensive work, to investigate the underlying factors and relationships described within an expanded ―KMS Fit‖ model. Results suggest that the foundational mechanisms described by the TTF model may in fact change within KM contexts. In particular, the inherently social characteristics of knowledge-based work were found to play a very important role in determining the degree of fit relative to a KMS. Moreover, the social ecology within the organization was found to have significant impact on KMS Fit. Results of this research further reinforce the notion that KMS may be a unique subset of IS and that traditional IS models (such as TTF should be updated or tailored to reflect the social nature of knowledge-based work and knowledge management.

  9. GPS高程拟合方法的探讨%Discussion on GPS Height Fitting Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海新

    2011-01-01

    当前GPS由于布网灵活、简捷、经济已经广泛应用于工程建设中,GPS测量精度高、速度快、方便实用,具有很高的平面精度,长期以来直接用于测角、测距、测水准等平面测量作业中,它同时也可以进行比较准确的高程测量.如何进行GPS高程拟合,并保证一定的拟合精度,是本文研究的重点.%At present, GPS has been widely used in engineering construction with its flexible, simple and quick, economical arranging network. GPS has advantages of high accuracy, fast speed, convenience and practical applicability, also has very high plane precision. GPS has been used to plane measurement for a long time, such as measuring angles, measuring distance and measuring level, etc. GPS also can be used to more accurate elevation measurement. How to conduct GPS height fitting and guarantee the fitting precision is the emphasis which this paper studies.

  10. CUSUM-Based Person-Fit Statistics for Adaptive Testing. Research Report 99-05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith M. L. A.; Meijer, Rob R.

    Item scores that do not fit an assumed item response theory model may cause the latent trait value to be estimated inaccurately. Several person-fit statistics for detecting nonfitting score patterns for paper-and-pencil tests have been proposed. In the context of computerized adaptive tests (CAT), the use of person-fit analysis has hardly been…

  11. Exploring Person Fit with an Approach Based on Multilevel Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A. Adrienne; Engelhard, George, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that test scores may not be valid representations of what students know, can do, and should learn next is well known. Person fit provides an important aspect of validity evidence. Person fit analyses at the individual student level are not typically conducted and person fit information is not communicated to educational stakeholders. In…

  12. Adaptive Strategies and Person-Environment Fit among Functionally Limited Older Adults Aging in Place: A Mixed Methods Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Laura L; Carmen D. Steggell; Susanne Iwarsson

    2015-01-01

    Older adults prefer to age in place, necessitating a match between person and environment, or person-environment (P-E) fit. In occupational therapy practice, home modifications can support independence, but more knowledge is needed to optimize interventions targeting the housing situation of older adults. In response, this study aimed to explore the accessibility and usability of the home environment to further understand adaptive environmental behaviors. Mixed methods data were collected usi...

  13. Multi-Gaussian fitting for pulse waveform using Weighted Least Squares and multi-criteria decision making method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Xu, Lisheng; Feng, Shuting; Meng, Max Q-H; Wang, Kuanquan

    2013-11-01

    Analysis of pulse waveform is a low cost, non-invasive method for obtaining vital information related to the conditions of the cardiovascular system. In recent years, different Pulse Decomposition Analysis (PDA) methods have been applied to disclose the pathological mechanisms of the pulse waveform. All these methods decompose single-period pulse waveform into a constant number (such as 3, 4 or 5) of individual waves. Furthermore, those methods do not pay much attention to the estimation error of the key points in the pulse waveform. The estimation of human vascular conditions depends on the key points' positions of pulse wave. In this paper, we propose a Multi-Gaussian (MG) model to fit real pulse waveforms using an adaptive number (4 or 5 in our study) of Gaussian waves. The unknown parameters in the MG model are estimated by the Weighted Least Squares (WLS) method and the optimized weight values corresponding to different sampling points are selected by using the Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method. Performance of the MG model and the WLS method has been evaluated by fitting 150 real pulse waveforms of five different types. The resulting Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE) was less than 2.0% and the estimation accuracy for the key points was satisfactory, demonstrating that our proposed method is effective in compressing, synthesizing and analyzing pulse waveforms.

  14. Evaluating Fit Indices for Multivariate t-Based Structural Equation Modeling with Data Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H. C. Lai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In conventional structural equation modeling (SEM, with the presence of even a tiny amount of data contamination due to outliers or influential observations, normal-theory maximum likelihood (ML-Normal is not efficient and can be severely biased. The multivariate-t-based SEM, which recently got implemented in Mplus as an approach for mixture modeling, represents a robust estimation alternative to downweigh the impact of outliers and influential observations. To our knowledge, the use of maximum likelihood estimation with a multivariate-t model (ML-t to handle outliers has not been shown in SEM literature. In this paper we demonstrate the use of ML-t using the classic Holzinger and Swineford (1939 data set with a few observations modified as outliers or influential observations. A simulation study is then conducted to examine the performance of fit indices and information criteria under ML-Normal and ML-t in the presence of outliers. Results showed that whereas all fit indices got worse for ML-Normal with increasing amount of outliers and influential observations, their values were relatively stable with ML-t, and the use of information criteria was effective in selecting ML-normal without data contamination and selecting ML-t with data contamination, especially when the sample size was at least 200.

  15. A PID Positioning Controller with a Curve Fitting Model Based on RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Long Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The global positioning system (GPS is an important research topic to solve outdoor positioning problems, but GPS is unable to locate objects accurately and precisely indoors. Some available systems apply ultrasound or optical tracking. This paper presents an efficient proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller with curve fitting model for mobile robot localization and position estimation which adopts passive radio frequency identification (RFID tags in a space. This scheme is based on a mobile robot carries an RFID reader module which reads the installed low-cost passive tags under the floor in a grid-like pattern. The PID controllers increase the efficiency of captured RFID tags and the curve fitting model is used to systematically identify the revolutions per minute (RPM of the motor. We control and monitor the position of the robot from a remote location through a mobile phone via Wi-Fi and Bluetooth network. Experiment results present that the number of captured RFID tags of our proposed scheme outperforms that of the previous scheme.

  16. A PID Positioning Controller with a Curve Fitting Model Based on RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Long Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The global positioning system (GPS is an important research topic to solve outdoor positioning problems, but GPSis unable to locate objects accurately and precisely indoors. Some available systems apply ultrasound or opticaltracking. This paper presents an efficient proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller with curve fitting model formobile robot localization and position estimation which adopts passive radio frequency identification (RFID tags ina space. This scheme is based on a mobile robot carries an RFID reader module which reads the installed low-costpassive tags under the floor in a grid-like pattern. The PID controllers increase the efficiency of captured RFID tagsand the curve fitting model is used to systematically identify the revolutions per minute (RPM of the motor. Wecontrol and monitor the position of the robot from a remote location through a mobile phone via Wi-Fi and Bluetoothnetwork. Experiment results present that the number of captured RFID tags of our proposed scheme outperformsthat of the previous scheme.

  17. Some procedures for the construction of high-order exponentially fitted Runge-Kutta-Nyström methods of explicit type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, J. M.; Gómez, I.

    2013-04-01

    The construction of high-order exponentially fitted Runge-Kutta-Nyström (EFRKN) methods of explicit type for the numerical solution of oscillatory differential systems is analyzed. Based on two basic symmetric and symplectic EFRKN methods of reference we present two procedures for constructing high-order explicit methods. The first procedure is based on composition methods and it allows the construction of high-order explicit EFRKN methods which are symmetric and symplectic. The second procedure is based on combining different EFRKN methods in order to construct embedded pairs of explicit parallel EFRKN methods which can be implemented in variable-step codes without additional cost. The numerical experiments carried out show the qualitative behavior and the efficiency of the new EFRKN methods when they are compared with some standard methods proposed in the scientific literature for solving second-order nonstiff differential systems. Catalogue identifier: AEOO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2527 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 107433 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77. Computer: Standard PC. Operating system: Windows. It might work with others. Successfully tested by CPC on Linux. RAM: For the test problems used less than 1 MB. Classification: 4.3, 4.12, 16.3, 17.17. Nature of problem: Some models in astronomy and astrophysics, quantum mechanics and nuclear physics lead to second-order oscillatory differential systems. The solution of these oscillatory models requires accurate and efficient numerical methods. The codes SVI-IIEXPOreferee.for and SVI-IIvarreferee.for were developed for this purpose. Solution method: We propose high-order exponentially fitted Runge

  18. Voice Activity Detection in Noisy Environments Based on Double-Combined Fourier Transform and Line Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsoo Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new voice activity detector for noisy environments is proposed. In conventional algorithms, the endpoint of speech is found by applying an edge detection filter that finds the abrupt changing point in a feature domain. However, since the frame energy feature is unstable in noisy environments, it is difficult to accurately find the endpoint of speech. Therefore, a novel feature extraction algorithm based on the double-combined Fourier transform and envelope line fitting is proposed. It is combined with an edge detection filter for effective detection of endpoints. Effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared to other VAD algorithms using two different databases, which are AURORA 2.0 database and SITEC database. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs well under a variety of noisy conditions.

  19. GRace: a MATLAB-based application for fitting the discrimination-association model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, Luca; Vianello, Michelangelo; Anselmi, Pasquale; Robusto, Egidio

    2014-10-28

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is a computerized two-choice discrimination task in which stimuli have to be categorized as belonging to target categories or attribute categories by pressing, as quickly and accurately as possible, one of two response keys. The discrimination association model has been recently proposed for the analysis of reaction time and accuracy of an individual respondent to the IAT. The model disentangles the influences of three qualitatively different components on the responses to the IAT: stimuli discrimination, automatic association, and termination criterion. The article presents General Race (GRace), a MATLAB-based application for fitting the discrimination association model to IAT data. GRace has been developed for Windows as a standalone application. It is user-friendly and does not require any programming experience. The use of GRace is illustrated on the data of a Coca Cola-Pepsi Cola IAT, and the results of the analysis are interpreted and discussed.

  20. [Measurement of nonuniform temperature and concentration distribution by absorption spectroscopy based on least-square fitting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun-Ling; Hong, Yan-Ji; Wang, Guang-Yu; Pan, Hu

    2013-08-01

    The measurement of nonuniform temperature and concentration distributions was investigated based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology. Through direct scanning multiple absorption lines of H2O, two zones for temperature and concentration distribution were achieved by solving nonlinear equations by least-square fitting from numerical and experimental studies. The numerical results show that the calculated temperature and concentration have relative errors of 8.3% and 7.6% compared to the model, respectively. The calculating accuracy can be improved by increasing the number of absorption lines and reduction in unknown numbers. Compared with the thermocouple readings, the high and low temperatures have relative errors of 13.8% and 3.5% respectively. The numerical results are in agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Reconstruction of a bony bankart lesion: best fit based on radius of curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaan, Alexander; Munch, Jacqueline; Durkan, Michael; Yoo, Jung; Crawford, Dennis

    2013-05-01

    The inferior coracoid process has traditionally been considered to be the gold standard for glenoid augmentation after anteroinferior bone loss. Other autograft sites, and more recently, osteochondral allograft sites, have been described as potential donor sources. Potential autograft and osteochondral allograft sites were compared to identify the graft source that would provide the best fit for glenoid augmentation. Controlled laboratory study. Mose circles, a geometric tool found on a standard goniometer, were used to make radius of curvature measurements of 10 anatomic locations in 17 cadaveric specimens. The bony surface of the glenoid, measured from superior to inferior (G-SI) and from anterior to posterior (G-AP), was used as the standard for comparison. Autograft sites were the inferior coracoid, lateral coracoid, and inner table of the iliac crest. Potential osteochondral allograft sites were the radial head, scaphoid fossa of the distal radius (S-DR), lunate fossa of the distal radius (L-DR), medial tibial plateau, and lateral distal tibia. An acceptable match for autograft sites was based on a paired analysis and defined as a radius of curvature within 5 mm of the G-SI or the G-AP of the same cadaveric specimen. Allograft sites were evaluated using an unpaired analysis in which an ideal fit was defined as a radius of curvature of 25 to 30 mm, based on the interquartile range of the G-SI and G-AP. The median (interquartile range) radii of curvature for the G-SI and G-AP were 30 mm (range, 25-30 mm) and 25 mm (range, 25-25 mm), respectively. The inferior coracoid was within 5 mm of the G-SI 59% of the time and the G-AP 94% of the time; no measurements from the lateral coracoid or iliac crest were within the range of the glenoid radius of curvature. Analysis of the allograft sites demonstrated an acceptable fit for 94% of the distal tibia, 68% of the medial tibial plateau, 12% of the S-DR, and 0% of the L-DR and the radial head specimens. An autograft of the

  2. Facial Beautification Method Based on Age Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan; DING Shou-hong; HU Gan-le; MA Li-zhuang

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new facial beautification method using facial rejuvenation based on the age evolution. Traditional facial beautification methods only focus on the color of skin and deformation and do the transformation based on an experimental standard of beauty. Our method achieves the beauty effect by making facial image looks younger, which is different from traditional methods and is more reasonable than them. Firstly, we decompose the image into different layers and get a detail layer. Secondly, we get an age-related parameter:the standard deviation of the Gaussian distribution that the detail layer follows, and the support vector machine (SVM) regression is used to fit a function about the age and the standard deviation. Thirdly, we use this function to estimate the age of input image and generate a new detail layer with a new standard deviation which is calculated by decreasing the age. Lastly, we combine the original layers and the new detail layer to get a new face image. Experimental results show that this algo-rithm can make facial image become more beautiful by facial rejuvenation. The proposed method opens up a new way about facial beautification, and there are great potentials for applications.

  3. Geographical distribution, socioeconomic status and health- related physical fitness in adolescents from a large population-based sample from Bogotá, Colombia: the ser study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues-Bezerra, Diogo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The negative gradient between socio-economic status and prevalence of non-communicable disease in adulthood has prompted investigation of potential foundations based in childhood. The objective of the present study is to examine the influence of socio-geographical variations and socioeconomic status on health-related physical fitness in adolescents from a large population-based sample of Colombian ninth graders. Methods: During the 2014–2015 school years, we examined a cross-secti...

  4. A Family of Trigonometrically Fitted Enright Second Derivative Methods for Stiff and Oscillatory Initial Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Ngwane

    2015-01-01

    form as simultaneous numerical integrators over nonoverlapping intervals. Numerical results obtained using the proposed block form reveal that the new methods are efficient and highly competitive with existing methods in the literature.

  5. STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR THE BRINKMAN EQUATION ON FITTED AND FICITITIOUS DOMAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Sogn, Jarle

    2014-01-01

    The parameter dependent Brinkman equation can be used to model viscous and porous flow. The equation covers a family of problems, ranging from the Stokes problem to the Darcy problem. We apply the stabilization methods; the pressure stabilized petrov--galerkin (PSPG) method and the continuous interior penalty (CIP) method, on the Brinkman equation with weakly imposed boundary conditions by the Nitsche method. An a priori error estimate is proved for the CIP stabilization with the Nitsche meth...

  6. Systematic review and proposal of a field-based physical fitness-test battery in preschool children: the PREFIT battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Guillermo; Mora-González, José; Martínez-Téllez, Borja; Artero, Enrique G; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Labayen, Idoia; Chillón, Palma; Löf, Marie; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2015-04-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful health marker in childhood and adolescence, and it is reasonable to think that it might be just as important in younger children, i.e. preschoolers. At the moment, researchers, clinicians and sport practitioners do not have enough information about which fitness tests are more reliable, valid and informative from the health point of view to be implemented in preschool children. Our aim was to systematically review the studies conducted in preschool children using field-based fitness tests, and examine their (1) reliability, (2) validity, and (3) relationship with health outcomes. Our ultimate goal was to propose a field-based physical fitness-test battery to be used in preschool children. PubMed and Web of Science. Studies conducted in healthy preschool children that included field-based fitness tests. When using PubMed, we included Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms to enhance the power of the search. A set of fitness-related terms were combined with 'child, preschool' [MeSH]. The same strategy and terms were used for Web of Science (except for the MeSH option). Since no previous reviews with a similar aim were identified, we searched for all articles published up to 1 April 2014 (no starting date). A total of 2,109 articles were identified, of which 22 articles were finally selected for this review. Most studies focused on reliability of the fitness tests (n = 21, 96%), while very few focused on validity (0 criterion-related validity and 4 (18%) convergent validity) or relationship with health outcomes (0 longitudinal and 1 (5%) cross-sectional study). Motor fitness, particularly balance, was the most studied fitness component, while cardiorespiratory fitness was the least studied. After analyzing the information retrieved in the current systematic review about fitness testing in preschool children, we propose the PREFIT battery, field-based FITness testing in PREschool children. The PREFIT battery is composed of the following

  7. Moving curved surface fitting based on Kriging statistics%基于Kriging统计的移动曲面拟合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管莉莉; 李明峰; 卢扣; 陈春晖

    2011-01-01

    通过方位取点法选取采样点,移动拟合出二次曲面来逼近实际地形.对采样点处的逼近误差进行Kriging统计,获得待定点处高程逼近误差的最优估值.进行了基于Kriging统计的移动曲面拟合综合模型的模拟计算,通过单一曲面模型和Kriging统计模型的逼近误差及精度的比较,验证了综合内插模型的优越性.%Sampling points were selected by method of bearing point sampling, moving curved surface fits a quadratic surface to the real terrain. It solves optimal estimation of approximation error in unknown point by Kriging statistics of approximation error in sampling points. Simulation of mobile camber fitting model based on Kriging statistics was carried out. By comparison of approximation error and precision between single surface model and Kriging statistic model, it is verified that the interpolation comprehensive model has its advantage.

  8. Superresolution of FT-NMR Spectra by the Maximum Entropy Method and AR Model Fitting with Singular Value Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Takanori; Minamitani, Haruyuki; Sakata, Makoto

    1990-01-01

    The complex maximum entropy method and complex autoregressive model fitting with the singular value decomposition method (SVD) were applied to the free induction decay signal data obtained with a Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer to estimate superresolved NMR spectra. The practical estimation of superresolved NMR spectra are shown on the data of phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. These methods provide sharp peaks and high signal-to-noise ratio compared with conventional fast Fourier transform. The SVD method was more suitable for estimating superresolved NMR spectra than the MEM because the SVD method allowed high-order estimation without spurious peaks, and it was easy to determine the order and the rank.

  9. Estimating differential quantities from point cloud based on a linear fitting of normal vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG ZhangLin; ZHANG XiaoPeng

    2009-01-01

    Estimation of differential geometric properties on a discrete surface Is a fundamental work in computer graphics and computer vision.In this paper,we present an accurate and robust method for estimating differential quantities from unorganized point cloud.The principal curvatures and principal directions at each point are computed with the help of partial derivatives of the unit normal vector at that point,where the normal derivatives are estimated by fitting a linear function to each component of the normal vectors in a neighborhood.This method takes into account the normal information of all neighboring points and computes curvatures directly from the varlation of unit normal vectors,which improves the accuracy and robustness of curvature estimation on irregular sampled noisy data.The main advantage of our approach is that the estimation of curvatures at a point does not rely on the accuracy of the normal vector at that point,and the normal vectors can he refined In the process of curvature estimation.Compared with the state of the art methods for estimating curvatures and Darboux frames on both synthetic and real point clouds,the approach is shown to be more accurate and robust for noisy and unorganized point cloud data.

  10. Goodness-of-fit analysis of the Cosmicflows-2 data base of velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Yehuda; Nusser, Adi; Courtois, Hélène M.; Tully, R. Brent

    2016-10-01

    The goodness-of-fit (GoF) of the Cosmicflows-2 (CF2) data base of peculiar velocities with the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) standard model of cosmology is presented. Standard application of the χ2 statistics of the full data base, of its 4838 data points, is hampered by the small-scale non-linear dynamics which is not accounted for by the (linear regime) velocity power spectrum. The bulk velocity constitutes a highly compressed representation of the data which filters out the small-scales non-linear modes. Hence the statistics of the bulk flow provides an efficient tool for assessing the GoF of the data given a model. The particular approach introduced here is to use the (spherical top-hat window) bulk velocity extracted from the Wiener filter reconstruction of the 3D velocity field as a linear low-pass filtered highly compressed representation of the CF2 data. An ensemble 2250 random linear realizations of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)/ΛCDM model has been used to calculate the bulk velocity autocovariance matrix. We find that the CF2 data is consistent with the WMAP/ΛCDM model to better than the 2σ confidence limits. This provides a further validation that the CF2 data base is consistent with the standard model of cosmology.

  11. Variance analysis for model updating with a finite element based subspace fitting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Guillaume; Mevel, Laurent; Mencik, Jean-Mathieu; Serra, Roger; Döhler, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Recently, a subspace fitting approach has been proposed for vibration-based finite element model updating. The approach makes use of subspace-based system identification, where the extended observability matrix is estimated from vibration measurements. Finite element model updating is performed by correlating the model-based observability matrix with the estimated one, by using a single set of experimental data. Hence, the updated finite element model only reflects this single test case. However, estimates from vibration measurements are inherently exposed to uncertainty due to unknown excitation, measurement noise and finite data length. In this paper, a covariance estimation procedure for the updated model parameters is proposed, which propagates the data-related covariance to the updated model parameters by considering a first-order sensitivity analysis. In particular, this propagation is performed through each iteration step of the updating minimization problem, by taking into account the covariance between the updated parameters and the data-related quantities. Simulated vibration signals are used to demonstrate the accuracy and practicability of the derived expressions. Furthermore, an application is shown on experimental data of a beam.

  12. Effects of Interdependence and Social Interaction-Based Person-Team Fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Glew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The match between employees and their vocations, jobs and organizations has been the focus of the majority of past person-environment fit research. The compatibility between individuals and their work team environments is a more recently recognized, but much less studied, type of fit. Person-team fit is conceptualized here along two fundamental dimensions of team environments: interdependence and social interaction. Results from a study involving 209 cross-functional team members indicate that person-team fit has an impact on satisfaction, commitment, trust and performance.

  13. Mild angle early onset idiopathic scoliosis children avoid progression under FITS method (Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Marianna

    2015-05-01

    Physiotherapy for stabilization of idiopathic scoliosis angle in growing children remains controversial. Notably, little data on effectiveness of physiotherapy in children with Early Onset Idiopathic Scoliosis (EOIS) has been published.The aim of this study was to check results of FITS physiotherapy in a group of children with EOIS.The charts of the patients archived in a prospectively collected database were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criteria were:diagnosis of EOIS based on spine radiography, age below 10 years, both girls and boys, Cobb angle between 118 and 308, Risser zero, FITS therapy, no other treatment (bracing), and a follow-up at least 2 years from the initiation of the treatment. The criterion for curve progression were as follows: the Cobb angle increase of 68 or more, for curve stabilization; the Cobb angle was 58 comparing to the initial radiograph,for curve correction; and the Cobb angle decrease of 68 or more at the final follow-up radiograph.There were 41 children with EOIS, 36 girls and 5 boys, mean age 7.71.3 years (range 4 to 9 years) who started FITS therapy. The curve pattern was single thoracic (5 children), single thoracolumbar (22 children) or double thoracic/thoracolumbar (14 children), totally 55 structural curvatures. The minimum follow-up was 2 years after initiation of the FITS treatment, maximum was 16 years, mean 4.8 years). At follow-up the mean age was 12.53.4 years. Out of 41 children, 10 passed pubertal growth spurt at the final follow-up and 31 were still immature and continued FITS therapy. Out of 41 children, 27 improved, 13 were stable, and one progressed. Out of 55 structural curves, 32 improved, 22 were stable and one progressed. For the 55 structural curves, the Cobb angle significantly decreased from 18.085.48 at first assessment to 12.586.38 at last evaluation,p<0.0001, paired t-test. The angle of trunk rotation decreased significantly from 4.782.98 to 3.282.58 at last evaluation, p<0.0001,paired t-test.FITS

  14. Adapting Non-Task-Based Materials to Fit a Task-Based Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海英

    2007-01-01

    Analyzes the three -phases--pre -task, task cycle, post -task and their rationale in task -based language teaching, designs corresponding teaching activities after adapting one text from New Horizon College English, so that college English teachers can better understand and use this teaching approach, and then improve the teaching effect and college students'comprehensive application abilities of language.

  15. Educational and methodical function of the military physical fitness system and level of its scientific rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomerovskiy S.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The conceptual foundations of the methodical training in a system of the navy military physical training of Ukraine and well-developed countries are discussed. The comprehensive analysis of the literature in a field of methodical training of the military among 28 points, 12 of which are foreign is carried out. The modern conditions of the methodical training subsystem while the task of physical training solving is determined. The results of the analysis of system factors, which characterized the methodical training process towards management of special physical training amongst subordinates in a special conditions is shown. The experience of existing methodical training of the navy military of well-developed countries is summarized. The prospective issues of further scientific development are suggested.

  16. Petri Net Based Metabolic Network Parameters Fitting with GPU Acceleration%Petri Net Based Metabolic Network Parameters Fitting with GPU Acceleration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao, Jun; Zhu, Ruixin; Liu, Qi; Cao, Zhiwei

    2011-01-01

    Classical Petri net has been applied into biological analysis, especially as a qualitative model for biochemical pathways analysis, but lack of the ability for quantitative kinetic simulations. In our study, we presented an integra- tion work of the qualitative model--Petri nets with the quantitative approach-ordinary differential equations (ODEs) for the modeling and analysis of metabolic networks. As an application of our study, the computational modeling of arachidonic acid (AA) biochemical network was provided. A Petri net was set up to present the constraint-based dynamic simulations on AA metabolic network combined with the validated ODEs model. Furthermore, Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) was adopted to accelerate the calculation of kinetic parameters unavailable from experi- ments. Our results have indicated that the proposed simulation method was practicable and useful with GPU accel- eration, and provides new clues for the large-scale qualitative and quantitative models of biochemical networks.

  17. Population resizing on fitness improvement genetic algorithm to optimize promotion visit route based on android and google maps API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listyorini, Tri; Muzid, Syafiul

    2017-06-01

    The promotion team of Muria Kudus University (UMK) has done annual promotion visit to several senior high schools in Indonesia. The visits were done to numbers of schools in Kudus, Jepara, Demak, Rembang and Purwodadi. To simplify the visit, each visit round is limited to 15 (fifteen) schools. However, the team frequently faces some obstacles during the visit, particularly in determining the route that they should take toward the targeted school. It is due to the long distance or the difficult route to reach the targeted school that leads to elongated travel duration and inefficient fuel cost. To solve these problems, the development of a certain application using heuristic genetic algorithm method based on the dynamic of population size or Population Resizing on Fitness lmprovement Genetic Algorithm (PRoFIGA), was done. This android-based application was developed to make the visit easier and to determine a shorter route for the team, hence, the visiting period will be effective and efficient. The result of this research was an android-based application to determine the shortest route by combining heuristic method and Google Maps Application Programming lnterface (API) that display the route options for the team.

  18. 疲劳S-N曲线的加权最小二乘法拟合%WEIGHTED LEAST SQUARE METHOD FOR S-N CURVE FITTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉凤贤; 姚卫星

    2004-01-01

    提出了一种拟合材料疲劳S-N曲线的加权最小二乘法,各应力水平下的拟合点的权重反比于均值置信区间的长度.两个算例结果表明:本文方法较好地考虑了S-N曲线分散性的物理特性.%An S-N curve fitting approach is proposed based on the weighted least square method, and the weights are inversely proportional to the length of mean confidence intervals of experimental data sets. The assumption coincides with the physical characteristics of the fatigue life scatter. Two examples demonstrate the method. It is shown that the method has better accuracy and reasonableness compared with the usual least square method.

  19. Diagnosing item score patterns using IRT based person-fit statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Rob R.

    2001-01-01

    Person-fit statistics have been proposed to investigate the fit of an item score pattern to an item response theory (IRT) model. This study investigated how these statistics can be used to detect different types of misfit. Intelligence test data for 992 people at or beyond college level were analyze

  20. Student Constructions of Fit: Narratives about Incongruence at a Faith-Based University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Nathan F.; Robinson, Jessica A.; Leslie, Elizabeth A.; Glanzer, Perry L.

    2016-01-01

    Decades of student persistence and retention literature has brought to light factors of social, academic, and religious fit that influence a student's decision to remain at or depart from an institution. At Christian institutions, increasing student pluralism raises the likelihood that students will not fit religiously. This qualitative study of…

  1. A Fully Bayesian Method for Jointly Fitting Instrumental Calibration and X-Ray Spectral Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; van Dyk, David A.; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Connors, Alanna; Drake, Jeremy; Meng, Xiao-Li; Ratzlaff, Pete; Yu, Yaming

    2014-10-01

    Owing to a lack of robust principled methods, systematic instrumental uncertainties have generally been ignored in astrophysical data analysis despite wide recognition of the importance of including them. Ignoring calibration uncertainty can cause bias in the estimation of source model parameters and can lead to underestimation of the variance of these estimates. We previously introduced a pragmatic Bayesian method to address this problem. The method is "pragmatic" in that it introduced an ad hoc technique that simplified computation by neglecting the potential information in the data for narrowing the uncertainty for the calibration product. Following that work, we use a principal component analysis to efficiently represent the uncertainty of the effective area of an X-ray (or γ-ray) telescope. Here, however, we leverage this representation to enable a principled, fully Bayesian method that coherently accounts for the calibration uncertainty in high-energy spectral analysis. In this setting, the method is compared with standard analysis techniques and the pragmatic Bayesian method. The advantage of the fully Bayesian method is that it allows the data to provide information not only for estimation of the source parameters but also for the calibration product—here the effective area, conditional on the adopted spectral model. In this way, it can yield more accurate and efficient estimates of the source parameters along with valid estimates of their uncertainty. Provided that the source spectrum can be accurately described by a parameterized model, this method allows rigorous inference about the effective area by quantifying which possible curves are most consistent with the data.

  2. A fully Bayesian method for jointly fitting instrumental calibration and X-ray spectral models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jin; Yu, Yaming [Department of Statistics, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-1250 (United States); Van Dyk, David A. [Statistics Section, Imperial College London, Huxley Building, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Drake, Jeremy; Ratzlaff, Pete [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Connors, Alanna; Meng, Xiao-Li, E-mail: jinx@uci.edu, E-mail: yamingy@ics.uci.edu, E-mail: dvandyk@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: asiemiginowska@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jdrake@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: pratzlaff@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: meng@stat.harvard.edu [Department of Statistics, Harvard University, 1 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    Owing to a lack of robust principled methods, systematic instrumental uncertainties have generally been ignored in astrophysical data analysis despite wide recognition of the importance of including them. Ignoring calibration uncertainty can cause bias in the estimation of source model parameters and can lead to underestimation of the variance of these estimates. We previously introduced a pragmatic Bayesian method to address this problem. The method is 'pragmatic' in that it introduced an ad hoc technique that simplified computation by neglecting the potential information in the data for narrowing the uncertainty for the calibration product. Following that work, we use a principal component analysis to efficiently represent the uncertainty of the effective area of an X-ray (or γ-ray) telescope. Here, however, we leverage this representation to enable a principled, fully Bayesian method that coherently accounts for the calibration uncertainty in high-energy spectral analysis. In this setting, the method is compared with standard analysis techniques and the pragmatic Bayesian method. The advantage of the fully Bayesian method is that it allows the data to provide information not only for estimation of the source parameters but also for the calibration product—here the effective area, conditional on the adopted spectral model. In this way, it can yield more accurate and efficient estimates of the source parameters along with valid estimates of their uncertainty. Provided that the source spectrum can be accurately described by a parameterized model, this method allows rigorous inference about the effective area by quantifying which possible curves are most consistent with the data.

  3. Method for gesture based modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A computer program based method is described for creating models using gestures. On an input device, such as an electronic whiteboard, a user draws a gesture which is recognized by a computer program and interpreted relative to a predetermined meta-model. Based on the interpretation, an algorithm...... is assigned to the gesture drawn by the user. The executed algorithm may, for example, consist in creating a new model element, modifying an existing model element, or deleting an existing model element....

  4. MixFit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, Toomas; Leitsalu, Liis; Fischer, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Ancestry information at the individual level can be a valuable resource for personalized medicine, medical, demographical and history research, as well as for tracing back personal history. We report a new method for quantitatively determining personal genetic ancestry based on genome-wide data....... Numerical ancestry component scores are assigned to individuals based on comparisons with reference populations. These comparisons are conducted with an existing analytical pipeline making use of genotype phasing, similarity matrix computation and our addition-multidimensional best fitting by Mix......Fit. The method is demonstrated by studying Estonian and Finnish populations in geographical context. We show the main differences in the genetic composition of these otherwise close European populations and how they have influenced each other. The components of our analytical pipeline are freely available...

  5. The Effects of VR-based Wii Fit Yoga on Physical Function in Middle-aged Female LBP Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Sik; Min, Won-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a virtual reality-based yoga program on middle-aged female low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty middle-aged female patients who suffered from low back pain were assigned to either a physical therapy program or a virtual reality-based yoga program for a period of four weeks. Participants could check their posture and weight bearing on a monitor as they shifted their weight or changed their postures on a Wii balance board. There were a total of seven exercise programs. A 30-minute, three times per week, virtual reality-based Wii Fit yoga program or trunk stabilizing exercise was performed, respectively. [Results] Repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed significant differences in between pre- and post-training VAS, algometer, Oswestry low-back pain disability index (ODI), Roland Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ), and fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FBQ) scores. The VAS, algometer, ODI, RMDQ, and FBQ scores showed significant differences in groups. Regarding the effect of time-by-group interaction, there were significant differences in VAS, ODI, ODI, and FBQ scores. [Conclusion] In conclusion, for middle-aged female patients who have low back pain, a virtual reality-based yoga program was shown to have positive effects on physical improvements, and this program can be employed as a therapeutic medium for prevention and cure of low back pain.

  6. 数据拟合函数的加权最小二乘积分法%The Weighted Least Squares Integral Method of Data Fitting Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程毛林

    2012-01-01

    数据拟合的方法很多,每种方法各有特点.探讨了积分准则下的数据加权拟合函数的方法,称为加权最小二乘积分法,并给出了三个常用拟合函数具体形式.%The data fitting has a good many methods, each method has itself characteristic. This paper discuss the the method of dada fitting in intergral rule, that is intituled the weighted least squares integral method, and gives three format of fitting function in common use.

  7. Assessing positive matrix factorization model fit: a new method to estimate uncertainty and bias in factor contributions at the measurement time scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Hemann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model for aerosol pollution source apportionment was fit to a synthetic dataset simulating one year of daily measurements of ambient PM2.5 concentrations, comprised of 39 chemical species from nine pollutant sources. A novel method was developed to estimate model fit uncertainty and bias at the daily time scale, as related to factor contributions. A circular block bootstrap is used to create replicate datasets, with the same receptor model then fit to the data. Neural networks are trained to classify factors based upon chemical profiles, as opposed to correlating contribution time series, and this classification is used to align factor orderings across the model results associated with the replicate datasets. Factor contribution uncertainty is assessed from the distribution of results associated with each factor. Comparing modeled factors with input factors used to create the synthetic data assesses bias. The results indicate that variability in factor contribution estimates does not necessarily encompass model error: contribution estimates can have small associated variability across results yet also be very biased. These findings are likely dependent on characteristics of the data.

  8. Assessment of Volumetric Changes With a Best-Fit Method in Three-Dimensional Stereophotograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongkosuwito, E. M.; Goos, J. A. C.; Wattel, E.; van der Wal, K. G. H.; van Adrichem, L. N. A.; van Neck, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Different three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry systems and analyzing methods exist that often use landmarks for comparison. Measurement errors in landmark or surface comparison are mostly within 1 mm, which seems clinically acceptable. The aim of this study was to validate a three-dimen

  9. Assessment of volumetric changes with a best-fit method in three-dimensional stereophotograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Ongkosuwito (Edwin); J.A.C. Goos (Jacqueline); E. Wattel; K.G.H. van der Wal (Karel); L.N.A. van Adrichem (Léon); J.W. van Neck (Han)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Different three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry systems and analyzing methods exist that often use landmarks for comparison. Measurement errors in landmark or surface comparison are mostly within 1 mm, which seems clinically acceptable. The aim of this study was to validate a

  10. On Fits of Seasonal Data by the Ordinary Least Square Method

    CERN Document Server

    Rotundo, G; Herteli, C; Ileanu, B V

    2016-01-01

    Following Shimura et al. pioneering paper (1981) on "Geographical and secular changes in the seasonal distribution of births", much data has been reported by seasonal effects time series. We discuss how one can be misled in testing Linear Regression Models by an Ordinary Least Square method.

  11. Fit for purpose: Australia's National Fitness Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Julie A; Lekkas, Peter

    2011-12-19

    During a time of war, the federal government passed the National Fitness Act 1941 to improve the fitness of the youth of Australia and better prepare them for roles in the armed services and industry. Implementation of the National Fitness Act made federal funds available at a local level through state-based national fitness councils, which coordinated promotional campaigns, programs, education and infrastructure for physical fitness, with volunteers undertaking most of the work. Specifically focused on children and youth, national fitness councils supported the provision of children's playgrounds, youth clubs and school camping programs, as well as the development of physical education in schools and its teaching and research in universities. By the time the Act was repealed in 1994, fitness had become associated with leisure and recreation rather than being seen as equipping people for everyday life and work. The emergence of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency Act 2010 offers the opportunity to reflect on synergies with its historic precedent.

  12. Improved peak-fit procedure for XPS measurements of inhomogeneous samples—Development of the advanced Tougaard background method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, R., E-mail: rhesse@uni-leipzig.de; Weiß, M.; Szargan, R.; Streubel, P.; Denecke, R.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Improvement of a spectrum processing software for XPS (Photoelectron Spectra). • Research of both peak form and spectral background analysis of core level XP spectra of laterally inhomogeneous samples. • Comparison of the traditional Shirley background, the improved Tougaard background and the new advanced Tougaard background. • Usage of separate loss functions for each spectral component. • Introduction of a new Five-parameter inelastic electron scattering cross section including a variable parameter to treat the electronic band-gap energy. - Abstract: A new method for the fitting of X-ray photoelectron spectra using an advanced Tougaard-background model for laterally inhomogeneous samples is presented. New is the use of a separate loss function for each spectral component. Additionally, a new Five-parameter inelastic electron scattering cross section (5-PIESCS) including a variable parameter to treat the electronic band gap energy is introduced for a better modelling of the loss structures of insulators. Synthetically generated test spectra using two peaks with strongly different loss structures and measured spectra from different samples are fitted with the traditionally used Shirley background (B{sub S}), the Tougaard background for homogeneous samples (B{sub TH}), and the newly developed advanced Tougaard background for laterally inhomogeneous samples (B{sub TI}). It was found that the fit results for the peak areas and peak positions of the three methods could be strongly different. In many cases the use of the Shirley background and the Tougaard background for homogeneous samples resulted in completely wrong component areas in spite of sometimes rather satisfying residual functions and Abbe criteria. In contrast, the advanced Tougaard background for inhomogeneous samples gave excellent results for all wide range spectra including pronounced loss structures. The new source code of the UNIFIT software (Version 2016 or higher) to

  13. Entropy-based benchmarking methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temurshoev, Umed

    2012-01-01

    We argue that benchmarking sign-volatile series should be based on the principle of movement and sign preservation, which states that a bench-marked series should reproduce the movement and signs in the original series. We show that the widely used variants of Denton (1971) method and the growth pre

  14. A comparison of estimation methods for fitting Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta functions to Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris stands in northwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgoseo, J. J.; Rojo, A.; Camara-Obregon, A.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta distributions, fitted with some of the most usual methods and with different fixed values for the location parameters, for describing diameter distributions in even-aged stands of Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris in northwest Spain. A total of 155 permanent plots in Pinus sylvestris stands throughout Galicia, 183 plots in Pinus pinaster stands throughout Galicia and Asturias and 325 plots in Pinus radiata stands in both regions were measured to describe the diameter distributions. Parameters of the Weibull function were estimated by Moments and Maximum Likelihood approaches, those of Johnson's SB function by Conditional Maximum Likelihood and by Knoebel and Burkhart's method, and those of the beta function with the method based on the moments of the distribution. The beta and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to Weibull function for Pinus pinaster stands; the Johnson's SB and beta functions were more accurate in the best fits for Pinus radiata stands, and the best results of the Weibull and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to beta function for Pinus sylvestris stands. However, the three functions are suitable for this stands with an appropriate value of the location parameter and estimation of parameters method. (Author) 44 refs.

  15. BESⅢ track fitting algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-Ke; MAO Ze-Pu; BIAN Jian-Ming; CAO Guo-Fu; CAO Xue-Xiang; CHEN Shen-Jian; DENG Zi-Yan; FU Cheng-Dong; GAO Yuan-Ning; HE Kang-Lin; HE Miao; HUA Chun-Fei; HUANG Bin; HUANG Xing-Tao; JI Xiao-Sin; LI Fei; LI Hai-Bo; LI Wei-Dong; LIANG Yu-Tie; LIU Chun-Xiu; LIU Huai-Min; LIU Suo; LIU Ying-Jie; MA Qiu-Mei; MA Xiang; MAO Ya-Jun; MO Xiao-Hu; PAN Ming-Hua; PANG Cai-Ying; PING Rong-Gang; QIN Ya-Hong; QIU Jin-Fa; SUN Sheng-Sen; SUN Yong-Zhao; WANG Liang-Liang; WEN Shuo-Pin; WU Ling-Hui; XIE Yu-Guang; XU Min; YAN Liang; YOU Zheng-Yun; YUAN Chang-Zheng; YUAN Ye; ZHANG Bing-Yun; ZHANG Chang-Chun; ZHANG Jian-Yong; ZHANG Xue-Yao; ZHANG Yao; ZHENG Yang-Heng; ZHU Ke-Jun; ZHU Yong-Sheng; ZHU Zhi-Li; ZOU Jia-Heng

    2009-01-01

    A track fitting algorithm based on the Kalman filter method has been developed for BESⅢ of BEPCⅡ.The effects of multiple scattering and energy loss when the charged particles go through the detector,non-uniformity of magnetic field (NUMF) and wire sag, etc., have been carefully handled.This algorithm works well and the performance satisfies the physical requirements tested by the simulation data.

  16. 最小二乘法分段拟合标定反应谱方法%Sectional least square fitting method for calibrating seismic design response spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓云; 薄景山; 巴文辉; 田启文; 李平

    2012-01-01

    The method of calibrating seismic design response spectrum is related directly to the determination of the characteristic parameters of response spectrum, and seismic design response spectrum based on logical calibrating method can express the real characteristic of earthquake strong motion. So calibration of seismic design response spectrum is the important chain of structures' seismic input determination. This paper advances least square fitting method of calibrating seismic design response spectrum based on coordinate transformation. By calculating the characteristic parameters of typical Wenchuan earthquake strong motion records and comparing different calibrating methods and analyzing the error of different methods, it points out that sectional least square fitting method is a simple and reasonable calibrating method.%反应谱的标定方法直接关系到反应谱特征参数的确定,合理的反应谱标定方法得到的设计反应谱能够真实地表达地震动的特性,是确定地震动输入的重要环节.提出了基于坐标变换的最小二乘法分段拟合方法,通过对汶川大地震不同场地典型强震记录反应谱的标定,对比了反应谱不同的标定方法,根据反应谱标定图形的对比及误差分析认为,最小二乘法分段拟合方法是操作简便且标定结果合理的反应谱标定方法.

  17. Biomechanics of the press-fit phenomenon in dental implantology: an image-based finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frisardi Gianni

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental pre-requisite for the clinical success in dental implant surgery is the fast and stable implant osseointegration. The press-fit phenomenon occurring at implant insertion induces biomechanical effects in the bone tissues, which ensure implant primary stability. In the field of dental surgery, the understanding of the key factors governing the osseointegration process still remains of utmost importance. A thorough analysis of the biomechanics of dental implantology requires a detailed knowledge of bone mechanical properties as well as an accurate definition of the jaw bone geometry. Methods In this work, a CT image-based approach, combined with the Finite Element Method (FEM, has been used to investigate the effect of the drill size on the biomechanics of the dental implant technique. A very accurate model of the human mandible bone segment has been created by processing high resolution micro-CT image data. The press-fit phenomenon has been simulated by FE analyses for different common drill diameters (DA = 2.8 mm, DB = 3.3 mm, and DC = 3.8 mm with depth L = 12 mm. A virtual implant model has been assumed with a cylindrical geometry having height L = 11 mm and diameter D = 4 mm. Results The maximum stresses calculated for drill diameters DA, DB and DC have been 12.31 GPa, 7.74 GPa and 4.52 GPa, respectively. High strain values have been measured in the cortical area for the models of diameters DA and DB, while a uniform distribution has been observed for the model of diameter DC . The maximum logarithmic strains, calculated in nonlinear analyses, have been ϵ = 2.46, 0.51 and 0.49 for the three models, respectively. Conclusions This study introduces a very powerful, accurate and non-destructive methodology for investigating the effect of the drill size on the biomechanics of the dental implant technique. Further studies could aim at understanding how different drill

  18. FTIR Study of White and Green Broad Beans Based on Curve-fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohua; WANG; Gang; LIU; Quanhong; OU; Xingxiang; ZHAO; Jianming; HAO; Xiangping; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared(FTIR)spectroscopy was used to study two kinds of broad beans with white and green cotyledons respectively.The results show that the infrared spectra of the two kinds of broad beans are similar and mainly made up of the absorption bands of protein,and polysaccharides.The second derivative infrared spectra amplified the differences and revealed that there were some obvious differences in the range of 1 800-700 cm-1and 1 200-700 cm-1.Hierarchical cluster analysis(HCA)were used for the discrimination of the two kinds broad beans based on the second derivative spectral data in the region of 1 611-1 100 cm-1,and yielded 88.9%accuracy.The spectra in the range from 1 700 to 1 600 cm-1were used to perform Fourier self-deconvolution and curve fitting,which obtained nine peaks.The ratios of relative areas of the bands atα-helix,β-sheet,β-turn and the unordered structure of protein in white beans were 67.71%,35.6%,35.6%and 21.09%respectively,while the ratios in green beans were 8.02%,31.59%,37.12%and 23.27%respectively.The results indicate that the secondary structure of protein was different in the two kinds of broad beans.

  19. Regulation of Neutrophil Degranulation and Cytokine Secretion: A Novel Model Approach Based on Linear Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Naegelen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils participate in the maintenance of host integrity by releasing various cytotoxic proteins during degranulation. Due to recent advances, a major role has been attributed to neutrophil-derived cytokine secretion in the initiation, exacerbation, and resolution of inflammatory responses. Because the release of neutrophil-derived products orchestrates the action of other immune cells at the infection site and, thus, can contribute to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases, we aimed to investigate in more detail the spatiotemporal regulation of neutrophil-mediated release mechanisms of proinflammatory mediators. Purified human neutrophils were stimulated for different time points with lipopolysaccharide. Cells and supernatants were analyzed by flow cytometry techniques and used to establish secretion profiles of granules and cytokines. To analyze the link between cytokine release and degranulation time series, we propose an original strategy based on linear fitting, which may be used as a guideline, to (i define the relationship of granule proteins and cytokines secreted to the inflammatory site and (ii investigate the spatial regulation of neutrophil cytokine release. The model approach presented here aims to predict the correlation between neutrophil-derived cytokine secretion and degranulation and may easily be extrapolated to investigate the relationship between other types of time series of functional processes.

  20. Regulation of Neutrophil Degranulation and Cytokine Secretion: A Novel Model Approach Based on Linear Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegelen, Isabelle; Beaume, Nicolas; Plançon, Sébastien; Schenten, Véronique; Tschirhart, Eric J.; Bréchard, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils participate in the maintenance of host integrity by releasing various cytotoxic proteins during degranulation. Due to recent advances, a major role has been attributed to neutrophil-derived cytokine secretion in the initiation, exacerbation, and resolution of inflammatory responses. Because the release of neutrophil-derived products orchestrates the action of other immune cells at the infection site and, thus, can contribute to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases, we aimed to investigate in more detail the spatiotemporal regulation of neutrophil-mediated release mechanisms of proinflammatory mediators. Purified human neutrophils were stimulated for different time points with lipopolysaccharide. Cells and supernatants were analyzed by flow cytometry techniques and used to establish secretion profiles of granules and cytokines. To analyze the link between cytokine release and degranulation time series, we propose an original strategy based on linear fitting, which may be used as a guideline, to (i) define the relationship of granule proteins and cytokines secreted to the inflammatory site and (ii) investigate the spatial regulation of neutrophil cytokine release. The model approach presented here aims to predict the correlation between neutrophil-derived cytokine secretion and degranulation and may easily be extrapolated to investigate the relationship between other types of time series of functional processes. PMID:26579547

  1. Goodness-of-fit based secure cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radio network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu-Van, Hiep; Koo, Insoo

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) is a promising technology for improving usage of frequency band. Cognitive radio users (CUs) are allowed to use the bands without interference in operation of licensed users. Reliable sensing information about status of licensed band is a prerequirement for CR network. Cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) is able to offer an improved sensing reliability compared to individual sensing. However, the sensing performance of CSS can be destroyed due to the appearance of some malicious users. In this paper, we propose a goodness-of-fit (GOF) based cooperative spectrum sensing scheme to detect the dissimilarity between sensing information of normal CUs and that of malicious users, and reject their harmful effect to CSS. The empirical CDF will be used in GOF test to determine the measured distance between distributions of observation sample set according to each hypothesis of licensed user signal. Further, the DS theory is used to combine results of multi-GOF tests. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can protect the sensing process against the attack from malicious users.

  2. The analysis of linear parametric circuits with switched capacitors by compact modified method of curve fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Artemenko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The analytical connections  between the topological resistive element’s connection matrix of ARC-prototype and the topological switched capacitor’s connection matrices of resistor’s switch-capacitor  equivalents   for both phases of SC-circuits were established  that permits to  analyze a switched-capacitor networks on the base of  element’s connection matrix of ARC-prototype. The formal mathematical apparatus of forming the SC-circuits’ difference equations based on element’s connection matrix of ARC-prototype was developed which allows to reduce the dimension of the analyzed model of SC-circuits to the number of prototype’s capacitors.

  3. An eight week school-based intervention with circuit training improves physical fitness and reduces body fat in male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaki, Christoforos D; Aphamis, George; Tsouloupas, Costas N; Ioannou, Yiannakis; Hadjicharalambous, Marios

    2016-01-01

    School-based intervention programs have been found to effectively improve various fitness and health parameters. However, only few studies so far examined the effect of circuit training in school environment during physical education (PE) classes. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of an eight-week circuit training on physical fitness and body fat in male adolescents. Thirty nine, 16-year old male high-school students participated in the current study. The students were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The intervention period lasted eight weeks and consisted of two circuit training sessions per week performed during regular PE classes. Total body fat was calculated by using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Physical fitness parameters such as cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, jumping ability and isometric arm strength were assessed through a battery of field tests. Finally, resting heart rate and blood pressure levels were assessed with an automatic monitor. By the end of the intervention period, total body fat and resting systolic blood pressure were significantly lower while cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly improved in the circuit training group only (Ptraining during PE classes appeared to be effective in improving various physical fitness parameters and reducing fatness in male adolescents.

  4. Entorhinal volume, aerobic fitness, and recognition memory in healthy young adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; Budson, Andrew E; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis effects of aerobic exercise and environmental enrichment are beneficial for cognition, in particular for hippocampus-supported learning and memory. Recent work in humans suggests that exercise training induces changes in hippocampal volume, but it is not known if aerobic exercise and fitness also impact the entorhinal cortex. In animal models, aerobic exercise increases expression of growth factors, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This exercise-enhanced expression of growth hormones may boost synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival and differentiation, potentially supporting function and structure in brain areas including but not limited to the hippocampus. Here, using voxel based morphometry and a standard graded treadmill test to determine cardio-respiratory fitness (Bruce protocol; ·VO2 max), we examined if entorhinal and hippocampal volumes were associated with cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy young adults (N=33). In addition, we examined if volumes were modulated by recognition memory performance and by serum BDNF, a putative marker of synaptic plasticity. Our results show a positive association between volume in right entorhinal cortex and cardio-respiratory fitness. In addition, average gray matter volume in the entorhinal cortex, bilaterally, was positively associated with memory performance. These data extend prior work on the cerebral effects of aerobic exercise and fitness to the entorhinal cortex in healthy young adults thus providing compelling evidence for a relationship between aerobic fitness and structure of the medial temporal lobe memory system.

  5. Complex absorbing potential based Lorentzian fitting scheme and time dependent quantum transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Hang, E-mail: xiehanggm@gmail.com; Kwok, Yanho; Chen, GuanHua, E-mail: ghc@everest.hku.hk [Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); Jiang, Feng [Department of Physics, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai (China); Zheng, Xiao [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China)

    2014-10-28

    Based on the complex absorbing potential (CAP) method, a Lorentzian expansion scheme is developed to express the self-energy. The CAP-based Lorentzian expansion of self-energy is employed to solve efficiently the Liouville-von Neumann equation of one-electron density matrix. The resulting method is applicable for both tight-binding and first-principles models and is used to simulate the transient currents through graphene nanoribbons and a benzene molecule sandwiched between two carbon-atom chains.

  6. Complex absorbing potential based Lorentzian fitting scheme and time dependent quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hang; Kwok, Yanho; Jiang, Feng; Zheng, Xiao; Chen, GuanHua

    2014-10-28

    Based on the complex absorbing potential (CAP) method, a Lorentzian expansion scheme is developed to express the self-energy. The CAP-based Lorentzian expansion of self-energy is employed to solve efficiently the Liouville-von Neumann equation of one-electron density matrix. The resulting method is applicable for both tight-binding and first-principles models and is used to simulate the transient currents through graphene nanoribbons and a benzene molecule sandwiched between two carbon-atom chains.

  7. Owner-collected swabs of pets: a method fit for the purpose of zoonoses research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möbius, N; Hille, K; Verspohl, J; Wefstaedt, P; Kreienbrock, L

    2013-09-01

    As part of the preparation of a large cohort study in the entire German population, this study examined the feasibility of cat and dog owners collecting nasal and oral swabs of their animals at home as a method of assessing exposure to zoonoses. In veterinary clinics in Hannover, Germany, 100 pet owners were recruited. Nasal and oral swabs of pets were taken by a veterinarian at the clinic and owners took swabs at home. Swabs were analysed regarding bacterial growth and compared (owner vs. vet) using Cohen's kappa and McNemar's test. The return rate of kits was 92%, and 77% of owners thought it unnecessary to have veterinarian assistance to swab the mouth. McNemar's test results: oral swabs 78% agreement with Gram-positive bacterial growth, 87% agreement with Gram-negative bacterial growth; with similar results for nasal swabs. Although sample quality differed, this method allowed the receipt of swabs from pets in order to obtain information about colonization with zoonotic pathogens.

  8. The process associated with motivation of a home-based Wii Fit exercise program among sedentary African American women with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Hon K.; Breland, Hazel L.; Vogtle, Laura K.; Holthaus, Katy; Kamen, Diane L.; Sword, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the process associated with the motivation for playing Wii Fit among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Individual in-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 14 sedentary African American women with SLE to explore their experiences and reflect on their motivation for playing Wii Fit after completing a 10-week home-based Wii Fit exercise program. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify categories related to participants’ motivation. Three authors independently sorted, organized and coded transcript text into categories, then combined the categories into themes and subthemes. Results In addition to the two themes (Ethical principal of keeping a commitment, and Don’t want to let anyone down) generic to home-based exercise trials, we identified five themes (Enjoyment, Health Benefits, Sense of Accomplishment, Convenience, and Personalized) that revealed why the participants were motivated to play the Wii Fit. Enjoyment had three subthemes: Interactive, Challenging, and Competitive with an embedded social element. However, several participants commented they were not able to do many activities, master certain games, or figure out how to play some; as a result, they were bored with the limited selection of activities that they could do. Conclusions The motivational elements of the Wii Fit may contribute to improved exercise motivation and adherence in select sedentary African American women with SLE. Results provide a better understanding on the important elements to incorporate in the development of sustainable home-based exercise programs with interactive health video games for this population. PMID:23260612

  9. Universal Linear Fit Identification: A Method Independent of Data, Outliers and Noise Distribution Model and Free of Missing or Removed Data Imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikaram, K K L B; Hussein, M A; Effenberger, M; Becker, T

    2015-01-01

    Data processing requires a robust linear fit identification method. In this paper, we introduce a non-parametric robust linear fit identification method for time series. The method uses an indicator 2/n to identify linear fit, where n is number of terms in a series. The ratio Rmax of amax - amin and Sn - amin*n and that of Rmin of amax - amin and amax*n - Sn are always equal to 2/n, where amax is the maximum element, amin is the minimum element and Sn is the sum of all elements. If any series expected to follow y = c consists of data that do not agree with y = c form, Rmax > 2/n and Rmin > 2/n imply that the maximum and minimum elements, respectively, do not agree with linear fit. We define threshold values for outliers and noise detection as 2/n * (1 + k1) and 2/n * (1 + k2), respectively, where k1 > k2 and 0 ≤ k1 ≤ n/2 - 1. Given this relation and transformation technique, which transforms data into the form y = c, we show that removing all data that do not agree with linear fit is possible. Furthermore, the method is independent of the number of data points, missing data, removed data points and nature of distribution (Gaussian or non-Gaussian) of outliers, noise and clean data. These are major advantages over the existing linear fit methods. Since having a perfect linear relation between two variables in the real world is impossible, we used artificial data sets with extreme conditions to verify the method. The method detects the correct linear fit when the percentage of data agreeing with linear fit is less than 50%, and the deviation of data that do not agree with linear fit is very small, of the order of ±10-4%. The method results in incorrect detections only when numerical accuracy is insufficient in the calculation process.

  10. Universal Linear Fit Identification: A Method Independent of Data, Outliers and Noise Distribution Model and Free of Missing or Removed Data Imputation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K K L B Adikaram

    Full Text Available Data processing requires a robust linear fit identification method. In this paper, we introduce a non-parametric robust linear fit identification method for time series. The method uses an indicator 2/n to identify linear fit, where n is number of terms in a series. The ratio Rmax of amax - amin and Sn - amin*n and that of Rmin of amax - amin and amax*n - Sn are always equal to 2/n, where amax is the maximum element, amin is the minimum element and Sn is the sum of all elements. If any series expected to follow y = c consists of data that do not agree with y = c form, Rmax > 2/n and Rmin > 2/n imply that the maximum and minimum elements, respectively, do not agree with linear fit. We define threshold values for outliers and noise detection as 2/n * (1 + k1 and 2/n * (1 + k2, respectively, where k1 > k2 and 0 ≤ k1 ≤ n/2 - 1. Given this relation and transformation technique, which transforms data into the form y = c, we show that removing all data that do not agree with linear fit is possible. Furthermore, the method is independent of the number of data points, missing data, removed data points and nature of distribution (Gaussian or non-Gaussian of outliers, noise and clean data. These are major advantages over the existing linear fit methods. Since having a perfect linear relation between two variables in the real world is impossible, we used artificial data sets with extreme conditions to verify the method. The method detects the correct linear fit when the percentage of data agreeing with linear fit is less than 50%, and the deviation of data that do not agree with linear fit is very small, of the order of ±10-4%. The method results in incorrect detections only when numerical accuracy is insufficient in the calculation process.

  11. 基于两步解法的似大地水准面拟合%Quasi-Geoid Fitting Based on Two-Step Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪毅; 田林亚; 甘元芳

    2011-01-01

    As a quasi-geoid fitting method, the surface fitting based on least squares (LS) estimation has been widely used in the GPS height interpolation. However, if it exists ill-posed problem in surface fitting equation, LS estimate method often can not figure out the stable and accurate solution. A quasi-geoid method based on two-step solution was studied. It can improve the quality of GPS height interpolation though changing the ill-posed equation, and demonstrate the method with an example.%基于最小二乘估计(LS估计)的曲面拟合,作为似大地水准面拟合的一种方法,巳广泛应用在GPS高程转换中.然而,如果曲面拟合方程中存在病态问题,LS估计方法往往不能解算出稳定且准确的参数估值.在LS估计的基础上,探讨了基于两步解法的似大地水准面拟合方法.该方法能够减弱病态方程对拟合结果的影响,提高GPS高程转换的质量.最后结合实例进行了计算、比较和验证.

  12. Orbits for the Impatient: A Bayesian Rejection Sampling Method for Quickly Fitting the Orbits of Long-Period Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt, Sarah Caroline; Nielsen, Eric; De Rosa, Robert J.; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Ryan, Dominic; Wang, Jason; Pueyo, Laurent; Rameau, Julien; Marois, Christian; Marchis, Franck; Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; GPIES Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Direct imaging planet-finders like the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) allow for direct imaging of exoplanets with orbital periods beyond ~10 years that are still close enough to their host stars to undergo detectable orbital motion on year or multi-year timescales, creating a need for methods that rapidly characterize newly discovered planets using relative astrometry covering a short fraction of an orbital period. We address this problem with Orbits for the Impatient (OFTI), a statistically robust and computationally efficient Bayesian rejection sampling method for fitting orbits to astrometric datasets covering small orbital fractions from directly imaged exoplanets, brown dwarfs, and wide-orbit stellar binaries. We demonstrate that OFTI produces valid orbital solutions by directly comparing its outputs with those of two Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) implementations, and compare the computational speeds of OFTI and MCMC as a function of orbital fraction spanned by input astrometry. We find that for well-sampled orbits with astrometry covering less than 15% of the total orbital period, OFTI converges on the correct orbital solution in orders of magnitude less CPU time than MCMC. Exoplanet observations with space missions such as the WFIRST coronagraph present a similar problem of sparse sampling, and we show how these methods can efficiently constrain the orbital inclination, phase, and separation of a planet such as 47 Uma c. Finally, we present some of the first orbital fits to astrometry from directly imaged exoplanets and brown dwarfs in the literature, including GJ 504 b, CD-35 2722 B, kappa And b, and HR 3549 B.

  13. How to distinguish conformational selection and induced fit based on chemical relaxation rates

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Protein binding often involves conformational changes. Important questions are whether a conformational change occurs prior to a binding event ('conformational selection') or after a binding event ('induced fit'), and how conformational transition rates can be obtained from experiments. In this article, we present general results for the chemical relaxation rates of conformational-selection and induced-fit binding processes that hold for all concentrations of proteins and ligands and, thus, go beyond the standard pseudo-first-order approximation of large ligand concentration. These results allow to distinguish conformational-selection from induced-fit processes - also in cases in which such a distinction is not possible under pseudo-first-order conditions - and to extract conformational transition rates of proteins from chemical relaxation data.

  14. Activity – based costing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Èuchranová Katarína

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity based costing is a method of identifying and tracking the operating costs directly associated with processing items. It is the practice of focusing on some unit of output, such as a purchase order or an assembled automobile and attempting to determine its total as precisely as poccible based on the fixed and variable costs of the inputs.You use ABC to identify, quantify and analyze the various cost drivers (such as labor, materials, administrative overhead, rework. and to determine which ones are candidates for reduction.A processes any activity that accepts inputs, adds value to these inputs for customers and produces outputs for these customers. The customer may be either internal or external to the organization. Every activity within an organization comprimes one or more processes. Inputs, controls and resources are all supplied to the process.A process owner is the person responsible for performing and or controlling the activity.The direction of cost through their contact to partial activity and processes is a new modern theme today. Beginning of this method is connected with very important changes in the firm processes.ABC method is a instrument , that bring a competitive advantages for the firm.

  15. Density functional theory for molecular and periodic systems using density fitting and continuous fast multipole method: Analytical gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łazarski, Roman; Burow, Asbjörn Manfred; Grajciar, Lukáš; Sierka, Marek

    2016-10-30

    A full implementation of analytical energy gradients for molecular and periodic systems is reported in the TURBOMOLE program package within the framework of Kohn-Sham density functional theory using Gaussian-type orbitals as basis functions. Its key component is a combination of density fitting (DF) approximation and continuous fast multipole method (CFMM) that allows for an efficient calculation of the Coulomb energy gradient. For exchange-correlation part the hierarchical numerical integration scheme (Burow and Sierka, Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 2011, 7, 3097) is extended to energy gradients. Computational efficiency and asymptotic O(N) scaling behavior of the implementation is demonstrated for various molecular and periodic model systems, with the largest unit cell of hematite containing 640 atoms and 19,072 basis functions. The overall computational effort of energy gradient is comparable to that of the Kohn-Sham matrix formation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The application conditions of the compact modified method of curve fitting for parametric synthesis of switched-capacitor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Artemenko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The topological and algebraic conditions for formation of ARC-prototype state equation were obtained to diagnose the possibility of application the compact modified method of curve fitting for parametric synthesis of SC-filter directly on its circuit or element’s connection matrix. The formal mathematical apparatus of forming the ARC-prototype’s compact equation of electric equilibrium on the element’s connection matrix was developed, which allows to reduce the dimension of the synthesized filter to the number of prototype’s capacitors. The relations to account nonideal parameters of operational amplifiers for the prototype’s compact equation of electric equilibrium were obtained, which improve the accuracy of parametric synthesis of switched-capacitor networks.

  17. Cross section measurements of high-pT dilepton final-state processes using a global fitting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M. G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Aoki, M.; Apollinari, G.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Ashmanskas, W.; Attal, A.; Azfar, F.; Azzi-Bacchetta, P.; Azzurri, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Baroiant, S.; Bartsch, V.; Bauer, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Belforte, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Belloni, A.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beringer, J.; Berry, T.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blocker, C.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boisvert, V.; Bolla, G.; Bolshov, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brubaker, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Budroni, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Byrum, K. L.; Cabrera, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carillo, S.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carron, S.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chang, S. H.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, I.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Choudalakis, G.; Chuang, S. H.; Chung, K.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciljak, M.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clark, D.; Coca, M.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cooper, B.; Copic, K.; Cordelli, M.; Cortiana, G.; Crescioli, F.; Almenar, C. Cuenca; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cully, J. C.; Cyr, D.; Daronco, S.; Datta, M.; D'Auria, S.; Davies, T.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dagenhart, D.; de Barbaro, P.; Dececco, S.; Deisher, A.; de Lentdecker, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Delli Paoli, F.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; de Pedis, D.; Derwent, P. F.; di Giovanni, G. P.; Dionisi, C.; di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; Dituro, P.; Dörr, C.; Donati, S.; Donega, M.; Dong, P.; Donini, J.; Dorigo, T.; Dube, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Fedorko, I.; Fedorko, W. T.; Feild, R. G.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Foland, A.; Forrester, S.; Foster, G. W.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garcia, J. E.; Garberson, F.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Gay, C.; Gerberich, H.; Gerdes, D.; Giagu, S.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, K.; Gimmell, J. L.; Ginsburg, C.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldschmidt, N.; Goldstein, J.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gresele, A.; Griffiths, M.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grundler, U.; da Costa, J. Guimaraes; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, K.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamilton, A.; Han, B.-Y.; Han, J. Y.; Handler, R.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harper, S.; Harr, R. F.; Harris, R. M.; Hartz, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hauser, J.; Heijboer, A.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, J.; Henderson, C.; Herndon, M.; Heuser, J.; Hidas, D.; Hill, C. S.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hocker, A.; Holloway, A.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.; Hsu, S.-C.; Huffman, B. T.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Huston, J.; Incandela, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ishizawa, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Iyutin, B.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeans, D.; Jensen, H.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, J. E.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kato, Y.; Kemp, Y.; Kephart, R.; Kerzel, U.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirsch, L.; Klimenko, S.; Klute, M.; Knuteson, B.; Ko, B. R.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kovalev, A.; Kraan, A. C.; Kraus, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kubo, T.; Kuhlmann, S. E.; Kuhr, T.; Kusakabe, Y.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lai, S.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lecompte, T.; Lee, J.; Lee, J.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, S. W.; Lefèvre, R.; Leonardo, N.; Leone, S.; Levy, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Lin, C.; Lin, C. S.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Liss, T. M.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, T.; Lockyer, N. S.; Loginov, A.; Loreti, M.; Loverre, P.; Lu, R.-S.; Lucchesi, D.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lyons, L.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Lytken, E.; Mack, P.; MacQueen, D.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maki, T.; Maksimovic, P.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Margaroli, F.; Marginean, R.; Marino, C.; Marino, C. P.; Martin, A.; Martin, M.; Martin, V.; Martínez, M.; Maruyama, T.; Mastrandrea, P.; Masubuchi, T.; Matsunaga, H.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazini, R.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzemer, S.; Menzione, A.; Merkel, P.; Mesropian, C.; Messina, A.; Miao, T.; Miladinovic, N.; Miles, J.; Miller, R.; Mills, C.; Milnik, M.; Mitra, A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Miyamoto, A.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mohr, B.; Moore, R.; Morello, M.; Fernandez, P. Movilla; Mülmenstädt, J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Mumford, R.; Murat, P.; Nachtman, J.; Nagano, A.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Necula, V.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Norniella, O.; Nurse, E.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Oldeman, R.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A. A.; Parks, B.; Pashapour, S.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Piedra, J.; Pinera, L.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Portell, X.; Poukhov, O.; Pounder, N.; Prakoshyn, F.; Pronko, A.; Proudfoot, J.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Pursley, J.; Rademacker, J.; Rahaman, A.; Ranjan, N.; Rappoccio, S.; Reisert, B.; Rekovic, V.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Richter, S.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Rossi, M.; Rossin, R.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Saarikko, H.; Sabik, S.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Salamanna, G.; Saltó, O.; Saltzberg, D.; Sánchez, C.; Santi, L.; Sarkar, S.; Sartori, L.; Sato, K.; Savard, P.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Scheidle, T.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, M.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scott, A. L.; Scribano, A.; Scuri, F.; Sedov, A.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Sfyrla, A.; Shapiro, M. D.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Sherman, D.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shon, Y.; Shreyber, I.; Sidoti, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sisakyan, A.; Sjolin, J.; Slaughter, A. J.; Slaunwhite, J.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Snihur, R.; Soderberg, M.; Soha, A.; Somalwar, S.; Sorin, V.; Spalding, J.; Spinella, F.; Spreitzer, T.; Squillacioti, P.; Stanitzki, M.; Staveris-Polykalas, A.; St. Denis, R.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Stuart, D.; Suh, J. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Sun, H.; Suzuki, T.; Taffard, A.; Takashima, R.; Takeuchi, Y.; Takikawa, K.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, R.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Terashi, K.; Thom, J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Tipton, P.; Tiwari, V.; Tkaczyk, S.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Tourneur, S.; Trischuk, W.; Tsuchiya, R.; Tsuno, S.; Turini, N.; Ukegawa, F.; Unverhau, T.; Uozumi, S.; Usynin, D.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Remortel, N.; Varganov, A.; Vataga, E.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Veramendi, G.; Veszpremi, V.; Vidal, R.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vine, T.; Vollrath, I.; Volobouev, I.; Volpi, G.; Würthwein, F.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. G.; Wagner, R. L.; Wagner, J.; Wagner, W.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waschke, S.; Waters, D.; Weinberger, M.; Wester, W. C., III; Whitehouse, B.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wicklund, E.; Williams, G.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, C.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wynne, S. M.; Yagil, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamashita, T.; Yang, C.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W. M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, S. S.; Yun, J. C.; Zanello, L.; Zanetti, A.; Zaw, I.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, J.; Zucchelli, S.

    2008-07-01

    We present a new method for studying high-pT dilepton events (e±e∓, μ±μ∓, e±μ∓) and simultaneously extracting the production cross sections of p pmacr →t tmacr , p pmacr →W+W-, and p pmacr →Z0→τ+τ- at a center-of-mass energy of s=1.96TeV. We perform a likelihood fit to the dilepton data in a parameter space defined by the missing transverse energy and the number of jets in the event. Our results, which use 360pb-1 of data recorded with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, are σ(t tmacr )=8.5-2.2+2.7pb, σ(W+W-)=16.3-4.4+5.2pb, and σ(Z0→τ+τ-)=291-46+50pb.

  18. Estimation of channel mismatches in time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters based on fractional delay and sine curve fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lianping; Tian, Shulin; Jiang, Jun

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm to estimate the channel mismatches in time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter (TIADC) based on fractional delay (FD) and sine curve fitting. Choose one channel as the reference channel and apply FD to the output samples of reference channel to obtain the ideal samples of non-reference channels with no mismatches. Based on least square method, the sine curves are adopted to fit the ideal and the actual samples of non-reference channels, and then the mismatch parameters can be estimated by comparing the ideal sine curves and the actual ones. The principle of this algorithm is simple and easily understood. Moreover, its implementation needs no extra circuits, lowering the hardware cost. Simulation results show that the estimation accuracy of this algorithm can be controlled within 2%. Finally, the practicability of this algorithm is verified by the measurement results of channel mismatch errors of a two-channel TIADC prototype.

  19. The process associated with motivation of a home-based Wii Fit exercise program among sedentary African American women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Hon K; Breland, Hazel L; Vogtle, Laura K; Holthaus, Katy; Kamen, Diane L; Sword, David

    2013-01-01

    To explore the process associated with the motivation for playing Wii Fit among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Individual in-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 14 sedentary African American women with SLE to explore their experiences and reflect on their motivation for playing Wii Fit after completing a 10-week home-based Wii Fit exercise program. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify categories related to participants' motivation. Three authors independently sorted, organized and coded transcript text into categories, then combined the categories into themes and subthemes. In addition to the two themes (Ethical principal of keeping a commitment, and Don't want to let anyone down) generic to home-based exercise trials, we identified five themes (Enjoyment, Health Benefits, Sense of Accomplishment, Convenience, and Personalized) that revealed why the participants were motivated to play the Wii Fit. Enjoyment had three subthemes: Interactive, Challenging, and Competitive with an embedded social element. However, several participants commented they were not able to do many activities, master certain games, or figure out how to play some; as a result, they were bored with the limited selection of activities that they could do. The motivational elements of the Wii Fit may contribute to improved exercise motivation and adherence in select sedentary African American women with SLE. Results provide a better understanding on the important elements to incorporate in the development of sustainable home-based exercise programs with interactive health video games for this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PREdator: a python based GUI for data analysis, evaluation and fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of a series of experimental data is an essential procedure in virtually every field of research. The information contained in the data is extracted by fitting the experimental data to a mathematical model. The type of the mathematical model (linear, exponential, logarithmic, etc.) reflects the physical laws that underlie the experimental data. Here, we aim to provide a readily accessible, user-friendly python script for data analysis, evaluation and fitting. PREdator is presented at the example of NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement analysis.

  1. 三维激光扫描技术曲面拟合方法研究%3 dLaser Scanning Technology Surface Fitting Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹奇; 岳东杰; 杨畅

    2014-01-01

    Point cloud data processing and point cloud of curved surface and curve fitting in reverse engineering is an important re -search topic .Reverse engineering is an important task to actual physical model reconstruction , but the geometric models generated from the core problem is how to reconstruct the sampling point curve and surface model .C++development platform and MATLAB based on 3D laser scanning data using B -spline, NURBS, triangular mesh surface method and the curve fitting method of research and exploration .%点云数据处理以及点云的曲面、曲线拟合是逆向工程中一个重要的研究课题,其重要任务就是将实际物理模型重建生成几何模型,而核心问题就是如何从采样点出发重建曲线、曲面模型。本文以C++开发平台和MATLAB为基础,对三维激光扫描数据利用B样条、NURBS、三角网格曲面拟合方法和曲线拟合方法进行研究探索。

  2. Method for Slater-Type Density Fitting for Intermolecular Electrostatic Interactions with Charge Overlap. I. The Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhrn, Anders; Hermida-Ramon, Jose M; Karlström, Gunnar

    2016-05-10

    The effects of charge overlap, or charge penetration, are neglected in most force fields and interaction terms in QM/MM methods. The effects are however significant at intermolecular distances near the van der Waals minimum. In the present study, we propose a method to evaluate the intermolecular Coloumb interaction using Slater-type functions, thus explicitly modeling the charge overlap. The computational cost of the method is low, which allows it to be used in large systems with most force fields as well as in QM/MM schemes. The charge distribution is modeled as a distributed multipole expansion up to quadrupole and Slater-type functions of angular momentum up to L = 1. The exponents of the Slater-type functions are obtained using a divide-and-conquer method to avoid the curse of dimensionality that otherwise is present for large nonlinear optimizations. A Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is applied in the fitting process. A set of parameters is obtained for each molecule, and the process is fully automated. Calculations have been performed in the carbon monoxide and the water dimers to illustrate the model. Results show a very good accuracy of the model with relative errors in the electrostatic potential lower than 3% over all reasonable separations. At very short distances where the charge overlaps is the most significant, errors are lower than 8% and lower than 3.5% at distances near the van der Waals minimum.

  3. Moving Least-Square Method Applied in NURBS Curve Fitting%移动最小二乘法在NURBS曲线拟合中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶晶; 平雪良; 陶宇; 董宁

    2011-01-01

    A method for the NURBS curve firing based on moving least-square method(MLS) is presented. It enhanced precision and smoothness of the firing curve based on the traditional least-square method. The principles and characteristics of MLS are described in detail. With the point data of screw rotor as an example, the method is demonstrated by MATLAB and compared with the fitting curve based on the traditional least-square.%在NURBS曲线拟合中采用移动最小二乘(Moving Least-Squares)方法,提高了采用传统最小二乘方法得到的拟合曲线的精度及光滑性.详细介绍了移动最小二乘法(MLS)应用于NURBS曲线拟合的原理及特点;以螺杆转子端面点云数据为实例在MATLAB中实现了移动最小二乘NURBS曲线拟合,并将其与传统最小二乘NURBS拟合结果进行了比较.

  4. Development of a protocol for selection of genes fit for the in vivo knockdown method and its application to insulin receptor substrate genes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mikako; Kakutani, Yukari; Kaburagi, Misako; Funabashi, Hisakage; Matsuoka, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Prediabetes model mice in which more than one gene associated with diabetes is knocked down simultaneously are potentially useful for pharmaceutical and medical studies of diabetes. However, the effective conditions for sufficient knockdown in vivo are dependent on the intrinsic properties of the target genes. It is necessary to investigate which genes are applicable or not to the in vivo knockdown method. In this study, insulin receptor substrate 1 and 2 (Irs-1, Irs-2) were selected as target genes. Effective siRNAs against the respective genes were designed, and their efficacy was confirmed by cell-based experiments. Based on the results of siRNAs, shRNA expression vectors against Irs-1 and Irs-2 were constructed, respectively. Their efficacy was also confirmed by cell-based experiments. A hydrodynamic method was applied to the delivery of the vectors to mice. This method was found to be effective for predominant delivery to the liver by demonstrative delivery of an EGFP expression vector and successive histochemical analysis. Fifty micrograms of the shRNA expression vector was injected into the tail vein. After 24 h, the liver, pancreas, and muscle were isolated, and the expression levels of Irs-1 and Irs-2 were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. In the liver, Irs-2 was effectively knocked down to 60% of the control level, but Irs-1 was not influenced even under the same conditions. The protocol developed here is feasible for the selection of genes fit for in vivo knockdown method.

  5. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2011-01-01

    General fitness Classes Enrolments are open for general fitness classes at CERN taking place on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday lunchtimes in the Pump Hall (building 216). There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months. Check out our rates and enrol at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  6. Study on fitting methods for urban storm intensity formula%城市暴雨强度公式拟合方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子贤; 孙光东; 孙建印; 彭长刚

    2013-01-01

    Conventional method for determining the parameters of the storm intensity multi-period formula usually consists of two fitting processes,fitting the theory frequency curve and fitting the parameters of storm intensity multi-period formula. By such way to fit samples of the observed storm intensity, sum of squared error cannot reach the minimum. In this paper,a direct fitting method for storm intensity multi-pe-riod formula has been studied by nonlinear regression to directly fit the samples. With the storm intensity multi-period formula obtained by the direct fitting method,the minimum sum of squared error can be ac-quired in the process of fitting samples of observed storm intensity,and the best parameters are directly es-timated. Combined two examples, the direct fitting method were compared with the conventional methods by using different theory frequency curve. The results indicate that the direct fitting method is feasible, which can increase the fitting accuracy, decrease the processes of choosing and fitting for different theory frequen-cy curve,and avoid arbitrariness of deriving parameters for the storm intensity multi-period formula.%传统方法确定暴雨强度总公式的参数需要经过理论频率曲线拟合和总公式参数拟合两个环节,但由此法求得的暴雨强度总公式拟合实测雨强样本的误差平方和不为最小。本文采用非线性回归方法,研究了暴雨强度总公式直接拟合实测雨强样本的直接拟合法,使所求总公式拟合实测雨强样本的误差平方和为最小,实现了总公式参数的直接寻优。结合两个实例,对直接拟合法与采用不同理论频率分布的传统方法进行了比较,结果表明,直接拟合法切实可行,不仅使拟合精度提高,而且减少了不同理论频率曲线的选择与拟合环节,可避免推求暴雨强度总公式参数的任意性。

  7. Aberrant Learning Achievement Detection Based on Person-Fit Statistics in Personalized e-Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Tsung; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2011-01-01

    A personalized e-learning service provides learning content to fit learners' individual differences. Learning achievements are influenced by cognitive as well as non-cognitive factors such as mood, motivation, interest, and personal styles. This paper proposes the Learning Caution Indexes (LCI) to detect aberrant learning patterns. The philosophy…

  8. Conducting a Community-Based Experiential-Learning Project to Address Youth Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jeffrey C.; Judge, Lawrence; Pierce, David A.

    2012-01-01

    There is a need within health, physical education, recreation, dance, and sport programs to increase community engagement via experiential learning. The Chase Charlie Races are presented in this article as a model pedagogical strategy to engage community youths and families in a training program and running event to help promote fitness. Key…

  9. Multi-pattern Matching Methods Based on Numerical Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-pattern matching methods based on numerical computation are advanced in this paper. Firstly it advanced the multiple patterns matching algorithm based on added information. In the process of accumulating of information, the select method of byte-accumulate operation will affect the collision odds , which means that the methods or bytes involved in the different matching steps should have greater differences as much as possible. In addition, it can use balanced binary tree to manage index to reduce the average searching times, and use the characteristics of a given pattern set by setting the collision field to eliminate collision further. In order to reduce the collision odds in the initial step, the information splicing method is advanced, which has greater value space than added information method, thus greatly reducing the initial collision odds. Multiple patterns matching methods based on numerical computation fits for large multi-pattern matching.

  10. A 6-month supervised employer-based minimal exercise program for police officers improves fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossomanno, Colleen I; Herrick, Jeffery E; Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of a 6-month supervised, job-specific moderate exercise program in police officers on body composition, cardiovascular and muscular fitness. Body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular and muscular fitness were assessed at baseline, after a 6-month supervised fitness program and at 12-month follow-up (18 months). One hundred sixty-five (n = 131 men and n = 34 women) young (mean ± SEM, 26.4 ± 1.9 years), overweight (BMI = 26.2 ± 1.2 kg·m) police officers participated. Aerobic exercise progressed from 3 d·wk, 20 minutes per session at 60% of the heart rate reserve (HRR) to 5 d·wk, 30 minutes per session at 75% of HRR at 3 months, and this level was maintained until 6 months. Muscular strength training progressed using 8 different calisthenics exercises from 3 d·wk, 2 sets of 5 repetitions using the participant's own BW to 5 d·wk, 3 sets of 15 repetitions of the participant's own BW at 3 months, and this level was maintained until 6 months. Cardiovascular and muscular fitness was measured using a 0.25-mile obstacle course incorporating various job-specific exercises and expressed as the physical abilities test (PAT) time. There was a significant reduction in BMI (-0.6 ± 0.2 kg·m, p police officers improves fitness and body composition after 6 months in both men and women, but continued supervision of exercise program may be necessary for maintenance of health benefits.

  11. A method of discriminating transuranic radionuclides from radon progeny using low-resolution alpha spectroscopy and curve-fitting techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard

    2012-05-01

    ²²²Rn (radon) and ²²⁰Rn (thoron) progeny are known to interfere with determining the presence of long-lived transuranic radionuclides, such as plutonium and americium, and require from several hours up to several days for conclusive results. Methods are proposed that should expedite the analysis of air samples for determining the amount of transuranic radionuclides present using low-resolution alpha spectroscopy systems available from typical alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) with multi-channel analyzer (MCA) capabilities. An alpha spectra simulation program was developed in Microsoft Excel visual basic that employed the use of Monte Carlo numerical methods and serial-decay differential equations that resembled actual spectra. Transuranic radionuclides were able to be quantified with statistical certainty by applying peak fitting equations using the method of least squares. Initial favorable results were achieved when samples containing radon progeny were decayed 15 to 30 min, and samples containing both radon and thoron progeny were decayed at least 60 min. The effort indicates that timely decisions can be made when determining transuranic activity using available alpha CAMs with alpha spectroscopy capabilities for counting retrospective air samples if accompanied by analyses that consider the characteristics of serial decay.

  12. On the use of rational-function fitting methods for the solution of 2D Laplace boundary-value problems

    CERN Document Server

    Hochman, Amit; White, Jacob K

    2011-01-01

    A computational scheme for solving 2D Laplace boundary-value problems using rational functions as the basis functions is described. The scheme belongs to the class of desingularized methods, for which the location of singularities and testing points is a major issue that is addressed by the proposed scheme, in the context of the 2D Laplace equation. Well-established rational-function fitting techniques are used to set the poles, while residues are determined by enforcing the boundary conditions in the least-squares sense at the nodes of rational Gauss-Chebyshev quadrature rules. Numerical results show that errors approaching the machine epsilon can be obtained for sharp and almost sharp corners, nearly-touching boundaries, and almost-singular boundary. We show various examples of these cases in which the method yields compact solutions, requiring fewer basis functions than the Nystr\\"{o}m method, for the same accuracy. A scheme for solving fairly large-scale problems is also presented.

  13. The FIT-pull Method an experimental tool to monitor the track measurements and the B proper time.

    CERN Document Server

    Balbi, G; Vecchi, S

    2007-01-01

    In this note we describe a statistical tool, the \\textit{FIT-pull method}, that can test the reliability of the measurements of the tracks and the vertices on real and Monte-Carlo data without knowledge of the truth information. The basic mathematical formalism is derived from the Lagrange Multipliers method and briefly described. Several tests are performed to prove its validity in different situations. %KDifferent useful examples are discussed. In particular, by using Monte-Carlo simulation, we demonstrate that the method can be applied to check if the measured tracks or vertices have biases or incorrect covariance matrices. For correct input measurements we obtain pull distributions with a normal Gaussian statistical form. In this case the B proper time value and its error, which is a function of the track and vertex measurements, are correctly calculated. However, in the case of incorrect measurements, for example due to a systematic error or to a scale factor of the covariance matrix, the pull distributi...

  14. Fitting PAC spectra with a hybrid algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, M. A., E-mail: mauro@sepn.org [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (Brazil); Carbonari, A. W., E-mail: carbonar@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    A hybrid algorithm (HA) that blends features of genetic algorithms (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) was implemented for simultaneous fits of perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectra. The main characteristic of the HA is the incorporation of a selection criterion based on SA into the basic structure of GA. The results obtained with the HA compare favorably with fits performed with conventional methods.

  15. School-based exercise improves fitness, body composition, insulin sensitivity, and markers of inflammation in non-obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Aaron L; McVean, Jennifer J; Clark, R Randall; Peterson, Susan E; Eickhoff, Jens C; Allen, David B

    2009-05-01

    Poor cardiovascular fitness (CVF) is a risk factor for obesity, as well as insulin resistance (IR), inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. We have previously shown that a school-based fitness curriculum can improve CVF, as well as IR and body composition in obese children. Whether such a program improves CVF, IR, and other health indicators in non-obese children is unresolved. To determine whether a school-based fitness program improves body composition, CVF, markers of inflammation (e.g. CRP, TNF-alpha, adiponectin), and insulin sensitivity in nonobese children. 35 non-obese middle school children with body mass index below the 95th percentile for age were enrolled in a 'fitness-oriented' gym class. Children underwent fasting evaluation of insulin, glucose, adiponectin, CRP, TNF-alpha, body composition by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and maximal VO2 treadmill testing at baseline (prior to the school year) and again at end of the school year. Testing for CVF (maximal VO2 treadmill testing), DXA, and fasting evaluation of insulin, glucose, adiponectin, CRP and TNF-alpha. Children demonstrated a decrease in BMI z-score (-0.14 +/- 0.33, p = 0.02), HOMA-IR (-0.15 +/- 0.35, p = 0.016), and TNF-alpha (-2.55 +/- 1.79 pg/ml, p VO2(max) (+1.58 +/- 2.34 ml/kg/min, p < 0.001), adiponectin (+7,553 +/- 11,100 ng/ml, p < 0.001), and muscle mass (+2,282 +/- 1,882.73 g, p < 0.001) after nine months of study. The school-based fitness oriented curriculum resulted in improved body composition and insulin sensitivity, increased CVF, and decreased inflammation in non-obese children. Combined with prior studies, these data demonstrate that school-based fitness curricula can benefit both obese and non-obese children. Partnerships with schools to promote fitness should be part of a public health approach to improving children's health.

  16. DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN METHODS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOFMAYER,C.MILLER,C.WANG,Y.COSTELLO,J.

    2003-07-15

    A research effort was undertaken to determine the need for any changes to USNRC's seismic regulatory practice to reflect the move, in the earthquake engineering community, toward using expected displacement rather than force (or stress) as the basis for assessing design adequacy. The research explored the extent to which displacement based seismic design methods, such as given in FEMA 273, could be useful for reviewing nuclear power stations. Two structures common to nuclear power plants were chosen to compare the results of the analysis models used. The first structure is a four-story frame structure with shear walls providing the primary lateral load system, referred herein as the shear wall model. The second structure is the turbine building of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. The models were analyzed using both displacement based (pushover) analysis and nonlinear dynamic analysis. In addition, for the shear wall model an elastic analysis with ductility factors applied was also performed. The objectives of the work were to compare the results between the analyses, and to develop insights regarding the work that would be needed before the displacement based analysis methodology could be considered applicable to facilities licensed by the NRC. A summary of the research results, which were published in NUREGICR-6719 in July 2001, is presented in this paper.

  17. Fitting Centrifugal Pump Performance Curve Based on Visual Basic%基于Visual Basic编程对离心泵性能曲线的拟合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红明; 孙铁; 刘嵩; 王亮; 魏佳广

    2014-01-01

    Centrifugal pump performance curve is the basis of measuring the performance, type selection calculation and optimal operation of the centrifugal pump. After the test,in order to get more accurate data based on the sampling point, curve of experimental data needs to be fitted. In this paper, taking fitting flow and head curve of centrifugal pump as an example, the method to fit the curve by programming based visual basic with the least square method was introduced. The practical application has proved that the method has many advantages, and can effectively solve data processing problems in centrifugal pump type selection and curve fitting in petrochemical industry.%在分析拟合离心泵性能曲线必要性的基础上,以拟合离心泵流量和扬程性能曲线为例,介绍了利用最小二乘法使用visual Basic语言进行直接编程拟合曲线的方法;经实际使用本程序具有简单、易用、求解效率高、适用范围广等特点,有效解决了石化行业中离心泵选型、试验中曲线拟合的数据处理问题,可以在离心泵及容积泵性能曲线拟合中推广应用。

  18. Pedigree-based inbreeding coefficient explains more variation in fitness than heterozygosity at 160 microsatellites in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietlisbach, Pirmin; Keller, Lukas F; Camenisch, Glauco; Guillaume, Frédéric; Arcese, Peter; Reid, Jane M; Postma, Erik

    2017-03-15

    Although the pedigree-based inbreeding coefficient F predicts the expected proportion of an individual's genome that is identical-by-descent (IBD), heterozygosity at genetic markers captures Mendelian sampling variation and thereby provides an estimate of realized IBD. Realized IBD should hence explain more variation in fitness than their pedigree-based expectations, but how many markers are required to achieve this in practice remains poorly understood. We use extensive pedigree and life-history data from an island population of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to show that the number of genetic markers and pedigree depth affected the explanatory power of heterozygosity and F, respectively, but that heterozygosity measured at 160 microsatellites did not explain more variation in fitness than F This is in contrast with other studies that found heterozygosity based on far fewer markers to explain more variation in fitness than F Thus, the relative performance of marker- and pedigree-based estimates of IBD depends on the quality of the pedigree, the number, variability and location of the markers employed, and the species-specific recombination landscape, and expectations based on detailed and deep pedigrees remain valuable until we can routinely afford genotyping hundreds of phenotyped wild individuals of genetic non-model species for thousands of genetic markers. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Source Localization with Acoustic Sensor Arrays Using Generative Model Based Fitting with Sparse Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Macias-Guarasa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach for indoor acoustic source localization using sensor arrays. The proposed solution starts by defining a generative model, designed to explain the acoustic power maps obtained by Steered Response Power (SRP strategies. An optimization approach is then proposed to fit the model to real input SRP data and estimate the position of the acoustic source. Adequately fitting the model to real SRP data, where noise and other unmodelled effects distort the ideal signal, is the core contribution of the paper. Two basic strategies in the optimization are proposed. First, sparse constraints in the parameters of the model are included, enforcing the number of simultaneous active sources to be limited. Second, subspace analysis is used to filter out portions of the input signal that cannot be explained by the model. Experimental results on a realistic speech database show statistically significant localization error reductions of up to 30% when compared with the SRP-PHAT strategies.

  20. The Predicting Model of E-commerce Site Based on the Ideas of Curve Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhang; Li, Zhang; Dingjun, Chen

    On the basis of the idea of the second multiplication curve fitting, the number and scale of Chinese E-commerce site is analyzed. A preventing increase model is introduced in this paper, and the model parameters are solved by the software of Matlab. The validity of the preventing increase model is confirmed though the numerical experiment. The experimental results show that the precision of preventing increase model is ideal.

  1. The research of Fitting Straight-line least square method%基于最小二乘法拟合直线的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳莉

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a straight-line binary image in the direction of the detection problem, a least squares method based on the detection algorithm. Given the basic principle of least squares, and C/C++programming to achieve the original image of the input and output image of a fitting straight line.%文章针对二值图像中直线方向的检测问题,提出了基于最小二乘法的检测算法。给出了最小二乘法的基本原理,并以Visual C++为开发平台,用C∕C++编程实现了原始图像的输入和拟合直线图像的输出。

  2. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Fitness Club is organising Zumba Classes on the first Wednesday of each month, starting 7 September (19.00 – 20.00). What is Zumba®? It’s an exhilarating, effective, easy-to-follow, Latin-inspired, calorie-burning dance fitness-party™ that’s moving millions of people toward joy and health. Above all it’s great fun and an excellent work out. Price: 22 CHF/person Sign-up via the following form: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20Subscription/NewForm.aspx For more info: fitness.club@cern.ch

  3. Fitting model-based psychometric functions to simultaneity and temporal-order judgment data: MATLAB and R routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío; García-Pérez, Miguel A

    2013-12-01

    Research on temporal-order perception uses temporal-order judgment (TOJ) tasks or synchrony judgment (SJ) tasks in their binary SJ2 or ternary SJ3 variants. In all cases, two stimuli are presented with some temporal delay, and observers judge the order of presentation. Arbitrary psychometric functions are typically fitted to obtain performance measures such as sensitivity or the point of subjective simultaneity, but the parameters of these functions are uninterpretable. We describe routines in MATLAB and R that fit model-based functions whose parameters are interpretable in terms of the processes underlying temporal-order and simultaneity judgments and responses. These functions arise from an independent-channels model assuming arrival latencies with exponential distributions and a trichotomous decision space. Different routines fit data separately for SJ2, SJ3, and TOJ tasks, jointly for any two tasks, or also jointly for the three tasks (for common cases in which two or even the three tasks were used with the same stimuli and participants). Additional routines provide bootstrap p-values and confidence intervals for estimated parameters. A further routine is included that obtains performance measures from the fitted functions. An R package for Windows and source code of the MATLAB and R routines are available as Supplementary Files.

  4. These terrifying three words: A qualitative, mixed methods study of students' and mentors' understandings of 'fitness to practise'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycock-Stuart, Elaine; MacLaren, Jessica; McLachlan, Alison; James, Christine

    2016-08-01

    There is little empirical published research pertaining to fitness to practise and pre-registration nursing students. Much of the existing fitness to practise literature focuses on medical students and there is a preponderance of literature reviews and descriptive or discursive papers. The multicentre study aimed to explore students' and mentor's understandings of fitness to practise processes in pre-registration nursing programmes. A qualitative study in the interpretive paradigm with interpretive analysis involving 6 focus groups and 4 face-to-face interviews with nursing students and mentors. Eleven Higher Education Institutions providing pre-registration nursing education in the UK. Data were collected January 2014-March 2015 following ethical approval. Purposive sampling was used to recruit mentors and nursing (but not midwifery) students from pre-registration nursing programmes at different stages of educational preparation. Qualitatively driven semi-structured focus groups (n=6) and interviews (n=4) were conducted with a total of 35 participants (17 pre-registration nursing students and 18 nursing mentors). Three themes identified from the student and mentor data are considered: Conceptualising Fitness to Practise; Good Health and Character; and Fear and Anxiety Surrounding Fitness to Practise Processes. Uncertainty about understandings of fitness to practise contributed to a pervasive fear among students and reluctance among mentors to raise concerns about a student's fitness to practise. Both students and mentors expressed considerable anxiety and engaged in catastrophic thinking about fitness to practise processes. Higher Education Institutes should reinforce to students that they are fit to practise the majority of the time and reduce the negative emotional loading of fitness to practise processes and highlight learning opportunities. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Calculation of stratum surface principal curvature based on a moving least square method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-qing; MENG Zhao-ping; MA Feng-shan; ZHAO Hai-jun; DING De-min; LIU Qin; WANG Cheng

    2008-01-01

    With the east section of the Changji sag Zhunger Basin as a case study, both a principal curvature method and a moving least square method are elaborated. The moving least square method is introduced, for the first time, to fit a stratum surface. The results show that, using the same-degree base function, compared with a traditional least square method, the moving least square method can produce lower fitting errors, the fitting surface can describe the morphological characteristics of stratum surfaces more accurately and the principal curvature values vary within a wide range and may be more suitable for the prediction of the distribu-tion of structural fractures. The moving least square method could be useful in curved surface fitting and stratum curvature analysis.

  6. Evaluation of the geomorphometric results and residual values of a robust plane fitting method applied to different DTMs of various scales and accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koma, Zsófia; Székely, Balázs; Dorninger, Peter; Kovács, Gábor

    2013-04-01

    Due to the need for quantitative analysis of various geomorphological landforms, the importance of fast and effective automatic processing of the different kind of digital terrain models (DTMs) is increasing. The robust plane fitting (segmentation) method, developed at the Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing at Vienna University of Technology, allows the processing of large 3D point clouds (containing millions of points), performs automatic detection of the planar elements of the surface via parameter estimation, and provides a considerable data reduction for the modeled area. Its geoscientific application allows the modeling of different landforms with the fitted planes as planar facets. In our study we aim to analyze the accuracy of the resulting set of fitted planes in terms of accuracy, model reliability and dependence on the input parameters. To this end we used DTMs of different scales and accuracy: (1) artificially generated 3D point cloud model with different magnitudes of error; (2) LiDAR data with 0.1 m error; (3) SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) DTM database with 5 m accuracy; (4) DTM data from HRSC (High Resolution Stereo Camera) of the planet Mars with 10 m error. The analysis of the simulated 3D point cloud with normally distributed errors comprised different kinds of statistical tests (for example Chi-square and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests) applied on the residual values and evaluation of dependence of the residual values on the input parameters. These tests have been repeated on the real data supplemented with the categorization of the segmentation result depending on the input parameters, model reliability and the geomorphological meaning of the fitted planes. The simulation results show that for the artificially generated data with normally distributed errors the null hypothesis can be accepted based on the residual value distribution being also normal, but in case of the test on the real data the residual value distribution is

  7. Effectiveness of a School-Based Fitness Program on Youths' Physical and Psychosocial Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Maureen R; Phillips, Alison C; Kipp, Lindsay E

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of an existing physical fitness program (CHAMPIONS) implemented during physical education on health-related indices (BMI percentile, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory endurance), self-perceptions, academic performance, and behavioral conduct over a school year. Students in 3 intervention (n = 331) and 3 control (n = 745) middle schools participated in the study that included assessments at pre, mid, and postintervention. Multivariate repeated measures analyses indicated that boys and girls in CHAMPIONS compared favorably (p physical health indices among middle school youth.

  8. Challenges in improving fitness: results of a community-based, randomized, controlled lifestyle change intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Antronette K; McCarthy, William J; Harrison, Gail G; Wong, Weng Kee; Siegel, Judith M; Leslie, Joanne

    2006-05-01

    This study tested the efficacy of an 8-week culturally targeted nutrition and physical activity intervention on body composition. A randomized, attention-controlled, two-group trial was conducted in a blackowned commercial gym with a sample of 366 predominantly healthy, obese African American women. A free 1-year membership to the study site gym was provided to participants in both groups. Data were collected at baseline, 2, 6, and 12 months. Sample retention at 1 year was 71%. Between-group longitudinal analysis including only participants with complete data revealed a trend toward weight stability in the intervention group at 2 months compared with controls (+0.05 kg/m(2), p = 0.75; +0.32 kg/m(2), p = 0.08, respectively), disappearing at 12 months (+1.37 kg/m(2), p = 0.0001; +1.02 kg/m(2), p = 0.001, respectively). Within-group analysis demonstrated that intervention and control participants' fitness (1-mile run-walk) improved by 1.9 minutes (p = 0.0001) and 2.3 minutes (p = 0.0001), respectively, at 12 months. Mixed model regression analyses demonstrated a significant main effect of the intervention on fitness (p = 0.0185) and a marginally significant effect on body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.057), at 2 months, disappearing by 6 months. By 12 months, however, the controls exhibited a significant advantage in waist circumference stability compared with intervention participants (+1.1 cm, p = 0.2763; +2.1 cm, p = 0.0002, respectively). The intervention produced modest short-term improvements in body composition, but the economic incentive of a free 1-year gym membership provided to all participants was a more potent intervention than the education and social support intervention tested. However, longer-term fitness enhancement remains elusive and demands research and policy attention. These findings have policy implications in that employer-/insurer-subsidized gym memberships may require interventions targeting other levels of change (e.g., physical or social

  9. The Strategic Fitness Process: A Collaborative Action Research Method for Developing and Understanding Organizational Prototypes and Dynamic Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Beer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizations underperform and sometimes fail because their leaders are unable to learn the unvarnished truth from relevant stakeholders about how the design and behavior of the organization is misaligned with its goals and strategy. The Strategic Fitness Process (SFP was designed to enable leaders to overcome organizational silence about the misalignment with the environment and chosen strategy. By enabling an honest, organization-wide and public conversation, senior management teams, working collaboratively with scholar-consultants and organizational members, have access to valid data (the unvarnished truth, can conduct a valid diagnosis, and can develop a valid plan to change the structure, processes, and behavior of an organization while at the same time developing commitment that ensures execution. SFP is also a research method. By applying SFP iteratively to new and challenging situations, scholar-consultants can invent new organizational prototypes as well as learn if a standardized and institutionalized organizational learning process like SFP can enhance dynamic capabilities. The SFP model is illustrated with an application to Hewlett-Packard’s Santa Rosa Systems Division.

  10. Using Social Judgment Theory method to examine how experienced occupational therapy driver assessors use information to make fitness-to-drive recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Priscilla; Davies, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As people with a range of disabilities strive to increase their community mobility, occupational therapy driver assessors are increasingly required to make complex recommendations regarding fitness-to-drive. However, very little is known about how therapists use information to make decisions. The aim of this study was to model how experienced occupational therapy driver assessors weight and combine information when making fitness-to-drive recommendations and establish their level of decision agreement. Method Using Social Judgment Theory method, this study examined how 45 experienced occupational therapy driver assessors from the UK, Australia and New Zealand made fitness-to-drive recommendations for a series of 64 case scenarios. Participants completed the task on a dedicated website, and data were analysed using discriminant function analysis and an intraclass correlation coefficient. Results Accounting for 87% of the variance, the cues central to the fitness-to-drive recommendations made by assessors are the client’s physical skills, cognitive and perceptual skills, road law craft skills, vehicle handling skills and the number of driving instructor interventions. Agreement (consensus) between fitness-to-drive recommendations was very high: intraclass correlation coefficient = .97, 95% confidence interval .96–.98). Conclusion Findings can be used by both experienced and novice driver assessors to reflect on and strengthen the fitness-to-drive recommendations made to clients. PMID:26435572

  11. SmartFit: A Step Count Based Mobile Application for Engagement in Physical Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atifa Sarwar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that relatively few people en-gage in regular exercise or other physical activities. Despite the availability of numerous mobile applications and specialized devices for self-tracking, people mostly lack the motivation for performing physical activities. In this article we present SmartFit, a mobile application that uses step count for promoting the physical activities in adults. This article points out that while considering walk, activity duration is not sufficient for deter-mining users activeness state. Step count is another factor that should be taken into account. For this we propose an approach for converting the steps into duration for which activity has been performed. This duration is then used in Smartfit for categorizing user into different activeness levels. Gamification techniques have been incorporated in SmartFit as they are found to serve the purpose of motivating and encouraging the user. Gamification is used for awarding/deducting points to user in order to keep them engaged for longer period. Furthermore feedback is also provided to users depending upon their goal and achieved progress. The objective is to facilitate and motivate the user and then keep them engaged in carrying out the recommended level of physical activities.

  12. Assessing the Goodness of Fit of Phylogenetic Comparative Methods: A Meta-Analysis and Simulation Study: e67001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dwueng-Chwuan Jhwueng

    2013-01-01

    ...? Data I conducted a meta-analysis of 122 phylogenetic data sets found by searching all papers in JEB, Blackwell Synergy and JSTOR published in 2002-2005 for the purpose of assessing the fit of PCMs...

  13. Using Geometry-Based Metrics as Part of Fitness-for-Purpose Evaluations of 3D City Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K.; Ellul, C.

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional geospatial information is being increasingly used in a range of tasks beyond visualisation. 3D datasets, however, are often being produced without exact specifications and at mixed levels of geometric complexity. This leads to variations within the models' geometric and semantic complexity as well as the degree of deviation from the corresponding real world objects. Existing descriptors and measures of 3D data such as CityGML's level of detail are perhaps only partially sufficient in communicating data quality and fitness-for-purpose. This study investigates whether alternative, automated, geometry-based metrics describing the variation of complexity within 3D datasets could provide additional relevant information as part of a process of fitness-for-purpose evaluation. The metrics include: mean vertex/edge/face counts per building; vertex/face ratio; minimum 2D footprint area and; minimum feature length. Each metric was tested on six 3D city models from international locations. The results show that geometry-based metrics can provide additional information on 3D city models as part of fitness-for-purpose evaluations. The metrics, while they cannot be used in isolation, may provide a complement to enhance existing data descriptors if backed up with local knowledge, where possible.

  14. Model-based analysis of multi-shell diffusion MR data for tractography: How to get over fitting problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jbabdi, Saad; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N; Savio, Alexander M; Graña, Manuel; Behrens, Timothy EJ

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we highlight an issue that arises when using multiple b-values in a model-based analysis of diffusion MR data for tractography. The non-mono-exponential decay, commonly observed in experimental data, is shown to induce over-fitting in the distribution of fibre orientations when not considered in the model. Extra fibre orientations perpendicular to the main orientation arise to compensate for the slower apparent signal decay at higher b-values. We propose a simple extension to the ball and stick model based on a continuous Gamma distribution of diffusivities, which significantly improves the fitting and reduces the over-fitting. Using in-vivo experimental data, we show that this model outperforms a simpler, noise floor model, especially at the interfaces between brain tissues, suggesting that partial volume effects are a major cause of the observed non-mono-exponential decay. This model may be helpful for future data acquisition strategies that may attempt to combine multiple shells to improve estimates of fibre orientations in white matter and near the cortex. PMID:22334356

  15. Novel Exponentially Fitted Two-Derivative Runge-Kutta Methods with Equation-Dependent Coefficients for First-Order Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of exponentially fitted two-derivative Runge-Kutta (EFTDRK methods for the numerical solution of first-order differential equations is investigated. The revised EFTDRK methods proposed, with equation-dependent coefficients, take into consideration the errors produced in the internal stages to the update. The local truncation errors and stability of the new methods are analyzed. The numerical results are reported to show the accuracy of the new methods.

  16. 基于AC+FIT AP的WLAN跨越三层网络注册问题研究%Research on WLAN Across Three-layer Network Registration Based on AC+FIT AP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓英; 薛文静

    2016-01-01

    本文首先给出学院WLAN覆盖需求,其次给出两种方案可供选择,最佳方案是AC+FIT AP方案,这也是大中型网络以后发展的方向,其中在此方案中最重要的是AC+FIT AP的option43注册, AP能否注册成功直接关系到WLAN的覆盖,最后给出FIT AP在AC上注册不成功故障排查方法。%This paper gives the college WLAN coverage requirements, and then gives two options. The best choice is AC+FIT AP scheme, which is the development trend of large and medium-sized network in future, the most important thing of which is the registration of AC+FIT AP option43. The success of AP registration is directly related to the WLAN coverage, and this paper finally proposes the method of solving the unsuccessful FIT AP registration.

  17. GPS Elevation Abnormal Fitting Based on Matlab%基于Matlab的GPS高程异常拟合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯海波; 韩冰; 梁宏伟; 张元杰

    2013-01-01

    GPS has its deficiency in the elevation pointing accuracy aspect because the geoid is an irregular curved surface and it is unable to simulate with an accurate curved surface, which enables GPS only to provide for us the accuracy of the geoid height rather than the normal height in our project needs. So it has seriously affected the three dimensional localization application development of GPS and made the superiority of providing the three dimensional coordinates not able to obtain the full display. By collecting and ana lyzing the domestic and international study methods and application techniques of GPS leveling in recent years and based on these re search results, complex terrain, geoid characteristics, and the case study, the paper studies GPS elevation abnormal fitting in large ar eas.%由于似大地水准面是一个不规则的曲面,它无法用一个精准的曲面来模拟,这就使得GPS只能提供给我们高精度的大地高,而不是工程中需要的正常高,严重影响了GPS3维定位的应用发展,使其提供维坐标的优越性未能得到充分发挥.在借鉴国内外研究成果的基础上,针对我国国土面积广,地形尤为复杂,似大地水准面起伏比较大的特点,结合工程实例,对大面积区域内GPS高程异常拟合作了相应的分析和研究.

  18. The Application of Continuous Wavelet Transform Based Foreground Subtraction Method in 21 cm Sky Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Junhua; Wang, Jingying; An, Tao; Chen, Wen

    2013-01-01

    We propose a continuous wavelet transform based non-parametric foreground subtraction method for the detection of redshifted 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization. This method works based on the assumption that the foreground spectra are smooth in frequency domain, while the 21 cm signal spectrum is full of saw-tooth-like structures, thus their characteristic scales are significantly different. We can distinguish them in the wavelet coefficient space easily and perform the foreground subtraction. Compared with the traditional spectral fitting based method, our method is more tolerant to complex foregrounds. Furthermore, we also find that when the instrument has uncorrected response error, our method can also work significantly better than the spectral fitting based method. Our method can obtain similar results with the Wp smoothing method, which is also a non-parametric method, but our method consumes much less computing time.

  19. A Stereo Matching Algorithm Based on Four-Mo ded Census and Relative Confidence Plane Fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEN Yubo; ZHANG Guoyin; MEN Chaoguang; LI Xiang; MA Ning

    2015-01-01

    A four-moded Census transform stereo matching algorithm using bidirectional constraint dynamic programming and relative confidence plane fitting is pro-posed to solve the problems of matching quality. Using the four-moded Census transform which adds a restrictive condition replaces traditional Census transform to improve matching accuracy and mean value of all pixels intensity replaces the center pixel intensity in the Census window to solve the problem of the center pixel distortion eff ectively, a refined initial local matching cost can be obtained. Dur-ing the disparity optimization, the difficulty of disparity computation in textureless areas is overcome by the esti-mated condition and defined relative confident pixels. Ex-periment results show that a better dense matching map can be obtained by the proposed algorithm.

  20. Self-discrepancy and regulatory fit in avatar-based exergames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-A Annie

    2012-12-01

    Drawing from Higgins's self-discrepancy theory and regulatory focus theory, this study examined the use of activated selves and regulatory foci in health games. Utilizing the Wii's avatar-creating and exergaming features, a 2 (activated self: actual self versus ideal self) x 2 (regulatory focus: promotion versus prevention) x 2 (efficacy appeals: self-efficacy versus response-efficacy) between-subjects experiment tested the interactions of activated selves, regulatory foci, and efficacy appeals on low-calorie dieting intentions after health game playing. Results from an experiment with 156 participants demonstrated that a fit between regulatory focus and efficacy appeals induced greater dieting intentions when the actual self was activated while the opposite effect occurred when the ideal self was activated. Theoretical contributions to basic and applied social psychology as well as managerial implications for consumer behavior research are considered.

  1. Advanced alpha spectrum analysis based on the fitting and covariance analysis of dependent variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihantola, S.; Pelikan, A.; Pöllänen, R.; Toivonen, H.

    2011-11-01

    The correct handling of statistical uncertainties is crucial especially when unfolding alpha spectra that contain a low number of counts or overlapping peaks from different nuclides. For this purpose, we have developed a new spectrum analysis software package called ADAM, which performs a full covariance calculus for alpha-particle emitting radionuclides. By analyzing a large number of simulated and measured spectra, the program was proved to give unbiased peak areas and statistically correct uncertainty limits. This applies regardless of the peak areas and the number of unknown parameters during the fitting. In addition, ADAM performs reliable deconvolution for multiplets, which opens the way for the determination of isotope ratios, such as 239Pu/240Pu.

  2. Use of the bootstrap method to develop a physical fitness test for public safety officers who serve as both police officers and firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jenny; Cheng, Dunlei; Lee, John; Shock, Tiffany; Kennedy, Kathleen; Pate, Scotty

    2014-07-01

    Physical fitness testing is a common tool for motivating employees with strenuous occupations to reach and maintain a minimum level of fitness. Nevertheless, the use of such tests can be hampered by several factors, including required compliance with US antidiscrimination laws. The Highland Park (Texas) Department of Public Safety implemented testing in 1991, but no single test adequately evaluated its sworn employees, who are cross-trained and serve as police officers and firefighters. In 2010, the department's fitness experts worked with exercise physiologists from Baylor Heart and Vascular Hospital to develop and evaluate a single test that would be equitable regardless of race/ethnicity, disability, sex, or age >50 years. The new test comprised a series of exercises to assess overall fitness, followed by two sequences of job-specific tasks related to firefighting and police work, respectively. The study group of 50 public safety officers took the test; raw data (e.g., the number of repetitions performed or the time required to complete a task) were collected during three quarterly testing sessions. The statistical bootstrap method was then used to determine the levels of performance that would correlate with 0, 1, 2, or 3 points for each task. A sensitivity analysis was done to determine the overall minimum passing score of 17 points. The new physical fitness test and scoring system have been incorporated into the department's policies and procedures as part of the town's overall employee fitness program.

  3. Valuing Convertible Bonds Based on LSRQM Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Convertible bonds are one of the essential financial products for corporate finance, while the pricing theory is the key problem to the theoretical research of convertible bonds. This paper demonstrates how to price convertible bonds with call and put provisions using Least-Squares Randomized Quasi-Monte Carlo (LSRQM method. We consider the financial market with stochastic interest rates and credit risk and present a detailed description on calculating steps of convertible bonds value. The empirical results show that the model fits well the market prices of convertible bonds in China’s market and the LSRQM method is effective.

  4. Marginal fit of alumina-and zirconia-based fixed partial dentures produced by a CAD/CAM system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinschert, J; Natt, G; Mautsch, W; Spiekermann, H; Anusavice, K J

    2001-01-01

    Clinical long-term success of all-ceramic dental restorations can be significantly influenced by marginal discrepancies. As a result, this in vitro study evaluated the marginal fit of alumina- and zirconia-based fixed partial dentures (FPDs) machined by the Precident DCS system. Different master steel models of three-, four- and five-unit posterior FPDs with an 0.8 mm chamfer preparation were produced. FPDs made of DC-Zirkon and In-Ceram Zirconia core ceramics were machined by the Precident DCS system. The marginal fit of the milled frameworks placed on the master steel models was determined by a replica technique using a light-body silicone to fill the discrepancies between crown and tooth and a heavy-body material to stabilize the light-body impression material. The impressions were poured into an epoxy resin material and each model was cross-sectioned with a low speed diamond saw to better visualize marginal discrepancies. The marginal fit of the FPDs was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The measurements of the marginal fit exhibited mean marginal discrepancies in a range between 60.5 and 74.0 microm, mean marginal gaps in a range from 42.9 to 46.3 microm, mean vertical discrepancies in a range from 20.9 to 48.0 microm and mean horizontal discrepancies in the range of 42.0 to 58.8 microm. Statistical data analysis was performed using the non-parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney. The analysis revealed no significant differences (p>0.05) between the mean marginal gaps and vertical and horizontal discrepancies. However, for some FPDs the mean values of the marginal discrepancies were significantly different (p < or =0.05). The wide range of the measured values may be attributed to the complex geometrical design of long span FPDs and difficulties regarding the milling process of brittle ceramic materials. Based on the selection of 100 microm as the limit of clinical acceptability, the results of this study can conclude that the level of

  5. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Open to All: http://cern.ch/club-fitness  fitness.club@cern.ch Boxing Your supervisor makes your life too tough ! You really need to release the pressure you've been building up ! Come and join the fit-boxers. We train three times a week in Bd 216, classes for beginners and advanced available. Visit our website cern.ch/Boxing General Fitness Escape from your desk with our general fitness classes, to strengthen your heart, muscles and bones, improve you stamina, balance and flexibility, achieve new goals, be more productive and experience a sense of well-being, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtime, Tuesday mornings before work and Thursday evenings after work – join us for one of our monthly fitness workshops. Nordic Walking Enjoy the great outdoors; Nordic Walking is a great way to get your whole body moving and to significantly improve the condition of your muscles, heart and lungs. It will boost your energy levels no end. Pilates A body-conditioning technique de...

  6. Getting CSR communication fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line

    2017-01-01

    Companies experience increasing legal and societal pressure to communicate about their corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagements from a number of different publics. One very important group is that of young consumers who are predicted to be the most important and influential consumer group...... in the near future. From a value- theoretical base, this article empirically explores the role and applicability of ‘fit’ in strategic CSR communication targeted at young consumers. Point of departure is taken in the well-known strategic fit (a logical link between a company’s CSR commitment and its core...... values) and is further developed by introducing two additional fits, the CSR- Consumer fit and the CSR-Consumer-Company fit (Triple Fit). Through a sequential design, the three fits are empirically tested and their potential for meeting young consumers’ expectations for corporate CSR messaging...

  7. Linking diet, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity to serum metabolite networks: findings from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floegel, A; Wientzek, A; Bachlechner, U; Jacobs, S; Drogan, D; Prehn, C; Adamski, J; Krumsiek, J; Schulze, M B; Pischon, T; Boeing, H

    2014-11-01

    It is not yet resolved how lifestyle factors and intermediate phenotypes interrelate with metabolic pathways. We aimed to investigate the associations between diet, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity with serum metabolite networks in a population-based study. The present study included 2380 participants of a randomly drawn subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam. Targeted metabolomics was used to measure 127 serum metabolites. Additional data were available including anthropometric measurements, dietary assessment including intake of whole-grain bread, coffee and cake and cookies by food frequency questionnaire, and objectively measured physical activity energy expenditure and cardiorespiratory fitness in a subsample of 100 participants. In a data-driven approach, Gaussian graphical modeling was used to draw metabolite networks and depict relevant associations between exposures and serum metabolites. In addition, the relationship of different exposure metabolite networks was estimated. In the serum metabolite network, the different metabolite classes could be separated. There was a big group of phospholipids and acylcarnitines, a group of amino acids and C6-sugar. Amino acids were particularly positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity. C6-sugar and acylcarnitines were positively associated with obesity and inversely with intake of whole-grain bread. Phospholipids showed opposite associations with obesity and coffee intake. Metabolite networks of coffee intake and obesity were strongly inversely correlated (body mass index (BMI): r = -0.57 and waist circumference: r = -0.59). A strong positive correlation was observed between metabolite networks of BMI and waist circumference (r = 0.99), as well as the metabolite networks of cake and cookie intake with cardiorespiratory fitness and intake of whole-grain bread (r = 0.52 and r = 0.50; respectively). Lifestyle factors

  8. Pilot testing of a mindfulness- and acceptance-based intervention for increasing cardiorespiratory fitness in sedentary adults: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E C; Galloway-Williams, N; Cox, M G; Winett, R A

    2015-10-01

    Vigorous physical activity (PA) has been promoted for improving cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). However, therapeutic techniques designed to engage participants in vigorous PA have fallen short; one reason for this may be the unpleasant physical sensations associated with vigorous exercise (e.g., temporary shortness of breath and mild muscle soreness). Mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may be helpful at improving adherence to vigorous PA levels. In this open clinical trial, we sought to demonstrate the feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness- and acceptance-based intervention for increasing CRF in sedentary adults and to generate initial outcomes data. Participants (N=24) engaged in a 10-week fitness walking program while attending regular group sessions based on ACT. The feasibility and acceptability of the intervention were demonstrated through high levels of walking adherence (89.30%) and group session attendance (85.50%). A large significant decrease in total 1-mile walk test time [t(18)=4.61, p=.0002, d=.64] and a moderate significant increase in estimated VO2max [t(18)=-4.05, p=.0007, d=-.43] were observed. Analyses indicated a large significant increase in exercise-related experiential acceptance [t(18)=-9.19, p <.0001, d=-2.09]. This study demonstrates the feasibility and acceptability of an ACT-based intervention for supporting participation in vigorous PA in sedentary individuals.

  9. 基于包络拟合法的FPGA超声测距系统设计%Design of FPGA ultrasonic ranging system with envelope fitting method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祥; 杨飞鹏; 黄宝莹; 黄启俊; 常胜

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of poor precision and low speed in the application of ordinary ultrasonic ranging, we put forward a full hardware realization of FPGA-based ultrasonic ranging system. The system realizes ultrasonic echo envelope fitting by least squares method of quadratic curve fitting algorithm, which can calculate the distance through the process of echo signal. The digital circuit is described by Verilog HDL, and the system is implemented on Altera's EP2C70F896C6. The measurement error is less than 1 mm in range of 4 meters. System's measure precision is high and operation speed is fast. System can be extended on the field of ultrasonic flaw detection and ultrasonic imaging, etc.%针对普通超声测距系统精度低、速度慢的问题,提出了一种全硬件实现的FPGA超声测距系统.将最小二乘法的二次曲线拟合算法应用于超声回波包络拟合,完成回波信号的数字信号处理和距离的测量.采用硬件描述语言在Altera公司的EP2C70F896C6上实现,在4m范围内测距误差小于±1 mm.该系统具有精度高、运算速度快的特点,并具备很强的功能扩展性,可扩展到超声探伤、超声成像等领域.

  10. A computer program for the calculation of the flow field in supersonic mixed-compression inlets at angle of attack using the three-dimensional method of characteristics with discrete shock wave fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadyak, J.; Hoffman, J. D.; Bishop, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    The calculation procedure is based on the method of characteristics for steady three-dimensional flow. The bow shock wave and the internal shock wave system were computed using a discrete shock wave fitting procedure. The general structure of the computer program is discussed, and a brief description of each subroutine is given. All program input parameters are defined, and a brief discussion on interpretation of the output is provided. A number of sample cases, complete with data deck listings, are presented.

  11. Evaluating Mind Fitness Training and Its Potential Effects on Surgical Residents' Well-Being : A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lases, S. S.; Lombarts, M. J. M. H.; Slootweg, Irene A.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Pierik, E. G. J. M.; Heineman, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background Residents' well-being is essential for both the individual physician and the quality of patient care they deliver. Therefore, it is important to maintain or possibly enhance residents' well-being. We investigated (i) the influence of mind fitness training (MFT) on quality of care-related

  12. Accounting for genetic architecture improves sequence based genomic prediction for a Drosophila fitness trait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Ober

    Full Text Available The ability to predict quantitative trait phenotypes from molecular polymorphism data will revolutionize evolutionary biology, medicine and human biology, and animal and plant breeding. Efforts to map quantitative trait loci have yielded novel insights into the biology of quantitative traits, but the combination of individually significant quantitative trait loci typically has low predictive ability. Utilizing all segregating variants can give good predictive ability in plant and animal breeding populations, but gives little insight into trait biology. Here, we used the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel to perform both a genome wide association analysis and genomic prediction for the fitness-related trait chill coma recovery time. We found substantial total genetic variation for chill coma recovery time, with a genetic architecture that differs between males and females, a small number of molecular variants with large main effects, and evidence for epistasis. Although the top additive variants explained 36% (17% of the genetic variance among lines in females (males, the predictive ability using genomic best linear unbiased prediction and a relationship matrix using all common segregating variants was very low for females and zero for males. We hypothesized that the low predictive ability was due to the mismatch between the infinitesimal genetic architecture assumed by the genomic best linear unbiased prediction model and the true genetic architecture of chill coma recovery time. Indeed, we found that the predictive ability of the genomic best linear unbiased prediction model is markedly improved when we combine quantitative trait locus mapping with genomic prediction by only including the top variants associated with main and epistatic effects in the relationship matrix. This trait-associated prediction approach has the advantage that it yields biologically interpretable prediction models.

  13. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...... to that seen in Denmark. We propose a significant fitness cost of resistance as the main bacteriological explanation for the disappearance of the multiresistant complex 83A MRSA in Denmark following a reduction in antibiotic usage.......Denmark and several other countries experienced the first epidemic of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) during the period 196575, which was caused by multiresistant isolates of phage complex 83A. In Denmark these MRSA isolates disappeared almost completely, being replaced by other...

  14. COMPANY VALUATION METHODS BASED ON PATRIMONY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The methods used for the company valuation can be divided into 3 main groups: methods based on patrimony,methods based on financial performance, methods based both on patrimony and on performance. The companyvaluation methods based on patrimony are implemented taking into account the balance sheet or the financialstatement. The financial statement refers to that type of balance in which the assets are arranged according to liquidity,and the liabilities according to their financial maturity date. The patrimonial methods are based on the principle thatthe value of the company equals that of the patrimony it owns. From a legal point of view, the patrimony refers to allthe rights and obligations of a company. The valuation of companies based on their financial performance can be donein 3 ways: the return value, the yield value, the present value of the cash flows. The mixed methods depend both onpatrimony and on financial performance or can make use of other methods.

  15. Unification of regression-based methods for the analysis of natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Michael B; Sakrejda, Krzysztof

    2013-07-01

    Regression analyses are central to characterization of the form and strength of natural selection in nature. Two common analyses that are currently used to characterize selection are (1) least squares-based approximation of the individual relative fitness surface for the purpose of obtaining quantitatively useful selection gradients, and (2) spline-based estimation of (absolute) fitness functions to obtain flexible inference of the shape of functions by which fitness and phenotype are related. These two sets of methodologies are often implemented in parallel to provide complementary inferences of the form of natural selection. We unify these two analyses, providing a method whereby selection gradients can be obtained for a given observed distribution of phenotype and characterization of a function relating phenotype to fitness. The method allows quantitatively useful selection gradients to be obtained from analyses of selection that adequately model nonnormal distributions of fitness, and provides unification of the two previously separate regression-based fitness analyses. We demonstrate the method by calculating directional and quadratic selection gradients associated with a smooth regression-based generalized additive model of the relationship between neonatal survival and the phenotypic traits of gestation length and birth mass in humans.

  16. A method for selecting training samples based on camera response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leihong; Li, Bei; Pan, Zilan; Liang, Dong; Kang, Yi; Zhang, Dawei; Ma, Xiuhua

    2016-09-01

    In the process of spectral reflectance reconstruction, sample selection plays an important role in the accuracy of the constructed model and in reconstruction effects. In this paper, a method for training sample selection based on camera response is proposed. It has been proved that the camera response value has a close correlation with the spectral reflectance. Consequently, in this paper we adopt the technique of drawing a sphere in camera response value space to select the training samples which have a higher correlation with the test samples. In addition, the Wiener estimation method is used to reconstruct the spectral reflectance. Finally, we find that the method of sample selection based on camera response value has the smallest color difference and root mean square error after reconstruction compared to the method using the full set of Munsell color charts, the Mohammadi training sample selection method, and the stratified sampling method. Moreover, the goodness of fit coefficient of this method is also the highest among the four sample selection methods. Taking all the factors mentioned above into consideration, the method of training sample selection based on camera response value enhances the reconstruction accuracy from both the colorimetric and spectral perspectives.

  17. Modified section method for laser-welding of ill-fitting cp Ti and Ni-Cr alloy one-piece cast implant-supported frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiossi, R; Falcão-Filho, H; Aguiar Júnior, F A; Rodrigues, R C; Mattos, M da G; Ribeiro, R F

    2010-05-01

    This study aimed to verify the effect of modified section method and laser-welding on the accuracy of fit of ill-fitting commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) and Ni-Cr alloy one-piece cast frameworks. Two sets of similar implant-supported frameworks were constructed. Both groups of six 3-unit implant-supported fixed partial dentures were cast as one-piece [I: Ni-Cr (control) and II: cp Ti] and evaluated for passive fitting in an optical microscope with both screws tightened and with only one screw tightened. All frameworks were then sectioned in the diagonal axis at the pontic region (III: Ni-Cr and IV: cp Ti). Sectioned frameworks were positioned in the matrix (10-Ncm torque) and laser-welded. Passive fitting was evaluated for the second time. Data were submitted to anova and Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference tests (P 0.05). Results showed that diagonally sectioning ill-fitting cp Ti frameworks lowers misfit levels of prosthetic implant-supported frameworks and also improves passivity levels of the same frameworks when compared to one-piece cast structures.

  18. Methods for fitting of efficiency curves obtained by means of HPGe gamma rays spectrometers; Metodos de ajuste de curvas de eficiencia obtidas por meio de espectrometros de HPGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Vanderlei

    2002-07-01

    The present work describes a few methodologies developed for fitting efficiency curves obtained by means of a HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. The interpolated values were determined by simple polynomial fitting and polynomial fitting between the ratio of experimental peak efficiency and total efficiency, calculated by Monte Carlo technique, as a function of gamma-ray energy. Moreover, non-linear fitting has been performed using a segmented polynomial function and applying the Gauss-Marquardt method. For the peak area obtainment different methodologies were developed in order to estimate the background area under the peak. This information was obtained by numerical integration or by using analytical functions associated to the background. One non-calibrated radioactive source has been included in the curve efficiency in order to provide additional calibration points. As a by-product, it was possible to determine the activity of this non-calibrated source. For all fittings developed in the present work the covariance matrix methodology was used, which is an essential procedure in order to give a complete description of the partial uncertainties involved. (author)

  19. Impact of a Community-Based Physical Activity Program on Fitness and Adiposity Among Overweight and Obese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Daniel P; Chomitz, Virginia R; Chui, Kenneth K H; Sacheck, Jennifer M; Brown, Allison A; Economos, Christina D

    2016-05-19

    This study tested whether overweight/obese children's attendance in a community-based physical activity (PA) program was associated with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and adiposity and whether in-program activity levels influenced those associations. Program sessions (offered twice/week, 2 hours/session, over 9 months) included structured exercise/sports. At baseline and follow-up, CRF was measured as Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) laps, height/weight were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Attendance was recorded as sessions attended. Children wore pedometers in 10 representative sessions; in-program activity was calculated as mean steps/minute across sessions. Linear mixed models tested associations between attendance and changes in PACER score and BMI and the influence of in-program activity on those associations. A total of 101 participants (56% male, 93% Hispanic) completed baseline and one or two follow-up fitness/adiposity measurements. Attendance was associated with PACER change (β = .093, p = .01) but not BMI change (β = .00026, p = .97). There were significant interactions between attendance and in-program activity: Attendance more favorably affected PACER (p program activity levels increased. Attending community-based PA programs may improve CRF among overweight/obese children, particularly when participants are highly active during program time. Community practitioners should not only enroll overweight/obese children in PA programs but also promote adequate attendance/in-program activity levels. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  20. Covariance fitting of highly-correlated data in lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Boram; Jang, Yong-Chull; Jung, Chulwoo; Lee, Weonjong

    2013-07-01

    We address a frequently-asked question on the covariance fitting of highly-correlated data such as our B K data based on the SU(2) staggered chiral perturbation theory. Basically, the essence of the problem is that we do not have a fitting function accurate enough to fit extremely precise data. When eigenvalues of the covariance matrix are small, even a tiny error in the fitting function yields a large chi-square value and spoils the fitting procedure. We have applied a number of prescriptions available in the market, such as the cut-off method, modified covariance matrix method, and Bayesian method. We also propose a brand new method, the eigenmode shift (ES) method, which allows a full covariance fitting without modifying the covariance matrix at all. We provide a pedagogical example of data analysis in which the cut-off method manifestly fails in fitting, but the rest work well. In our case of the B K fitting, the diagonal approximation, the cut-off method, the ES method, and the Bayesian method work reasonably well in an engineering sense. However, interpreting the meaning of χ 2 is easier in the case of the ES method and the Bayesian method in a theoretical sense aesthetically. Hence, the ES method can be a useful alternative optional tool to check the systematic error caused by the covariance fitting procedure.

  1. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Get in Shape for Summer with the CERN Fitness Club Saturday 23 June 2012 from 14:30 to 16.30 (doors open at 14.00) Germana’s Fitness Workshop. Build strength and stamina, sculpt and tone your body and get your heart pumping with Germana’s workout mixture of Cardio Attack, Power Pump, Power Step, Cardio Combat and Cross-Training. Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 15 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Test_Subscription/NewForm.aspx? Join the Party and dance yourself into shape at Marco + Marials Zumba Masterclass. Saturday 30 June 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 Marco + Mariel’s Zumba Masterclass Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 25 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20...

  2. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

      The CERN Fitness Club is pleased to announce its new early morning class which will be taking place on: Tuesdays from 24th April 07:30 to 08:15 216 (Pump Hall, close to entrance C) – Facilities include changing rooms and showers. The Classes: The early morning classes will focus on workouts which will help you build not only strength and stamina, but will also improve your balance, and coordination. Our qualified instructor Germana will accompany you throughout the workout  to ensure you stay motivated so you achieve the best results. Sign up and discover the best way to start your working day full of energy! How to subscribe? We invite you along to a FREE trial session, if you enjoy the activity, please sign up via our website: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Activities/SUBSCRIBE.aspx. * * * * * * * * Saturday 28th April Get in shape for the summer at our fitness workshop and zumba dance party: Fitness workshop with Germana 13:00 to 14:30 - 216 (Pump Hall) Price...

  3. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

      Nordic Walking Classes Come join the Nordic walking classes and outings offered by the CERN Fitness Club starting September 2013. Our licensed instructor Christine offers classes for people who’ve never tried Nordic Walking and who would like to learn the technique, and outings for people who have completed the classes and enjoy going out as a group. Course 1: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 24 September, 1 October, 8 October, 15 October Course 2: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 5 November, 12 November, 19 November, 26 November Outings will take place on Thursdays (12:30 to 13:30) from 12 September 2013. We meet at the CERN Club Barracks car park (close to Entrance A) 10 minutes before departure. Prices: 50 CHF for 4 classes, including the 10 CHF Club membership. Payments made directly to instructor. Renting Poles: Poles can be rented from Christine at 5 CHF / hour. Subscription: Please subscribe at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Looking forward to seeing you among us! Fitness Club FitnessClub@c...

  4. Corneal topography and soft contact lens fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Graeme; Schnider, Cristina; Hunt, Chris; Efron, Suzanne

    2010-05-01

    To determine which ocular topography variables affect soft contact lens fit. Fifty subjects each wore three pairs of soft lenses in random succession (Vistakon Acuvue 2, Vistakon Acuvue Advance, Ciba Vision Night & Day), and various aspects of lens fit were evaluated. The steeper base curves of each type were worn in one eye and the flatter base curves in the other eye. Corneal topography data were collected using a Medmont E300 corneal topographer (Camberwell, Australia). Corneal curvature, shape factor (SF), and corneal height were measured over a 10 mm chord and also over the maximum measurable diameter. These were measured in the horizontal, vertical, steepest, and flattest meridians. With each lens type, the steeper base curve provided the best fit on the greatest proportion of eyes and the significant differences in various aspects of fit were noted between base curves. For each lens type, there was no significant difference in mean K-reading between those eyes best fit with the steeper base curve and those eyes best fit with the flatter base curve. Two of the lenses showed a positive correlation between centration and horizontal corneal height (maximum), whereas one lens showed a negative correlation between centration and horizontal SF (SF = e). Several lenses showed a positive correlation between post-blink movement and horizontal or vertical corneal SF. The measurement of corneal topography using current Placido disc instrumentation allows a better prediction of soft lens fit than by keratometry, but it is not reliable enough to enable accurate selection of the best fitting base curve. Some correlations are evident between corneal measurements; however, trial fitting remains the method of choice for selection of soft lens base curve.

  5. An interactive segmentation method based on superpixel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Shu; Zhu, Yaping; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an interactive image-segmentation method which is based on superpixel. To achieve fast segmentation, the method is used to establish a Graphcut model using superpixels as nodes, and a new energy function is proposed. Experimental results demonstrate that the authors' method has...... excellent performance in terms of segmentation accuracy and computation efficiency compared with other segmentation algorithm based on pixels....

  6. Digital Autofocusing Method Based on Contourlet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The autofocusing technique based on contourlet transform is discussed in this paper and an autofocusing method is proposed for images with much information in certain directions. The experimental results show that theproposed method can focus accurately and the sensitivity ratio is higher than that of the other autofocusing methods based on conventional image processing

  7. Child fitness and father's BMI are important factors in childhood obesity: a school based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead Brophy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines obesity and factors associated with obesity in children aged 11-13 years in the UK. METHODS: 1147 children from ten secondary schools participated in a health survey that included blood samples, fitness test and anthropometric measures. Factors associated with obesity were examined using multilevel logistic regression. FINDINGS: Of the children examined (490 male; 657 female a third were overweight, 1 in 6 had elevated blood pressure, more than 1 in 10 had high cholesterol, 58% consumed more fat than recommended, whilst 37% were classified as unfit. Children in deprived areas had a higher proportion of risk factors; for example, they had higher blood pressure (20% (deprived compared to 11% (non-deprived, difference: 9.0% (95%CI: 4.7%-13.4%. Obesity is associated with risk factors for heart disease and diabetes. Maintaining fitness is associated with a reduction in the risk factors for heart disease (high blood pressure and cholesterol but not on risk factors for diabetes (insulin levels. In order of importance, the main risk factors for childhood obesity are being unfit, having an obese father, and being large at birth. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of children with risk factors suggests future interventions need to focus on community and policy change to shift the population norm rather than targeting the behaviour of high risk individuals. Interventions need to focus on mothers' lifestyle in pregnancy, fathers' health, as well as promoting fitness among children. Obesity was not associated with deprivation. Therefore, strategies should be adopted in both deprived and non deprived areas.

  8. Cognitive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain.

  9. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  10. Genetic and potential non-genetic benefits increase offspring fitness of polyandrous females in non-resource based mating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peuhkuri Nina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adaptive significance of female polyandry is currently under considerable debate. In non-resource based mating systems, indirect, i.e. genetic benefits have been proposed to be responsible for the fitness gain from polyandry. We studied the benefits of polyandry in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus using an experimental design in which the material investments by the sires and maternal environmental effects were controlled. Results Embryonic mortality showed a strong paternal genetic component, and it was lower in polyandrously fertilized offspring (sperm competition of two males than in monandrous fertilizations. We also found that high sperm velocity was associated with low offspring mortality, but not with the size of the offspring or their yolk volume. Although no male effect was found on the size of the offspring yolk reserves, yolk volume was higher in offspring from polyandrous matings than offspring of the either of the two males when mated monandrously. Conclusions In support of the "good sperm hypothesis, we found that sperm velocity was positively associated with offspring fitness. In addition, our results suggest that polyandrous females gain genetic advantage (higher offspring survival from this behavior, but that some benefits of polyandry (larger yolk volume may not be explained solely by the additive genetic effects. This suggests that sperm competition environment may intensify the selection on genetically superior sperm which in turn may produce offspring that have superior yolk reserves. However, as high sperm velocity was not associated with larger yolk volume, it is possible that also some other non-genetic effects may contribute to offspring fitness. The potential role of polyandrous mating in inbreeding avoidance is discussed.

  11. The task allocation for improved fitness-based heterogeneous multi-robot%改进适应度的异构多机器人任务分配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张万绪; 冯晓海; 赵江波; 卢恩超; 李莹

    2013-01-01

    目的 探究基于适应度的异构机器人系统模型与外部适应度的特点,提高系统性能与任务分配结果.方法 应用数学模拟法分别研究机器人与任务,实证研究法验证外部适应度算法.结果 对于机器人模型与任务模型,采用机器人原始性能参数建模;外部适应度采用正余切函数构成的算法,实现了任务最优分配.结论 改进后的数学模型提高了系统的鲁棒性与可扩展性,改进外部适应度算法更为有效的反映机器人与任务间的匹配关系,为系统任务分配提供了可靠依据.%Aim To study fitness-based heterogeneous robot in terms of system model characteristics, and external fitness characteristics and to improve the system performance and task allocation results. Methods The mathematical simulation is applied to study robots and tasks, empirical research method to verify that external fitness algorithm. Results The robot model and the task model have been built by using the the robot raw performance parameters; positive cotangent external adaptation of the algorithm has achieved the optimal allocation of tasks. Conclusion Improved mathematical models improve system robustness and scalability, improving the matching relationship between the external adaptation algorithm can more effectively reflect the matching relationship between the robot with the task, and provide a reliable basis for the allocation of system tasks.

  12. Effect of school-based interventions on physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents: a review of reviews and systematic update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriemler, S; Meyer, U; Martin, E

    2011-01-01

    School-based interventions are thought to be the most universally applicable and effective way to counteract low physical activity (PA) and fitness although there is controversy about the optimal strategy to intervene....

  13. Evaluating Assessment Strategies through Collaborative Evidence-Based Practice: Can One Tool Fit All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Liz; Smailes, Joanne; Sambell, Kay; Sambell, Alistair; Wakelin, Delia

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a collaborative project to improve assessment undertaken by a cross-discipline group of university lecturers (Business, Engineering and Psychology) using action research methodology. First-stage analysis was based on results from an Assessment Experience Questionnaire developed by the FAST FDTL4 (Formative Assessment in…

  14. Salsa dance and Zumba fitness: Acute responses during community-based classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A. Domene

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The acute responses to classes of partnered Latin dance and non-partnered Latin-themed aerobic dance suggest that in physically inactive women participation is indeed efficacious in terms of community-based physical activity and psychosocial health promotion.

  15. Heliospheric Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections: Drag-Based Model Fitting

    CERN Document Server

    Žic, T; Temmer, M

    2015-01-01

    The so-called drag-based model (DBM) simulates analytically the propagation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in interplanetary space and allows the prediction of their arrival times and impact speeds at any point in the heliosphere ("target"). The DBM is based on the assumption that beyond a distance of about 20 solar radii from the Sun, the dominant force acting on CMEs is the "aerodynamic" drag force. In the standard form of DBM, the user provisionally chooses values for the model input parameters, by which the kinematics of the CME over the entire Sun--"target" distance range is defined. The choice of model input parameters is usually based on several previously undertaken statistical studies. In other words, the model is used by ad hoc implementation of statistics-based values of the input parameters, which are not necessarily appropriate for the CME under study. Furthermore, such a procedure lacks quantitative information on how well the simulation reproduces the coronagraphically observed kinematics of ...

  16. 007 to the Rescue – Cognitive Fit of Operations Research and Agent-based Decision Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krauth, Elfriede I.; Hillegersberg, van Jos; Velde, van de Steef L.

    2007-01-01

    Adoption rates of traditional Operations Research (OR) based decision support systems (DSS) suffer from perceived complexity of the underlying model and its detrimental effect on user-friendliness. The mental effort required to understand abstract models can hinder adoption. This barrier may seem ev

  17. Tunnel Point Cloud Filtering Method Based on Elliptic Cylindrical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhua, Ningning; Jiaa, Yonghong; Luo, Lun

    2016-06-01

    The large number of bolts and screws that attached to the subway shield ring plates, along with the great amount of accessories of metal stents and electrical equipments mounted on the tunnel walls, make the laser point cloud data include lots of non-tunnel section points (hereinafter referred to as non-points), therefore affecting the accuracy for modeling and deformation monitoring. This paper proposed a filtering method for the point cloud based on the elliptic cylindrical model. The original laser point cloud data was firstly projected onto a horizontal plane, and a searching algorithm was given to extract the edging points of both sides, which were used further to fit the tunnel central axis. Along the axis the point cloud was segmented regionally, and then fitted as smooth elliptic cylindrical surface by means of iteration. This processing enabled the automatic filtering of those inner wall non-points. Experiments of two groups showed coincident results, that the elliptic cylindrical model based method could effectively filter out the non-points, and meet the accuracy requirements for subway deformation monitoring. The method provides a new mode for the periodic monitoring of tunnel sections all-around deformation in subways routine operation and maintenance.

  18. TUNNEL POINT CLOUD FILTERING METHOD BASED ON ELLIPTIC CYLINDRICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The large number of bolts and screws that attached to the subway shield ring plates, along with the great amount of accessories of metal stents and electrical equipments mounted on the tunnel walls, make the laser point cloud data include lots of non-tunnel section points (hereinafter referred to as non-points, therefore affecting the accuracy for modeling and deformation monitoring. This paper proposed a filtering method for the point cloud based on the elliptic cylindrical model. The original laser point cloud data was firstly projected onto a horizontal plane, and a searching algorithm was given to extract the edging points of both sides, which were used further to fit the tunnel central axis. Along the axis the point cloud was segmented regionally, and then fitted as smooth elliptic cylindrical surface by means of iteration. This processing enabled the automatic filtering of those inner wall non-points. Experiments of two groups showed coincident results, that the elliptic cylindrical model based method could effectively filter out the non-points, and meet the accuracy requirements for subway deformation monitoring. The method provides a new mode for the periodic monitoring of tunnel sections all-around deformation in subways routine operation and maintenance.

  19. ElEvoHI: a novel CME prediction tool for heliospheric imaging combining an elliptical front with drag-based model fitting

    CERN Document Server

    Rollett, Tanja; Isavnin, Alexey; Davies, Jackie A; Kubicka, Manuel; Amerstorfer, Ute V; Harrison, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present a new method for forecasting arrival times and speeds of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at any location in the inner heliosphere. This new approach enables the adoption of a highly flexible geometrical shape for the CME front with an adjustable CME angular width and an adjustable radius of curvature of its leading edge, i.e. the assumed geometry is elliptical. Using, as input, STEREO heliospheric imager (HI) observations, a new elliptic conversion (ElCon) method is introduced and combined with the use of drag-based model (DBM) fitting to quantify the deceleration or acceleration experienced by CMEs during propagation. The result is then used as input for the Ellipse Evolution Model (ElEvo). Together, ElCon, DBM fitting, and ElEvo form the novel ElEvoHI forecasting utility. To demonstrate the applicability of ElEvoHI, we forecast the arrival times and speeds of 21 CMEs remotely observed from STEREO/HI and compare them to in situ arrival times and speeds at 1 AU. Compared to the commonl...

  20. Fit Minded College Edition Pilot Study: Can a Magazine-Based Discussion Group Improve Physical Activity in Female College Freshmen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellitteri, Katelyn; Huberty, Jennifer; Ehlers, Diane; Bruening, Meg

    Initial efficacy of a magazine-based discussion group for improving physical activity (PA), self-worth, and eating behaviors in female college freshmen. Randomized control trial. A large university in southwestern United States. Thirty-seven female college freshmen were randomized to the intervention (n = 17) and control groups (n = 20) in September 2013. Participants completed an 8-week magazine-based discussion group program, Fit Minded College Edition, adapted from Fit Minded, a previously tested theory-based intervention. Education on PA, self-worth, and nutrition was provided using excerpts from women's health magazines. Participants also had access to a Web site with supplementary health and wellness material. The control group did not attend meetings or have access to the Web site but received the magazines. Interventions focusing on concepts of self-worth with less focus on weight and appearance may promote long term PA participation and healthy eating behaviors in college women. Self-reported PA, global self-worth, knowledge self-worth, self-efficacy, social support, eating behaviors (ie, fruit/veggie/junk food/sugar-sweetened beverage consumption), satisfaction, and Web site usage. Mean age of participants was 18.11 (SD = 0.32) years. Time × Intervention effects were observed for PA minutes per week (Partial η = 0.34), knowledge self-worth (Partial η = 0.02), and daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (Partial η = 0.17) (P < .05), with the intervention group reporting greater increases in PA and knowledge self-worth and greater decreases in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. A magazine-based discussion group may provide a promising platform to improve health behaviors in female college freshmen.

  1. 求解振荡哈密顿系统的相拟合辛PRK方法%PHASE-FITTED SYMPLECTIC PRK METHODS FOR OSCILLATORY HAMILTONIAN SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朝霞; 石磊; 游雄

    2012-01-01

    研究求解可分哈密顿系统的相拟合辛PRK(FSPRK)方法.给出了修正PRK方法的代数阶条件、辛条件及相拟合与振幅拟合条件.构造了一个2级2阶和一个3级3阶FSPRK方法.对经典力学和量子力学的几个著名问题实验的数值结果证明,新的三阶方法在保持哈密顿能量与计算效率方面优于文献中的一些高效方法.%Phase-fitted symplectic PRK (FSPRK) methods for separable Hamiltonian systems are investigated.Algebraic order conditions,symplecticity conditions and phase-fitting and amplification-fitting conditions for modified PRK methods are presented.A two-stage FSPRK method of order two and a three-stage FSPRK method of order three are constructed.The numerical results of experiments on several famous testing problems in classical and quantum mechanics show that the new method of order three is superior to some highly efficient integrators in the literature in preserving the Hamiltonian energy and in efficiency.

  2. FPGA-based design and implementation of arterial pulse wave generator using piecewise Gaussian-cosine fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Xu, Lisheng; Zhao, Dazhe; Yao, Yang; Song, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Because arterial pulse waves contain vital information related to the condition of the cardiovascular system, considerable attention has been devoted to the study of pulse waves in recent years. Accurate acquisition is essential to investigate arterial pulse waves. However, at the stage of developing equipment for acquiring and analyzing arterial pulse waves, specific pulse signals may be unavailable for debugging and evaluating the system under development. To produce test signals that reflect specific physiological conditions, in this paper, an arterial pulse wave generator has been designed and implemented using a field programmable gate array (FPGA), which can produce the desired pulse waves according to the feature points set by users. To reconstruct a periodic pulse wave from the given feature points, a method known as piecewise Gaussian-cosine fitting is also proposed in this paper. Using a test database that contains four types of typical pulse waves with each type containing 25 pulse wave signals, the maximum residual error of each sampling point of the fitted pulse wave in comparison with the real pulse wave is within 8%. In addition, the function for adding baseline drift and three types of noises is integrated into the developed system because the baseline occasionally wanders, and noise needs to be added for testing the performance of the designed circuits and the analysis algorithms. The proposed arterial pulse wave generator can be considered as a special signal generator with a simple structure, low cost and compact size, which can also provide flexible solutions for many other related research purposes.

  3. An analysis of weight loss articles and advertisements inmainstream women’s health and fitness magazines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danna Ethan; Corey Basch; Grace Hillyer; Alyssa Berdnik; Mary Huynh

    2016-01-01

    ... women’s health and fitness magazines. Methods: This preliminary cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of articles and advertisements featuring weight loss content and products in mainstream US-based health and fitness magazines, as well...

  4. Fitting Community Based Newborn Care Package into the health systems of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Y V; Upreti, S R; Kc, N P; Thapa, K; Shrestha, P R; Shedain, P R; Dhakwa, J R; Aryal, D R; Aryal, S; Paudel, D C; Paudel, D; Khanal, S; Bhandari, A; Kc, A

    2011-10-01

    Community-based strategies for delivering effective newborn interventions are an essential step to avert newborn death, in settings where the health facilities are unable to effectively deliver the interventions and reach their population. Effective implementation of community-based interventions as a large scale program and within the existing health system depends on the appropriate design and planning, monitoring and support systems. This article provides an overview of implementation design of Community-Based Newborn Care Package (CB-NCP) program, its setup within the health system, and early results of the implementation from one of the pilot districts. The evaluation of CB-NCP in one of the pilot districts shows significant improvement in antenatal, intrapartum and post natal care. The implementation design of the CB-NCP has six different health system management functions: i) district planning and orientation, ii) training/human resource development, iii) monitoring and evaluation, iv) logistics and supply chain management, v) communication strategy, and vi) pay for performance. The CB-NCP program embraced the existing system of monitoring with some additional components for the pilot phase to test implementation feasibility, and aligns with existing safe motherhood and child health programs. Though CB-NCP interventions are proven independently in different local and global contexts, they are piloted in 10 districts as a "package" within the national health system settings of Nepal.

  5. Evolution of social versus individual learning in a subdivided population revisited: comparative analysis of three coexistence mechanisms using the inclusive-fitness method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2014-03-01

    Learning abilities are categorized into social (learning from others) and individual learning (learning on one's own). Despite the typically higher cost of individual learning, there are mechanisms that allow stable coexistence of both learning modes in a single population. In this paper, we investigate by means of mathematical modeling how the effect of spatial structure on evolutionary outcomes of pure social and individual learning strategies depends on the mechanisms for coexistence. We model a spatially structured population based on the infinite-island framework and consider three scenarios that differ in coexistence mechanisms. Using the inclusive-fitness method, we derive the equilibrium frequency of social learners and the genetic load of social learning (defined as average fecundity reduction caused by the presence of social learning) in terms of some summary statistics, such as relatedness, for each of the three scenarios and compare the results. This comparative analysis not only reconciles previous models that made contradictory predictions as to the effect of spatial structure on the equilibrium frequency of social learners but also derives a simple mathematical rule that determines the sign of the genetic load (i.e. whether or not social learning contributes to the mean fecundity of the population).

  6. EXPLOITING THE LANGUAGE LAB: A WAY TO FIT LAB-BASED LISTENING COURSES INTO THE COMMUNICATIVE FRAMEWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    This paperlanalyzes why the language laboratory still has an important role to play in ELT in China. Two methods of incorporating lab-based courses into a communicative framework, involving classroom interaction patterns and task-based listening materials, are suggested, and a model lesson applying these two methods is presented.

  7. Exercise-Based Performance Enhancement and Injury Prevention for Firefighters: Contrasting the Fitness- and Movement-Related Adaptations to Two Training Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M

    2015-09-01

    Using exercise to enhance physical fitness may have little impact on performers' movement patterns beyond the gym environment. This study examined the fitness and movement adaptations exhibited by firefighters in response to 2 training methodologies. Fifty-two firefighters were assigned to a movement-guided fitness (MOV), conventional fitness (FIT), or control (CON) group. Before and after 12 weeks of training, participants performed a fitness evaluation and laboratory-based test. Three-dimensional lumbar spine and frontal plane knee kinematics were quantified. Five whole-body tasks not included in the interventions were used to evaluate the transfer of training. FIT and MOV groups exhibited significant improvements in all aspects of fitness; however, only MOV exhibited improvements in spine and frontal plane knee motion control when performing each transfer task (effect sizes [ESs] of 0.2-1.5). FIT exhibited less controlled spine and frontal plane knee motions while squatting, lunging, pushing, and pulling (ES: 0.2-0.7). More MOV participants (43%) exhibited only positive posttraining changes (i.e., improved control), in comparison with FIT (30%) and CON (23%). Fewer negative posttraining changes were also noted (19, 25, and 36% for MOV, FIT, and CON). These findings suggest that placing an emphasis on how participants move while exercising may be an effective training strategy to elicit behavioral changes beyond the gym environment. For occupational athletes such as firefighters, soldiers, and police officers, this implies that exercise programs designed with a movement-oriented approach to periodization could have a direct impact on their safety and effectiveness by engraining desirable movement patterns that transfer to occupational tasks.

  8. Quantifiable fitness tracking using wearable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Anurag; Jilla, Vivek; Tiwari, Vijay N; Venkatesan, Shankar M; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring health and fitness is emerging as an important benefit that smartphone users could expect from their mobile devices today. Rule of thumb calorie tracking and recommendation based on selective activity monitoring is widely available today, as both on-device and server based solutions. What is surprisingly not available to the users is a simple application geared towards quantitative fitness tracking. Such an application potentially can be a direct indicator of one's cardio-vascular performance and associated long term health risks. Since wearable devices with various inbuilt sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope, SPO2 and heart rate are increasingly becoming available, it is vital that the enormous data coming from these sensors be used to perform analytics to uncover hidden health and fitness associated facts. A continuous estimation of fitness level employing these wearable devices can potentially help users in setting personalized short and long-term exercise goals leading to positive impact on one's overall health. The present work describes a step in this direction. This work involves an unobtrusive method to track an individual's physical activity seamlessly, estimate calorie consumption during a day by mapping the activity to the calories spent and assess fitness level using heart rate data from wearable sensors. We employ a heart rate based parameter called Endurance to quantitatively estimate cardio-respiratory fitness of a person. This opens up avenues for personalization and adaptiveness by dynamically using individual's personal fitness data towards building robust modeling based on analytical principles.

  9. Fruit Classification by Wavelet-Entropy and Feedforward Neural Network Trained by Fitness-Scaled Chaotic ABC and Biogeography-Based Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fruit classification is quite difficult because of the various categories and similar shapes and features of fruit. In this work, we proposed two novel machine-learning based classification methods. The developed system consists of wavelet entropy (WE, principal component analysis (PCA, feedforward neural network (FNN trained by fitness-scaled chaotic artificial bee colony (FSCABC and biogeography-based optimization (BBO, respectively. The K-fold stratified cross validation (SCV was utilized for statistical analysis. The classification performance for 1653 fruit images from 18 categories showed that the proposed “WE + PCA + FSCABC-FNN” and “WE + PCA + BBO-FNN” methods achieve the same accuracy of 89.5%, higher than state-of-the-art approaches: “(CH + MP + US + PCA + GA-FNN ” of 84.8%, “(CH + MP + US + PCA + PSO-FNN” of 87.9%, “(CH + MP + US + PCA + ABC-FNN” of 85.4%, “(CH + MP + US + PCA + kSVM” of 88.2%, and “(CH + MP + US + PCA + FSCABC-FNN” of 89.1%. Besides, our methods used only 12 features, less than the number of features used by other methods. Therefore, the proposed methods are effective for fruit classification.

  10. A 45-Second Self-Test for Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Heart Rate-Based Estimation in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Matteo; Papini, Gabriele; Bosio, Andrea; Mohammed, Rahil A.; Bonomi, Alberto G.; Moore, Jonathan P.; Merati, Giampiero; La Torre, Antonio; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up to accomplish our objectives. Data from 81 healthy volunteers (age: 29 ± 8 years, BMI: 24.0 ± 2.9), 18 of whom females, were used to validate this test against gold standard. Nineteen volunteers repeated this test twice in order to evaluate its repeatability. CRF estimation models were developed using heart rate (HR) features extracted from the resting, exercise, and the recovery phase. The most predictive HR feature was the intercept of the linear equation fitting the HR values during the recovery phase normalized for the height2 (r2 = 0.30). The Ruffier-Dickson Index (RDI), which was originally developed for this squat test, showed a negative significant correlation with CRF (r = -0.40), but explained only 15% of the variability in CRF. A multivariate model based on RDI and sex, age and height increased the explained variability up to 53% with a cross validation (CV) error of 0.532 L ∙ min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.91). The best predictive multivariate model made use of the linear intercept of HR at the beginning of the recovery normalized for height2 and age2; this had an adjusted r2 = 0. 59, a CV error of 0.495 L·min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.93). It also had a higher agreement in classifying CRF levels (κ = 0.42) than RDI-based model (κ = 0.29). In conclusion, this simple 45 s self-test can be used to estimate and classify CRF in healthy individuals with moderate accuracy and large repeatability when HR recovery features are included. PMID:27959935

  11. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Session 1 =  11.09 / 18.09 / 25.09 / 02.10, 18:15 - 19:15 Session 2 = 25.09 / 02.10 / 09.10 / 16.10, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 3 = 23.10 / 30.10 / 06.11 / 13.11, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 4 = 20.11 / 27.11 / 04.12 / 11.12, 12:30 - 13:30 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness   Hope to see you among us!  fitness.club@cern.ch In spring 2012 there was a long-awaited progress in CERN Fitness club. We have officially opened a Powerlifting @ CERN, and the number of members of the new section has been increasing since then reaching 70+ people in less than 4 months. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as 1-2-3 and efficient. The "1-2-3" are the three basic lifts (bench press...

  12. From blood dialysis to desalination: A one-size fits all block copolymer based membrane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna Kotrappanavar, Nataraj; Zavala-Rivera, Paul; Chonnon, Kevin; Almuhtaseb, Shaheen S. A.; Sivaniah, Easan; University of Cambridge Team; Qatar University Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    Asymmetric membrane with ultrahigh selective self-assembled nanoporous block copolymer layer were developed successfully on polyimide (PI) support, which demonstrated excellent thermal, chemical and mechanical stability. Membranes with specific nano- structural architectures and optimized cascades of block assemblies on the top selective skin have been used largely for separation of colour from aqueous streams, wastewater treatment, desalination, blood filtration and gas separation with dense layer transformation. A consistent and reliable method of membrane preparation and measuring separation performance has been adopted. A homologous series of ethylene oxide oligomers covering a large range was used to characterise MWCO of Membrane and were able to provide many points to give a comprehensive description of the membrane performance in the nanofiltration range.

  13. FOURFIT-A Computer Code for Determining Equivalent Nuclear Yield and Peak Overpressure by a Fourier Spectrum Fit Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-25

    NBPTS equal to 2048. Each array must be at least large enough to accomodate this value. i3 7% 4 z 32 "- : -" ,-. - -.- ;-.°. :. .’ -,i...F5.2.5X..WI -,*F5.2) WR:TE(48. 113) IOPT.IFILT ICOUNT *0 NBPTS 2048 IF(IOPT.EO.3) GO TO 7 CALL EBREAD IF(IOPT.EO.2) GO TO 666 CALL FIT 7 ICOUINT - I CALL...UPON THE POSITIVE PHASE DURATION. DTB - DP/ NBPTS GO TO 15 5 ISTL(i) - IOHWITH FOURF ISTL(2) - iGHIT SPEICHE ISTL(3) - 1OHR-BRODE ISTL(4) - 10H ISTL(5

  14. Simple noise-reduction method based on nonlinear forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, James P. L.

    2017-03-01

    Nonparametric detrending or noise reduction methods are often employed to separate trends from noisy time series when no satisfactory models exist to fit the data. However, conventional noise reduction methods depend on subjective choices of smoothing parameters. Here we present a simple multivariate noise reduction method based on available nonlinear forecasting techniques. These are in turn based on state-space reconstruction for which a strong theoretical justification exists for their use in nonparametric forecasting. The noise reduction method presented here is conceptually similar to Schreiber's noise reduction method using state-space reconstruction. However, we show that Schreiber's method has a minor flaw that can be overcome with forecasting. Furthermore, our method contains a simple but nontrivial extension to multivariate time series. We apply the method to multivariate time series generated from the Van der Pol oscillator, the Lorenz equations, the Hindmarsh-Rose model of neuronal spiking activity, and to two other univariate real-world data sets. It is demonstrated that noise reduction heuristics can be objectively optimized with in-sample forecasting errors that correlate well with actual noise reduction errors.

  15. Auto correct method of AD converters precision based on ethernet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI Jifeng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ideal AD conversion should be a straight zero-crossing line in the Cartesian coordinate axis system. While in practical engineering, the signal processing circuit, chip performance and other factors have an impact on the accuracy of conversion. Therefore a linear fitting method is adopted to improve the conversion accuracy. An automatic modification of AD conversion based on Ethernet is presented by using software and hardware. Just by tapping the mouse, all the AD converter channel linearity correction can be automatically completed, and the error, SNR and ENOB (effective number of bits are calculated. Then the coefficients of linear modification are loaded into the onboard AD converter card's EEPROM. Compared with traditional methods, this method is more convenient, accurate and efficient,and has a broad application prospects.

  16. Derivation of general analytic gradient expressions for density-fitted post-Hartree-Fock methods: an efficient implementation for the density-fitted second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkaya, Uğur

    2014-09-28

    General analytic gradient expressions (with the frozen-core approximation) are presented for density-fitted post-HF methods. An efficient implementation of frozen-core analytic gradients for the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) with the density-fitting (DF) approximation (applying to both reference and correlation energies), which is denoted as DF-MP2, is reported. The DF-MP2 method is applied to a set of alkanes, conjugated dienes, and noncovalent interaction complexes to compare the computational cost of single point analytic gradients with MP2 with the resolution of the identity approach (RI-MP2) [F. Weigend and M. Häser, Theor. Chem. Acc. 97, 331 (1997); R. A. Distasio, R. P. Steele, Y. M. Rhee, Y. Shao, and M. Head-Gordon, J. Comput. Chem. 28, 839 (2007)]. In the RI-MP2 method, the DF approach is used only for the correlation energy. Our results demonstrate that the DF-MP2 method substantially accelerate the RI-MP2 method for analytic gradient computations due to the reduced input/output (I/O) time. Because in the DF-MP2 method the DF approach is used for both reference and correlation energies, the storage of 4-index electron repulsion integrals (ERIs) are avoided, 3-index ERI tensors are employed instead. Further, as in case of integrals, our gradient equation is completely avoid construction or storage of the 4-index two-particle density matrix (TPDM), instead we use 2- and 3-index TPDMs. Hence, the I/O bottleneck of a gradient computation is significantly overcome. Therefore, the cost of the generalized-Fock matrix (GFM), TPDM, solution of Z-vector equations, the back transformation of TPDM, and integral derivatives are substantially reduced when the DF approach is used for the entire energy expression. Further application results show that the DF approach introduce negligible errors for closed-shell reaction energies and equilibrium bond lengths.

  17. Derivation of general analytic gradient expressions for density-fitted post-Hartree-Fock methods: An efficient implementation for the density-fitted second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozkaya, Uğur, E-mail: ugur.bozkaya@atauni.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Atatürk University, Erzurum 25240, Turkey and Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2014-09-28

    General analytic gradient expressions (with the frozen-core approximation) are presented for density-fitted post-HF methods. An efficient implementation of frozen-core analytic gradients for the second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) with the density-fitting (DF) approximation (applying to both reference and correlation energies), which is denoted as DF-MP2, is reported. The DF-MP2 method is applied to a set of alkanes, conjugated dienes, and noncovalent interaction complexes to compare the computational cost of single point analytic gradients with MP2 with the resolution of the identity approach (RI-MP2) [F. Weigend and M. Häser, Theor. Chem. Acc. 97, 331 (1997); R. A. Distasio, R. P. Steele, Y. M. Rhee, Y. Shao, and M. Head-Gordon, J. Comput. Chem. 28, 839 (2007)]. In the RI-MP2 method, the DF approach is used only for the correlation energy. Our results demonstrate that the DF-MP2 method substantially accelerate the RI-MP2 method for analytic gradient computations due to the reduced input/output (I/O) time. Because in the DF-MP2 method the DF approach is used for both reference and correlation energies, the storage of 4-index electron repulsion integrals (ERIs) are avoided, 3-index ERI tensors are employed instead. Further, as in case of integrals, our gradient equation is completely avoid construction or storage of the 4-index two-particle density matrix (TPDM), instead we use 2- and 3-index TPDMs. Hence, the I/O bottleneck of a gradient computation is significantly overcome. Therefore, the cost of the generalized-Fock matrix (GFM), TPDM, solution of Z-vector equations, the back transformation of TPDM, and integral derivatives are substantially reduced when the DF approach is used for the entire energy expression. Further application results show that the DF approach introduce negligible errors for closed-shell reaction energies and equilibrium bond lengths.

  18. Novel Method of Predicting Network Bandwidth Based on Support Vector Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伟; 冯瑞; 邵惠鹤

    2004-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of small sample over-fitting and local minima when neural networks learn online, a novel method of predicting network bandwidth based on support vector machines(SVM) is proposed. The prediction and learning online will be completed by the proposed moving window learning algorithm(MWLA). The simulation research is done to validate the proposed method, which is compared with the method based on neural networks.

  19. Comparison of the fit accuracy of zirconia-based prostheses generated by two CAD/CAM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purposes of this study are to evaluate the internal and marginal adaptation of two widely used CAD/CAM systems and to study the effect of porcelain press veneering process on the prosthesis adaptation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Molar of a lower jaw typodont resin model was prepared by adjusting a 1.0 mm circumferential chamfer, an occlusal reduction of 2.0 mm, and a 5° convergence angle and was duplicated as an abrasion-resistant master die. The monolithic crowns and copings were fabricated with two different CAD/CAM system-Ceramil and Zirkonzahn systems. Two kinds of non-destructive analysis methods are used in this study. First, weight technique was used to determine the overall fitting accuracy. And, to evaluate internal and marginal fit of specific part, replica technique procedures were performed. RESULTS The silicone weight for the cement space of monolithic crowns and copings manufactured with Ceramil system was significantly higher than that from Zirkonzahn system. This gap might cause the differences in the silicone weight because the prostheses were manufactured according to the recommendation of each system. Marginal discrepancies of copings made with Ceramil system were between 106 and 117 µm and those from Zirkonzahn system were between 111 and 115 µm. Marginal discrepancies of copings made with Ceramil system were between 101 and 131 µm and those from Zirkonzahn system were between 116 and 131 µm. CONCLUSION Marginal discrepancy was relatively lower in Ceramil system and internal gap was smaller in Zirkonzahn system. There were significant differences in the internal gap of monolithic crown and coping among the 2 CAD/CAM systems. Marginal discrepancy produced from the 2 CAD/CAM systems were within a reported clinically acceptable range of marginal discrepancy. PMID:28018561

  20. 用等离子体粒子能谱拟合温度的新方法%NEW FITTING METHOD FOR TEMPERATURE FROM PLASMA PARTICLE ENERGY SPECTRA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦运文

    2001-01-01

    用最小二乘法拟合等离子体粒子能谱实验数据时,通常使拟合函数与实验能谱数据之间的误差平方和极小化。如果将能谱实验数据的对数拟合成直线以求得粒子温度,则最好对温度误差的平方和极小化。给出了这种拟合方法的计算公式,并对两种不同方法得到的结果进行了比较。%Fitting a curve for an experimental energy spectrum of plasma particles with the least square method, a square error sum between the fitted curve and experimental spectrum data is usually minimized. However, if a straight line is fitted for logarithmic spectrum data to give the particle temperature, it is better to minimize the temperature square error sum. Formulas of such fitting are given and results obtained by minimizing different square error sums are compared.

  1. Information entropy-based fitting of the disease trajectory of brain ischemia-induced vascular cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Liu; Ju Huo; Ying Zhao; Yu Tian

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the disease trajectory of vascular cognitive impairment using the entropy of information in a neural network mathematical simulation based on the free radical and excitatory amino acids theories.Glutamate, malondialdehyde, and inducible nitric oxide synthase content was significantly elevated, but acetylcholine, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and constitutive nitric oxide synthase content was significantly decreased in our vascular cognitive impairment model.The fitting curves for each factor were obtained using Matlab software.Nineteen, 30 and 49 days post ischemia were the main output time frames of the influence of these seven factors.Our results demonstrated that vascular cognitive impairment involves multiple factors.These factors include excitatory amino acid toxicity and nitric oxide toxicity.These toxicities disrupt the dynamic equilibrium of the production and removal of oxygen free radicals after cerebral ischemia, reducing the ability to clear oxygen free radicals and worsening brain injury.

  2. Experimental investigation of domestic micro-CHP based on the gas boiler fitted with ORC module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs, Jan; Mikielewicz, Dariusz; Bajor, Michał; Kneba, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    The results of investigations conducted on the prototype of vapour driven micro-CHP unit integrated with a gas boiler are presented. The system enables cogeneration of heat and electric energy to cover the energy demand of a household. The idea of such system is to produce electricity for own demand or for selling it to the electric grid - in such situation the system user will became the prosumer. A typical commercial gas boiler, additionally equipped with an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) module based on environmentally acceptable working fluid can be regarded as future generation unit. In the paper the prototype of innovative domestic cogenerative ORC system, consisting of a conventional gas boiler and a small size axial vapour microturbines (in-house designed for ORC and the commercially available for Rankine cycle (RC)), evaporator and condenser were scrutinised. In the course of study the fluid working temperatures, rates of heat, electricity generation and efficiency of the whole system were obtained. The tested system could produce electricity in the amount of 1 kWe. Some preliminary tests were started with water as working fluid and the results for that case are also presented. The investigations showed that domestic gas boiler was able to provide the saturated/superheated ethanol vapour (in the ORC system) and steam (in the RC system) as working fluids.

  3. Experimental investigation of domestic micro-CHP based on the gas boiler fitted with ORC module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajs Jan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations conducted on the prototype of vapour driven micro-CHP unit integrated with a gas boiler are presented. The system enables cogeneration of heat and electric energy to cover the energy demand of a household. The idea of such system is to produce electricity for own demand or for selling it to the electric grid – in such situation the system user will became the prosumer. A typical commercial gas boiler, additionally equipped with an organic Rankine cycle (ORC module based on environmentally acceptable working fluid can be regarded as future generation unit. In the paper the prototype of innovative domestic cogenerative ORC system, consisting of a conventional gas boiler and a small size axial vapour microturbines (in-house designed for ORC and the commercially available for Rankine cycle (RC, evaporator and condenser were scrutinised. In the course of study the fluid working temperatures, rates of heat, electricity generation and efficiency of the whole system were obtained. The tested system could produce electricity in the amount of 1 kWe. Some preliminary tests were started with water as working fluid and the results for that case are also presented. The investigations showed that domestic gas boiler was able to provide the saturated/superheated ethanol vapour (in the ORC system and steam (in the RC system as working fluids.

  4. The Parabolic variance (PVAR), a wavelet variance based on least-square fit

    CERN Document Server

    Vernotte, F; Bourgeois, P -Y; Rubiola, E

    2015-01-01

    The Allan variance (AVAR) is one option among the wavelet variances. However a milestone in the analysis of frequency fluctuations and in the long-term stability of clocks, and certainly the most widely used one, AVAR is not suitable when fast noise processes show up, chiefly because of the poor rejection of white phase noise. The modified Allan variance (MVAR) features high resolution in the presence of white PM noise, but it is poorer for slow phenomena because the wavelet spans over 50% longer time. This article introduces the Parabolic Variance (PVAR), a wavelet variance similar to the Allan variance, based on the Linear Regression (LR) of phase data. The PVAR relates to the Omega frequency counter, which is the topics of a companion article [the reference to the article, or to the ArXiv manuscript, will be provided later]. The PVAR wavelet spans over 2 tau, the same of the AVAR wavelet. After setting the theoretical framework, we analyze the degrees of freedom and the detection of weak noise processes in...

  5. The Parabolic Variance (PVAR): A Wavelet Variance Based on the Least-Square Fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernotte, Francois; Lenczner, Michel; Bourgeois, Pierre-Yves; Rubiola, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces the parabolic variance (PVAR), a wavelet variance similar to the Allan variance (AVAR), based on the linear regression (LR) of phase data. The companion article arXiv:1506.05009 [physics.ins-det] details the Ω frequency counter, which implements the LR estimate. The PVAR combines the advantages of AVAR and modified AVAR (MVAR). PVAR is good for long-term analysis because the wavelet spans over 2τ, the same as the AVAR wavelet, and good for short-term analysis because the response to white and flicker PM is 1/τ(3) and 1/τ(2), the same as the MVAR. After setting the theoretical framework, we study the degrees of freedom and the confidence interval for the most common noise types. Then, we focus on the detection of a weak noise process at the transition-or corner-where a faster process rolls off. This new perspective raises the question of which variance detects the weak process with the shortest data record. Our simulations show that PVAR is a fortunate tradeoff. PVAR is superior to MVAR in all cases, exhibits the best ability to divide between fast noise phenomena (up to flicker FM), and is almost as good as AVAR for the detection of random walk and drift.

  6. Research on BOM based composable modeling method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; He, Q.; Gong, J.

    2013-01-01

    Composable modeling method has been a research hotpot in the area of Modeling and Simulation for a long time. In order to increase the reuse and interoperability of BOM based model, this paper put forward a composable modeling method based on BOM, studied on the basic theory of composable modeling m

  7. PLUTO - a software package using the 'maximum likelihood method' to fit plutonium in urine data to an excretion function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddell, A.E.; Britcher, A.R. (British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    The PLUTO software package was developed at Sellafield to make optimum use of the analysis data from plutonium in urine samples in arriving at the best estimate of intake/uptake. The program prompts the assessor to enter the assessment parameters required to fit the data to the excretion function using the maximum likelihood method. A critical appraisal is given of the relative strengths and weaknesses of this assessment package. (author).

  8. Least Squares Best Fit Method for the Three Parameter Weibull Distribution: Analysis of Tensile and Bend Specimens with Volume or Surface Flaw Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    Material characterization parameters obtained from naturally flawed specimens are necessary for reliability evaluation of non-deterministic advanced ceramic structural components. The least squares best fit method is applied to the three parameter uniaxial Weibull model to obtain the material parameters from experimental tests on volume or surface flawed specimens subjected to pure tension, pure bending, four point or three point loading. Several illustrative example problems are provided.

  9. Little Italy: an agent-based approach to the estimation of contact patterns- fitting predicted matrices to serological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iozzi, Fabrizio; Trusiano, Francesco; Chinazzi, Matteo; Billari, Francesco C; Zagheni, Emilio; Merler, Stefano; Ajelli, Marco; Del Fava, Emanuele; Manfredi, Piero

    2010-12-02

    Knowledge of social contact patterns still represents the most critical step for understanding the spread of directly transmitted infections. Data on social contact patterns are, however, expensive to obtain. A major issue is then whether the simulation of synthetic societies might be helpful to reliably reconstruct such data. In this paper, we compute a variety of synthetic age-specific contact matrices through simulation of a simple individual-based model (IBM). The model is informed by Italian Time Use data and routine socio-demographic data (e.g., school and workplace attendance, household structure, etc.). The model is named "Little Italy" because each artificial agent is a clone of a real person. In other words, each agent's daily diary is the one observed in a corresponding real individual sampled in the Italian Time Use Survey. We also generated contact matrices from the socio-demographic model underlying the Italian IBM for pandemic prediction. These synthetic matrices are then validated against recently collected Italian serological data for Varicella (VZV) and ParvoVirus (B19). Their performance in fitting sero-profiles are compared with other matrices available for Italy, such as the Polymod matrix. Synthetic matrices show the same qualitative features of the ones estimated from sample surveys: for example, strong assortativeness and the presence of super- and sub-diagonal stripes related to contacts between parents and children. Once validated against serological data, Little Italy matrices fit worse than the Polymod one for VZV, but better than concurrent matrices for B19. This is the first occasion where synthetic contact matrices are systematically compared with real ones, and validated against epidemiological data. The results suggest that simple, carefully designed, synthetic matrices can provide a fruitful complementary approach to questionnaire-based matrices. The paper also supports the idea that, depending on the transmissibility level of the

  10. Effectiveness of a school-based physical activity-related injury prevention program on risk behavior and neuromotor fitness a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the effects of a school-based physical activity-related injury prevention program, called 'iPlay', on risk behavior and neuromotor fitness. Methods In this cluster randomized controlled trial 40 primary schools throughout the Netherlands were randomly assigned in an intervention (n = 20 or control group (n = 20. The study includes 2,210 children aged 10-12 years. The iPlay-intervention takes one school year and consists of a teacher manual, informative newsletters and posters, a website, and simple exercises to be carried out during physical education classes. Outcomes measures were self-reported injury preventing behavior, self-reported behavioral determinants (knowledge, attitude, social-influence, self-efficacy, and intention, and neuromotor fitness. Results The iPlay-program was not able to significantly improve injury-preventing behavior. The program did significantly improve knowledge and attitude, two determinants of behavior. The effect of the intervention-program on behavior appeared to be significantly mediated by knowledge and attitude. Improved scores on attitude, social norm, self-efficacy and intention were significantly related to changes in injury preventing behavior. Furthermore, iPlay resulted in small non-significant improvements in neuromotor fitness in favor of the intervention group. Conclusion This cluster randomized controlled trial showed that the iPlay-program did significantly improved behavioral determinants. However, this effect on knowledge and attitude was not strong enough to improve injury preventing behavior. Furthermore, the results confirm the hypothetical model that injury preventing behavior is determined by intention, attitude, social norm and self-efficacy. Trial number ISRCTN78846684

  11. Comparison of Marginal Fit in Zirconia-Based All-Ceramic Frameworks (Cercon Made by Two Approaches (Direct and Wax-Up Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Zeighami

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Since a large marginal opening allows more plaque accumulation, gingival sulcular fluid flow and bone loss, microleakage, recurrent caries and periodontal disease, marginal fit is of great importance in fixed restorations. The aim of this study was to compare the marginal fit of zirconium-based all ceramic (Cercon frameworks, made by two different approaches (Direct and Wax-up scanning.Materials and Methods: An abutment analog, with 5.5 mm width and height, was selected as an experimental model. Twenty all ceramic cores were made for this model (10 specimens per each group. In the first group (Direct, experimental models were scanned directly using Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM. The core was then designed with the aid of a computer and machined. In the second group (Wax-up or CAM a wax-up pattern was made on the experimental model and then scanned and milled from Cercon blocks. The marginal discrepancy of each specimen was recorded using a stereomicroscope (SZX9, Olympus, Japan and digital camera (Mode TK, C1380E, JVC, Japan and then measured by Adobe Photoshop CS software. The data were analyzed using T-test.Results: Mean marginal discrepancy of Direct group (85.2±3.95 µm was significantly less than that of Wax-up group (120.2±6.91 µm.Conclusion: Improved marginal fit of zirconia ceramics was found with the direct model scanning compared with that of Wax-up scanning using CAD/CAM.

  12. 基于小波分析的直线拟合及应用%Based on wavelet analysis and application of linear fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江荣

    2011-01-01

    Image analysis in the line is very important descriptor. The phenomenon of industrial control is usually used for image processing on the linear least squares fitting. Estimated with high precision for the case, the traditional least square method often can not meet the requirements. Based on this, the discrete wavelet transform and the traditional least squares method, an algorithm based on least squares estimation of wavelet pretreatment measurement of the new method, obtained much better than the traditional least squares estimation results of experiments show the validity of the method and accuracy of.%直线是图像分析中非常重要的描述符号.对工业控制中的现象进行图像处理时通常用到最小二乘法对直线拟合.对十估计精度要求较高的情形,传统最小二乘法往往不能满足要求.基于此,本文将离散小波变换和传统最小二乘法相结合,建立了一种基于小波测量预处理的最小二乘估计的新型解法,获得了比传统最小二乘法好得多的估计结果,实验证明了该方法的有效性及高精度性.

  13. Three-dimensional beam propagation method based on the variable transformed Galerkin's method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jinbiao; SUN Xiaohan; ZHANG Mingde

    2004-01-01

    A novel three-dimensional beam propagation method (BPM) based on the variable transformed Galerkin's method is introduced for simulating optical field propagation in three-dimensional dielectric structures. The infinite Cartesian x-y plane is mapped into a unit square by a tangent-type function transformation. Consequently, the infinite region problem is converted into the finite region problem. Thus, the boundary truncation is eliminated and the calculation accuracy is promoted. The three-dimensional BPM basic equation is reduced to a set of first-order ordinary differential equations through sinusoidal basis function, which fits arbitrary cladding optical waveguide, then direct solution of the resulting equations by means of the Runge-Kutta method. In addition,the calculation is efficient due to the small matrix derived from the present technique.Both z-invariant and z-variant examples are considered to test both the accuracy and utility of this approach.

  14. Fitting Derivative Function Based on Penalized Regression Spline%基于惩罚回归样条的函数导数拟合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关海洋; 唐燕武; 杨联强

    2015-01-01

    在函数形式未知,而已知该函数的带误差的离散数据点情况下,运用基于 p次截断幂基的惩罚回归样条拟合数据点,并在拟合出的曲线基础上求出函数的一阶导数。该方法将经典最小二乘法和惩罚样条方法进行结合,既考虑了拟合优度,又兼顾拟合曲线的光滑性,模拟和实际应用的例子显示此种方法效果较理想。%When the function is not identified but its discrete data points are given , fitting function based on penalized spline with pth-degree truncated power basis is constructed, and the first derivative of function is given.The method combines classical ordinary least squares and penalized spline smoothing , both the goodness and the smoothness of fitting curve are considered , simu-lations and application show its good efficiency .

  15. Design and Realization of a Three Degrees of Freedom Displacement Measurement System Composed of Hall Sensors Based on Magnetic Field Fitting by an Elliptic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and realization of a three degrees of freedom (DOFs displacement measurement system composed of Hall sensors, which is built for the XYθz displacement measurement of the short stroke stage of the reticle stage of lithography. The measurement system consists of three pairs of permanent magnets mounted on the same plane on the short stroke stage along the Y, Y, X directions, and three single axis Hall sensors correspondingly mounted on the frame of the reticle stage. The emphasis is placed on the decoupling and magnetic field fitting of the three DOFs measurement system. The model of the measurement system is illustrated, and the XY positions and θZ rotation of the short stroke stage can be obtained by decoupling the sensor outputs. A magnetic field fitting by an elliptic function-based compensation method is proposed. The practical field intensity of a permanent magnet at a certain plane height can be substituted for the output voltage of a Hall sensors, which can be expressed by the elliptic function through experimental data as the crucial issue to calculate the three DOFs displacement. Experimental results of the Hall sensor displacement measurement system are presented to validate the proposed three DOFs measurement system.

  16. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes New session of 4 classes of 1 hour each will be held on Tuesdays in May 2013. Meet at the CERN barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Dates and time: 07.05, 14.05, 21.05 and 28.05, fom  12 h 30 to 13 h 30 Prices: 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership – 5 CHF / hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! 

  17. Group-based exercise in daily clinical practice to improve physical fitness in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergren, Peter; Ragle, Anne-Mette; Jakobsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    . This article describes the design of an ongoing prospective observational study to evaluate the potential benefits of exercise in daily clinical practice. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Men diagnosed with prostate cancer starting or already receiving ADT at our facility are invited to participate in a 12-week exercise...... educational session of 1½ hours followed by 12 weeks of group-based supervised training two times a week. The focus of the exercise is progressive resistance training in combination with aerobic training. Participants are measured at baseline, after 12 weeks and after 24 weeks as part of the programme....... Primary endpoints of this study are changes in physical fitness evaluated by the 30 s Chair-Stand Test and Graded Cycling Test with Talk Test. Secondary endpoints include changes in quality of life, body composition and safety of exercise. Inclusion started in August 2014, with 169 participants being...

  18. Analytical gradients of the state-average complete active space self-consistent field method with density fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcey, Mickaël G. [Department of Chemistry – Ångström, The Theoretical Chemistry Programme, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 518, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Pedersen, Thomas Bondo [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033 Blindern, 0315 Oslo (Norway); Aquilante, Francesco [Department of Chemistry – Ångström, The Theoretical Chemistry Programme, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 518, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Dipartimento di chimica “G. Ciamician,” Università di Bologna, V. F. Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Lindh, Roland, E-mail: roland.lindh@kemi.uu.se [Department of Chemistry – Ångström, The Theoretical Chemistry Programme, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 518, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Uppsala Center for Computational Chemistry - UC_3, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 518, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-07-28

    An efficient implementation of the state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) gradients employing density fitting (DF) is presented. The DF allows a reduction both in scaling and prefactors of the different steps involved. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated on a set of molecules ranging up to an iron-Heme b complex which with its 79 atoms and 811 basis functions is to our knowledge the largest SA-CASSCF gradient computed. For smaller systems where the conventional code could still be used as a reference, both the linear response calculation and the gradient formation showed a clear timing reduction and the overall cost of a geometry optimization is typically reduced by more than one order of magnitude while the accuracy loss is negligible.

  19. Population-based reference standards for cardiovascular fitness among U.S. adults: NHANES 1999-2000 and 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Leslee F; Duncan, Glen E

    2006-04-01

    To provide reference standards for cardiovascular fitness levels, using population-based estimates of estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) from a diverse sample of U.S. adults. Analysis of data from adults (20-49 yr) who completed a submaximal exercise test in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000 and 2001-2002. Estimated VO2max was categorized as low ( or =60th percentile) fitness using age- and sex-specific cut-points. There were 1978 subjects, roughly 29% Mexican-American, 20% non-Hispanic black, and 51% non-Hispanic white. Using population-based sample weights, this was equivalent to 54,078,766 persons with mean (+/- SE) age, 34.4 +/- 0.3 yr; body mass index (BMI), 27.0 +/- 0.2 kg x m(-2); and estimated VO2max, 40.4 +/- 0.3 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1). There was a significant association between race and fitness level and between race and fitness level by sex (P < 0.0001). Low fitness was highest among non-Hispanic blacks (percentage (95% confidence interval): 32%, (26-38%)) compared with Mexican-Americans (22% (18-27%)) and non-Hispanic whites (18% (15-21%)), particularly among females, where 35% (28-42%) non-Hispanic black women had low fitness compared with 22% (16.3-27.4%) Mexican-American and 18% (13.7-22.4%) non-Hispanic white women. Non-Hispanic black adults have the highest percentage of low cardiovascular fitness among major race groups in the United States. On a population basis, over one third of non-Hispanic black women have low cardiovascular fitness, suggesting this group in particular may be at increased health risk due to poor fitness.

  20. 基于小波分析的最小二乘拟合及应用%Application of the Least Square Fitting Based on Wavelet Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江荣

    2012-01-01

    Straight line is a very important descriptor in image analysis process. In industrial control, the least square method is commonly used for fitting of straight line in image processing. When higher accuracy of estimation is requested, traditional least square method cannot satisfy the requirement. Thus, the discrete wavelet transform is combined with traditional least square method, to establish the new type of solution based on wavelet pre-processing for the least square estimation, to acquire better estimation result than that of traditional least square method. The experiments verify the effectiveness and high precision of this method.%直线是图像分析过程中非常重要的描述符号.在工业控制中,图像处理通常采用最小二乘法对直线进行拟合,但在对估计精度要求较高时,传统最小二乘法往往不能满足要求.将离散小波变换和传统最小二乘法相结合,建立了一种基于小波预处理的最小二乘估计的新方法,获得了比传统最小二乘法效果更好的估计结果.试验证明了该方法的有效性和高精度性.

  1. Perceived fitness protects against stress-based mental health impairments among police officers who report good sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Kellmann, Micheal; Elliot, Catherine; Hartmann, Tim; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a cognitive stress-moderation model that posits that the harmful effects of chronic stress are decreased in police officers who perceive high levels of physical fitness. It also determined whether the stress-buffering effect of perceived fitness is influenced by officers' self-reported sleep. A total of 460 police officers (n=116 females, n=344 males, mean age: M=40.7; SD=9.7) rated their physical fitness and completed a battery of self-report stress, mental health, and sleep questionnaires. Three-way analyses of covariance were performed to examine whether officers' self-reported mental health status depends on the interaction between stress, perceived fitness and sleep. Highly stressed officers perceived lower mental health and fitness and were overrepresented in the group of poor sleepers. Officers with high fitness self-reports revealed increased mental health and reported good sleep. In contrast, poor sleepers scored lower on the mental health index. High stress was more closely related to low mental health among poor sleepers. Most importantly, perceived fitness revealed a stress-buffering effect, but only among officers who reported good sleep. High perceived fitness and good sleep operate as stress resilience resources among police officers. The findings suggest that multimodal programs including stress management, sleep hygiene and fitness training are essential components of workplace health promotion in the police force.

  2. Instance Based Methods --- A Brief Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgartner, Peter; 10.1007/s13218-010-0002-x

    2012-01-01

    Instance-based methods are a specific class of methods for automated proof search in first-order logic. This article provides an overview of the major methods in the area and discusses their properties and relations to the more established resolution methods. It also discusses some recent trends on refinements and applications. This overview is rather brief and informal, but we provide a comprehensive literature list to follow-up on the details.

  3. Liver 4DMRI: A retrospective image-based sorting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganelli, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.paganelli@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano 20133 (Italy); Summers, Paul [Division of Radiology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano 20133 (Italy); Bellomi, Massimo [Division of Radiology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano 20133, Italy and Department of Health Sciences, Università di Milano, Milano 20133 (Italy); Baroni, Guido; Riboldi, Marco [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano 20133, Italy and Bioengineering Unit, Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia 27100 (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4DMRI) is an emerging technique in radiotherapy treatment planning for organ motion quantification. In this paper, the authors present a novel 4DMRI retrospective image-based sorting method, providing reduced motion artifacts than using a standard monodimensional external respiratory surrogate. Methods: Serial interleaved 2D multislice MRI data were acquired from 24 liver cases (6 volunteers + 18 patients) to test the proposed 4DMRI sorting. Image similarity based on mutual information was applied to automatically identify a stable reference phase and sort the image sequence retrospectively, without the use of additional image or surrogate data to describe breathing motion. Results: The image-based 4DMRI provided a smoother liver profile than that obtained from standard resorting based on an external surrogate. Reduced motion artifacts were observed in image-based 4DMRI datasets with a fitting error of the liver profile measuring 1.2 ± 0.9 mm (median ± interquartile range) vs 2.1 ± 1.7 mm of the standard method. Conclusions: The authors present a novel methodology to derive a patient-specific 4DMRI model to describe organ motion due to breathing, with improved image quality in 4D reconstruction.

  4. The Model Characteristics of Physical Fitness in CrossFit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilii V. Volkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to work out the model characteristics of the physical fitness of CrossFit athletes based on laboratory functional testing (n=10. The analysis of the body composition was conducted using the dual-energy absorptiometry method. The morpho-functional characteristics of the heart were explored using a high-resolution ultrasound scanner. Oxygen consumption at the aerobic-anaerobic threshold and maximum oxygen consumption were determined in a step test on arm and leg cycle ergometers using a gas-analyzer. The level of the physical fitness of leg muscles in the males and females who took part in the study was satisfactory. However, it was considerably higher than the norm for untrained people. The level of the physical fitness of arm muscles was higher than the average and matched the Master of Sport of International Class standards. The productivity of the cardio-vascular system was much higher than in healthy males and females who do not work out and comparable to the standards for advanced soccer players.

  5. Reliability-based concurrent subspace optimization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hui; LI Wei-ji

    2008-01-01

    To avoid the high computational cost and much modification in the process of applying traditional re-liability-based design optimization method, a new reliability-based concurrent subspace optimization approach is proposed based on the comparison and analysis of the existing muhidisciplinary optimization techniques and reli-ability assessment methods. It is shown through a canard configuration optimization for a three-surface transport that the proposed method is computationally efficient and practical with the least modification to the current de-terministic optimization process.

  6. Diffusion-based method for producing density equalizing maps

    CERN Document Server

    Gastner, M T; Gastner, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Map makers have long searched for a way to construct cartograms -- maps in which the sizes of geographic regions such as countries or provinces appear in proportion to their population or some other analogous property. Such maps are invaluable for the representation of census results, election returns, disease incidence, and many other kinds of human data. Unfortunately, in order to scale regions and still have them fit together, one is normally forced to distort the regions' shapes, potentially resulting in maps that are difficult to read. Many methods for making cartograms have been proposed, some of them extremely complex, but all suffer either from this lack of readability or from other pathologies, like overlapping regions or strong dependence on the choice of coordinate axes. Here we present a new technique based on ideas borrowed from elementary physics that suffers none of these drawbacks. Our method is conceptually simple and produces useful, elegant, and easily readable maps. We illustrate the metho...

  7. Study on Fitting Method for Nuclear Astrophysics Reaction Rate%核天体物理反应率拟合方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇; 李志宏; 张海黔

    2015-01-01

    In large-scale nuclear astrophysics network computing,the nuclear astrophys-ics reaction rates were usually fitted to numerical reaction rates concerning temperature in order to reduce the input nuclear parameters.By analyzing the existing databases adopted internationally,a new fitting method was present in this paper,which can give much better fitting results than REACLIB and NACRE.This new fitting method can be applicable to direct reaction rates,isolated and narrow resonance reaction rates,multi-resonant reaction rates,subthreshold states and broad low energy resonances reaction rates,and is convenient to build nuclear astrophysics reaction rate data library.%为进行大规模核天体网络运算,通常将核天体物理反应率拟合为与温度相关的数值表达式,以简化程序中的核物理输入量。通过分析国际上常用的几种核天体物理数据库,本工作得到了一种新的拟合方法,其对反应率的拟合精度较目前国际上通用的 REACLIB和 NACRE 数据库的拟合方法的有明显改善。该拟合方法适用于直接反应和窄共振、宽共振、阈下共振和多谐共振反应,方便建立核天体物理反应率数据库。

  8. Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of the Fit4Fun Intervention for Improving Physical Fitness in a Sample of Primary School Children: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip J.; Lubans, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a school-based physical fitness intervention (Fit4Fun) on the physical fitness and physical activity (PA) levels of primary school children. Methods: A group-randomized controlled trial with a 3-month wait-list control group was conducted in…

  9. Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of the Fit4Fun Intervention for Improving Physical Fitness in a Sample of Primary School Children: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip J.; Lubans, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a school-based physical fitness intervention (Fit4Fun) on the physical fitness and physical activity (PA) levels of primary school children. Methods: A group-randomized controlled trial with a 3-month wait-list control group was conducted in…

  10. Density functional theory based generalized effective fragment potential method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Kiet A., E-mail: kiet.nguyen@wpafb.af.mil, E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); UES, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45432 (United States); Pachter, Ruth, E-mail: kiet.nguyen@wpafb.af.mil, E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Day, Paul N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); General Dynamics Information Technology, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45431 (United States)

    2014-06-28

    We present a generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) based effective fragment potential (EFP2-DFT) method for the treatment of solvent effects. Similar to the original Hartree-Fock (HF) based potential with fitted parameters for water (EFP1) and the generalized HF based potential (EFP2-HF), EFP2-DFT includes electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and dispersion potentials, which are generated for a chosen DFT functional for a given isolated molecule. The method does not have fitted parameters, except for implicit parameters within a chosen functional and the dispersion correction to the potential. The electrostatic potential is modeled with a multipolar expansion at each atomic center and bond midpoint using Stone's distributed multipolar analysis. The exchange-repulsion potential between two fragments is composed of the overlap and kinetic energy integrals and the nondiagonal KS matrices in the localized molecular orbital basis. The polarization potential is derived from the static molecular polarizability. The dispersion potential includes the intermolecular D3 dispersion correction of Grimme et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 154104 (2010)]. The potential generated from the CAMB3LYP functional has mean unsigned errors (MUEs) with respect to results from coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples with a complete basis set limit (CCSD(T)/CBS) extrapolation, of 1.7, 2.2, 2.0, and 0.5 kcal/mol, for the S22, water-benzene clusters, water clusters, and n-alkane dimers benchmark sets, respectively. The corresponding EFP2-HF errors for the respective benchmarks are 2.41, 3.1, 1.8, and 2.5 kcal/mol. Thus, the new EFP2-DFT-D3 method with the CAMB3LYP functional provides comparable or improved results at lower computational cost and, therefore, extends the range of applicability of EFP2 to larger system sizes.

  11. Monitoring of the volcanic plume based on the post-fit phase residual of PPP analysis and SNR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yusaku; Iguchi, Masato

    2016-04-01

    A volcanic explosion is one of the largest energy-release phenomena on earth. For example, vulcanian eruptions usually eject large amounts of rock mass, tephra, and volcanic ash. Ash fall from such events can seriously affect the structural integrity of buildings, in addition to disrupting land and air traffic. Therefore, the monitoring and prediction of ash fall is very important. In this study, using data from a dense GNSS network, we investigated the spatiotemporal development of the volcanic plume ejected by the vulcanian eruption in Sakurajima, southwestern Japan on July 24, 2012. We extracted the post-fit phase residuals (PPR) of ionosphere-free linear combinations for each satellite based on the precise point positioning approach. Temporal and spatial PPR anomalies clearly detected the movement of the volcanic plume. The maximum height of the crossing points of anomalous PPR paths was determined to be approximately 4000 m. We then compared the PPR with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) anomalies. Only the path passing just above the crater showed significant change in the SNR value, suggesting that the volcanic ash and the water vapor within the volcanic plume became separated after reaching a high altitude because of ash fall during the plume's lateral movement. In the presentation, we will introduce the eruption in Shin-dake (Kuchinoerabu island, southwestern Japan) on May 29, 2015 based on the SNR data.

  12. A criterion based on an information theoretic measure for goodness of fit between classifier and data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigen, D. J.; Davida, G. I.; Northouse, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    A criterion for characterizing an iteratively trained classifier is presented. The criterion is based on an information theoretic measure that is developed from modeling classifier training iterations as a set of cascaded channels. The criterion is formulated as a figure of merit and as a performance index to check the appropriateness of application of the characterized classifier to an unknown data base and for implementing classifier updates and data selection respectively.

  13. A criterion based on an information theoretic measure for goodness of fit between classifier and data base. [in pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigen, D. J.; Davida, G. I.; Northouse, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    A criterion for characterizing an iteratively trained classifier is presented. The criterion is based on an information theoretic measure that is developed from modeling classifier training iterations as a set of cascaded channels. The criterion is formulated as a figure of merit and as a performance index to check the appropriateness of application of the characterized classifier to an unknown data base and for implementing classifier updates and data selection, respectively.

  14. 三次B样条曲线拟合的虹膜定位%Iris Localization Algorithm Based on Cubic B-spline Curve Fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶永强; 沈建新; 周啸; 张敏

    2011-01-01

    采用圆检测定位虹膜内外边界的方法是当前虹膜定位的主流算法.当虹膜图像分辨率很高时,圆曲线不能准确地拟合虹膜真实边界,特别是受瞳孔收缩影响很大的内边界.而采用三次B样条曲线能够很好地拟合内边界.为了提高定位效率,首先运用质心探测方法分割出瞳孔区域,然后在瞳孔区域中搜索内边界点,采用三次B样条曲线精确拟合内边界;最后利用Canny算子检测外边界,并采用圆曲线的最小二乘拟合外边界.运用Bath大学虹膜库中的1000幅虹膜图像对该定位算法进行测试,内边界定位时间0.0203s、准确率99.2%;外边界定位时间2.0277s,准确率98.9%,满足准确、高效的定位要求.%The current important methods of iris localization are based on circle detection. But they could not fit the real boundary well when iris images are high-resolution, especially the inner boundary under the influence of pupil constriction. Proposed method based on cubic B-spline curve can figure out this problem. It locates the inner boundary area first, and then the outer boundary. To improve the efficiency and robustness for inner boundary localization, this paper has proposed a method to segment the pupil area first based centroid detection, then search inner edge in the segmented area. The outer boundary area is then determined by using Ihe parameter relations between inner and outer boundary. Finally, using canny operator delects the outer edge, and the outer boundary is fitted in the Least-square circle sense. The Experiment results based on the iris database of Bath University, with 99.2% accuracy and 0.022s positioning time of inner boundary, 98.9% and 2.027s of outer show that the proposed approach is efficient and robust.

  15. Application of the VOF method based on unstructured quadrilateral mesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Chun-ning; SHI Ying

    2008-01-01

    To simulate two-dimensional free-surface flows with complex boundaries directly and accurately, a novel VOF (Volume-of-fluid) method based on unstructured quadrilateral mesh is presented. Without introducing any complicated boundary treatment or artificial diffusion, this method treated curved boundaries directly by utilizing the inherent merit of unstructured mesh in fitting curves. The PLIC (Piecewise Linear Interface Calculation) method was adopted to obtain a second-order accurate linearized reconstruction approximation and the MLER (Modified Lagrangian-Eulerian Re-map) method was introduced to advect fluid volumes on unstructured mesh. Moreover, an analytical relation for the interface's line constant vs. the volume clipped by the interface was developed so as to improve the method's efficiency. To validate this method, a comprehensive series of large straining advection tests were performed. Numerical results provide convincing evidences for the method's high volume conservative accuracy and second-order shape error convergence rate. Also, a dramatic improvement on computational accuracy over its unstructured triangular mesh counterpart is checked.

  16. A New General Method for Simultaneous Fitting of Temperature- and Concentration-Dependence of Reaction Rates Yields Kinetic and Thermodynamic Parameters for HIV Reverse Transcriptase Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An; Ziehr, Jessica L; Johnson, Kenneth A

    2017-03-02

    Recent studies have demonstrated the dominant role of induced-fit in enzyme specificity of HIV reverse transcriptase and many other enzymes. However, relevant thermodynamic parameters are lacking and equilibrium thermodynamic methods are of no avail because the key parameters can only determined by kinetic measurement. By modifying KinTek Explorer software, we present a new general method for globally fitting data collected over a range of substrate concentrations and temperatures and apply it to HIV reverse transcriptase. Fluorescence stopped-flow methods were used to record the kinetics of enzyme conformational changes that monitor nucleotide binding and incorporation. The nucleotide concentration dependence was measured at temperatures ranging from 5 to 37C and the raw data were fit globally to derive a single set of rate constants at 37C and a set of activation enthalpy terms to account for the kinetics at all other temperatures. This comprehensive analysis afforded thermodynamic parameters for nucleotide binding (Kd, ΔG, ΔH, ΔS at 37C), and kinetic parameters for enzyme conformational changes and chemistry (rate constants and activation enthalpy). Comparisons between wild-type enzyme and a mutant resistant to nucleoside analogs used to treat HIV infections reveal that the ground state binding is weaker and the activation enthalpy for the conformational change step is significantly larger for the mutant. Further studies to explore the structural underpinnings of the observed thermodynamics and kinetics of the conformational change step may help to design better analogs to treat HIV infections and other diseases. Our new method is generally applicable to enzyme and chemical kinetics.

  17. Hydrogeological Parameters solution Using Entire Curve Fitting Method and Aquifertest software%全程曲线拟合法和 Aquifertest 水文地质求参

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜川; 梁秀娟; 张茜; 陈章; 李文娟

    2014-01-01

    Pumping test is the main method to obtain aquifer hydrogeological parameters and the results directly affect the recognizing and exploita-tion of the hydrogeological conditions of study area. The traditional methods have the problems of being effected easily by subjective judgment and external environmental conditions,taking long time to calculate and lacking data about pumping stage. This paper used the entire curve fitting method and Aquifertest software from the standard curve method and recovery method to calculate parameters individually,and combined with the entire curve fitting method to determine the final value. The results show that using Aquifertest software method to calculate parameters is convenient and accurate;the results have smaller differences using water level recovery method;and the entire curve fitting method has the advantage of unique-ness and reliability in deciding the parameters. Combining different methods can more truly reflect the hydrogeological conditions.%抽水试验是获取含水层水文地质参数的主要方法,求参结果直接影响对调查区水文地质条件的认识和地下水开发利用。传统求参方法存在主观影响大、求参时间长、易受外界影响和抽水阶段数据的不足等问题。通过全程曲线拟合法和 Aquifertest 软件分别从配线法和水位恢复法两个角度进行求参,并结合全程曲线拟合法确定最终取值。结果表明,采用 Aquifertest 软件求参便捷、准确,与水位恢复法求参结果的差异相对较小,全程曲线拟合法求参值具有唯一性和可靠性,多种方法结合求参能更真实反映水文地质情况。

  18. The Parameters Fitting in High-strength Concrete Mix Proportion Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Hao; LV Lingnu; ZHANG Luo

    2005-01-01

    Parameters that need to be fitted in High-Strength concrete mix proportion experiment and two equation models that are referenced in the experiment are discussed. The reasoning and implement of the corresponding linear fitting algorithm are demonstrated.Parmeter fitting is realized by value estimate method of mathematical statistics.This paper combines mathematical statisitics,linear equations and template thought together successfully and discussed an efficient parameter fitting method based on strength equation model and water consumption equation model.

  19. 浅探健身竞赛功法运动训练方法%On the Training Methods of Fitness Qigong Competitive Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔晓芸

    2015-01-01

    健身功法是以自身形体活动、呼吸吐纳、心理调节相结合为主要运动形式的民族传统体育项目。近年来,在国家体育总局健身气功管理中心大力的推动下,全民健身出现了“气功热”的热潮,各种大型健身气功比赛和培训接踵而至。在日益竞争激烈的赛场,健身气功运动员的高水平训练方法直接影响了比赛成绩,本研究对培养高水平健身气功运动员的相关方法做出了一定的总结。%Fitness Qgong is a kind of body activity, breathing deep breath, combining psychological adjustment as the main form of traditional ethnic sports movement. In recent years, with the vigorous driven of the State General Administration of Sports Fitness Qigong Management Center, the national fitness appeared"Qigong Hot Development", caused all kinds of large-scale health qigong competitions and training. In the increasingly fierce competition in the field, a high level of fitness qigong athletes training methods affected the results of the competitions, this study tries to propose the related approaches for training high level fitness qigong players.

  20. Decision making based on data analysis methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sirola, Miki; Sulkava, Mika

    2016-01-01

    This technical report is based on four our recent articles:"Data fusion of pre-election gallups and polls for improved support estimates", "Analyzing parliamentary elections based on voting advice application data", "The Finnish car rejection reasons shown in an interactive SOM visualization tool", and "Network visualization of car inspection data using graph layout". Neural methods are applied in political and technical decision making. We introduce decision support schemes based on Self-Org...

  1. A sensitive real-time PCR based assay to estimate the impact of amino acid substitutions on the competitive replication fitness of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Holte, Sarah; Rao, Ushnal; McClure, Jan; Konopa, Philip; Swain, J Victor; Lanxon-Cookson, Erinn; Kim, Moon; Chen, Lennie; Mullins, James I

    2013-04-01

    Fixation of mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), such as those conferring drug resistance and immune escape, can result in a change in replication fitness. To assess these changes, a real-time TaqMan PCR detection assay and statistical methods for data analysis were developed to estimate sensitively relative viral fitness in competitive viral replication experiments in cell culture. Chimeric viruses with the gene of interest in an HIV-1NL4-3 backbone were constructed in two forms, vifA (native vif gene in NL4-3) and vifB (vif gene with six synonymous nucleotide differences from vifA). Subsequently, mutations of interest were introduced into the chimeric viruses in NL4-3VifA backbones, and the mutants were competed against the chimera with the isogenic viral sequence in the NL4-3VifB backbone in cell culture. In order to assess subtle fitness differences, culture supernatants were sampled longitudinally, and the viruses differentially quantified using vifA- and vifB-specific primers in real-time PCR assays. Based on an exponential net growth model, the growth rate of each virus was determined and the fitness cost of the mutation(s) distinguishing the two viruses represented as the net growth rate difference between the mutant and the native variants. Using this assay, the fitness impact of eight amino acid substitutions was quantitated at highly conserved sites in HIV-1 Gag and Env.

  2. Perceived demands and postexercise physical dysfunction in CrossFit® compared to an ACSM based training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Scott N; Bellovary, Bryanne N; Jensen, Randall L; Moore, Maggy T; Donath, Lars

    2017-05-01

    CrossFit® is considered an intense and extreme conditioning program (ECP) that can cause overtraining and injury. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis (ER) - breakdown of muscle tissue - after ECP has been reported in CrossFit® and might be linked to comparatively high rates of subjectively perceived exertion levels. Therefore, the present study aimed at recording symptoms of postexercise physical dysfunction (e.g., excessive muscle soreness, shortness of breath) following CrossFit® and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during CrossFit® compared with training according to the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines. A validated questionnaire was completed by 101 CrossFit® (age: 35±8 years; weight: 79±16 kg) and 56 ACSM (age: 35±10 years; weight: 75±27 kg) participants. CrossFit® and ACSM groups, respectively, reported significantly different RPE levels of 7.3±1.7 and 5.5±1.4 (P≤0.001) and amounts of hard days per week of 4.0±1.1 and 3.5±1.4 (P=0.04). The five most frequent and hardest ECP workouts of the day (WODs) were Fran (47), Murph (27), Fight Gone Bad (10), Helen (9) and Filthy 50 (9). Presence of severe post-exercise symptoms was notably higher in CrossFit® for excessive fatigue (42 vs. 8; Pinjury, such as ER.

  3. An Empirically Based Method of Q-Matrix Validation for the DINA Model: Development and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Most model fit analyses in cognitive diagnosis assume that a Q matrix is correct after it has been constructed, without verifying its appropriateness. Consequently, any model misfit attributable to the Q matrix cannot be addressed and remedied. To address this concern, this paper proposes an empirically based method of validating a Q matrix used…

  4. Robust discriminative response map fitting with constrained local models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asthana, Akshay; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Cheng, Shiyang; Pantic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel discriminative regression based approach for the Constrained Local Models (CLMs) framework, referred to as the Discriminative Response Map Fitting (DRMF) method, which shows impressive performance in the generic face fitting scenario. The motivation behind this approach is that, u

  5. 对称最小二乘法直线拟合的不确定度%The Uncertainty of the Slope and the Intercept of a Fitting Line on the Symmetrical Least Square Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党兴菊; 孙骏; 吴文良

    2013-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the existing references,the uncertainty of the slope and the intercept of a fitting line and some cases are given on the Symmetrical Least Square Method(SLSM).%在已有文献的基础上,讨论一般情形下对称最小二乘法直线拟合的不确定度评定,给出对称最小二乘法拟合直线斜率和截距的不确定度,并给出了一些实例。

  6. Synthetic Study of 2.5-D ATEM Based on Finite Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiang, Jianke; Zhou, Junjie; Cai, Hongzhu

    2013-01-01

    Based on the regular triangular dissection for finite element method, we implemented the forward modeling of 2.5-D airborne transient electromagnetic method. The 3-D EM field was firstly transformed into Laplace domain and after that we will apply Fourier transform to reduce the dimension from 3-...... study shows that our numerical solution fits well with the analytical solution for homogeneous and layered earth model. The study also demonstrated the effectiveness of our numerical method....

  7. Activated region fitting: a robust high-power method for fMRI analysis using parameterized regions of activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeda, Wouter D; Waldorp, Lourens J; Christoffels, Ingrid; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2009-08-01

    An important issue in the analysis of fMRI is how to account for the spatial smoothness of activated regions. In this article a method is proposed to accomplish this by modeling activated regions with Gaussian shapes. Hypothesis tests on the location, spatial extent, and amplitude of these regions are performed instead of hypothesis tests of individual voxels. This increases power and eases interpretation. Simulation studies show robust hypothesis tests under misspecification of the shape model, and increased power over standard techniques especially at low signal-to-noise ratios. An application to real single-subject data also indicates that the method has increased power over standard methods.

  8. Examining the Relationship between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Weight Status: Empirical Evidence from a Population-Based Survey of Adults in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Hsiung Hung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. Meanwhile, obesity has been recognized as a global epidemic. This study aims to examine the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with body mass among adult males and females in Taiwan. Materials and Methods. A nationally representative dataset consisting of 68,175 adults aged 18–60, including 31,743 males and 36,432 females, was used. Several multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and body weight status, after controlling for adults’ sociodemographic status. Results. A one-unit increase in the BMI lowered the cardiorespiratory fitness score by 0.316 and 0.368 points for adult males and females, respectively. Among adult males, compared to those of normal weight, adult males who were underweight, overweight, or obese had a lower cardiorespiratory fitness score by 1.287, 0.845, and 3.353 points, respectively. Similar results could be found in female samples. Conclusion. The overweight and obese adults had much lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness as compared to their normal weight counterparts. Given the upward trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, it is important to help overweight and obese people to become more fit and reach their healthy weight.

  9. Global analysis of candidate genes important for fitness in a competitive biofilm using DNA-array-based transposon mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Lauren M; Peters, Joseph E; Hay, Anthony G

    2006-08-01

    Escherichia coli strain PHL628 was subjected to saturating Tn5 transposon mutagenesis and then grown under competitive planktonic or biofilm conditions. The locations of transposon insertions from the remaining cells were then mapped on a gene array. The results from the array mapping indicated that 4.5 % of the E. coli genome was important under these conditions. Specifically, 114 genes were identified as important for the biofilm lifestyle, whereas 80 genes were important for the planktonic lifestyle. Four broad functional categories were identified as biofilm-important. These included genes encoding cell structures, small-molecule transport, energy metabolism and regulatory functions. For one of these genes, arcA, an insertion mutant was generated and its biofilm-related phenotype was examined. Results from both the transposon array and insertion mutagenesis indicated that arcA, which is known to be a negative response regulator of genes in aerobic pathways, was important for competitiveness in E. coli PHL628 biofilms. This work also demonstrated that ligation-mediated PCR, coupled with array-based transposon mapping, was an effective tool for identifying a large variety of candidate genes that are important for biofilm fitness.

  10. Software Testing Method Based on Model Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-dong; LU Yan-sheng; MAO Cheng-yin

    2008-01-01

    A model comparison based software testing method (MCST) is proposed. In this method, the requirements and programs of software under test are transformed into the ones in the same form, and described by the same model describe language (MDL).Then, the requirements are transformed into a specification model and the programs into an implementation model. Thus, the elements and structures of the two models are compared, and the differences between them are obtained. Based on the diffrences, a test suite is generated. Different MDLs can be chosen for the software under test. The usages of two classical MDLs in MCST, the equivalence classes model and the extended finite state machine (EFSM) model, are described with example applications. The results show that the test suites generated by MCST are more efficient and smaller than some other testing methods, such as the path-coverage testing method, the object state diagram testing method, etc.

  11. Biomedical model fitting and error analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Kevin D; Kleinstein, Steven H; Hershberg, Uri

    2011-09-20

    This Teaching Resource introduces students to curve fitting and error analysis; it is the second of two lectures on developing mathematical models of biomedical systems. The first focused on identifying, extracting, and converting required constants--such as kinetic rate constants--from experimental literature. To understand how such constants are determined from experimental data, this lecture introduces the principles and practice of fitting a mathematical model to a series of measurements. We emphasize using nonlinear models for fitting nonlinear data, avoiding problems associated with linearization schemes that can distort and misrepresent the data. To help ensure proper interpretation of model parameters estimated by inverse modeling, we describe a rigorous six-step process: (i) selecting an appropriate mathematical model; (ii) defining a "figure-of-merit" function that quantifies the error between the model and data; (iii) adjusting model parameters to get a "best fit" to the data; (iv) examining the "goodness of fit" to the data; (v) determining whether a much better fit is possible; and (vi) evaluating the accuracy of the best-fit parameter values. Implementation of the computational methods is based on MATLAB, with example programs provided that can be modified for particular applications. The problem set allows students to use these programs to develop practical experience with the inverse-modeling process in the context of determining the rates of cell proliferation and death for B lymphocytes using data from BrdU-labeling experiments.

  12. Possibilities and limitations of fracture mechanics methods in fitness-for-purpose evaluation of a turbine rotor with large ultrasonics indication zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grkovic, V.; Nedeljkovic, L.

    1995-09-01

    An outline of the fitness-for-purpose qualifying procedure is given for the low-pressure rotor of a 350 MW fossil-fuel power plant disputed by the purchaser. The procedure is based on the available short fatigue crack growth rate equations. Coupled with Paris`s formula these equations enable the assessment of the total number of loading cycles to failure, provided the material specific constants are available, as well as the precise data on operating stresses and on non-metallic inclusions. Necessary data for the qualifying procedure are presented. Possible issues of the evaluation are discussed.

  13. Avaliação clínica de um programa computadorizado para adaptação de lentes de contato Clinical evaluation of a computerized topography software method for fitting contact lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaine Vinche Zampar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o desempenho do software de adaptação de lentes de contato do Topógrafo EyeSys (versão 3.10 em pacientes acompanhados do setor de lentes de contato do Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo, sendo alguns deles com o diagnóstico de ceratocone. Métodos: Os 29 pacientes, sendo 9 deles com diagnóstico de ceratocone, tiveram suas lentes de contato adaptadas no setor de lentes de contato deste serviço baseados na ceratometria simulada e melhor padrão fluoresceinográfico. Posteriormente, os padrões curva base e poder dióptrico das lentes adaptadas na clínica foram comparados aos mesmos padrões sugeridos pelo programa de adaptação do Topógrafo Computadorizado. Resultados: Não foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significante nos parâmetros curva base (p=0,158 e poder dióptrico das lentes adaptadas (p=0,013, tanto nos pacientes normais como nos portadores de ceratocone (p=0,463 para curva base e p=0,842 para poder dióptrico; entretanto nestes encontramos valores de curva base e poder da lente maiores do que no grupo dos pacientes normais. Conclusões: O programa computadorizado EyeSys (versão 3.10 de adaptação de lentes de contato pode ser utilizado como método adjuvante para adaptação de lentes rígidas gás-permeáveis, tanto em pacientes normais como nos pacientes com ceratocone, diminuindo o tempo necessário para adaptação com maior conforto para os pacientes. Entretanto a experiência clínica continua sendo a melhor escolha.Purpose: To evaluate the performance of EyeSys Topographic system of contact lens fitting software (version 3.10 in followed-up patients of the contact lens department of the Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual, some of them with keratoconus diagnosis. Methods: The 29 patients, 9 of them with a keratoconus diagnosis, had their contact lens fitted in this specific sector of the above mentioned hospital, based on simulated keratometry and the best

  14. Effect of production method on surface roughness, marginal and internal fit, and retention of cobalt-chromium single crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövgren, Nils; Roxner, Rikard; Klemendz, Susanne; Larsson, Christel

    2017-07-01

    New production methods have been developed for metal-ceramic restorations. Different production methods may show different surface roughness and fit, which may affect retention and long-term success. The purpose of this in vitro study was to examine 3 different production methods with regard to surface roughness, marginal and internal fit, and retention of cobalt-chromium alloy single-crown copings. A master abutment of a premolar mandibular tooth preparation with 4-mm height and a 0.6-mm deep 120-degree chamfer finish line with a 12-degree angle of convergence was replicated in die stone and scanned. Thirty-six cobalt-chromium alloy copings were produced using 3 different production techniques. Twelve copings were produced by laser-sintering, 12 by milling, and 12 by milled wax/lost wax. The surface microstructure of 2 copings in each group was analyzed using interferometry. The remaining 10 copings in each group were used to evaluate marginal and internal fit by using an impression material replica method, and retention was evaluated by using a uniaxial tensile force pull-off test. The copings from each test group were cemented with zinc phosphate cement onto resin abutments. Statistical analyses of differences in marginal and internal fit were performed using 1-way ANOVA and the Mann-Whitney U test. Differences in surface topography were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests for nonparametric data. Differences in retentive values were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test for nonparametric data (all α=.05). Differences in surface microstructure were seen. The laser-sintered copings showed increased surface roughness compared with milled and milled wax/lost wax copings. Differences in marginal and internal fit were noted. Laser-sintered showed significantly smaller spaces between coping and abutment than milled wax/lost wax copings (P=.003). At the margins, laser-sintered copings showed significantly smaller spaces than either the milled

  15. Wavelet-based Multiresolution Particle Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdorf, Michael; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2006-03-01

    Particle methods offer a robust numerical tool for solving transport problems across disciplines, such as fluid dynamics, quantitative biology or computer graphics. Their strength lies in their stability, as they do not discretize the convection operator, and appealing numerical properties, such as small dissipation and dispersion errors. Many problems of interest are inherently multiscale, and their efficient solution requires either multiscale modeling approaches or spatially adaptive numerical schemes. We present a hybrid particle method that employs a multiresolution analysis to identify and adapt to small scales in the solution. The method combines the versatility and efficiency of grid-based Wavelet collocation methods while retaining the numerical properties and stability of particle methods. The accuracy and efficiency of this method is then assessed for transport and interface capturing problems in two and three dimensions, illustrating the capabilities and limitations of our approach.

  16. A Comparison of Moments-Based Logo Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zili Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logo recognition is an important issue in document image, advertisement, and intelligent transportation. Although there are many approaches to study logos in these fields, logo recognition is an essential subprocess. Among the methods of logo recognition, the descriptor is very vital. The results of moments as powerful descriptors were not discussed before in terms of logo recognition. So it is unclear which moments are more appropriate to recognize which kind of logos. In this paper we find out the relations between logos with different transforms and moments, which moments are fit for logos with different transforms. The open datasets are employed from the University of Maryland. The comparisons based on moments are carried out from the aspects of logos with noise, and rotation, scaling, rotation and scaling.

  17. Methods for reliability based design optimization of structural components

    OpenAIRE

    Dersjö, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Cost and quality are key properties of a product, possibly even the two most important. Onedefinition of quality is fitness for purpose. Load-bearing products, i.e. structural components,loose their fitness for purpose if they fail. Thus, the ability to withstand failure is a fundamentalmeasure of quality for structural components. Reliability based design optimization(RBDO) is an approach for development of structural components which aims to minimizethe cost while constraining the probabili...

  18. One Size (Never) Fits All: Segment Differences Observed Following a School-Based Alcohol Social Marketing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Leo, Cheryl; Connor, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to commercial marketing theory, a market orientation leads to improved performance. Drawing on the social marketing principles of segmentation and audience research, the current study seeks to identify segments to examine responses to a school-based alcohol social marketing program. Methods: A sample of 371 year 10 students…

  19. One Size (Never) Fits All: Segment Differences Observed Following a School-Based Alcohol Social Marketing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Leo, Cheryl; Connor, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to commercial marketing theory, a market orientation leads to improved performance. Drawing on the social marketing principles of segmentation and audience research, the current study seeks to identify segments to examine responses to a school-based alcohol social marketing program. Methods: A sample of 371 year 10 students…

  20. Subshell fitting of relativistic atomic core electron densities for use in QTAIM analyses of ECP-based wave functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Todd A; Frisch, Michael J

    2011-11-17

    Scalar-relativistic, all-electron density functional theory (DFT) calculations were done for free, neutral atoms of all elements of the periodic table using the universal Gaussian basis set. Each core, closed-subshell contribution to a total atomic electron density distribution was separately fitted to a spherical electron density function: a linear combination of s-type Gaussian functions. The resulting core subshell electron densities are useful for systematically and compactly approximating total core electron densities of atoms in molecules, for any atomic core defined in terms of closed subshells. When used to augment the electron density from a wave function based on a calculation using effective core potentials (ECPs) in the Hamiltonian, the atomic core electron densities are sufficient to restore the otherwise-absent electron density maxima at the nuclear positions and eliminate spurious critical points in the neighborhood of the atom, thus enabling quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analyses to be done in the neighborhoods of atoms for which ECPs were used. Comparison of results from QTAIM analyses with all-electron, relativistic and nonrelativistic molecular wave functions validates the use of the atomic core electron densities for augmenting electron densities from ECP-based wave functions. For an atom in a molecule for which a small-core or medium-core ECPs is used, simply representing the core using a simplistic, tightly localized electron density function is actually sufficient to obtain a correct electron density topology and perform QTAIM analyses to obtain at least semiquantitatively meaningful results, but this is often not true when a large-core ECP is used. Comparison of QTAIM results from augmenting ECP-based molecular wave functions with the realistic atomic core electron densities presented here versus augmenting with the limiting case of tight core densities may be useful for diagnosing the reliability of large-core ECP models in