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Sample records for based fecoc ternary

  1. Contribution to the Study of the Relation between Microstructure and Electrochemical Behavior of Iron-Based FeCoC Ternary Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Benhalla-Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the relation between microstructure and electrochemical behavior of four iron-based FeCoC ternary alloys. First, the arc-melted studied alloys were characterized using differential thermal analyses and scanning electron microscopy. The established solidification sequences of these alloys show the presence of two primary crystallization phases (δ(Fe and graphite as well as two univariante lines : peritectic L+(Fe↔(Fe and eutectic L↔(Fe+Cgraphite. The ternary alloys were thereafter studied in nondeaerated solution of 10−3 M NaHCO3 + 10−3 M Na2SO4, at 25°C, by means of the potentiodynamic technique. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of the FeCoC alloys depends on the carbon amount and the morphology of the phases present in the studied alloys.

  2. Impact of Precipitants on the Structure and Properties of Fe-Co-Ce Composite Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Co-Ce composite catalysts were prepared by coprecipitation method using CO(NH22, NaOH, NH4HCO3, and NH3·H2O as precipitant agents. The effects of the precipitant agents on the physicochemical properties of the Fe-Co-Ce based catalysts were investigated by SEM, TEM, BET, TG-DTA, and XRD. It was found that the precipitant agents remarkably influenced the morphology and particle size of the catalysts and affected the COD removal efficiency, decolorization rate, and pH of methyl orange for catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO. The specific surface area of the Fe-Co-Ce composite catalysts successively decreased in the order of NH3·H2O, NH4HCO3, NaOH, and CO(NH22, which correlated to an increasing particle size that increased for each catalyst. For the CWAO of a methyl orange aqueous solutions, the effects of precipitant agents NH3·H2O and NaOH were superior to those of CO(NH22 and NH4HCO3. The catalyst prepared using NH3·H2O as the precipitant agent was mostly composed of Fe2O3, CoO, and CeO2. The COD removal efficiency of methyl orange aqueous solution for NH3·H2O reached 92.9% in the catalytic wet air oxidation. Such a catalytic property was maintained for six runs.

  3. Indacenodithienothiophene-Based Ternary Organic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparini, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.gasparini@fau.de [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); García-Rodríguez, Amaranda [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Prosa, Mario [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Bologna (Italy); Bayseç, Şebnem; Palma-Cando, Alex [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Katsouras, Athanasios; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos [Department of Materials Science Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Pagona, Georgia; Gregoriou, Vasilis G. [Advent Technologies SA, Patras Science Park, Patra (Greece); National Hellenic Research Foundation (NHRF), Athens (Greece); Chochos, Christos L. [Department of Materials Science Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Advent Technologies SA, Patras Science Park, Patra (Greece); Allard, Sybille; Scherf, Ulrich [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Brabec, Christoph J. [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern), Erlangen (Germany); Ameri, Tayebeh, E-mail: nicola.gasparini@fau.de [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-01-13

    One of the key aspects to achieve high efficiency in ternary bulk-hetorojunction solar cells is the physical and chemical compatibility between the donor materials. Here, we report the synthesis of a novel conjugated polymer (P1) containing alternating pyridyl[2,1,3]thiadiazole between two different donor fragments, dithienosilole and indacenodithienothiophene (IDTT), used as a sensitizer in a host system of indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene,2,3-bis(3-(octyloxy)phenyl)quinoxaline (PIDTTQ) and [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 70} butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM). We found that the use of the same IDTT unit in the host and guest materials does not lead to significant changes in the morphology of the ternary blend compared to the host binary. With the complementary use of optoelectronic characterizations, we found that the ternary cells suffer from a lower mobility-lifetime (μτ) product, adversely impacting the fill factor. However, the significant light harvesting in the near infrared region improvement, compensating the transport losses, results in an overall power conversion efficiency enhancement of ~7% for ternary blends as compared to the PIDTTQ:PC{sub 71}BM devices.

  4. Nanoscratching of nylon 66-based ternary nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, Aravind; Yu Zhongzhen; Mai Yiuwing

    2007-01-01

    The nanoscratch behavior of nylon 66/SEBS-g-MA/clay ternary nanocomposites produced by different blending protocols with contrasting microstructures is studied by using atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. A standard diamond Berkovich indenter is used for scratching and a low load of 1 mN, along with a low sliding velocity of 1 μm s -1 , are employed for this purpose. It is shown that in order to resist penetration it is more important to have exfoliated clay in the continuous nylon matrix during nanoscratching than to have the clay in the dispersed soft rubber domains. The results obtained also explain the preferred usage of ternary nanocomposites compared to binary nanocomposites, particularly nylon 66/exfoliated clay nanocomposites. This research extends current basic knowledge and provides new insights on the nature of nanoscale processes that occur during nanoscratching of polymer nanocomposites. Critical questions are raised on the relationships between the penetration depth and material deformation and damage left behind the moving indenter

  5. Development and application of high strength ternary boride base cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Reaction boronizing sintering is a novel strategy to form a ternary boride coexisting with a metal matrix in a cermet during liquid phase sintering. This new sintering technique has successfully developed world first ternary boride base cermets with excellent mechanical properties such as Mo 2 FeB 2 , Mo 2 NiB 2 and WCoB base ones. In these cermets Mo 2 FeB 2 and Mo 2 NiB 2 base ones consist of a tetragonal M 3 B 2 (M: metal)-type complex boride as a hard phase and a transition metal base matrix. The cermets have already been applied to wear resistant applications such as injection molding machine parts, can making tools, and hot copper extruding dies, etc. This paper focuses on the characteristics, effects of the additional elements on the mechanical properties and structure, and practical applications of the ternary boride base cermets. - Graphical abstract: TRS and hardness of Ni-5B-51Mo-17.5Cr and Ni-5B-51Mo-12.5Cr-5V-xMn mass% cermets as functions of Mn content (Fig. 17)

  6. Electronic structure of ternary hydrides based on light elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgaz, E. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: orgaz@eros.pquim.unam.mx; Membrillo, A. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Castaneda, R. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Aburto, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-12-08

    Ternary hydrides based on light elements are interesting owing to the high available energy density. In this work we focused into the electronic structure of a series of known systems having the general formula AMH{sub 4}(A=Li,Na,M=B,Al). We computed the energy bands and the total and partial density of states using the linear-augmented plane waves method. In this report, we discuss the chemical bonding in this series of complex hydrides.

  7. Valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohani, H. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, P. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Goyal, R.; Awana, V.P.S. [National Physical Laboratory(CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sekhar, B.R., E-mail: sekhar@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • VB Photoemission study and DFT calculations on Pd based ternary superconductors are presented. • Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} shows a temperature dependent pseudogap. • VB spectral features of ternary superconductors are correlated to their structural geometry. - Abstract: We present a comparative study of the valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5}, Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}Te{sub 6} using experimental photoemission spectroscopy and density functional based theoretical calculations. We observe a qualitatively similarity between valence band (VB) spectra of Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6}. Further, we find a pseudogap feature in Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} at low temperature, unlike other two compounds. We have correlated the structural geometry with the differences in VB spectra of these compounds. The different atomic packing in these compounds could vary the strength of inter-orbital hybridization among various atoms which leads to difference in their electronic structure as clearly observed in our DOS calculations.

  8. Dynamical theory of subconstituents based on ternary algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, I.; Guenaydin, M.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a dynamical theory of possible fundamental constituents of matter. Our scheme is based on (super) ternary algebras which are building blocks of Lie (super) algebras. Elementary fields, called ''ternons,'' are associated with the elements of a (super) ternary algebra. Effective gauge bosons, ''quarks,'' and ''leptons'' are constructed as composite fields from ternons. We propose two- and four-dimensional (super) ternon theories whose structures are closely related to CP/sub N/ and Yang-Mills theories and their supersymmetric extensions. We conjecture that at large distances (low energies) the ternon theories dynamically produce effective gauge theories and thus may be capable of explaining the present particle-physics phenomenology. Such a scenario is valid in two dimensions

  9. Infrared target recognition based on improved joint local ternary pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junding; Wu, Xiaosheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a simple, efficient, yet robust approach, named joint orthogonal combination of local ternary pattern, for automatic forward-looking infrared target recognition. It gives more advantages to describe the macroscopic textures and microscopic textures by fusing variety of scales than the traditional LBP-based methods. In addition, it can effectively reduce the feature dimensionality. Further, the rotation invariant and uniform scheme, the robust LTP, and soft concave-convex partition are introduced to enhance its discriminative power. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve competitive results compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  10. Hardware emulation of Memristor based Ternary Content Addressable Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, Mohamed A.

    2017-12-13

    MTCAM (Memristor Ternary Content Addressable Memory) is a special purpose storage medium in which data could be retrieved based on the stored content. Using Memristors as the main storage element provides the potential of achieving higher density and more efficient solutions than conventional methods. A key missing item in the validation of such approaches is the wide spread availability of hardware emulation platforms that can provide reliable and repeatable performance statistics. In this paper, we present a hardware MTCAM emulation based on 2-Transistors-2Memristors (2T2M) bit-cell. It builds on a bipolar memristor model with storing and fetching capabilities based on the actual current-voltage behaviour. The proposed design offers a flexible verification environment with quick design revisions, high execution speeds and powerful debugging techniques. The proposed design is modeled using VHDL and prototyped on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA.

  11. Hardware emulation of Memristor based Ternary Content Addressable Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, Mohamed A.; Naous, Rawan; Masmoudi, M.

    2017-01-01

    MTCAM (Memristor Ternary Content Addressable Memory) is a special purpose storage medium in which data could be retrieved based on the stored content. Using Memristors as the main storage element provides the potential of achieving higher density and more efficient solutions than conventional methods. A key missing item in the validation of such approaches is the wide spread availability of hardware emulation platforms that can provide reliable and repeatable performance statistics. In this paper, we present a hardware MTCAM emulation based on 2-Transistors-2Memristors (2T2M) bit-cell. It builds on a bipolar memristor model with storing and fetching capabilities based on the actual current-voltage behaviour. The proposed design offers a flexible verification environment with quick design revisions, high execution speeds and powerful debugging techniques. The proposed design is modeled using VHDL and prototyped on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA.

  12. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.

  13. New ternary intermetallics, based magnesium, for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquefere, J.G.

    2009-05-01

    The use of fossil fuels (non-renewable energy) is responsible for increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Among the considered alternatives, hydrogen is seen as the most attractive energy vector. The storage in intermetallics makes it possible to obtain mass and volume capacities (e.g. 140 g/L) higher than those obtained by liquid form or under pressure (respectively 71 and 40 g/L). We have synthesised Mg and Rare Earth based compounds (RE = Y, Ce and Gd), derived from the cubic Laves phases AB2. Their physical and chemical properties have been studied (hydrogenation, electrochemistry, magnetism,...). The conditions of sorption (P and T) are particularly favorable (i.e. absorption at room temperature and atmospheric pressure). Besides, to improve the sorption kinetics of metallic magnesium, the compounds developed previously were used as catalysts. Thus, GdMgNi4 was milled with magnesium and the speeds of absorption and desorption of the mixture are found higher than those obtained for the composites Mg+Ni or Mg+V, which are reference systems. A theoretical approach (DFT) was used to model the electronic structure of the ternary compounds (i.e. REMgNi4) and thus to predict or confirm the experimental results. (authors)

  14. An evaporation-based model of thermal neutron induced ternary fission of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestone, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Ternary fission probabilities for thermal neutron induced fission of plutonium are analyzed within the framework of an evaporation-based model where the complexity of time-varying potentials, associated with the neck collapse, are included in a simplistic fashion. If the nuclear temperature at scission and the fission-neck-collapse time are assumed to be ~ 1.2 MeV and ~ 10 -22 s, respectively, then calculated relative probabilities of ternary-fission light-charged-particle emission follow the trends seen in the experimental data. The ability of this model to reproduce ternary fission probabilities spanning seven orders of magnitude for a wide range of light-particle charges and masses implies that ternary fission is caused by the coupling of an evaporation-like process with the rapid re-arrangement of the nuclear fluid following scission. (author)

  15. Preparation and influence of pH on the dynamic magnetic property of magnetic FeCoC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Hongmei; Wei, Jinwu; Zhu, Zengtai; Cao, Derang; Liu, Qingfang [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Jianbo, E-mail: wangjb@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory for Special Function Materials and Structural Design of the Ministry of the Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-07-01

    FeCoC films were successfully prepared by electrochemical deposition method in different citric acid concentrations and pH values. The morphology, structure and magnetic properties were investigated. FeCoC films deposited at different citric acid concentrations have good soft magnetic performance. As the pH value increases from 2.49 to 6.02, the atomic ratio of Fe:Co range from 0.72 to 0.95. The coercivities of the films deposited at different pH values first increase and then decrease with increasing pH. The resonance frequency of the films can be tuned by controlling the pH value, and in an appropriate pH value a wide absorption peak can be obtained. - Highlights: • We have successfully prepared FeCoC soft magnetic films by electrochemical deposition method. • The resonance frequency can be controlled by changing pH value. • A widely absorption peak will be obtained when the pH value is appropriate.

  16. Investigation of itraconazole ternary amorphous solid dispersions based on povidone and Carbopol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan; Meckel, Jordan; Zhang, Feng

    2017-08-30

    We investigate a ternary system that consists of itraconazole (ITZ) and two polymers: povidone K12 and Carbopol 907. The interactions between these two polymers and their effects on the properties of ternary ITZ amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are studied. These two polymers can form a water-insoluble complex in acidic aqueous media. The critical pH is determined to be 4.17. The weight percentage of Carbopol 907 in the interpolymer complex range from 59 to 70%, depending on the initial ratios between these two polymers in the starting solutions. This complexation is driven by a negative enthalpy change from the H-bonding between the two polymers and a positive entropy change from the freed water molecules. Due to the slow precipitation of the interpolymer complex in aqueous media, the attempt to prepare ternary ASD using solvent-controlled coprecipitation is not successful. Melt extrusion is identified to be the only viable method to prepare this ternary ASD. We find that interpolymer complex-based ASDs are physically less stable and demonstrate the poorest drug-release properties when compared to individual polymer-based binary ASDs. This study illustrates that the too strong interaction between polymers in ternary ASDs is detrimental to their performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Atomic-scale properties of Ni-based FCC ternary, and quaternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamm, Artur; Aabloo, Alvo; Klintenberg, Mattias; Stocks, Malcolm; Caro, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize some atomic-scale properties of Ni-based FCC multicomponent alloys. For this purpose, we use Monte Carlo method combined with density functional theory calculations to study short-range order (SRO), atomic displacements, electronic density of states, and magnetic moments in equimolar ternary NiCrCo, and quaternary NiCrCoFe alloys. According to our study, the salient features for the ternary alloy are a negative SRO parameter between Ni–Cr and a positive between Cr–Cr pairs as well as a weakly magnetic state. For the quaternary alloy we predict negative SRO parameter for Ni–Cr and Ni–Fe pairs and positive for Cr–Cr and Fe–Fe pairs. Atomic displacements for both ternary and quaternary alloys are negligible. In contrast to the ternary, the quaternary alloy shows a complex magnetic structure. The electronic structure of the ternary and quaternary alloys shows differences near the Fermi energy between a random solid solution and the predicted structure with SRO. Despite that, the calculated EXAFS spectra does not show enough contrast to discriminate between random and ordered structures. The predicted SRO has an impact on point-defect energetics, electron–phonon coupling and thermodynamic functions and thus, SRO should not be neglected when studying properties of these two alloys

  18. Two step synthesis, electromagnetic and microwave absorbing properties of FeCo@C core–shell nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afghahi, S.S.S., E-mail: salmanafghahi@gmail.com [Materials Science and Engineering Imam Hossein University, Department of Engineering, Babaei Highway, P.O. Box: 15816-18711, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokuhfar, A. [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box: 19395-1999, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    In this research synthesis of FeCo@C core–shell nanoparticles was done using a novel two step process including the microemulsion technique and alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron beam diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy confirm the formation of FeCo@graphite core–shell nanostructure. Compared with FeCo nanoparticles with an oxide shell, the graphite shell restricts the growth of the FeCo nanoparticles, leading to lower saturation magnetization and higher natural-resonance frequency. The electromagnetic characteristics including permittivity, permeability and loss tangents of FeCo nanoparticles/nanoencapsulates were determined in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz. Results show that the graphite coating dramatically improves electromagnetic wave absorption of FeCo nanoparticles due to several dielectric/magnetic loss mechanisms. The main mechanism enhancing the dielectric loss tangent is Deby's dual relaxation phenomenon and for magnetic loss is the ferromagnetic resonance. The maximum reflection loss of −40 dB at 2.5 mm thickness and the maximum effective absorption bandwidth (RL<−20 dB) of 5.6 GHz at 3 mm thickness were obtained for FeCo nanoencapsulates. - Highlights: • FeCo@C core–shell nanoparticles were synthesized using a novel two step process. • Graphite coating dramatically improves the EM wave absorption of FeCo NPs. • FeCo@C nanoparticles represent high values of both magnetic and dielectric losses. • Maximum RL of −40 dB was obtained at 2.5 mm thickness. • Maximum effective bandwidth (RL<−20 dB) of 5.6 GHz was obtained at 3 mm thickness.

  19. Facile synthesis and excellent microwave absorption properties of FeCo-C core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bingbing; Wang, Shiliang; Kuang, Daitao; Hou, Lizhen; Yu, Bowen; Lin, Liangwu; Deng, Lianwen; Huang, Han; He, Jun

    2018-02-01

    FeCo-C core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) with diameters of 10-50 nm have been fabricated on a large scale by one-step metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using the mixture of cobalt acetylacetonate and iron acetylacetonate as the precursor. The Fe/Co molar ratio of the alloy nanocores and graphitization degree of C shells, and thus the magnetic and electric properties of the core-shell NPs, can be tuned by the deposition temperature ranging from 700 °C to 900 °C. Comparative tests reveal that a relatively high Fe/Co molar ratio and low graphitization degree benefit the microwave absorption (MA) performance of the core-shell NPs. The composite with 20 wt% core-shell NP obtained at 800 °C and 80 wt% paraffin exhibits an optimal reflection loss ({{R}}{{L}}) of -60.4 dB at 7.5 GHz with a thickness of 3.3 mm, and an effective absorption bandwidth (frequency range for RL ≤10 dB) of 9.2 GHz (8.8-18.0 GHz) under an absorber thickness of 2.5 mm. Our study provides a facile route for the fabrication of alloy-C core-shell nanostructures with high MA performance.

  20. High-performance thermoelectric materials based on ternary TiO2/CNT/PANI composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Fuat; Li, Hui; Wang, Xizu; Wang, FuKe; He, Chaobin

    2018-04-04

    In the present work, we report the fabrication of high-performance thermoelectric materials using TiO2/CNT/PANI ternary composites. We showed that a conductivity of ∼2730 S cm-1 can be achieved for the binary CNT (70%)/PANI (30%) composite, which is the highest recorded value for the reported CNT/PANI composites. We further demonstrated that the Seebeck coefficient of CNT/PANI composites could be enhanced by incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles into the binary CNT/PANI composites, which could be attributed to lower carrier density and the energy scattering of low-energy carriers at the interfaces of TiO2/a-CNT and TiO2/PANI. The resulting TiO2/a-CNT/PANI ternary system exhibits a higher Seebeck coefficient and enhanced thermoelectric power. Further optimization of the thermoelectric power was achieved by water treatment and by tuning the processing temperature. A high thermoelectric power factor of 114.5 μW mK-2 was obtained for the ternary composite of 30% TiO2/70% (a-CNT (70%)/PANI (30%)), which is the highest reported value among the reported PANI based ternary composites. The improvement of thermoelectric performance by incorporation of TiO2 suggests a promising approach to enhance power factor of organic thermoelectric materials by judicial tuning of the carrier concentration and electrical conductivity.

  1. Ternary alloys based on II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Tomashyk, Vasyl; Shcherbak, Larysa

    2013-01-01

    Phase Equilibria in the Systems Based on ZnSSystems Based on ZnSeSystems Based on ZnTeSystems Based on CdSSystem Based on CdSeSystem Based on CdTeSystems Based on HgSSystems Based on HgSeSystems Based on HgTeIndexReferences appear at the end of each chapter.

  2. Memristor-based ternary content addressable memory (mTCAM) for data-intensive computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Le; Shin, Sangho; Steve Kang, Sung-Mo

    2014-01-01

    A memristor-based ternary content addressable memory (mTCAM) is presented. Each mTCAM cell, consisting of five transistors and two memristors to store and search for ternary data, is capable of remarkable nonvolatility and higher storage density than conventional CMOS-based TCAMs. Each memristor in the cell can be programmed individually such that high impedance is always present between searchlines to reduce static energy consumption. A unique two-step write scheme offers reliable and energy-efficient write operations. The search voltage is designed to ensure optimum sensing margins with the presence of variations in memristor devices. Simulations of the proposed mTCAM demonstrate functionalities in write and search modes, as well as a search delay of 2 ns and a search of 0.99 fJ/bit/search for a word width of 128 bits. (paper)

  3. Corrosion and wear protective composition modulated alloy coatings based on ternary Ni-P-X alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leisner, P.; Benzon, M. E.; Christoffersen, Lasse

    1996-01-01

    Scattered reporting in the litterature describes a number of ternary Ni-P-X alloyes (where X can be Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pd, Re or W) with promising corrosin and wear protective performance. Based on a systematic study of Ni-P-X alloys it is the intention to produce coatings with improved corrosion...... and wear performance compared with conventional coatings like electroless nickel, hard chromioum and anodised aluminium....

  4. Facial expression recognition based on improved local ternary pattern and stacked auto-encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Qiu, Weigen

    2017-08-01

    In order to enhance the robustness of facial expression recognition, we propose a method of facial expression recognition based on improved Local Ternary Pattern (LTP) combined with Stacked Auto-Encoder (SAE). This method uses the improved LTP extraction feature, and then uses the improved depth belief network as the detector and classifier to extract the LTP feature. The combination of LTP and improved deep belief network is realized in facial expression recognition. The recognition rate on CK+ databases has improved significantly.

  5. Hydrogen storage in binary and ternary Mg-based alloys: A comprehensive experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalisvaart, W.P.; Harrower, C.T.; Haagsma, J.; Zahiri, B.; Luber, E.J.; Ophus, C.; Mitlin, D. [Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta and National Research Council Canada, National Institute for Nanotechnology, T6G 2V4, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Poirier, E.; Fritzsche, H. [National Research Council Canada, SIMS, Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    This study focused on hydrogen sorption properties of 1.5 {mu}m thick Mg-based films with Al, Fe and Ti as alloying elements. The binary alloys are used to establish as baseline case for the ternary Mg-Al-Ti, Mg-Fe-Ti and Mg-Al-Fe compositions. We show that the ternary alloys in particular display remarkable sorption behavior: at 200 C the films are capable of absorbing 4-6 wt% hydrogen in seconds, and desorbing in minutes. Furthermore, this sorption behavior is stable over cycling for the Mg-Al-Ti and Mg-Fe-Ti alloys. Even after 100 absorption/desorption cycles, no degradation in capacity or kinetics is observed. For Mg-Al-Fe, the properties are clearly worse compared to the other ternary combinations. These differences are explained by considering the properties of all the different phases present during cycling in terms of their hydrogen affinity and catalytic activity. Based on these considerations, some general design principles for Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys are suggested. (author)

  6. Electrochemical studies on electroless ternary and quaternary Ni-P based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaraju, J.N.; Selvi, V. Ezhil; Grips, V.K. William; Rajam, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    The autocatalytic (electroless) deposition of Ni-P based alloys is a well-known commercial process that has found numerous applications because of their excellent anticorrosive, wear, magnetic, solderable properties, etc. It is a barrier coating, protecting the substrate by sealing it off from the corrosive environments, rather than by sacrificial action. The corrosion resistance varies with the phosphorus content of the deposit: relatively high for a high-phosphorus electroless nickel deposit but low for a low-phosphorus electroless nickel deposit. In the present investigation ternary Ni-W-P alloy films were prepared using alkaline citrate-based bath. Quaternary Ni-W-Cu-P films were deposited by the addition of 3 mM copper ions in ternary Ni-W-P bath. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicated that all the deposits were nanocrystalline, i.e. 1.2, 2.1 and 6.0 nm, respectively, for binary, ternary and quaternary alloys. Corrosion resistance of the films was evaluated in 3.5% sodium chloride solution in non-deaerated and deaerated conditions by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance (EIS) methods. Lower corrosion current density values were obtained for the coatings tested in deaerated condition. EIS studies showed that higher charge transfer resistance values were obtained for binary Ni-P coatings compared to ternary or quaternary coatings. For all the coatings a gradual increase in the anodic current density had been observed beyond 740 mV. In deaerated condition all the reported coatings exhibited a narrow passive region and all the values of E p , E tp and i pass were very close showing no major changes in the electrochemical behavior. In the non-deaerated conditions no passivation behavior had been observed for all these coatings

  7. Optimisation and Characterisation of Anti-Fouling Ternary SAM Layers for Impedance-Based Aptasensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miodek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An aptasensor with enhanced anti-fouling properties has been developed. As a case study, the aptasensor was designed with specificity for human thrombin. The sensing platform was developed on screen printed electrodes and is composed of a self-assembled monolayer made from a ternary mixture of 15-base thiolated DNA aptamers specific for human thrombin co-immobilised with 1,6-hexanedithiol (HDT and further passivated with 1-mercapto-6-hexanol (MCH. HDT binds to the surface by two of its thiol groups forming alkyl chain bridges and this architecture protects from non-specific attachment of molecules to the electrode surface. Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS, the aptasensor is able to detect human thrombin as variations in charge transfer resistance (Rct upon protein binding. After exposure to a high concentration of non-specific Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA solution, no changes in the Rct value were observed, highlighting the bio-fouling resistance of the surface generated. In this paper, we present the optimisation and characterisation of the aptasensor based on the ternary self-assembled monolayer (SAM layer. We show that anti-fouling properties depend on the type of gold surface used for biosensor construction, which was also confirmed by contact angle measurements. We further studied the ratio between aptamers and HDT, which can determine the specificity and selectivity of the sensing layer. We also report the influence of buffer pH and temperature used for incubation of electrodes with proteins on detection and anti-fouling properties. Finally, the stability of the aptasensor was studied by storage of modified electrodes for up to 28 days in different buffers and atmospheric conditions. Aptasensors based on ternary SAM layers are highly promising for clinical applications for detection of a range of proteins in real biological samples.

  8. Ternary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    Ternary superconductors constitute a class of superconducting compounds with exceptional properties such as high transition temperatures (≅ 15.2 K), extremely high critical fields (H c2 >60 Tesla), and the coexistence of superconductivity and long-range magnetic order. This has generated great interest in the scientific community and resulted in a large number of experimental and theoretical investigations in which many new ternary compounds have been discovered. A review of some of the properties of these ternary compounds is presented with particular emphasis on the ternary molybdenum chalcogenides and the ternary rare earth transition metal tetraborides. The effect of partial substitution of a second metal atom to form pseudoternary compounds is examined as well as some of the proposed correlations between the superconducting transition temperature and the structural and electronic properties of the ternary superconductors

  9. Core@shell@shell structured carbon-based magnetic ternary nanohybrids: Synthesis and their enhanced microwave absorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Erqi; Qi, Xiaosi; Xie, Ren; Bai, Zhongchen; Jiang, Yang; Qin, Shuijie; Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2018-05-01

    High encapsulation efficiency of core@shell@shell structured carbon-based magnetic ternary nanohybrids have been synthesized in high yield by chemical vapor deposition of acetylene directly over octahedral-shaped Fe2O3 nanoparticles. By controlling the pyrolysis temperature, Fe3O4@Fe3C@carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and Fe@Fe3C@CNTs ternary nanohybrids could be selectively produced. The optimal RL values for the as-prepared ternary nanohybrids could reach up to ca. -46.7, -52.7 and -29.5 dB, respectively. The excellent microwave absorption properties of the obtaiend ternary nanohybrids were proved to ascribe to the quarter-wavelength matching model. Moreover, the as-prepared Fe@Fe3C@CNTs ternary nanohybrids displayed remarkably enhanced EM wave absorption capabilities compared to Fe3O4@Fe3C@CNTs due to their excellent dielectric loss abilities, good complementarities between the dielectric loss and the magnetic loss, and high attenuation constant. Generally, this strategy can be extended to explore other categories of core@shell or core@shell@shell structured carbon-based nanohybrids, which is very beneficial to accelerate the advancements of high performance MAMs.

  10. Ternary fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the energy minimization of all possible ternary breakups of a heavy radioactive nucleus. Further, within the TCM we have analysed the competition between different geometries as well as different positioning of the fragments. Also, an attempt was made to calculate the mass distribution of ternary fission process within the ...

  11. Design and Performance of Property Gradient Ternary Nitride Coating Based on Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Pei; Chen, Kaijie; Wang, Yubin; Zhou, Han; Peng, Zeyu; Jiao, Li; Wang, Xibin

    2018-05-09

    Surface coating is an effective approach to improve cutting tool performance, and multiple or gradient coating structures have become a common development strategy. However, composition mutations at the interfaces decrease the performance of multi-layered coatings. The key mitigation technique has been to reduce the interface effect at the boundaries. This study proposes a structure design method for property-component gradient coatings based on process control. The method produces coatings with high internal cohesion and high external hardness, which could reduce the composition and performance mutations at the interface. A ZrTiN property gradient ternary nitride coating was deposited on cemented carbide by multi-arc ion plating with separated Ti and Zr targets. The mechanical properties, friction behaviors, and cutting performances were systematically investigated, compared with a single-layer coating. The results indicated that the gradient coating had better friction and wear performance with lower wear rate and higher resistance to peeling off during sliding friction. The gradient coating had better wear and damage resistance in cutting processes, with lower machined surface roughness Ra. Gradient-structured coatings could effectively inhibit micro crack initiation and growth under alternating force and temperature load. This method could be extended to similar ternary nitride coatings.

  12. Effect of ternary alloying elements on microstructure and mechanical property of Nb-Si based refractory intermetallic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.Y.; Kim, H.S.; Kim, S.K.; Ra, T.Y.; Kim, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Microstructure and mechanical property at room temperature and at 1773 K of Nb-Si based refractory intermetallic alloys were investigated in terms of compression and fracture toughness test. Mo and V were chosen as ternary alloying elements because of their high melting points, atomic sizes smaller than Nb. Both ternary alloying elements were found to have a significant role in modifying the microstructure from dispersed structure to eutectic-like structure in Nb solid solution/Nb 5 Si 3 intermetallic composites. The 0.2% offset yield strength at room temperature increased with increasing content of ternary elements in Nb solid solution and volume fraction of Nb 5 Si 3 . At 1773 K, Mo addition has a positive role in increasing the yield strength. On the other hand, V addition has a role in decreasing the yield strength. The fracture toughness of ternary alloys was superior to binary alloys. Details will be discussed in correlation with ternary alloying, volume fraction of constituent phase, and the microstructure. (orig.)

  13. Hydrogen storage in binary and ternary Mg-based alloys. A comprehensive experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalisvaart, W.P.; Harrower, C.T.; Haagsma, J.; Zahiri, B.; Luber, E.J.; Ophus, C.; Miltin, D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada); Poirier, E.; Fritzsche, H. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study focuses on hydrogen sorption properties of cosputtered 1.5 micrometer thick Mg-based films with Al, Fe and Ti as alloying elements. We show that ternary Mg-Al-Ti and Mg-Fe-Ti alloys in particular display remarkable sorption behavior: at 200 C, the films are capable of absorbing 4-6 wt.% hydrogen in seconds, and desorbing in minutes. Furthermore, this sorption behavior is stable for over 100 ab- and desorption cycles for Mg-Al-Ti and Mg-Fe-Ti alloys. No degradation in capacity or kinetics is observed. Based on these observations, some general design principles for Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys are suggested. For Mg-Fe-Ti, encouraging preliminary results on multilayered systems are also presented. (orig.)

  14. Neutronics and activation analysis of lithium-based ternary alloys in IFE blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, Alejandra, E-mail: aleja311@berkeley.edu [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94706 (United States); Kramer, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA (United States); Meier, Wayne; DeMuth, James; Reyes, Susana [TerraPower, Bellevue, WA 98005 (United States); Fratoni, Massimiliano [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94706 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Monte Carlo calculations were performed on numerous lithium ternary alloys. • Elements with high neutron multiplication performed well with low absorbers. • Enriching lithium decreases minimum lithium concentration of alloys by 60% or more. • Alloys that performed well neutronically were selected for activation calculations. • Alloys activated, except LiBaBi, do not pose major environmental or safety concerns. - Abstract: An attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant in fusion blankets is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is carrying an effort to develop a lithium-based ternary alloy that maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) and at the same time reduces overall flammability concerns. This study evaluates the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy chamber in order to inform such development. 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and the fusion energy multiplication factor (EMF). It was found that elements that exhibit low absorption cross sections and higher q-values such as Pb, Sn, and Sr, perform well with those that have high neutron multiplication such as Pb and Bi. These elements meet TBR constrains ranging from 1.02 to 1.1. However, most alloys do not reach EMFs greater than 1.15. Additionally, it was found that enriching lithium with {sup 6}Li significantly increases the TBR and decreases the minimum lithium concentration by more than 60%. The amount of enrichment depends on how much total lithium is in the alloy to begin with. Alloys that performed well in the TBR

  15. Density functional theory based screening of ternary alkali-transition metal borohydrides: A computational material design project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo; Landis, David; Voss, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    We present a computational screening study of ternary metal borohydrides for reversible hydrogen storage based on density functional theory. We investigate the stability and decomposition of alloys containing 1 alkali metal atom, Li, Na, or K (M1); and 1 alkali, alkaline earth or 3d/4d transition...

  16. Facile Fabrication of 100% Bio-based and Degradable Ternary Cellulose/PHBV/PLA Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Qiang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Modifying bio-based degradable polymers such as polylactide (PLA and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV with non-degradable agents will compromise the 100% degradability of their resultant composites. This work developed a facile and solvent-free route in order to fabricate 100% bio-based and degradable ternary cellulose/PHBV/PLA composite materials. The effects of ball milling on the physicochemical properties of pulp cellulose fibers, and the ball-milled cellulose particles on the morphology and mechanical properties of PHBV/PLA blends, were investigated experimentally and statistically. The results showed that more ball-milling time resulted in a smaller particle size and lower crystallinity by way of mechanical disintegration. Filling PHBV/PLA blends with the ball-milled celluloses dramatically increased the stiffness at all of the levels of particle size and filling content, and improved their elongation at the break and fracture work at certain levels of particle size and filling content. It was also found that the high filling content of the ball-milled cellulose particles was detrimental to the mechanical properties for the resultant composite materials. The ternary cellulose/PHBV/PLA composite materials have some potential applications, such as in packaging materials and automobile inner decoration parts. Furthermore, filling content contributes more to the variations of their mechanical properties than particle size does. Statistical analysis combined with experimental tests provide a new pathway to quantitatively evaluate the effects of multiple variables on a specific property, and figure out the dominant one for the resultant composite materials.

  17. Miedema model based methodology to predict amorphous-forming-composition range in binary and ternary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, N., E-mail: nirupamd@barc.gov.in [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Mittra, J. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Murty, B.S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Pabi, S.K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Kulkarni, U.D.; Dey, G.K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A methodology was proposed to predict amorphous forming compositions (AFCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical contribution to enthalpy of mixing {proportional_to} enthalpy of amorphous for AFCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accuracy in the prediction of AFC-range was noticed in Al-Ni-Ti system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanical alloying (MA) results of Al-Ni-Ti followed the predicted AFC-range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Earlier MA results of Al-Ni-Ti also conformed to the predicted AFC-range. - Abstract: From the earlier works on the prediction of amorphous forming composition range (AFCR) using Miedema based model and also, on mechanical alloying experiments it has been observed that all amorphous forming compositions of a given alloy system falls within a linear band when the chemical contribution to enthalpy of the solid solution ({Delta}H{sup ss}) is plotted against the enthalpy of mixing in the amorphous phase ({Delta}H{sup amor}). On the basis of this observation, a methodology has been proposed in this article to identify the AFCR of a ternary system that is likely to be more precise than what can be obtained using {Delta}H{sup amor} - {Delta}H{sup ss} < 0 criterion. MA experiments on various compositions of Al-Ni-Ti system, producing amorphous, crystalline, and mixture of amorphous plus crystalline phases have been carried out and the phases have been characterized using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Data from the present MA experiments and, also, from the literature have been used to validate the proposed approach. Also, the proximity of compositions, producing a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases to the boundary of AFCR in the Al-Ni-Ti ternary has been found useful to validate the effectiveness of the prediction.

  18. Ternary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemans, C.

    1991-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1946, light (charged) particle accompanied fission (ternary fission) has been extensively studied, for spontaneous as well as for induced fission reactions. The reason for this interest was twofold: the ternary particles being emitted in space and time close to the scission point were expected to supply information on the scission point configuration and the ternary fission process was an important source of helium, tritium, and hydrogen production in nuclear reactors, for which data were requested by the nuclear industry. Significant experimental progress has been realized with the advent of high-resolution detectors, powerful multiparameter data acquisition systems, and intense neutron and photon beams. As far as theory is concerned, the trajectory calculations (in which scission point parameters are deduced from the experimental observations) have been very much improved. An attempt was made to explain ternary particle emission in terms of a Plateau-Rayleigh hydrodynamical instability of a relatively long cylindrical neck or cylindrical nucleus. New results have also been obtained on the so-called open-quotes trueclose quotes ternary fission (fission in three about-equal fragments). The spontaneous emission of charged particles has also clearly been demonstrated in recent years. This chapter discusses the main characteristics of ternary fission, theoretical models, light particle emission probabilities, the dependence of the emission probabilities on experimental variables, light particle energy distributions, light particle angular distributions, correlations between light particle accompanied fission observables, open-quotes trueclose quotes ternary fission, and spontaneous emission of heavy ions. 143 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs

  19. Composition Optimization of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloy Blankets for Fusion Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolodosky, Alejandra

    The goal of this dissertation is to examine the neutronic properties of a novel type of fusion reactor blanket material in the form of lithium-based ternary alloys. Pure liquid lithium, first proposed as a blanket for fusion reactors, is utilized as both a tritium breeder and a coolant. It has many attractive features such as high heat transfer and low corrosion properties, but most importantly, it has a very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns including degradation of the concrete containment structure. The work of this thesis began as a collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in an effort to develop a lithium-based ternary alloy that can maintain the beneficial properties of lithium while reducing the reactivity concerns. The first studies down-selected alloys based on the analysis and performance of both neutronic and activation characteristics. First, 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and energy multiplication factor (EMF). Alloys with adequate results based on TBR and EMF calculations were considered for activation analysis. Activation simulations were executed with 50 years of irradiation and 300 years of cooling. It was discovered that bismuth is a poor choice due to achieving the highest decay heat, contact dose rates, and accident doses. In addition, it does not meet the waste disposal ratings (WDR). The straightforward approach to obtain Monte Carlo TBR and EMF results required 231 simulations per alloy and became computationally expensive, time consuming, and inefficient. Consequently, alternate methods were pursued. A collision history-based methodology recently developed for the Monte Carlo code Serpent, calculates perturbation effects on practically

  20. Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Ternary Metal Oxide Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenyong [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Tang, Jinke [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Dahnovsky, Yuri [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Pikal, Jon M [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Chien, TeYu [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-11-03

    In Phase I of this project we investigate quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on ternary metal oxide nanowires and study the physical and chemical mechanisms that govern device operation. Our research has the following five objectives: (1) synthesis of ternary metal oxide nanowires, (2) synthesis of QDs and exploration of non-solution based QD deposition methods, (3) physical and electro-optical characterizations of fabricated solar devices, (4) device modeling and first-principle theoretical study of transport physics, and (5) investigation of long-term stability issues of QD sensitized solar cells. In Phase II of this project our first major research goal is to investigate magnetically doped quantum dots and related spin polarization effect, which could improve light absorption and suppress electron relaxation in the QDs. We will utilize both physical and chemical methods to synthesize these doped QDs. We will also study magnetically modified nanowires and introduce spin-polarized transport into QDSSCs, and inspect its impact on forward electron injection and back electron transfer processes. Our second goal is to study novel solid-state electrolytes for QDSSCs. Specifically, we will inspect a new type of polymer electrolytes based on a modified polysulfide redox couple, and examine the effect of their electrical properties on QDSSC performance. These solid-state electrolytes could also be used as filler materials for in situ sample fracturing in STM and enable cross-sectional interface examination of QD/nanowire structures. Our third research goal is to examine the interfacial properties such as energy level alignment at QD/nanowire interfaces using the newly developed Cross-sectional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy technique for non-cleavable materials. This technique allows a direct probing of band structures and alignment at device interfaces, which could generate important insight into the mechanisms that govern QDSSC operation

  1. Ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, D.N.; Hubberstey, P.; Barker, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the experimental and theoretical studies carried out on multicomponent alkali metal systems. Solid-liquid phase equilibria studies are mainly concerned with the systems Na-K-Rb and Na-K-Cs, and data on the liquidus temperatures in these systems are presented. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system have been determined experimentally, and the enthalpy, heat capacity and excess functions of the alloy are given. An analysis of calculational methods used in determining thermodynamic functions of ternary liquid metals systems is described. Finally, data are tabulated for the density, compressibility, saturated vapour pressure, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system. (UK)

  2. Determination for Enterobacter cloacae based on a europium ternary complex labeled DNA probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui; Niu, Cheng-Gang; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Ruan, Min; Qin, Pin-Zhu; Liu, Jing

    2011-11-01

    The fast detection and accurate diagnosis of the prevalent pathogenic bacteria is very important for the treatment of disease. Nowadays, fluorescence techniques are important tools for diagnosis. A two-probe tandem DNA hybridization assay was designed for the detection of Enterobacter cloacae based on time-resolved fluorescence. In this work, the authors synthesized a novel europium ternary complex Eu(TTA) 3(5-NH 2-phen) with intense luminescence, high fluorescence quantum yield and long lifetime before. We developed a method based on this europium complex for the specific detection of original extracted DNA from E. cloacae. In the hybridization assay format, the reporter probe was labeled with Eu(TTA) 3(5-NH 2-phen) on the 5'-terminus, and the capture probe capture probe was covalent immobilized on the surface of the glutaraldehyde treated glass slides. The original extracted DNA of samples was directly used without any DNA purification and amplification. The detection was conducted by monitoring the fluorescence intensity from the glass surface after DNA hybridization. The detection limit of the DNA was 5 × 10 -10 mol L -1. The results of the present work proved that this new approach was easy to operate with high sensitivity and specificity. It could be conducted as a powerful tool for the detection of pathogen microorganisms in the environment.

  3. Light-Triggered Ternary Device and Inverter Based on Heterojunction of van der Waals Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jaewoo; Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Kim, Minwoo; Song, Young Jae; Kim, Jeehwan; Park, Jin-Hong

    2017-06-27

    Multivalued logic (MVL) devices/circuits have received considerable attention because the binary logic used in current Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology cannot handle the predicted information throughputs and energy demands of the future. To realize MVL, the conventional transistor platform needs to be redesigned to have two or more distinctive threshold voltages (V TH s). Here, we report a finding: the photoinduced drain current in graphene/WSe 2 heterojunction transistors unusually decreases with increasing gate voltage under illumination, which we refer to as the light-induced negative differential transconductance (L-NDT) phenomenon. We also prove that such L-NDT phenomenon in specific bias ranges originates from a variable potential barrier at a graphene/WSe 2 junction due to a gate-controllable graphene electrode. This finding allows us to conceive graphene/WSe 2 -based MVL logic circuits by using the I D -V G characteristics with two distinctive V TH s. Based on this finding, we further demonstrate a light-triggered ternary inverter circuit with three stable logical states (ΔV out of each state <0.05 V). Our study offers the pathway to substantialize MVL systems.

  4. A novel ternary content addressable memory design based on resistive random access memory with high intensity and low search energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Runze; Shen, Wensheng; Huang, Peng; Zhou, Zheng; Liu, Lifeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Kang, Jinfeng

    2018-04-01

    A novel ternary content addressable memory (TCAM) design based on resistive random access memory (RRAM) is presented. Each TCAM cell consists of two parallel RRAM to both store and search for ternary data. The cell size of the proposed design is 8F2, enable a ∼60× cell area reduction compared with the conventional static random access memory (SRAM) based implementation. Simulation results also show that the search delay and energy consumption of the proposed design at the 64-bit word search are 2 ps and 0.18 fJ/bit/search respectively at 22 nm technology node, where significant improvements are achieved compared to previous works. The desired characteristics of RRAM for implementation of the high performance TCAM search chip are also discussed.

  5. Sputtered tungsten-based ternary and quaternary layers for nanocrystalline diamond deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walock, Michael J; Rahil, Issam; Zou, Yujiao; Imhoff, Luc; Catledge, Shane A; Nouveau, Corinne; Stanishevsky, Andrei V

    2012-06-01

    Many of today's demanding applications require thin-film coatings with high hardness, toughness, and thermal stability. In many cases, coating thickness in the range 2-20 microm and low surface roughness are required. Diamond films meet many of the stated requirements, but their crystalline nature leads to a high surface roughness. Nanocrystalline diamond offers a smoother surface, but significant surface modification of the substrate is necessary for successful nanocrystalline diamond deposition and adhesion. A hybrid hard and tough material may be required for either the desired applications, or as a basis for nanocrystalline diamond film growth. One possibility is a composite system based on carbides or nitrides. Many binary carbides and nitrides offer one or more mentioned properties. By combining these binary compounds in a ternary or quaternary nanocrystalline system, we can tailor the material for a desired combination of properties. Here, we describe the results on the structural and mechanical properties of the coating systems composed of tungsten-chromium-carbide and/or nitride. These WC-Cr-(N) coatings are deposited using magnetron sputtering. The growth of adherent nanocrystalline diamond films by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition has been demonstrated on these coatings. The WC-Cr-(N) and WC-Cr-(N)-NCD coatings are characterized with atomic force microscopy and SEM, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation.

  6. A SYNTHESIS METHOD OF BASIC TERNARY BENT-SQUARES BASED ON THE TRIAD SHIFT OPERATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Zhdanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Practical application of advanced algebraic constructions in modern communication systems based on MC-CDMA (Multi Code Code Division Multiple Access technology and in cryptography necessitates their further research. One of the most commonly used advanced algebraic construction is the binary bent-function having a uniform amplitude spectrum of the Walsh-Hadamard transform and, accordingly, having the maximal distance from the codewords of affine code. In addition to the binary bent-functions researchers are currently focuses on the development of synthesis methods of their many-valued analogues. In particular, one of the most effective methods for the synthesis of many-valued bent-functions is the method based on the Agievich bent-squares. In this paper, we developed a regular synthesis method of the ternary bent-squares on the basis of an arbitrary spectral vector and the regular operator of the triad shift. The classification of spectral vectors of lengths N = 3 and N = 9 is performed. On the basis of spectral classification more precise definition of many-valued bent-sequences is given, taking into account the existence of the phenomenon of many-valued bent-sequences for the length, determined by odd power of base. The paper results are valuable for practical use: the development of new constant amplitude codes for MC-CDMA technology, cryptographic primitives, data compression algorithms, signal structures, algorithms of block and stream encryption, based on advanced principles of many-valued logic. The developed bent-squares design method is also a basis for further theoretical research: development of methods of the permutation of rows and columns of basic bent-squares and their sign coding, synthesis of composite bent-squares. In addition, the data on the spectral classification of vectors give the task of constructing the synthesis methods of bent-functions of lengths N = 32k+1, k Є ℕ.

  7. Sn-Sb-Se based binary and ternary alloys for phase change memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyung-Min

    2008-10-28

    In this work, the effect of replacing Ge by Sn and Te by Se was studied for a systematic understanding and prediction of new potential candidates for phase change random access memories applications. The temperature dependence of the electrical/structural properties and crystallization kinetics of the Sn-Se based binary and Sn-Sb-Se based ternary alloys were determined and compared with those of the GeTe and Ge-Sb-Te system. The temperature dependence of electrical and structural properties were investigated by van der Pauw measurements, X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectometry. By varying the heating rate, the Kissinger analysis has been used to determine the combined activation barrier for crystallization. To screen the kinetics of crystallization, a static laser tester was employed. In case of binary alloys of the type Sn{sub x}Se{sub 1-x}, the most interesting candidate is SnSe{sub 2} since it crystallizes into a single crystalline phase and has high electrical contrast and reasonably high activation energy for crystallization. In addition, the SnSe{sub 2}-Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} pseudobinary alloy system also might be sufficient for data retention due to their higher transition temperature and activation energy for crystallization in comparison to GeTe-Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} system. Furthermore, SnSe{sub 2}-Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} pseudobinary alloys have a higher crystalline resistivity. The desired rapid crystallization speed can be obtained for Sn{sub 1}Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 5} and Sn{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 7} alloys. (orig.)

  8. A simple urea-based route to ternary metal oxynitride nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomathi, A.; Reshma, S.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2009-01-01

    Ternary metal oxynitrides are generally prepared by heating the corresponding metal oxides with ammonia for long durations at high temperatures. In order to find a simple route that avoids use of gaseous ammonia, we have employed urea as the nitriding agent. In this method, ternary metal oxynitrides are obtained by heating the corresponding metal carbonates and transition metal oxides with excess urea. By this route, ternary metal oxynitrides of the formulae MTaO 2 N (M=Ca, Sr or Ba), MNbO 2 N (M=Sr or Ba), LaTiO 2 N and SrMoO 3-x N x have been prepared successfully. The oxynitrides so obtained were generally in the form of nanoparticles, and were characterized by various physical techniques. - Graphical abstract: Nanoparticles of ternary metal oxynitrides can be synthesized by means of urea route. Given is the TEM image of the nanoparticles of CaTaO 2 N so obtained and the insets show the SAED pattern and HREM image of the nanoparticles

  9. Cyclodextrin based ternary system of modafinil: Effect of trimethyl chitosan and polyvinylpyrrolidone as complexing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Parth; Agrawal, Y K; Sarvaiya, Jayrajsinh

    2016-03-01

    Modafinil is an approved drug for the treatment of narcolepsy and have a strong market presence in many countries. The drug is widely consumed for off-label uses and currently listed as a restricted drug. Modafinil has very low water solubility. To enhance the aqueous solubility of modafinil by the formation of a ternary complex with Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and two hydrophilic polymers was the main objective of the present study. Pyrrolidone (PVP K30) and a water soluble chitosan derivative, trimethyl chitosan (TMC) were studied by solution state and solid state characterization methods for their discriminatory efficiency in solubility enhancement of modafinil. Phase solubility study depicted the highest complexation efficiency (2.22) of cyclodextrin derivative in the presence of TMC compared to the same in the presence of PVP K30 (0.08) and in the absence of any polymer (0.92). FT-IR analysis of binary and ternary complex expressed comparable contribution of both polymers in formation of inclusion complex. The thermal behaviour of binary and ternary complex, involving individual polymers disclosed the influence of TMC on polymorphism of the drug. DSC study revealed efficiency of TMC to prevent conversion of metastable polymorphic form to stable polymorphic form. Ternary complex, involving TMC enhanced water solubility of the drug 1.5 times more compared to the binary complex of the drug whereas PVP K30 reduced the Solubility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure-property relationships of new bismuth and lead oxide based perovskite ternary solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Akansha

    Two new bismuth and lead oxide based perovskite ternary solid solutions, namely xBi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3-yPbZrO3-zPbTiO3 [xBZT-yPZ-zPT] and xBi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3-yBi(Zn 1/2Ti1/2)O3-zPbTiO3 [xBMT-yBZT-zPT] have been developed and their structural and electrical properties have been determined. Various characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, calorimetery, electron microscopy, dielectric and piezoelectric measurements have been performed to determine the details of the phase diagram, crystal structure, and domain structure. The selection of these materials is based on the hypothesis that the presence of BZT-PT (Case I ferroelectric (FE)) will increase the transition temperature of MPB systems BMT-PT (Case II FE), and PZ-PT (Case III FE), and subsequently a MPB will be observed in the ternary phase diagrams. The Case I, II, and III classification has been outlined by Stringer et al., is on the basis of the transition temperatures (TC) behavior with composition in the Bi and Pb oxide based binary systems. Several pseudobinary lines have been investigated across the xBZT-yPZ-zPT ternary phase diagram which exhibit varied TC behavior with composition, showing both Case I- and Case III-like TC trends in different regions. A MPB between rhombohedral to tetragonal phases has been located on a pseudobinary line 0.1BZT-0.9[xPT-(1-x)PZ]. Compositions near MPB exhibit mainly soft PZT-like properties with the TC around 60°C lower than the unmodified PZT near its MPB. Electrical properties are reported for the MPB composition, TC = 325°C, Pr = 35 microC/cm2, d33 = 300 pC/N and kP =0.45. Rhombohedral compositions show diffuse phase transition with small frequency dispersion, similar to relaxors. Two transition peaks in the permittivity as well as in the latent heat has been observed in some compositions near the BZT-PT binary. This leads to the speculation for the existence of miscibility gap in the solid solutions in these regions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM

  11. Nanoindentation Characterization of a Ternary Clay-Based Composite Used in Ancient Chinese Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwei Hou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ternary clay-based composite material (TCC, composed of lime, clay and sand, and usually modified with sticky rice and other organic compounds as additives, was widely used historically in Chinese construction and buildings due to its high mechanical performance. In this study, to gain an insight into the micromechanical mechanism of this cementitious material, the nanomechanical properties and volume fraction of mechanically different phases of the binder matrix are derived from the analysis of grid nanoindentation tests. Results show that there are five distinct mechanical phases, where the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H and geopolymer present in the binder matrix are almost identical to those produced in ordinary Portland cement (OPC and alkali-activated fly-ash geopolymer materials in nano-mechanical performance. The nano-mechanical behavior of calcite produced by the carbonation of lime in this binder is close to the calcite porous outer part of some sea urchin shells. Compared to OPC, the C-S-H contained in the TCC has a relatively lower ratio of indentation modulus to indentation hardness, implying a relatively lower resistance to material fracture. However, the geopolymer and calcite, at nearly the same volume content as the C-S-H, help to enhance the strength and durability of the TCC by their higher energy resistance capacity or higher strength compared to the C-S-H. Rediscovering of TCC offers a potential way to improve modern concrete’s strength and durability through synergy of multi-binders and the addition of organic materials if TCC can be advanced in terms of its workability and hardening rate.

  12. Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria of {trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate based ionic liquids + thiophene + heptane}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciniak, Andrzej; Królikowski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria for 3 ionic liquid + thiophene + heptane systems. ► The influence of ionic liquid structure on phase diagrams is discussed. ► High selectivity for separation of heptane/thiophene is observed. - Abstract: Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria for three systems containing ionic liquids {(4-(2-methoxyethyl)-4-methylmorpholinium trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate, 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpiperidinium trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate, 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate) + thiophene + heptane} have been determined at T = 298.15 K. All systems showed high solubility of thiophene in the ionic liquid and low solubility of heptane. The solute distribution coefficient and the selectivity were calculated for all systems. High values of selectivity were obtained. The experimental results have been correlated using NRTL model. The influence of ionic liquid structure on phase equilibria is discussed.

  13. Production method of carbamazepine/saccharin cocrystal particles by using two solution mixing based on the ternary phase diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Shoji; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    In the pharmaceutical field, improvement of drug solubility is required, and an interest in cocrystals is growing. Crystallization methods for industrial production of cocrystals have not been developed enough whereas many cocrystals have been prepared in order to find a new crystal form by screening in the laboratory. The objective of this study was the development of the crystallization method which is useful for the industrial production of cocrystal particles based on the phase diagram. A cocrystal of carbamazepine and saccharin was selected as a model substance. The ternary phase diagram of carbamazepine and saccharin in methanol at 303 K was measured. A cocrystallization method of mixing two kinds of different eutectic solutions was designed based on the ternary phase diagram. In order to adjust the cocrystallization conditions, the determination method of the driving force for cocrystal deposition such as supersaturation based on mass balance was proposed. The cocrystal particles were obtained under all the conditions of the five mixing ratios. From these experimental results, the relationship between the supersaturation and the induction time for nucleation was confirmed as well as conventional crystallization. In conclusion, the crystallization method for industrial production of cocrystal particles including the determination of the supersaturation was suggested.

  14. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fratoni, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-22

    , low electrical conductivity and therefore low MHD pressure drop, low chemical reactivity, and extremely low tritium inventory; the addition of sodium (FLiNaBe) has been considered because it retains the properties of FliBe but also lowers the melting point. Although many of these blanket concepts are promising, challenges still remain. The limited amount of beryllium available poses a problem for ceramic breeders such as the HCPB. FLiBe and FLiNaBe are highly viscous and have a low thermal conductivity. Lithium lead possesses a poor thermal conductivity which can cause problems in both DCLL and LiPb blankets. Additionally, the tritium permeation from these two blankets into plant components can be a problem and must be reduced. Consequently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is attempting to develop a lithium-based alloy—most likely a ternary alloy—which maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns for use in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The LLNL concept employs inertial confinement fusion (ICF) through the use of lasers aimed at an indirect-driven target composed of deuterium-tritium fuel. The fusion driver/target design implements the same physics currently experimented at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The plant uses lithium in both the primary coolant and blanket; therefore, lithium-related hazards are of primary concern. Although reducing chemical reactivity is the primary motivation for the development of new lithium alloys, the successful candidates will have to guarantee acceptable performance in all their functions. The scope of this study is to evaluate the neutronics performance of a large number of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of the IFE engine and assess their properties upon activation. This manuscript is organized as follows: Section 12 presents the models and methodologies used for the analysis; Section

  15. Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria of {bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide based ionic liquids + butan-1-ol + water}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciniak, Andrzej; Wlazło, Michał; Gawkowska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria for 3 ionic liquid + butanol + water systems. • The influence of ionic liquid structure on phase diagrams is discussed. • Influence of IL structure on S and β for butanol/water separation is discussed. - Abstract: Ternary (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria for 3 systems containing bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide ionic liquids (1-buthyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide, 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide, {1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluorylsulfonyl)-amide) + butan-1-ol + water} have been determined at T = 298.15 K. The selectivity and solute distribution ratio were calculated for investigated systems and compared with literature data for other systems containing ionic liquids. In each system total solubility of butan-1-ol and low solubility of water in the ionic liquid is observed. The experimental results have been correlated using NRTL model. The influence of the structure of ionic liquid on phase equilibria, selectivity and solute distribution ratio is shortly discussed.

  16. Rheological study of self-compacting mortars based on ternary cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadja Dada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete (SCC is able to provide the ability to be easily implemented without vibration and to achieve spectacular structures, by its high fluidity and its rheological stability. By against its formulation requires a large volume of cement, which is necessary to allow its flow. The current environmental considerations lead to reduce the production of clinker however, it is essential to use cementitious additions to replace cement, because of their high availability and their moderate price. Furthermore, their use contributes in a simple and economical way to solve the problems related to the environment. The objective of our work is to study the effects of the incorporation of mineral additions such as: blast furnace slag of El-Hadjar (BFS, and marble powder (MP on the rheological parameters of selfcompacting mortars developed in different combinations in ternary system with a substitution rate ranging from 20% to 60%. According to this study, it been found that the substitution of cement by blast furnace slag and marble powder has negatively affected the rheological behavior of the mixtures. In addition, a considerable decrease in the rheological parameters has been achieved with a substitution rate of 20% of slag and 30% of marble powder. As well as an improvement of workability has been proven to self-compacting mortars and this is due to the increase of ternary cement replacement rate by marble powder from 20% to 30%.

  17. Efficient Bisphenol-A detection based on the ternary metal oxide (TMO) composite by electrochemical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Jahir; Rahman, Mohammed M.; Siddiquey, Iqbal A.; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Hasnat, Mohammad A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Ternary metal oxides (TMO) composites prepared by wet-chemical method. •Highly sensitive and selective Bisphenol A (BPA) sensor by I–V method. •Ultra-low detection limit was obtained by 3N/S. •Real environmental samples were analyzed. •Health care and environmental safety -- Abstract: A facile wet chemical method in basic medium was used to synthesis the ternary metal oxides (TMO; ZnO.CoO.FeO) composites at low temperature. The calcined TMO was characterized by FESEM, EDS, UV/vis., FTIR spectroscopy, EIS, and XRD systematically. Glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with the TMO using 5% Nafion at room conditions. The resultant electrode was used for selective detection of Bisphenol-A (BPA) using cyclic voltammetry (CV). It was observed that the TMO electrode exhibited an excellent sensitivity (3.28 μAμM −1 cm −2 ), low detection limit (LOD: 1.2 ± 0.1 nM; S/N = 3), higher stability, very good repeatability, and reproducibility. In diagnostic exploration, a linear calibration plot was obtained for a wide range of concentration of BPA (LDR: 0.80 to 7.20 μM; r 2 : 0.99). This method represents an efficient way of sensitive sensor development for the detection of toxic and carcinogenic phenolic compounds.

  18. A new ternary composite based on carbon nanotubes/polyindole/graphene with preeminent electrocapacitive performance for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Weigang; Wu, Shishan

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This paper presents a new sandwich-like ternary composite, which was obtained from a two-step method, showing preeminent electrocapacitive performance for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • CNTs/Polyindole/graphene composite has been firstly fabricated with an optimal feed ratio. • The Polyindole shell enhances the dispersity and electrocapacitive performances of CNTs. • The CNTs/Polyindole/graphene exhibited preeminent capacitance and cycling stability. - Abstract: In this work, a hybrid nanocomposite based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), polyindole (PIn) and reduced graphene oxides (RGO) was firstly fabricated and the optimal feed ratio of this composite was investigated. The morphology and structure of CNTs/PIn/RGO composite were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The electrocapacitive performances of this ternary electrode composite were researched by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). And the specific surface area and pore size distribution of the samples were investigated by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. The prepared composite shows high dispersibility, high specific capacitance and excellent stability. Specifically, the CNTs/PIn/RGO composite exhibits a large specific capacitance of 383 F g"−"1 at 1 A g"−"1 and outstanding cycling stability of 88.79% capacitive retention after 3000 cycles at 10 A g"−"1. It was anticipated that CNTs/PIn/RGO12 composite could be a practical and valuable material for the application of supercapacitors.

  19. A new ternary composite based on carbon nanotubes/polyindole/graphene with preeminent electrocapacitive performance for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weigang; Wu, Shishan, E-mail: shishanwu@nju.edu.cn

    2017-02-28

    Graphical abstract: This paper presents a new sandwich-like ternary composite, which was obtained from a two-step method, showing preeminent electrocapacitive performance for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • CNTs/Polyindole/graphene composite has been firstly fabricated with an optimal feed ratio. • The Polyindole shell enhances the dispersity and electrocapacitive performances of CNTs. • The CNTs/Polyindole/graphene exhibited preeminent capacitance and cycling stability. - Abstract: In this work, a hybrid nanocomposite based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), polyindole (PIn) and reduced graphene oxides (RGO) was firstly fabricated and the optimal feed ratio of this composite was investigated. The morphology and structure of CNTs/PIn/RGO composite were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The electrocapacitive performances of this ternary electrode composite were researched by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). And the specific surface area and pore size distribution of the samples were investigated by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. The prepared composite shows high dispersibility, high specific capacitance and excellent stability. Specifically, the CNTs/PIn/RGO composite exhibits a large specific capacitance of 383 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} and outstanding cycling stability of 88.79% capacitive retention after 3000 cycles at 10 A g{sup −1}. It was anticipated that CNTs/PIn/RGO12 composite could be a practical and valuable material for the application of supercapacitors.

  20. Label-free peptide aptamer based impedimetric biosensor for highly sensitive detection of TNT with a ternary assembly layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Zhao, Manru; Wang, Haiyan

    2017-11-01

    We report a label-free peptide aptamer based biosensor for highly sensitive detection of TNT which was designed with a ternary assembly layer consisting of anti-TNT peptide aptamer (peptamer), dithiothreitol (DTT), and 6-mercaptohexanol (MCH), forming Au/peptamer-DTT/MCH. A linear relationship between the change in electron transfer resistance and the logarithm of the TNT concentration from 0.44 to 18.92 pM, with a detection limit of 0.15 pM, was obtained. In comparison, the detection limit of the aptasensor with a common binary assembly layer (Au/peptamer/MCH) was 0.15 nM. The remarkable improvement in the detection limit could be ascribed to the crucial role of the ternary assembly layer, providing an OH-richer hydrophilic environment and a highly compact surface layer with minimal surface defects, reducing the non-covalent binding (physisorption) of the peptamer and non-specific adsorption of TNT onto the electrode surface, leading to high sensitivity, and which can serve as a general sensing platform for the fabrication of other biosensors.

  1. Optical properties of zinc oxide-based ternary compounds synthesized by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cembrero, J. [Departament d' Enginyeria Mecanica i Materials, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Mollar, M.; Tortosa, M. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Mari, B.

    2008-07-01

    Structure, morphology and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown by electrodeposition under different conditions changing both solvent (water or dimethylsulfoxide) and substrate (polycrystalline FTO or monocrystalline GaN) are reported. The results point out the advantage of using dimethylsulfoxide when uniform, oriented and highly transparent films are required. On the other hand electrodeposition in aqueous bath produces perfectly defined hexagonal ZnO columns which can be fully oriented by chosing a suitable substrate. Photoluminescence has only been observed for ZnO films grown in aqueous bath. Ternary compounds as ZnMO (M=Cd,Co,Mn) with a controlled ratio between both cations, and morphology and structure like binary ZnO can be easily obtained from dimethylsulfoxide. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. State-of-the-art Sn2+-based ternary oxides as photocatalysts for water splitting: electronic structures and optoelectronic properties

    KAUST Repository

    Noureldine, Dalal

    2016-09-19

    Developing visible light responsive metal oxide photocatalysts is a challenge that must be conquered to achieve high efficiency for water splitting or hydrogen evolution reactions. Valence band engineering is possible by forming ternary oxides using the combination of a metal cation with an s2d10 electronic configuration and a transition metal oxide with a d0 configuration. Many (Sn2+, Bi3+, Pb2+)-based ternary metal oxide photocatalysts have been reported for hydrogen and/or oxygen evolution under visible irradiation. Sn2+-based materials have attracted particular attention because tin is inexpensive, abundant and more environmentally friendly than lead or bismuth. In this review, we provide a fruitful library for Sn2+-based photocatalysts that have been reported to evolve hydrogen using sacrificial reagents, including SnNb2O6, Sn2Nb2O7, SnTaxNb2−xO6, SnTa2O6, Sn2Ta2O7, SnWO4 (α and β phases), SnSb2O6·nH2O, and Sn2TiO4. The synthesis method used in the literature and the resultant morphology and crystal structure of each compound are discussed. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the electronic structure and density of states are provided, and the consequent optoelectronic properties such as band gap, nature of the bandgap, dielectric constant, and effective masses are summarized. This review will help highlight the main challenges for Sn2+-based materials.

  3. State-of-the-art Sn2+-based ternary oxides as photocatalysts for water splitting: electronic structures and optoelectronic properties

    KAUST Repository

    Noureldine, Dalal; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Developing visible light responsive metal oxide photocatalysts is a challenge that must be conquered to achieve high efficiency for water splitting or hydrogen evolution reactions. Valence band engineering is possible by forming ternary oxides using the combination of a metal cation with an s2d10 electronic configuration and a transition metal oxide with a d0 configuration. Many (Sn2+, Bi3+, Pb2+)-based ternary metal oxide photocatalysts have been reported for hydrogen and/or oxygen evolution under visible irradiation. Sn2+-based materials have attracted particular attention because tin is inexpensive, abundant and more environmentally friendly than lead or bismuth. In this review, we provide a fruitful library for Sn2+-based photocatalysts that have been reported to evolve hydrogen using sacrificial reagents, including SnNb2O6, Sn2Nb2O7, SnTaxNb2−xO6, SnTa2O6, Sn2Ta2O7, SnWO4 (α and β phases), SnSb2O6·nH2O, and Sn2TiO4. The synthesis method used in the literature and the resultant morphology and crystal structure of each compound are discussed. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the electronic structure and density of states are provided, and the consequent optoelectronic properties such as band gap, nature of the bandgap, dielectric constant, and effective masses are summarized. This review will help highlight the main challenges for Sn2+-based materials.

  4. Characterization of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and refractory metals in binary and ternary silicon-based films using ion beam methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatri-Bouamrane, R.

    1996-01-01

    Ion beam methods (non Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reactions) have been carried out in order to characterize silicon-based films. The cross sections for the reactions 12 C(α,α), 14 N(α,α), 16 O(α,α), 28 Si(α,α) and 14 N(α,p) have been measured within 2 and 7 MeV. CVD beta SiC films could be analyzed and the interface between silicon carbide and the (100) silicon substrate was studied. The epitaxial growth of the beta SiC film could be modelled by comparing the results obtained with ion beam analysis, infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Moreover, the stoichiometry of low pressure CVD Me-Si-N (Me=Re, W, Ti, Ta) ternary systems was studied. The evolution of the nitrogen content in W-Si-N systems allowed to study their stability with respect to the annealing conditions. (N.T.)

  5. Infrared heating mediated synthesis and characterization of FeCo/C nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpenkov, Dmitriy Yu., E-mail: Karpenkov_dmitriy@yahoo.com [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Technical University of Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Muratov, Dmitriy G. [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); A.V.Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, RAS, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozitov, Lev V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Skokov, Konstantin P. [Technical University of Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Karpenkov, Alexey Yu. [Chelyabinsk State University, 454001 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Tver State University, 170100 Tver (Russian Federation); Popkova, Alena V. [Tver State University, 170100 Tver (Russian Federation); Gutfleisch, Oliver [Technical University of Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    Metal-filled carbon nanocomposites containing 20 wt% of metallic FeCo nanoparticles were synthesized by means of infrared heating of precursors (polyacrylonitrile – iron acetylacetonate - cobalt acetate). This fabrication approach shows promise for making radiation-absorbent materials in short one-step process with ability to control the size of nanoparticles and attune the composition of the metallic components. In this work the magnetic behavior of reaction products obtained at different stages of the synthesis have been investigated in detail. We report on the influence of the annealing temperature on evolution of the structure, chemical composition, size, surface morphology, spontaneous magnetization and coercivity of the FeCo nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A method of preparation of FeCo metal-filled carbon nanocomposites was proposed. • Proposed method is based on infrared heating of the precursors. • This technique excels at up scaling and the ability to control the particle size. • Usage of IR radiation leads to significant reduction of process time and temperature. • The influence of the synthesis parameters on physical properties was studied.

  6. The Properties of Binary and Ternary Ti Based Coatings Produced by Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Mandes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of the multicomponent thin films (binary: Ti-C; Ti-Ag and ternary: Ti-C-Ag; Ti-C-Al were fabricated by Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA technology in order to study the wear resistance and the anticorrosion properties. The effects of Ti amount on the microstructure, tribological and morphological properties were subsequently investigated. TVA is an original deposition method using a combination of anodic arc and electron gun systems for the growth of films. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM and a transmission electron microscope (TEM accompanied by selected area electron diffraction (SAED. Tribological properties were studied by a ball-on-disc tribometer in the dry regime and the wettability was assessed by measuring the contact angle with the See System apparatus. Wear Rate results indicate an improved sliding wear behavior for Ti-C-Ag: 1.31 × 10−7 mm3/N m (F = 2 N compared to Ti-C-Al coating wear rate: 4.24 × 10−7 mm3/N m. On the other hand, by increasing the normal load to 3 N an increase to the wear rate was observed for Ti-C-Ag: 2.58 × 10−5 mm3 compared to 2.33 × 10−6 mm3 for Ti-C-Al coating.

  7. Determination of thermodynamic properties of aluminum based binary and ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altıntas, Yemliha [Abdullah Gül University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Aksöz, Sezen [Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Physics, 50300, Nevşehir (Turkey); Keşlioğlu, Kâzım, E-mail: kesli@erciyes.edu.tr [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Maraşlı, Necmettin [Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, 34210, Davutpaşa, İstanbul (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    In the present work, the Gibbs–Thomson coefficient, solid–liquid and solid–solid interfacial energies and grain boundary energy of a solid Al solution in the Al–Cu–Si eutectic system were determined from the observed grain boundary groove shapes by measuring the thermal conductivity of the solid and liquid phases and temperature gradient. Some thermodynamic properties such as the enthalpy of fusion, entropy of fusion, the change of specific heat from liquid to solid and the electrical conductivity of solid phases at their melting temperature were also evaluated by using the measured values of relevant data for Al–Cu, Al–Si, Al–Mg, Al–Ni, Al–Ti, Al–Cu–Ag, Al–Cu–Si binary and ternary alloys. - Highlights: • The microstructure of the Al–Cu–Si eutectic alloy was observed through SEM. • The three eutectic phases (α-Al, Si, CuAl{sub 2}) have been determined by EDX analysis. • Solid–liquid and solid–solid interfacial energies of α-Al solution were determined. • ΔS{sub f},ΔH{sub M}, ΔC{sub P}, electrical conductivity of solid phases for solid Al solutions were determined. • G–T coefficient and grain boundary energy of solid Al solution were determined.

  8. Omnidirectional photonic band gap enlarged by one-dimensional ternary unmagnetized plasma photonic crystals based on a new Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haifeng [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Nanjing Artillery Academy, Nanjing 211132 (China); Liu Shaobin [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves of Southeast University, Nanjing Jiangsu 210096 (China); Kong Xiangkun; Bian Borui; Dai Yi [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2012-11-15

    In this paper, an omnidirectional photonic band gap realized by one-dimensional ternary unmagnetized plasma photonic crystals based on a new Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure, which is composed of homogeneous unmagnetized plasma and two kinds of isotropic dielectric, is theoretically studied by the transfer matrix method. It has been shown that such an omnidirectional photonic band gap originates from Bragg gap in contrast to zero-n gap or single negative (negative permittivity or negative permeability) gap, and it is insensitive to the incidence angle and the polarization of electromagnetic wave. From the numerical results, the frequency range and central frequency of omnidirectional photonic band gap can be tuned by the thickness and density of the plasma but cease to change with increasing Fibonacci order. The bandwidth of omnidirectional photonic band gap can be notably enlarged. Moreover, the plasma collision frequency has no effect on the bandwidth of omnidirectional photonic band gap. It is shown that such new structure Fibonacci quasiperiodic one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals have a superior feature in the enhancement of frequency range of omnidirectional photonic band gap compared with the conventional ternary and conventional Fibonacci quasiperiodic ternary plasma photonic crystals.

  9. Calculation of glass forming ranges in Al-Ni-RE (Ce, La, Y) ternary alloys and their sub-binaries based on Miedema's model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, S.P.; Yi, D.Q.; Liu, H.Q.; Zang, B.; Jiang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → A method based on semi-empirical Miedema's and Toop's model for predicting glass forming range of ternary alloy system has been systematically described. → The method is superior to conventional models by considering the effect of the thermodynamic asymmetric component when dealing with a ternary alloy system. → The glass forming ranges of Al-Ni-RE (Al-Ni-Ce, Al-Ni-Y and Al-Ni-La) systems and their sub-binaries have been successfully calculated. → The present calculations using the method are in well agreement with experiments. → This model is especially useful for predicting the glass forming range of ternary alloy system because the calculations do not require experimental data. - Abstract: A method based on the semi-empirical Miedema's and Toop's model for calculating the glass forming range of a ternary alloy system was systematically described. The method is superior to conventional models by considering the effect of the thermodynamic asymmetric component when dealing with a ternary alloy system. Using this method, the glass forming ranges of Al-Ni-RE (Ce, La, Y) systems and their sub-binaries were successfully predicted. The mixing enthalpy and mismatch entropy were calculated, and their effects on the glass forming abilities of Al-Ni-RE (Ce, La, Y) systems were also discussed. The glass forming abilities of Al-Ni-Ce, Al-Ni-La and Al-Ni-Y are found to be close. The calculated glass forming ranges agree with experiments well. Meanwhile, the enthalpy change from amorphous phase to solid solution in the glass forming ranges was calculated, and the results suggest that those alloys close to the Ni-RE sub-binary system have higher glass forming abilities.

  10. Questing and the application for silicon based ternary compound within ultra-thin layer of SIS intermediate region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shumin; Gao, Ming; Wan, Yazhou; Du, Huiwei; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhongquan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new kind of functional material with plasticity of dielectric was obtained. • Powerful characterization methods was exploited to determine this ultra-thin layer. • The electronic structures and properties of this intermediate layer were analyzed. • A potential application of this structure were investigated. - Abstract: A silicon based ternary compound was supposed to be solid synthesized with In, Si and O elements by magnetron sputtering of indium tin oxide target (ITO) onto crystal silicon substrate at 250 °C. To make clear the configuration of the intermediate region, a potential method to obtain the chemical bonding of Si with other existing elements was exploited by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) instrument combined with other assisted techniques. The phase composition and solid structure of the interfacial region between ITO and Si substrate were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution cross sectional transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). A photovoltaic device with structure of Al/Ag/ITO/SiOx/p-Si/Al was assembled by depositing ITO films onto the p-Si substrate by using magnetron sputtering. The new matter has been assumed to be a buffer layer for semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor (SIS) photovoltaic device and plays critical role for the promotion of optoelectronic conversion performance from the view point of device physics.

  11. Synthesis, characteristics and luminescent properties of a new Tb(III) ternary complex applied in near UV-based LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Naiqun; Li, Liping; Yang, Yamin; Zhang, Aiqin; Jia, Husheng; Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Bingshe

    2015-11-01

    A novel Tb(III) ternary complex, Tb(p-BBA)3UA, was synthesized with 4-benzoylbenzoic acid (p-BBA) as primary ligand and undecylenic acid (UA) as reactive ligand. Tb(III) complex exhibits high thermal stability and wide and strong excitation bands from 310 nm to 400 nm when monitored at 543 nm, which matches well with the 365 nm UV chip. The complex displays Tb(III) characteristic peaks at 488, 543, 584 and 619 nm under the excitation of 365 nm UV-light. The intramolecular energy transfer process was also discussed. Meanwhile, the complex has longer fluorescence lifetime (1.317 ms) and higher quantum yield (44.8%). When used in LED with 365 nm UV chip (power efficiency is 17.3 lm/W), the complex still maintained its qualified luminescent performance. All the results indicate that Tb(p-BBA)3UA can be applied as a green component for fabrication of near UV-based white LED.

  12. Questing and the application for silicon based ternary compound within ultra-thin layer of SIS intermediate region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shumin; Gao, Ming; Wan, Yazhou; Du, Huiwei; Li, Yong [SHU-SolarE R& D Lab, Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Ma, Zhongquan, E-mail: zqma@shu.edu.cn [SHU-SolarE R& D Lab, Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Instrumental Analysis & Research Center, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • A new kind of functional material with plasticity of dielectric was obtained. • Powerful characterization methods was exploited to determine this ultra-thin layer. • The electronic structures and properties of this intermediate layer were analyzed. • A potential application of this structure were investigated. - Abstract: A silicon based ternary compound was supposed to be solid synthesized with In, Si and O elements by magnetron sputtering of indium tin oxide target (ITO) onto crystal silicon substrate at 250 °C. To make clear the configuration of the intermediate region, a potential method to obtain the chemical bonding of Si with other existing elements was exploited by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) instrument combined with other assisted techniques. The phase composition and solid structure of the interfacial region between ITO and Si substrate were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution cross sectional transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). A photovoltaic device with structure of Al/Ag/ITO/SiOx/p-Si/Al was assembled by depositing ITO films onto the p-Si substrate by using magnetron sputtering. The new matter has been assumed to be a buffer layer for semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor (SIS) photovoltaic device and plays critical role for the promotion of optoelectronic conversion performance from the view point of device physics.

  13. Binary and ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced

  14. All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2010-09-01

    Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.

  15. Photovoltaic cells based on ternary P3HT:PCBM:polymethine dye active layer transparent in the visible range of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliznyuk, Valery N., E-mail: vblizny@clemson.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634 (United States); Gasiorowski, Jacek [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Ishchenko, Alexander A.; Bulavko, Gennadiy V. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 5 Murmanskaya str., Kiev 02660 (Ukraine); Rahaman, Mahfujur [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Hingerl, Kurt [Center for Interface and Nanoanalytics, Johannes Kepler University, Linz 4040 (Austria); Zahn, Dietrich R.T. [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Sariciftci, Niyazi S. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS), Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University, Linz 4040 (Austria)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Addition of a polymethine dye to P3HT:PCBM bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) films leads to a compositionally induced transparency in the system. • Variation of the complex refractive index in binary and ternary BHJ films has been studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry. • Power conversion efficiency of ternary BHJ solar cells is determined by the dye composition and photodoping. - Abstract: Optical and photovoltaic properties were studied for ternary photovoltaic cells containing a traditional donor-acceptor bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) active layer modified with polymethine dye molecules in a broad range of compositions and wavelengths. An effect of composition induced optical transparency, due to the strong modification of the density of states, was observed for symmetrical compositions with approximately equal amount of components. Based on our spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies we can suggest that the variation of the refractive index, which is significantly reduced in the visible range for ternary systems, is involved in the physical mechanism of the phenomenon. Despite of an addition of the IR absorbing component (which allows broadening of the absorption band to up to 800 nm) no improvement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is observed in comparison to the binary BHJ system (P3HT:PCBM). Nevertheless, we believe that further advance of the efficiency will be possible if the energy levels will be chemically designed to avoid formation of charge traps at the BHJ interface during light excitation. Such fine adjustment of the system should become possible with a proper choice of polymer:dye composition due to a high versatility of the polymethine dyes demonstrated in previous studies.

  16. A novel method based on selective laser sintering for preparing high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy ternary composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Yan, Chunze; Shi, Yunsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-09-01

    A novel method based on selective laser sintering (SLS) process is proposed for the first time to prepare complex and high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy (CF/PA12/EP) ternary composites. The procedures are briefly described as follows: prepare polyamide12 (PA12) coated carbon fibre (CF) composite powder; build porous green parts by SLS; infiltrate the green parts with high-performance thermosetting epoxy (EP) resin; and finally cure the resin at high temperature. The obtained composites are a ternary composite system consisting of the matrix of novolac EP resin, the reinforcement of CFs and the transition thin layer of PA12 with a thickness of 595 nm. The SEM images and micro-CT analysis prove that the ternary system is a three-dimensional co-continuous structure and the reinforcement of CFs are well dispersed in the matrix of EP with the volume fraction of 31%. Mechanical tests show that the composites fabricated by this method yield an ultimate tensile strength of 101.03 MPa and a flexural strength of 153.43 MPa, which are higher than those of most of the previously reported SLS materials. Therefore, the process proposed in this paper shows great potential for manufacturing complex, lightweight and high-performance CF reinforced composite components in aerospace, automotive industries and other areas.

  17. Fe-Cr-V ternary alloy-based ferritic steels for high- and low-temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieth, M.; Materna-Morris, E.; Dudarev, S.L.; Boutard, J.-L.; Keppler, H.; Mayor, J.

    2009-01-01

    The phase stability of alloys and steels developed for application in nuclear fission and fusion technology is one of the decisive factors determining the potential range of operating temperatures and radiation conditions that the core elements of a power plant can tolerate. In the case of ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels, the choice of the chemical composition is dictated by the phase diagram for binary FeCr alloys where in the 0-9% range of Cr composition the alloy remains in the solid solution phase at and below the room temperature. For Cr concentrations exceeding 9% the steels operating at relatively low temperatures are therefore expected to exhibit the formation of α' Cr-rich precipitates. These precipitates form obstacles for the propagation of dislocations, impeding plastic deformation and embrittling the material. This sets the low temperature limit for the use of of high (14% to 20%) Cr steels, which for the 20% Cr steels is at approximately 600 deg. C. On the other hand, steels containing 12% or less Cr cannot be used at temperatures exceeding ∼600 deg. C due to the occurrence of the α-γ transition (912 deg. C in pure iron and 830 deg. C in 7% Cr alloy), which weakens the steel in the high temperature limit. In this study, we investigate the physical properties of a concentrated ternary alloy system that attracted relatively little attention so far. The phase diagram of ternary Fe-Cr-V alloy shows no phase boundaries within a certain broad range of Cr and V concentrations. This makes the alloy sufficiently resistant to corrosion and suggests that steels and dispersion strengthened materials based on this alloy composition may have better strength and stability at high temperatures. Experimental heats were produced on a laboratory scale by arc melting the material components to pellets, then by melting the pellets in an induction furnace and casting the melt into copper moulds. The compositions in weight percent (iron base) are 10Cr5V, 10Cr

  18. Ferromagnetic quantum criticality in the uranium-based ternary compounds URhSi, URhAl, and UCoAl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combier, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we explore the ferromagnetic quantum criticality in three uranium-based ternary compounds, by means of thermodynamical and transport measurements on single crystal samples, at low temperature and high pressure. URhSi and URhAl are itinerant ferromagnets, while UCoAl is a paramagnet being close to a ferromagnetic instability. All of them have Ising-type magnetic ordering. In the orthorhombic compound URhSi, we show that the Curie temperature decreases upon applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the easy magnetization axis, and a quantum phase transition is expected around 40 T. In the hexagonal system URhAl, we establish the pressure-temperature phase diagram for the first time, indicating a quantum phase transition around 5 GPa. In the isostructural compound UCoAl, we investigate the metamagnetic transition with measurements of magnetization, Hall effect, resistivity and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Some intriguing magnetic relaxation phenomena are observed, with step-like features. Hall effect and resistivity have been measured at dilution temperatures, under hydrostatic pressure up to 2.2 GPa and magnetic field up to 16 T. The metamagnetic transition terminates under pressure and magnetic field at a quantum critical endpoint. In this region, a strong effective mass enhancement occurs, and an intriguing difference between up and down field sweeps appears in transverse resistivity. This may be the signature of a new phase, supposedly linked to the relaxation phenomena observed in magnetic measurements, arising from frustration on the quasi-Kagome lattice of uranium atoms in this crystal structure. (author) [fr

  19. Ternary networks reliability and Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya; Vaisman, Radislav

    2014-01-01

    Ternary means “based on three”. This book deals with reliability investigations of  networks whose components subject to failures can be in three states –up, down and middle (mid), contrary to traditionally considered networks  having only binary (up/down) components. Extending binary case to ternary allows to consider more realistic and flexible models for communication, flow and supply networks.

  20. Stability and electronic structure of Zr-based ternary metallic glasses and relevant compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Soda, K.; Sato, H.; Suzuki, T.; Taketomi, T.; Takeuchi, T.; Kato, H.; Mizutani, U.

    2007-01-01

    The electronic structure of the Zr-based metallic glasses has been investigated by theoretical and experimental approaches. One approach is band calculations of the Zr 2 Ni (Zr 66.7 Ni 33.3 ) compound to investigate the electronic structure of the Zr 66.7 Ni 33.3 metallic glass (ΔT x = 0 K) of which the local atomic structure is similar to that of the Zr 2 Ni compound. The other is photoemission spectroscopy of the Zr 50 Cu 35 Al 15 bulk metallic glass (BMG) (ΔT x = 69 K). Here ΔT x = T x - T g where T x and T g are crystallization and glass transition temperature, respectively. Both results and previous ones on the Zr 55 Cu 30 Ni 5 Al 10 BMG indicate that there is a pseudogap at the Fermi level in the electronic structure of these Zr-based metallic glasses, independent of the value of the ΔT x . This implies that the pseudogap at the Fermi level is one of the factors that stabilize the glass phase of Zr-based metallic glasses

  1. Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by α-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 μm-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated.

  2. Ternary rare-earth based alternative gate-dielectrics for future integration in MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Juergen; Lopes, Joao Marcelo; Durgun Oezben, Eylem; Luptak, Roman; Lenk, Steffi; Zander, Willi; Roeckerath, Martin [IBN 1-IT, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The dielectric SiO{sub 2} has been the key to the tremendous improvements in Si-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) device performance over the past four decades. It has, however, reached its limit in terms of scaling since it exhibits a leakage current density higher than 1 A/cm{sup 2} and does not retain its intrinsic physical properties at thicknesses below 1.5 nm. In order to overcome these problems and keep Moore's law ongoing, the use of higher dielectric constant (k) gate oxides has been suggested. These high-k materials must satisfy numerous requirements such as the high k, low leakage currents, suitable band gap und offsets to silicon. Rare-earth based dielectrics are promising materials which fulfill these needs. We will review the properties of REScO{sub 3} (RE = La, Dy, Gd, Sm, Tb) and LaLuO{sub 3} thin films, grown with pulsed laser deposition, e-gun evaporation or molecular beam deposition, integrated in capacitors and transistors. A k > 20 for the REScO{sub 3} (RE = Dy, Gd) and around 30 for (RE = La, Sm, Tb) and LaLuO{sub 3} are obtained. Transistors prepared on SOI and sSOI show mobility values up to 380 cm{sup 2}/Vs on sSOI, which are comparable to such prepared with HfO{sub 2}.

  3. Ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shay, J L; Pamplin, B R

    2013-01-01

    Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors: Growth, Electronic Properties, and Applications covers the developments of work in the I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 ternary chalcopyrite compounds. This book is composed of eight chapters that focus on the crystal growth, characterization, and applications of these compounds to optical communications systems. After briefly dealing with the status of ternary chalcopyrite compounds, this book goes on describing the crystal growth of II-IV-V2 and I-III-VI2 single crystals. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the energy band structure of these semiconductor compounds, illustrat

  4. Ternary and quaternary nanocomposites based on polystyrene, SBS, organically modified clay and silicone-polyether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Manuela L.Q.A.; Lourenco, Emerson; Paiva, Raphael E.F.; Felisberti, Maria I.; Yoshida, Inez V.P.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims the study of toughened nanocomposites based on polystyrene (PS), poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (SBS), organically modified clay (C20A) and silicone-polyether, PDMS-POE. The intercalation of the copolymer PDMS-POE into the clay galleries increased the interlamellar distance, improving the exfoliation of the clay during the extrusion process of the materials. C20A/PDMS-POE nanocomposite, MC20A, was prepared by mechanical mixture using 1:1 wt% ratio. MC20A was incorporated into PS and PS/SBS blends using an extruder. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction and stress-strain mechanical tests. MC20A/PS/SBS, prepared by extrusion, showed an increase in the interlamellar distance, suggesting the intercalation of PS or SBS into the clay galleries. The PDMSPOE acted as a 'plasticizer' for PS and PS/SBS blend. However, this effect was not reverted by the clay addition. On the contrary, the 'plasticizer' effect was intensified by the clay maybe due to the slip characteristics of PDMS-POE associated with the lamella orientation. (author)

  5. Parametric study of ternary ettringite-based systems for radwaste solidification and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, I.; Patapy, C.; Cyr, M.; Boher, C.; Avril, D.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a demand in furthering technological solutions to embed radioactive waste. A kind of this waste produced during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel is characterized by high pH sensitivity. Some organic matrixes (e.g. bitumen) developed to condition this waste are currently reconsidered by nuclear safety regulators. Therefore the cementation in ettringite systems might be a promising solution to solidify and stabilize this radioactive waste. Calcium Aluminate Cement (CAC) are planned to be used, instead of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), to form a significant amount of ettringite able to catch water molecules when forming. Moreover, due to the low pH of CAC-based matrixes, the latter have a good compatibility with the compounds used to stabilize active elements. However, the heat generated by hydration and the chemistry of waste require additional components. This paper details the investigations carried out on the CAC systems combined with Supplementary Cementing Materials. First theoretical studies show the main characteristics of reaction for the blends - especially: kinetics and type of hydrates formed, pH and chemistry of pore solution. Formulations are optimized to be in accordance with the stability of high pH sensitivity radioactive waste. Thereafter, parametric experiments including simulated waste are realized to study the rheological and the heat properties of the mixes. It appears that an increase in sulfate content ensures the formation and stability of ettringite and can greatly decrease the pH of pore solutions due to the formation of ettringite/AH 3 in a larger extent. Results show that increasing slag content in the CAC system reduces the heat generated during hydration and that the addition of quartz filler in simulated wastes has increased the nucleation surface

  6. Simulation analysis and ternary diagram of municipal solid waste pyrolysis and gasification based on the equilibrium model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Na; Zhang, Awen; Zhang, Qiang; He, Guansong; Cui, Wenqian; Chen, Guanyi; Song, Chengcai

    2017-07-01

    A self-sustained municipal solid waste (MSW) pyrolysis-gasification process with self-produced syngas as heat source was proposed and an equilibrium model was established to predict the syngas reuse rate considering variable MSW components. Simulation results indicated that for constant moisture (ash) content, with the increase of ash (moisture) content, syngas reuse rate gradually increased, and reached the maximum 100% when ash (moisture) content was 73.9% (60.4%). Novel ternary diagrams with moisture, ash and combustible as axes were proposed to predict the adaptability of the self-sustained process and syngas reuse rate for waste. For wastes of given components, its position in the ternary diagram can be determined and the syngas reuse rate can be obtained, which will provide guidance for system design. Assuming that the MSW was composed of 100% combustible content, ternary diagram shows that there was a minimum limiting value of 43.8% for the syngas reuse rate in the process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. A Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics Manufactured Power Inductor Based on A Ternary Hybrid Material System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunsong; Chen, Ru

    Low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) is one of the most important techniques to produce circuits with high working frequency, multi-functionality and high integration. We have developed a methodology to enable a ternary hybrid material system being implemented into the LTCC manufacturing process. The co-firing sintering process can be divided into a densification and cooling process. In this method, a successful ternary hybrid material densification process is achieved by tuning the sintering profile of each material to match each other. The system integrity is maintained in the cooling process is obtained by develop a strong bonding at the interfaces of each materials. As a demonstration, we have construct a power inductor device made of the ternary material system including Ag, NiCuZn ferrite and non-magnetic ceramic. The power inductors well maintains its physical integrity after sintering. The microscopic images show no obvious sign of cracks or structural deformation. More importantly, despite the bonding between the ferrite and ceramic is enhanced by non-magnetic element diffusion, the undesired magnetic elements diffusion is effectively suppressed. The electric performance shows that the power handling capability is comparable to the current state of art device.

  8. Implementation of ternary Shor’s algorithm based on vibrational states of an ion in anharmonic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Chen, Shu-Ming; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Chun-Wang; Wu, Wei; Chen, Ping-Xing

    2015-03-01

    It is widely believed that Shor’s factoring algorithm provides a driving force to boost the quantum computing research. However, a serious obstacle to its binary implementation is the large number of quantum gates. Non-binary quantum computing is an efficient way to reduce the required number of elemental gates. Here, we propose optimization schemes for Shor’s algorithm implementation and take a ternary version for factorizing 21 as an example. The optimized factorization is achieved by a two-qutrit quantum circuit, which consists of only two single qutrit gates and one ternary controlled-NOT gate. This two-qutrit quantum circuit is then encoded into the nine lower vibrational states of an ion trapped in a weakly anharmonic potential. Optimal control theory (OCT) is employed to derive the manipulation electric field for transferring the encoded states. The ternary Shor’s algorithm can be implemented in one single step. Numerical simulation results show that the accuracy of the state transformations is about 0.9919. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61205108) and the High Performance Computing (HPC) Foundation of National University of Defense Technology, China.

  9. Feature learning and change feature classification based on deep learning for ternary change detection in SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Maoguo; Yang, Hailun; Zhang, Puzhao

    2017-07-01

    Ternary change detection aims to detect changes and group the changes into positive change and negative change. It is of great significance in the joint interpretation of spatial-temporal synthetic aperture radar images. In this study, sparse autoencoder, convolutional neural networks (CNN) and unsupervised clustering are combined to solve ternary change detection problem without any supervison. Firstly, sparse autoencoder is used to transform log-ratio difference image into a suitable feature space for extracting key changes and suppressing outliers and noise. And then the learned features are clustered into three classes, which are taken as the pseudo labels for training a CNN model as change feature classifier. The reliable training samples for CNN are selected from the feature maps learned by sparse autoencoder with certain selection rules. Having training samples and the corresponding pseudo labels, the CNN model can be trained by using back propagation with stochastic gradient descent. During its training procedure, CNN is driven to learn the concept of change, and more powerful model is established to distinguish different types of changes. Unlike the traditional methods, the proposed framework integrates the merits of sparse autoencoder and CNN to learn more robust difference representations and the concept of change for ternary change detection. Experimental results on real datasets validate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed framework.

  10. Design of ternary clocked adiabatic static random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengjun; Mei Fengna

    2011-01-01

    Based on multi-valued logic, adiabatic circuits and the structure of ternary static random access memory (SRAM), a design scheme of a novel ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM is presented. The scheme adopts bootstrapped NMOS transistors, and an address decoder, a storage cell and a sense amplifier are charged and discharged in the adiabatic way, so the charges stored in the large switch capacitance of word lines, bit lines and the address decoder can be effectively restored to achieve energy recovery during reading and writing of ternary signals. The PSPICE simulation results indicate that the ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM has a correct logic function and low power consumption. Compared with ternary conventional SRAM, the average power consumption of the ternary adiabatic SRAM saves up to 68% in the same conditions. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. Design of ternary clocked adiabatic static random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengjun, Wang; Fengna, Mei

    2011-10-01

    Based on multi-valued logic, adiabatic circuits and the structure of ternary static random access memory (SRAM), a design scheme of a novel ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM is presented. The scheme adopts bootstrapped NMOS transistors, and an address decoder, a storage cell and a sense amplifier are charged and discharged in the adiabatic way, so the charges stored in the large switch capacitance of word lines, bit lines and the address decoder can be effectively restored to achieve energy recovery during reading and writing of ternary signals. The PSPICE simulation results indicate that the ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM has a correct logic function and low power consumption. Compared with ternary conventional SRAM, the average power consumption of the ternary adiabatic SRAM saves up to 68% in the same conditions.

  12. Boosting the Visible-Light Photoactivity of BiOCl/BiVO4/N-GQD Ternary Heterojunctions Based on Internal Z-Scheme Charge Transfer of N-GQDs: Simultaneous Band Gap Narrowing and Carrier Lifetime Prolonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyue; Liu, Qian; Chen, Wei; Yin, Yuanyuan; Ge, Lan; Li, Henan; Wang, Kun

    2017-11-08

    The efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in photoactive materials is highly desired, allowing their transfer to specific sites for undergoing redox reaction in various applications. The construction of ternary heterojunctions is a practical strategy to enhance the migration of photogenerated electron that realizes the synergistic effect of multicomponents rather than the simple overlay of single component. Here, we demonstrate an available way to fabricate new BiOCl/BiVO 4 /nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dot (N-GQD) ternary heterojunctions that exhibit higher efficiency in charge separation than any binary heterojunction or pure material under visible-light irradiation. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy demonstrated that the proposed BiOCl/BiVO 4 /N-GQD ternary heterojunctions possess the narrower band gap energy. More importantly, the ternary heterojunctions reveal the prolonged lifetime of photogenerated charges and enhanced the separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, which may be ascribed to sensitization based on an internal Z-scheme charge transfer at the interface of N-GQDs with oxygen functional groups. Furthermore, we examine the photoactive performance of proposed ternary heterojunctions in aqueous solution by using the photodegradation of bisphenol A as a model system and BiOCl/BiVO 4 /N-GQD ternary heterojunctions also display a dramatically enhanced photodegradation rate. The proposed charge separation and transfer process of BiOCl/BiVO 4 /N-GQD ternary heterojunctions for the enhanced photoactivity were deduced by electrochemical measurements, photoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. The results demonstrate that a Z-scheme charge process was formed between BiOCl/BiVO 4 binary heterojunctions and N-GQDs, leading to an efficient charge carrier separation and strong photocatalytic ability. Notably, this work may assist in a better understanding of the role of N-GQDs in kinds of heterojunctions

  13. Ternary iron(II) complex with an emissive imidazopyridine arm from Schiff base cyclizations and its oxidative DNA cleavage activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Arindam; Dhar, Shanta; Nethaji, Munirathinam; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2005-01-01

    The ternary iron(II) complex [Fe(L')(L")] $(PF_6)_3(1)$ as a synthetic model for the bleomycins, where L' and L" are formed from metal-mediated cyclizations of N,N -(2-hydroxypropane-1,3-diyl)bis(pyridine-2-aldimine)(L), is synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. In the six-coordinate iron(II) complex, ligands L' and L" show tetradentate and bidentate chelating modes of bonding. Ligand L' is formed from an intramolecular attack of the alcoholic OH group of L to o...

  14. A mediator-free glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase/chitosan/α-zirconium phosphate ternary biocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Min; Wen, Jiwu; Liu, Lijun; He, Deyong; Kuang, Ren-yun; Shi, Taqing

    2014-01-15

    A novel glucose oxidase/chitosan/α-zirconium phosphate (GOD/chitosan/α-ZrP) ternary biocomposite was prepared by co-intercalating glucose oxidase (GOD) and chitosan into the interlayers of α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) via a delamination-reassembly procedure. The results of X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and ultraviolet spectrum characterizations indicated not only the layered and hybrid structure of the GOD/chitosan/α-ZrP ternary biocomposite but also the recovered activity of the intercalated GOD improved by the co-intercalated chitosan. By depositing the GOD/chitosan/α-ZrP biocomposite film onto a glassy carbon electrode, the direct electrochemistry of the intercalated GOD was achieved with a fast electron transfer rate constant, k(s), of 7.48±3.52 s(-1). Moreover, this GOD/chitosan/α-ZrP biocomposite modified electrode exhibited a sensitive response to glucose in the linear range of 0.25-8.0 mM (R=0.9994, n=14), with a determination limit of 0.076 mM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Simulation of the precipitation process of ordered intermetallic compounds in binary and ternary Ni-Al-based alloys by the phase-field model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Hua; Zhao Yuhong; Zhao Yuhui

    2009-01-01

    With the microscopic phase-field model, atomic-scale computer simulation programs for the precipitation mechanism of the ordered intermetallic compound γ' in binary Ni-15.5 at.%Al alloy, θ and γ' in ternary Ni 75 Al x V 25-x alloys were worked out based on the microscopic diffusion equation and non-equilibrium free energy. The simulation can be applied to the whole precipitation process and composition range. A prior assumptions on the new phase structure or transformation path was unnecessary, the possible non-equilibrium phases, atomic clustering and ordering could be described automatically, and atomic images, order parameters and volume fractions of precipitates were obtained. Computer simulation was performed systematically on the precipitation mechanism, precipitation sequence of θ and γ' in complicated system with ordering and clustering simultaneously. Through the simulated atomic images and chemical order parameters of precipitates, we can explain the complex precipitation mechanisms of θ (Ni 3 V) and γ' (Ni 3 Al) ordered phases. For the binary alloy, the precipitation mechanism of γ' phase has the characteristic of both non-classical nucleation and growth (NCNG) and congruent ordering and spinodal decomposition (COSD). For the ternary alloys, the precipitation characteristic of γ' phase transforms from NCNG to COSD gradually, otherwise, the precipitation characteristic of θ phase transforms from COSD to NCNG mechanism gradually

  16. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium at T = 298.15 K for ternary mixtures of alkane + aromatic compounds + imidazolium-based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domínguez, Irene; Requejo, Patricia F.; Canosa, José; Domínguez, Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The LLE ternary phase diagrams with 2 imidazolium-based ionic liquids were measured. • The LLE data were experimental determined at T = 298.15 K and p = 1 atm. • Mixtures of (octane or nonane) and (benzene or toluene or ethylbenzene) were studied. • LLE experimental data were correlated with NRTL and UNIQUAC thermodynamic models. - Abstract: Ionic liquids, with their unique and tunable properties, can be an advantageous alternative as extractive solvents in separation processes involving systems containing aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. In this work, (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary systems {nonane (1) + benzene (2) + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [BMim][NTf 2 ] (3)}, {octane (1) + benzene (2) + 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [PMim][NTf 2 ] (3)}, and {nonane (1) + aromatic compound (benzene or toluene or ethylbenzene) (2) + [PMim][NTf 2 ] (3)} were determined at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Selectivity and solute distribution ratio, derived from the equilibrium data, were used to determine if this ionic liquid can be considered as a potential solvent for the separation of aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene) from alkanes (octane and nonane). The experimental data were satisfactorily correlated with NRTL and UNIQUAC models

  17. No-reference stereoscopic image quality measurement based on generalized local ternary patterns of binocular energy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Wujie; Yu, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual no-reference (NR) quality measurement of stereoscopic images has become a challenging issue in three-dimensional (3D) imaging fields. In this article, we propose an efficient binocular quality-aware features extraction scheme, namely generalized local ternary patterns (GLTP) of binocular energy response, for general-purpose NR stereoscopic image quality measurement (SIQM). More specifically, we first construct the binocular energy response of a distorted stereoscopic image with different stimuli of amplitude and phase shifts. Then, the binocular quality-aware features are generated from the GLTP of the binocular energy response. Finally, these features are mapped to the subjective quality score of the distorted stereoscopic image by using support vector regression. Experiments on two publicly available 3D databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed metric compared with the state-of-the-art full reference and NR metrics. (paper)

  18. Microstructural and Electronic Origins of Open-Circuit Voltage Tuning in Organic Solar Cells Based on Ternary Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Mollinger, Sonya A.

    2015-09-22

    © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Organic ternary heterojunction photovoltaic blends are sometimes observed to undergo a gradual evolution in open-circuit voltage (Voc) with increasing amounts of a second donor or an acceptor. The Voc is strongly correlated with the energy of the charge transfer state in the blend, but this value depends on both local and mesoscopic orders. In this work, the behavior of Voc in the presence of a wide range of interfacial electronic states is investigated. The key charge transfer state interfaces responsible for Voc in several model systems with varying morphology are identified. Systems consisting of one donor with two fullerene molecules and of one acceptor with a donor polymer of varying regio-regularity are used. The effects from the changing energetic disorder in the material and from the variation due to a law of simple mixtures are quantified. It has been found that populating the higher-energy charge transfer states is not responsible for the observed change in Voc upon the addition of a third component. Aggregating polymers and miscible fullerenes are compared, and it has been concluded that in both cases charge delocalization, aggregation, and local polarization effects shift the lowest-energy charge transfer state distribution. The open-circuit voltage evolution and charge transfer state interfaces in ternary organic photovoltaic blends are investigated using several model systems. The changes in subgap spectra from energetic disorder and increased population of higher energy states are analyzed and the lowest charge transfer state distribution is observed to shift due to local aggregation and delocalization effects.

  19. Microstructural and Electronic Origins of Open-Circuit Voltage Tuning in Organic Solar Cells Based on Ternary Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Mollinger, Sonya A.; Vandewal, Koen; Salleo, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Organic ternary heterojunction photovoltaic blends are sometimes observed to undergo a gradual evolution in open-circuit voltage (Voc) with increasing amounts of a second donor or an acceptor. The Voc is strongly correlated with the energy of the charge transfer state in the blend, but this value depends on both local and mesoscopic orders. In this work, the behavior of Voc in the presence of a wide range of interfacial electronic states is investigated. The key charge transfer state interfaces responsible for Voc in several model systems with varying morphology are identified. Systems consisting of one donor with two fullerene molecules and of one acceptor with a donor polymer of varying regio-regularity are used. The effects from the changing energetic disorder in the material and from the variation due to a law of simple mixtures are quantified. It has been found that populating the higher-energy charge transfer states is not responsible for the observed change in Voc upon the addition of a third component. Aggregating polymers and miscible fullerenes are compared, and it has been concluded that in both cases charge delocalization, aggregation, and local polarization effects shift the lowest-energy charge transfer state distribution. The open-circuit voltage evolution and charge transfer state interfaces in ternary organic photovoltaic blends are investigated using several model systems. The changes in subgap spectra from energetic disorder and increased population of higher energy states are analyzed and the lowest charge transfer state distribution is observed to shift due to local aggregation and delocalization effects.

  20. Thermodynamic modeling of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Leyi; Qiu Aitao; Liu Lanjie; Jiang Ming; Lu Xionggang; Li Chonghe

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The full experimental results of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system and its sub-binary systems are reviewed and analysed in detail. → Based on the latest thermodynamic assessments of the Ti-Al, Ti-Cr and Al-Cr systems and the ternary experimental data in literature, the thermodynamic parameters of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system are fully assessed by the Calphad method. → The transformation of disorder to order (bcc a 2 to B2) and the new ternary compound L 12T i 25 Cr 8 Al 67 are considered in this work. - Abstract: The Ti-Al-Cr ternary system is one of the most important systems to studying the titanium alloys. Some experimental data of this ternary system are available and a few partial thermodynamic assessments are reported. However, no full thermodynamic descriptions were published. In this study, the previous work on the Ti-Al-Cr system and its related binary systems are reviewed. Based on the thermodynamic descriptions of the Ti-Al, Ti-Cr and Al-Cr systems and the ternary experimental data in literature, the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system is assessed by means of the Calphad method. Several isothermal sections from 1073 K to 1573 K and some invariant reactions are calculated, which are in good agreement with the most of the experimental results.

  1. Production of barium molybdate and tungstate on the base of ternary reciprocal Na, Ba long Cl, EhO4 (Eh - Mo, W) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garkushin, I.K.; Sechnoj, A.I.; Dibirov, M.A.; Trunin, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    Possibilities of the syntnesis of barium molybdate and tungstate on the base of ternary reciprocal Na, Ba parallel Cl, EhO 4 (Eh=Mo, W) system state diagrams are under study. It is shown that on the basis of these reciprocal state diagrams syntnesis of not only BaO 4 but also of other suhstances is possible. Purity of obtained chemical agents is basically dependent on qualification of initial components. Synthesis temperature is decreased and time is reduced as compared to other known methods. For substance synthesis, state diagrams examination (reaction type confirmation and component crystallization fields separation from compound crystallization fields) is necessary along with the calculation of the conventional thermochemical effect

  2. Ternary fission induced by polarized neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönnenwein Friedrich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary fission of (e,e U- and Pu- isotopes induced by cold polarized neutrons discloses some new facets of the process. In the so-called ROT effect shifts in the angular distributions of ternary particles relative to the fission fragments show up. In the so-called TRI effect an asymmetry in the emission of ternary particles relative to a plane formed by the fragment momentum and the spin of the neutron appear. The two effects are shown to be linked to the components of angular momentum perpendicular and parallel to the fission axis at the saddle point of fission. Based on theoretical models the spectroscopic properties of the collective transitional states at the saddle point are inferred from experiment.

  3. Coelectrodeposition of Ternary Mn-Oxide/Polypyrrole Composites for ORR Electrocatalysts: A Study Based on Micro-X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and X-ray Fluorescence Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto Bozzini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Low energy X-ray fluorescence (XRF and soft X-ray absorption (XAS microspectroscopies at high space-resolution are employed for the investigation of the coelectrodeposition of composites consisting of a polypyrrole(PPy-matrix and Mn-based ternary dispersoids, that have been proposed as promising electrocatalysts for oxygen-reduction electrodes. Specifically, we studied Mn–Co–Cu/PP, Mn–Co–Mg/PPy and Mn–Ni–Mg/PPy co-electrodeposits. The Mn–Co–Cu system features the best ORR electrocatalytic activity in terms of electron transfer number, onset potential, half-wave potential and current density. XRF maps and micro-XAS spectra yield compositional and chemical state distributions, contributing unique molecular-level information on the pulse-plating processes. Mn, Ni, Co and Mg exhibit a bimodal distribution consisting of mesoscopic aggregates of micrometric globuli, separated by polymer-rich ridges. Within this common qualitative scenario, the individual systems exhibit quantitatively different chemical distribution patterns, resulting from specific electrokinetic and electrosorption properties of the single components. The electrodeposits consist of Mn3+,4+-oxide particles, accompanied by combinations of Co0/Co2+, Ni0/Ni2+ and Cu0,+/Cu2+ resulting from the alternance of cathodic and anodic pulses. The formation of highly electroactive Mn3+,4+ in the as-fabricated material is a specific feature of the ternary systems, deriving from synergistic stabilisation brought about by two types of bivalent dopants as well as by galvanic contact to elemental metal; this result represents a considerable improvement in material quality with respect to previously studied Mn/PPy and Mn-based/PPy binaries.

  4. Ternary iron(II) complex with an emissive imidazopyridine arm from Schiff base cyclizations and its oxidative DNA cleavage activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arindam; Dhar, Shanta; Nethaji, Munirathinam; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2005-01-21

    The ternary iron(II) complex [Fe(L')(L")](PF6)3(1) as a synthetic model for the bleomycins, where L' and L" are formed from metal-mediated cyclizations of N,N'-(2-hydroxypropane-1,3-diyl)bis(pyridine-2-aldimine)(L), is synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. In the six-coordinate iron(ii) complex, ligands L' and L" show tetradentate and bidentate chelating modes of bonding. Ligand L' is formed from an intramolecular attack of the alcoholic OH group of L to one imine moiety leading to the formation of a stereochemically constrained five-membered ring. Ligand L" which is formed from an intermolecular reaction involving one imine moiety of L and pyridine-2-carbaldehyde has an emissive cationic imidazopyridine pendant arm. The complex binds to double-stranded DNA in the minor groove giving a Kapp value of 4.1 x 10(5) M(-1) and displays oxidative cleavage of supercoiled DNA in the presence of H2O2 following a hydroxyl radical pathway. The complex also shows photo-induced DNA cleavage activity on UV light exposure involving formation of singlet oxygen as the reactive species.

  5. Amplifying and compressing optical filter based on one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal structure containing gain medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamshidi-Ghaleh, Kazem, E-mail: k-jamshidi@azaruinv.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimpour, Zeinab [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moslemi, Fatemeh [Department of Physics, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    The transmission spectrum properties of the one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal (1DTPC) structure, composed of dielectric (D), metal (M) and gain (G) materials, with three different arrangements of (DGM){sup N}, (GDM){sup N} and (DMG){sup N}, where N is the number of periodicity, were investigated. Two full photonic band gaps and N−1 resonant peaks, localized between them, were observed on transmittance spectra on near-UV spectrum region. When the gained layer was placed in front of the metal, the peaks appeared with higher resolution. There is a peak, localized on the higher band-edge of the first gap, which shows very interesting property than the other peaks. Thus, it amplifies and compresses faster with increase in the N and strength of the gain coefficient. The effects of the gain coefficient and periodicity number are graphically illustrated. This communication presents a PC structure that can be a good candidate to design an amplifying and compressing single or multi-channel optical filter in the UV region.

  6. Amplifying and compressing optical filter based on one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal structure containing gain medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi-Ghaleh, Kazem; Ebrahimpour, Zeinab; Moslemi, Fatemeh

    2015-07-01

    The transmission spectrum properties of the one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal (1DTPC) structure, composed of dielectric (D), metal (M) and gain (G) materials, with three different arrangements of (DGM)N, (GDM)N and (DMG)N, where N is the number of periodicity, were investigated. Two full photonic band gaps and N-1 resonant peaks, localized between them, were observed on transmittance spectra on near-UV spectrum region. When the gained layer was placed in front of the metal, the peaks appeared with higher resolution. There is a peak, localized on the higher band-edge of the first gap, which shows very interesting property than the other peaks. Thus, it amplifies and compresses faster with increase in the N and strength of the gain coefficient. The effects of the gain coefficient and periodicity number are graphically illustrated. This communication presents a PC structure that can be a good candidate to design an amplifying and compressing single or multi-channel optical filter in the UV region.

  7. Self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    This paper regards coordination of networked systems with ternary controllers. We develop a hybrid coordination system which implements a self-triggered communication policy, based on polling the neighbors upon need. We prove that the proposed scheme ensures finite-time convergence to a neighborhood

  8. True ternary fission of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; Oertzen, W. von

    2014-01-01

    Splitting of heavy radioactive nucleus into three fragments is known as ternary fission. If the size of the fragments are almost equal it is referred to as true ternary fission. Recently, Yu. V. Pyatkov et al observed/reported the experimental observation of true ternary fission in 252 Cf. In this work, the possibilities of different true ternary fission modes of 252 Cf through potential energy surface (PES) calculations based on three cluster model (TCM) are discussed. In TCM a condition on the mass numbers of the fission fragments is implied as A 1 ≥ A 2 ≥ A 3 in order to avoid repetition of combinations. Due to this condition, the values of Z 3 vary from 0 to 36 and Z 2 vary from 16 to 51. Of the different pairs having similar (Z 2 , Z 3 ) with different potential energy, a pair possessing minimum potential energy is chosen. Thus identified favourable combinations are plotted. For the PES calculations the arrangement of the fragments is considered in the order of A 1 +A 2 +A 3 . i.e. the heavy and the lightest fragments are kept at the ends. It is seen that the deepest minimum in the PES occurs for Z 3 =2 labelled as (Z 2 ; 2) indicating He accompanied breakup as the most favourable one. Of which, the breakup with Z 2 around 46 to 48 is the least (shown by dashed (Z 1 = 50) and dotted (Z 1 = 52) lines indicating a constant Z 1 value). The other notable minima in the PES are labelled and they correspond to the (Z 2 , Z 3 ) pairs viz., (20, 20), (28, 20), (28, 28) and (32, 32). Of these four minima, the first three are associated with the magic numbers 20 and 28. For Z 3 =20, there are two minimums at (20,20) and (28,20) among them (28,20) is the lowest minimum through which the minimum-path passes, and it is the ternary decay observed by Yu. V. Pyatkov et al. The fourth minima is the most interesting due to the fact that it corresponds to true ternary fission mode with Z 2 =32, Z 3 =32 and Z 1 =34. The minimum potential energy path also goes through this true

  9. Ternary gradient metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Rosi, Nathaniel L

    2017-09-08

    Gradient MOFs contain directional gradients of either structure or functionality. We have successfully prepared two ternary gradient MOFs based on bMOF-100 analogues, namely bMOF-100/102/106 and bMOF-110/100/102, via cascade ligand exchange reactions. The cubic unit cell parameter discrepancy within an individual ternary gradient MOF crystal is as large as ∼1 nm, demonstrating the impressive compatibility and flexibility of the component MOF materials. Because of the presence of a continuum of unit cells, the pore diameters within individual crystals also change in a gradient fashion from ∼2.5 nm to ∼3.0 nm for bMOF-100/102/106, and from ∼2.2 nm to ∼2.7 nm for bMOF-110/100/102, indicating significant porosity gradients. Like previously reported binary gradient MOFs, the composition of the ternary gradient MOFs can be easily controlled by adjusting the reaction conditions. Finally, X-ray diffraction and microspectrophotometry were used to analyse fractured gradient MOF crystals by comparing unit cell parameters and absorbance spectra at different locations, thus revealing the profile of heterogeneity (i.e. gradient distribution of properties) and further confirming the formation of ternary gradient MOFs.

  10. Uniform deposition of ternary chalcogenide nanoparticles onto mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film using liquid carbon dioxide-based coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nursanto, Eduardus Budi [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136–791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Clean Energy and Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology,217, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305–333 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Se Jin [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136–791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyo Sang; Hwang, Yun Jeong [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136–791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Clean Energy and Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology,217, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305–333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jaehoon, E-mail: jaehoonkim@skku.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066, Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu, Suwon, GyeongGi-Do 440–746 (Korea, Republic of); SKKU Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), 2066, Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu, Suwon, GyeongGi-Do 440–746 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byoung Koun, E-mail: bkmin@kist.re.kr [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136–791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Clean Energy and Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology,217, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305–333 (Korea, Republic of); Green School, Korea University, 145,Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136–713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-28

    We report the simultaneous deposition of two different metal precursors dissolved in liquid carbon dioxide (l-CO{sub 2}), aiming to the synthesis of ternary chalcopyrite (e.g. CuInS{sub 2}) nanoparticles on a mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film. The l-CO{sub 2}-based deposition of Cu and In precursors and subsequent reaction with a dilute H{sub 2}S gas resulted in Cu{sub x}In{sub y}S{sub z} nanoparticles uniformly deposited across the entire thickness of a mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film. Further heat treatment (air annealing and sulfurization) led to the formation of more stoichiometric CuInS{sub 2} nanoparticles. The formation of CuInS{sub 2} on TiO{sub 2} was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The crystal growth of CuInS{sub 2} was also found to be controllable by adjusting the number of coating cycles of the l-CO{sub 2}-based deposition. - Highlights: • Simultaneous deposition of two different metal precursors dissolved in l-CO{sub 2}. • Uniform deposition of CuInS{sub 2} nanoparticles across mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film. • Highly crystalline CuInS{sub 2} formed on mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film. • Nearly stoichiometric ratio of Cu:In:S was obtained.

  11. Extractive spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum in steels and nickel base high-temperature alloys as a ternary complex with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, M.R.P.; Kumar, P.V.S.; Shyamsundar, J.P.; Anjaneyulu, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The red coloured, ternary complex formed by molybdenum(VI) with hydroxylamine hydrchloride and 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR), on heating for 20 minutes in a hot water bath at pH 6-8, can be extracted with a mixture of n-butanol and benzene (4:1). This complex exhibits absorption maximum at 530nm with a molar absorptivity of 2.8x10 4 lit. mol -1 cm -1 and obeys Beer's law upto 4.5μg/ml of Mo(VI). The composition of the complex is found to be 1:1:1, for Mo(VI): hydroxylamine hydrochloride: PAR. Large amounts of tartaric acid and 2, 2-diamino-cyclohexane tetra acetic acid (CyDTA) can be tolerated in this method. The extraction becomes highly selective in presence of CyDTA (3ml of 5x10 -2 M) and interference of ions like Fe(III)(5mg), Pb(II)(4mg), Zn(II)(2mg), Cu(II)(4mg), Mn(II)(3mg), Ni(II)(4mg), Sn(II)(3mg), Cr(VI)(2mg) and Bi(III)(0.5mg) can be effectively supressed in the determination of 10-45μg of molybdenum. The method can be successfully applied for the determination of molybdenum in steels and nickel base high temperature alloys. (author). 2 tabs., 8 refs

  12. New ternary superconducting germanides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschalkov, V. V.; Muttik, I. G.; Samarin, N. A.; Seropegin, Yu. D.; Rudometkina, M. V.

    1991-12-01

    We have studied the structure, electrical and magnetic properties of new ternary compounds with germanium and transition metals of IV and V groups (Ti 0.7V 0.3Ge 3, Hf 2V 3Ge, Zr 32-36V 32-36Ge 30-32, Hf 2Nb 3Ge 4, HfVGe, Zr 15-17V 39-40Ge 44-45, Hf 10.8-21.7V 36.0-42.8). The homogeneity fields for all new phases are determined. Resistivity (T) and magnetic susceptibility χ(T) are investigated at T=4.2…300 K. Two new superconductors have been found - Zr 32-36V 32-36Ge 30-32 and HfVGe with T c=4.7 K and 5.7 K, respectively.

  13. Kinetic study of lithium-cadmium ternary amalgam decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, M.H.; Andrade, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of metals, which form stable lithium phase in binary alloys, on the formation of intermetallic species in ternary amalgams and their effect on thermal decomposition in contact with water is analyzed. Cd is selected as ternary metal, based on general experimental selection criteria. Cd (Hg) binary amalgams are prepared by direct contact Cd-Hg, whereas Li is formed by electrolysis of Li OH aq using a liquid Cd (Hg) cathodic well. The decomposition kinetic of Li C(Hg) in contact with 0.6 M Li OH is studied in function of ageing and temperature, and these results are compared with the binary amalgam Li (Hg) decomposition. The decomposition rate is constant during one hour for binary and ternary systems. Ageing does not affect the binary systems but increases the decomposition activation energy of ternary systems. A reaction mechanism that considers an intermetallic specie participating in the activated complex is proposed and a kinetic law is suggested. (author)

  14. Positron annihilation lifetime study of interfaces in ternary polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghala, D; Ramya, P; Pasang, T; Raj, J M; Ranganathaiah, C; Williams, J F

    2013-01-01

    A new method based on positron lifetime spectroscopy is developed to characterize individual interfaces in ternary polymer blends and hence determine the composition dependent miscibility level. The method owes its origin to the Kirkwood-Risemann-Zimm (KRZ) model for the evaluation of the hydrodynamic interaction parameters (α ij ) which was used successfully for a binary blend with a single interface. The model was revised for the present work for ternary polymer blends to account for three interfaces. The efficacy of this method is shown for two ternary blends namely poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly (ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and polycaprolactone /poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(vinyl chloride) (PCL/SAN/PVC) at different compositions. An effective hydrodynamic interaction parameter, α eff , was introduced to predict the overall miscibility of ternary blends.

  15. Improving the performance of solution-processed organic solar cells by incorporating small molecule acceptors into a ternary bulk heterojunction based on DH6T:Mq3:PCBM (M = Ga, Al)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Fahmi F.; Yahya, Mohd Yazid; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2017-01-01

    Improvement in the overall performance of solution-processed organic solar cells based on a ternary heterostructure was realized by means of incorporating small molecules of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium (Gaq3) or Alq3 electron acceptors. The donor host polymer was α,ω-dihexyl-sexithiophene (DH6T), while the ultimate acceptor was fullerene (PC 61 BM). The results showed that short circuit current (I Sc ), open circuit voltage (V oc ), and fill factor (FF) of the devices were pronouncedly enhanced by the inclusion of Gaq3 or Alq3. The maximum output power and conversion efficiency of the ternary devices were increased by an order of 5.8 times compared to that of the control devices. These improvements were ascribed to the broadened light absorption, energy levels alignment between the donor-acceptor components, a balanced charge transfer, and increased crystallinity of the devices active layer. The results were ascertained and analyzed by means of UV–Vis, PL, XRD, IV and TEM investigations. - Highlights: • Ternary solution-processed OSCs including Gaq3 and Alq3 acceptors were realized. • The power and efficiency of the devices were increased by an order of 5.8. • Broadened absorption and improved crystallinity were achieved for the active layers.

  16. Improving the performance of solution-processed organic solar cells by incorporating small molecule acceptors into a ternary bulk heterojunction based on DH6T:Mq3:PCBM (M = Ga, Al)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Fahmi F. [Center for Composites, Institute for Vehicle Systems & Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Soft Materials & Devices Lab, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science & Health, Koya University, Koya, Kurdistan Region (Iraq); Development Center for Research and Training, University of Human Development, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region (Iraq); Yahya, Mohd Yazid, E-mail: yazidyahya@utm.my [Center for Composites, Institute for Vehicle Systems & Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Sulaiman, Khaulah [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2017-02-15

    Improvement in the overall performance of solution-processed organic solar cells based on a ternary heterostructure was realized by means of incorporating small molecules of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium (Gaq3) or Alq3 electron acceptors. The donor host polymer was α,ω-dihexyl-sexithiophene (DH6T), while the ultimate acceptor was fullerene (PC{sub 61}BM). The results showed that short circuit current (I{sub Sc}), open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), and fill factor (FF) of the devices were pronouncedly enhanced by the inclusion of Gaq3 or Alq3. The maximum output power and conversion efficiency of the ternary devices were increased by an order of 5.8 times compared to that of the control devices. These improvements were ascribed to the broadened light absorption, energy levels alignment between the donor-acceptor components, a balanced charge transfer, and increased crystallinity of the devices active layer. The results were ascertained and analyzed by means of UV–Vis, PL, XRD, IV and TEM investigations. - Highlights: • Ternary solution-processed OSCs including Gaq3 and Alq3 acceptors were realized. • The power and efficiency of the devices were increased by an order of 5.8. • Broadened absorption and improved crystallinity were achieved for the active layers.

  17. Study of fatigue and fracture behavior of NbCr{sub 2}-based alloys: Phase stability in Nb-Cr-Ni ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.H.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Liu, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-12-01

    Phase stability in a ternary Nb-Cr-Ni Laves phase system was studied in this paper. Their previous study in NbCr{sub 2}-based transition-metal Laves phases has shown that the average electron concentration factor, e/a, is the dominating factor in controlling the phase stability of NbCr{sub 2}-based Laves phases when the atomic size ratios are kept identical. Since Ni has ten out-shell electrons, the substitution of Ni for Cr in NbCr{sub 2} will increase the average electron concentration of the alloy, thus leading to the change of the crystal structures from C15 to C14. In this paper, a number of pseudo-binary Nb(Cr,Ni){sub 2} alloys were prepared, and the crystal structures of the alloys after a long heat-treatment at 1000 C as a function of the Ni content were determined by the X-ray diffraction technique. The boundaries of the C15/C14 transition were determined and compared to their previous predictions. It was found that the electron concentration and phase stability correlation is obeyed in the Nb-Cr-Ni system. However, the e/a ratio corresponding to the C15/C14 phase transition was found to move to a higher value than the predicted one. The changes in the lattice constant, Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were also determined as a function of the Ni content, which were discussed in light of the phase stability difference of the alloys.

  18. An Open-Circuit Voltage and Power Conversion Efficiency Study of Fullerene Ternary Organic Solar Cells Based on Oligomer/Oligomer and Oligomer/Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guichuan; Zhou, Cheng; Sun, Chen; Jia, Xiaoe; Xu, Baomin; Ying, Lei; Huang, Fei; Cao, Yong

    2017-07-01

    Variations in the open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of ternary organic solar cells are systematically investigated. The initial study of these devices consists of two electron-donating oligomers, S2 (two units) and S7 (seven units), and the electron-accepting [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC 71 BM) and reveals that the V oc is continuously tunable due to the changing energy of the charge transfer state (E ct ) of the active layers. Further investigation suggests that V oc is also continuously tunable upon change in E ct in a ternary blend system that consists of S2 and its corresponding polymer (P11):PC 71 BM. It is interesting to note that higher power conversion efficiencies can be obtained for both S2:S7:PC 71 BM and S2:P11:PC 71 BM ternary systems compared with their binary systems, which can be ascribed to an improved V oc due to the higher E ct and an improved fill factor due to the improved film morphology upon the incorporation of S2. These findings provide a new guideline for the future design of conjugated polymers for achieving higher performance of ternary organic solar cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Glass-forming ability and crystallization behavior of some binary and ternary Ni-based glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Louzguina-Luzgina, Larissa V.; Xie Guoqiang; Li Song; Zhang Wei; Inoue, Akihisa

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current paper is to study the influence of Ti, V, Nb, Al, Sn and Pd additions on the glass-forming ability, formation of a supercooled liquid region and a devitrification process of some Ni-Zr glassy alloys as well as to compare the results with those obtained for similar Cu-based alloys studied earlier. The Ni-based glassy alloys were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, differential scanning and isothermal calorimetries. Although the studied Ni-based alloys showed high values of the reduced glass-transition temperature of about 0.6, their glass-forming ability is quite low. This fact may be explained by low stability of the supercooled liquid against crystallization and formation of the equilibrium intermetallic compounds with a high growth rate compared to those observed in similar Cu-based alloys studied earlier. Relatively low thermal conductivity of Ni-based alloys is also found to be another factor limiting their glass-forming ability

  20. Mispairs with Watson-Crick base-pair geometry observed in ternary complexes of an RB69 DNA polymerase variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shuangluo; Konigsberg, William H

    2014-04-01

    Recent structures of DNA polymerase complexes with dGMPCPP/dT and dCTP/dA mispairs at the insertion site have shown that they adopt Watson-Crick geometry in the presence of Mn(2+) indicating that the tautomeric or ionization state of the base has changed. To see whether the tautomeric or ionization state of base-pair could be affected by its microenvironment, we determined 10 structures of an RB69 DNA polymerase quadruple mutant with dG/dT or dT/dG mispairs at position n-1 to n-5 of the Primer/Template duplex. Different shapes of the mispairs, including Watson-Crick geometry, have been observed, strongly suggesting that the local environment of base-pairs plays an important role in their tautomeric or ionization states. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  1. Ternary fission of 184466,476X formed in U + U collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthikraj, C.; Subramanian, S.; Selvaraj, S.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the very rare process of nuclear ternary fission has been of great interest in nuclear dynamics. Based on the statistical theory of fission, we discuss here the ternary-fission mass distribution of 184 466,476 X formed in low-energy U + U collisions for different heavy third fragments at T = 1 and 2 MeV. The expected ternary configurations 208 Pb + 208 Pb + 50 Ca and 204 Hg + 204 Hg + 58 Cr are obtained from the ternary fission of 184 466 X at T = 2 MeV. In addition, for both the systems, various possible ternary modes are listed for different heavy third fragments. Our results clearly indicate that the favored ternary configurations have either proton and/or neutron shell closure nucleus as one of their partners. (orig.)

  2. Pharmacokinetics of a ternary conjugate based pH-responsive 10-HCPT prodrug nano-micelle delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A pH-responsive conjugate based 10-hydroxycamptothecin-thiosemicarbazide-polyethene glycol 2000 (10-HCPT-hydro-PEG nano-micelles were prepared in our previous study. In the present study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC-MS method is developed to investigate its pharmacokinetics and biodistribution in tumor bearing mice. The results demonstrated that the conjugate circulated for a much longer time in the blood circulation system than commercial 10-HCPT injection, and bioavailability was significantly improved compared with 10-HCPT. In vivo biodistribution study showed that the conjugate could enhance the targeting and residence time in tumor site.

  3. Ternary Weighted Function and Beurling Ternary Banach Algebra l1ω(S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehghanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let S be a ternary semigroup. In this paper, we introduce our notation and prove some elementary properties of a ternary weight function ω on S. Also, we make ternary weighted algebra l1ω(S and show that l1ω(S is a ternary Banach algebra.

  4. A facile room temperature route to ternary Cu{sub 7.2}S{sub 2}Se{sub 2} compounds and their photovoltaic properties based on elemental copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jiamei [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Henan 450001 (China); Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Henan 461000 (China); Jia, Huimin, E-mail: zhengzhi99999@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Henan 461000 (China); Lei, Yan [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Henan 461000 (China); Liu, Songzi [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Henan 450001 (China); Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Henan 461000 (China); Gao, Yuanhao [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Henan 461000 (China); Hou, Hongwei [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Henan 450001 (China); Zheng, Zhi, E-mail: zzheng@xcu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Henan 461000 (China)

    2017-06-01

    A one-pot synthesis of novel hierarchical flower-like Cu{sub 7.2}S{sub 2}Se{sub 2} nanocrystals was developed based on the direct metal surface elemental reaction (DMSER) method. This new room temperature synthesis is an economic and environmentally friendly soft chemical approach. The prepared Cu{sub 7.2}S{sub 2}Se{sub 2} nanocrystals uniformly cover the surface of the Cu substrates. The mechanism of formation was investigated by observing the materials produced from changing the reaction time, the molar ratio of Na{sub 2}S to elemental selenium, and the volume of solvent. The crystal structure, surface morphologies and light absorption properties were collected by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV–visible spectroscopy. The results show that the as-prepared ternary nanocrystals are face-centered cubic and have an optical bandgap of 1.58 eV, which is ideal for potential solar cell applications. Transient photovoltage spectroscopy (TPV) was used to evaluate the photovoltaic performance of pure Cu{sub 7.2}S{sub 2}Se{sub 2} nanocrystalline powder as well as in-situ generated Cu{sub 7.2}S{sub 2}Se{sub 2}/ZnO heterojunctions. The current work offers a novel and simple approach for preparing ternary chalcogenide semiconductors for photoelectric and photocatalytic applications. - Highlights: • A one-pot synthesis of novel hierarchical flower-like Cu{sub 7.2}S{sub 2}Se{sub 2} was developed. • This work offers a facile way for prepare ternary chalcogenide at room temperature. • TPV was firstly used to evaluate the photovoltaic performance of Cu{sub 7.2}S{sub 2}Se{sub 2}.

  5. Synthesis of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Tm@TiO{sub 2} ternary composite with enhanced Vis/NIR-driven photocatalytic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Erjian, E-mail: ejcheng6@gmail.com [Department of Materials Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004 (China); Zhou, Shiqi; Li, Mohua [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004 (China); Li, Zhengquan, E-mail: zqli@zjnu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004 (China); Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Tm@TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite was fabricated by a facile approach. • The as-prepared composites exhibit enhanced activities under Vis and/or NIR lights. • Upconversion and semiconductor heterojunction lie behind the improved photocatalysis. • Photocatalytic working mechanism of this ternary nanocomposite was proposed. - Abstract: Upconversion (UC) NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Tm nanocrystals (NCs) are capable of converting low-energy near-infrared (NIR) photons to high-energy ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) photons. Integration of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Tm with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) can extend the spectral response of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} to the NIR range. However, photocatalytic activity of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Tm/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} is still severely limited by the high recombination rate of photo-generated (PG) electrons and holes (e{sup –}/h{sup +}) in the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Herein, we report a facile approach to fabricate a ternary nanocomposite consisting of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Tm, TiO{sub 2} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. When NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Tm NCs were coated with a TiO{sub 2} shell and sequentially assembled with g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets (NSs), a semiconductor heterojunction can be fabricated on the UC particles. The as-prepared nanocomposites possess an enhanced photocatalytic activity under Vis and/or NIR lights due to the formation of heterojunction and UC effect. The ternary nanocomposites have been characterized in detail and their photocatalytic mechanism is proposed. Such kind of ternary nanocomposites may provide a new scenario for the design and synthesis of composite photocatalysts for efficiently utilizing the Vis/NIR lights in environmental remedy.

  6. True ternary fission in 310126X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banupriya, B.; Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2015-01-01

    All possible combinations are minimized by the two dimensional minimization process and minimized with respect to neutron numbers and proton numbers of the fragments. Potential energy is low and Q - value is high at true ternary fission region. It shows that true ternary mode is the dominant mode in the ternary fission of superheavy nuclei. Also, the results show that the fragments with neutron magic numbers are the dominant one in the ternary fission of superheavy nuclei whereas the fragments with proton magic numbers are the dominant one in the ternary fission of heavy nuclei

  7. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Co-W-V ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingjun; Zhu Yihong; Yu Yan; Wang Cuiping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Three isothermal sections of the Co-W-V ternary system at 1100 deg. C, 1200 deg. C and 1300 deg. C were determined. → No ternary compound was found in the Co-W-V ternary system. → A stable liquid miscibility gap is newly discovered in the Co-W-V ternary system. → This work is of great essence to establish the thermodynamic database for the Co-based alloys. - Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Co-W-V ternary system were experimentally investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) on the equilibrated alloys. Three isothermal sections of the Co-W-V ternary system at 1100 deg. C, 1200 deg. C and 1300 deg. C were determined, and no ternary compound was found in this system. In addition, a novel phenomena induced by the liquid phase separation in the Co-W-V alloys was firstly discovered, suggesting that a stable liquid miscibility gap exists in the Co-W-V ternary system. The newly determined phase equilibria and firstly discovered phase separation phenomena in the Co-W-V system will provide important information for the development of Co-W based alloys.

  8. Fabrication of porous ethyl cellulose microspheres based on the acetone-glycerin-water ternary system: Controlling porosity via the solvent-removal mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Watanabe, Chie; Kurumado, Yu; Takama, Masashi

    2015-08-01

    Porous ethyl cellulose (EC) microspheres were prepared from the acetone-glycerin-water ternary system using an oil/water (O/W)-type emulsion solvent extraction method. The O/ W type emulsion was prepared using acetone dissolved ethyl cellulose as an oil phase and aqueous glycerin as a water phase. The effects of the different solvent extraction modes on the porosity of the microspheres were investigated. The specific surface area of the porous EC microspheres was estimated by the gas adsorption method. When the solvent was extracted rapidly by mixing the emulsion with water instantaneously, porous EC microspheres with a maximum specific surface area of 40.7±2.1 m2/g were obtained. On the other hand, when water was added gradually to the emulsion, the specific surface area of the fabricated microspheres decreased rapidly with an increase in the infusion period, with the area being 25-45% of the maximum value. The results of an analysis of the ternary phase diagram of the system suggested that the penetration of water and glycerin from the continuous phase to the dispersed phase before solidification affected the porosity of the fabricated EC microspheres.

  9. Ternary System with Controlled Structure: A New Strategy toward Efficient Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Jingshuai; Huang, Wenchao; Chang, Sheng-Yung; Meng, Lei; Sun, Pengyu; Cheng, Hao-Wen; Qin, Meng; Zhu, Chenhui; Zhan, Xiaowei; Yang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Recently, a new type of active layer with a ternary system has been developed to further enhance the performance of binary system organic photovoltaics (OPV). In the ternary OPV, almost all active layers are formed by simple ternary blend in solution, which eventually leads to the disordered bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure after a spin-coating process. There are two main restrictions in this disordered BHJ structure to obtain higher performance OPV. One is the isolated second donor or acceptor domains. The other is the invalid metal-semiconductor contact. Herein, the concept and design of donor/acceptor/acceptor ternary OPV with more controlled structure (C-ternary) is reported. The C-ternary OPV is fabricated by a sequential solution process, in which the second acceptor and donor/acceptor binary blend are sequentially spin-coated. After the device optimization, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of all OPV with C-ternary are enhanced by 14-21% relative to those with the simple ternary blend; the best PCEs are 10.7 and 11.0% for fullerene-based and fullerene-free solar cells, respectively. Moreover, the averaged PCE value of 10.4% for fullerene-free solar cell measured in this study is in great agreement with the certified one of 10.32% obtained from Newport Corporation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, P.; Ramšak, A.; Zimic, N.; Mraz, M.; Lebar Bajec, I.

    2008-12-01

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  11. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecar, P; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I; Ramsak, A

    2008-01-01

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  12. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, P; Ramšak, A; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I

    2008-12-10

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  13. A Simple Refraction Experiment for Probing Diffusion in Ternary Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Cecil A.; Mankidy, Bijith D.; Gupta, Vinay K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion is a fundamental phenomenon that is vital in many chemical processes such as mass transport in living cells, corrosion, and separations. We describe a simple undergraduate-level experiment based on Weiner's Method to probe diffusion in a ternary aqueous mixture of small molecular-weight molecules. As an illustration, the experiment…

  14. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  15. Phase equilibria in M-X-X' and M-Al-X ternary systems (M-transition metal, X,X'-B,C,N,Si) and crystal chemistry of ternary compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    The data on phase equilibria in the M-X-X' and M-Al-X ternary systems (M-transition metal of 3 to 8 groups, X-B,C, N, Si) have been considered and summarized. modern oxygen-free advanced ceramics is based on these ternary systems. Phase diagrams of the 130 ternary systems have been discussed, more than two hundred ternary phases forming in these systems have been systematized and described. The typical crystal structures of ternary compounds and phase have been considered, the common and distinctive features of these structures have been analysed. It has been shown that the ternary compounds with octahedral atomic groups XM 6 have a regions of homogeneity. Refs. 240

  16. One-pot, facile fabrication of a Ag3PO4-based ternary Z-scheme photocatalyst with excellent visible-light photoactivity and anti-photocorrosion performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingyuan; Zhang, Tailiang

    2018-04-01

    Ag3PO4 can-not be widely used as an efficient photocatalyst in practical applications because of its susceptibility to photocorrosion. In this study, a novel, ternary Z-scheme photocatalytic system containing graphene oxide (GO), Ag3PO4 and SnS2 was fabricated by a one-pot, mild, in-situ precipitation method successfully. Using Rhodamine B (RhB) as the target of elimination, GO/Ag3PO4/SnS2 exhibited outstanding photocatalytic and anti-photocorrosion properties compared with those of Ag3PO4, Ag3PO4/SnS2 and GO/Ag3PO4. RhB was thoroughly degraded over the optimized GO/Ag3PO4/SnS2 nanocomposite after only 15 min under visible-light irradiation; this result is approximately 2.14, 3.33 and 5.83 times faster than that of GO/Ag3PO4, Ag3PO4/SnS2 and Ag3PO4, respectively. After three reuses, the photocatalytic activity of the ternary composite slightly decreased but remained 2.36, 4.08 and 12.70 times higher than those of the reused GO/Ag3PO4, Ag3PO4/SnS2 and Ag3PO4, respectively. In this system, the efficient separation and migration of the photoinduced current carriers in Ag3PO4 was realized through a double Z-scheme electron-transfer mechanism in which the GO nanosheets acted as the photocatalyst and electron mediator, thereby enhancing the photoactivity and stability of Ag3PO4. The present study provides a new perspective for enhancing photocatalytic and anti-photocorrosion performances in perishable photocatalysts for organic sewage and other environmental contamination treatments.

  17. Symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqi; She, Kun; Luo, Qingbin; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Based on a ternary quantum logic circuit, four symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) schemes were proposed. First, for a one-qutrit rotation gate, a QHE scheme was constructed. Second, in view of the synthesis of a general 3 × 3 unitary transformation, another one-qutrit QHE scheme was proposed. Third, according to the one-qutrit scheme, the two-qutrit QHE scheme about generalized controlled X (GCX(m,n)) gate was constructed and further generalized to the n-qutrit unitary matrix case. Finally, the security of these schemes was analyzed in two respects. It can be concluded that the attacker can correctly guess the encryption key with a maximum probability pk = 1/33n, thus it can better protect the privacy of users’ data. Moreover, these schemes can be well integrated into the future quantum remote server architecture, and thus the computational security of the users’ private quantum information can be well protected in a distributed computing environment.

  18. Ternary scandium and transition metals germanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.

    1992-01-01

    Brief review of data on phase diagram of ternary Sc-Me-Ge systems (Me-d - , f-transition element) is given. Isothermal sections at 870 and 1070 K of 17 ternary systems are plotted. Compositions and their structural characteristics are presented. Variability of crystal structure is typical for ternary scandium germanides: 70 compounds with the studied structure belong to 23 structural types. Ternary germanides isostructural to types of Sm 4 Ge 4 , ZrCrSi 2 , ZrNiAl, ScCeSi, TiNiSi U 4 Re 7 Si 6 145 compounds from 70 under investigation are mostly formed in studied systems

  19. Evaluation of ternary blended cements for use in transportation concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Amanda Louise

    designing ternary blended cements more acceptable by eliminating arbitrary limitations for supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) use and changing to performance-based standards. Performance-based standards require trial batching of concrete mixture designs, which can be used to optimize ternary combinations of portland cement and SCMs. States should be aware of various SCMs that are appropriate for the project type and its environment.

  20. Partially fluorinated aarylene polyethers and their ternary blends with PBI and H3PO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Pan, Chao

    2008-01-01

    Ternary blend membranes based on sulphonated partially fluorinated arylene polyether, polybenzimidazole (PBI) and phosphoric acid were prepared and characterised as electrolyte for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Partially fluorinated arylene polyether was first prepared from...

  1. Mechanochemically prepared ternary hybrid cathode material for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posudievsky, Oleg Yu; Kozarenko, Olga A.; Dyadyun, Vyacheslav S.; Jorgensen, Scott W.; Spearot, James A.; Koshechko, Vyacheslav G.; Pokhodenko, Vitaly D.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The presence of macromolecules of an ion-conducting polymer in the composition of the ternary nanocomposite PPy–PEO/V 2 O 5 promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and also facilitates faster transport inside the particles of the nanocomposite. -- Highlights: • Two- and three component nanocomposites are prepared via a solvent-free mechanochemical synthesis. • The nanocomposites retain their capacity above 200 mA h g −1 for at least one hundred cycles. • The presence of PEO promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and facilitates faster transport inside the nanocomposite. -- Abstract: Ternary host–guest nanocomposite based on vanadium oxide and two polymers with different types of conductivity (ionic and electronic) – polypyrrole (PPy) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) – is prepared by solventless mechanochemical synthesis. The nanocomposite can be reversibly cycled with a specific capacity of ∼200 mA h g −1 for at least one hundred cycles of full charge–discharge as the active component of the positive electrode of lithium batteries. Electrochemical performance of ternary PPy 0.1 PEO 0.15 V 2 O 5 is compared with two-component analog PPy 0.1 V 2 O 5 . The presence of macromolecules of an ion-conducting polymer in the composition of the ternary nanocomposite PPy 0.1 PEO 0.15 V 2 O 5 promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and also facilitates faster transport inside the particles of the nanocomposite

  2. Ternary Blend Composed of Two Organic Donors and One Acceptor for Active Layer of High-Performance Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Won; Choi, Yoon Suk; Ahn, Hyungju; Jo, Won Ho

    2016-05-04

    Ternary blends composed of two donor absorbers with complementary absorptions provide an opportunity to enhance the short-circuit current and thus the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells. In addition to complementary absorption of two donors, ternary blends may exhibit favorable morphology for high-performance solar cells when one chooses properly the donor pair. For this purpose, we develop a ternary blend with two donors (diketopyrrolopyrrole-based polymer (PTDPP2T) and small molecule ((TDPP)2Ph)) and one acceptor (PC71BM). The solar cell made of a ternary blend with 10 wt % (TDPP)2Ph exhibits higher PCE of 7.49% as compared with the solar cells with binary blends, PTDPP2T:PC71BM (6.58%) and (TDPP)2Ph:PC71BM (3.21%). The higher PCE of the ternary blend solar cell is attributed mainly to complementary absorption of two donors. However, a further increase in (TDPP)2Ph content in the ternary blend (>10 wt %) decreases the PCE. The ternary blend with 10 wt % (TDPP)2Ph exhibits well-developed morphology with narrow-sized fibrils while the blend with 15 wt % (TDPP)2Ph shows phase separation with large-sized domains, demonstrating that the phase morphology and compatibility of ternary blend are important factors to achieve a high-performance solar cell made of ternary blends.

  3. Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient estimation for ternary systems: an ideal ternary alcohol system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allie-Ebrahim, Tariq; Zhu, Qingyu; Bräuer, Pierre; Moggridge, Geoff D; D'Agostino, Carmine

    2017-06-21

    The Maxwell-Stefan model is a popular diffusion model originally developed to model diffusion of gases, which can be considered thermodynamically ideal mixtures, although its application has been extended to model diffusion in non-ideal liquid mixtures as well. A drawback of the model is that it requires the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients, which are not based on measurable quantities but they have to be estimated. As a result, numerous estimation methods, such as the Darken model, have been proposed to estimate these diffusion coefficients. However, the Darken model was derived, and is only well defined, for binary systems. This model has been extended to ternary systems according to two proposed forms, one by R. Krishna and J. M. van Baten, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2005, 44, 6939-6947 and the other by X. Liu, T. J. H. Vlugt and A. Bardow, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2011, 50, 10350-10358. In this paper, the two forms have been analysed against the ideal ternary system of methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol and using experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients. In particular, using pulsed gradient stimulated echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSTE-NMR) we have measured the self-diffusion coefficients in various methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol mixtures. The experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients were then used as the input data required for the Darken model. The predictions of the two proposed multicomponent forms of this model were then compared to experimental values of mutual diffusion coefficients for the ideal alcohol ternary system. This experimental-based approach showed that the Liu's model gives better predictions compared to that of Krishna and van Baten, although it was only accurate to within 26%. Nonetheless, the multicomponent Darken model in conjunction with self-diffusion measurements from PGSTE-NMR represents an attractive method for a rapid estimation of mutual diffusion in multicomponent systems, especially when compared to exhaustive

  4. Towards large-scale production of solution-processed organic tandem modules based on ternary composites: Design of the intermediate layer, device optimization and laser based module processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ning; Kubis, Peter; Forberich, Karen

    2014-01-01

    on commercially available materials, which enhances the absorption of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and as a result increase the PCE of the P3HT-based large-scale OPV devices; 3. laser-based module processing, which provides an excellent processing resolution and as a result can bring the power conversion...... efficiency (PCE) of mass-produced organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices close to the highest PCE values achieved for lab-scale solar cells through a significant increase in the geometrical fill factor. We believe that the combination of the above mentioned concepts provides a clear roadmap to push OPV towards...

  5. Highly Efficient Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Based on 1D Ternary Doped Porous Carbons Derived from Carbon Nanotube Directed Conjugated Microporous Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    He, Yafei; Gehrig, Dominik; Zhang, Fan; Lu, Chenbao; Zhang, Chao; Cai, Ming; Wang, Yuanyuan; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.One-dimensional (1D) porous materials have shown great potential for gas storage and separation, sensing, energy storage, and conversion. However, the controlled approach for preparation of 1D porous materials, especially porous organic materials, still remains a great challenge due to the poor dispersibility and solution processability of the porous materials. Here, carbon nanotube (CNT) templated 1D conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) are prepared using a layer-by-layer method. As-prepared CMPs possess high specific surface areas of up to 623 m2 g-1 and exhibit strong electronic interactions between p-type CMPs and n-type CNTs. The CMPs are used as precursors to produce heteroatom-doped 1D porous carbons through direct pyrolysis. As-produced ternary heteroatom-doped (B/N/S) 1D porous carbons possess high specific surface areas of up to 750 m2 g-1, hierarchical porous structures, and excellent electrochemical-catalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction. Both of the diffusion-limited current density (4.4 mA cm-2) and electron transfer number (n = 3.8) for three-layered 1D porous carbons are superior to those for random 1D porous carbon. These results demonstrate that layered and core-shell type 1D CMPs and related heteroatom-doped 1D porous carbons can be rationally designed and controlled prepared for high performance energy-related applications.

  6. Highly Efficient Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Based on 1D Ternary Doped Porous Carbons Derived from Carbon Nanotube Directed Conjugated Microporous Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    He, Yafei

    2016-10-11

    © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.One-dimensional (1D) porous materials have shown great potential for gas storage and separation, sensing, energy storage, and conversion. However, the controlled approach for preparation of 1D porous materials, especially porous organic materials, still remains a great challenge due to the poor dispersibility and solution processability of the porous materials. Here, carbon nanotube (CNT) templated 1D conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) are prepared using a layer-by-layer method. As-prepared CMPs possess high specific surface areas of up to 623 m2 g-1 and exhibit strong electronic interactions between p-type CMPs and n-type CNTs. The CMPs are used as precursors to produce heteroatom-doped 1D porous carbons through direct pyrolysis. As-produced ternary heteroatom-doped (B/N/S) 1D porous carbons possess high specific surface areas of up to 750 m2 g-1, hierarchical porous structures, and excellent electrochemical-catalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction. Both of the diffusion-limited current density (4.4 mA cm-2) and electron transfer number (n = 3.8) for three-layered 1D porous carbons are superior to those for random 1D porous carbon. These results demonstrate that layered and core-shell type 1D CMPs and related heteroatom-doped 1D porous carbons can be rationally designed and controlled prepared for high performance energy-related applications.

  7. Synthesis and Mechanical Characterization of Binary and Ternary Intermetallic Alloys Based on Fe-Ti-Al by Resonant Ultrasound Vibrational Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanbi, Daoud; Ogam, Erick; Amara, Sif Eddine; Fellah, Z E A

    2018-05-07

    Precise but simple experimental and inverse methods allowing the recovery of mechanical material parameters are necessary for the exploration of materials with novel crystallographic structures and elastic properties, particularly for new materials and those existing only in theory. The alloys studied herein are of new atomic compositions. This paper reports an experimental study involving the synthesis and development of methods for the determination of the elastic properties of binary (Fe-Al, Fe-Ti and Ti-Al) and ternary (Fe-Ti-Al) intermetallic alloys with different concentrations of their individual constituents. The alloys studied were synthesized from high purity metals using an arc furnace with argon flow to ensure their uniformity and homogeneity. Precise but simple methods for the recovery of the elastic constants of the isotropic metals from resonant ultrasound vibration data were developed. These methods allowed the fine analysis of the relationships between the atomic concentration of a given constituent and the Young’s modulus or alloy density.

  8. Experimental investigation of the Ag–Bi–I ternary system and thermodynamic properties of the ternary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashadieva, Leyla F.; Aliev, Ziya S.; Shevelkov, Andrei V.; Babanly, Mahammad B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The self-consistent phase diagram of the Ag–Bi–I system is constructed. ► Ag 2 BiI 5 and AgBi 2 I 7 are the only ternary phases of the system. ► Standard thermodynamic functions of formation and the standard entropies of Ag 2 BiI 5 and AgBi 2 I 7 are calculated. - Abstract: The phase equilibriums in the Ag–Bi–I ternary system and thermodynamic properties of the ternary phases were experimentally determined by using DTA and XRD techniques and EMF measurements with the Ag 4 RbI 5 solid electrolyte. According to the obtained experimental results, the polythermal sections of the ternary phase diagram, its isothermal section at 300 K as well as the projection of the liquids surface have been revised. The fields of the primary crystallization and types and coordinates of nonvariant and monovariant equilibriums were determined. The partial molar functions of silver iodide and silver in the alloys as well as the standard thermodynamic functions of formation and the standard entropies of Ag 2 BiI 5 and AgBi 2 I 7 were calculated based on EMF measurements.

  9. High-Efficient Circuits for Ternary Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Faghih Mirzaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New ternary adders, which are fundamental components of ternary addition, are presented in this paper. They are on the basis of a logic style which mostly generates binary signals. Therefore, static power dissipation reaches its minimum extent. Extensive different analyses are carried out to examine how efficient the new designs are. For instance, the ternary ripple adder constructed by the proposed ternary half and full adders consumes 2.33 μW less power than the one implemented by the previous adder cells. It is almost twice faster as well. Due to their unique superior characteristics for ternary circuitry, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are used to form the novel circuits, which are entirely suitable for practical applications.

  10. Synthesis of Ternary Quantum Logic Circuits by Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Faisal Shah; Perkowski, Marek

    2005-01-01

    Recent research in multi-valued logic for quantum computing has shown practical advantages for scaling up a quantum computer. Multivalued quantum systems have also been used in the framework of quantum cryptography, and the concept of a qudit cluster state has been proposed by generalizing the qubit cluster state. An evolutionary algorithm based synthesizer for ternary quantum circuits has recently been presented, as well as a synthesis method based on matrix factorization.In this paper, a re...

  11. A label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on the novel signal amplification system of AuPdCu ternary nanoparticles functionalized polymer nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qin; Yang, Yuying; Tan, Zhaoling; Liu, Qing; Liu, Hui; Wang, Ping; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Daopeng; Li, Yueyun; Dong, Yunhui

    2018-04-30

    A sensitive label-free electrochemical immunosensor was designed using a novel signal amplification system for quantitative detecting hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) supported surfactant-free AuPdCu ternary nanoparticles (AuPdCu/N-GQDs), which featured with good conductivity and excellent catalytic properties for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), was synthesized by a simple and benign hydrothermal procedure. At the same time, the electroactive polymer nanospheres (PS) was synthesized by infinite coordination polymers of ferrocenedicarboxylic acid, which could play as carrier and electronic mediator to load AuPdCu/N-GQDs. The PS not only improved the ability to load antibodies because of the good biocompatibility, but also accelerated electron transport of the electrode interface attribute to plentiful ferrocene unit. Thus, the prepared AuPdCu/N-GQDs@PS has abilities of good biocompatibility, catalytic activity and electrical conductivity to be applied as transducing materials to amplify electrochemical signal in detection of HBsAg. Under optimal conditions, the fabricated immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity and stability in the detection of HBsAg. A linear relationship between current signals and the concentrations of HBsAg was obtained in the range from 10fg/mL to 50ng/mL and the detection limit of HBsAg was 3.3fg/mL (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). Moreover, the designed immunosensor with excellent selectivity, reproducibility and stability shows excellent performance in detection of human serum samples. Furthermore, this label-free electrochemical immunosensor has promising application in clinical diagnosis of HBsAg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ternary Electrochemiluminescence System Based on Rubrene Microrods as Luminophore and Pt Nanomaterials as Coreaction Accelerator for Ultrasensitive Detection of MicroRNA from Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Li; Tang, Zhi-Ling; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2017-09-05

    As the only endogenous coreactant in the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) system, the dissolved O 2 was the ideal candidate due to the mild reaction and easy operation, but compared to S 2 O 8 2- , the dissolved O 2 with weaker redox activity suffers from the poor enhancement effect of the luminophore, which restricted the further application in bioanalysis. Here, a high-intense ECL signal was gained by the employing of Pt nanomaterials as a coreaction accelerator to generate more of the intermediate of dissolved O 2 to promote the coreaction efficiency. On the basis of a new ternary ECL system of Pt nanomaterials as the coreaction accelerator, dissolved O 2 as the coreactant, and a neotype rubrene microrods as the luminophore, an efficient "on-off-on" solid-state ECL switch platfrom was designed for ultrasensitive microRNA (miRNA) detection with a background reduction strategy of ferrocene-labeled single-stranded DNA (Fc-DNA) as a quencher. In the presence of miRNA 141, the Pt nanoparticles labeled hairpin (HP1/PtNPs) was opened to produce plenty of Pt nanoparticles labeled output DNA (S1/PtNPs) and release the miRNA-141 to participate in the next cycle. Then, the S1/PtNPs were captured on the surface of the electrode by the complementary strand to obtain the super "signal on" state with extremely high ECL signal. This novel solid-state ECL platform exhibited excellent sensitivity from 10 aM to 100 pM with a detection limit of 2.1 aM, which provided a new approach for ultrasensitive ECL bioanalysis.

  13. Description of the ternary system Cu-Ge-Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogguy, M.; Carcaly, C.; Rivet, J.; Flahaut, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Cu-Ge-Te ternary system has been studied by DTA and by crystallographic and metallographic analysis. The existence of a ternary compound Cu 2 GeTe 3 is demonstrated; this compound has a ternary incongruent melting point at 500 0 C. This ternary compound has a superstructure of a zinc blende type. The study shows the existence of five ternary eutectics. Two liquid-liquid miscibility gaps exist: the first is situated entirely in the ternary system; the second gives a monotectic region within the ternary system. (Auth.)

  14. Performance Estimation for Lowpass Ternary Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenton Steele

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Ternary filters have tap values limited to −1, 0, or +1. This restriction in tap values greatly simplifies the multipliers required by the filter, making ternary filters very well suited to hardware implementations. Because they incorporate coarse quantisation, their performance is typically limited by tap quantisation error. This paper derives formulae for estimating the achievable performance of lowpass ternary filters, thereby allowing the number of computationally intensive design iterations to be reduced. Motivated by practical communications systems requirements, the performance measure which is used is the worst-case stopband attenuation.

  15. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Mujin; Wang, Cuiping; Yang, Shuiyuan; Shi, Zhan; Han, Jiajia; Liu, Xingjun

    2017-01-01

    The phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system are investigated combined with X-ray diffraction, electron probe micro-analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Two isothermal sections of the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system at 1 000 C and 1 100 C are experimentally established. Most of the binary intermetallic compounds, e.g. Zr 7 Ni 10 , ZrNi, ZrNi 5 , Zr 14 Cu 51 , and Zr 2 Cu 9 , show a remarkable ternary solubility. A new ternary compound named τ 3 (Zr 31.1-30.7 . Cu 28.5-40.3 Ni 40.4-29.0 ) is detected at 1 000 C and dissolved at 1 020 C because the nearby large liquid phase field further expands. The newly determined phase equilibria will provide important information for both thermodynamic assessment and alloy design of Zr-based metallic glass.

  16. The ternary systems Sc-Sm(Dy)-Si at 870 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.; Mokra, I.Ya.; Toporinskij, A.Ya.

    1991-01-01

    Isothermal cross sections of the ternary systems Sc-Sm-Si and Sc-Dy-Si at 870 K have been plotted. Investigation of scandium and disprosium in ternary systems have been examined by X-ray diffraction and microstructure analysis. Besides literary data on binary systems Sc-Si, Sm-Si, Dy-Si have been used. Formation of limited (Sc-Sm-Si, Sc-Dy-Si) and continuous (Sc-Dy-Si) solid solutions based on bisilicides of Sc and Sm(Dy) is discovered. Two and five ternary compounds in Sc-Sm-Si and Sc-Dy-Si systems have been determined and their crystal structure has been established. When investigating of Sc-(rare earth element)-Si ternary systems and should take into account the specific interaction of scandium and samarium with REE

  17. A novel ternary uranium-based intermetallic U{sub 34}Fe{sub 4−x}Ge{sub 33}: Structure and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, M.S., E-mail: mish@itn.pt [Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, CFMC-UL, Estrada Nacional 10, 2695-066 Bobadela (Portugal); Berthebaud, D. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, Université Rennes 1, UMR CNRS 6226, 263 Avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes (France); CRISMAT, UMR CNRS 6508, 6 bd. Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Waerenborgh, J.C.; Lopes, E.B. [Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, CFMC-UL, Estrada Nacional 10, 2695-066 Bobadela (Portugal); Pasturel, M.; Tougait, O. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, Université Rennes 1, UMR CNRS 6226, 263 Avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes (France); Gonçalves, A.P. [Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, CFMC-UL, Estrada Nacional 10, 2695-066 Bobadela (Portugal)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • A new uranium intermetallic compound U{sub 34}Fe{sub 4−x}ge{sub 33} was prepared and characterized. • It crystallizes in the tetragonal system with an original structure-type. • U lattice stacking is made of cupolae, orthobicupola and irregular cubes. • U{sub 34}Fe{sub 4−x}Ge{sub 33} orders magnetically at T{sub C} = 28 K, with pure U magnetism. • T{sub C} and electrical resistivity increase with applied magnetic field. - Abstract: The new ternary phase U{sub 34}Fe{sub 4−x}Ge{sub 33} has been synthesized and characterized by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction, magnetization, Mössbauer spectroscopy, specific heat, electrical resistivity, magnetoresistivity and thermopower measurements. It crystallizes in its own tetragonal structure type which can be described as derived from the one of the binary USi (U{sub 34}Si{sub 34.5} structure-type, space group I4/mmm), with lattice parameters at room temperature, a = 10.873(5) Å and c = 25.274(3) Å. Structure refinement confirmed six inequivalent U atoms, occupying sites with dissimilar coordination, the Ge atoms staying on seven positions and Fe on two positions, one of the Fe sites with a partial occupancy. The U sub-lattice is composed by the stacking of a square cupola, two distorted cubes and a square orthobicupola. U{sub 34}Fe{sub 4−x}Ge{sub 33} with x = 0.68 undergoes a ferromagnetic-type transition below 28 K. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that the magnetism is ruled by the U sub-lattice, as Fe atoms have no ordered moments. The Sommerfeld coefficient of the electronic specific heat is γ = 131 mJ/(mol{sub U} K{sup 2}), whereas the estimated magnetic entropy at T{sub C} is 0.22Rln2. A residual resistivity of 314 μΩ cm and a resistivity ratio of 1.1 were found in the electrical resistivity curve, which also exhibits an upturn below T{sub C} that shifts towards higher temperatures with the applied magnetic field. This behavior may be related to some disorder in the non

  18. Spectral responses in near-infrared of the mixed compounds III-V ternary and quaternary, based on GaSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbow, B.; Rezzoug, N.; Peremarti, C.; Mezerreg, A.; Llinares, C.

    1993-09-01

    From the simulation of the spectral response of the different photodetector devices elaborated in our laboratory (C.E.M.), we determine the influence of geometrical and physical parameters in order to achieve the best photodetector operating at the wavelength 2.55 μm. In this paper we present: Gao{0.6}In{0.4}Sbn/Ga{0.6}In{0.4}Sbp homojunctions matched on GaSbp substrate, Ga{0.75}In{0.25}As{0.23}Sbp/GaSbn ternary heterojunction and GaSbp/Ga{0.74}In{0.26}As{0.23}Sb0.77p/GaSbn quaternary heterojunction. The GaSbp layer with an energy band gap greater than Ga{0.74}In{0.26}As{0.23}Sb0.77p optical gap will act as a window, reducing the effect of surface recombinaison. Results of the simulation are compared to experimental curves to determine the values of photoelectrical parameters (diffusion length, recombination velocity at the surface ...). Les mesures de réponse spectrale dans la gamme [0,4 eV à 2 eV] ont été effectuées sur des homojonctions, Ga{0,6}In{0,4}Sbn/Ga{0,6}In{0,4}Sbp déposées sur un substrat de GaSb et des hétérostructures ternaires Ga{0,75}In{0,25}Sbp/GaSbn et quaternaires GaSbp/Ga{0,74}In{0,26}As{0,23}Sb0,77p/GaSbn. La couche de GaSbp avec un gap plus grand que celui de Ga{0,74}In{0,26}As{0,23}Sb0,77p joue le rôle d'effet fenêtre. En s'appuyant sur les résultats de la simulation et en accordant les spectres expérimentaux aux spectres théoriques, on détermine les valeurs des paramètres photoélectriques (longueurs de diffusion, les vitesses de recombinaison en surface ... ) intervenant dans le rendement quantique.

  19. Formation and characterization of zein-propylene glycol alginate-surfactant ternary complexes: Effect of surfactant type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Sun, Cuixia; Wei, Yang; Zhan, Xinyu; Mao, Like; Gao, Yanxiang

    2018-08-30

    In this study, zein, propylene glycol alginate (PGA) and surfactant ternary complexes were fabricated by antisolvent co-precipitation method. Two types of surfactants (rhamnolipid and lecithin) were applied to generate zein-PGA-rhamnolipid (Z-P-R) and zein-PGA-lecithin (Z-P-L) ternary complexes, respectively. Results showed that the surfactant types significantly affected the properties of ternary complexes. The formation of ternary complexes was mainly due to the non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic interactions among zein, PGA and surfactants. Moreover, the thermal stability of ternary complexes was enhanced with increasing the levels of both surfactants. Notably, ternary complex dispersions exhibited better stability against pH from 2 to 8. Furthermore, a compact network structure was observed in Z-P-R ternary complex, while Z-P-L ternary complex remained the spherical structure. These findings would provide new insights into the development of novel delivery system and expand the options, when zein-based complexes were utilized under different environment conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermodynamic calculations in ternary titanium–aluminium–manganese system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA I. KOSTOV

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations in the ternary Ti–Al–Mn system are shown in this paper. The thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage thermochemical software and database, with the aim of determining thermodynamic properties, such as activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values of the enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at two different temperatures: 2000 and 2100 K. Bearing in mind that no experimental data for the Ti–Al–Mn ternary system have been obtained or reported. The obtained results represent a good base for further thermodynamic analysis and may be useful as a comparison with some future critical experimental results and thermodynamic optimization of this system.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B. William [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chiu, Ing L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  2. Cohesion energy calculations for ternary ionic novel crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez P, G.; Cabrera, E.; Mijangos, R.R.; Valdez, E.; Duarte, C.

    2001-01-01

    The present work calculates the value of the link energy of a crystalline ternary structure newly formed by alkali halides. The ternary structure prepared with different concentrations of KCl x KBrRbCl 2 maintains a very good miscibility and stability. The calculation is based on the use of a generalization of the Vegard law (which generally is valid for binary compounds) for calculating the values of the lattice constant and the repulsive m exponent. The value of the lattice parameter given by X-ray diffractometry agrees with the close approximation of the calculated value of the method used. It also compares the value of energy cohesion obtained by the Born expression with more complex approximations. (Author)

  3. Ternary complexes of Zn(II) and Cu(II) with 1-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methylene)-4-phenylthiosemicarbazide in the presence of heterocyclic bases as auxiliary ligands: Synthesis, spectroscopic and structural characterization and antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarkish, Mohammad; Akbari, Alireza; Sedaghat, Tahereh; Simpson, Jim

    2018-03-01

    The new ternary complexes, ZnLL‧ [L = 1-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methylene)-4-phenylthiosemicarbazide and L‧ = imidazole (1), 2, 2‧-bipyridine (2) and 2-methyimidazole (3)], Zn2L2L‧ [L‧ = 4, 4‧-bipy (4)] and CuLL‧ [L‧ = 2, 2‧-bipy (5)] have been synthesized by the reaction of a metal(II) acetate salt with the thiosemicarbazone and in presence of heterocyclic bases as auxiliary ligands. The synthesized compounds were investigated by elemental analysis and IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy and complex 5 was structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. The results indicate the thiosemicarbazone doubly deprotonated and coordinates to metal through the thiolate sulfur, imine nitrogen and phenolic oxygen atoms. The nitrogen atom(s) of the auxiliary ligand complete the coordination sphere. Complex 4 is binuclear with 4, 4‧-bipy acting as a bridging ligand. The structure of 5 is a distorted square pyramid with one of the bipyridine nitrogen atoms in the apical position. This compound creates an inversion dimer in solid state by intermolecular hydrogen bonds of Nsbnd H⋯S type. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds were evaluated against Gram-positive (B. subtilis and S. aureus) and Gram-negative (P. aeruginosa) bacteria and is compared to that of standard antibacterial drugs. All complexes exhibit good inhibitory effects and are significantly more effective than the parent ligand.

  4. Susceptibility of ternary aluminum alloys to cracking during solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiangwei; Kou, Sindo

    2017-01-01

    The crack susceptibility map of a ternary Al alloy system provides useful information about which alloy compositions are most susceptible to cracking and thus should be avoided by using a filler metal with a significantly different composition. In the present study the crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems were calculated based on the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | as an index for the crack susceptibility, where T is temperature and f S fraction solid. Due to the complexity associated with ternary alloy solidification, commercial thermodynamic software Pandat and Al database PanAluminum, instead of analytical equations, were used to calculate f S as a function of T and hence the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | for ternary Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si alloy systems. A crack susceptibility map covering 121 alloy compositions was constructed for each of the three ternary alloy systems at each of the following three levels of back diffusion: no back diffusion, back diffusion under a 100 °C/s cooling rate, and back diffusion under 20° C/s. The location of the region of high crack susceptibility, which is the most important part of the map, was shown in each of the nine calculated maps. These locations were compared with those observed in crack susceptibility tests by previous investigators. With back diffusion considered, either under 20 or 100 °C/s, the agreement between the calculated and observed maps was good especially for Al-Mg-Si and Al-Cu-Mg. Thus, the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | can be used as a crack susceptibility index to construct crack susceptibility maps for ternary Al alloys and to evaluate the effect of back diffusion on their crack susceptibility. - Graphical abstract: The crack susceptibility map of a ternary alloy system indicates the composition range most susceptible to cracking, which should be avoided in welding or casting. The crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si were calculated based

  5. Realizing Ternary Logic in FPGAs for SWL DSP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Din

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently SWL (Short Word Length DSP (Digital Signal Processing applications has been proposed to overcome multiplier complexity that is evident in most of the digital applications. These SWL applications have been processed through sigma-delta modulation as a key element. For such applications, adder design plays vital role and can impact upon the chip area and its performance. In this paper, a ternary approach for adder tree has been proposed instead of binary that can accommodate more data with less chip-area at the cost of extra pin. The proposed ternary adder tree has been designed and developed in Quartus-II using three different design strategies namely T-gate (Ternary gate, LUT (Look Up Table and algebraic equations. Through rigorous simulation it was found that T-gate technique results in superior performance, an average of 23.5 and 33% improvement compared to the same adder structure based on Boolean Algebraic Equation and LUT, respectively. The proposed adder design would benefit the efficient implementation of SWL applications.

  6. Crystallization features of ternary reversible reciprocal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomashik, V.N.; Shcherbak, L.P.; Fejchuk, P.I.; Grytsiv, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    Some features of the primary crystallization of phases in ternary reversible reciprocal system are considered and discussed. The diagonal join CdTe-GeSe of the CdTe + GeSe = CdSe + GeTe ternary reciprocal system is studied to show that the features in primary and secondary heating and cooling curves in such systems under fully equilibrium conditions are not reproduced upon consecutive heating and cooling sessions, because of the existence of different amounts of the reagents and the reaction products in the mixture; the temperatures of each transformation lie in a range. Those who experimentally investigate other ternary and more complex reversible reciprocal systems should take this fact into account [ru

  7. The ternary system nickel-boron-silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugscheider, E.; Reimann, H.; Knotek, O.

    1975-01-01

    The ternary system Nickel-Boron-Silicon was established at 850 0 C by means of X-ray diffraction, metallographic and micro-hardness examinations. The well known binary nickel borides and silicides resp. were confirmed. In the boron-silicon system two binary phases, SiBsub(4-x) with x approximately 0.7 and SiB 6 were found the latter in equilibrium with the β-rhombohedral boron. Confirming the two ternary silicon borides a greater homogeneity range was found for Ni 6 Si 2 B, the phase Nisub(4,6)Si 2 B published by Uraz and Rundqvist can better be described by the formula Nisub(4.29)Si 2 Bsub(1.43). In relation to further investigations we measured melting temperatures in ternary Ni-10 B-Si alloys by differential thermoanalysis. (author)

  8. Ternary chalcogenide micro-pseudocapacitors for on-chip energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-05-11

    We report the successful fabrication of a micro-pseudocapacitor based on ternary nickel cobalt sulfide for the first time, with performance substantially exceeding that of previously reported micro-pseudocapacitors based on binary sulfides. CoNi2S4 micro-pseudocapacitor exhibits a maximum energy density of 18.7 mWh/cm3 at a power density of 1163 mW/cm3, opens up an avenue for exploring new family of ternary oxides/sulfides based micro-pseudocapacitors.

  9. Ternary chalcogenide micro-pseudocapacitors for on-chip energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra; Xia, Chuan; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    We report the successful fabrication of a micro-pseudocapacitor based on ternary nickel cobalt sulfide for the first time, with performance substantially exceeding that of previously reported micro-pseudocapacitors based on binary sulfides. CoNi2S4 micro-pseudocapacitor exhibits a maximum energy density of 18.7 mWh/cm3 at a power density of 1163 mW/cm3, opens up an avenue for exploring new family of ternary oxides/sulfides based micro-pseudocapacitors.

  10. The effect of the head group on branched-alkyl chain surfactants in glycolipid/n-octane/water ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainggolan, Irwana; Radiman, Shahidan; Hamzah, Ahmad Sazali; Hashim, Rauzah

    2009-10-01

    Two novel glycolipids have been synthesized and their phase behaviour studied. They have been characterized using FT-IR, FAB and 13C NMR and 1H NMR to ensure the purity of novel glycolipids. The two glycolipids are distinguished based on the head group of glycolipids (monosaccharide/glucose and disaccharide/maltose). These two novel glycolipids have been used as surfactant to perform two phase diagrams. Phase behaviours that have been investigated are 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2-HDG)/n-octane/water ternary system and 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-maltoside (2-HDM)/n-octane/water ternary system. SAXS and polarizing optical microscope have been used to study the phase behaviours of these two surfactants in ternary phase diagram. Study of effect of the head group on branched-alkyl chain surfactants in ternary system is a strategy to derive the structure-property relationship. For comparison, 2-HDM and 2-HDG have been used as surfactant in the same ternary system. The phase diagram of 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-maltoside/n-octane/water ternary system exhibited a Lalpha phase at a higher concentration regime, followed with two phases and a micellar solution region in a lower concentration regime. The phase diagram of 2-HDG/water/n-octane ternary system shows hexagonal phase, cubic phase, rectangular ribbon phase, lamellar phase, cubic phase as the surfactant concentration increase.

  11. Synthesis of chelating agent free-solid phase extractor (CAF-SPE) based on new SiO2/Al2O3/SnO2 ternary oxide and application for online preconcentration of Pb2+ coupled with FAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarley, César R.T.; Scheel, Guilherme L.; Zappielo, Caroline D.; Suquila, Fabio A.C.; Ribeiro, Emerson S.

    2018-01-01

    A new online solid phase preconcentration method using the new SiO 2 /Al2O 3 /SnO 2 ternary oxide (designated as SiAlSn) as chelating agent free-solid phase extractor (CAF-SPE) coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for Pb 2+ determination at trace levels in different kind of samples is proposed. The solid adsorbent has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and textural data. The method involves the preconcentration using time-based sampling of Pb 2+ solution at pH 4.3 through 100.0 mg of packed adsorbed into a mini-column under flow rate of 4.0 mL min -1 during 5 min. The elution step was accomplished by using 1.0 mol L -1 HCl. A wide range of analytical curve (5.0-400.0 μg L -1 ), high enrichment factor (40.5), low consumption index (0.5 mL) and low limits of quantification and detection, 5.0 and 1.5 μg L -1 , respectively, were obtained with the developed method. Practical application of method was tested on water samples, chocolate powder, Ginkgo biloba and sediment (certified reference material). On the basis of the results, the SiAlSn can be considered an effective adsorbent belonging to the class of CAF-SPE for Pb 2+ determination from different matrices. (author)

  12. Assessing the recharge process and importance of montane water to adjacent tectonic valley-plain groundwater using a ternary end-member mixing analysis based on isotopic and chemical tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tsung-Ren; Zhan, Wen-Jun; Tong, Lun-Tao; Chen, Chi-Tsun; Liu, Tsang-Sen; Lu, Wan-Chung

    2018-03-01

    A study in eastern Taiwan evaluated the importance of montane water contribution (MC) to adjacent valley-plain groundwater (VPG) in a tectonic suture zone. The evaluation used a ternary natural-tracer-based end-member mixing analysis (EMMA). With this purpose, VPG and three end-member water samples of plain precipitation (PP), mountain-front recharge (MFR), and mountain-block recharge (MBR) were collected and analyzed for stable isotopic compositions (δ 2H and δ 18O) and chemical concentrations (electrical conductivity (EC) and Cl-). After evaluation, Cl- is deemed unsuitable for EMMA in this study, and the contribution fractions of respective end members derived by the δ 18O-EC pair are similar to those derived by the δ 2H-EC pair. EMMA results indicate that the MC, including MFR and MBR, contributes at least 70% (679 × 106 m3 water volume) of the VPG, significantly greater than the approximately 30% of PP contribution, and greater than the 20-50% in equivalent humid regions worldwide. The large MC is attributable to highly fractured strata and the steep topography of studied catchments caused by active tectonism. Furthermore, the contribution fractions derived by EMMA reflect the unique hydrogeological conditions in the respective study sub-regions. A region with a large MBR fraction is indicative of active lateral groundwater flow as a result of highly fractured strata in montane catchments. On the other hand, a region characterized by a large MFR fraction may possess high-permeability stream beds or high stream gradients. Those hydrogeological implications are helpful for water resource management and protection authorities of the studied regions.

  13. A Josephson ternary associative memory cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisue, M.; Suzuki, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a three-valued content addressable memory cell using a Josephson complementary ternary logic circuit named as JCTL. The memory cell proposed here can perform three operations of searching, writing and reading in ternary logic system. The principle of the memory circuit is illustrated in detail by using the threshold-characteristics of the JCTL. In order to investigate how a high performance operation can be achieved, computer simulations have been made. Simulation results show that the cycle time of memory operation is 120psec, power consumption is about 0.5 μW/cell and tolerances of writing and reading operation are +-15% and +-24%, respectively

  14. Thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Yb ternary system supported by first-principles calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase relationships of the ternary Al-Cu-Yb system have been assessed using a combination of CALPHAD method and first principles calculations. A self-consistent thermodynamic parameter was established based on the experimental and theoretical information. Most of the binary intermetallic phases, except Al3Yb, Al2Yb, Cu2Yb and Cu5Yb, were assumed to be zero solubility in the ternary system. Based on the experimental data, eight ternary intermetallic compounds were taken into consideration in this system. Among them, three were treated as line compounds with large homogeneity ranges for Al and Cu. The others were treated as stoichiometric compounds. The calculated phase diagrams were in agreement with available experimental and theoretical data.

  15. Design and analysis of 2T-2M Ternary content addressable memories

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, M. A.; Fouda, M. E.; Naous, Rawan; Zidan, Mohammed A.; Eltawil, A. M.; Kurdahi, F.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    Associate and approximate computing using resistive memory based Ternary Content Addressable Memory is becoming widely used. In this paper, a simplified model based analysis of a 2T2M-Ternary Content Addressable Memory using memristors is introduced. A comprehensive study is presented taking into consideration different circuit parameters and parasitic effects. Parameters such as the memristor Rh/Rl ratio, transistor technology, operating frequency, and memory width are taken into consideration. The proposed model is verified with SPICE showing a high degree of matching between theory and simulation. The utility of the model is established using a design example.

  16. Design and analysis of 2T-2M Ternary content addressable memories

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, M. A.

    2017-10-24

    Associate and approximate computing using resistive memory based Ternary Content Addressable Memory is becoming widely used. In this paper, a simplified model based analysis of a 2T2M-Ternary Content Addressable Memory using memristors is introduced. A comprehensive study is presented taking into consideration different circuit parameters and parasitic effects. Parameters such as the memristor Rh/Rl ratio, transistor technology, operating frequency, and memory width are taken into consideration. The proposed model is verified with SPICE showing a high degree of matching between theory and simulation. The utility of the model is established using a design example.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of a novel stationary phase, Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS), based upon ternary oxide support for high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amparo, Maura R.; Marques, Fabiana A.; Faria, Anizio M., E-mail: anizio@pontal.ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (FACIP/UFU), Ituiutaba, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Integradas do Pontal

    2013-09-15

    A new stationary phase based on the thermal immobilization of poly(methyltetradecylsiloxane) (PMTDS) on silica particles coated with a mixture of zirconia and titania was prepared and evaluated for the chromatographic separation of test mixtures. The spherical particles were characterized by elemental analysis, SEM, FTIR and {sup 29}Si NMR. The physicochemical properties of PMTDS phase supported on Si-Zr/Ti were intermediate between PMTDS phases supported on titanized silica and zirconized silica. The chromatographic performance of Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS) phase was similar to PMTDS phases based on metal oxide coated silica having only one metal oxide and the preparation of a Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS) phase allowed evaluation of the effect of each oxide, zirconia and titania, on the separation process and on the stability of the immobilized polymer phase. The hydrolytic stability of Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS) stationary phase was similar to the Si-Ti(PMTDS) phase, improving the chemical stability of the silica-based PMTDS phase by about 100%. (author)

  18. Ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikraj, C.; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2017-12-01

    Within the framework of a simple macroscopic model, the ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf are studied. In this work, all possible ternary-fragment combinations of 252Cf are generated by the use of atomic mass evaluation-2016 (AME2016) data and these combinations are minimized by using a two-dimensional minimization approach. This minimization process can be done in two ways: (i) with respect to proton numbers (Z1, Z2, Z3) and (ii) with respect to neutron numbers (N1, N2, N3) of the ternary fragments. In this paper, the driving potential energies for the ternary breakup of 252Cf are presented for both the spherical and deformed as well as the proton-minimized and neutron-minimized ternary fragments. From the proton-minimized spherical ternary fragments, we have obtained different possible ternary configurations with a minimum driving potential, in particular, the experimental expectation of Sn + Ni + Ca ternary fragmentation. However, the neutron-minimized ternary fragments exhibit a driving potential minimum in the true-ternary-fission (TTF) region as well. Further, the Q -value energy systematics of the neutron-minimized ternary fragments show larger values for the TTF fragments. From this, we have concluded that the TTF region fragments with the least driving potential and high Q values have a strong possibility in the ternary fragmentation of 252Cf. Further, the role of ground-state deformations (β2, β3, β4, and β6) in the ternary breakup of 252Cf is also studied. The deformed ternary fragmentation, which involves Z3=12 -19 fragments, possesses the driving potential minimum due to the larger oblate deformations. We also found that the ground-state deformations, particularly β2, strongly influence the driving potential energies and play a major role in determining the most probable fragment combinations in the ternary breakup of 252Cf.

  19. Crystal Growth of Ternary Compound Semiconductors in Low Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2014-01-01

    A low gravity material experiment will be performed in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). There are two sections of the flight experiment: (I) crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, by physical vapor transport (PVT) and (II) melt growth of CdZnTe by directional solidification. The main objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the grown crystals as results of buoyancy-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. This talk will focus on the ground-based studies on the PVT crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions.

  20. Monitoring ligand-dependent assembly of receptor ternary complexes in live cells by BRETFect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotnoir-White, David; El Ezzy, Mohamed; Boulay, Pierre-Luc; Rozendaal, Marieke; Bouvier, Michel; Gagnon, Etienne; Mader, Sylvie

    2018-03-13

    There is currently an unmet need for versatile techniques to monitor the assembly and dynamics of ternary complexes in live cells. Here we describe bioluminescence resonance energy transfer with fluorescence enhancement by combined transfer (BRETFect), a high-throughput technique that enables robust spectrometric detection of ternary protein complexes based on increased energy transfer from a luciferase to a fluorescent acceptor in the presence of a fluorescent intermediate. Its unique donor-intermediate-acceptor relay system is designed so that the acceptor can receive energy either directly from the donor or indirectly via the intermediate in a combined transfer, taking advantage of the entire luciferase emission spectrum. BRETFect was used to study the ligand-dependent cofactor interaction properties of the estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, which form homo- or heterodimers whose distinctive regulatory properties are difficult to dissect using traditional methods. BRETFect uncovered the relative capacities of hetero- vs. homodimers to recruit receptor-specific cofactors and regulatory proteins, and to interact with common cofactors in the presence of receptor-specific ligands. BRETFect was also used to follow the assembly of ternary complexes between the V2R vasopressin receptor and two different intracellular effectors, illustrating its use for dissection of ternary protein-protein interactions engaged by G protein-coupled receptors. Our results indicate that BRETFect represents a powerful and versatile technique to monitor the dynamics of ternary interactions within multimeric complexes in live cells.

  1. A metallic solution model with adjustable parameter for describing ternary thermodynamic properties from its binary constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zheng; Qiu Guanzhou

    2007-01-01

    A metallic solution model with adjustable parameter k has been developed to predict thermodynamic properties of ternary systems from those of its constituent three binaries. In the present model, the excess Gibbs free energy for a ternary mixture is expressed as a weighted probability sum of those of binaries and the k value is determined based on an assumption that the ternary interaction generally strengthens the mixing effects for metallic solutions with weak interaction, making the Gibbs free energy of mixing of the ternary system more negative than that before considering the interaction. This point is never considered in the models currently reported, where the only difference in a geometrical definition of molar values of components is considered that do not involve thermodynamic principles but are completely empirical. The current model describes the results of experiments very well, and by adjusting the k value also agrees with those from models used widely in the literature. Three ternary systems, Mg-Cu-Ni, Zn-In-Cd, and Cd-Bi-Pb are recalculated to demonstrate the method of determining k and the precision of the model. The results of the calculations, especially those in Mg-Cu-Ni system, are better than those predicted by the current models in the literature

  2. First-principles study of ternary bcc alloys using special quasi-random structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chao

    2009-01-01

    Using a combination of exhaustive enumeration and Monte Carlo simulated annealing, we have developed special quasi-random structures (SQSs) for ternary body-centered cubic (bcc) alloys with compositions of A 1 B 1 C 1 , A 2 B 1 C 1 , A 6 B 1 C 1 and A 2 B 3 C 3 , respectively. The structures possess local pair and multisite correlation functions that closely mimic those of the random bcc alloy. We employed the SQSs to predict the mixing enthalpies, nearest neighbor bond length distributions and electronic density of states of bcc Mo-Nb-Ta and Mo-Nb-V solid solutions. Our convergence tests indicate that even small-sized SQSs can give reliable results. Based on the SQS energetics, the predicting powers of the existing empirical ternary extrapolation models were assessed. The present results suggest that it is important to take into account the ternary interaction parameter in order to accurately describe the thermodynamic behaviors of ternary alloys. The proposed SQSs are quite general and can be applied to other ternary bcc alloys.

  3. Ternary equilibria in bismuth--indium--lead alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, K.C.; Johnson, D.L.; Nelson, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    The liquidus surface is characterized by three binary equilibria. One binary extends from the Pb--Bi peritectic to the Pb--In peritectic. The other two extend from In--Bi eutectics, merge at 50 at. percent Bi and 30 at. percent Pb, and end at the Bi--Pb eutectic. Based on analysis of ternary liquidus contours and vertical sections, it is suggested that solidification for high lead and very high indium alloys occurs from two-phase equilibria. Solidification from all other alloys occurs from three-phase equilibria. Four-phase solidification does not occur in this system

  4. Implementation of DFT application on ternary optical computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junjie, Peng; Youyi, Fu; Xiaofeng, Zhang; Shuai, Kong; Xinyu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    As its characteristics of huge number of data bits and low energy consumption, optical computing may be used in the applications such as DFT etc. which needs a lot of computation and can be implemented in parallel. According to this, DFT implementation methods in full parallel as well as in partial parallel are presented. Based on resources ternary optical computer (TOC), extensive experiments were carried out. Experimental results show that the proposed schemes are correct and feasible. They provide a foundation for further exploration of the applications on TOC that needs a large amount calculation and can be processed in parallel.

  5. TERNARY ALLOYS OF URANIUM, COLUMBIUM, AND ZIRCONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, F.G.

    1960-08-01

    Ternary alloys of uranium are described which are useful as neutron- reflecting materials in a fast neutron reactor. They are especially resistant to corrosion caused by oxidative processes of gascous or aqueous origin and comprise uranium as the predominant metal with zirconiunn and niobium wherein the total content of the minor alloying elements is between 2 and 8% by weight.

  6. Does Science Also Prefer a Ternary Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, L.; Klein, D. J.; Balaban, A. T.

    2006-01-01

    Through the importance of the number three in our culture and the strange preference for a ternary pattern of our nature one can perceive how and why number theory degraded to numerology. The strong preference of our minds for simple patterns can be read as the key to understanding not only the development of numerology, but also why scientists…

  7. Angular distribution in ternary cold fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delion, D.S.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Sandulescu, A.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Greiner, W.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous ternary cold fission of 252 Cf, accompanied by 4 He, 10 Be and 14 C. The light cluster decays from the first resonant eigenstate in the Coulomb potential plus a harmonic oscillator potential. We have shown that the angular distribution of the emitted light particle is strongly connected with its deformation and the equatorial distance. (author)

  8. Superconducting state parameters of ternary metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    to binary metallic glasses. They are of interest since third element can modify the physical properties of binary metallic glasses and can also be used as a probe to study the host. ..... conducting nature in the present case. When we. Figure 6. Variation of transition temperature (TC) with valance (Z) of ternary metallic glasses.

  9. The ternary Ni—Al—Co embedded-atom-method potential for γ/γ' Ni-based single-crystal superalloys: Construction and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jun-Ping; Wang Chong-Yu; Yu Tao

    2014-01-01

    An Ni—Al—Co system embedded-atom-method potential is constructed for the γ(Ni)/γ'(Ni 3 Al) superalloy based on experiments and first-principles calculations. The stacking fault energies (SFEs) of the Ni(Co, Al) random solid solutions are calculated as a function of the concentrations of Co and Al. The calculated SFEs decrease with increasing concentrations of Co and Al, which is consistent with the experimental results. The embedding energy term in the present potential has an important influence on the SFEs of the random solid solutions. The cross-slip processes of a screw dislocation in homogenous Ni(Co) solid solutions are simulated using the present potential and the nudged elastic band method. The cross-slip activation energies increase with increasing Co concentration, which implies that the creep resistance of γ(Ni) may be improved by the addition of Co

  10. Design of a novel quantum reversible ternary up-counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Pouran; Haghparast, Majid

    2015-08-01

    Reversible logic has been recently considered as an interesting and important issue in designing combinational and sequential circuits. The combination of reversible logic and multi-valued logic can improve power dissipation, time and space utilization rate of designed circuits. Only few works have been reported about sequential reversible circuits and almost there are no paper exhibited about quantum ternary reversible counter. In this paper, first we designed 2-qutrit and 3-qutrit quantum reversible ternary up-counters using quantum ternary reversible T-flip-flop and quantum reversible ternary gates. Then we proposed generalized quantum reversible ternary n-qutrit up-counter. We also introduced a new approach for designing any type of n-qutrit ternary and reversible counter. According to the results, we can conclude that applying second approach quantum reversible ternary up-counter is better than the others.

  11. Response surface methodology based optimization of diesel–n-butanol –cotton oil ternary blend ratios to improve engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmanlı, Alpaslan; Yüksel, Bedri; İleri, Erol; Deniz Karaoglan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • RSM based optimization for optimum blend ratio of diesel fuel, n-butanol and cotton oil was done. • 65.5 vol.% diesel fuel, 23.1 vol.% n-butanol and 11.4 vol.% cotton oil (DnBC) was determined. • DnBC decreased brake torque, brake power, BTE and BMEP, while increased BSFC. • DnBC decreased NO x , CO and HC emissions. - Abstract: Many studies declare that 20% biodiesel is the optimum concentration for biodiesel–diesel fuel blends to improve performance. The present work focuses on finding diesel fuel, n-butanol, and cotton oil optimum blend ratios for diesel engine applications by using the response surface method (RSM). Experimental test fuels were prepared by choosing 7 different concentrations, where phase decomposition did not occur in the phase diagram of −10 °C. Experiments were carried out at full load conditions and the constant speed (2200 rpm) of maximum brake torque to determine engine performance and emission parameters. According to the test results of the engine, optimization was done by using RSM considering engine performance and exhaust emissions parameters, to identify the rates of concentrations of components in the optimum blend of three. Confirmation tests were employed to compare the output values of concentrations that were identified by optimization. The real experiment results and the R 2 actual values that show the relation between the outputs from the optimizations and real experiments were determined in high accordance. The optimum component concentration was determined as 65.5 vol.% diesel, 23.1 vol.% n-butanol and 11.4 vol.% cotton oil (DnBC). According to engine performance tests brake torque, brake power, BTE and BMEP of DnBC decreased while BSFC increased compared to those of diesel fuel. NO x , CO and HC emissions of DnBC drastically decreased as 11.33%, 45.17% and 81.45%, respectively

  12. Binary and ternary cocrystals of sulfa drug acetazolamide with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini

    2016-03-01

    A novel design strategy for cocrystals of a sulfonamide drug with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides is developed based on synthon identification as well as size and shape match of coformers. Binary adducts of acetazolamide (ACZ) with lactams (valerolactam and caprolactam, VLM, CPR), cyclic amides (2-pyridone, labeled as 2HP and its derivatives MeHP, OMeHP) and pyridine amides (nicotinamide and picolinamide, NAM, PAM) were obtained by manual grinding, and their single crystals by solution crystallization. The heterosynthons in the binary cocrystals of ACZ with these coformers suggested a ternary combination for ACZ with pyridone and nicotinamide. Novel supramolecular synthons of ACZ with lactams and pyridine carboxamides are reported together with binary and ternary cocrystals for a sulfonamide drug. This crystal engineering study resulted in the first ternary cocrystal of acetazolamide with amide coformers, ACZ-NAM-2HP (1:1:1).

  13. Binary and ternary cocrystals of sulfa drug acetazolamide with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Bolla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel design strategy for cocrystals of a sulfonamide drug with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides is developed based on synthon identification as well as size and shape match of coformers. Binary adducts of acetazolamide (ACZ with lactams (valerolactam and caprolactam, VLM, CPR, cyclic amides (2-pyridone, labeled as 2HP and its derivatives MeHP, OMeHP and pyridine amides (nicotinamide and picolinamide, NAM, PAM were obtained by manual grinding, and their single crystals by solution crystallization. The heterosynthons in the binary cocrystals of ACZ with these coformers suggested a ternary combination for ACZ with pyridone and nicotinamide. Novel supramolecular synthons of ACZ with lactams and pyridine carboxamides are reported together with binary and ternary cocrystals for a sulfonamide drug. This crystal engineering study resulted in the first ternary cocrystal of acetazolamide with amide coformers, ACZ–NAM–2HP (1:1:1.

  14. PMGA and its application in area and power optimization for ternary FPRM circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengjun; Li Kangping; Zhang Huihong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the research of population migration algorithms (PMAs), a population migration genetic algorithm (PMGA) is proposed, combining a PMA with a genetic algorithm. A scheme of area and power optimization for a ternary FPRM circuit is proposed by using the PMGA. Firstly, according to the ternary FPRM logic function expression, area and power estimation models are established. Secondly, the PMGA is used to search for the best area and power polarity. Finally, 10 MCNC Benchmark circuits are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the ternary FPRM circuits optimized by the PMGA saved 13.33% area and 20.00% power on average than the corresponding FPRM circuits optimized by a whole annealing genetic algorithm. (paper)

  15. MnO2 Nanorods Intercalating Graphene Oxide/Polyaniline Ternary Composites for Robust High-Performance Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangqiang; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Lingling; Kan, Erjun; Zhang, Shaopeng; Tang, Jian; Tang, Weihua

    2014-04-01

    New ternary composites of MnO2 nanorods, polyaniline (PANI) and graphene oxide (GO) have been prepared by a two-step process. The 100 nm-long MnO2 nanorods with a diameter ~20 nm are conformably coated with PANI layers and fastened between GO layers. The MnO2 nanorods incorporated ternary composites electrode exhibits significantly increased specific capacitance than PANI/GO binary composite in supercapacitors. The ternary composite with 70% MnO2 exhibits a highest specific capacitance reaching 512 F/g and outstanding cycling performance, with ~97% capacitance retained over 5000 cycles. The ternary composite approach offers an effective solution to enhance the device performance of metal-oxide based supercapacitors for long cycling applications.

  16. Search for new ternary Al, Ga or In containing phases using information forecasting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiseleva, N.N.; Burkhanov, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Automated system of search for regularities in the formation of crystal phases and forecasting of new compounds with required properties, comprising data base on the properties of ternary inorganic compounds and cybernetic forecasting system, has been developed. General principles of operation of the developed information-forecasting system are considered. Efficiency of the system operation is shown, using as an example the search for new ternary compounds with aluminium, gallium and indium, crystallized in ZrNiAl, TiNiSi, ThCr 2 Si 2 , CaAl 2 Si 2 structural types. Results of the above-mentioned phases forecasting are shown

  17. Characterization of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and refractory metals in binary and ternary silicon-based films using ion beam methods; Caracterisation des elements: carbone, azote, oxygene et metal refractaire dans des depots binaires et ternaires a base de silicium par methodes d'analyse utilisant les faisceaux d'ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somatri-Bouamrane, R. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire]|[Universite Claude Bernard, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1996-12-19

    Ion beam methods (non Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reactions) have been carried out in order to characterize silicon-based films. The cross sections for the reactions {sup 12}C({alpha},{alpha}), {sup 14}N({alpha},{alpha}), {sup 16}O({alpha},{alpha}), {sup 28}Si({alpha},{alpha}) and {sup 14}N({alpha},p) have been measured within 2 and 7 MeV. CVD beta SiC films could be analyzed and the interface between silicon carbide and the (100) silicon substrate was studied. The epitaxial growth of the beta SiC film could be modelled by comparing the results obtained with ion beam analysis, infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Moreover, the stoichiometry of low pressure CVD Me-Si-N (Me=Re, W, Ti, Ta) ternary systems was studied. The evolution of the nitrogen content in W-Si-N systems allowed to study their stability with respect to the annealing conditions. (N.T.)

  18. Genetic Synthesis of New Reversible/Quantum Ternary Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEIBUK, V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods of quantum/reversible logic synthesis are based on the use of the binary nature of quantum computing. However, multiple-valued logic is a promising choice for future quantum computer technology due to a number of advantages over binary circuits. In this paper we have developed a synthesis of ternary reversible circuits based on Muthukrishnan-Stroud gates using a genetic algorithm. The method of coding chromosome is presented, and well-grounded choice of algorithm parameters allowed obtaining better circuit schemes of one- and n-qutrit ternary comparators compared with other methods. These parameters are quantum cost of received reversible devices, delay time and number of constant input (ancilla lines. Proposed implementation of the genetic algorithm has led to reducing of the device delay time and the number of ancilla qutrits to 1 and 2n-1 for one- and n-qutrits full comparators, respectively. For designing of n-qutrit comparator we have introduced a complementary device which compares output functions of 1-qutrit comparators.

  19. The ternary sorption system U(VI)-phosphate-silica explained by spectroscopy and thermodynamic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Stockmann, Madlen; Heim, Karsten; Mueller, Katharina; Brendler, Vinzenz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Comarmond, M.J.; Payne, T.E. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia); Steudtner, Robin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2017-06-01

    Spectroscopic data of sorption processes potentially provide direct impact on Surface Complexation Modelling (SCM) approaches. Based on spectroscopic data of the ternary sorption system U(VI)/phosphate/silica strongly suggesting the formation of a precipitate as the predominant surface process, SCM calculations accurately reproduced results from classical batch experiments.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of ternary PtxPdyAuz fuel cell nanocatalyst growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brault, P.; Coutanceau, C.; C. Jennings, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation of PEMFC cathodes based on ternary Pt70Pd15Au15 and Pt50Pd25Au25 nanocatalysts dispersed on carbon indicate systematic Au segregation from the particle bulk to the surface, leading to an Au layer coating the cluster surface and to the spontaneous formation of a Pt...

  1. Fac–mer equilibria of coordinated iminodiacetate (ida ) in ternary Cu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Keywords. Fac–mer equilibria; CuII-iminodiacetate-imidazole/benzimidazole ternary complexes; stability constants. 1. Introduction. Mixed ligand complexes of transition metal ions with amino acids, peptides or their derivatives or analogues, and heterocyclic N-bases can serve as model compounds of bioinorganic interests ...

  2. The ternary sorption system U(VI)-phosphate-silica explained by spectroscopy and thermodynamic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Stockmann, Madlen; Heim, Karsten; Mueller, Katharina; Brendler, Vinzenz; Steudtner, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopic data of sorption processes potentially provide direct impact on Surface Complexation Modelling (SCM) approaches. Based on spectroscopic data of the ternary sorption system U(VI)/phosphate/silica strongly suggesting the formation of a precipitate as the predominant surface process, SCM calculations accurately reproduced results from classical batch experiments.

  3. The ternary system nickel-nobium-carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadelmaier, H.H.; Fiedler, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    The ternary system nickel-niobium-carbon was studied by metallographic and X-ray diffraction methods to produce a liquidus projection and an isothermal section at 1,100 0 C. The liquidus projection is dominated by a wide field of primary NbC that extends far into the nickel corner of the composition triangle. Only one ternary compound is observed in this system, an eta-carbide formed in a peritectoid reaction. It has a narrow homogeneity range at Ni 2 Nb 4 C, and its lattice constant in alloys quenched from 1,100 0 C varies between 11.659 and 11.667 A. No eta-carbide Ni 3 Nb 3 C or Ni 6 Nb 6 could be detected. (orig.) [de

  4. Equilibrium study for ternary mixtures of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doungsri, S.; Sookkumnerd, T.; Wongkoblap, A.; Nuchitprasittichai, A.

    2017-11-01

    The liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary mixtures of methanol + fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) + palm oil and FAME + palm oil + glycerol at various temperatures from 35 to 55°C, the tie lines and binodial curves were also investigated and plotted in the equilibrium curve. The experimental results showed that the binodial curves of methanol + FAME + palm oil depended significantly with temperature while the binodial curves of FAME + palm oil + glycerol illustrated insignificant change with temperatures. The interaction parameters between liquid pair obtained for NRTL (Nonrandom Two-Liquid) and UNIQUAC (Universal Quasi-Chemical Theory) models from the experimental data were also investigated. It was found that the correlated parameters of UNIQUAC model for system of FAME + palm oil + glycerol, denoted as a13 and a31, were 580.42K and -123.69K, respectively, while those for system of methanol + FAME + palm oil, denoted as a42 and a24, were 71.48 K and 965.57K, respectively. The ternary LLE data reported here would be beneficial for engineers and scientists to use for prediction of yield and purity of biodiesel for the production. The UNIQUAC model agreed well with the experimental data of ternary mixtures of biodiesel.

  5. Enhanced Light Absorption in Fluorinated Ternary Small-Molecule Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, Nicholas D. [Department; Dudnik, Alexander S. [Department; Harutyunyan, Boris [Department; Aldrich, Thomas J. [Department; Leonardi, Matthew J. [Department; Manley, Eric F. [Department; Chemical; Butler, Melanie R. [Department; Harschneck, Tobias [Department; Ratner, Mark A. [Department; Chen, Lin X. [Department; Chemical; Bedzyk, Michael J. [Department; Department; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S. [Department; Facchetti, Antonio [Department; Chang, Robert P. H. [Department; Marks, Tobin J. [Department; Department

    2017-06-14

    Using small-molecule donor (SMD) semiconductors in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) has historically afforded lower power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) than their polymeric counterparts. The PCE difference is attributed to shorter conjugated backbones, resulting in reduced intermolecular interactions. Here, a new pair of SMDs is synthesized based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole-benzodithiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole (BDT-DPP2) skeleton but having fluorinated and fluorinefree aromatic side-chain substituents. Ternary OPVs having varied ratios of the two SMDs with PC61BM as the acceptor exhibit tunable open-circuit voltages (Vocs) between 0.833 and 0.944 V due to a fluorination-induced shift in energy levels and the electronic “alloy” formed from the miscibility of the two SMDs. A 15% increase in PCE is observed at the optimal ternary SMD ratio, with the short-circuit current density (Jsc) significantly increased to 9.18 mA/cm2. The origin of Jsc enhancement is analyzed via charge generation, transport, and diffuse reflectance measurements, and is attributed to increased optical absorption arising from a maximum in film crystallinity at this SMD ratio, observed by grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering.

  6. A ternary logic model for recurrent neuromime networks with delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangartner, R D; Cull, P

    1995-07-01

    In contrast to popular recurrent artificial neural network (RANN) models, biological neural networks have unsymmetric structures and incorporate significant delays as a result of axonal propagation. Consequently, biologically inspired neural network models are more accurately described by nonlinear differential-delay equations rather than nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs), and the standard techniques for studying the dynamics of RANNs are wholly inadequate for these models. This paper develops a ternary-logic based method for analyzing these networks. Key to the technique is the realization that a nonzero delay produces a bounded stability region. This result significantly simplifies the construction of sufficient conditions for characterizing the network equilibria. If the network gain is large enough, each equilibrium can be classified as either asymptotically stable or unstable. To illustrate the analysis technique, the swim central pattern generator (CPG) of the sea slug Tritonia diomedea is examined. For wide range of reasonable parameter values, the ternary analysis shows that none of the network equilibria are stable, and thus the network must oscillate. The results show that complex synaptic dynamics are not necessary for pattern generation.

  7. Plotting and Analyzing Data Trends in Ternary Diagrams Made Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Cédric M.

    2004-04-01

    Ternary plots are used in many fields of science to characterize a system based on three components. Triangular plotting is thus useful to a broad audience in the Earth sciences and beyond. Unfortunately, it is typically the most expensive commercial software packages that offer the option to plot data in ternary diagrams, and they lack features that are paramount to the geosciences, such as the ability to plot data directly into a standardized diagram and the possibility to analyze temporal and stratigraphic trends within this diagram. To address these issues, δPlot was developed with a strong emphasis on ease of use, community orientation, and availability free of charges. This ``freeware'' supports a fully graphical user interface where data can be imported as text files, or by copying and pasting. A plot is automatically generated, and any standard diagram can be selected for plotting in the background using a simple pull-down menu. Standard diagrams are stored in an external database of PDF files that currently holds some 30 diagrams that deal with different fields of the Earth sciences. Using any drawing software supporting PDF, one can easily produce new standard diagrams to be used with δPlot by simply adding them to the library folder. An independent column of values, commonly stratigraphic depths or ages, can be used to sort the data sets.

  8. Ternary q-Virasoro-Witt Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, F; Makhlouf, A; Silvestrov, S

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we construct ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras which q-deform the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos using su(1, 1) enveloping algebra techniques. The ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos depend on a parameter and are not Nambu-Lie algebras for all but finitely many values of this parameter. For the parameter values for which the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras are Nambu-Lie, the corresponding ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed in this paper are also Hom-Nambu-Lie because they are obtained from the ternary Nambu-Lie algebras using the composition method. For other parameter values this composition method does not yield a Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra structure for q-Virasoro-Witt algebras. We show however, using a different construction, that the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras of Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos, as well as the general ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras we construct, carry a structure of the ternary Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra for all values of the involved parameters.

  9. Description of light charged particle emission in ternary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Kuklin, S. N.; Scheid, W.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the motion of three fragments starting from the scission point of ternary system. In the alpha-accompanied ternary fission the initial conditions are not the free parameters and determined by minimization of potential energy at scission point. In the trajectory calculations the angular distribution and mean value of the kinetic energy of the alpha-particles are well described in the spontaneous ternary fission of 252 Cf. In the Be- and C-accompanied ternary fission we found that the emission of the third particle occurs from one of the heavy fragments after their separation. (authors)

  10. Role of ternary fission in synthesis of bypassed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramarovskij, Ya.M.; Chechev, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    A possible influence of ternary fission with escape of neutron-enriched light charged particles on the synthesis of bypassed nuclides is considered. It is shown that this concept cannot give explanation of bypassed isotope concentrations, but it can make some contribution, if the probability of ternary fission for superheavy nuclei grows sharply with Z 2 /A parameter. The account of β-delayed fission contributes to the shift of ternary fission fragments into the region of neutron-deficient isotopes. Consistent consideration of the ternary fission role in the nucleosynthesis is possible only with an important accumulation of experimental and theoretical data on this process, particularly for the nuclei with Z > 100

  11. Fusibility diagram of ternary system with incongruently melting double compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutsyk, V.I.; Vorob'eva, V.P.; Sumkina, O.G.

    1989-01-01

    Temperature calculation and properties of ternary eutectics and concentration coordinates of ternary peritectics accoriding to the linear model of initial crystallization surfaces as an element of the expert system for simulating fusibility diagrams of ternary systems is considered. It is shown that the calculated and experimental data on coordinates of ternary nonvariant points in the systems NaCl-PbCl 2 -CdCl 2 , PbCl 2 -CaCl 2 -UCl 4 , CaF 2 -NaF-CsF and UCl 3 -CaCl 2 -ThCl 4 are in good agreement

  12. Phase equilibria in the ternary In-Ni-Sn system at 700 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmetterer, C; Zemanova, A; Flandorfer, H; Kroupa, A; Ipser, H

    2013-04-01

    The phase equilibria of the ternary system In-Ni-Sn were investigated experimentally at 700 °C using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) including electron micro probe analysis (EMPA) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). A corresponding isothermal section was established based on these results. This particular temperature was chosen because it allowed obtaining reliable results within reasonable time. The existence of the ternary phase InNi 6 Sn 5 was confirmed whereas the ternary compound In 2 NiSn, reported earlier in literature, was found to be part of a large solid solution field based on binary InNi. The ternary solubility of the binary phases was established, and continuous solid solutions were found between the isostructural phases Ni 3 Sn LT and InNi 3 as well as between Ni 3 Sn 2 HT and InNi 2 . In addition, this isothermal section could be well reproduced by CALPHAD modelling. The resulting calculated isotherm at 700 °C is presented, too, and compared with the experimental results.

  13. Volume dependence of T/sub c/ of Ternary A-15 Phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamrai, V.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented of measurements of the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/, lattice constant a, magnetic susceptibility /sub chi/, and critical field H/sub c/ 2 for many Nb 3 Al and V 3 Si-based ternary phases and Nb 3 SnH/sub x/. For V 3 Si-based ternary systems and Nb 3 SnH/sub x/ the density of states at the Fermi level N(epsilon/sub F/) sharply decreases with the concentration of the alloying element. The variation of N(epsilon/sub F/) in these ternary systems cannot be explained by the variation of a. In ternary phases Nb 3 (Al/sub 1-x/dY/sub x/), where Y can be Ge, Ga, Sb, or Se, a quite clear correlation is revealed between T/sub c/ and a. The dependence of T/sub c/ on V in these systems is due to the variation of the matrix element of the electron-phonon interaction 2 >

  14. Synthesis and characterization of (Ni{sub 1−x}Co{sub x})Se{sub 2} based ternary selenides as electrocatalyst for triiodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theerthagiri, J.; Senthil, R.A. [Solar Energy Lab, Department of Chemistry, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore 632115 (India); Buraidah, M.H. [Centre for Ionics University of Malaya, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Raghavender, M. [Department of Physics, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa 516003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Madhavan, J., E-mail: jagan.madhavan@gmail.com [Solar Energy Lab, Department of Chemistry, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore 632115 (India); Arof, A.K. [Centre for Ionics University of Malaya, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2016-06-15

    Ternary metal selenides of (Ni{sub 1−x}Co{sub x})Se{sub 2} with 0≤x≤1 were synthesized by using one-step hydrothermal reduction route. The synthesized metal selenides were utilized as an efficient, low-cost platinum free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies revealed that the Ni{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2} counter electrode exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity and lower charge transfer resistance at the counter electrode/electrolyte interface than the other compositions for reduction of triiodide to iodide. Ternary selenides of Ni{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2} offer a synergistic effect to the electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of triiodide that might be due to an increase in active catalytic sites and small charge transfer resistance. The DSSC with Ni{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2} counter electrode achieved a high power conversion efficiency of 6.02%, which is comparable with that of conventional platinum counter electrode (6.11%). This present investigation demonstrates the potential application of Ni{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2} as counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  15. A high-throughput search for new ternary superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyshadham, Chandramouli; Hansen, Jacob; Oses, Corey; Curtarolo, Stefano; Hart, Gus

    In 2006 an unexpected new superalloy, Co3[Al,W], was discovered. This new alloy is cobalt-based, in contrast to conventional superalloys, which are nickel-based. Inspired by this new discovery, we performed first-principles calculations, searching through 2224 ternary metallic systems of the form A3[B0.5C0.5], where A = Ni/Co/Fe and [B, C] = all binary combinations of 40 different elements chosen from the periodic table. We found 175 new systems that are better than the Co3[Al, W] superalloy. 75 of these systems are brand new--they have never been reported in experimental literature. These 75 new potential superalloys are good candidates for further experiments. Our calculations are consistent with current experimental literature where data exists. Work supported under: ONR (MURI N00014-13-1-0635).

  16. Natural convection in ternary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, G.M.; Kai, L.

    1981-01-01

    The field equations for a mixture of a viscous fluid, a deformable solid and a non-viscous fluid are studied, based on a linearized theory proposed by Bowen. The fields of density of each constituent, temperature, velocity of each fluid and displacement of the solid are determined, for steady states flow of the mixture between two parallel planes and between two concentric cylinders which are maintained at diferent temperatures. (Author) [pt

  17. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Mujin; Wang, Cuiping; Yang, Shuiyuan; Shi, Zhan; Han, Jiajia; Liu, Xingjun [Xiamen Univ. (China). College of Materials and Fujian Provincial Key Lab. of Materials Genome

    2017-08-15

    The phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system are investigated combined with X-ray diffraction, electron probe micro-analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Two isothermal sections of the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system at 1 000 C and 1 100 C are experimentally established. Most of the binary intermetallic compounds, e.g. Zr{sub 7}Ni{sub 10}, ZrNi, ZrNi{sub 5}, Zr{sub 14}Cu{sub 51}, and Zr{sub 2}Cu{sub 9}, show a remarkable ternary solubility. A new ternary compound named τ{sub 3} (Zr{sub 31.1-30.7} . Cu{sub 28.5-40.3}Ni{sub 40.4-29.0}) is detected at 1 000 C and dissolved at 1 020 C because the nearby large liquid phase field further expands. The newly determined phase equilibria will provide important information for both thermodynamic assessment and alloy design of Zr-based metallic glass.

  18. Characterization of U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes on hematite: EXAFS and electrophoretic mobility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, John R.; Reitmeyer, Rebecca; Lenhart, John J.; Davis, James A.

    2000-01-01

    We have measured U(VI) adsorption on hematite using EXAFS spectroscopy and electrophoresis under conditions relevant to surface waters and aquifers (0.01 to 10 μM dissolved uranium concentrations, in equilibrium with air, pH 4.5 to 8.5). Both techniques suggest the existence of anionic U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes. Fits to EXAFS spectra indicate that U(VI) is simultaneously coordinated to surface FeO6 octahedra and carbonate (or bicarbonate) ligands in bidentate fashions, leading to the conclusion that the ternary complexes have an inner-sphere metal bridging (hematite-U(VI)-carbonato) structure. Greater than or equal to 50% of adsorbed U(VI) was comprised of monomeric hematite-U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes, even at pH 4.5. Multimeric U(VI) species were observed at pH ≥ 6.5 and aqueous U(VI) concentrations approximately an order of magnitude more dilute than the solubility of crystalline β-UO2(OH)2. Based on structural constraints, these complexes were interpreted as dimeric hematite-U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes. These results suggest that Fe-oxide-U(VI)-carbonato complexes are likely to be important transport-limiting species in oxic aquifers throughout a wide range of pH values.

  19. An improved ternary vector system for Agrobacterium-mediated rapid maize transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ajith; Bass, Steven H; Wu, Emily; Wang, Ning; McBride, Kevin E; Annaluru, Narayana; Miller, Michael; Hua, Mo; Jones, Todd J

    2018-05-01

    A simple and versatile ternary vector system that utilizes improved accessory plasmids for rapid maize transformation is described. This system facilitates high-throughput vector construction and plant transformation. The super binary plasmid pSB1 is a mainstay of maize transformation. However, the large size of the base vector makes it challenging to clone, the process of co-integration is cumbersome and inefficient, and some Agrobacterium strains are known to give rise to spontaneous mutants resistant to tetracycline. These limitations present substantial barriers to high throughput vector construction. Here we describe a smaller, simpler and versatile ternary vector system for maize transformation that utilizes improved accessory plasmids requiring no co-integration step. In addition, the newly described accessory plasmids have restored virulence genes found to be defective in pSB1, as well as added virulence genes. Testing of different configurations of the accessory plasmids in combination with T-DNA binary vector as ternary vectors nearly doubles both the raw transformation frequency and the number of transformation events of usable quality in difficult-to-transform maize inbreds. The newly described ternary vectors enabled the development of a rapid maize transformation method for elite inbreds. This vector system facilitated screening different origins of replication on the accessory plasmid and T-DNA vector, and four combinations were identified that have high (86-103%) raw transformation frequency in an elite maize inbred.

  20. Neutron Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michael [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoffman, Elizabeth [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Sindelar, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcua-Duaz, Brenda [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kohse, Gordon [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-06-17

    The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the response of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.

  1. Neutron Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsoum, Michael; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Sindelar, Robert; Garcua-Diaz, Brenda; Kohse, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the response of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.

  2. Tracer diffusion in ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir-Kheli, R.A.

    1985-07-01

    An intuitive extension of the theory for diffusion in dynamic binary alloys given in the preceding paper is presented. This theory has also received an independent derivation, based on more formal procedures, by Holdsworth and Elliott. We present Monte Carlo estimates for diffusion correlation factors, fsup(A), fsup(B), and fsup(C) and compare them with the theory. The agreement between the theoretical results and the Monte Carlo estimates for the correlation factors of the slow particles, i.e., fsup(C) and fsup(B), is found to be generally good. In contrast, for the correlation factor, fsup(A), referring to the diffusion coefficient of fast particles in the system, the theoretical results are found to be systematically lower by a small but resolvable margin. It is suggested that this is occasioned by the neglect of spatial constraints on the scattering of coupled tracer-background particle field pairs. (author)

  3. Embedding complete ternary tree in hypercubes using AVL trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Choudum; I. Raman (Indhumathi)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractA complete ternary tree is a tree in which every non-leaf vertex has exactly three children. We prove that a complete ternary tree of height h, TTh, is embeddable in a hypercube of dimension . This result coincides with the result of [2]. However, in this paper, the embedding utilizes

  4. Density-Driven segregation in Binary and Ternary Granular Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David

    2015-01-01

    We present a first experimental study of density-induced segregation within a three-dimensional, vibrofluidised, ternary granular system. Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT), we study the steady-state particle distributions achieved by binary and ternary granular beds under a variety of

  5. Calculation of ternary interdiffusion coefficients using a single diffusion couple

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Rothová, Věra

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2016), s. 305-314 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : diffusion * interdiffusion * ternary alloys * ternary diffusion coefficients Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.366, year: 2016

  6. A high-speed interconnect network using ternary logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Long, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high-speed interconnect network (ICN) for a multiprocessor system using ternary logic. By using ternary logic and a fast point-to-point communication technique called STARI (Self-Timed At Receiver's Input), the communication between...

  7. Photophysical study of blue-light excitable ternary Eu(III) complexes and their encapsulation into polystyrene nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Räsänen, Markus, E-mail: mpvras@utu.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Takalo, Harri [DHR Finland Oy, Innotrac Diagnostics, Biolinja 12, FIN-20750 Turku (Finland); Soukka, Tero [Department of Biochemistry/Biotechnology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Haapakka, Keijo; Kankare, Jouko [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)

    2015-04-15

    In this work, 14 ternary Eu(III) complexes were studied by means of spectroscopy. The studied Eu(III) complexes consisted of Lewis bases (4′-(4-diethylaminophenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine (L{sup 8}) or 1,10-phenanthroline (L{sup 9})) and differently substituted β-diketones. The ternary complexes with L{sup 8} show the excitation peak at 405 nm and the quantum yield even 76%. The brightest ternary complex at the 405 nm excitation was Eu(L{sup 3}){sub 3}L{sup 8} while Eu(L{sup 7}){sub 3}L{sup 8} (HL{sup 3}=4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione, HL{sup 7}=1-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-4,4,5,5,5-pentafluoro-1,3-pentanedione) was found to be the brightest at the ligand-centred excitation maximum. The ternary complexes were studied mainly in toluene as the model environment for the polystyrene nanoparticle cavities. The complexes were successfully loaded into the polystyrene nanoparticles enabling their bioanalytical application in aqueous environment. The encapsulation of the complexes preserved, or even enhanced, their good photophysical features. - Highlights: • Ternary Eu{sup 3+} complexes with some β-diketone and substituted terpyridine were studied. • Ternary complexes with substituted terpyridine showed blue-light excitability. • Ternary complexes were successfully loaded into the polystyrene nanoparticles. • Encapsulation of the complexes preserved their good photophysical features.

  8. Enhancement of phononic band gaps in ternary/binary structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Arafa H.; Mehaney, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Based on the transfer matrix method (TMM) and Bloch theory, the interaction of elastic waves (normal incidence) with 1D phononic crystal had been studied. The transfer matrix method was obtained for both longitudinal and transverse waves by applying the continuity conditions between the consecutive unit cells. Dispersion relations are calculated and plotted for both binary and ternary structures. Also we have investigated the corresponding effects on the band gaps values for the two types of phononic crystals. Furthermore, it can be observed that the complete band gaps are located in the common frequency stop-band regions. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effect of different thickness ratios inside each unit cell on the band gap values, as well as unit cells thickness on the central band gap frequency. These phononic band gap materials can be used as a filter for elastic waves at different frequencies values.

  9. Ternary semitransparent organic solar cells with a laminated top electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makha, Mohammed; Testa, Paolo; Anantharaman, Surendra Babu; Heier, Jakob; Jenatsch, Sandra; Leclaire, Nicolas; Tisserant, Jean-Nicolas; Véron, Anna C; Wang, Lei; Nüesch, Frank; Hany, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Tinted and colour-neutral semitransparent organic photovoltaic elements are of interest for building-integrated applications in windows, on glass roofs or on facades. We demonstrate a semitransparent organic photovoltaic cell with a dry-laminated top electrode that achieves a uniform average visible transmittance of 51% and a power conversion efficiency of 3%. The photo-active material is based on a majority blend composed of a visibly absorbing donor polymer and a fullerene acceptor, to which a selective near-infrared absorbing cyanine dye is added as a minority component. Our results show that organic ternary blends are attractive for the fabrication of semitransparent solar cells in general, because a guest component with a complementary absorption can compensate for the inevitably reduced current generation capability of a high-performing binary blend when applied as a thin, semitransparent film.

  10. Insight Into the Role of PC71BM on Enhancing the Photovoltaic Performance of Ternary Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Fu, Yingying; Yan, Chi; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Qingqing; Han, Yanchun; Xie, Zhiyuan

    2018-01-01

    The development of non-fullerene acceptor molecules have remarkably boosted power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polymer solar cells (PSCs) due to the improved spectral coverage and reduced energy loss. An introduction of fullerene molecules into the non-fullerene acceptor-based blend may further improve the photovoltaic performance of the resultant ternary PSCs. However, the underlying mechanism is still debatable. Herein, the ternary PSCs based on PBDB-T:ITIC:PC 71 BM blend were fabricated and its PCE was increased to 10.2% compared to 9.2% for the binary PBDB-T:ITIC devices and 8.1% for the PBDB-T:PC 71 BM PSCs. Systematic investigation was carried out to disclose the effect of PC 71 BM on the blend morphology and charge transport behavior. It is found that the PC 71 BM tends to intermix with the PBDB-T donor compared to the ITIC counterpart. A small amount of PC 71 BM in the ternary blend is helpful for ITIC to aggregate and form efficient electron-transport pathways. Accordingly, the electron mobility is increased and the density of electron traps is decreased in the ternary blend in comparison with the PBDB-T:ITIC blend. Finally, the suppressed bimolecular recombination and enhanced charge collection lead to high PCE for the ternary solar cells.

  11. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  12. Plasmonic spectral tunability of conductive ternary nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassavetis, S.; Patsalas, P., E-mail: ppats@physics.auth.gr [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bellas, D. V.; Lidorikis, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Abadias, G. [Institut Pprime, Département Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux, Université de Poitiers-CNRS-ENSMA, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France)

    2016-06-27

    Conductive binary transition metal nitrides, such as TiN and ZrN, have emerged as a category of promising alternative plasmonic materials. In this work, we show that ternary transition metal nitrides such as Ti{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Zr{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N, and Zr{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N share the important plasmonic features with their binary counterparts, while having the additional asset of the exceptional spectral tunability in the entire visible (400–700 nm) and UVA (315–400 nm) spectral ranges depending on their net valence electrons. In particular, we demonstrate that such ternary nitrides can exhibit maximum field enhancement factors comparable with gold in the aforementioned broadband range. We also critically evaluate the structural features that affect the quality factor of the plasmon resonance and we provide rules of thumb for the selection and growth of materials for nitride plasmonics.

  13. Ternary nitrides for hydrogen storage: Li-B-N, Li-Al-N and Li-Ga-N systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmi, Henrietta W.; McGrady, G. Sean

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of hydrogen storage performance of ternary nitrides based on lithium and the Group 13 elements boron, aluminum and gallium. These were prepared by ball milling Li 3 N together with the appropriate Group 13 nitride-BN, AlN or GaN. Powder X-ray diffraction of the products revealed that the ternary nitrides obtained are not the known Li 3 BN 2 , Li 3 AlN 2 and Li 3 GaN 2 phases. At 260 deg. C and 30 bar hydrogen pressure, the Li-Al-N ternary system initially absorbed 3.7 wt.% hydrogen, although this is not fully reversible. We observed, for the first time, hydrogen uptake by a pristine ternary nitride of Li and Al synthesized from the binary nitrides of the metals. While the Li-Ga-N ternary system also stored a significant amount of hydrogen, the storage capacity for the Li-B-N system was near zero. The hydrogenation reaction is believed to be similar to that of Li 3 N, and the enthalpies of hydrogen absorption for Li-Al-N and Li-Ga-N provide evidence that AlN and GaN, as well as the ball milling process, play a significant role in altering the thermodynamics of Li 3 N

  14. Ternary cobalt-molybdenum-zirconium coatings for alternative energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yar-Mukhamedova, Gulmira; Ved', Maryna; Sakhnenko, Nikolay; Koziar, Maryna

    2017-11-01

    Consistent patterns for electrodeposition of Co-Mo-Zr coatings from polyligand citrate-pyrophosphate bath were investigated. The effect of both current density amplitude and pulse on/off time on the quality, composition and surface morphology of the galvanic alloys were determined. It was established the coating Co-Mo-Zr enrichment by molybdenum with current density increasing up to 8 A dm-2 as well as the rising of pulse time and pause duration promotes the content of molybdenum because of subsequent chemical reduction of its intermediate oxides by hydrogen ad-atoms. It was found that the content of the alloying metals in the coating Co-Mo-Zr depends on the current density and on/off times extremely and maximum Mo and Zr content corresponds to the current density interval 4-6 A dm-2, on-/off-time 2-10 ms. Chemical resistance of binary and ternary coatings based on cobalt is caused by the increased tendency to passivity and high resistance to pitting corrosion in the presence of molybdenum and zirconium, as well as the acid nature of their oxides. Binary coating with molybdenum content not less than 20 at.% and ternary ones with zirconium content in terms of corrosion deep index are in a group ;very proof;. It was shown that Co-Mo-Zr alloys exhibits the greatest level of catalytic properties as cathode material for hydrogen electrolytic production from acidic media which is not inferior a platinum electrode. The deposits Co-Mo-Zr with zirconium content 2-4 at.% demonstrate high catalytic properties in the carbon(II) oxide conversion. This confirms the efficiency of materials as catalysts for the gaseous wastes purification and gives the reason to recommend them as catalysts for red-ox processes activating by oxygen as well as electrode materials for red-ox batteries.

  15. Crystal chemistry and magnetic properties of ternary rare earth sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plug, C.M.; Rijksuniversiteit Leiden

    1977-01-01

    The results of magnetic measurements on two groups of ternary rare earth sulphides are described, the MLnS 2 (M=Li, Na, K) type of compounds and the series Ln 2 ZrS 5 , where Ln denotes one of the rare earths. None of these compounds is metallic, excluding the possibility of RKKY-interaction. In chapter II a survey of the relevant theory on magnetic properties and crystal field splitting is given. In spite of the similarity in chemical properties of the rare earths, the crystal chemistry of their compounds is rather complex. This is due to the lanthanide contraction. The third chapter deals with the description and classification of the numerous crystal structures of both ternary and binary rare earth sulphides that have been observed. Rather simple relations between various structures are presented using a new method of structure classification. The magnetic interactions expected to be based on superexchange via the anions, which is usually very structure dependent. Experiments to study the crystallographic ordering, applying both X-ray and electron diffraction methods and the results of the magnetic measurements on the compounds MLnS 2 are reported in chapter IV. The compounds Ln 2 ZrS 5 are candidates for a systematic study of the variation of the magnetic properties along the rare earth series. The results of magnetic measurements on these compounds are presented in chapter V, combined with the results of specific heat measurements. Also the magnetic structure of two representatives, Tb 2 ZrS 5 and Dy 2 ZrS 5 , determined by neutron diffraction experiments below the ordering temperature, is reported

  16. Alternative solution model for the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 - I. A ternary Bragg-Williams ordering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiggen, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The minerals of the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 represent a complex series of solid solutions and ordering states. An understanding of those complexities requires a solution model that can both duplicate the subsolidus phase relationships and generate correct values for the activities. Such a solution model must account for the changes in the total energy of the system resulting from a change in the ordering state of the individual constituents. Various ordering models have been applied to binary carbonate systems, but no attempts have previously been made to model the ordering in the ternary system. This study derives a new set of equations that allow for the equilibrium degree of order to be calculated for a system involving three cations mixing on two sites, as in the case of the ternary carbonates. The method is based on the Bragg-Williams approach. From the degree of order, the mole fractions of the three cations in each of the two sites can be determined. Once the site occupancies have been established, a Margules-type mixing model can be used to determine the free energy of mixing in the solid solution and therefore the activities of the various components. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Structural and physical properties of new uranium and transition element ternary stannides (Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt); Proprietes structurales et physiques de nouveaux stannures ternaires a base d'uranium et d'element de transition (Fe, Co, Ni, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirambet, F

    1993-12-15

    This work is dedicated to the study of ternary stannides based on uranium. The author reviews the structural, magnetic and electric properties of different families of stannides. The study of the U{sub 2}M{sub 2}Sn family where M stands for Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt shows that the magnetic behaviour of uranium in these compounds is strongly influenced by the transition element M, which is explained by the hybridization force 5f(U) - nd(M) that depends on the number of electrons on the d shell of the M element. For instance, for the elements whose d shell is low filled (Fe, Ru), the U{sub 2}M{sub 2}Sn stannides show no magnetic order. On the other hand, when the number of d-electrons increases, a magnetic order appears progressively.

  18. Theoretical prediction and experimental confirmation of unusual ternary ordered semiconductor compounds in Sr-Pb-S system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shiqiang; Zhao, Li-Dong; Chen, Chang-Qiang; Dravid, Vinayak P; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Wolverton, Christopher M

    2014-01-29

    We examine the thermodynamics of phase separation and ordering in the ternary Ca(x)Pb(1-x)S and Sr(x)Pb(1-x)S systems by density-functional theory combined with a cluster expansion and Monte Carlo simulations. Similar to most other ternary III-V or IV-VI semiconductor alloys, we find that bulk phase separation is thermodynamically preferred for PbS-CaS. However, we predict the surprising existence of stable, ordered ternary compounds in the PbS-SrS system. These phases are previously unreported ordered rocksalt-based compounds: SrPb3S4, SrPbS2, and Sr3PbS4. The stability of these predicted ordered phases is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy observations and band gap measurements. We believe this work paves the way for a combined theory-experiment approach to decipher complex phase relations in multicomponent chalcogenide systems.

  19. Facile Synthesis of Ternary Boron Carbonitride Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Lijie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a novel and facile approach for the synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B–C–N nanotubes was reported. Growth occurred by heating simple starting materials of boron powder, zinc oxide powder, and ethanol absolute at 1150 °C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. As substrate, commercial stainless steel foil with a typical thickness of 0.05 mm played an additional role of catalyst during the growth of nanotubes. The nanotubes were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, and EELS. The results indicate that the synthesized B–C–N nanotubes exhibit a bamboo-like morphology and B, C, and N elements are homogeneously distributed in the nanotubes. A catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid (VLS mechanism was proposed for the growth of the nanotubes.

  20. Ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Büyükmumcu, Z.; Davi, M.; Denschlag, H. O.; Gönnenwein, F.; Boulyga, S. F.

    2003-03-01

    An experiment measuring ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f) was carried out at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin using the Lohengrin recoil mass separator. Parameters of energy distributions were determined for 27 ternary particles up to 30Mg and their yields were calculated. The yields of 17 further ternary particles were estimated on the basis of the systematics developed. The heaviest particles observed in the experiment are 37Si and 37S; their possible origin is discussed.

  1. Ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Bueyuekmumcu, Z.; Davi, M.; Denschlag, H.O.; Goennenwein, F.; Boulyga, S.F.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment measuring ternary particle yields in 249 Cf(n th ,f) was carried out at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin using the Lohengrin recoil mass separator. Parameters of energy distributions were determined for 27 ternary particles up to 30 Mg and their yields were calculated. The yields of 17 further ternary particles were estimated on the basis of the systematics developed. The heaviest particles observed in the experiment are 37 Si and 37 S; their possible origin is discussed

  2. A Three-dimensional Topological Model of Ternary Phase Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Yingxue; Bao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain a visualization of the complex internal structure of ternary phase diagram, the paper realized a three-dimensional topology model of ternary phase diagram with the designed data structure and improved algorithm, under the guidance of relevant theories of computer graphics. The purpose of the model is mainly to analyze the relationship between each phase region of a ternary phase diagram. The model not only obtain isothermal section graph at any temperature, but also extract a particular phase region in which users are interested. (paper)

  3. Phase diagrams of the ternary alloy with a single-ion anisotropy in the mean-field approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dely, J.; Bobak, A.

    2006-01-01

    The phase diagram of the AB p C 1-p ternary alloy consisting of Ising spins S A =32, S B =2, and S C =52 is investigated by the use of a mean-field theory based on the Bogoliubov inequality for the Gibbs free energy. The effect of the single-ion anisotropy on the phase diagrams is discussed by changing values of the parameters in the model Hamiltonian and comparison is made with the recently reported finite-temperature phase diagrams for the ternary alloy having spin S B =1

  4. Regular Functions with Values in Ternary Number System on the Complex Clifford Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We define a new modified basis i^ which is an association of two bases, e1 and e2. We give an expression of the form z=x0+ i ^z0-, where x0 is a real number and z0- is a complex number on three-dimensional real skew field. And we research the properties of regular functions with values in ternary field and reduced quaternions by Clifford analysis.

  5. Ternary complex of plasmid DNA with NLS-Mu-Mu protein and cationic niosome for biocompatible and efficient gene delivery: a comparative study with protamine and lipofectamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Mohammad Hadi; Torkzadeh-Mahanai, Masoud; Pardakhty, Abbas; Ebrahimi Meimand, Hossein Ali; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2017-10-28

    Non-viral gene delivery methods are considered due to safety and simplicity in human gene therapy. Since the use of cationic peptide and niosome represent a promising approach for gene delivery purposes we used recombinant fusion protein and cationic niosome as a gene carrier. A multi-domain fusion protein including nuclear localization motif (NLS) and two DNA-binding (Mu) domains, namely NLS-Mu-Mu (NMM) has been designed, cloned and expressed in E. coli DE3 strain. Afterward, the interested protein was purified by affinity chromatography. Binary vectors based on protein/DNA and ternary vectors based on protein/DNA/niosome were prepared. Protamine was used as a control. DNA condensing properties of NMM and protamine were evaluated by various experiments. Furthermore, we examined cytotoxicity, hemolysis and transfection potential of the binary and ternary complexes in HEK293T and MCF-7 cell lines. Protamine and Lipofectamine™2000 were used as positive controls, correspondingly. The recombinant NMM was expressed and purified successfully and DNA was condensed efficiently at charge ratios that were not harmful to cells. Peptidoplexes showed transfection efficiency (TE) but ternary complexes had higher TE. Additionally, NMM ternary complex was more efficient compared to protamine ternary vectors. Our results showed that niosomal ternary vector of NMM is a promising non-viral gene carrier to achieve an effective and safe carrier system for gene therapy.

  6. Solution-based colloidal synthesis of hybrid P3HT: Ternary CuInSe2 nanocomposites using a novel combination of capping agents for low-cost photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailesh Narain; Chawla, Parul; Akanksha; Srivastava, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, ternary CuInSe2 (CISe) chalcopyrite nanocrystallites efficiently passivated by a novel combination of capping agents viz: aniline and 1-octadecene during chemical route synthesis were dispersed in conducting polymer matrix poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By varying the composition and concentration of the ligands, the properties of the resulting CISe nanocrystallites and its corresponding polymer nanocomposites thus could be tailored. The structural, morphological and optical studies accomplished by various complimentary techniques viz. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Contact angle, Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman have enabled us to compare the different hybrid organic (polymer)-inorganic nanocomposites. On the basis of aniline-octadecene equilibrium phase diagram, the polydispersity of the CISe nanocrystals could be tuned by using controlled variations in the reaction conditions of nucleation and growth such as composition of the solvent and temperature. To the best of author's knowledge, the beneficial effects of both the capping agents; aniline and octadecene contributing well in tandem in the development of large-sized (100-125 nm) high quality, sterically- and photo-oxidative stable polycrystalline CISe and its corresponding polymer (P3HT):CISe composites with enhanced charge transfer efficiency has been reported for the first time. The low-cost synthesis and ease of preparation renders this method of great potential for its possible application in low-cost hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaics. The figure shows the Temperature vs Mole fraction graph of two different phases (aniline and 1-octadecene) in equilibrium.

  7. Speeds of sound and isothermal compressibility of ternary liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermo-acoustics Research Lab, Department of Chemistry, University of Allahabad,. Allahabad 211 002, India ... compressibility data of these industrially important organic compounds of ternary and higher liquid ... distillation. Densities and ...

  8. Ternary complex formation at mineral/solution interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leckie, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    Adsorption of trace concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals from aqueous solution is dependent on pH, absorbent and adsorbate concentration, and speciation of the metal in solution. In particular, complexation of metal ions by organic and inorganic ligands can dramatically alter adsorption behavior compared to ligand-free systems. The presence of complexing ligands can cause the formation of ''metal like'' or ''ligand like'' ternary surface complexes depending on whether adsorption of the ternary complex increases or decreases with increasing pH, respectively. Examples of ternary surface complexes behaving ''metal like'' include uranyl-EDTA surface complexes on goethite, neptunyl-EDTA surface complexes on hematite and neptunyl-humic surface complexes on gibbsite. Examples of ''ligand like'' ternary surface complexes include uranyl-carbonato and neptunyl-carbonato surface complexes on iron oxides. The effects of complex solutions and multimineralic systems are discussed. (authors). 39 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs

  9. Ordering and site occupancy of ternary elements in Fe{sub 3}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademacher, Thomas; Al-Kassab, Talaat; Kirchheim, Reiner [Institut fuer Materialphysik, Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Ordered iron aluminides exhibit a number of advantageous properties, such as high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance and low cost. Therefore, iron aluminum based alloys are considered to replace in some cases high alloyed ferritic stainless steels, especially DO{sub 3} - ordered Fe{sub 3}Al. The mechanical properties and high-temperature stability can be optimized when ternary elements are added. In this study the site occupancy of ternary elements (4at.%V, 5at.%Cr, 5at.%Mn) has been investigated by means of Atom Probe Tomography (APT). A special analysis algorithm allows resolving the atom layers for different measurement directions which enables determining site preferences. Additionally, comparing the succession of layers with simulations the binding energies of the participating elements can be estimated.

  10. A new hybrid double divisor ratio spectra method for the analysis of ternary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Rasha M.; Maher, Hadir M.

    2008-10-01

    A new spectrophotometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ternary mixtures, without prior separation steps. This method is based on convolution of the double divisor ratio spectra, obtained by dividing the absorption spectrum of the ternary mixture by a standard spectrum of two of the three compounds in the mixture, using combined trigonometric Fourier functions. The magnitude of the Fourier function coefficients, at either maximum or minimum points, is related to the concentration of each drug in the mixture. The mathematical explanation of the procedure is illustrated. The method was applied for the assay of a model mixture consisting of isoniazid (ISN), rifampicin (RIF) and pyrazinamide (PYZ) in synthetic mixtures, commercial tablets and human urine samples. The developed method was compared with the double divisor ratio spectra derivative method (DDRD) and derivative ratio spectra-zero-crossing method (DRSZ). Linearity, validation, accuracy, precision, limits of detection, limits of quantitation, and other aspects of analytical validation are included in the text.

  11. On the ternary Ag – Cu – Ga system: Electromotive force measurement and thermodynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierlotka, Wojciech; Jendrzejczyk-Handzlik, Dominika; Fitzner, Krzysztof; Handzlik, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The ternary silver–copper–gallium system found application as a solder material in jewel crafting and electronics, thus a phase diagram of this system seems to be important tool, which is necessary for a proper application of different alloys. The activity of gallium in liquid phase was determined by electromotive measurement technique and after that the equilibrium diagram of Ag – Cu – Ga was modeled based on available experimental data using Calphad approach. A set of Gibbs energies was found and used for calculation a phase diagram and thermodynamic properties of liquid phase. The experimental data was reproduced well by calculation. - Highlights: • For the first time activity of Ga in liquid Ag – Cu – Ga alloys was measured. • For the first time the ternary Ag – Cu – Ga system was thermodynamically modeled. • Modeled Ag – Cu – Ga system reproduces experimental data well

  12. Effect of ternary additions on the oxidation resistance of Ti5Si3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thom, A.J.; Akinc, M.; Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA

    1995-01-01

    Refractory intermetallic silicides are receiving increasing consideration for use as high temperature structural materials. Ti 5 Si 3 -based compositions are attractive due to their ability to incorporate a variety of interstitial ternary additions. These ternary additions present a unique opportunity to potentially tailor physical properties. Previous experimental work has shown that these additions significantly increase the otherwise poor oxidation resistance of undoped Ti 5 Si 3 above 700 C. Recent experimental work by the authors on the oxidation of small atom doped Ti 5 Si 3 is discussed. Interstitial additions of boron, carbon, and oxygen substantially improve the isothermal oxidation resistance of Ti 5 Si 3 at 1,000 C. In contrast, added nitrogen does not provide significant improvement. Even up to 1,306 C, interstitial oxygen imparts excellent oxidation resistance with a mass gain of 1.1 mg/cm 2 after 240 hours

  13. kW-level commercial Yb-doped aluminophosphosilicate ternary laser fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shihao; Zhan, Huan; Li, Yuwei; Liu, Shuang; Jiang, Jiali; Peng, Kun; Wang, Yuying; Ni, Li; Wang, Xiaolong; Jiang, Lei; Yu, Juan; Liu, Gang; Lu, Pengfei; Wang, Jianjun; Jing, Feng; Lin, Aoxiang

    2018-03-01

    Based on a master oscillator power amplifier configuration, laser performance of commercial Nufern-20/400-8M Ybdoped aluminophosphosilicate ternary laser fiber was investigated. Pumped by 976 nm laser diodes, 982 W laser output power was obtained with a slope efficiency of 84.9%. Spectrum of output was centered at 1066.56nm with 3dB bandwidth less than 0.32 nm, and the nonlinearity suppression ratio was more than 39dB. Beam quality of Mx2 and M2y were 1.55 and 1.75 at 982 W, respectively. The laser performance indicated that Nufern-20/400-8M Yb-doped aluminophosphosilicate ternary laser fiber is highly competitive for industry fiber laser use.

  14. Solving the Ternary Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Logic Gate Problem by Means of Adiabatic Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecar, Primoz; Mraz, Miha; Zimic, Nikolaj; Janez, Miha; Lebar Bajec, Iztok

    2008-06-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) are one of the most promising alternative platforms of the future. Recent years have witnessed the development of basic logic structures as well as more complex processing structures, however most in the realm of binary logic. On the grounds that future platforms should not disregard the advantages of multi-valued logic, Lebar Bajec et al. were the first to show that quantum-dot cellular automata can be used for the implementation of ternary logic as well. In their study the ternary AND and OR logic functions proved to be the most troublesome primitive to implement. This research presents a revised solution that is based on adiabatic switching.

  15. Prediction of phase equilibria and thermal analysis in the Bi-Cu-Pb ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manasijevic, Dragan [University of Belgrade, Technical Faculty, VJ 12, 19210 Bor (Serbia); Mitovski, Aleksandra, E-mail: amitovski@tf.bor.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Technical Faculty, VJ 12, 19210 Bor (Serbia); Minic, Dusko [University of Pristina, Faculty of Technical Sciences, 38220 Kosovska Mitrovica (Serbia); Zivkovic, Dragana; Marjanovic, Sasa [University of Belgrade, Technical Faculty, VJ 12, 19210 Bor (Serbia); Todorovic, Radisa [Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Zeleni Bulevar 35, 19210 Bor (Serbia); Balanovic, Ljubisa [University of Belgrade, Technical Faculty, VJ 12, 19210 Bor (Serbia)

    2010-05-20

    The knowledge about phase diagram of the Bi-Cu-Pb ternary system is of importance in development of copper-lead based bearing materials, soldering and in refining of copper and lead. In this work, the phase diagram of the Bi-Cu-Pb ternary system was calculated by the CALPHAD method using binary thermodynamic parameters included in the COST 531 database. The results include liquidus projection, invariant equilibria and three vertical sections with molar ratio Cu:Pb = 1, Cu:Pb = 1:3 and Bi:Cu = 1. Alloys, with compositions along three predicted vertical sections, were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The experimentally determined phase transition temperatures were compared with calculated results and good mutual agreement was noticed.

  16. Prediction of phase equilibria and thermal analysis in the Bi-Cu-Pb ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manasijevic, Dragan; Mitovski, Aleksandra; Minic, Dusko; Zivkovic, Dragana; Marjanovic, Sasa; Todorovic, Radisa; Balanovic, Ljubisa

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge about phase diagram of the Bi-Cu-Pb ternary system is of importance in development of copper-lead based bearing materials, soldering and in refining of copper and lead. In this work, the phase diagram of the Bi-Cu-Pb ternary system was calculated by the CALPHAD method using binary thermodynamic parameters included in the COST 531 database. The results include liquidus projection, invariant equilibria and three vertical sections with molar ratio Cu:Pb = 1, Cu:Pb = 1:3 and Bi:Cu = 1. Alloys, with compositions along three predicted vertical sections, were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The experimentally determined phase transition temperatures were compared with calculated results and good mutual agreement was noticed.

  17. Reflectance properties of one-dimensional metal-dielectric ternary photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, G. N., E-mail: gnpandey2009@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, AmityUniversity, Noida (U.P.) (India); Kumar, Narendra [Department of Physics (CASH), Modi University of Science and Technology, Lakshmangarh, Sikar, Rajsthan (India); Thapa, Khem B. [Department of Physics, U I E T, ChhatrapatiShahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur- (UP) (India); Ojha, S. P. [Department of Physics IIT, Banaras Hindu University (India)

    2016-05-06

    Metallic photonic crystal has a very important application in absorption enhancement in solar cells. It has been found that an ultra-thin metallic layer becomes transparent due to internal scattering of light through the each interface of the dielectric and metal surfaces. The metal has absorption due to their surface plasmon and the plasmon has important parameters for changing optical properties of the metal. We consider ternary metallic-dielectric photonic crystal (MDPC) for having large probabilities to change the optical properties of the MDPC and the photonic crystals may be changed by changing dimensionality, symmetry, lattice parameters, Filling fraction and effective refractive index refractive index contrast. In this present communication, we try to show that the photonic band gap in ternary metal-dielectric photonic crystal can be significantly enlarged when air dielectric constant is considered. All the theoretical analyses are made based on the transfer matrix method together with the Drude model of metal.

  18. Tricolore. A flexible color scale for ternary compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    tricolore is an R library providing a flexible color scale for the visualization of three-part/ternary compositions. Its main functionality is to color-code any ternary composition as a mixture of three primary colours and to draw a suitable color-key. tricolore flexibly adapts to different...... visualisation challenges via - discrete and continuous color support - support for unbalanced compositional data via centering - support for data with very narrow range via scaling - hue, chroma and lightness options...

  19. Analytical determination of distillation boundaries for ternary azeotropic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marcilla Gomis, Antonio; Reyes Labarta, Juan Antonio; Velasco, Raúl; Serrano Cayuelas, María Dolores; Olaya López, María del Mar

    2009-01-01

    A new straight forward algorithm to calculate distillation boundaries in ternary azeotropic systems has been developed. The proposed method allows, using cubic splines, the calculation of distillation trajectories and the calculation of that corresponding to the searched distillation boundaries. The algorithm is applied to 4 ternary liquid-vapour systems to test its validity. Vicepresidency of Research (University of Alicante) and Generalitat Valenciana (GV/2007/125)

  20. An intimately bonded titanate nanotube–polyaniline–gold nanoparticle ternary composite as a scaffold for electrochemical enzyme biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoqiang, E-mail: liuxiaoqiang@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental and Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan Province, 475004 (China); Zhu, Jie; Huo, Xiaohe; Yan, Rui [Institute of Environmental and Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan Province, 475004 (China); Wong, Danny K.Y., E-mail: Danny.Wong@mq.edu.au [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2016-03-10

    In this work, titanate nanotubes (TNTs), polyaniline (PANI) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were assembled to form a ternary composite, which was then applied on an electrode as a scaffold of an electrochemical enzyme biosensor. The scaffold was constructed by oxidatively polymerising aniline to produce an emeraldine salt of PANI on TNTs, followed by gold nanoparticle deposition. A novel aspect of this scaffold lies in the use of the emeraldine salt of PANI as a molecular wire between TNTs and GNPs. Using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a model enzyme, voltammetric results demonstrated that direct electron transfer of HRP was achieved at both TNT-PANI and TNT-PANI-GNP-modified electrodes. More significantly, the catalytic reduction current of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by HRP was ∼75% enhanced at the TNT-PANI-GNP-modified electrode, compared to that at the TNT-PANI-modified electrode. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant of HRP was found to be ∼3 times larger at the TNT-PANI-GNP-modified electrode than that at the TNT-PANI-modified electrode. Based on chronoamperometric detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, a linear range from 1 to 1200 μM, a sensitivity of 22.7 μA mM{sup −1} and a detection limit of 0.13 μM were obtained at the TNT-PANI-GNP-modified electrode. The performance of the biosensor can be ascribed to the superior synergistic properties of the ternary composite. - Highlights: • A ternary TiO{sub 2} nanotube–polyaniline–gold nanoparticle composite was developed. • New synthetic route for ternary composite with a polyaniline molecular wire between TiO{sub 2} nanotubes and gold nanoparticles. • An electrochemical biosensor with ternary composite as a scaffold. • Ternary composite facilitated improved analytical performance of electrochemical biosensor.

  1. Charge distribution in the ternary fragmentation of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil Kannan, M.T.; Balasubramaniam, M. [Bharathiar University, Department of Physics, Coimbatore (India)

    2017-08-15

    We present here, for the first time, a study on ternary fragmentation charge distribution of {sup 252}Cf using the convolution integral method and the statistical theory. The charge distribution for all possible charge combinations of a ternary breakup are grouped as a bin containing different mass partitions. Different bins corresponding to various third fragments with mass numbers from A{sub 3} = 16 to 84 are identified with the available experimental masses. The corresponding potential energy surfaces are calculated using the three cluster model for the two arrangements A{sub 1} + A{sub 2} + A{sub 3} and A{sub 1} + A{sub 3} + A{sub 2}. The ternary fragmentation yield values are calculated for the ternary combination from each bin possessing minimum potential energy. The yields of the resulting ternary combinations as a function of the charge numbers of the three fragments are analyzed for both the arrangements. The calculations are carried out at different excitation energies of the parent nucleus. For each excitation energy the temperature of the three fragments are iteratively computed conserving the total energy. The distribution of fragment temperatures corresponding to different excitation energies for some fixed third fragments are discussed. The presence of the closed shell nucleus Sn in the favourable ternary fragmentation is highlighted. (orig.)

  2. Impact of ternary blends of biodiesel on diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pongamia and waste cooking oils are the main non edible oils for biodiesel production in India. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the fuel properties and investigate the impact on engine performance using Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel and their ternary blend with diesel. The investigation of the fuel properties shows that Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel have poor cold flow property. This will lead to starting problem in the engine operation. To overcome this problem the ternary blends of diesel, waste cooking biodiesel and Pongamia biodiesel are prepared. The cloud and pour point for ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 were found to be 7 °C and 6.5 °C which are comparable to cloud and pour point of diesel 6 °C and 5 °C, respectively. The result of the test showed that brake specific fuel consumption for Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel is higher than ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 due to their lower energy content. The brake thermal efficiency of ternary blend and diesel is comparable while the Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel have low efficiency. The result of investigation showed that ternary blend can be developed as alternate fuel.

  3. Design and implementation of the modified signed digit multiplication routine on a ternary optical computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qun; Wang, Xianchao; Xu, Chao

    2017-06-01

    Multiplication with traditional electronic computers is faced with a low calculating accuracy and a long computation time delay. To overcome these problems, the modified signed digit (MSD) multiplication routine is established based on the MSD system and the carry-free adder. Also, its parallel algorithm and optimization techniques are studied in detail. With the help of a ternary optical computer's characteristics, the structured data processor is designed especially for the multiplication routine. Several ternary optical operators are constructed to perform M transformations and summations in parallel, which has accelerated the iterative process of multiplication. In particular, the routine allocates data bits of the ternary optical processor based on digits of multiplication input, so the accuracy of the calculation results can always satisfy the users. Finally, the routine is verified by simulation experiments, and the results are in full compliance with the expectations. Compared with an electronic computer, the MSD multiplication routine is not only good at dealing with large-value data and high-precision arithmetic, but also maintains lower power consumption and fewer calculating delays.

  4. Homologous series of layered structures in binary and ternary Bi-Sb-Te-Se systems : Ab initio study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govaerts, K.; Sluiter, M.H.F.; Partoens, B.; Lamoen, D.

    2014-01-01

    In order to account explicitly for the existence of long-periodic layered structures and the strong structural relaxations in the most common binary and ternary alloys of the Bi-Sb-Te-Se system, we have developed a one-dimensional cluster expansion (CE) based on first-principles electronic structure

  5. High performance gas adsorption and separation of natural gas in two microporous metal-organic frameworks with ternary building units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Zhao, Tingting; Cao, Yu; Yao, Shuo; Li, Guanghua; Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Yunling

    2014-08-14

    Two novel MMOFs, JLU-Liu5 and JLU-Liu6, are based on ternary building units and exhibit high adsorption selectivity for CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 over CH4, which is attributed to steric effects and host-guest interactions. These MMOFs are promising materials for gas adsorption and natural gas purification.

  6. Potentiometric studies on ternary complexes involving some divalent transition metal ions, gallic acid and biologically abundant aliphatic dicarboxylic acids in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelatty Mohamed Radalla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation of binary and ternary complexes of the divalent transition metal ions, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ with gallic acid and the biologically important aliphatic dicarboxylic acids (adipic, succinic, malic, malonic, maleic, tartaric and oxalic acids were investigated by means of the potentiometric technique at 25 °C and I = 0.10 mol dm−3 NaNO3. The acid-base properties of the ligands were investigated and discussed. The acidity constants of gallic acid and aliphatic dicarboxylic acids were determined and used for determining the stability constants of the binary and ternary complexes formed in the aqueous medium under the above experimental conditions. The formation of the different 1:1 and 1:2 binary complexes and 1:1:1 ternary complexes are inferred from the corresponding potentiometric pH-metric titration curves. The ternary complex formation was found to occur in a stepwise manner. The stability constants of these binary and ternary systems were calculated. The values of Δ log K, percentage of relative stabilization (%R.S. and log X were evaluated and discussed. The concentration distribution of the various complex species formed in solution was evaluated and discussed. The mode of chelation of ternary complexes formed was ascertained by conductivity measurements.

  7. Ternary solution-processed organic solar cells incorporating 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianakis, Minas M.; Konios, Dimitrios; Petridis, Constantinos; Kakavelakis, George; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Kymakis, Emmanuel

    2017-12-01

    Recently, the study of ternary organic solar cells (OSCs) has attracted the efforts of the scientific community, leading to significantly higher performance due to the enhanced harvesting of incoming irradiation. Here, for the first time, and in order to promote this OSC architecture, we review the progress implemented by the application of two-dimensional (2D) materials in the field of blend bulk heterojunction ternary OSCs. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) improvements of the order of 40% compared to the reference binary devices, and PCEs in excess of 8% have been reported by incorporating graphene-based or other 2D materials as a third element inside the active layer. These OSCs combine the synergetic advantages of ternary devices and the superb properties of the 2D material family. In conclusion, the incorporation of the unique properties of graphene and other 2D materials inside the active layer opens up a very promising pathway in the design and construction of high-performance, simply fabricated and low- cost photovoltaic devices.

  8. On the decoding process in ternary error-correcting output codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sergio; Pujol, Oriol; Radeva, Petia

    2010-01-01

    A common way to model multiclass classification problems is to design a set of binary classifiers and to combine them. Error-Correcting Output Codes (ECOC) represent a successful framework to deal with these type of problems. Recent works in the ECOC framework showed significant performance improvements by means of new problem-dependent designs based on the ternary ECOC framework. The ternary framework contains a larger set of binary problems because of the use of a "do not care" symbol that allows us to ignore some classes by a given classifier. However, there are no proper studies that analyze the effect of the new symbol at the decoding step. In this paper, we present a taxonomy that embeds all binary and ternary ECOC decoding strategies into four groups. We show that the zero symbol introduces two kinds of biases that require redefinition of the decoding design. A new type of decoding measure is proposed, and two novel decoding strategies are defined. We evaluate the state-of-the-art coding and decoding strategies over a set of UCI Machine Learning Repository data sets and into a real traffic sign categorization problem. The experimental results show that, following the new decoding strategies, the performance of the ECOC design is significantly improved.

  9. Ionic conductivity of ternary electrolyte containing sodium salt and ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egashira, Minato; Asai, Takahito; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ternary electrolyte containing NaBF 4 , polyether and ionic liquid has been prepared. ► The conductivity of the electrolytes has been evaluated toward content of ionic liquid. ► The conductivity shows maximum 1.2 mS cm −1 and is varied in relation to solution structure. - Abstract: For the development of novel non-aqueous sodium ion conductor with safety of sodium secondary cell, non-flammable ionic liquid is attractive as electrolyte component. A preliminary study has been carried out for the purpose of constructing sodium ion conducting electrolyte based on ionic liquid. The solubility of sodium salt such as NaBF 4 in ionic liquid is poor, thus the ternary electrolyte has been prepared where NaBF 4 with poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDME) as coordination former is dissolved with ionic liquid diethyl methoxyethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DEMEBF 4 ). The maximum conductivity among the prepared solutions, ca. 1.2 mS cm −1 at 25 °C, was obtained when the molar ratio (ethylene oxide unit in PEGDME):NaBF 4 :DEMEBF 4 was 8:1:2. The relationship between the conductivity of the ternary electrolyte and its solution structure has been discussed.

  10. Enhancing Performance of Large-Area Organic Solar Cells with Thick Film via Ternary Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqi; Zhao, Yifan; Fang, Jin; Yuan, Liu; Xia, Benzheng; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Zaiyu; Zhang, Yajie; Ma, Wei; Yan, Wei; Su, Wenming; Wei, Zhixiang

    2017-06-01

    Large-scale fabrication of organic solar cells requires an active layer with high thickness tolerability and the use of environment-friendly solvents. Thick films with high-performance can be achieved via a ternary strategy studied herein. The ternary system consists of one polymer donor, one small molecule donor, and one fullerene acceptor. The small molecule enhances the crystallinity and face-on orientation of the active layer, leading to improved thickness tolerability compared with that of a polymer-fullerene binary system. An active layer with 270 nm thickness exhibits an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.78%, while the PCE is less than 8% with such thick film for binary system. Furthermore, large-area devices are successfully fabricated using polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/Silver gride or indium tin oxide (ITO)-based transparent flexible substrates. The product shows a high PCE of 8.28% with an area of 1.25 cm 2 for a single cell and 5.18% for a 20 cm 2 module. This study demonstrates that ternary organic solar cells exhibit great potential for large-scale fabrication and future applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Experimental and thermodynamic investigation of Al-Cu-Nd ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, W.M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Jiang, Y. [Hunan Sushi Guangbo Testing Techniques Co. LTD, Changsha (China); Guo, Z.Y.; Zeng, L.J.; Tan, M.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Meggs, C. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Zhang, L.G., E-mail: ligangzhang@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Liu, L.B., E-mail: pdc@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Jin, Z.P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2017-07-01

    The phase relationships in the Al–Cu-Nd ternary system at 673 K have been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in backscattered electron imaging (BSE) modes. The existence of six ternary Stoichiometric compounds, namely τ{sub 1}-Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 4}Nd, τ{sub 2}-Al{sub 9}Cu{sub 8}Nd{sub 2}, τ{sub 3}-Al{sub 6}Cu{sub 7}Nd, τ{sub 4}-Al{sub 2.4}Cu{sub 8.6}Nd, τ{sub 5}-Al{sub 3}CuNd, τ{sub 6}-AlCuNd, have been confirmed. A complete thermodynamic description of the Al–Cu-Nd ternary system coupled with the CALPHAD method is obtained based on experimental results and first-principles calculations. The calculated phase equilibria were in agreement with the available experimental data. - Highlights: • Phase relationships in the Al-Cu-Nd system has been systematically investigated. • 9 three-phase regions and 4 two-phase regions are confirmed. • A complete thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Nd system is obtained. • Results of first-principle calculation consist with thermodynamic calculation.

  12. An electrochemical hydrogen meter for measuring hydrogen in sodium using a ternary electrolyte mixture

    CERN Document Server

    Sridharan, R; Nagaraj, S; Gnanasekaran, T; Periaswami, G

    2003-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor for measuring hydrogen concentration in liquid sodium that is based on a ternary mixture of LiCl, CaCl sub 2 and CaHCl as the electrolyte has been developed. DSC experiments showed the eutectic temperature of this ternary system to be approx 725 K. Impedance spectroscopic analysis of the electrolyte indicated ionic conduction through a molten phase at approx 725 K. Two electrochemical hydrogen sensors were constructed using the ternary electrolyte of composition 70 mol% LiCl:16 mol% CaHCl:14 mol% CaCl sub 2 and tested at 723 K in a mini sodium loop and at hydrogen levels of 60-250 ppb in sodium. The sensors show linear response in this concentration range and are capable of detecting a change of 10 ppb hydrogen in sodium over a background level of 60 ppb. Identification of this electrolyte system and its use in a sensor for measuring hydrogen in sodium are described in this paper.

  13. Binary and ternary photofission of thorium 232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titterton, E W; Brinkley, T A

    1950-05-01

    Work by Titterton and Goward (1949) has shown that uranium undergoes photofission into three charged fragments. Experiments have been conducted to determine whether a similar process takes place in the photofission of thorium. Some difficulties were encountered in loading plates with /sup 232/Th atoms, but this was finally accomplished by means of a technique described in detail. Plates loaded by this method were irradiated with a continuous spectrum of ..gamma.. rays of maximum energy 24 MeV from the (Atomic Energy Research Establishment) Synchrotron. Three irradiations, of 100, 150, and 180 r, were made and the resulting plates showed a fission density of 2.5 x 10/sup 4//cc at the 150 r level. In an examination involving 2500 binary photofissions, 5 cases of ternary fission involving the emission of a long range light fragment, probably an ..cap alpha..-particle, were observed. These events are described. A number-range curve was determined for the photofission tracks and is compared with a similar curve for tracks formed by the slow neutron fission of /sup 235/U in a D/sub 1/ emulsion under conditions of similar emulsion sensitivity. It appears that the energy release in the photofission of /sup 232/Th is smaller than that in the slow neutron fission of /sup 235/U. The data indicate that 124 MeV is the mean kinetic energy released in the photofission of /sup 232/Th.

  14. Anisotropy in the ternary cold fission

    CERN Document Server

    Delion, D S; Greiner, W

    2003-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous ternary cold fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf, accompanied by sup 4 He, sup 1 sup 0 Be and sup 1 sup 4 C within a stationary scattering formalism. We show that the light cluster should be born in the neck region. It decays from the first resonant eigenstate in the Coulomb plus harmonic oscillator potential, centred in this region and eccentric with respect to the symmetry axis. This description gives a simple answer to the question why the averaged values in the energy spectra of emitted clusters are close to each other, in spite of different Coulomb barriers. We have shown that the angular distribution of the emitted light particle is strongly connected with its deformation and the equatorial distance. Experimental angular distributions can be explained by the spherical shapes of emitted clusters, except for a deformed sup 1 sup 0 Be. We also predicted some dependences of half-lives for such tri-nuclear systems upon potential parameters.

  15. Delay Insensitive Ternary CMOS Logic for Secure Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. P. Nair

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As digital circuit design continues to evolve due to progress of semiconductor processes well into the sub 100 nm range, clocked architectures face limitations in a number of cases where clockless asynchronous architectures generate less noise and produce less electro-magnetic interference (EMI. This paper develops the Delay-Insensitive Ternary Logic (DITL asynchronous design paradigm that combines design aspects of similar dual-rail asynchronous paradigms and Boolean logic to create a single wire per bit, three voltage signaling and logic scheme. DITL is compared with other delay insensitive paradigms, such as Pre-Charge Half-Buffers (PCHB and NULL Convention Logic (NCL on which it is based. An application of DITL is discussed in designing secure digital circuits resistant to side channel attacks based on measurement of timing, power, and EMI signatures. A Secure DITL Adder circuit is designed at the transistor level, and several variance parameters are measured to validate the efficiency of DITL in resisting side channel attacks. The DITL design methodology is then applied to design a secure 8051 ALU.

  16. Electronic structure and phase equilibria in ternary substitutional alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traiber, A.J.S.; Allen, S.M.; Waterstrat, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A reliable, consistent scheme to study phase equilibria in ternary substitutional alloys based on the tight-binding approximation is presented. With electronic parameters from linear muffin-tin orbital calculations, the computed density of states and band structures compare well with those from more accurate abinitio calculations. Disordered alloys are studied within the tight-binding coherent-potential approximation extended to alloys; energetics of ordered systems are obtained through effective pair interactions computed with the general perturbation method; and partially ordered alloys are studied with a novel simplification of the molecular coherent-potential approximation combined with the general perturbation method. The formalism is applied to bcc-based Zr-Ru-Pd alloys which are promising candidates for medical implant devices. Using energetics obtained from the above scheme, we apply the cluster- variation method to study phase equilibria for particular pseudo- binary alloys and show that results are consistent with observed behavior of electronic specific heat coefficient with composition for Zr 0.5 (Ru, Pd) 0.5

  17. Balancing Accuracy and Computational Efficiency for Ternary Gas Hydrate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    phase transitions. This paper describes and demonstrates a numerical solution scheme for ternary hydrate systems that seeks a balance between accuracy and computational efficiency. This scheme uses a generalize cubic equation of state, functional forms for the hydrate equilibria and cage occupancies, variable switching scheme for phase transitions, and kinetic exchange of hydrate formers (i.e., CH4, CO2, and N2) between the mobile phases (i.e., aqueous, liquid CO2, and gas) and hydrate phase. Accuracy of the scheme will be evaluated by comparing property values and phase equilibria against experimental data. Computational efficiency of the scheme will be evaluated by comparing the base scheme against variants. The application of interest will the production of a natural gas hydrate deposit from a geologic formation, using the guest molecule exchange process; where, a mixture of CO2 and N2 are injected into the formation. During the guest-molecule exchange, CO2 and N2 will predominately replace CH4 in the large and small cages of the sI structure, respectively.

  18. Constitution of the ternary system Cr–Ni–Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krendelsberger, Natalja; Weitzer, Franz; Du, Yong; Schuster, Julius C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Reaction scheme and liquidus surface for Cr-Ni-Ti are given. •In the ternary the C14-type Laves phase coexists with the liquid phase. •Two ternary eutectics are identified. -- Abstract: The nature of solid–liquid phase equilibria in the ternary system Cr–Ni–Ti was investigated using electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. Literature data on solid state phase equilibria are confirmed. The Cr 2 Ti Laves phase modifications coexisting with Ni–Ti phases are clarified to be hexagonal C14-type and cubic C15-type. The C14-type Laves phase γCr 2 Ti is found to coexist with the liquid phase. It forms in the pseudobinary peritectic reaction p max1 from L + β(Cr,Ti) at 1389 °C. On further cooling γCr 2 Ti + NiTi solidify at 1202 °C in the pseudobinary eutectic e max2 . In the Cr-rich part of the system ternary eutectics occur at 1216 °C (E 1 : L = Ni 3 Ti + (Ni) + β(Cr,Ti)) and 1100 °C (E 2 : L = NiTi + Ni 3 Ti + β(Cr,Ti)), respectively. No ternary eutectic is found in the Ti-rich part. Rather the eutectic trough ends in the binary eutectic L = NiTi 2 + β(Ti)

  19. Ternary fission of spontaneously fissile uranium isomers excited by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarenko, V.E.; Molchanov, Y.D.; Otroshchenko, G.A.; Yan'kov, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    Spontaneously fissile isomers (SFI) of uranium were excited in the reactions 236,238 U(n,n') at an average neutron energy 4.5 MeV. A pulsed electrostatic accelerator and time analysis of the fission events were used. Fission fragments were detected by the scintillation method, and long-range particles from fission were detected by an ionization method. The relative probability of fission of nuclei through a spontaneously fissile isomeric state was measured: (1.30±0.01)·10 -4 ( 236 U) and (1.48±0.02)·10 -4 ( 238 U). Half-lives of the isomers were determined: 121±2 nsec (the SFI 236 U) and 267±13 nsec (the SFI 238 U). In study of the ternary fission of spontaneously fissile isotopes of uranium it was established that the probability of the process amounts to one ternary fission per 163±44 binary fissions of the SFI 236 U and one ternary fission per 49±14 binary fissions of the SFI 238 U. The substantial increase of the probability of ternary fission of SFI of uranium in comparison with the case of ternary fission of nuclei which are not in an isomeric state may be related to a special nucleon configuration of the fissile isomers of uranium

  20. The role of In in III-nitride ternary semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Redondo cubero, A

    This proposal aims to study the role of In in the outstanding efficiency of luminescent devices based on group III-nitride ternary semiconductors. To study the microscopic environments of In in GaInN and AlInN, Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) experiments will be performed using the PAC-probes $^{111m}$Cd($^{111}$Cd), $^{115}$Cd($^{115}$In) and $^{117}$Cd($^{117}$In). Temperature dependent PAC measurements using the $^{111}$In($^{111}$Cd) probe indicated that In in GaN and AlN forms a complex with a defect, possibly a nitrogen vacancy (V$_{N}$), which is stable up to high temperatures and might be involved in the luminescence mechanisms. Analysing these results two questions arose: \\\\ \\\\1. Does the fact that the actual measurement is performed with the daughter nucleus $^{111}$Cd (being an acceptor) influence the probe-defect interaction? This question can be answered by performing measurements with the complementary probe $^{117}$Cd($^{117}$In). \\\\ \\\\ 2. What is the significance of $\\textit{a...

  1. Symmetric and asymmetric ternary fission of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Wilczynski, J.; Leegte, H.K.W.; Siemssen, R.H.; Wilschut, H.W.; Grotowski, K.; Panasiewicz, A.; Sosin, Z.; Wieloch, A.

    1993-01-01

    Emission of α particles accompanying fusion-fission processes in the 40 Ar + 232 Th reaction at E( 40 Ar) = 365 MeV was studied in a wide range of in-fission-plane and out-of-plane angles. The exact determination of the emission angles of both fission fragments combined with the time-of-flight measurements allowed us to reconstruct the complete kinematics of each ternary event. The coincident energy spectra of α particles were analyzed by using predictions of the energy spectra of the statistical code CASCADE . The analysis clearly demonstrates emission from the composite system prior to fission, emission from fully accelerated fragments after fission, and also emission during scission. The analysis is presented for both symmetric and asymmetric fission. The results have been analyzed using a time-dependent statistical decay code and confronted with dynamical calculations based on a classical one-body dissipation model. The observed near-scission emission is consistent with evaporation from a dinuclear system just before scission and evaporation from separated fragments just after scission. The analysis suggests that the time scale of fission of the hot composite systems is long (about 7x10 -20 s) and the motion during the descent to scission almost completely damped

  2. Ternary alloying study of MoSi2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, D.; Li, C.; Akselsen, O.M.; Ulvensoen, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Ternary alloying of MoSi 2 with adding a series of transition elements was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Iron, Co, Ni, Cr, V, Ti, and Nb were chosen as alloying elements according to the AB 2 structure map or the atomic size factor. The studied MoSi 2 base alloys were prepared by the arc melting process from high-purity metals. The EDS analysis showed that Fe, Co, and Ni have no solid solubility in as-cast MoSi 2 , while Cr, V, Ti, and Nb exhibit limited solid solubilities, which were determined to be 1.4 ± 0.7, 1.4 ± 0.4, 0.4 ± 0.1, and 0.8 ± 0.1. Microstructural characterization indicated that Mo-Si-M VIII (M VIII = Fe, Co, Ni) and Mo-Si-Cr alloys have a two-phase as-cast microstructure, i.e., MoSi 2 matrix and the second-phase FeSi 2 , CoSi, NiSi 2 , and CrSi 2 , respectively. In as-cast Mo-Si-V, Mo-Si-Ti, and Mo-Si-Nb alloys, besides MoSi 2 and C40 phases, the third phases were observed, which have been identified to be (Mo, V) 5 Si 3 , TiSi 2 , and (Mo, Nb) 5 Si 3

  3. Multistate Memristive Tantalum Oxide Devices for Ternary Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonjoo; Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Siemon, Anne; Linn, Eike; Waser, Rainer; Rana, Vikas

    2016-11-01

    Redox-based resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) offers excellent properties to implement future non-volatile memory arrays. Recently, the capability of two-state ReRAMs to implement Boolean logic functionality gained wide interest. Here, we report on seven-states Tantalum Oxide Devices, which enable the realization of an intrinsic modular arithmetic using a ternary number system. Modular arithmetic, a fundamental system for operating on numbers within the limit of a modulus, is known to mathematicians since the days of Euclid and finds applications in diverse areas ranging from e-commerce to musical notations. We demonstrate that multistate devices not only reduce the storage area consumption drastically, but also enable novel in-memory operations, such as computing using high-radix number systems, which could not be implemented using two-state devices. The use of high radix number system reduces the computational complexity by reducing the number of needed digits. Thus the number of calculation operations in an addition and the number of logic devices can be reduced.

  4. Integrated Ternary Bioinspired Nanocomposites via Synergistic Toughening of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shanshan; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Anyuan; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2015-12-22

    With its synergistic toughening effect and hierarchical micro/nanoscale structure, natural nacre sets a "gold standard" for nacre-inspired materials with integrated high strength and toughness. We demonstrated strong and tough ternary bioinspired nanocomposites through synergistic toughening of reduced graphene oxide and double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT) and covalent bonding. The tensile strength and toughness of this kind of ternary bioinspired nanocomposites reaches 374.1 ± 22.8 MPa and 9.2 ± 0.8 MJ/m(3), which is 2.6 and 3.3 times that of pure reduced graphene oxide film, respectively. Furthermore, this ternary bioinspired nanocomposite has a high conductivity of 394.0 ± 6.8 S/cm and also shows excellent fatigue-resistant properties, which may enable this material to be used in aerospace, flexible energy devices, and artificial muscle. The synergistic building blocks with covalent bonding for constructing ternary bioinspired nanocomposites can serve as the basis of a strategy for the construction of integrated, high-performance, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based nanocomposites in the future.

  5. Ternary systems Sr-{Ni,Cu}-Si: Phase equilibria and crystal structure of ternary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, Navida; Melnychenko-Koblyuk, Nataliya; Grytsiv, Andriy; Rogl, Peter; Giester, Gerald; Wosik, Jaroslaw; Nauer, Gerhard E.

    2010-01-01

    Phase relations were established in the Sr-poor part of the ternary systems Sr-Ni-Si (900 deg. C) and Sr-Cu-Si (800 deg. C) by light optical microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction on as cast and annealed alloys. Two new ternary compounds SrNiSi 3 (BaNiSn 3 -type) and SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type) were found in the Sr-Ni-Si system along with previously reported Sr(Ni x Si 1-x ) 2 (AlB 2 -type). The crystal structure of SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type, x=2.7, a=0.78998(3), c=1.1337(2) nm; space group P4/nbm) was determined from X-ray single crystal counter to be a low symmetry derivative of the cubic, parent NaZn 13 -type. At higher Si-content X-ray Rietveld refinements reveal the formation of a vacant site (□) corresponding to a formula SrNi 5.5 Si 6.5 □ 1.0 . Phase equilibria in the Sr-Cu-Si system are characterized by the compounds SrCu 2-x Si 2+x (ThCr 2 Si 2 -type), Sr(Cu x Si 1-x ) 2 (AlB 2 -type), SrCu 9-x Si 4+x (0≤x≤1.0; CeNi 8.5 Si 4.5 -type) and SrCu 13-x Si x (4≤x≤1.8; NaZn 13 -type). The latter two structure types appear within a continuous solid solution. Neither a type-I nor a type-IX clathrate compound was encountered in the Sr-{Cu,Ni}-Si systems. Structural details are furthermore given for about 14 new ternary compounds from related alloy systems with Ba. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type, x=2.7, a=0.78998(3), c=1.1337(2) nm; space group P4/nbm) was determined from X-ray single crystal counter to be a low symmetry derivative of the cubic, parent NaZn 13 -type and is related to CeNi 8.5 Si 4.5 -type.

  6. Experimental and thermodynamic study of the Er-H-Zr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascaro, A.

    2012-01-01

    This work at CEA is being achieved in the framework of the development of an innovating concept including the neutronic solid burnable poison, such as erbium, inside the cladding of pressurized water reactors. These new claddings are constituted by a liner of a zirconium base alloy slightly enriched in erbium between two liners of industrial zirconium alloys. Into the reactor core, the water dissociates at the surface of the cladding. So it is interesting to evaluate the interactions between the hydrogen released and the Zr-Er alloy. To do so, the Er-H-Zr ternary system has to be determined such similarly to its associated binaries. This can be done by experimental determination and by thermodynamic modelling. Both techniques were used in this work. Er-Zr and H-Zr have already been studied experimentally and modelled, but the Er-H binary system is almost unknown. So, we studied it experimentally. Then, it has been modelled using the Calphad method. We obtain a new evaluation of the Er-H binary system with phases limits rather different than what has been proposed in the literature. In order to determine the phase limits and, the potential existence of a ternary compound in the Er-H-Zr ternary system, an experimental study has been carried out. An original technique has been used to obtain the chemical compositions: ERDA combined with RBS. In this study, we propose a new isothermal section at 350 C of the Er-H-Zr ternary system. About the modelling, the compatibility of the three modelled binaries has been checked in order to optimize the ternary system by the projection of the three binaries. The calculation obtained is in good agreement with the experimental isothermal section at 350 C determined in our work. Finally, uniaxial tensile test campaigns have been conducted to evaluate the impact of erbium and/or hydrogen on the mechanical properties of an industrial zirconium pure alloy. We evidenced a hardening effect of erbium and hydrogen but these effects are not

  7. On ternary species mixing and combustion in isotropic turbulence at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hong; Miller, Richard S.

    2004-05-01

    Effects of Soret and Dufour cross-diffusion, whereby both concentration and thermal diffusion occur in the presence of mass fraction, temperature, and pressure gradients, are investigated in the context of both binary and ternary species mixing and combustion in isotropic turbulence at large pressure. The compressible flow formulation is based on a cubic real-gas state equation, and includes generalized forms for heat and mass diffusion derived from nonequilibrium thermodynamics and fluctuation theory. A previously derived formulation of the generalized binary species heat and mass fluxes is first extended to the case of ternary species, and appropriate treatment of the thermal and mass diffusion factors is described. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are then conducted for both binary and ternary species mixing and combustion in stationary isotropic turbulence. Mean flow temperatures and pressures of =700 K and =45 atm are considered to ensure that all species mixtures remain in the supercritical state such that phase changes do not occur. DNS of ternary species systems undergoing both pure mixing and a simple chemical reaction of the form O2+N2→2NO are then conducted. It is shown that stationary scalar states previously observed for binary mixing persist for the ternary species problem as well; however, the production and magnitude of the scalar variance is found to be altered for the intermediate molecular weight species as compared to the binary species case. The intermediate molecular weight species produces a substantially smaller scalar variance than the remaining species for all flows considered. For combustion of nonstoichiometric mixtures, a binary species mixture, characterized by stationary scalar states, results at long times after the lean reactant is depleted. The form of this final scalar distribution is observed to be similar to that found in the binary flow situation. A series of lower resolution simulations for a variety of species is then

  8. Model for competitive binary and ternary ion-molecule reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, E.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanism by which competitive binary and ternary ion-molecule reactions can occur is proposed. Calculations are undertaken for the specific system CH3(+) + NH3 + He which has been studied in the laboratory by Smith and Adams (1978), and the potential surface of which has been studied theoretically by Nobes and Radom (1983). It is shown that a potential-energy barrier in the exit channel prevents the rapid dissociation of collision complexes with large amounts of angular momentum and thereby allows collisional stabilization of the complexes. The calculated ternary-reaction rate coefficient is in good agreement with the experimental value, but a plot of the effective two-body rate coefficient of the ternary channel vs helium density does not quite show the observed saturation. 21 references

  9. Collective and tracer diffusion kinetics in the ternary random alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belova, I.V.; Murch, G.E.; Allnatt, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, collective and tracer diffusion kinetics is addressed for the ternary random alloy. A formal solution from the self-consistent theory of Moleko et al (Moleko L K, Allnatt A R and Allnatt E L 1989 Phil. Mag. A 59 141) is derived for collective diffusion and compared with the corresponding solution for the binary random alloy. Tracer diffusion in the ternary alloy is treated from the perspective of a special case of the quaternary random alloy. Results from Monte Carlo calculations for tracer and collective correlation factors (for the bcc ternary random alloy) are found to be in excellent agreement with this self-consistent theory but in only semi-quantitative agreement with the earlier theory of Manning (Manning J R 1971 Phys. Rev. B 4 1111). (author)

  10. Constitutional studies of the molybdenum-ruthenium-palladium ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, L.A.; Pratt, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental and computational study has been made of phase equilibria in the Mo-Ru-Pd ternary system. The constitution of annealed binary and ternary alloys was investigated using optical and electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and SEM phase analysis techniques. Limited thermodynamic measurements were made using the ZrO 2 solid electrolyte e.m.f. method. The data obtained from the various techniques were used to construct a ternary isothermal section at 1473 K. The experimentally determined section is compared with a calculated section for the same temperature, computed using thermodynamic coefficients derived solely from binary system information. Lattice parameters are reported for the b.c.c., f.c.c. and c.p.h. solid solutions and for the σ phase. (orig.)

  11. Thermal decomposition of cesium-ethylene-ternary graphite intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, R.; Oishi, Y.; Arii, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the thermal decomposition of air-stable Cs-ethylene-ternary graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) is discussed. The air stability of Cs-GICs is improved remarkably after the absorption of ethylene into their interlayer nanospace, because the ethylene molecules oligomerize and block the movement of Cs atoms. In addition, the evaporation of Cs atoms from the Cs-ethylene-ternary GICs is observed above 400 o C under a N 2 atmosphere of 100 Pa by ion attachment mass spectrometry. Although the results indicate that Cs-ethylene-ternary GICs remain stable up to approximately 400 o C, their thermal stability is not very high as compared to that of Cs-GICs.

  12. α-ternary decay of Cf isotopes, statistical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Jayesh George; Santhosh, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The process of splitting a heavier nucleus to three simultaneous fragments is termed as ternary fission and compared to usual binary fission, it is a rare process. Depending on the nature of third particle either it is called light charged particle (LCP) accompanying fission if it is light or true ternary fission if all three fragments have nearly same mass distributions. After experimental observations in early seventies, initially with a slow pace, now theoretical studies in ternary fission has turned to a hot topic in nuclear decay studies especially in past one decade. Mean while various models have been developed, existing being modified and seeking for new with a hope that it can beam a little more light to the profound nature of nuclear interaction. In this study a statistical method, level density formulation, has been employed

  13. Completed Local Ternary Pattern for Rotation Invariant Texture Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H. Rassem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC, have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter’s weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.

  14. The partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremner, Murray R; Sanchez-Ortega, Juana

    2010-01-01

    The alternating ternary sum in an associative algebra, abc - acb - bac + bca + cab - cba, gives rise to the partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra with products dashv and vdash by making the argument a the center of each term. We use computer algebra to determine the polynomial identities in degree ≤9 satisfied by this new trilinear operation. In degrees 3 and 5, these identities define a new variety of partially alternating ternary algebras. We show that there is a 49-dimensional space of multilinear identities in degree 7, and we find equivalent nonlinear identities. We use the representation theory of the symmetric group to show that there are no new identities in degree 9.

  15. New ternary hydride formation in U-Ti-H system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takuya; Kayano, Hideo; Yamawaki, Michio.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen absorption properties of two titanium-rich uranium alloys, UTi 2 and UTi 4 , were studied in order to prepare and identify the recently found ternary hydride. They slowly reacted with hydrogen of the initial pressure of 10 5 Pa at 873K to form the ternary hydride. The hydrogenated specimen mainly consisted of the pursued ternary hydride but contained also U(or UO 2 ), TiH x , and some transient phases. X-ray powder diffraction and Electron Probe Micro Analysis proved that it was the UTi 2 H x with the expected MgCu 2 structure, though all the X-ray peaks were broad probably because of inhomogeneity. This compound had extremely high resistance to powdering on its formation, which showed high potential utilities for a non-powdering tritium storage system or for other purposes. (author)

  16. Equilibrium phase diagram of the Ag-Au-Pb ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassam, S.; Bahari, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The phase diagram of the ternary system Ag-Au-Pb has been established using differential thermal analysis and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Four vertical sections were studied: X Pb = 0.40, X Au /X Pb = 1/3, X Ag /X Au = 4/1 and X Ag /X Au = 1/1. Two ternary transitory peritectics and one ternary eutectic were characterized. A schematic representation of the ternary equilibria is given

  17. A novel ternary logic circuit using Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisue, M.; Oochi, K.; Nishizawa, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a novel Josephson complementary ternary logic circuit named as JCTL. This fundamental circuit is constructed by combination of two SQUIDs, one of which is switched in the positive direction and the other in the negative direction. The JCTL can perform the fundamental operations of AND, OR, NOT and Double NOT in ternary form. The principle of the operation and design criteria are described in detail. The results of the simulation show that the reliable operations of these circuits can be achieved with a high performance

  18. PM1 steganographic algorithm using ternary Hamming Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PM1 algorithm is a modification of well-known LSB steganographic algorithm. It has increased resistance to selected steganalytic attacks and increased embedding efficiency. Due to its uniqueness, PM1 algorithm allows us to use of larger alphabet of symbols, making it possible to further increase steganographic capacity. In this paper, we present the modified PM1 algorithm which utilizies so-called syndrome coding and ternary Hamming code. The modified algorithm has increased embedding efficiency, which means fewer changes introduced to carrier and increased capacity.[b]Keywords[/b]: steganography, linear codes, PM1, LSB, ternary Hamming code

  19. Binary and ternary carbides and nitrides of the transition metals and their phase relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.

    1981-01-01

    The occurrance and the structure of the binary and ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides are described. Phase diagrams are assessed for most of the binary and ternary systems. Many ternary phase diagrams are published in this report for the first time. (orig.) [de

  20. Sc-W-Si and Sc-W-Ge ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.; Voznyak, O.M.; Bodak, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    Phase equilibria in Sc-W-Si and Sc-W-Ge ternary systems are investigated at 1070 K. Sc 2+x W 3-x Si 4 ternary compound (0≤x≤1) is determined, its crystal structure (Ce 2 Sc 3 Si 4 structural type), as well as, change of elementary cell parameters and microhardness within homogeneity range are determined. Regularities of component interaction within Sc-M-Si(Ge) (M-Cr, Mo, W) ternary system are determined. Ternary systems with Mo and W are more closer to each other according to the phase equilibria character, than to ternary systems with Cr

  1. Effect of rubber polarity on selective wetting of carbon nanotubes in ternary blends

    OpenAIRE

    Le, H.H.; Parsaker, M.; Sriharish, M.N.; Henning, S.; Menzel, M.; Wiessner, S.; Das, A.; Do, Q.K.; Heinrich, G.; Radusch, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the rubber-filler gel (wetting concept) the kinetics of selective wetting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in ternary styrene butadiene rubber (SBR)/butadiene rubber (BR)/natural rubber (NR) blends was qualitatively and quantitatively characterized. Almost all CNTs are found to be wetted by the non-polar NR but not by the other non-polar rubber like BR or weakly polar SBR. It was proposed that phos...

  2. First principle study of UHTC ternary diboride, Cr2AlB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Anugya; Rajpoot, Priyanka; Verma, U. P.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper ab-initio study of the structural, electronic and optical properties of ternary metal boride Cr2AlB2 using full potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method based on the density functional theory (DFT). The study of structural properties shows that Cr2AlB2 is metallic in nature and have orthorhombic crystal structure. The optical properties show that it possess anisotropic behavior, which have wide applications in electricity production through concentration of solar power (CSP) technology. To the best of our knowledge, theoretical study of the optical properties of Cr2AlB2 is reported for the first time.

  3. DNA-directed self-assembly of gold nanoparticles into binary and ternary nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hui; Yi Changqing; Tzang Chihung; Zhu Junjie; Yang Mengsu

    2007-01-01

    The assembly and characterization of gold nanoparticle-based binary and ternary structures are reported. Two strategies were used to assemble gold nanoparticles into ordered nanoscale architectures: in strategy 1, gold nanoparticles were functionalized with single-strand DNA (ssDNA) first, and then hybridized with complementary ssDNA-labelled nanoparticles to assemble designed architectures. In strategy 2, the designed architectures were constructed through hybridization between complementary ssDNA first, then by assembling gold nanoparticles to the scaffolding through gold-sulfur bonds. Both TEM measurements and agarose gel electrophoresis confirmed that the latter strategy is more efficient in generating the designed nanostructures

  4. Calculated site substitution in ternary gamma'-Ni3Al: Temperature and composition effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    -tin orbitals method in conjunction with the local-density and multisublattice coherent-potential approximations and include all 3d, 4d, 5d, and noble metals. The calculations show the existence of simple trends in the alloying behavior of the gamma' phase which may be explained in a Friedel-like model based...... on the interaction between Ni and the added species. It is shown that the commonly accepted interpretation of the site substitution behavior of Cu and Pd may be incorrect because of site substitution reversal at high temperatures. It is further shown that the direction of the solubility lobe in the ternary phase...

  5. Ternary mixtures of alkyltriphenylphosphonium bromides (C12 TPB ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Critical Micellar Concentrations (CMCs) by conductometry, but their ternary mixtures produce single ... efficiently quenched pyrene fluorescence; the performances of the homologues in this respect were assessed. Keywords ..... The shape of the amphiphile aggregates ..... Haque M E, Das A R and Moulik S P 1999 J. Colloid.

  6. Robust Self-Triggered Coordination With Ternary Controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo; Nair, G.N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper regards the coordination of networked systems, studied in the framework of hybrid dynamical systems. We design a coordination scheme which combines the use of ternary controllers with a self-triggered communication policy. The communication policy requires the agents to measure, at each

  7. Excess isentropic compressibility and speed of sound of the ternary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These excess properties of the binary mixtures were fitted to Redlich-Kister equation, while the Cibulka's equation was used to fit the values related to the values to the ternary system. These excess properties have been used to discuss the presence of significant interactions between the component molecules in the binary ...

  8. Robust self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper regards the coordination of networked systems, studied in the framework of hybrid dynamical systems. We design a coordination scheme which combines the use of ternary controllers with a self-triggered communication policy. The communication policy requires the agents to measure, at each

  9. Calculation of Fe–B–V ternary phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homolová, Viera; Kroupa, Aleš; Výrostková, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase diagram of Fe–B–V system was modelled by CALPHAD method. ► Database for thermodynamic calculations for Fe–B–V system was created. ► The new ternary phase was found in 67Fe–18B–15V [in at.%] alloy. - Abstract: The phase equilibria of the Fe–B–V ternary system are studied experimentally and theoretically in this paper. Phase diagram of the system was modelled by CALPHAD method. Boron was modelled as an interstitial element in the FCC and BCC solid solutions. The calculations of isothermal sections of phase diagram are compared with our experimental results at 903 and 1353 K and with available literature experimental data. New ternary phase (with chemical composition 28Fe32V40B in at.%) was found in 67Fe–18B–15V alloy [in at.%]. Further experimental studies for the determination of exact nature of the ternary phase including crystallographic information are necessary.

  10. Effect of Limestone Powder on Microstructure of Ternary Cementitious System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Ye, G.

    2012-01-01

    The pressure to reach sustainability favours the development of ternary composite cement. The synergistic effect on mechanical behaviour at 28 days between limestone powder (LP) and pozzolanic additives, i.e. fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS), has been documented. In order to better

  11. Studies on Molecular Interaction in Ternary Liquid Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uvarani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity for the ternary liquid mixtures of cyclohexanone with 1-propanol and 1-butanol in carbon tetrachloride were measured at 303 K. The acoustical parameters and their excess values were calculated. The trends in the variation of these excess parameters were used to discuss the nature and strength of the interactions present between the component molecules.

  12. Segregation in ternary alloys: an interplay of driving forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyten, J.; Helfensteyn, S.; Creemers, C.

    2003-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations combined with the constant bond energy (CBE) model are set up to explore and understand the general segregation behaviour in ternary alloys as a function of composition and more in particular the segregation to Cu-Ni-Al (1 0 0) surfaces. Besides its simplicity, allowing swift simulations, which are necessary for a first general survey over all possible compositions, one of the advantages of the CBE model lies in the possibility to clearly identify the different driving forces for segregation. All simulations are performed in the Grand Canonical Ensemble, using a new algorithm to determine the chemical potential of the components. Notwithstanding the simplicity of the CBE model, one extra feature is evidenced: depending on the values of the interatomic interaction parameters, in some regions of the ternary diagram, a single solid solution becomes thermodynamically unstable, leading to demixing into two conjugate phases. The simulations are first done for three hypothetical systems that are however representative for real alloy systems. The three systems are characterised by different sets of interatomic interaction parameters. These extensive simulations over the entire composition range of the ternary alloy yield a 'topographical' segregation map, showing distinct regions where different species segregate. These distinct domains originate from a variable interplay between the driving forces for segregation and attractive/repulsive interactions in the bulk of the alloy. The results on these hypothetical systems are very helpful for a better understanding of the segregation behaviour in Cu-Ni-Al and other ternary alloys

  13. Univolatility curves in ternary mixtures: geometry and numerical computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shcherbakova, Nataliya; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new non-iterative numerical algorithm allowing computation of all univolatility curves in homogeneous ternary mixtures independently of the presence of the azeotropes. The key point is the concept of generalized univolatility curves in the 3D state space, which allows the main comput...

  14. Phase coexistence and line tension in ternary lipid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, T.; Leeuwen, van J.M.J.; Storm, C.

    2009-01-01

    The ternary system consisting of cholesterol, a saturated lipid, and an unsaturated one exhibits a rich phase behavior with multiple phase coexistence regimes. Remarkably, phase separation even occurs when each of the three binary systems consisting of two of these components is a uniform mixture.

  15. Thermodynamic evaluation of the Ti-Al-O ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.-J.

    1997-01-01

    A thermodynamic evaluation of the Ti-Al-O ternary system has been made by using thermodynamic models for the Gibbs energy of individual phases. A consistent model parameter set was determined so that the calculation of isothermal sections and other thermodynamic quantities becomes possible. The agreement between calculation and corresponding experimental data was generally good along large temperature and composition range. (orig.)

  16. Binary and ternary solid-liquid phase equilibrium for the systems formed by succinic acid, urea and diethylene glycol: Determination and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanxun; Li, Congcong; Han, Shuo; Zhao, Hongkun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of succinic acid in diethylene glycol was determined. • Solubility of succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol was determined. • Three ternary phase diagrams were constructed for the ternary system. • The ternary phase diagrams were correlated using NRTL model. - Abstract: In this work, the solid-liquid phase equilibrium for binary system of succinic acid + diethylene glycol at the temperatures ranging from (298.15 to 333.15) K and ternary system of (succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol) at 298.15 K, 313.15 K and 333.15 K was built by using the isothermal saturation method under atmospheric pressure (101.2 kPa), and the solubilities were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography. The solid-phases formed in the ternary system of ((succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol)) were confirmed by Schreinemaker’s method of wet residue, which corresponded to urea, succinic acid, and adduct 2:1 urea-succinic acid (mole ratio). Three isothermal phase diagrams for the ternary system were constructed based on the measured mutual solubility. Each isothermal phase diagram included six crystallization fields, three invariant curves, two invariant points and two co-saturated points. The crystalline region of adduct 2:1 urea-succinic acid is larger than those of the other two solids. The solubility of succinic acid in diethylene glycol was correlated with the modified Apelblat equation, λh equation and NRTL model; and the mutual solubility of the ternary ((succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol)) system was correlated and calculated by the NRTL model. The interaction parameters’ values of succinic acid-urea were acquired. The value of RMSD was 7.11 × 10 −3 for the ternary system. The calculation results had good agreement with the experiment values. Furthermore, the densities of equilibrium liquid phase were acquired. The phase diagrams and the thermodynamic model of the ternary system could provide the basis for design of

  17. Molecular designing of novel ternary copolymers of donor-acceptor polymers using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Vinita; Bakhshi, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Alternate arrangement of donor acceptor moieties in the carbon backbone chain of an organic conjugated polymer is capable of inducing charge transfer and affects the electronic properties of the copolymer. Genetic algorithm along with simple NFC (negative factor counting) and IIM (inverse iteration method) has been used to optimize the properties of novel ternary copolymers based on polypyrrole PPy, polythiophene PTh and polyfuran PFu (as donor moieties) and containing >C=O and >C=CF 2 bridging units as acceptor moieties. - Abstract: An efficient designing route to novel ternary copolymers consisting of polypyrrole (PPy), polythiophene (PTh) and polyfuran (PFu) is developed with the help of genetic algorithm. Using the band structure results obtained from ab initio crystal orbital (CO) calculations, the electronic structures and conduction properties of real ternary copolymers based on donor acceptor type polymers are investigated. The electron rich heterocyclic rings in the backbone chain of the copolymer are joined together by electron withdrawing groups Y, carbonyl group (>C=O) and difluoromethylene group (>C=CF 2 ) in an attempt to design the conducting polymer with lowest band gap. A comparative study of various electronic properties is presented. The effects of substitution on the behaviour and properties of the copolymers as well as on the density of states (DOS) are discussed. Band gap decreases as a result of substitution on the polymer backbone chain due to decrease in ionization potential and increase in electron affinity values. This is expected to enhance the intrinsic conductivity of the resulting copolymer. Use of alternate donor acceptor moieties within the repeat units should maximize the extended π conjugation.

  18. Molecular designing of novel ternary copolymers of donor-acceptor polymers using genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Vinita [Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Bakhshi, A.K., E-mail: akbakhshi2000@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)

    2010-08-03

    Graphical abstract: Alternate arrangement of donor acceptor moieties in the carbon backbone chain of an organic conjugated polymer is capable of inducing charge transfer and affects the electronic properties of the copolymer. Genetic algorithm along with simple NFC (negative factor counting) and IIM (inverse iteration method) has been used to optimize the properties of novel ternary copolymers based on polypyrrole PPy, polythiophene PTh and polyfuran PFu (as donor moieties) and containing >C=O and >C=CF{sub 2} bridging units as acceptor moieties. - Abstract: An efficient designing route to novel ternary copolymers consisting of polypyrrole (PPy), polythiophene (PTh) and polyfuran (PFu) is developed with the help of genetic algorithm. Using the band structure results obtained from ab initio crystal orbital (CO) calculations, the electronic structures and conduction properties of real ternary copolymers based on donor acceptor type polymers are investigated. The electron rich heterocyclic rings in the backbone chain of the copolymer are joined together by electron withdrawing groups Y, carbonyl group (>C=O) and difluoromethylene group (>C=CF{sub 2}) in an attempt to design the conducting polymer with lowest band gap. A comparative study of various electronic properties is presented. The effects of substitution on the behaviour and properties of the copolymers as well as on the density of states (DOS) are discussed. Band gap decreases as a result of substitution on the polymer backbone chain due to decrease in ionization potential and increase in electron affinity values. This is expected to enhance the intrinsic conductivity of the resulting copolymer. Use of alternate donor acceptor moieties within the repeat units should maximize the extended {pi} conjugation.

  19. Design of ternary low-power Domino JKL flip—flop and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengjun; Yang Qiankun; Zheng Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    By researching the ternary flip—flop and the adiabatic Domino circuit, a novel design of low-power ternary Domino JKL flip—flop on the switch level is proposed. First, the switch-level structure of the ternary adiabatic Domino JKL flip—flop is derived according to the switch-signal theory and its truth table. Then the ternary loop operation circuit and ternary reverse loop operation circuit are achieved by employing the ternary JKL flip—flop. Finally, the circuit is simulated by using the Spice tool and the results show that the logic function is correct. The energy consumption of the ternary adiabatic Domino JKL flip—flop is 69% less than its conventional Domino counterpart. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. Deformation behaviour of a new magnesium ternary alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, P.; Kaya, A. Arslan; Sorgente, D.; Palumbo, G.

    2018-05-01

    Magnesium based alloys are yet to fill a greater niche especially in the automotive and aeronautical industry. In fact, such alloys have a big weight saving potential, together with good damping characteristics. However, nowadays about 90% of Magnesium products are produced by casting, mainly using two alloy systems, namely Mg-Al-Zn (AZ91D) and Mg-Al (AM50, AM60). Now the emphasis, especially after having achieved considerable success in creep resistance and understanding of the deformation behaviour of Magnesium, has been shifted towards wrought alloys; AZ31, in this case, is the most popular. In this work a multi-element Magnesium alloy, developed to improve the deformation capacity of such a lightweight material, has been investigated and compared to a commercial AZ31B. The possibility of adopting such a multi-element Magnesium alloy for manufacturing components via unconventional sheet forming (such as superplastic forming, warm hydroforming, incremental forming) has been proved in the present work focusing the attention on the superplastic field. Free inflation tests were thus conducted at 450°C setting constant pressure to investigate the superplastic behaviour (in terms of dome height and strain rate sensitivity index) of both the multi-element Magnesium alloy (Mg-2Zn-Ce) and the commercial one (AZ31B). To enhance information on the thickness distribution and investigate the microstructure evolution, metallographic analyses on the samples used to carry out free inflation tests were also performed. The developed ternary alloy manifested quite a good deformation behaviour (high strain rate sensitivity index), even being tested in the as cast condition; in addition a limited grain coarsening was observed in the specimens after deformation.

  1. Porous nickel hydroxide-manganese dioxide-reduced graphene oxide ternary hybrid spheres as excellent supercapacitor electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhou, Shuxue; Wu, Limin

    2014-06-11

    This paper reports the first nickel hydroxide-manganese dioxide-reduced graphene oxide (Ni(OH)2-MnO2-RGO) ternary hybrid sphere powders as supercapacitor electrode materials. Due to the abundant porous nanostructure, relatively high specific surface area, well-defined spherical morphology, and the synergetic effect of Ni(OH)2, MnO2, and RGO, the electrodes with the as-obtained Ni(OH)2-MnO2-RGO ternary hybrid spheres as active materials exhibited significantly enhanced specific capacitance (1985 F·g(-1)) and energy density (54.0 Wh·kg(-1)), based on the total mass of active materials. In addition, the Ni(OH)2-MnO2-RGO hybrid spheres-based asymmetric supercapacitor also showed satisfying energy density and electrochemical cycling stability.

  2. New type ternary NiAlCe layered double hydroxide photocatalyst for efficient visible-light photoreduction of CO2 into CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; (Bill Yang, Y. J.

    2018-02-01

    New type of ternary NiAlCe layered double hydroxide photocatalyst was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal reaction. The obtained photocatalyst shows efficient visible-light activity for CO2 reduction to CH4. We have investigated the optimal Ce content in the catalyst and analyzed the mechanism by materials characterization. Additionally, a novel alkali etching method was used to construct the porous structure. The effect of the porosity and morphologies on the activity is investigated. It is found that the ternary NiAlCe layered double hydroxide photocatalyst with porosity showing the best photocatalytic activity among all the samples. Based on the characterization and first principle calculation, the detailed photocatalytic mechanism of the ternary NiAlCe layered double hydroxide photocatalyst is deduced.

  3. Facilitated charge transport in ternary interconnected electrodes for flexible supercapacitors with excellent power characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanjun; He, Yongmin; Li, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jinyuan; Zhang, Zhenxing; Zhao, Changhui; Gong, Chengshi; Li, Shuankui; Pan, Xiaojun; Xie, Erqing

    2013-11-01

    Flexible and high performance supercapacitors are very critical in modern society. In order to develop the flexible supercapacitors with high power density, free-standing and flexible three-dimensional graphene/carbon nanotubes/MnO2 (3DG/CNTs/MnO2) composite electrodes with interconnected ternary 3D structures were fabricated, and the fast electron and ion transport channels were effectively constructed in the rationally designed electrodes. Consequently, the obtained 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 composite electrodes exhibit superior specific capacitance and rate capability compared to 3DG/MnO2 electrodes. Furthermore, the 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 based asymmetric supercapacitor demonstrates the maximum energy and power densities of 33.71 W h kg-1 and up to 22 727.3 W kg-1, respectively. Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycling stability with 95.3% of the specific capacitance maintained after 1000 cycle tests. Our proposed synthesis strategy to construct the novel ternary 3D structured electrodes can be efficiently applied to other high performance energy storage/conversion systems.Flexible and high performance supercapacitors are very critical in modern society. In order to develop the flexible supercapacitors with high power density, free-standing and flexible three-dimensional graphene/carbon nanotubes/MnO2 (3DG/CNTs/MnO2) composite electrodes with interconnected ternary 3D structures were fabricated, and the fast electron and ion transport channels were effectively constructed in the rationally designed electrodes. Consequently, the obtained 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 composite electrodes exhibit superior specific capacitance and rate capability compared to 3DG/MnO2 electrodes. Furthermore, the 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 based asymmetric supercapacitor demonstrates the maximum energy and power densities of 33.71 W h kg-1 and up to 22 727.3 W kg-1, respectively. Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycling stability with 95.3% of the specific capacitance maintained

  4. Studies on ternary silver sulfides; Fukugo gin ryukabutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-31

    Some sulfides containing silver show high ion mobility based on movability of silver, whose application is expected. Studies have been carried out centrally on synthesis of new compounds of ternary silver sulfides by elucidating the relationship among their compositions, structures and properties by means of crystal chemical studies mainly on their phase relationship. A few new compounds have been synthesized, such as the ones having the argyrodite family compound structure including transition metals. The synthesizing process takes a kind of turbulent liquid state structure at elevated temperatures because of movability of silver, but silver is fixed at low temperatures in different sites between skeleton structures made by other atoms. These studies on phase transfer, structures, and silver movability have been based on X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopic measurements, NMR, measurements of electric and thermal characteristics. For the studies related to compositions and structures of ternary metal sulfides which take compound crystalline structure, a structure analyzing method based on multi-dimensional hyperspatial groups was used. This paper reports the summary of the studies in seven chapters, and dwells on the remaining problems and future prospects. 158 refs., 114 figs., 65 tabs.

  5. Quantitative Comparison of Ternary Eutectic Phase-Field Simulations with Analytical 3D Jackson-Hunt Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Philipp; Kellner, Michael; Hötzer, Johannes; Nestler, Britta

    2018-02-01

    For the analytical description of the relationship between undercoolings, lamellar spacings and growth velocities during the directional solidification of ternary eutectics in 2D and 3D, different extensions based on the theory of Jackson and Hunt are reported in the literature. Besides analytical approaches, the phase-field method has been established to study the spatially complex microstructure evolution during the solidification of eutectic alloys. The understanding of the fundamental mechanisms controlling the morphology development in multiphase, multicomponent systems is of high interest. For this purpose, a comparison is made between the analytical extensions and three-dimensional phase-field simulations of directional solidification in an ideal ternary eutectic system. Based on the observed accordance in two-dimensional validation cases, the experimentally reported, inherently three-dimensional chain-like pattern is investigated in extensive simulation studies. The results are quantitatively compared with the analytical results reported in the literature, and with a newly derived approach which uses equal undercoolings. A good accordance of the undercooling-spacing characteristics between simulations and the analytical Jackson-Hunt apporaches are found. The results show that the applied phase-field model, which is based on the Grand potential approach, is able to describe the analytically predicted relationship between the undercooling and the lamellar arrangements during the directional solidification of a ternary eutectic system in 3D.

  6. Ternary Fission of U235 by Resonance Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvitek, I.; Popov, Ju.P.; Rjabov, Ju.V.

    1965-01-01

    Recently a number of papers have appeared indicating considerable variations in the ratio of the ternary-fission cross-section to the binary-fission cross-section of U 235 on transition from one neutron resonance to another. However, such variations have not been discovered in U 233 and Pu 239 . The paper reports investigations of the ternary fission of U 235 by neutrons with an energy of 0.1 to 30 eV. Unlike other investigators of the ternary fission of U 235 , we identified the ternary-fission event by the coincidence of one of the fission fragments with a light long-range particle. This made it passible to separate ternary fissions from the possible contribution of the (n, α)reaction. The measurements were performed at the fast pulsed reactor of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research by the time-of-flight method. A flight length of 100 m was used, giving a resolution of 0.6 μs/m. Gas scintillation counters filled with xenon at a pressure of 2 atm were used to record the fission fragments and the light long-range particle. A layer of enriched U 235 ∼2 mg/cm 2 thick and ∼300 cm 2 in area was applied to an aluminium foil 20-fim thick. The scintillations from the fission fragments were recorded in the gas volume on one side of the foil and those from the light long-range particles in that on the other. In order to assess the background (e.g . coincidences of the pulse from a fragment with that from a fission gamma quantum or a proton from the (n, p) reaction in the aluminium foil), a measurement was carried out in which the volume recording the long-range particle was shielded with a supplementary aluminium filter 1-mm thick. The results obtained indicate the absence of the considerable variations in the ratio between the ternary-and binary- fission cross-sections for U 235 that have been noted by other authors. Measurements showed no irregularity in the ratio of the cross-sections in the energy range 0.1 to 0.2 eV. The paper discusses the possible effect of

  7. Synthesis of chelating agent free-solid phase extractor (CAF-SPE) based on new SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SnO{sub 2} ternary oxide and application for online preconcentration of Pb{sup 2+} coupled with FAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarley, César R.T.; Scheel, Guilherme L.; Zappielo, Caroline D.; Suquila, Fabio A.C., E-mail: ctarleyquim@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Química; Ribeiro, Emerson S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Grupo LaDANM

    2018-05-01

    A new online solid phase preconcentration method using the new SiO{sub 2}/Al2O{sub 3}/SnO{sub 2} ternary oxide (designated as SiAlSn) as chelating agent free-solid phase extractor (CAF-SPE) coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for Pb{sup 2+} determination at trace levels in different kind of samples is proposed. The solid adsorbent has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and textural data. The method involves the preconcentration using time-based sampling of Pb{sup 2+} solution at pH 4.3 through 100.0 mg of packed adsorbed into a mini-column under flow rate of 4.0 mL min{sup -1} during 5 min. The elution step was accomplished by using 1.0 mol L{sup -1} HCl. A wide range of analytical curve (5.0-400.0 μg L{sup -1}), high enrichment factor (40.5), low consumption index (0.5 mL) and low limits of quantification and detection, 5.0 and 1.5 μg L{sup -1}, respectively, were obtained with the developed method. Practical application of method was tested on water samples, chocolate powder, Ginkgo biloba and sediment (certified reference material). On the basis of the results, the SiAlSn can be considered an effective adsorbent belonging to the class of CAF-SPE for Pb{sup 2+} determination from different matrices. (author)

  8. Ternary nanocomposite of polyaniline/manganese dioxide/titanium nitride nanowire array for supercapacitor electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Chi; Xie, Yibing; Du, Hongxiu; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The electroactive polyaniline (PANI) and manganese oxide (MnO 2 ) were integrated with titanium nitride (TiN) nanowire array (NWA) to form PANI/MnO 2 /TiN ternary nanocomposite for supercapacitor application. TiN NWA was prepared via a seed-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and ammonia nitridization process. The electroactive MnO 2 and PANI was layer-by-layer coated on TiN NWA to form heterogeneous coaxial structure through a stepwise electrodeposition process. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the well-separated TiN NWA was composed of well-distributed nanowires with diameters in the range of 10–30 nm and a total length of 1.5 μm. A villiform MnO 2 layer with a thickness of 10–20 nm covered on TiN NWA to form MnO 2 /TiN NWA composite. The coral-like PANI layer with thicknesses in the range of 20–50 nm covered on the above MnO 2 /TiN NWA to form PANI/MnO 2 /TiN NWA. Electrochemical measurements showed that a high specific capacitance of 674 F g −1 at a current density of 1 A g −1 (based on total mass of PANI/MnO 2 ) was obtained for PANI/MnO 2 /TiN NWA ternary nanocomposite, which was much higher than that of PANI/MnO 2 /carbon-cloth composites reported previously. This ternary nanocomposite also showed a good rate and cycling stability. Moreover, in comparison with PANI/TiN NWA or MnO 2 /TiN NWA, the specific capacitance of PANI/MnO 2 /TiN NWA was obviously enhanced due to the extra pseudocapacitance contribution and the effective surface area of coral-like PANI layer, showing the advantage of manipulating the heterogeneous coaxial configuration between PANI and MnO 2 for fundamentally improved capacitive performance. These results demonstrated that PANI/MnO 2 /TiN NWA ternary nanocomposite was a promising candidate electrode material for supercapacitor application

  9. Ternary nanocomposite of polyaniline/manganese dioxide/titanium nitride nanowire array for supercapacitor electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Chi; Xie, Yibing, E-mail: ybxie@seu.edu.cn; Du, Hongxiu; Wang, Wei [Southeast University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-01-15

    The electroactive polyaniline (PANI) and manganese oxide (MnO{sub 2}) were integrated with titanium nitride (TiN) nanowire array (NWA) to form PANI/MnO{sub 2}/TiN ternary nanocomposite for supercapacitor application. TiN NWA was prepared via a seed-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and ammonia nitridization process. The electroactive MnO{sub 2} and PANI was layer-by-layer coated on TiN NWA to form heterogeneous coaxial structure through a stepwise electrodeposition process. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the well-separated TiN NWA was composed of well-distributed nanowires with diameters in the range of 10–30 nm and a total length of 1.5 μm. A villiform MnO{sub 2} layer with a thickness of 10–20 nm covered on TiN NWA to form MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA composite. The coral-like PANI layer with thicknesses in the range of 20–50 nm covered on the above MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA to form PANI/MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA. Electrochemical measurements showed that a high specific capacitance of 674 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1} (based on total mass of PANI/MnO{sub 2}) was obtained for PANI/MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA ternary nanocomposite, which was much higher than that of PANI/MnO{sub 2}/carbon-cloth composites reported previously. This ternary nanocomposite also showed a good rate and cycling stability. Moreover, in comparison with PANI/TiN NWA or MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA, the specific capacitance of PANI/MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA was obviously enhanced due to the extra pseudocapacitance contribution and the effective surface area of coral-like PANI layer, showing the advantage of manipulating the heterogeneous coaxial configuration between PANI and MnO{sub 2} for fundamentally improved capacitive performance. These results demonstrated that PANI/MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA ternary nanocomposite was a promising candidate electrode material for supercapacitor application.

  10. Establishment of a ternary network system for evaluating the antioxidant fraction of Danhong injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Jiang, Zhenzuo; Yang, Fan; Chai, Xin; Zhu, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoya; Jiang, Miaomiao; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Buchang; Qian, Ke; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in numerous cardiovascular diseases. As an effective therapy, Danhong injection (DHI) is considered to act through an antioxidant mechanism for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. In our study, we focused on the potential contribution of the antioxidant capacity of DHI fractions (Frs) and established an innovative screening method based on a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay. A ternary network evaluation system, which was constructed based on the radical scavenging activity, the area under the activity-concentration curve and the solid content of the fractions, was implemented to select the fractions that posed the greatest antioxidant effect. As a result, Frs 5-7 and Frs 17-19 were shown to exhibit superior antioxidant activity according to the regression area of the ternary network, which was >0.5. Furthermore, the active fractions were characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with nuclear magnetic resonance. This study provided an effective method for the comprehensive evaluation of the antioxidant effect of DHI fractions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Thermophysical properties for (diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + octane) ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosteiro, L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Casas, L.M., E-mail: lmcasas@uvigo.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Curras, M.R. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Mariano, A.B. [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Comahue, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina); Legido, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Thermophysical properties of (diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + octane) were measured. > Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities were determined and correlated. > Ternary surface tension deviations were correlated using Cibulka equation. > Intermolecular interactions based on the derived properties trend were discussed. - Abstract: The density and speed of sound of the ternary mixture (diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + octane) have been measured at atmospheric pressure and in the temperature range T = (288.15 to 308.15) K. Besides, surface tension has been also determined for the same mixture at T = 298.15 K. The experimental measurements have allowed the calculation of the corresponding derived properties: excess molar volumes, excess isentropic compressibilities, and surface tension deviations. Excess properties have been correlated using Nagata and Tamura equation and correlation for the surface tension deviation has been done with the Cibulka equation. Good accuracy has been obtained. Based on the variations of the derived properties values with composition, a qualitative discussion about the intermolecular interactions was drawn.

  12. The ternary system Zr-Cr-O. Equilibrium diagrams in the zirconium rich zone at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Ruben O.; Gribaudo, Luis M.

    2003-01-01

    Equilibria among hcp α, bcc β solid solutions and cubic C 15 type intermetallic ZrCr 2 are represented graphically over Gibbs triangles in the Zr-rich zone of the ternary Zr-Cr-O system. Experimental results are obtained from zirconium-based alloys containing different oxygen compositions (0,24 and 0,62 % at.). Phase boundaries of the ternary system are extrapolated to the Zr-O and Zr-Cr binaries. The obtained values are compared to recently published evaluated diagrams of these two systems. Chromium compositions of the studied alloys were 0,3 - 1 - 2 - 4 and 15 at. %. Thermal treatment temperatures in order to allow equilibria in alloys were 840, 860, 900 and 960 C degrees. (author)

  13. Inclusion complex formation of ternary system: Fluoroscein-p-sulfonato calix[4]arene-Cu(2+) by cooperative binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawhale, Sharadchandra; Jadhav, Ankita; Rathod, Nilesh; Malkhede, Dipalee; Chaudhari, Gajanan

    2015-09-05

    The aqueous solution of fluorescein-para sulfonato calix[4]arene-metal ion complex has been studied based on absorption, fluorescence, (1)H NMR and FTIR spectroscopic results. It was found that the fluorescence intensity quenched regularly upon addition of pSCX4 and metal ion. The quenching constants and binding constants were determined for pSCX4-FL and pSCX4-FL-Cu(2+) systems. 1:1 stoichiometry is obtained for pSCX4-Cu(2+) system by continuous variation method. The NMR and IR results indicates the interaction among FL, pSCX4 and Cu(2+). The combined results demonstrate the cooperative binding to design the complex for ternary system. The life time for binary and ternary system has been studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Phase equilibrium measurements of ternary systems formed by linoleic and linolenic acids in carbon dioxide/ethanol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, Sibele R. [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Franceschi, Elton; Borges, Gustavo R.; Corazza, Marcos L.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, Erechim, RS 99700-000 (Brazil); Ferreira, Sandra R.S. [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: sandra@enq.ufsc.br

    2009-11-15

    This work reports phase equilibrium measurements for the ternary systems linoleic (acid + CO{sub 2} + ethanol) and (linolenic acid + CO{sub 2} + ethanol). The fatty acids present in the ternary systems were selected based on composition of banana peel oil extracted by supercritical CO{sub 2} at 20 MPa and 313 K. The motivation of this research relies on the fact that these unsaturated fatty acids are recognized to play an important role in lowering blood pressure and serum cholesterol and because they are present in high concentrations in banana peel extract. Besides that, equilibrium data of these compounds are scarce in literature. The phase equilibrium experiments were performed using a high-pressure variable-volume view cell over the temperature range of (303 to 343) K and pressures up to 19 MPa. For both systems, only vapour-liquid phase transitions were visually recorded for all data measured.

  15. Growth and properties of Al-rich InxAl1-xN ternary alloy grown on GaN template by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tae Su; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Jong Ock; Jeong, Hyun; Lee, Yong Seok; Nagarajan, S; Lim, Kee Young; Hong, Chang-Hee

    2008-01-01

    An Al-rich In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy was grown on a GaN template by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The GaN template was fabricated on a c-plane sapphire with a low temperature GaN nucleation layer. The growth of the 300 nm thick In x Al 1-x N layer was carried out under various growth temperatures and pressures. The surface morphology and the InN molar fraction of the In x Al 1-x N layer were assessed by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution x-ray diffraction, respectively. The AFM surface images of the In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy exhibited quantum dot-like grains caused by the 3D island growth mode. The grains, however, disappeared rapidly by increasing diffusion length and mobility of the Al adatoms with increasing growth temperature and the full width at half maximum value of ternary peaks in HR-XRD decreased with decreasing growth pressure. The MOCVD growth condition with the increased growth temperature and decreased growth pressure would be effective to grow the In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy with a smooth surface and improved quality. The optical band edge of In x Al 1-x N ternary alloys was estimated by optical absorbance and, based on the results of HR-XRD and optical absorbance measurements, we obtained the bowing parameter of the In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy at b = 5.3 eV, which was slightly larger than that of previous reports

  16. A low temperature co-fired ceramic power inductor manufactured using a glass-free ternary composite material system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanxun; Xie, Yunsong; Xie, Ru; Chen, Daming; Han, Likun; Su, Hua

    2018-03-01

    A glass-free ternary composite material system (CMS) manufactured employing the low temperature ( 890 ° C ) co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technique is reported. This ternary CMS consists of silver, NiCuZn ferrite, and Zn2SiO4 ceramic. The reported device fabricated from this ternary CMS is a power inductor with a nominal inductance of 1.0 μH. Three major highlights were achieved from the device and the material study. First, unlike most other LTCC methods, no glass is required to be added in either of the dielectric materials in order to co-fire the NiCuZn ferrite, Zn2SiO4 ceramic, and silver. Second, a successfully co-fired silver, NiCuZn, and Zn2SiO4 device can be achieved by optimizing the thermal shrinkage properties of both NiCuZn and Zn2SiO4, so that they have a very similar temperature shrinkage profile. We have also found that strong non-magnetic elemental diffusion occurs during the densification process, which further enhances the success rate of manufacturing co-fired devices. Last but not least, elemental mapping suggests that strong magnetic elemental diffusion between NiCuZn and Zn2SiO4 has been suppressed during the co-firing process. The investigation of electrical performance illustrates that while the ordinary binary CMS based power inductor can deal with 400 mA DC, the ternary CMS based power inductor is able to handle higher DC currents, 700 mA and 620 mA DC, according to both simulation and experiment demonstrations, respectively.

  17. Ternary carbide uranium fuels for advanced reactor design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Travis; Anghaie, Samim

    1999-01-01

    Solid-solution mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides such as the pseudo-ternary carbide, (U, Zr, Nb)C, hold significant promise for advanced reactor design applications because of their high thermal conductivity and high melting point (typically greater than 3200 K). Additionally, because of their thermochemical stability in a hot-hydrogen environment, pseudo-ternary carbides have been investigated for potential space nuclear power and propulsion applications. However, their stability with regard to sodium and improved resistance to attack by water over uranium carbide portends their usefulness as a fuel for advanced terrestrial reactors. An investigation into processing techniques was conducted in order to produce a series of (U, Zr, Nb)C samples for characterization and testing. Samples with densities ranging from 91% to 95% of theoretical density were produced by cold pressing and sintering the mixed constituent carbides at temperatures as high as 2650 K. (author)

  18. Reconstructing Unrooted Phylogenetic Trees from Symbolic Ternary Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Stefan; Long, Yangjing; Wu, Yaokun

    2018-03-09

    Böcker and Dress (Adv Math 138:105-125, 1998) presented a 1-to-1 correspondence between symbolically dated rooted trees and symbolic ultrametrics. We consider the corresponding problem for unrooted trees. More precisely, given a tree T with leaf set X and a proper vertex coloring of its interior vertices, we can map every triple of three different leaves to the color of its median vertex. We characterize all ternary maps that can be obtained in this way in terms of 4- and 5-point conditions, and we show that the corresponding tree and its coloring can be reconstructed from a ternary map that satisfies those conditions. Further, we give an additional condition that characterizes whether the tree is binary, and we describe an algorithm that reconstructs general trees in a bottom-up fashion.

  19. Ternary fission in an effective liquid drop model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Sergio B.; Tavares, Odilon A.P.; Dimarco, A.; Goncalves, Marcello; Guzman, Fernando; Trallero-Herrera, Carlos; Rodriguez, Oscar; Garcia, Fermin

    2001-01-01

    Full text follows: The nuclear partition in three fragments has been observed in recent experiments for fission process of 252 Cf and 24 '0 Pu. We apply the Effective Liquid Drop Model (ELDM), successfully used for discussing binary cold fission and cluster emissions for a three center geometric shape parametrization, describing the quasi-molecular deformation which can lead to ternary fragmentation. A preliminary calculation for rates of these processes are performed and the results are compared to the rate of the dominant binary fission process. A large range of parent nuclei (spherical and deformed) is covered in the calculation. The purpose is to point out others possible ternary fission process experimentally measurable. (author)

  20. Developing Low-Clinker Ternary Blends for Indian Cement Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Aritra

    2018-05-01

    In today's scenario cement-concrete has become the backbone of infrastructure development. The use of concrete is increasing day by day and so does cement. One of the major concerns is that the cement manufacturing contributes 7% of total man-made CO2 emission in the environment. At the same time India being a developing country secured the second position in cement production. On the other hand solid waste management is one of the growing problems in India. As we are one of the major contributors in this situation so, the time has come to think about the sustainable alternatives. From various researches it has been observed that the low clinker cement can be suitable option. In the present paper we have tried to develop a low clinker ternary blend for Indian cement industry using the concept of synergetic behavior of fly ash-limestone reaction and formation of more stable monocarboaluminate hydrate and hemicarboaluminate hydrate. 30% fly ash and 15% limestone and 5% gypsum have been used as supplementary cementing material for replacing 50% clinker. The mechanical properties like, compressive strength, have been studied for the fly ash limestone ternary blends cements and the results have been compared with the other controlled blends and ternary blends. The effect of intergrinding of constituent materials has shown a comparable properties which can be used for various structural application. The effect of dolomitic limestone has also been studied in fly ash limestone ternary blends and the result shows the relation between compressive strength and dolomite content is inversely proportional.

  1. Tetragonal ternary borides: superconductivity, ferromagnetism and the role of scandium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthias, B.T.; Patel, C.K.N.; Barz, H.; Corenzwit, E.; Vandenberg, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The authors report and discuss two discoveries made while studying the condensation phenomena of ternary rhodium borides, MRh 4 B 4 . M is generally a trivalent transition metal, usually a rare earth element RE. An exception is scandium which by itself does not form an isomorphous boride, but in combination with many other elements will do just that. A suprising correlation between ferromagnetic and superconducting transition temperatures has been found. (Auth.)

  2. New ternary oxides with rhenium(4) of the perovskite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, B; Nowakowski, T; Mrozinski, J [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland)

    1978-01-01

    A series of ternary oxides described by general formula CaIrsub(x)Resub(1-x)O/sub 3/, where x 0.25; 0.33; 0.66; 0.75, has been obtained. The X-ray investigations have shown, that these compounds have a distorted perovskite structure. The proximal coordination sphere of Re/sup 4 +/ and Ir/sup 4 +/ ions constituted by an octahedron of oxide ions was confirmed by the IR spectra.

  3. Thermoelectric properties of RuSb2Te ternary skutterudites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Jiří; Plecháček, T.; Drašar, Č.; Laufek, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 7 (2013), s. 1864-1869 ISSN 0361-5235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1315 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : RuSb2Te * ternary skutterudite * doping Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.675, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11664-012-2451-5

  4. Some new quasi-twisted ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Let [n, k, d]_q code be a linear code of length n, dimension k and minimum Hamming distance d over GF(q. One of the basic and most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with best possible minimum distances. In this paper seven quasi-twisted ternary linear codes are constructed. These codes are new and improve the best known lower bounds on the minimum distance in [6].

  5. Phase Equilibria of Sn-Co-Cu Ternary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Kai; Hsu, Chia-Ming; Chen, Sinn-Wen; Chen, Chih-Ming; Huang, Yu-Chih

    2012-10-01

    Sn-Co-Cu ternary alloys are promising lead-free solders, and isothermal sections of Sn-Co-Cu phase equilibria are fundamentally important for the alloys' development and applications. Sn-Co-Cu ternary alloys were prepared and equilibrated at 523 K, 1073 K, and 1273 K (250 °C, 800 °C, and 1000 °C), and the equilibrium phases were experimentally determined. In addition to the terminal solid solutions and binary intermetallic compounds, a new ternary compound, Sn3Co2Cu8, was found. The solubilities of Cu in the α-CoSn3 and CoSn2 phases at 523 K (250 °C) are 4.2 and 1.6 at. pct, respectively, while the Cu solubility in the α-Co3Sn2 phase is as high as 20.0 at. pct. The Cu solubility increases with temperature and is around 30.0 at. pct in the β-Co3Sn2 at 1073 K (800 °C). The Co solubility in the η-Cu6Sn5 phase is also significant and is 15.5 at. pct at 523 K (250 °C).

  6. Phase equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yitai; Chen, Xiaoxian; Liu, Hao [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Zhan, Yongzhong [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Center of Ecological Collaborative Innovation for Aluminum Industry

    2017-08-15

    Investigation into the reactions and phase equilibria of transition metal elements (i.e. Mo, Zr, Cr, V and Ti), Al and rare earths is academically and industrially important for the development of both refractory alloys and lightweight high-temperature materials. In this work, the equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system at 773 K have been determined by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. A new ternary phase Al{sub 4}Mo{sub 2}Ho has been found and the other ternary phase Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}Ho{sub 6} is observed. Ten binary phases in the Al-Mo and Al-Ho systems, including Al{sub 17}Mo{sub 4} rather than Al{sub 4}Mo, have been determined to exist at 773 K. The homogeneity ranges of AlMo{sub 3} and Al{sub 8}Mo{sub 3} phase are 7.5 at.% and 1 at.%, respectively. According to the phase-disappearing method, the maximum solubility of Al in Mo is about 16 at.%.

  7. Superconductivity of ternary metal compounds prepared at high pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Shirotani, I

    2003-01-01

    Various ternary metal phosphides, arsenides, antimonides, silicides and germanides have been prepared at high temperatures and high pressures. These ternary metal compounds can be classified into four groups: [1] metal-rich compounds MM' sub 4 X sub 2 and [2] MM'X, [3] non-metal-rich compounds MXX' and [4] MM' sub 4 X sub 1 sub 2 (M and M' = metal element; X and X' = non-metal element). We have studied the electrical and magnetic properties of these materials at low temperatures, and found many new superconductors with the superconducting transition temperature (T sub c) of above 10 K. The metal-rich compound ZrRu sub 4 P sub 2 with a tetragonal structure showed the superconducting transition at around 11 K, and had an upper critical field (H sub c sub 2) of 12.2 tesla (T) at 0 K. Ternary equiatomic compounds ZrRuP and ZrRuSi crystallize in two modifications, a hexagonal Fe sub 2 P-type structure [h-ZrRuP(Si)] and an orthorhombic Co sub 2 P-type structure [o-ZrRuP(Si)]. Both h-ZrRuP and h-ZrRuSi have rather h...

  8. Study on the solid state chemistry of ternary uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Toshiyuki

    1988-03-01

    With the increase of burnup of uranium oxide fuels, various kinds of fission products are formed, and the oxygen atoms combined with the consumed heavy atoms are freed. The solid state chemical and/or thermodynamic properties of these elements at high temperatures are complex, and have not been well clarified. In the present report, an approach was taken that the chemical interactions between UO 2 and these fission products can be regarded as causing overlapped effects of composing ternary uranium oxides, and formation reactions and phase behavior were studied for several ternary uranium oxides with typical fission product elements such as alkaline earth metals and rare earth elements. Precise determination methods for the composition of ternary uranium oxides were developed. The estimated accuracies for x and y values in M y U 1-y O 2+x were ± 0.006 and ± 0.004, respectively. The thermodynamic properties and the lattice parameters of the phases in the Ca-U-O and Pr-U-O systems were discussed in relation to the composition determined by the methods. Crystal structure analyses of cadmium monouranates were made with X-ray diffraction method. (author) 197 refs

  9. Characterization of interfaces in Binary and Ternary Polymer Blends by Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathaiah, C.

    2015-06-01

    A miscible blend is a single-phase system with compact packing of the polymeric chains/segments due configuration/conformational changes upon blending. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is the most employed method to ascertain whether the blend is miscible or immiscible. Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy (PLS) has been employed in recent times to study miscibility properties of polymer blends by monitoring the ortho-Positronium annihilation lifetimes as function of composition. However, just free volume monitoring and the DSC methods fail to provide the composition dependent miscibility of blends. To overcome this limitation, an alternative approach based on hydrodynamic interactions has been developed to derive this information using the same o-Ps lifetime measurements. This has led to the development of a new method of measuring composition dependent miscibility level in binary and ternary polymer blends. Further, the new method also provides interface characteristics for immiscible blends. The interactions between the blend components has a direct bearing on the strength of adhesion at the interface and hence the hydrodynamic interaction. Understanding the characteristic of interfaces which decides the miscibility level of the blend and their end applications is made easy by the present method. The efficacy of the present method is demonstrated for few binary and ternary blends.

  10. Improving Rice Modeling Success Rate with Ternary Non-structural Fertilizer Response Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zhang, Mingqing; Chen, Fang; Yao, Baoquan

    2018-06-13

    Fertilizer response modelling is an important technical approach to realize metrological fertilization on rice. With the goal of solving the problems of a low success rate of a ternary quadratic polynomial model (TPFM) and to expand the model's applicability, this paper established a ternary non-structural fertilizer response model (TNFM) based on the experimental results from N, P and K fertilized rice fields. Our research results showed that the TNFM significantly improved the modelling success rate by addressing problems arising from setting the bias and multicollinearity in a TPFM. The results from 88 rice field trials in China indicated that the proportion of typical TNFMs that satisfy the general fertilizer response law of plant nutrition was 40.9%, while the analogous proportion of TPFMs was only 26.1%. The recommended fertilization showed a significant positive linear correlation between the two models, and the parameters N 0 , P 0 and K 0 that estimated the value of soil supplying nutrient equivalents can be used as better indicators of yield potential in plots where no N or P or K fertilizer was applied. The theoretical analysis showed that the new model has a higher fitting accuracy and a wider application range.

  11. Ternary nitrogen-doped graphene/nickel ferrite/polyaniline nanocomposites for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjuan; Hao, Qingli; Lei, Wu; Xia, Xifeng; Wang, Xin

    2014-12-01

    The electrochemical property of graphene can be significantly enhanced due to the incorporating of heteroatoms into graphene. In this article, the ternary nitrogen-doped graphene/nickel ferrite/polyaniline (NGNP) nanocomposite is synthesized by a facile two-step approach and its electrochemical properties as electrodes for supercapacitors are studied by various electrochemical measurements. The specific capacitance of NGNP is 645.0 F g-1 at 1 mV s-1 and 667.0 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 in a three- and two-electrode system, respectively, much higher than other binary electrodes. In a two-electrode symmetric system, the energy density of the NGNP electrode is 92.7 W h kg-1 at a power density of 110.8 W kg-1, moreover, that of the supercapacitor based on NGNP can also reach 23.2 W h kg-1 at a power density of 27.7 W kg-1. In addition, the capacitance loses only 5% after repeating test for 5000 cycles, and about 10% after 10,000 cycles at a high current density 5 A g-1. The results demonstrate the novel ternary NGNP electrode produced by the current economical method will gain promising applications in supercapacitors and other devices by virtue of its outstanding characteristics (high specific capacitance, high power and energy density, excellent cycle life).

  12. Modification of both d33 and TC in a potassium-sodium niobate ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2015-12-28

    In this work, we simultaneously achieved a giant d33 and a high TC in a lead-free piezoelectric ternary system of (1-x-y)K0.48Na0.52NbO3-xBiFeO3-yBi0.5Na0.5ZrO3 {(1-x-y)KNN-xBF-yBNZ}. Owing to the rhombohedral-orthorhombic-tetragonal (R-O-T) phase coexistence and the enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties, the ceramics with a composition of (x = 0.006, y = 0.04) show a giant d33 of ∼428 pC N(-1) together with a TC of ∼318 °C, thereby proving that the design of ternary systems is an effective way to achieve both high d33 and high TC in KNN-based materials. In addition, a good thermal stability for piezoelectricity was also observed in these ceramics (e.g., d33 > 390 pC N(-1), T ≤ 300 °C). This is the first time such a good comprehensive performance in potassium-sodium niobate materials has been obtained. As a result, we believe that this type of material system with both giant d33 and high TC is a promising candidate for high-temperature piezoelectric devices.

  13. High-yield exfoliation of graphene using ternary-solvent strategy for detecting volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Lin; Zhang, Zhijun; Yang, Woo-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great progress in the theory and experimental verification we made in past decade, the practical application of graphene is still hindered by the lack of efficient, economical, scalable, ease-processing exfoliation method. Herein, we propose a facile, low-cost, and efficient liquid-phase exfoliation process using low boiling-temperature solvent mixture to fabricate few-layer graphene in large scale. The Hansen solubility parameter theory was applied to help optimize the composition of solvent mixture. Aqueous-based ternary-solvent mixture, for the first time, was adapted to exfoliate graphene. We demonstrate that the exfoliation efficiency using ternary-solvent mixture surpasses that from binary-solvent approach. The final product concentration after optimization was over 260 μg/ml. The concentrated graphene dispersion was used to fabricate gas sensor for detecting volatile organic gases. Taking advantage of large surface area, large number of adsorption sites, and well-preserved basal plane, the mass-produced graphene nanosheets exhibited promising sensing potential toward ethanol and methanol vapors.

  14. Effect of rubber polarity on selective wetting of carbon nanotubes in ternary blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Le

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on atomic force microscopy (AFM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis of the rubber-filler gel (wetting concept the kinetics of selective wetting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs in ternary styrene butadiene rubber (SBR/butadiene rubber (BR/natural rubber (NR blends was qualitatively and quantitatively characterized. Almost all CNTs are found to be wetted by the non-polar NR but not by the other non-polar rubber like BR or weakly polar SBR. It was proposed that phospholipids, which are linked to the α-terminal of NR can interact with the CNT surface through cation-π interactions forming strong bonding between NR and CNTs. Using the corrected surface tension value of NR, which involves the effect of phospholipids found in our previous work the selective wetting of CNTs in ternary rubber blends can be well predicted using the Z-model for a thermodynamic equilibrium state. By replacing the non-polar BR by a polar rubber like nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR as a blend component CNTs are wetted by NBR slightly more than by NR thanks to the strong interaction between CNTs and nitrile groups of NBR. SBR remains unbound to CNTs in both blends.

  15. Ternary Surface Monolayers for Ultrasensitive (Zeptomole) Amperometric Detection of Nucleic-Acid Hybridization without Signal Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Campuzano, Susana; Halford, Colin; Haake, David A.; Wang, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A ternary surface monolayer, consisting of co-assembled thiolated capture probe (SHCP) mercaptohexanol (MCH) and dithiothreitol (DTT), is shown to offer dramatic improvements in the signal-to-noise characteristics of electrochemical DNA hybridization biosensors based on common self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Remarkably low detection limits down to 40 zmole (in 4 μL samples) as well as only 1 CFU E. coli per sensor are thus obtained without any additional amplification step in connection to the commonly used horseradish peroxidase/3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (HRP/TMB) system. Such dramatic improvements in the detection limits (compared to common binary alkanethiol interfaces and to most electrochemical DNA sensing strategies without target or signal amplification) are attributed primarily to the remarkably higher resistance to non-specific adsorption. This reflects the highly compact layer (with lower pinhole density) produced by the coupling of the cyclic- and linear-configuration ‘backfillers’ that leads to a remarkably low background noise even in the presence of complex sample matrices. A wide range of surface compositions have been investigated and the ternary mixed monolayer has been systematically optimized. Detailed impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies shed useful insights into the surface coverage. The impressive sensitivity and high specificity of the simple developed methodology indicate great promise for a wide range of nucleic acid testing, including clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, food safety and forensic analysis. PMID:20883023

  16. Ternary surface monolayers for ultrasensitive (zeptomole) amperometric detection of nucleic acid hybridization without signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Campuzano, Susana; Halford, Colin; Haake, David A; Wang, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    A ternary surface monolayer, consisting of coassembled thiolated capture probe, mercaptohexanol and dithiothreitol, is shown to offer dramatic improvements in the signal-to-noise characteristics of electrochemical DNA hybridization biosensors based on common self-assembled monolayers. Remarkably low detection limits down to 40 zmol (in 4 μL samples) as well as only 1 CFU Escherichia coli per sensor are thus obtained without any additional amplification step in connection to the commonly used horseradish peroxidase/3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine system. Such dramatic improvements in the detection limits (compared to those of common binary alkanethiol interfaces and to those of most electrochemical DNA sensing strategies without target or signal amplification) are attributed primarily to the remarkably higher resistance to nonspecific adsorption. This reflects the highly compact layer (with lower pinhole density) produced by the coupling of the cyclic- and linear-configuration "backfillers" that leads to a remarkably low background noise even in the presence of complex sample matrixes. A wide range of surface compositions have been investigated, and the ternary mixed monolayer has been systematically optimized. Detailed impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies shed useful insights into the surface coverage. The impressive sensitivity and high specificity of the simple developed methodology indicate great promise for a wide range of nucleic acid testing, including clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, food safety, and forensic analysis.

  17. Composition design and mechanical properties of ternary Cu–Zr–Ti bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Ye; Zeng, Yuqiao; Jing, Lijun; Zhang, Lu; Pi, Jinhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Newly designed monolithic bulk metallic glasses are of good glass-forming ability. • Cu 50 Zr 44 Ti 6 exhibits excellent plastic deformation up to ∼7.4%. • Copious and intersected shear bans are observed in the fractography of Cu 50 Zr 44 Ti 6 . • Cu 50 Zr 44 Ti 6 has the best plasticity in the ternary Cu–Zr–Ti bulk metallic glasses. - Abstract: The new compositions of ternary Cu–Zr–Ti bulk metallic glasses are predicted by integrating calculation of vacancy formation energy, mixing enthalpy and configuration entropy of the alloys based on thermodynamics of glass formers. The monolithic amorphous rods of 3 mm diameter have been successfully fabricated, and characterized by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy and compression tests. The results show that the designed alloys possess good glass forming ability and excellent mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of the samples can be effectively improved by regulating their composition. The monolithic amorphous rod of Cu 50 Zr 44 Ti 6 exhibits a high fracture strength of 1855 MPa and excellent plastic deformation up to ∼7.4%. The formation and propagation of shear bands in samples are also investigated. The enhancement of plastic deformation is mainly contributed to multiplication and intersection of shear bands

  18. Facilitated charge transport in ternary interconnected electrodes for flexible supercapacitors with excellent power characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanjun; He, Yongmin; Li, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jinyuan; Zhang, Zhenxing; Zhao, Changhui; Gong, Chengshi; Li, Shuankui; Pan, Xiaojun; Xie, Erqing

    2013-12-07

    Flexible and high performance supercapacitors are very critical in modern society. In order to develop the flexible supercapacitors with high power density, free-standing and flexible three-dimensional graphene/carbon nanotubes/MnO2 (3DG/CNTs/MnO2) composite electrodes with interconnected ternary 3D structures were fabricated, and the fast electron and ion transport channels were effectively constructed in the rationally designed electrodes. Consequently, the obtained 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 composite electrodes exhibit superior specific capacitance and rate capability compared to 3DG/MnO2 electrodes. Furthermore, the 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 based asymmetric supercapacitor demonstrates the maximum energy and power densities of 33.71 W h kg(-1) and up to 22,727.3 W kg(-1), respectively. Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycling stability with 95.3% of the specific capacitance maintained after 1000 cycle tests. Our proposed synthesis strategy to construct the novel ternary 3D structured electrodes can be efficiently applied to other high performance energy storage/conversion systems.

  19. The band gap of II-Vi ternary alloys in a tight-binding description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin, Daniel; Blanquero, Rafael [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F (Mexico); De Coss, Romeo [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    We present tight-binding calculations for the band gap of II-Vi pseudobinary ternary alloys. We use an sp{sup 3} s* tight-binding Hamiltonian which include spin-orbit coupling. The band gap composition dependence is calculated using a extended version of the virtual crystal approximation, which introduce an empirical correction factor that takes into account the non-linear dependence of the band gap with the composition. The results compare quite well with the experimental data, both for the ternary alloys with wide band gap and for the narrow band gap ones. [Spanish] Presentamos el calculo de la banda de energia prohibida de aleaciones ternarias de compuestos II-VI. El calculo, que incluye interaccion espin-orbita, se hace con el metodo de enlace fuerte, utilizando una base ortogonal de cinco orbitales atomicos por atomo (sp{sup 3} s*), en conjunto con la aproximacion del cristal virtual. En la aproximacion del cristal virtual, incluimos un factor de correccion que toma en cuenta la no linealidad de la banda de energia prohibida como funcion de la concentracion. Con esta correccion nuestros resultados reproducen aceptablemente los datos experimentales hallados en la literatura.

  20. Experimental investigation of the phase equilibria in the Co-Fe-Ti ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Chaohui; Chen, Chong; Peng, Yingbiao; Du, Yong; Li, Kun [Central South Univ., State Key of Powder Metallurgy, Changsha (China); Lu, Xingxu [Central South Univ., State Key of Powder Metallurgy, Changsha (China); Central South Univ., School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changsha (China)

    2015-08-15

    Phase equilibria in the Co-Fe-Ti ternary system were investigated by means of the equilibrated alloy method with X-ray powder diffraction and electron probe microanalysis. No ternary compounds were found. The experimental results indicated the existence of seven two-phase and one three-phase regions at 600 C, five two-phase and two three-phase regions at 800 C, and six two-phase and two three-phase regions at 950 C. The solubility of Co in TiFe{sub 2} was determined to be larger than 54 at.% at all investigated temperatures, and the solubilities of Fe in TiCo{sub 3} and Ti{sub 2}Co showed an appreciable increase with increasing temperature. The three-phase equilibrium in the Ti-rich corner at 800 C was revealed to be ((β-Ti) + Ti(Fe, Co) + Ti{sub 2}Co) rather than ((α-Ti) + Ti(Fe, Co) + Ti{sub 2}Co) reported in previous investigations. Based on the experimental data obtained in the present work, three isothermal sections at 600, 800 and 950 C were established.

  1. Equiaxed and columnar dendrite growth simulation in Al-7Si- Mg ternary alloys using cellular automaton method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Rui; Xu, Qingyan; Liu, Baicheng

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a modified cellular automaton (MCA) model allowing for the prediction of dendrite growth of Al-Si-Mg ternary alloys in two and three dimensions is presented. The growth kinetic of S/L interface is calculated based on the solute equilibrium approach. In order to describe the dendrite growth with arbitrarily crystallographic orientations, this model introduces a modified decentered octahedron algorithm for neighborhood tracking to eliminate the effect of mesh dependency on dendrite growth. The thermody namic and kinetic data needed for dendrite growth is obtained through coupling with Pandat software package in combination with thermodynamic/kinetic/equilibrium phase diagram calculation databases. The effect of interactions between various alloying elements on solute diffusion coefficient is considered in the model. This model has first been used to simulate Al-7Si (weight percent) binary dendrite growth followed by a validation using theoretical predictions. For ternary alloy, Al-7Si-0.5Mg dendrite simulation has been carried out and the effects of solute interactions on diffusion matrix as well as the differences of Si and Mg in solute distribution have been analyzed. For actual application, this model has been applied to simulate the equiaxed dendrite growth with various crystallographic orientations of Al-7Si-0.36Mg ternary alloy, and the predicted secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental ones. Furthermore, the columnar dendrite growth in directional solidification has also been simulated and the predicted primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS) is in good agreement with experiments. The simulated results effectively demonstrate the abilities of the model in prediction of dendritic microstructure of Al-Si-Mg ternary alloy. (paper)

  2. Equiaxed and columnar dendrite growth simulation in Al-7Si- Mg ternary alloys using cellular automaton method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Xu, Qingyan; Liu, Baicheng

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a modified cellular automaton (MCA) model allowing for the prediction of dendrite growth of Al-Si-Mg ternary alloys in two and three dimensions is presented. The growth kinetic of S/L interface is calculated based on the solute equilibrium approach. In order to describe the dendrite growth with arbitrarily crystallographic orientations, this model introduces a modified decentered octahedron algorithm for neighborhood tracking to eliminate the effect of mesh dependency on dendrite growth. The thermody namic and kinetic data needed for dendrite growth is obtained through coupling with Pandat software package in combination with thermodynamic/kinetic/equilibrium phase diagram calculation databases. The effect of interactions between various alloying elements on solute diffusion coefficient is considered in the model. This model has first been used to simulate Al-7Si (weight percent) binary dendrite growth followed by a validation using theoretical predictions. For ternary alloy, Al-7Si-0.5Mg dendrite simulation has been carried out and the effects of solute interactions on diffusion matrix as well as the differences of Si and Mg in solute distribution have been analyzed. For actual application, this model has been applied to simulate the equiaxed dendrite growth with various crystallographic orientations of Al-7Si-0.36Mg ternary alloy, and the predicted secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental ones. Furthermore, the columnar dendrite growth in directional solidification has also been simulated and the predicted primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS) is in good agreement with experiments. The simulated results effectively demonstrate the abilities of the model in prediction of dendritic microstructure of Al-Si-Mg ternary alloy.

  3. Understanding the vapor-liquid-solid growth and composition of ternary III-V nanowires and nanowire heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2017-11-01

    Based on the recent achievements in vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) synthesis, characterization and modeling of ternary III-V nanowires and axial heterostructures within such nanowires, we try to understand the major trends in their compositional evolution from a general theoretical perspective. Clearly, the VLS growth of ternary materials is much more complex than in standard vapor-solid epitaxy techniques, and even maintaining the necessary control over the composition of steady-state ternary nanowires is far from straightforward. On the other hand, VLS nanowires offer otherwise unattainable material combinations without introducing structural defects and hence are very promising for next-generation optoelectronic devices, in particular those integrated with a silicon electronic platform. In this review, we consider two main problems. First, we show how and by means of which parameters the steady-state composition of Au-catalyzed or self-catalyzed ternary III-V nanowires can be tuned to a desired value and why it is generally different from the vapor composition. Second, we present some experimental data and modeling results for the interfacial abruptness across axial nanowire heterostructures, both in Au-catalyzed and self-catalyzed VLS growth methods. Refined modeling allows us to formulate some general growth recipes for suppressing the unwanted reservoir effect in the droplet and sharpening the nanowire heterojunctions. We consider and refine two approaches developed to date, namely the regular crystallization model for a liquid alloy with a critical size of only one III-V pair at high supersaturations or classical binary nucleation theory with a macroscopic critical nucleus at modest supersaturations.

  4. High-field superconductivity in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralls, K.M.; Rose, R.M.; Wulff, J.

    1980-01-01

    Resistive critical current densities, critical fields, and normal-state electrical resistivities were obtained at 4.2 0 K for 55 alloys in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary alloy system, excepting Ti-Zr binary compositions. The resistive critical field as a function of ternary composition has a saddle point between the Nb-Ti and Nb-Zr binaries, so that ternary alloying in this system is not expected to result in higher critical fields than the binary alloys

  5. High-field superconductivity in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralls, K. M.; Rose, R. M.; Wulff, J.

    1980-06-01

    Resistive critical current densities, critical fields, and normal-state electrical resistivities were obtained at 4.2 °K for 55 alloys in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary alloy system, excepting Ti-Zr binary compositions. The resistive critical field as a function of ternary composition has a saddle point between the Nb-Ti and Nb-Zr binaries, so that ternary alloying in this system is not expected to result in higher critical fields than the binary alloys.

  6. Zr-Fe-Sn Ternary System Phase Diagrams- New Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieva, N; Gomez, A; Arias, D

    2004-01-01

    New experimental results for the Zr-Fe-Sn ternary system are presented in this paper. The phases present and equilibrium relations for the 900 o C isothermal on the central zone of the Gibbs triangle are analysed. A set of ternary alloys was designed and obtained, and they were analysed by semi quantitative SEM- EDS, XRD, and metallographic samples. The resulting ternary phase diagrams are presented here (JCH)

  7. Experimental study of the ternary Ag-Cu-In phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahari, Zahra; Elgadi, Mohamed; Rivet, Jacques; Dugue, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    The phase diagram of the Ag-Cu-In system was investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Two isothermal sections (at 510 and 607 deg. C) and 15 isopletic sections were studied. The results showed seven ternary peritectics, one ternary eutectic and one ternary metatectic. A complete reaction scheme was constructed, the valleys were drawn and the liquidus surfaces were derived from DSC data in the entire composition range.

  8. Experimental study of the ternary Ag-Cu-In phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahari, Zahra [Laboratoire de chimie physique et minerale, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Laboratoire de chimie du solide mineral (LCSM), Faculte des sciences, Universite Mohamed 1er, Route Sidi Maafa, B.P. 524, Oujda, Maroc (Morocco); Elgadi, Mohamed [Laboratoire de chimie du solide mineral (LCSM), Faculte des sciences, Universite Mohamed 1er, Route Sidi Maafa, B.P. 524, Oujda, Maroc (Morocco); Rivet, Jacques [Laboratoire de chimie physique et minerale, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Dugue, Jerome [Laboratoire de chimie physique et minerale, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France)], E-mail: jerome.dugue@univ-paris5.fr

    2009-05-27

    The phase diagram of the Ag-Cu-In system was investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Two isothermal sections (at 510 and 607 deg. C) and 15 isopletic sections were studied. The results showed seven ternary peritectics, one ternary eutectic and one ternary metatectic. A complete reaction scheme was constructed, the valleys were drawn and the liquidus surfaces were derived from DSC data in the entire composition range.

  9. A combined theoretical and experimental approach of a new ternary metal oxide in molybdate composite for hybrid energy storage capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakshi, M.; Watcharatharapong, T.; Chakraborty, S.; Ahuja, R.

    2018-04-01

    Sustainable energy sources require an efficient energy storage system possessing excellent electrochemical properties. The better understanding of possible crystal configurations and the development of a new ternary metal oxide in molybdate composite as an electrode for hybrid capacitors can lead to an efficient energy storage system. Here, we reported a new ternary metal oxide in molybdate composite [(Mn1/3Co1/3Ni1/3)MoO4] prepared by simple combustion synthesis with an extended voltage window (1.8 V vs. Carbon) resulting in excellent specific capacity 35 C g-1 (58 F g-1) and energy density (50 Wh kg-1 at 500 W kg-1) for a two electrode system in an aqueous NaOH electrolyte. The binding energies measured for Mn, Co, and Ni 2p are consistent with the literature, and with the metal ions being present as M(II), implying that the oxidation states of the transition metals are unchanged. The experimental findings are correlated well through density functional theory based electronic structure calculations. Our reported work on the ternary metal oxide studies (Mn1/3Co1/3Ni1/3)MoO4 suggests that will be an added value to the materials for energy storage.

  10. Modelling of volumetric properties of binary and ternary mixtures by CEOS, CEOS/GE and empirical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOJAN D. DJORDJEVIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many cubic equations of state coupled with van der Waals-one fluid mixing rules including temperature dependent interaction parameters are sufficient for representing phase equilibria and excess properties (excess molar enthalpy HE, excess molar volume VE, etc., difficulties appear in the correlation and prediction of thermodynamic properties of complex mixtures at various temperature and pressure ranges. Great progress has been made by a new approach based on CEOS/GE models. This paper reviews the last six-year of progress achieved in modelling of the volumetric properties for complex binary and ternary systems of non-electrolytes by the CEOS and CEOS/GE approaches. In addition, the vdW1 and TCBT models were used to estimate the excess molar volume VE of ternary systems methanol + chloroform + benzene and 1-propanol + chloroform + benzene, as well as the corresponding binaries methanol + chloroform, chloroform + benzene, 1-propanol + chloroform and 1-propanol + benzene at 288.15–313.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Also, prediction of VE for both ternaries by empirical models (Radojković, Kohler, Jackob–Fitzner, Colinet, Tsao–Smith, Toop, Scatchard, Rastogi was performed.

  11. Preparation and photoluminescence enhancement in terbium(III ternary complexes with β-diketone and monodentate auxiliary ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devender Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new solid ternary complexes of terbium(III ion based on β-diketone ligand acetylacetone (acac and monodentate auxiliary ligands (aqua/urea/triphenylphosphineoxide/pyridine-N-oxide had been prepared. The structural characterizations of synthesized ternary compounds were studied by means of elemental analysis, infrared (IR, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral techniques. The optical characteristics were investigated with absorption as well as photoluminescence spectroscopy. Thermal behavior of compounds was examined by TGA/DTA analysis and all metal complexes were found to have good thermal stability. The luminescence decay time of complexes were also calculated by monitoring at emission wavelength corresponding to 5D4 → 7F5 transition. A comparative inspection of the luminescent behavior of prepared ternary compounds was performed in order to determine the function of auxiliary ligands in the enhancement of luminescence intensity produced by central terbium(III ion. The color coordinates values suggested that compounds showed bright green emission in visible region in electromagnetic spectrum. Complexes producing green light could play a significant role in the fabrication of efficient light conversion molecular devices for display purposes and lightning systems.

  12. Simultaneous improvement in short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and fill factor of polymer solar cells through ternary strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qiaoshi; Zhang, Fujun; Li, Lingliang; Wang, Jian; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Weihua; Deng, Zhenbo

    2015-02-18

    We present a smart strategy to simultaneously increase the short circuit current (Jsc), the open circuit voltage (Voc), and the fill factor (FF) of polymer solar cells (PSCs). A two-dimensional conjugated small molecule photovoltaic material (SMPV1), as the second electron donor, was doped into the blend system of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl (PC71BM) to form ternary PSCs. The ternary PSCs with 5 wt % SMPV1 doping ratio in donors achieve 4.06% champion power conversion efficiency (PCE), corresponding to about 21.2% enhancement compared with the 3.35% PCE of P3HT:PC71BM-based PSCs. The underlying mechanism on performance improvement of ternary PSCs can be summarized as (i) harvesting more photons in the longer wavelength region to increase Jsc; (ii) obtaining the lower mixed highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level by incorporating SMPV1 to increase Voc; (iii) forming the better charge carrier transport channels through the cascade energy level structure and optimizing phase separation of donor/acceptor materials to increase Jsc and FF.

  13. Atomistic approach to predict the glass-forming ability in Zr–Cu–Al ternary metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.Y. [Center for Advanced Structural Materials, Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Liu, X.J. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zheng, G.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Niu, X.R. [Center for Advanced Structural Materials, Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Liu, C.T., E-mail: chainliu@cityu.edu.hk [Center for Advanced Structural Materials, Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • An atomistic approach has been developed to predict the glass forming ability (GFA) in Zr–Cu–Al ternary alloy system. • Both of the thermodynamic and structure-dependent kinetic effects to glass formation have been taken into account. • The first-principles calculation and molecular dynamics simulation have been performed. • The approach predicts the best glass former in the model Zr–Cu–Al alloy system. • The predicted GFA is consistent with various experimental results. - Abstract: Prediction of composition-dependent glass-forming ability (GFA) remains to be a key scientific challenge in the metallic-glass community, especially in multi-component alloy systems. In the present study, we apply an atomistic approach to predict the trend of GFA effectively in the Zr–Cu–Al ternary alloy system from alloy compositions alone. This approach is derived from the first-principles calculations based on the density-functional theory and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. By considering of both the thermodynamic and atomic-structure induced kinetic effects, the predicted GFA trend from this approach shows an excellent agreement with experimental data available in this alloy system, manifesting its capability of seeking metallic glasses with superior GFA in ternary alloy systems.

  14. Combination of (M)DSC and surface analysis to study the phase behaviour and drug distribution of ternary solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Joke; Scurr, David J; Chen, Xinyong; Amssoms, Katie; Davies, Martyn C; Roberts, Clive J; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2015-04-01

    Miscibility of the different compounds that make up a solid dispersion based formulation play a crucial role in the drug release profile and physical stability of the solid dispersion as it defines the phase behaviour of the dispersion. The standard technique to obtain information on phase behaviour of a sample is (modulated) differential scanning calorimetry ((M)DSC). However, for ternary mixtures (M)DSC alone is not sufficient to characterize their phase behaviour and to gain insight into the distribution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a two-phased polymeric matrix. MDSC was combined with complementary surface analysis techniques, specifically time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three spray-dried model formulations with varying API/PLGA/PVP ratios were analyzed. MDSC, TOF-SIMS and AFM provided insights into differences in drug distribution via the observed surface coverage for 3 differently composed ternary solid dispersions. Combining MDSC and surface analysis rendered additional insights in the composition of mixed phases in complex systems, like ternary solid dispersions.

  15. Studies on Ternary Complex Formation of U(VI)-salicylate by Using Time-resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Wan Sik; Cho, H. R.; Park, K. K.; Kim, W. H.; Jung, E. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Organic ligands containing carboxylic and phenolic functional groups naturally occur in groundwater environment, particularly in forms of polyelectrolytes such as humic and fulvic acids, from microbial degradation of biomass, e.g., plant and animal tissues. These ligands play important roles in dissolution and migration of actinide radionuclide species since they can form stable ternary actinide complexes with common inorganic ions like hydroxides and carbonates. Therefore, model ternary complexes of lanthanides and actinides have been targets of studies to understand their chemical behaviors under near-neutral pH groundwater conditions. Previous model carboxylic ligands include phthalates, maleic acids, or alpha- substituted carboxylic acids. However, majority of previous studies investigated binary systems or used potentiometric titration method that requires high ligand concentration in mM levels. Recently, highly sensitive time-resolved laserinduced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) has been used to investigate lower concentration (e.g., a few {mu}M levels) reactions of binary complexes between of ligands and metal ions. This technique provides information regarding electronic structures and complexation constants as well as fluorescence quenching mechanism. In the present study, we studied the U(VI)-OH-salicylate (SA) ternary complex formation at higher pH (> 4) via TRLF spectrum and UV-Vis absorbance measurement. Preliminary studies show that the fluorescence (FL) intensity of hydroxouranyl species at pH 4.5 decreases as SA concentration elevates in aqueous solution. Fluorescence quenching mechanism by SA is suggested based on FL intensity (I) and lifetime (tau) measurement via TRLFS

  16. Thermodynamic Calculations of Ternary Polyalcohol and Amine Phase Diagrams for Thermal Energy Storage Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Renhai

    Organic polyalcohol and amine globular molecular crystal materials as phase change materials (PCMs) such as Pentaglycerine (PG-(CH3)C(CH 2OH)3), Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS-(NH2)C(CH 2OH)3), 2-amino-2methyl-1,3-propanediol (AMPL-(NH2)(CH3)C(CH2OH)2), and neopentylglycol (NPG-(CH3)2C(CH2OH) 2) can be considered to be potential candidates for thermal energy storage (TES) applications such as waste heat recovery, solar energy utilization, energy saving in buildings, and electronic device management during heating or cooling process in which the latent heat and sensible heat can be reversibly stored or released through solid state phase transitions over a range of temperatures. In order to understand the polymorphism of phase transition of these organic materials and provide more choice of materials design for TES, binary systems have been studied to lower the temperature of solid-state phase transition for the specific application. To our best knowledge, the study of ternary systems in these organic materials is limited. Based on this motivation, four ternary systems of PG-TRIS-AMPL, PG-TRIS-NPG, PG-AMPL-NPG, and TRIS-AMPL-NPG are proposed in this dissertation. Firstly, thermodynamic assessment with CALPHAD method is used to construct the Gibbs energy functions into thermodynamic database for these four materials based on available experimental results from X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The phase stability and thermodynamic characteristics of these four materials calculated from present thermodynamic database with CALPHAD method can match well the present experimental results from XRD and DSC. Secondly, related six binary phase diagrams of PG-TRIS, PG-AMPL, PG-NPG, TRIS-AMPL, TRIS-NPG, and AMPL-NPG are optimized with CALPHAD method in Thermo-Calc software based on available experimental results, in which the substitutional model is used and excess Gibbs energy is expressed with Redlich-Kister formalism. The

  17. Lattice anisotropy in uranium ternary compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskova, S.; Adamska, A.M.; Havela, L.

    2012-01-01

    Several U-based intermetallic compounds (UCoGe, UNiGe with the TiNiSi structure type and UNiAl with the ZrNiAl structure type) and their hydrides were studied from the point of view of compressibility and thermal expansion. Confronted with existing data for the compounds with the ZrNiAl structure...

  18. Mid-infrared optical properties of chalcogenide glasses within tin-antimony-selenium ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruiqiang; Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Huang, Yicong; Song, Baoan; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Xianghua; Ji, Wei

    2017-10-16

    In this work, we investigated the mid-infrared (MIR) optical properties of selenide (Se-based) chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) within an As- and Ge-free system, namely the environment-friendly and low-cost tin-antimony-selenium (Sn-Sb-Se, SSS) ternary system, which has not been systematically studied to the best of our knowledge. As compared to ChGs within those conventional Se-based systems, SSS ChGs were found to exhibit extended infrared transmittance range as well as larger linear refractive index (n 0 ). Femtosecond Z-scan measurements show the presence of evident three-photon absorption from Urbach absorption of the SSS ChGs at MIR wavelength, which resonantly enhanced the nonlinear refractive behavior and resulted in large nonlinear refractive index (n 2 ).

  19. Velocity slip and translational nonequilibrium of ternary gas mixtures in free jet expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattolica, R.J.; Gallagher, R.J.; Anderson, J.B.; Talbot, L.

    1977-05-01

    An aerodynamic isotope separation technique based on the velocity slip between gases in a rarefied flow has been proposed. To evaluate the efficiency of this separation technique, the velocity and translational temperature of the individual species in binary and ternary gas mixtures of argon and neon in helium have been studied in a low density hypersonic free jet. The velocity and temperature of the gas were determined from the Doppler shift and broadening of the fluorescence excited by an electron beam. Velocity slip and translational nonequilibrium were observed over a range of source pressures. A separation factor based on the velocity slip and temperatures was also determined. A comparison of the velocity slip, temperatures, and separation factor with the results of a Monte Carlo simulation of the flow field is presented

  20. Molecular dynamics study of the ternary Cu50Ti25Zr25 bulk glass forming alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celtek M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and thermodynamic properties of a ternary Cu50Ti25Zr25 metallic glass forming alloy in solid-liquid to glass phases were studied using molecular dynamics (MD method based on tight-binding (TB potentials. An atomic description of the melting, glass formation and crystallization process has been analyzed using different heating and cooling rates. The computed Glass Forming Ability (GFA parameters are in good agreement with experimental data. The structure analysis of the Cu50Ti25Zr25 based on molecular dynamics simulation will be also presented and compared with available MD results. We have also discussed the crystallization transition with two different interatomic potentials used in this work

  1. Measurement and correlation of (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for {α-pinene + p-cymene + (S)-(−)-limonene} ternary system at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Lixia; Liao, Dankui; Yang, Zhengyu; Chen, Xiaopeng; Tong, Zhangfa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The VLE data of (α-pinene + p-cymene) and (α-pinene + p-cymene + (S)-(−)-limonene) at atmospheric pressure were measured. ► The VLE data of binary system were correlated by four activity coefficient models. ► The ternary VLE data were predicted from binary parameters of the Liebermann–Fried model. ► The constant G 123 E counters plotted on the Roozeboom diagrams. -- Abstract: (Vapor + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for binary system of (α-pinene + p-cymene) and ternary system of {α-pinene + p-cymene + (S)-(−)-limonene} were measured at 100.7 kPa using the modified Ellis equilibrium still. The VLE data are thermodynamically consistent. Parameters of the binary system for the four solution models — Liebermann–Fried, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC — were calculated by referencing least squares method to minimize an objective function based on the total pressure. The ternary system data were predicted with the parameters of Liebermann–Fried model obtained from the pertinent binary systems. The predicted bubble-point temperature and the vapor composition for the ternary system were in good agreement with the experimental results. Smooth representations of the results are used to construct constant excess Gibbs free energy contours on Roozeboom diagrams

  2. Construction of RGO/CdIn2S4/g-C3N4 ternary hybrid with enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Peng; Jiang, Deli; Ju, Lixin; Jing, Junjie; Chen, Min

    2018-03-01

    Although RGO shows great advantage in promoting charge separation and transfer of semiconductor, construction of an efficient RGO-incorporated photocatalyst is still challenging. Herein, RGO was employed to construct novel RGO/CdIn2S4/g-C3N4 (donated as RGO/CIS/CN) ternary photocatalyst by a facile hydrothermal method for the degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride (TC). The RGO/CIS/CN ternary photocatalyst showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of TC as compared to the binary CIS/CN, CIS/CN, and CN/RGO. The photoluminescence and photocurrent response results indicate that this enhanced photocatalytic activity can be mainly ascribed to the improved charge separation and transfer efficiency. Based on the radical trapping and electron spin resonance results, the superoxide radicals and holes are proposed to play an important role in the degradation of TC over RGO/CIS/CN ternary photocatalyst. This work paves new opportunities for the synthesis of RGO-incorporated ternary photocatalyst as an efficient photocatalyst for the degradation of organic contaminant.

  3. Understanding ternary poly(potassium benzimidazolide)-based polymer electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Han, Junyoung

    2016-01-01

    Poly(2,20-(m-phenylene)-5,50-bisbenzimidazole) (m-PBI) can dissolve large amounts of aqueous electrolytes to give materials with extraordinary high ion conductivity and the practical applicability has been demonstrated repeatedly in fuel cells, water electrolysers and as anion conducting component...

  4. Photocytotoxic ternary copper(II) complexes of histamine Schiff base ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ARC

    complexes 1 and 2 (7.5 μM) using SC pUC19 DNA (0.2 μg, 30 μM b.p.) in the presence of. 1 mM glutathione (GSH) as a reducing agent: lane-1, DNA control; lane-2, DNA + GSH; lane-3, DNA + 1 + GSH; lane-4, DNA + 2 + GSH. Figure S10. Cell viability plot showing the photocytotoxicity of complex 1 in HeLa cells on.

  5. Photocytotoxic ternary copper(II) complexes of histamine Schiff base ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    energy visible light to display cytotoxicity in the cancer cells, while remaining ... have recently developed a new strategy to increase the. ∗. For correspondence .... temperature using an automated Bruker SMART APEX. CCD diffractometer ...

  6. Lattice anisotropy in uranium ternary compounds: UTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mašková, S.; Adamska, A.M.; Havela, L.; Kim-Ngan, N.-T.H.; Przewoźnik, J.; Daniš, S.; Kothapalli, K.; Kolomiets, A.V.; Heathman, S.; Nakotte, H.; Bordallo, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Compressibility and thermal expansion of several U-based compounds were established. ► The direction of the U–U bonds is the “soft” crystallographic direction. ► Highest coefficient of linear thermal expansion is in the direction of the U–U bonds. ► The closer the U atoms are together the better they can be compressed together. - Abstract: Several U-based intermetallic compounds (UCoGe, UNiGe with the TiNiSi structure type and UNiAl with the ZrNiAl structure type) and their hydrides were studied from the point of view of compressibility and thermal expansion. Confronted with existing data for the compounds with the ZrNiAl structure type a common pattern emerges. The direction of the U–U bonds with participation of the 5f states is distinctly the “soft” crystallographic direction, exhibiting also the highest coefficient of linear thermal expansion. The finding leads to an apparent paradox: the closer the U atoms are together in a particular direction the better they can be additionally compressed together by applied hydrostatic pressure.

  7. Paramagnetic centers in ternary coordinated oxygen in beryllium aluminosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaginina, L.A.; Zatsepin, A.F.; Dmitriev, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    Glasses of the composition 3BeO-Al 2 O 3 -6SiO 2 containing a homogenizing additive of MgF 2 were synthesized. The ESR spectra of x-ray and gamma irradiated specimens were determined. A complex ESR spectrum arose in the original glass. The ESR spectrum of the gamma-irradiated polycrystalline Be 2 SiO 4 glass was almost identical to the crystallized glass. It was shown that the presence of beryllium atoms in the composition of silicate glasses created the conditions for the formation of structural fragments with ternary coordinated oxygen

  8. Plutonium microstructures. Part 2. Binary and ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

    1983-12-01

    This report is the second of three parts that exhibit illustrations of inclusions in plutonium metal from inherent and tramp impurities, of intermetallic and nonmetallic constituents from alloy additions, and of the effects of thermal and mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of the microstructures in binary cast alloys and a few selected ternary alloys that result from measured additions of diluent elements, and of the microconstituents that are characteristic of phase fields in extended alloy systems. Microhardness data are given and the etchant used in the preparation of each sample is described

  9. Quantifying the energetics of cooperativity in a ternary protein complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter S; Schuck, Peter; Sundberg, Eric J

    2002-01-01

    and mathematical modeling to describe the energetics of cooperativity in a trimolecular protein complex. As a model system for quantifying cooperativity, we studied the ternary complex formed by the simultaneous interaction of a superantigen with major histocompatibility complex and T cell receptor, for which...... a structural model is available. This system exhibits positive and negative cooperativity, as well as augmentation of the temperature dependence of binding kinetics upon the cooperative interaction of individual protein components in the complex. Our experimental and theoretical analysis may be applicable...... to other systems involving cooperativity....

  10. Ternary system of cesium, rubidium and lead iodides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchanskaya, V.V.; Dunaeva, T.I.; Il'yasov, I.I.

    1990-01-01

    Meltability diagram of ternary system (CsI) 2 -(RbI) 2 -PbI 2 has been studied. The liquidus of the given system consists of crystallization fields of solid solutions (CsI-RbI) and (CsI·PbI 2 -RbI-PbI 2 ), fields of incongruently melting compounds 9RbI·PbI 2 , 4CsI·PbI 2 and field of PbI 2 component. In the system two nonvariant points at 410 and 380 deg C are detected

  11. First principle study of cubic ScGaN ternaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adli, W.; Mecheref, R.; Sekkal, N.; Tair, F.; Amrani, B.

    2008-08-01

    The electronic properties of the Sc x Ga1- x N ternary alloy are investigated. The transition from rocksalt (B1) to zinc blende (B3) structure is found to occur rapidly after incorporating just a small fraction (less than 1%) of Ga. In the present paper, the first principles method the full potential linear muffin-tin orbitals method (FPLMTO) in its atomic sphere approximation (ASA) coupled to the technique of the empty spheres is employed. Our results concerning the electronic properties are different from those reported in literature. (author)

  12. Phase diagram of the ternary Zr-Ti-Sn system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, D.; Gonzalez Camus, M.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that Ti stabilizes the high temperature cubic phase of Zr and that Sn stabilizes the low temperature hexagonal phase of Zr. The effect of Sn on the Zr-Ti diagram has been studied in the present paper. Using high purity metals, nine different alloys have been prepared, with 4-32 at % Ti, 0.7-2.2 at % Sn and Zr till 100%. Resistivity and optical and SEM metallography techniques have been employed. Effect of some impurities have been analyzed. The results are discussed and different isothermic sections of the ternary Zr-Ti-Sn diagram are presented. (Author) [es

  13. Asymmetric supercapacitors with metal-like ternary selenides and porous graphene electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Jiang, Qiu; Zhao, Chao; Beaujuge, Pierre; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    nanostructured ternary nickel cobalt selenides result in a much higher areal capacitance (2.33 F cm−2 at 4 mA cm−2), better rate performance and cycling stability than their binary selenide equivalents, and other ternary oxides and chalcogenides. Those hybrid

  14. Using a Ternary Diagram to Display a System's Evolving Energy Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazzle, Bob; Tapp, Anne

    2016-01-01

    A ternary diagram is a graphical representation used for systems with three components. They are familiar to mineralogists (who typically use them to categorize varieties of solid solution minerals such as feldspar) but are not yet widely used in the physics community. Last year the lead author began using ternary diagrams in his introductory…

  15. Detection of the ternary alpha particles from 252Cr spontaneous source with timepix pixeleted detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadov, G.S.; Telezhnikov, S.A.; Ahmadov, F.I.; Garibov, A.A.; Ahmadov, G.S.; Ahmadov, F.I.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.

    2013-01-01

    A third charged particle is emitted besides the two main fission fragments in ternary fission. Because of the ternary fission is a unique tool to explore the dynamics and structure of atomic nuclei by probing the fissioning system near the scission point and observing fissioning reaction and decay mechanisms main tool to study nuclear fission processes

  16. Multicomponent ternary cocrystals of the sulfonamide group with pyridine-amides and lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini

    2015-11-04

    SMBA was selected as a bifunctional sulfa drug to design ternary cocrystals with pyridine amides and lactam coformers. Supramolecular assembly of five ternary cocrystals of p-sulfonamide benzoic acid with nicotinamide and 2-pyridone is demonstrated and reproducible heterosynthons are identified for crystal engineering.

  17. Asymmetry in ternary fission induced by polarized neutrons and fission mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunakov, V.E.; Gennenvajn, F.; Dzhessinger, P.; Mutterer, M.; Petrov, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    The results of measuring the P-odd, P-even (right-left) and T-odd asymmetries of the charged particles emission in the double and ternary fission, induced by the polarized neutrons, are considered. It is shown, what kind of information on the mechanism of the ternary nuclear fission may be obtained from the theoretical analysis of these data [ru

  18. Measurement of p-odd asymmetry of fragment escape in ternary fission of plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belozerov, A.V.; Vodennikov, B.D.; Danilyan, G.V.; Korobkina, E.I.; Pavlov, V.S.; Pevchev, Yu.F.; Sadchikov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    Values of effects of parity nonconservation in binary and ternary fission of plutonium 239 by polarized thermal neutrons were measured simultaneously. The ratio of asymmetry coefficient (AC) of ternary fission to the AC of binary fission was equal to 0.67+-0.20. The obtained result testifies to insignificant disagreement of AC of fragment escape in studied fission types

  19. INTERVAL-VALUED INTUITIONISTIC FUZZY BI-IDEALS IN TERNARY SEMIRINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. KRISHNASWAMY

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notions of interval-valued fuzzy bi-ideal, interval-valued anti fuzzy bi-ideal and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy bi-ideal in ternary semirings and some of the basic properties of these ideals are investigated. We also introduce normal interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy ideals in ternary semirings.

  20. Growth Mechanism of Nanowires: Ternary Chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Hopkins, R. H.; Su, Ching Hua; Arnold, B.; Choa, Fow-Sen; Cullum, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades there has been a large rise in the investment and expectations for nanotechnology use. Almost every area of research has projected improvements in sensors, or even a promise for the emergence of some novel device technologies. For these applications major focuses of research are in the areas of nanoparticles and graphene. Although there are some near term applications with nanowires in photodetectors and other low light detectors, there are few papers on the growth mechanism and fabrication of nanowire-based devices. Semiconductor nanowires exhibit very favorable and promising optical properties, including high transparency and a several order of magnitude better photocurrent than thin film and bulk materials. We present here an overview of the mechanism of nanowire growth from the melt, and some preliminary results for the thallium arsenic selenide material system. Thallium arsenic selenide (TAS) is a multifunctional material combining excellent acousto-optical, nonlinear and radiation detection properties. We observed that small units of (TAS) nanocubes arrange and rearrange at moderate melt undercooling to form the building block of a nanowire. In some cases very long wires (less than mm) are formed. Since we avoided the catalyst, we observed self-nucleation and uncontrolled growth of wires from different places.

  1. Energy dissipation in the process of ternary fission in heavy nuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xian; Wang Chengqian; Yan Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    We studied the evolution of the collective motion, interaction potential, the total kinetic and excitation energies in ternary fissions of 197 Au + 197 Au system at 15 MeV/u, and discussed energy dissipation of this reaction. Through the comparison with energy-angle correlation data in binary fissions, we preliminarily concluded that the rst fission of ternary fission was an extreme deep-inelastic process. We further analyzed the correlation of the total kinetic energy with impact parameters in both binary and ternary reactions, and found that the total energy of binary reactions systems was lost about 150 MeV more than ternary fission with small impact parameters, and with larger impact parameters the total energy of ternary reactions were lost 300 MeV more than binary reactions. (authors)

  2. First-principles study of ternary fcc solution phases from special quasirandom structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin Dongwon; Wang Yi; Liu Zikui; Walle, Axel van de

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, ternary special quasirandom structures (SQSs) for a fcc solid solution phase are generated at different compositions, x A =x B =x C =(1/3) and x A =(1/2), x B =x C =(1/4), whose correlation functions are satisfactorily close to those of a random fcc solution. The generated SQSs are used to calculate the mixing enthalpy of the fcc phase in the Ca-Sr-Yb system. It is observed that first-principles calculations of all the binary and ternary SQSs in the Ca-Sr-Yb system exhibit very small local relaxation. It is concluded that the fcc ternary SQSs can provide valuable information about the mixing behavior of the fcc ternary solid solution phase. The SQSs presented in this work can be widely used to study the behavior of ternary fcc solid solutions

  3. High-performance ternary blend polymer solar cells involving both energy transfer and hole relay processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luyao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping

    2015-06-04

    The integration of multiple materials with complementary absorptions into a single junction device is regarded as an efficient way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs). However, because of increased complexity with one more component, only limited high-performance ternary systems have been demonstrated previously. Here we report an efficient ternary blend OSC with a PCE of 9.2%. We show that the third component can reduce surface trap densities in the ternary blend. Detailed studies unravel that the improved performance results from synergistic effects of enlarged open circuit voltage, suppressed trap-assisted recombination, enhanced light absorption, increased hole extraction, efficient energy transfer and better morphology. The working mechanism and high device performance demonstrate new insights and design guidelines for high-performance ternary blend solar cells and suggest that ternary structure is a promising platform to boost the efficiency of OSCs.

  4. Microstructural response of an Al-modified Ni-Cr-Fe ternary alloy during thermal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinlade, D.A. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)], E-mail: dotun172@yahoo.co.uk; Caley, W.F. [Department of Process Engineering and Applied Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Richards, N.L.; Chaturvedi, M.C. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    A thermodynamic package was used to predict the phase transformations that occurred during thermal processing of a superalloy based on the composition of a ternary Ni-Cr-Fe alloy. The effect of the addition of 6 w/o Al on phase transformation in the material sintered were estimated and compared with results obtained experimentally by X-ray diffraction and metallography, while the transformation temperature of the modified alloy was corroborated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Mechanical property of the alloy was estimated in terms of Vickers hardness. These results suggest that despite potential problems encountered in high-temperature powder processing of superalloys that often tend to influence the feasibility of using thermodynamic predictions to model such alloy systems, the software and predictions used in this study offer a way to simulate both design and characterisation of the experimental alloy.

  5. Computer-aided topological analysis of Nd-Fe-B ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, G.; Xu, P.; Zhang, W.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional partially matrixed topological model of the Nd-Fe-B ternary phase diagram has been established based on experimental results assessed comprehensively with the aid of a computer-aided design and graphic and graphics software, AutoCAD (R10), and application programs developed in this work. Vertical sections at 5.88 at.% B, Nd:B = 1:1, Fe-Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B-Nd, Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 17/-Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 7/B/sub 6/ have been cut out from the model and the corresponding phase relationships have been analyzed. Among them, those on the Nd-rich protons of both the sections at 5.88 at.% B and Nd:B = 2:1 and those on the Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B-Nd section are given for the first time. (author)

  6. Description of two-proton radioactivity by the methods of the quantum theory of ternary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmenskij, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    Two-proton decay of spherical nuclei has been investigated on the base of the formalism of quantum mechanical theory of ternary fission. The suggested method of construction of partial two-proton-decay-width amplitudes and of asymptotics of the decaying nucleus wave functions allows to solve a problem of two-proton radioactivity description without the traditionally used in R-matrix approaches laborious sewing procedure for internal and external parent nucleus wave functions in three-body scheme. In the frame of diagonal approximation, the wave-function structure for Cooper pair of two emitted protons in parent nucleus was analyzed as well as the behavior of the wave function describing potential scattering of two-proton-decay products with taking into account decay channel coupling and properties of interaction potentials between these products [ru

  7. The analysis of fuel constituent redistribution for ternary metallic fuel slug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoung Oon; Lee, Dong Uk; Kim, Young Kyun; Chang, Jin Wook; Lee, Ki Bok; Kim, Young Il

    2004-02-01

    U-TRU-Zr metallic alloy is being considered as the fuel slug for the proliferation resistance core of KALIMER. The radial fuel constituent migration is a general phenomenon in the metallic alloys. This phenomenon may affect the in-reactor performance of metallic fuel rods, influencing such factors as melting temperature, thermal conductivity, power generation rate, phase boundaries and eutectic melting of the fuel slug. Thus, constituent redistribution modeling is essential when developing a metallic fuel performance code. The constituent migration model adopted in this report was based on the Ishida's model and Hofman's theory. A subroutine program has been made and installed into the MACSIS code to simulate constituent redistribution. The radial profile of Zr redistribution was calculated for the ternary metallic fuel, and compared with the measured data.

  8. 450 {sup o}C isothermal section of the Fe-Zn-Si ternary phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Xuping [Inst. of Materials Research, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xiangtan Univ., Xiangtan, Hunan (China); Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tang, Nai-Yong [Cominco Ltd., Product Technology Centre, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Toguri, J.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The 450 {sup o}C isothermal section of the Fe-Zn-Si ternary phase diagram has been determined experimentally using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffractometry. The focus of the work has been concentrated on the Zn-rich corner which is relevant to general galvanizing. The present study has confirmed the existence of the equilibrium state between the liquid, the {zeta} phase and the FeSi phase. This three phase equilibrium state prevents the equilibrium between the liquid and the {delta} phase suggested by some researchers. Experimental results indicate that Si solubility in all four binary Zn-Fe compounds is limited. The Fe solubility in molten Zn was found to decrease with increasing Si content in the melt. The liquid phase boundary was determined using a model based phenomenological approach. (author)

  9. Discrete ternary particle swarm optimization for area optimization of MPRM circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Haizhen; Wang Pengjun; Wang Disheng; Zhang Huihong

    2013-01-01

    Having the advantage of simplicity, robustness and low computational costs, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is a powerful evolutionary computation tool for synthesis and optimization of Reed-Muller logic based circuits. Exploring discrete PSO and probabilistic transition rules, the discrete ternary particle swarm optimization (DTPSO) is proposed for mixed polarity Reed-Muller (MPRM) circuits. According to the characteristics of mixed polarity OR/XNOR expression, a tabular technique is improved, and it is applied in the polarity conversion of MPRM functions. DTPSO is introduced to search the best polarity for an area of MPRM circuits by building parameter mapping relationships between particles and polarities. The computational results show that the proposed DTPSO outperforms the reported method using maxterm conversion starting from POS Boolean functions. The average saving in the number of terms is about 11.5%; the algorithm is quite efficient in terms of CPU time and achieves 12.2% improvement on average. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  10. Wetting Behavior of Ternary Au-Ge-X (X = Sb, Sn) Alloys on Cu and Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S.; Valenza, F.; Novakovic, R.; Leinenbach, C.

    2013-06-01

    Au-Ge-based alloys are potential substitutes for Pb-rich solders currently used for high-temperature applications. In the present work, the wetting behavior of two Au-Ge-X (X = Sb, Sn) ternary alloys, i.e., Au-15Ge-17Sb and Au-13.7 Ge-15.3Sn (at.%), in contact with Cu and Ni substrates has been investigated. Au-13.7Ge-15.3Sn alloy showed complete wetting on both Cu and Ni substrates. Total spreading of Au-15Ge-17Sb alloy on Cu was also observed, while the final contact angle of this alloy on Ni was about 29°. Pronounced dissolution of Cu substrates into the solder alloys investigated was detected, while the formation of Ni-Ge intermetallic compounds at the interface of both solder/Ni systems suppressed the dissolution of Ni into the solder.

  11. Thermal degradation of ternary blend films containing PVA/chitosan/vanillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Deepak; Chougale, Ravindra; Masti, Saraswati; Narasgoudar, Shivayogi

    2018-05-01

    The ternary chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol)/vanillin blend films were prepared by solution casting method. The influence of equal weight percent of poly (vinyl alcohol) and vanillin on thermal stability of the chitosan blend films were investigated by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The kinetic parameters such as enthalpy (ΔH*), entropy (ΔS*), and Gibbs free energy (ΔG*) in the first and second decomposition steps based on the thermogravimetric data were calculated. The thermal stabilities of the blend films were confirmed by thermodynamic parameters obtained in the activation energies, which indicated that increase in the equal weight percent of PVA/vanillin decreased the thermal stability of the chitosan film.

  12. Investigation of the Interaction Between Human Serum Albumin and Two Drugs as Binary and Ternary Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahpour, Nooshin; Soheili, Vahid; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Chamani, Jamshidkhan

    2016-12-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most frequent protein in blood plasma. Albumin transports various compounds, preserves osmotic pressure, and buffers pH. A unique feature of albumin is its ability to bind drugs and other bioactive molecules. However, it is important to consider binary and ternary systems of two pharmaceuticals to estimate the effect of the first drug on the second one and physicochemical properties. Different techniques including time-resolved, second-derivative and anisotropy fluorescence spectroscopy, resonance light scattering (RLS), critical induced aggregation concentration (C CIAC ), particle size, zeta potential and stability analysis were employed in this assessment to elucidate the binding behavior of Amlodipine and Aspirin to HSA. Moreover, isothermal titration calorimetric techniques were performed and the QSAR properties were applied to analyze the hydration energy and log P. Multiple sequence alignments were also used to predict the structure and biological characteristics of the HSA binding site. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy showed interaction of both drugs to HSA based on a static quenching mechanism. Subsequently, second-derivative fluorescence spectroscopy presented different values of parameter H in binary and ternary systems, which were suggested that tryptophan was in a more polar environment in the ternary system than in a binary system. Moreover, the polydispersity index and results from mean number measurements revealed that the presence of the second drug caused a decrease in the stability of systems and increased the heterogeneity of complex. It is also, observed that the gradual addition of HSA has led to a marked increase in fluorescence anisotropy (r) of Amlodipine and Aspirin which can be suggested that the drugs were located in a restricted environment of the protein as confirmed by Red Edge Excitation Shift (REES) studies. The isothermal titration calorimetric technique demonstrated that the interaction of

  13. A Visual Basic program to plot sediment grain-size data on ternary diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; Eliason, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Sedimentologic datasets are typically large and compiled into tables or databases, but pure numerical information can be difficult to understand and interpret. Thus, scientists commonly use graphical representations to reduce complexities, recognize trends and patterns in the data, and develop hypotheses. Of the graphical techniques, one of the most common methods used by sedimentologists is to plot the basic gravel, sand, silt, and clay percentages on equilateral triangular diagrams. This means of presenting data is simple and facilitates rapid classification of sediments and comparison of samples.The original classification scheme developed by Shepard (1954) used a single ternary diagram with sand, silt, and clay in the corners and 10 categories to graphically show the relative proportions among these three grades within a sample. This scheme, however, did not allow for sediments with significant amounts of gravel. Therefore, Shepard's classification scheme was later modified by the addition of a second ternary diagram with two categories to account for gravel and gravelly sediment (Schlee, 1973). The system devised by Folk (1954, 1974)\\ is also based on two triangular diagrams, but it has 21 categories and uses the term mud (defined as silt plus clay). Patterns within the triangles of both systems differ, as does the emphasis placed on gravel. For example, in the system described by Shepard, gravelly sediments have more than 10% gravel; in Folk's system, slightly gravelly sediments have as little as 0.01% gravel. Folk's classification scheme stresses gravel because its concentration is a function of the highest current velocity at the time of deposition as is the maximum grain size of the detritus that is available; Shepard's classification scheme emphasizes the ratios of sand, silt, and clay because they reflect sorting and reworking (Poppe et al., 2005).The program described herein (SEDPLOT) generates verbal equivalents and ternary diagrams to

  14. Ternary Organic Solar Cells with Coumarin7 as the Donor Exhibiting Greater Than 10% Power Conversion Efficiency and a High Fill Factor of 75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Wei; Tao, Si-Lu; Fan, Cong; Chen, Dong-Cheng; Zhou, Ling; Lin, Hui; Zheng, Cai-Jun; Su, Shi-Jian

    2017-09-06

    Ternary bulk heterojunction (BHJ) is a brilliant photovoltaic technology for improving the performance of organic solar cells (OSCs), because the light absorption range can be significantly extended by using multiple donors or acceptor materials. In this paper, coumarin7 (C7), a small organic molecule typical led used in organic light-emitting diodes, was initially exploited as second electron-donor component in ternary bulk heterojunction OSCs along with conventional blend system spolythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene/benzodithiophene(PTB7) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71 -butyric acid methyl(PC 71 BM). A champion PCE value of 10.28% was realized in the ternary OSCs when incorporated with 10 wt % C7 doping ratio in the donors, corresponding to about 35% enhancement compared with the PTB7:PC 71 BM-based OSCs, a high fill factor (FF) of 75.03%, a short-circuit currentdensity (J sc ) of 18.72 mA cm -2 and an open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of 0.73 V. The enhanced performance of the ternary OSCs can be attributed to the simultaneous improvement of the FF and the J sc . In addition to extended light absorption, a perfect nanofiber filament active layer morphology is obtained due to the good compatibility between C7 and PTB7, which facilitates the balance of charge transportation and the suppression of charge recombination. This investigation suggests that coumarin derivatives, which have completely different structure with polymer donors, can also be used to fabricate ternary solar cells and have the potential applications to obtain amazing performance after further device engineering and optimization.

  15. Regulating Molecular Aggregations of Polymers via Ternary Copolymerization Strategy for Efficient Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Yingying; Zheng, Wei; Shahid, Bilal; Qiu, Meng; Wang, Di; Zhu, Dangqiang; Yang, Renqiang

    2017-09-20

    For many high-performance photovoltaic materials in polymer solar cells (PSCs), the active layers usually need to be spin-coated at high temperature due to the strong intermolecular aggregation of donor polymers, which is unfavorable in device repeatability and large-scale PSC printing. In this work, we adopted a ternary copolymerization strategy to regulate polymer solubility and molecular aggregation. A series of D-A 1 -D-A 2 random polymers based on different acceptors, strong electron-withdrawing unit ester substituted thieno[3,4-b]thiophene (TT-E), and highly planar dithiazole linked TT-E (DTzTT) were constructed to realize the regulation of molecular aggregation and simplification of device fabrication. The results showed that as the relative proportion of TT-E segment in the backbone increased, the absorption evidently red-shifted with a gradually decreased aggregation in solution, eventually leading to the active layers that can be fabricated at low temperature. Furthermore, due to the excellent phase separation and low recombination, the optimized solar cells based on the terpolymer P1 containing 30% of TT-E segment exhibit high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.09% with a significantly enhanced fill factor up to 72.86%. Encouragingly, the photovoltaic performance is insensitive to the fabrication temperature of the active layer, and it still could maintain high PCE of 8.82%, even at room temperature. This work not only develops the highly efficient photovoltaic materials for low temperature processed PSCs through ternary copolymerization strategy but also preliminarily constructs the relationship between aggregation and photovoltaic performance.

  16. Halo Formation During Solidification of Refractory Metal Aluminide Ternary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, N.; Feitosa, L. M.; West, G. D.; Dong, H. B.

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of eutectic morphologies following primary solidification has been studied in the refractory metal aluminide (Ta-Al-Fe, Nb-Al-Co, and Nb-Al-Fe) ternary systems. The undercooling accompanying solid growth, as related to the extended solute solubility in the primary and secondary phases can be used to account for the evolution of phase morphologies during ternary eutectic solidification. For small undercooling, the conditions of interfacial equilibrium remain valid, while in the case of significant undercooling when nucleation constraints occur, there is a departure from equilibrium leading to unexpected phases. In Ta-Al-Fe, an extended solubility of Fe in σ was observed, which was consistent with the formation of a halo of μ phase on primary σ. In Nb-Al-Co, a halo of C14 is formed on primary CoAl, but very limited vice versa. However, in the absence of a solidus projection it was not possible to definitively determine the extended solute solubility in the primary phase. In Nb-Al-Fe when nucleation constraints arise, the inability to initiate coupled growth of NbAl3 + C14 leads to the occurrence of a two-phase halo of C14 + Nb2Al, indicating a large undercooling and departure from equilibrium.

  17. Face Liveness Detection Using Dynamic Local Ternary Pattern (DLTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajida Parveen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Face spoofing is considered to be one of the prominent threats to face recognition systems. However, in order to improve the security measures of such biometric systems against deliberate spoof attacks, liveness detection has received significant recent attention from researchers. For this purpose, analysis of facial skin texture properties becomes more popular because of its limited resource requirement and lower processing cost. The traditional method of skin analysis for liveness detection was to use Local Binary Pattern (LBP and its variants. LBP descriptors are effective, but they may exhibit certain limitations in near uniform patterns. Thus, in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of Local Ternary Pattern (LTP as an alternative to LBP. In addition, we adopted Dynamic Local Ternary Pattern (DLTP, which eliminates the manual threshold setting in LTP by using Weber’s law. The proposed method was tested rigorously on four facial spoof databases: three are public domain databases and the other is the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM face spoof database, which was compiled through this study. The results obtained from the proposed DLTP texture descriptor attained optimum accuracy and clearly outperformed the reported LBP and LTP texture descriptors.

  18. Kinetics of radiation-induced segregation in ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N.O.; Kumar, A.; Wiedersich, H.

    1982-01-01

    Model calculations of radiation-induced segregation in ternary alloys have been performed, using a simple theory. The theoretical model describes the coupling between the fluxes of radiation-induced defects and alloying elements in an alloy A-B-C by partitioning the defect fluxes into those occurring via A-, B-, and C-atoms, and the atom fluxes into those taking place via vacancies and interstitials. The defect and atom fluxes can be expressed in terms of concentrations and concentration gradients of all the species present. With reasonable simplifications, the radiation-induced segregation problem can be cast into a system of four coupled partial-differential equations, which can be solved numerically for appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Model calculations have been performed for ternary solid solutions intended to be representative of Fe-Cr-Ni and Ni-Al-Si alloys under various irradiation conditions. The dependence of segregation on both the alloy properties and the irradiation variables, e.g., temperature and displacement rate, was calculated. The sample calculations are in good qualitative agreement with the general trends of radiation-induced segregation observed experimentally

  19. Investigation of transient photoresponse of WSSe ternary alloy crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Payal; Solanki, G. K.; Tannarana, Mohit; Pataniya, Pratik; Patel, K. D.; Pathak, V. M.

    2018-05-01

    Transition metal chalcogenides have been studied intensively in recent time due to their tunability of electronic properties by compositional change, alloying and by transforming bulk material into crystalline 2D structure. These changes lead to the development of verities of next generation opto-electronic device applications such as solar cells, FETs and flexible detectors etc. In present work, we report growth and characterization of crystalline ternary alloy WSSe by direct vapour transport technique. A photodetector is constructed using grown crystals to study its transient photoresponse under polychromatic radiation. The WSSe crystals are mechanically exfoliated to thickness of 3 µm and the lateral dimension of prepared sample is 2.25 mm2. The time-resolved photoresponse is studied under polychromatic illumination of power density ranging from 10 to 40 mW/cm2. The photo response is also studied under different bias voltages ranging from 0.1 V to 0.5 V. The typical photodetector parameters i.e. photocurrent, rise and fall time, responsivity and sensitivity are evaluated and discussed in light of the ternary alloy composition.

  20. Atomistic study of ternary oxides as high-temperature solid lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongyu

    Friction and wear are important tribological phenomena tightly associated with the performance of tribological components/systems such as bearings and cutting machines. In the process of contact and sliding, friction and wear lead to energy loss, and high friction and wear typically result in shortened service lifetime. To reduce friction and wear, solid lubricants are generally used under conditions where traditional liquid lubricants cannot be applied. However, it is challenging to maintain the functionality of those materials when the working environment becomes severe. For instance, at elevated temperatures (i.e., above 400 °C), most traditional solid lubricants, such as MoS2 and graphite, will easily oxidize or lose lubricity due to irreversible chemical changes. For such conditions, it is necessary to identify materials that can remain thermally stable as well as lubricious over a wide range of temperatures. Among the currently available high-temperature solid lubricants, Ag-based ternary metal oxides have recently drawn attention due to their low friction and ability to resist oxidation. A recent experimental study showed that the Ag-Ta-O ternary exhibited an extremely low coefficient of friction (0.06) at 750 °C. To fully uncover the lubricious nature of this material as a high-temperature solid lubricant, a series of tribological investigations were carried out based on one promising candidate - silver tantalate (AgTaO3). The study was then extended to alternative materials, Cu-Ta-O ternaries, to accommodate a variety of application requirements. We aimed to understand, at an atomic level, the effects of physical and chemical properties on the thermal, mechanical and tribological behavior of these materials at high temperatures. Furthermore, we investigated potassium chloride films on a clean iron surface as a representative boundary lubricating system in a nonextreme environment. This investigation complemented the study of Ag/Cu-Ta-O and enhanced the

  1. Hybrid ternary rice paper-manganese oxide-carbon nanotube nanocomposites for flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenchao; Zhang, Kaixi; Wei, Li; Yu, Dingshan; Wei, Jun; Chen, Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Modern portable electronic devices create a strong demand for flexible energy storage devices. Paper based nanocomposites are attractive as sustainable materials for such applications. Here, we directly explored the hydroxyl chemistry of cellulose fibers to synthesize hybrid ternary nanocomposites, comprised of rice paper, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and manganese oxide nanoparticles. The functional groups on cellulose fibers can react with adsorbed permanganate ions, resulting in uniform deposition of manganese oxide nanoparticles. SWCNTs coated on top of manganese oxide nanoparticles form a highly conductive network connecting individual manganese oxide particles. By using the hybrid ternary composites as electrodes, the assembled two-electrode supercapacitors demonstrated high capacitance (260.2 F g-1), energy (9.0 W h kg-1), power (59.7 kW kg-1), and cycle stability (12% drop after 3000 cycles). In addition, the nanocomposites show good strength and excellent mechanical flexibility, and their capacitance shows negligible changes after bending more than 100 times. These findings suggest that opportunities exist to further explore the rich chemistry of cellulose fibers for innovative energy applications.Modern portable electronic devices create a strong demand for flexible energy storage devices. Paper based nanocomposites are attractive as sustainable materials for such applications. Here, we directly explored the hydroxyl chemistry of cellulose fibers to synthesize hybrid ternary nanocomposites, comprised of rice paper, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and manganese oxide nanoparticles. The functional groups on cellulose fibers can react with adsorbed permanganate ions, resulting in uniform deposition of manganese oxide nanoparticles. SWCNTs coated on top of manganese oxide nanoparticles form a highly conductive network connecting individual manganese oxide particles. By using the hybrid ternary composites as electrodes, the assembled two

  2. Peculiarities of thermoelectric half-Heusler phase formation in Zr–Co–Sb ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, V.V., E-mail: romakav@lp.edu.ua [Department of Applied Material Science and Materials Engineering, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Wien, Währingerstr. 42, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Romaka, L. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Rogl, P. [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Wien, Währingerstr. 42, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Stadnyk, Yu. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Melnychenko, N. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Army Academy named after Hetman Petro Sahaydachnyi, Gvardijska Str. 32, 79012 Lviv (Ukraine); Korzh, R.; Duriagina, Z. [Department of Applied Material Science and Materials Engineering, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Horyn, A. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2014-02-05

    Highlights: • Phase relations for the Zr–Co–Sb system at 500 °C. • Homogeneity region for half-Heusler phase. • The distribution of DOS for Zr{sub 1+x}Co{sub 1−x}Sb predicts transition from semiconductor (x = 0) to metallic (x = 0.13) like behavior. • The existence of the solid solution Zr{sub 5}Co{sub x}Sb{sub 3+y} (x = 0.0–1.0, y = 0.0–1.0). -- Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Zr–Co–Sb ternary system were studied at 873 K by means of X-ray and metallographic analyses in the whole concentration range. The interaction between the elements results the formation of four ternary compounds at investigated temperature: ZrCoSb (MgAgAs-type), Zr{sub 6}CoSb{sub 2} (K{sub 2}UF{sub 6}-type), Zr{sub 5}CoSb{sub 3} (Hf{sub 5}CuSn{sub 3}-type) and Zr{sub 5}Co{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 2.5} (W{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type). The limited composition Zr{sub 5}CoSb{sub 3} of the solid solution based on the Zr{sub 5}Sb{sub 3−4} binaries is considered as compound with Hf{sub 5}CuSn{sub 3} structure type. The influence of the disordering and defects in the crystal structure of ZrCoSb on the physical properties was analyzed. The performed electronic structure calculations are in good agreement with electrical and magnetic studies.

  3. Neural correlates of intentional switching from ternary to binary meter in a musical hemiola pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Takako; Fidali, Brian C; Ross, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Musical rhythms are often perceived and interpreted within a metrical framework that integrates timing information hierarchically based on interval ratios. Endogenous timing processes facilitate this metrical integration and allow us using the sensory context for predicting when an expected sensory event will happen ("predictive timing"). Previously, we showed that listening to metronomes and subjectively imagining the two different meters of march and waltz modulated the resulting auditory evoked responses in the temporal lobe and motor-related brain areas such as the motor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Here we further explored the intentional transitions between the two metrical contexts, known as hemiola in the Western classical music dating back to the sixteenth century. We examined MEG from 12 musicians while they repeatedly listened to a sequence of 12 unaccented clicks with an interval of 390 ms, and tapped to them with the right hand according to a 3 + 3 + 2 + 2 + 2 hemiola accent pattern. While participants listened to the same metronome sequence and imagined the accents, their pattern of brain responses significantly changed just before the "pivot" point of metric transition from ternary to binary meter. Until 100 ms before the pivot point, brain activities were more similar to those in the simple ternary meter than those in the simple binary meter, but the pattern was reversed afterwards. A similar transition was also observed at the downbeat after the pivot. Brain areas related to the metric transition were identified from source reconstruction of the MEG using a beamformer and included auditory cortices, sensorimotor and premotor cortices, cerebellum, inferior/middle frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, cingulate cortex, and precuneus. The results strongly support that predictive timing processes related to auditory-motor, fronto-parietal, and medial limbic systems underlie metrical representation and its transitions.

  4. Solubility diagrams in ternary aqueous-salt systems with yttrium, barium and copper nitrates at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrenko, S.V.; Lyashchenko, A.K.; Karataeva, I.M.; Mozhaev, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    Solubility diagrams in Cu(NO 3 ) 2 -Y(NO 3 ) 3 -H 2 O, Y(NO 3 ) 3 -Ba(NO 3 ) 2 -H 2 O and Cu(NO 3 ) 2 -Ba(NO 3 ) 2 -H 2 O systems are studied at 25 deg C based on experimental determinations of salt solubility, isopiestic measurements and data of the calculation-experimental method in the framework of the Pitzer model. Binary and ternary parameters of interionic interactions are calculated; applicability of the method to the given systems is shown. Salts of complex composition and structure are absent in them; mutual salting out of components is also observed

  5. Investigations of the ternary system beryllium-carbon-tungsten and analyses of beryllium on carbon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, Florian

    2009-01-01

    sequence, carbide formation is complete in the temperature range between 570 and 770 K. Be 2 W alloy formation only takes place if further metallic beryllium is available after carbide formation. Be 2 C and Be 2 W dissociate at temperatures T>1170 K. Based on RBS analysis of C/Be/W systems of several 100 nm thickness, the concentration dependent diffusion coefficient for Be in W was determined. Only Be 12 W formation was observed due to the large beryllium reservoir. Carbide formation (Be 2 C) is not observed until the alloy formation is completed. Furthermore, the first successful depth-resolved XPS measurements were performed on ternary layer systems using synchrotron radiation. The reactions in the ternary system are restricted to compounds that are already known from binary system investigations. No further Be, C, W-containing species are detected. Beryllium carbide is dominant in the system as long as it does not dissociate. (orig.)

  6. Sequential character of low-energy ternary and quaternary nuclear fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadmensky, S. G., E-mail: kadmensky@phys.vsu.ru; Bulychev, A. O. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    An analysis of low-energy true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission leads to the conclusion that these fission modes have a sequential two-step (three-step) character such that the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) and the separation of fission fragments occur at distinctly different instants, in contrast to the simultaneous emergence of all fission products in the case of onestep ternary (quaternary) fission. This conclusion relies on the following arguments. First, the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) from a fissile nucleus is due to a nonevaporative mechanism associated with a nonadiabatic character of the collective deformation motion of this nucleus at the stages preceding its scission. Second, the axial symmetry of the deformed fissile compound nucleus and the direction of its symmetry axis both remain unchanged at all stages of ternary (quaternary) fission. This circumstancemakes it possible to explain themechanism of the appearance of observed anisotropies and T — odd asymmeries in the angular distributions of products of ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. Third, the T —odd asymmetry discovered experimentally in ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons obeys the T —invariance condition only in the case of a sequential two-step (three-step) character of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. At the same time, this asymmetry is not a T —invariant quantity in the case of the simultaneous emission of products of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission from the fissile compound nucleus.

  7. Sequential character of low-energy ternary and quaternary nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmensky, S. G.; Bulychev, A. O.

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of low-energy true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission leads to the conclusion that these fission modes have a sequential two-step (three-step) character such that the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) and the separation of fission fragments occur at distinctly different instants, in contrast to the simultaneous emergence of all fission products in the case of onestep ternary (quaternary) fission. This conclusion relies on the following arguments. First, the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) from a fissile nucleus is due to a nonevaporative mechanism associated with a nonadiabatic character of the collective deformation motion of this nucleus at the stages preceding its scission. Second, the axial symmetry of the deformed fissile compound nucleus and the direction of its symmetry axis both remain unchanged at all stages of ternary (quaternary) fission. This circumstancemakes it possible to explain themechanism of the appearance of observed anisotropies and T — odd asymmeries in the angular distributions of products of ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. Third, the T —odd asymmetry discovered experimentally in ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons obeys the T —invariance condition only in the case of a sequential two-step (three-step) character of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. At the same time, this asymmetry is not a T —invariant quantity in the case of the simultaneous emission of products of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission from the fissile compound nucleus.

  8. He and Be ternary spontaneous fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, J K; Ramayya, A V; Hamilton, J H

    2002-01-01

    Ternary and binary fission studies of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf have been carried out by using the Gammasphere detector array with light charged particle (LCD) detectors. The relative sup 4 He and sup 5 He ternary fission yields were determined. The kinetic energies of the sup 5 He and sup 4 He ternary particles were found to be approximately 11 and 16 MeV, respectively. The sup 5 He particles contribute 10-20 % to the total observed alpha ternary yield. The data indicate that in nuclei with octupole deformations the population for the negative parity bands might be enhanced in the alpha ternary fission. >From LCP-gamma double gated spectra, neutron multiplicity distributions for alpha ternary fission pairs were measured. The average neutron multiplicity decreases about 0.7 AMU in going from the binary to alpha ternary fission in the approximately same mass splittings (104-146). From the analysis of the gamma-gamma matrix gated on the sup 1 sup 0 Be particles, the two fragment pairs of sup 1 sup 3 sup 8 Xe - sup 1...

  9. Acetone-butanol-ethanol competitive sorption simulation from single, binary, and ternary systems in a fixed-bed of KA-I resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinglan; Zhuang, Wei; Ying, Hanjie; Jiao, Pengfei; Li, Renjie; Wen, Qingshi; Wang, Lili; Zhou, Jingwei; Yang, Pengpeng

    2015-01-01

    Separation of butanol based on sorption methodology from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation broth has advantages in terms of biocompatibility and stability, as well as economy, and therefore gains much attention. In this work a chromatographic column model based on the solid film linear driving force approach and the competitive Langmuir isotherm equations was used to predict the competitive sorption behaviors of ABE single, binary, and ternary mixture. It was observed that the outlet concentration of weaker retained components exceeded the inlet concentration, which is an evidence of competitive adsorption. Butanol, the strongest retained component, could replace ethanol almost completely and also most of acetone. In the end of this work, the proposed model was validated by comparison of the experimental and predicted ABE ternary breakthrough curves using the real ABE fermentation broth as a feed solution. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  10. Quantum error-correcting code for ternary logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Ritajit; Basu, Saikat; Ghosh, Shibashis; Sur-Kolay, Susmita

    2018-05-01

    Ternary quantum systems are being studied because they provide more computational state space per unit of information, known as qutrit. A qutrit has three basis states, thus a qubit may be considered as a special case of a qutrit where the coefficient of one of the basis states is zero. Hence both (2 ×2 ) -dimensional and (3 ×3 ) -dimensional Pauli errors can occur on qutrits. In this paper, we (i) explore the possible (2 ×2 ) -dimensional as well as (3 ×3 ) -dimensional Pauli errors in qutrits and show that any pairwise bit swap error can be expressed as a linear combination of shift errors and phase errors, (ii) propose a special type of error called a quantum superposition error and show its equivalence to arbitrary rotation, (iii) formulate a nine-qutrit code which can correct a single error in a qutrit, and (iv) provide its stabilizer and circuit realization.

  11. Ternary ceramic alloys of Zr-Ce-Hf oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, P.F.; Funkenbusch, E.F.

    1990-11-20

    A ternary ceramic alloy is described which produces toughening of zirconia and zirconia composites through the stress transformation from tetragonal phase to monoclinic phase. This alloy, having the general formula Ce[sub x]Hf[sub y]Zr[sub 1[minus]x[minus]y]O[sub 2], is produced through the addition of appropriate amounts of ceria and hafnia to the zirconia. Typically, improved toughness is achieved with about 5 to about 15 mol % ceria and up to about 40 mol % hafnia. The preparation of alloys of these compositions are given together with data as to the densities, tetragonal phase content, hardness and fracture toughness. The alloys are useful in preparing zirconia bodies as well as reinforcing ceramic composites. 1 fig.

  12. Normal freezing of ideal ternary systems of the pseudobinary type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    Perfect liquid mixing but no solid diffusion is assumed in normal freezing. In addition, the molar compositions of the freezing solid and remaining liquid, respectively, follow the solidus and liquidus curves of the constitutional diagram. For the linear case, in which both the liquidus and solidus are perfectly straight lines, the normal freezing equation giving the fraction solidified at each melt temperature and the solute concentration profile in the frozen solid was determined as early as 1902, and has since been repeatedly published. Corresponding equations for quadratic, cubic or higher-degree liquidus and solidus lines have also been obtained. The equation of normal freezing for ideal ternary liquid solutions solidified into ideal solid solutions of the pseudobinary type is given. Sample computations with the use of this new equation were made and are given for the Ga-Al-As system.

  13. Ternary oxide nanostructures and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stanislaus S [Stony Brook, NY; Park, Tae-Jin [Port Jefferson, NY

    2009-09-08

    A single crystalline ternary nanostructure having the formula A.sub.xB.sub.yO.sub.z, wherein x ranges from 0.25 to 24, and y ranges from 1.5 to 40, and wherein A and B are independently selected from the group consisting of Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, In, Ir, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, Os, P, Pb, Pd, Pr, Pt, Rb, Re, Rh, Ru, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Tc, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, and Zn, wherein the nanostructure is at least 95% free of defects and/or dislocations.

  14. Structural study of the continuous medium of spontaneous ternary emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desforge, Christine

    1993-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the structure of a continuous medium of spontaneous ternary emulsions of oil-in-water type, composed of water and octane, and stabilised by means of a cationic surfactant (DDAB, didodecyldimethyl ammonium bromide). It shows that the kinetic stability is due to electrostatic repulsions between octane drops, and that these repulsions are due to the presence of positive charges on the DDAB mono-layer located at the interface between water and oil. Various aspects are highlighted by neutron and X ray scattering. In this study, the DDAB is replaced by a non-ionic surfactant. Its use results in very steady oil/water emulsions [fr

  15. Hardness and Microstructure of Binary and Ternary Nitinol Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    The hardness and microstructure of twenty-six binary and ternary Nitinol (nickel titanium, nickel titanium hafnium, nickel titanium zirconium and nickel titanium tantalum) compounds were studied. A small (50g) ingot of each compound was produced by vacuum arc remelting. Each ingot was homogenized in vacuum for 48 hr followed by furnace cooling. Specimens from the ingots were then heat treated at 800, 900, 1000 or 1100 degree C for 2 hr followed by water quenching. The hardness and microstructure of each specimen was compared to the baseline material (55-Nitinol, 55 at.% nickel - 45 at.% titanium, after heat treatment at 900 degC). The results show that eleven of the studied compounds had higher hardness values than the baseline material. Moreover, twelve of the studied compounds had measured hardness values greater 600HV at heat treatments from 800 to 900 degree C.

  16. Modeling adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on microporous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsalvo, Matias Alfonso; Shapiro, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    it possible using the same equation of state to describe the thermodynamic properties of the segregated and the bulk phases. For comparison, we also used the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) to describe adsorption equilibria. The main advantage of these two models is their capabilities to predict......The goal of this work is to analyze the adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on the basis of the multicomponent potential theory of adsorption (MPTA). In the MPTA, the adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external potential field emitted by the solid adsorbent. This makes...... multicomponent adsorption equilibria on the basis of single-component adsorption data. We compare the MPTA and IAST models to a large set of experimental data, obtaining reasonable good agreement with experimental data and high degree of predictability. Some limitations of both models are also discussed....

  17. Site occupancies in ternary C15 ordered Laves phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotula, P.G.; Chu, F.; Thoma, D.J.; Mitchell, T.E.; Anderson, I.M.; Bentley, J.

    1996-01-01

    Site occupancies in three C15-structured AB 2 (X) Laves phases have been determined by Atom Location by CHanneling Enhanced MIcroanalysis (ALCHEMI). In NbCr 2 (V), the results were consistent with exclusive site occupancies of Nb for the A sublattice and Cr and V for the B sublattice. The B-site occupancy of V is not expected from atom size effects alone. In NbCr 2 (Ti), the results were consistent with Ti partitioning mostly to the A sites with some anti-site defects likely. In HfV 2 (Nb), the results were consistent with Nb partitioning between the A and B sites. The results of the ALCHEMI analyses of these ternary C15 Laves phase materials will be discussed with respect to previously determined phase diagrams and first-principles total energy and electronic structure calculations

  18. Quadrupole interaction in ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors experiments and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, M; Degering, D; Deicher, M; Kortus, J; Magerle, R; Möller, A; Samokhvalov, V; Unterricker, S; Vianden, R

    2000-01-01

    Electric field gradients have been measured at substitutional lattice sites in ternary semiconductors using perturbed gamma - gamma angular correlation spectroscopy. The experimental results for A/sup I/B/sup III/C/sub 2//sup VI/ chalcopyrite structure compounds and Square Operator A/sup II/B/sub 2//sup III/C/sub 4//sup VI/ defect chalcopyrites are compared with ab-initio calculations. The latter were carried out with the WIEN code that uses the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within a density functional theory. The agreement between experiment and theory is in most cases very good. Furthermore, the anion displacements in AgGaX/sub 2/- compounds (X: S, Se, Te) have been determined theoretically by determining the minimum of the total energy of the electrons in an elementary cell. (20 refs).

  19. Superconducting properties of a copper-ternary alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.G.; Aleksivskii, N.E.

    1975-01-01

    The superconducting properties of a copper-ternary alloy of the type Cu 93 Nb 5 Sn 2 , subjected to a variety of mechanical and heat treatments, are discussed. The as-cast alloy does not turn superconducting down to 4.5K; but the cold-work and subsequent prescribed heat treatments are found to raise the transition temperature Tsub(c) to values as high as 18.1K and the critical current density Jsub(c) (of the Nb 3 Sn formed during annealing) to a value of 3.6x10 5 Acm -2 (at 4.2K and 30kOe). Various possibilities to improve Jsub(c) of this alloy to still higher values are discussed. The as-cast alloy is ductile, easy to draw, and economical from a technical point of view, and the annealed wires and strips are flexible enough for winding. (author)

  20. Secondary ordering in ternary alloy CuMnPt6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Miwako; Das, Ananda Kumar; Nakamura, Reo; Ohshima, Ken-ichi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Shishido, Toetsu

    2006-01-01

    Using the pulsed-neutron diffraction technique, we performed in situ measurements of structural ordering in the ternary alloy CuMnPt 6 . The diffraction patterns at various temperatures give a direct observation of a double-step ordering: disorder to Cu 3 Au type order as an ordering within the fundamental face-centered cubic lattice to subdivide the lattice into two sublattices formed by face-centered sites (first sublattice) and corner sites (second sublattice) at 968degC; and Cu 3 Au type order to ABC 6 type order as an ordering within the second to subdivide the lattice further into two sublattices formed by alternating (111) planes at 746degC. The order parameters for the ABC 6 type structure experimentally estimated by the method of static concentration waves indicate that the primary ordering developed almost completely, but the secondary ordering remained incomplete. (author)

  1. Bond charges and electronic charge transfer in ternary semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, U.

    1986-01-01

    By means of a simple molecule-theoretic model of 'linear superposition of two-electron molecules' the bond charges between nearest neighbours and the effective charges of ions are calculated for ternary zinc-blende structure alloys as well as chalcopyrite semiconductors. Taking into account both, the charge transfer among the ions caused by the differences of electronegativities of atoms used and between the bonds created by the internal stress of the lattice a nearly unvaried averaged bond charge amount of the alloy is found, but rather dramatically changed local bond charge parameters in comparison with the respective values of binary compounds used. This fact should influence the noncentral force interaction in such semiconductors. (author)

  2. New method for the simultaneous condensation of complete ternary alloy systems under ultrahigh vacuum conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrtens, A.; Moske, M.; Samwer, K.

    1988-01-01

    An ultrahigh vacuum apparatus is described for the simultaneous condensation of complete ternary alloy systems. Three singly controlled electron beam evaporation sources provide a constant evaporation rate of the different elements. A specially designed rotating mask guarantees a concentration gradient on the substrate according to a ternary phase diagram. The conversion of the actual concentration profile into a standard ternary phase diagram is done by simple computer calculations. They involve corrections for the beam characteristics of the evaporation sources and for the rotating mask. As an example, measurements for the Zr--Cu--Co system are given. The concentration range for the amorphous phase is compared with thermodynamic predictions using Miedema's parameter

  3. Ternary particles with extreme N/Z ratios from neutron-induced fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, U.; Faust, H.; Friedrichs, T.; Oberstedt, S.; Fioni, G.; Grob, M.; Ahmad, I. J.; Devlin, M.; Heinz, A.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Sarantites, D. G.; Siem, S.; Sobotka, L. G.; Sonzogni, A.

    2000-01-01

    The existing ternary fission models can well reproduce the yields of the most abundant light charged particles. However, these models tend to significantly overestimate the yields of ternary particles with an extreme N/Z ratio: 3 He, 11 Li, 14 Be, etc. The experimental yields of these isotopes were investigated with the recoil separator LOHENGRIN down to a level of 10 -10 per fission. Results from the fissioning systems 233 U (n th , f), 235 U(n th ,f), 239 Pu(n th ,f) 241 Pu(n th ,f) and 245 Cm(n th ,f) are presented and the implications for the ternary fission models are discussed

  4. Cooling thermal parameters and microstructure features of directionally solidified ternary Sn–Bi–(Cu,Ag) solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Bismarck L., E-mail: bismarck_luiz@yahoo.com.br [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Garcia, Amauri [Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-860 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Spinelli, José E. [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    Low temperature soldering technology encompasses Sn–Bi based alloys as reference materials for joints since such alloys may be molten at temperatures less than 180 °C. Despite the relatively high strength of these alloys, segregation problems and low ductility are recognized as potential disadvantages. Thus, for low-temperature applications, Bi–Sn eutectic or near-eutectic compositions with or without additions of alloying elements are considered interesting possibilities. In this context, additions of third elements such as Cu and Ag may be an alternative in order to reach sounder solder joints. The length scale of the phases and their proportions are known to be the most important factors affecting the final wear, mechanical and corrosions properties of ternary Sn–Bi–(Cu,Ag) alloys. In spite of this promising outlook, studies emphasizing interrelations of microstructure features and solidification thermal parameters regarding these multicomponent alloys are rare in the literature. In the present investigation Sn–Bi–(Cu,Ag) alloys were directionally solidified (DS) under transient heat flow conditions. A complete characterization is performed including experimental cooling thermal parameters, segregation (XRF), optical and scanning electron microscopies, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and length scale of the microstructural phases. Experimental growth laws relating dendritic spacings to solidification thermal parameters have been proposed with emphasis on the effects of Ag and Cu. The theoretical predictions of the Rappaz-Boettinger model are shown to be slightly above the experimental scatter of secondary dendritic arm spacings for both ternary Sn–Bi–Cu and Sn–Bi–Ag alloys examined. - Highlights: • Dendritic growth prevailed for the ternary Sn–Bi–Cu and Sn–Bi–Ag solder alloys. • Bi precipitates within Sn-rich dendrites were shown to be unevenly distributed. • Morphology and preferential region for the Ag{sub 3}Sn growth depend on Ag

  5. Solidification and solid state phenomena during TLP bonding of IN718 superalloy using Ni–Si–B ternary filler alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouranvari, M., E-mail: mpouranvari@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11365-11155 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ekrami, A.; Kokabi, A.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11365-11155 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-06-25

    Highlights: ► Microstructure evolution during TLP bonding of IN718 using Ni–Si–B filler. ► Athermal solidification path is influenced by severe segregation of B and Si in residual liquid. ► High hardness of ASZ microconstituents necessitates designing a PBHT to avert brittleness. ► Diffusion induced Cr–Mo–Nb based boride precipitation was observed in DAZ. ► Boride precipitates in DAZ influence the corrosion resistance and aging behavior. -- Abstract: This paper addresses solidification and solid state precipitation phenomena during transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of wrought IN718 nickel base superalloy using Ni–4.5Si–3.2B (wt.%) ternary filler alloy. The solidification sequence of the residual liquid in the joint centerline was found to be (1) formation of proeutectic γ, followed by (2) γ/Ni{sub 3}B eutectic reaction, followed by (3) ternary eutectic of γ/Ni{sub 3}B/Ni{sub 6}Si{sub 2}B. Extensive fine Ni{sub 3}Si formed within the eutectic-γ via solid state precipitation during cooling. Extensive Cr–Mo–Nb rich boride precipitates were formed in the substrate region due to boron diffusion into the base metal during bonding process. The implications of the phase transformations on the mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and aging behavior of the joint, which are pertinent to the development of an optimum post bond heat treatment, are highlighted.

  6. Solidification and solid state phenomena during TLP bonding of IN718 superalloy using Ni–Si–B ternary filler alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouranvari, M.; Ekrami, A.; Kokabi, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microstructure evolution during TLP bonding of IN718 using Ni–Si–B filler. ► Athermal solidification path is influenced by severe segregation of B and Si in residual liquid. ► High hardness of ASZ microconstituents necessitates designing a PBHT to avert brittleness. ► Diffusion induced Cr–Mo–Nb based boride precipitation was observed in DAZ. ► Boride precipitates in DAZ influence the corrosion resistance and aging behavior. -- Abstract: This paper addresses solidification and solid state precipitation phenomena during transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of wrought IN718 nickel base superalloy using Ni–4.5Si–3.2B (wt.%) ternary filler alloy. The solidification sequence of the residual liquid in the joint centerline was found to be (1) formation of proeutectic γ, followed by (2) γ/Ni 3 B eutectic reaction, followed by (3) ternary eutectic of γ/Ni 3 B/Ni 6 Si 2 B. Extensive fine Ni 3 Si formed within the eutectic-γ via solid state precipitation during cooling. Extensive Cr–Mo–Nb rich boride precipitates were formed in the substrate region due to boron diffusion into the base metal during bonding process. The implications of the phase transformations on the mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and aging behavior of the joint, which are pertinent to the development of an optimum post bond heat treatment, are highlighted

  7. Visible-light driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene-violet by rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO ternary nanohybrid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangavel, Srinivas [Nanomaterials Research Lab ( NmRL ), Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114, Tamil Nadu (India); Center of Excellence in Advanced Materials and Green Technologies, Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore 641 112, Tamil Nadu (India); Thangavel, Sakthivel [Nanomaterials Research Lab ( NmRL ), Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Raghavan, Nivea [Nanomaterials Research Lab ( NmRL ), Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114, Tamil Nadu (India); Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Venugopal, Gunasekaran, E-mail: gunasekaran@karunya.edu [Nanomaterials Research Lab ( NmRL ), Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114, Tamil Nadu (India); Solid State Electronics Lab, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2016-04-25

    A novel ternary nanohybrid structure was constructed with reduced graphene-oxide/iron-oxide/zinc-oxide (rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO) via a facile hydrothermal method. The structural, morphological and optical properties were explored using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectra and photoluminescence (PL) studies. The functional groups of ternary nanohybrid were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. SEM images confirm the presence of two-dimensional GO sheets, one dimensional Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and ZnO nanorods. The PL spectra showed the quenching effect which has been observed from the reduction of electron–hole recombination in hybrid. Degradation efficiency of this system was evaluated and compared with pure ZnO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO. Under visible light condition, the ternary nanohybrid has shown an excellent photocatalytic degradation of methylene-violet dye. The degradation efficiency of rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO was systematically analyzed by absorption spectra and total organic carbon removal techniques. Our experimental results will show the potential way for the development of futuristic rGO based nanohybrids as an effective photocatalytic materials for waste-water treatment and environmental remedial applications. - Graphical abstract: A new ternary nanohybrid has been constructed with 1D Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–ZnO and 2D rGO sheets to utilize as visible-light photocatalyst. Highly active photocatalyst has been prepared by a feasible hydrothermal approach. For the first time, rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO ternary nanohybrid exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of methylene-violet (dye) and the same can be used for environmental remediation applications. - Highlights: • Ternary nanohybrid constructed with 1D ZnO, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and 2D rGO. • Aggregation free rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO nanohybrid exhibits superior photocatalytic activity. • rGO boost up

  8. Effects of Ligands on a Ternary Hydroxo Complex Formation with Eu(III) in a Aqueous Solution: Comparison of a Pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate with a Phthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K. K.; Cho, H. R.; Kim, W. H.; Jung, E. C.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of a radionuclide with ligands in a groundwater influences its migration through a hydrogeological system due to a change in the characteristics of a dissolution and a sorption. Actinide ions are classified as a hard acid and strongly interact with ligands having an oxygen donor atom of a hard base such as a hydroxide, carbonate and carboxylate. These ligands reveal a large ionic bonding character. A number of experimental results on a binary complex formation of actinides have been reported. However, actinides may easily form a ternary complex by interacting simultaneously with two different ligands, since an ionic bonding does not restrict the spatial orientation of a ligand. In previous studies, a ternary hydroxo complex formation was investigated by using pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate (PDA) or phthalate as an organic ligand and Eu(III) as an analogue of an actinide(III) ion. Although these organic ligands equally contain two carboxylate groups that interact with an Eu(III) ion, their stabilities reveal big differences. PDA is a tridentate ligand forming two 5-membered chelates, while phthalate is a bidentate ligand forming a 7-membered chelate. The latter reveals a lower stability than the former due to an angle strain. This is one of the reasons for the lower stability of the Eu(III)-phthalate than that of the Eu(III)- PDA. The difference in the stabilities of binary complexes, EuL + (L=organic ligand), influences the stabilities of the ternary hydroxo complexes, Eu(OH)L. The coordination of a phenylic or pyridine ligand can greatly enhance the fluorescence of an Eu(III) ion due to the high absorbance of a ligand by a π → π * transition and the transfer of this energy to an Eu(III) ion. These fluorescence characteristics in a binary complex system could be changed in a ternary complex. In this study, the effect of a ligand on the stability of a ternary hydroxo complex is reported by comparing the stabilities of Eu-PDA with Eu-phthalate systems

  9. Modelling Eu(III) speciation in a Eu(III)/PAHA/α-Al2O3 ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janot, Noemie; Reiller, Pascal E.; Benedetti, Marc F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, modelling of Eu(III) speciation in a ternary system, i.e., in presence of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) and α-Al 2 O 3 , is presented. First, the mineral surface charge is measured by potentiometric titrations and then described using the CD-MUSIC model. This model is also used to describe Eu(III) binding to the α-Al 2 O 3 surface at different pH values, ionic strength and mineral concentrations. Time resolved luminescence spectroscopy (TRLS) is then used to study the binding of Eu(III) to PAHA at pH 4 with different humic acid concentrations. The spectra are used to calculate a spectroscopic 'titration curve', used to determine Eu(III)/PAHA binding parameters in the NICA-Donnan model. Following a previous study (Janot et al., Water Res. 46, 731-740), modelling of the ternary system is based upon the definition of two PAHA pools where one fraction remains in solution and the other is adsorbed onto the mineral surface, with each possessing different proton and metal binding parameters. The modification of protonation behaviour for both fractions is examined using spectrophotometric titrations of the non adsorbed PAHA fraction at different organic/mineral ratios. These data are then used to describe Eu(III) interactions in the ternary system: Eu(III) re-partitioning in the ternary system is calculated for different pH, ionic strength and PAHA concentrations, and results are compared to experimental observations. The model is in good agreement with experimental data, except at high PAHA fractionation rates. Results show that organic complexation dominates over a large pH range, with the predominant species existing as the surface-bound fraction. Above pH 8, Eu(III) seems to be mostly complexed to the mineral surface, which is in agreement with previous spectroscopic observations (Janot et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 45, 3224-3230). (authors)

  10. Organic Solar Cells beyond One Pair of Donor-Acceptor: Ternary Blends and More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liqiang; Yan, Liang; You, Wei

    2013-06-06

    Ternary solar cells enjoy both an increased light absorption width, and an easy fabrication process associated with their simple structures. Significant progress has been made for such solar cells with demonstrated efficiencies over 7%; however, their fundamental working principles are still under investigation. This Perspective is intended to offer our insights on the three major governing mechanisms in these intriguing ternary solar cells: charge transfer, energy transfer, and parallel-linkage. Through careful analysis of exemplary cases, we summarize the advantages and limitations of these three major mechanisms and suggest future research directions. For example, incorporating additional singlet fission or upconversion materials into the energy transfer dominant ternary solar cells has the potential to break the theoretical efficiency limit in single junction organic solar cells. Clearly, a feedback loop between fundamental understanding and materials selection is in urgent need to accelerate the efficiency improvement of these ternary solar cells.

  11. Synthesis and properties of ternary mixture of nickel/cobalt/tin oxides for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C. S.; Passos, R. R.; Pocrifka, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    The present study reports the synthesis and morphological, structural and electrochemical characterization of ternary oxides mixture containing nickel, cobalt and tin. The ternary oxide is synthesized by Pechini method with subsequent deposition onto a titanium substrate in a thin-film form. XRD and EDS analysis confirm the formation of ternary film with amorphous nature. SEM analysis show that cracks on the film favor the gain of the surface area that is an interesting feature for electrochemical capacitors. The ternary film is investigated in KOH electrolyte solution using cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge study with a specific capacitance of 328 F g-1, and a capacitance retention of 86% over 600 cycles. The values of specific power and specific energy was 345.7 W kg-1 and 18.92 Wh kg-1, respectively.

  12. A computer calculation of the ternary Mo-Pd-Rh phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerler, R.; Pratt, J.N.

    1993-01-01

    Thermodynamic coefficients for the phases in the binary Mo-Pd, Pd-Rh and Mo-Rh systems were derived by the assessment of the available experimental data using the binary Lukas optimization program. The resulting coefficients were first successfully utilised in reestablishing the binaries. The coefficients thus obtained in the binary computation were combined with ternary descriptions to compute ternary isothermal sections. Although no ternary interaction term was involved in the construction of the isotherms, the section calculated at 1373 K is found to be consistent with the experimentally established isothermal section at the same temperature. The location of three-phase field (bcc+hcp+fcc) and phase boundaries in both isotherms are matching reasonably well. Combining only binary coefficients of these phases, it is possible to construct reasonable isothermal sections at different temperatures. Following this conclusion, isothermal sections ranging from 1373 to 2673 K of the ternary Mo-Pd-Rh system were calculated. (orig.)

  13. Theoretical study of physical properties and oxygen incorporation effect in nanolaminated ternary carbides 211-MAX phases

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we employ ab initio approaches to review some important physical properties of nanolaminated ternary carbides MAX phases. We fi rstly use an all electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method within the generalized

  14. Special quasirandom structures for binary/ternary group IV random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.; Jiang, Chao; Grimes, Robin W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2010-01-01

    Simulation of defect interactions in binary/ternary group IV semiconductor alloys at the density functional theory level is difficult due to the random distribution of the constituent atoms. The special quasirandom structures approach is a

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Ternary and Quaternary Alkali Metal Thiophosphates

    KAUST Repository

    Alahmary, Fatimah S.

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing development of nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals such as coherent mid-IR sources focuses on various classes of materials such as ternary and quaternary metal chalcophosphates. In case of thiophosphates, the connection between PS4

  16. Crystal Growth of ZnSe and Related Ternary Compound Semiconductors by Vapor Transport in Low Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Ramachandran, N.

    2013-01-01

    Crystals of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, will be grown by physical vapor transport in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). The objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the crystals grown by vapor transport as results of buoyance-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions.

  17. On the application of the NRTL method to ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Julia, Jorge; Barrero, Carmen R.; Corso, Maria E.; Grande, Maria del Carmen; Marschoff, Carlos M.

    2005-01-01

    The use of the NRTL method for correlating experimental data in ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria is considered. It is concluded that parameters obtained by direct correlation techniques have not a direct physical meaning. Also, it is shown that the resulting values for these parameters depend on the number of experimental points considered and on the particular calculation method employed. Thus, it is very risky to employ such parameters in predicting equilibria of other ternary mixtures

  18. Structure of the novel ternary hydrides Li4Tt2D (Tt=Si and Ge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hui; Rush, J.J.; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD; Hartman, M.R.; Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR; Udovic, T.J.; Zhou Wei; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA; Bowman, R.C. Jr.; Vajo, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structures of newly discovered Li 4 Ge 2 D and Li 4 Si 2 D ternary phases were solved by direct methods using neutron powder diffraction data. Both structures can be described using a Cmmm orthorhombic cell with all hydrogen atoms occupying Li 6 -octahedral interstices. The overall crystal structure and the geometry of these interstices are compared with those of other related phases, and the stabilization of this novel class of ternary hydrides is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Consideration of the Verleur model of far-infrared spectroscopy of ternary compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robouch, B. V.; Kisiel, A.; Sheregii, E. M.

    2001-01-01

    The clustering model proposed by Verleur and Barker [Phys. Rev. 149, 715 (1966)] to interpret far infrared data for face-centered-cubic ternary compounds is critically analyzed. It is shown that their approach, satisfactory for fitting some ternary compound spectral curves, is too restricted by its one-parameter β model to be able to describe preferences (with respect to a random distribution case) for the five tetrahedron configurations

  20. Affine planes, ternary rings, and examples of non-Desarguesian planes

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Nikolai V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a detailed self-contained exposition of a part of the theory of affine planes leading to a construction of affine (or, equivalently, projective) planes not satisfying the Desarques axiom. It is intended to complement the introductory expositions of the theory of affine and projective planes. A novelty of our exposition is a new notation for the ternary operation in a ternary ring, much more suggestive than the standard one.

  1. High-performance ternary blend polymer solar cells involving both energy transfer and hole relay processes

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Luyao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping

    2015-01-01

    The integration of multiple materials with complementary absorptions into a single junction device is regarded as an efficient way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs). However, because of increased complexity with one more component, only limited high-performance ternary systems have been demonstrated previously. Here we report an efficient ternary blend OSC with a PCE of 9.2%. We show that the third component can reduce surface trap densities in the...

  2. A new model for predicting thermodynamic properties of ternary metallic solution from binary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zheng; Zhang Quanru

    2006-01-01

    A model has been derived to predict thermodynamic properties of ternary metallic systems from those of its three binaries. In the model, the excess Gibbs free energies and the interaction parameter ω 123 for three components of a ternary are expressed as a simple sum of those of the three sub-binaries, and the mole fractions of the components of the ternary are identical with the sub-binaries. This model is greatly simplified compared with the current symmetrical and asymmetrical models. It is able to overcome some shortcomings of the current models, such as the arrangement of the components in the Gibbs triangle, the conversion of mole fractions between ternary and corresponding binaries, and some necessary processes for optimizing the various parameters of these models. Two ternary systems, Mg-Cu-Ni and Cd-Bi-Pb are recalculated to demonstrate the validity and precision of the present model. The calculated results on the Mg-Cu-Ni system are better than those in the literature. New parameters in the Margules equations expressing the excess Gibbs free energies of three binary systems of the Cd-Bi-Pb ternary system are also given

  3. Experimental determination of the phase equilibria in the Co-Fe-Zr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.P.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, H.H.; Hu, H.F.; Liu, X.J.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We determined four isothermal sections of the Co-Fe-Zr system from 1000 o C to 1300 o C. → No ternary compound was found in the Co-Fe-Zr ternary system. → The solubility of Fe in the liquid phase at 1300 o C is extremely large. → The (Co, Fe) 2 Zr phase form the continuous solution from Co-Zr side to Fe-Zr side. → The solubility of Zr in the fcc (Co, Fe) phase is extremely small. - Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Co-Fe-Zr ternary system were investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on equilibrated ternary alloys. Four isothermal sections of the Co-Fe-Zr ternary system at 1300 o C, 1200 o C, 1100 o C and 1000 o C were experimentally established. The experimental results indicate that (1) no ternary compound was found in this system; (2) the solubility of Fe in the liquid phase of the Co-rich corner at 1300 o C is extremely large; (3) the liquid phase in the Zr-rich corner and the (Co,Fe) 2 Zr phase form the continuous solid solutions from the Co-Zr side to the Fe-Zr side; (4) the solubility of Zr in the fcc (Co, Fe) phase is extremely small.

  4. Temperature dependence of binary and ternary recombination of H3+ ions with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glosik, J.; Plasil, R.; Korolov, I.; Kotrik, T.; Novotny, O.; Hlavenka, P.; Dohnal, P.; Varju, J.; Kokoouline, V.; Greene, Chris H.

    2009-01-01

    We study binary and the recently discovered process of ternary He-assisted recombination of H 3 + ions with electrons in a low-temperature afterglow plasma. The experiments are carried out over a broad range of pressures and temperatures of an afterglow plasma in a helium buffer gas. Binary and He-assisted ternary recombination are observed and the corresponding recombination rate coefficients are extracted for temperatures from 77 to 330 K. We describe the observed ternary recombination as a two-step mechanism: first, a rotationally excited long-lived neutral molecule H 3 * is formed in electron-H 3 + collisions. Second, the H 3 * molecule collides with a helium atom that leads to the formation of a very long-lived Rydberg state with high orbital momentum. We present calculations of the lifetimes of H 3 * and of the ternary recombination rate coefficients for para- and ortho-H 3 + . The calculations show a large difference between the ternary recombination rate coefficients of ortho- and para-H 3 + at temperatures below 300 K. The measured binary and ternary rate coefficients are in reasonable agreement with the calculated values.

  5. Temperature dependence of binary and ternary recombination of H3+ ions with electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glosík, J.; Plašil, R.; Korolov, I.; Kotrík, T.; Novotný, O.; Hlavenka, P.; Dohnal, P.; Varju, J.; Kokoouline, V.; Greene, Chris H.

    2009-05-01

    We study binary and the recently discovered process of ternary He-assisted recombination of H3+ ions with electrons in a low-temperature afterglow plasma. The experiments are carried out over a broad range of pressures and temperatures of an afterglow plasma in a helium buffer gas. Binary and He-assisted ternary recombination are observed and the corresponding recombination rate coefficients are extracted for temperatures from 77 to 330 K. We describe the observed ternary recombination as a two-step mechanism: first, a rotationally excited long-lived neutral molecule H3∗ is formed in electron- H3+ collisions. Second, the H3∗ molecule collides with a helium atom that leads to the formation of a very long-lived Rydberg state with high orbital momentum. We present calculations of the lifetimes of H3∗ and of the ternary recombination rate coefficients for para- and ortho- H3+ . The calculations show a large difference between the ternary recombination rate coefficients of ortho- and para- H3+ at temperatures below 300 K. The measured binary and ternary rate coefficients are in reasonable agreement with the calculated values.

  6. Mechanical and water barrier properties of agar/κ-carrageenan/konjac glucomannan ternary blend biohydrogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jong-Whan; Wang, Long-Feng

    2013-07-01

    Multicomponent hydrogel films composed of agar, κ-carrageenan, konjac glucomannan powder, and nanoclay (Cloisite(®) 30B) were prepared and their mechanical and water barrier properties such as water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (CA), water solubility (WS), water uptake ratio (WUR), water vapor uptake ratio (WVUR) were determined. Mechanical, water vapor barrier, and water resistance properties of the ternary blend film exhibited middle range of individual component films, however, they increased significantly after formation of nanocomposite with the clay. Especially, the water holding capacity of the ternary blend biopolymer films increased tremendously, from 800% to 1681% of WUR for agar and κ-carrageenan films up to 5118% and 5488% of WUR for the ternary blend and ternary blend nanocomposite films, respectively. Water vapor adsorption behavior of films was also tested by water vapor adsorption kinetics and water vapor adsorption isotherms test. Preliminary test result for fresh spinach packaging revealed that the ternary blend biohydrogel films had a high potential for the use as an antifogging film for packaging highly respiring agricultural produce. In addition, the ternary blend nanocomposite film showed an antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Equilibrium studies of ternary systems containing some selected transition metal ions, triazoles and aromatic carboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Mohamed Magdy; Radalla, Abd-Elatty; Qasem, Fatma; Khaled, Rehab [Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt)

    2014-01-15

    Solution equilibria of the binary and ternary complex systems of the divalent transition metal ions Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} with 1,2,4-triazole (TRZ), 3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (TRZSH), and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (TRZAM) and aromatic carboxylic acids (phthalic, anthranilic, salicylic, and 5-sulfosalicylic acid) have been studied pH-metrically at (25.0±0.1) .deg. C, and a constant ionic strength I=1x10{sup -1} mol L{sup -1} NaNO{sub 3} in an aqueous medium. The potentiometric titration curves show that binary and ternary complexes of these ligands are formed in solution. The stability constants of the different binary and ternary complexes formed were calculated on the basis of computer analysis of the titration data. The relative stability of the different ternary complex species is expressed in terms of Δ log K values, log X and R. S.% parameters. The effect of temperature of the medium on both the proton-ligand equilibria for TRZAM and phthalic acid and their metal-ligand equilibria with Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} has been studied along with the corresponding thermodynamic parameters. The complexation behavior of ternary complexes is ascertained using conductivity measurements. In addition, the formation of ternary complexes in solution has been confirmed by using UV-visible spectrophotometry.

  8. Ternary complex formation of lanthanides and radiolanthanides with phosphate and serum proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumaier, B.; Roesch, F.

    1999-01-01

    Radioyttrium was recently reported to form ternary complexes with phosphate and serum proteins in blood. In the present work it was investigated whether the trivalent radiolanthanides react in a chemically similar way. In systematic binding studies using gel filtration a ternary complex formation between different lanthanides, phosphate and serum proteins could be identified. The tendency to build a ternary compound of the type Ln III - phosphate - serum protein, however, is dependent on the ionic radii of the lanthanides. Whereas the light and transition lanthanides have a strong inclination to build a ternary complex, this tendency is weaker for the heavier ones. Taking into account the high content of phosphate in human blood, the corresponding ternary complexes of radiolanthanides represent an important transport form of these elements in blood. This finding may contribute to an understanding of the nuclear medical observation on the biodistribution of radiolanthanides. The heavy radiolanthanides can be classified as bone seeking metals, whereas the light and transition lanthanide elements accumulate mainly in the liver and the spleen. For the lighter radiolanthanides the corresponding ternary complexes thus represent an important transport form in blood. This physicochemical form of lanthanides mainly results in reticulo endothelial accumulation; on the other hand, the lower tendency of heavier lanthanides leads to preferential skeletal deposition. (orig.)

  9. Ternary Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cells with 12.16% Efficiency by Introducing One Acceptor with Cascading Energy Level and Complementary Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weigang; Yu, Runnan; Liu, Zhiyang; Peng, Ruixiang; Mi, Dongbo; Hong, Ling; Wei, Qiang; Hou, Jianhui; Kuang, Yongbo; Ge, Ziyi

    2018-01-01

    A novel small-molecule acceptor, (2,2'-((5E,5'E)-5,5'-((5,5'-(4,4,9,9-tetrakis(5-hexylthiophen-2-yl)-4,9-dihydro-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene-2,7-diyl)bis(4-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophene-5,2-diyl))bis(methanylylidene)) bis(3-hexyl-4-oxothiazolidine-5,2-diylidene))dimalononitrile (ITCN), end-capped with electron-deficient 2-(3-hexyl-4-oxothiazolidin-2-ylidene)malononitrile groups, is designed, synthesized, and used as the third component in fullerene-free ternary polymer solar cells (PSCs). The cascaded energy-level structure enabled by the newly designed acceptor is beneficial to the carrier transport and separation. Meanwhile, the three materials show a complementary absorption in the visible region, resulting in efficient light harvesting. Hence, the PBDB-T:ITCN:IT-M ternary PSCs possess a high short-circuit current density (J sc ) under an optimal weight ratio of donors and acceptors. Moreover, the open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of the ternary PSCs is enhanced with an increase of the third acceptor ITCN content, which is attributed to the higher lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy level of ITCN than that of IT-M, thus exhibits a higher V oc in PBDB-T:ITCN binary system. Ultimately, the ternary PSCs achieve a power conversion efficiency of 12.16%, which is higher than the PBDB-T:ITM-based PSCs (10.89%) and PBDB-T:ITCN-based ones (2.21%). This work provides an effective strategy to improve the photovoltaic performance of PSCs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Quantitative analysis of crystalline and remaining glass phases in CaO-B2O3-SiO2 ternary system glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ming; Wu Mengqiang; Zhang Shuren; Zhou Xiaohua; Zhang Ting; Chen Song

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → As for CBS ternary system glass ceramics, due to the complex phase compositions, many methods could be difficult to determine quantitatively the absolute amounts of crystalline and remaining oxides. In this study, an available method based on the Rietveld method was used to quantitatively analyze the relative weight fraction and densities of crystalline phases. These above data are used to obtain a table of both relative weight fraction of crystalline phases and densities of all phases including CBS LTCC. Using volume additivity rule, it is possible to analysis quantitatively the absolute weight fraction of crystalline phases and also the oxides molar content in the remaining glass. - Abstract: Based on Rietveld method of X-ray techniques and volume additivity rule, a new method was developed to quantitatively analyze the phase composition of CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ternary system glass ceramics. Lattice parameters, densities and relative weight fractions of crystalline phases in CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ternary system were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) refinement. According to the relative weight fraction of crystalline phases and densities of various components, the volume additivity rule was revealed by calculating the absolute weight fraction of crystalline phases of CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 glass ceramics. In addition, molar contents of the oxides in the remaining glass can also be determined by this method. Comparing this method with internal standard method, it is found that the maximum deviations of the crystallinity and the absolute weight fraction of crystalline phases are less than 2.6% and 2.9%, respectively. As a result, quantitative evaluation of CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ternary system glass ceramics can be achieved using this method.

  11. Ternary graphene/amorphous carbon/nickel nanocomposite film for outstanding superhydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Zhou, Shengguo; Yan, Qingqing

    2018-04-01

    A novel superhydrophobic ternary graphene/amorphous carbon/nickel (G-Ni/a-C:H) carbon-based film was fabricated by a green approach of high-voltage electrochemical deposition without using aqueous solution, which was systematically investigated including the structure and relating applications on self-cleaning and corrosion resistance. Graphene and nickel nano-particle inserts were effective to tailor the feature of nanocrystallite/amorphous microstructure as well as micro-nanoscale hierarchical rose-petal-like surface for G-Ni/a-C:H carbon-based film. Surprisingly, this deposit could present outstanding superhydrophobicity with the contact angle of 158.98 deg and sliding angle of 2.75 deg without any further surface modification meanwhile it could possess fairly well adhesion. Furthermore, the superhydrophobic G-Ni/a-C:H carbon-based film could exhibit excellent corrosion resistance and self-cleaning performances compared to no graphene incorporated deposit. The procedure of fabricating deposit might be simple, scalable, and environmental friendly, indicating a promising prospect for industrial applications in the field of anti-fouling, anti-corrosion and drag resistance.

  12. CdS_xTe_1_-_x ternary semiconductors band gaps calculation using ground state and GW approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheloufi, Nawal; Bouzid, Abderrazak

    2016-01-01

    We present band gap calculations of zinc-blende ternary CdS_xTe_1_-_x semiconductors within the standard DFT and quasiparticle calculations employing pseudopotential method. The DFT, the local density approximation (LDA) and the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) based calculations have given very poor results compared to experimental data. The quasiparticle calculations have been investigated via the one-shot GW approximation. The present paper discuses and confirms the effect of inclusion of the semicore states in the cadmium (Cd) pseudopotential. The obtained GW quasiparticle band gap using Cd"+"2"0 pseudopotential has been improved compared to the obtained results from the available pseudopotential without the treatment of semicore states. Our DFT and quasiparticle band gap results are discussed and compared to the available theoretical calculations and experimental data. - Graphical abstract: Band gaps improvement concerning the binary and ternary alloys using the GW approximation and Cd"2"0"+ pseudopotential with others levels of approximations (the LDA and GGA approximation employing the Cd"1"2"+ and the LDA within Cd"2"0"+ pseudopotential). - Highlights: • The direct Γ- Γ and indirect Γ- X and Γ- L bands gaps show a nonlinear behavior when S content is enhanced. • The quasiparticle band gap result for the investigated semiconductors is improved using the GW approximation. • All CdS_xTe_1_-_x compounds in all compositions range from 0 to 1 are direct band gap semiconductors.

  13. Theoretical investigation of the structural stabilities, optoelectronic properties and thermodynamic characteristics of GaPxSb1-x ternary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumelaz, F.; Nemiri, O.; Boumaza, A.; Ghemid, S.; Meradji, H.; Bin Omran, S.; El Haj Hassan, F.; Rai, D. P.; Khenata, R.

    2018-06-01

    In this theoretical study, we have investigated the structural, phase transition, electronic, thermodynamic and optical properties of GaPxSb1-x ternary alloys. Our calculations are performed with the WIEN2k code based on density functional theory using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. For the electron exchange-correlation potential, a generalized gradient approximation within Wu-Cohen scheme is considered. The recently developed Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential has also been used to improve the underestimated band gap. The structural properties, including the lattice constants, the bulk moduli and their pressure derivatives are in very good agreement with the available experimental data and theoretical results. Several structural phase transitions were studied here to establish the stable structure and to predict the phase transition under hydrostatic pressure. The computed transition pressure (Pt) of the material of our interest from the zinc blende (B3) to the rock salt (B1) phase has been determined and found to agree well with the experimental and theoretical data. The calculated band structure shows that GaSb binary compound and the ternary alloys are direct band gap semiconductors. Optical parameters such as the dielectric constants and the refractive indices are calculated and analyzed. The thermodynamic results are also interpreted and analyzed.

  14. Synthesis and properties of Ag/ZnO/g-C3N4 ternary micro/nano composites by microwave-assisted method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zijie; Li, Xuexue; Chen, Haitao; Shao, Gang; Zhang, Rui; Lu, Hongxia

    2018-01-01

    Ag/ZnO/g-C3N4 ternary micro/nanocomposites, as novel visible-light-driven photocatalysts, were prepared by a simple and convenient microwave-assisted method. The resulting ternary structure micro/nano composites were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and infrared radiation techniques to examine its phase structure, valence state, morphological, thermal and optical properties. Well crystallized Ag/ZnO/g-C3N4 ternary micro/nano composites were synthesized under microwave-radiation for 15 min with the output of 240 W. Further experiments indicated Ag(5.0mol%)/ZnO/g-C3N4 photocatalyst in degradation of methylene blue exhibited an outstanding photocatalytic activity and its reaction rate constant (k, 0.0084 min-1) is 7.5, 2.4 2.9 and 3.5 times higher than that of monolithic ZnO (k, 0.0011 min-1), ZnO/g-C3N4(k, 0.0035 min-1), Ag(5 mol%)/ZnO(k, 0.0029 min-1) and Ag(5mol%)/g-C3N4 (k, 0.0024 min-1) respectively. Finally, a possible photocatalytic mechanism of Ag/ZnO/g-C3N4 photocatalyst in degradation process was proposed. This work provides a feasible strategy to synthesize an efficient ZnO-based photocatalyst which combines structure and properties of different dimensional components and made this ternary system an exciting candidate for sunlight-driven photocatalytic water treatment.

  15. Experimental Investigation and Thermodynamic Assessment of Phase Equilibria in the PLLA/Dioxane/Water Ternary System for Applications in the Biomedical Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Flavia; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Torino, Enza

    2015-12-01

    Fundamental understanding of thermodynamic of phase separation plays a key role in tuning the desired features of biomedical devices. In particular, phase separation of ternary solution is of remarkable interest in processes to obtain biodegradable and biocompatible architectures applied as artificial devices to repair, replace, or support damaged tissues or organs. In these perspectives, thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) is the most widely used technique to obtained porous morphologies and, in addition, among different ternary systems, polylactic acid (PLLA)/dioxane/water has given promising results and has been largely studied. However, to increase the control of TIPS-based processes and architectures, an investigation of the basic energetic phenomena occurring during phase separation is still required. Here we propose an experimental investigation of the selected ternary system by using isothermal titration calorimetric approach at different solvent/antisolvent ratio and a thermodynamic explanation related to the polymer-solvents interactions in terms of energetic contribution to the phase separation process. Furthermore, relevant information about the phase diagrams and interaction parameters of the studied systems are furnished in terms of liquid-liquid miscibility gap. Indeed, polymer-solvents interactions are responsible for the mechanism of the phase separation process and, therefore, of the final features of the morphologies; the knowledge of such data is fundamental to control processes for the production of membranes, scaffolds and several nanostructures. The behavior of the polymer at different solvent/nonsolvent ratios is discussed in terms of solvation mechanism and a preliminary contribution to the understanding of the role of the hydrogen bonding in the interface phenomena is also reported. It is the first time that thermodynamic data of a ternary system are collected by mean of nano-isothermal titration calorimetry (nano-ITC). Supporting

  16. Sunlight impelled photocatalytic pursuance of Ag-TiO2-SGO and Pt-TiO2-SGO ternary nanocomposites on rhodamine B degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamelu, K.; Ali, B. M. Jaffar

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a hydrothermal method combined with polyol reduction process for the synthesis of an Ag-TiO2-SGO and Pt-TiO2-SGO ternary nanocomposites in which the Ag, Pt and TiO2 nanoparticles are dispersed on the Sulfonated graphene oxide nanosheets. The structural and optical properties of obtained nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, UV-DRS, Raman, FTIR and Photoluminescence spectroscopy. The nanocomposites shows increased light absorption ability in the visible region due to surface plasmon resonance effect of noble metal. The rate of electron-hole pair recombination was significating reduced for nanocomposites system compare to pure. Also, their Performance for the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B as a model organic pollutant is explored. The results showed that Ag-TiO2-SGO and Pt-TiO2-SGO nanocomposites could degrade 95% of the dye within 90 min, under natural sunlight irradiation. The reaction kinetics of ternary nanocomposites exhibit more than 2.2 fold increased photocatalytic activity compared to pristine TiO2. Sulfonated graphene based ternary photocatalyst are potential candidates for wastewater treatment in real time application, due to this ability degrade cationic and anionic dyes.

  17. Prediction of (liquid + liquid) equilibrium for binary and ternary systems containing ionic liquids with the bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide anion using the ASOG method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Pedro A.; Cisternas, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ASOG model was used to predict LLE data for ionic liquid systems. • Twenty five binary and seven ternary systems that include the NTf 2 anion were used. • New group interaction parameters were determined. • The results are satisfactory, with rms deviations of about 3%. - Abstract: Ionic liquids are neoteric, environmentally friendly solvents (as they do not produce emissions) composed of large organic cations and relatively small inorganic anions. They have favorable physical properties, such as negligible volatility and a wide range of liquid existence. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for systems including ionic liquids, although essential for the design, optimization and operation of separation processes, remain scarce. However, some recent studies have presented ternary LLE data involving several ionic liquids and organic compounds such as alkanes, alkenes, alkanols, ethers and aromatics, as well as water. In this work, the ASOG model for the activity coefficient is used to predict LLE data for 25 binary and 07 ternary systems at 101.3 kPa and several temperatures; all the systems are formed by ionic liquids including the bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (NTf 2 ) anion plus alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, alkanols, water, thiophene and aromatics. New group interaction parameters were determined using a modified Simplex method, minimizing a composition-based objective function of experimental data obtained from the literature. The results are satisfactory, with rms deviations of approximately 3%

  18. Photocatalytic activity of attapulgite-TiO2-Ag3PO4 ternary nanocomposite for degradation of Rhodamine B under simulated solar irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongcai; Jiang, Zhuolin; He, Zhaoling; Liu, Tao; Li, Enzhu; Li, Bao-Wen

    2018-01-01

    An excellent ternary composite photocatalyst consisting of silver orthophosphate (Ag3PO4), attapulgite (ATP), and TiO2 was synthesized, in which heterojunction was formed between dissimilar semiconductors to promote the separation of photo-generated charges. The ATP/TiO2/Ag3PO4 composite was characterized by SEM, XRD, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The co-deposition of Ag3PO4 and TiO2 nanoparticles onto the surface of ATP forms a lath-particle structure. Compared with composite photocatalysts consisting of two phases, ATP/TiO2/Ag3PO4 ternary composite exhibits greatly improved photocatalytic activity for degradation of rhodamine B under simulated solar irradiation. Such ternary composite not only improves the stability of Ag3PO4, but also lowers the cost by reducing application amount of Ag3PO4, which provides guidance for the design of Ag3PO4- and Ag-based composites for photocatalytic applications.

  19. Novel "203" type of heterostructured MoS2-Fe3O4-C ternary nanohybrid: Synthesis, and enhanced microwave absorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Erqi; Qi, Xiaosi; Xie, Ren; Bai, Zhongchen; Jiang, Yang; Qin, Shuijie; Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2018-06-01

    It is widely recognized that constructing multiple interface structures to enhance interface polarization is very good for the attenuation of electromagnetic (EM) wave. Here, a novel "203" type of heterostructured nanohybrid consisting of two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 nanosheets, zero-dimensional (0D) Fe3O4 nanoparticles and three-dimensional (3D) carbon layers was elaborately designed and successfully synthesized by a two-step method: Fe3O4 nanoparticles were deposited onto the surface of few-layer MoS2 nanosheets by a hydrothermal method, followed by the carbonation process by a chemical vapor deposition method. Compared to that of "20" type MoS2-Fe3O4, the as-prepared heterostructured "203" type MoS2-Fe3O4-C ternary nanohybrid exhibited remarkably enhanced EM and microwave absorption properties. And the minimum reflection loss (RL) value of the obtained MoS2-Fe3O4-C ternary nanohybrid could reach -53.03 dB at 14.4 GHz with a matching thickness of 7.86 mm. Moreover, the excellent EM wave absorption property of the as-prepared ternary nanohybrid was proved to be attributed to the quarter-wavelength matching model. Therefore, a simple and effective route was proposed to produce MoS2-based mixed-dimensional van der Waals heterostructure, which provided a new platform for the designing and production of high performance microwave absorption materials.

  20. TEXTURE-AWARE DENSE IMAGE MATCHING USING TERNARY CENSUS TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Textureless and geometric discontinuities are major problems in state-of-the-art dense image matching methods, as they can cause visually significant noise and the loss of sharp features. Binary census transform is one of the best matching cost methods but in textureless areas, where the intensity values are similar, it suffers from small random noises. Global optimization for disparity computation is inherently sensitive to parameter tuning in complex urban scenes, and must compromise between smoothness and discontinuities. The aim of this study is to provide a method to overcome these issues in dense image matching, by extending the industry proven Semi-Global Matching through 1 developing a ternary census transform, which takes three outputs in a single order comparison and encodes the results in two bits rather than one, and also 2 by using texture-information to self-tune the parameters, which both preserves sharp edges and enforces smoothness when necessary. Experimental results using various datasets from different platforms have shown that the visual qualities of the triangulated point clouds in urban areas can be largely improved by these proposed methods.

  1. Ternary choices in repeated games and border collision bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal Forno, Arianna; Gardini, Laura; Merlone, Ugo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We extend a model of binary choices with externalities to include more alternatives. ► Introducing one more option affects the complexity of the dynamics. ► We find bifurcation structures which where impossible to observe in binary choices. ► A ternary choice cannot simply be considered as a binary choice plus one. - Abstract: Several recent contributions formalize and analyze binary choices games with externalities as those described by Schelling. Nevertheless, in the real world choices are not always binary, and players have often to decide among more than two alternatives. These kinds of interactions are examined in game theory where, starting from the well known rock-paper-scissor game, several other kinds of strategic interactions involving more than two choices are examined. In this paper we investigate how the dynamics evolve introducing one more option in binary choice games with externalities. The dynamics we obtain are always in a stable regime, that is, the structurally stable dynamics are only attracting cycles, but of any possible positive integer as period. We show that, depending on the structure of the game, the dynamics can be quite different from those existing when considering binary choices. The bifurcation structure, due to border collisions, is explained, showing the existence of so-called big-bang bifurcation points.

  2. Growth Mechanism of Nanowires: Binary and Ternary Chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Su, Ching-Hua; Hopkins, R. H.; Arnold, B.; Choa, Fow-Sen; Cullum, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires exhibit very exciting optical and electrical properties including high transparency and a several order of magnitude better photocurrent than thin film and bulk materials. We present here the mechanism of nanowire growth from the melt-liquid-vapor medium. We describe preliminary results of binary and ternary selenide materials in light of recent theories. Experiments were performed with lead selenide and thallium arsenic selenide systems which are multifunctional material and have been used for detectors, acousto-optical, nonlinear and radiation detection applications. We observed that small units of nanocubes and elongated nanoparticles arrange and rearrange at moderate melt undercooling to form the building block of a nanowire. Since we avoided the catalyst, we observed self-nucleation and uncontrolled growth of wires from different places. Growth of lead selenide nanowires was performed by physical vapor transport method and thallium arsenic selenide nanowire by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method. In some cases very long wires (>mm) are formed. To achieve this goal experiments were performed to create situation where nanowires grew on the surface of solid thallium arsenic selenide itself.

  3. Intermolecular Interactions in Ternary Glycerol–Sample–H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Peter; Rasmussen, Erik Lumby; Koga, Yoshikata

    2011-01-01

    We studied the intermolecular interactions in ternary glycerol (Gly)–sample (S)–H2O systems at 25 °C. By measuring the excess partial molar enthalpy of Gly, HGlyEHEGly, we evaluated the Gly–Gly enthalpic interaction, HGly-GlyEHEGly--Gly, in the presence of various samples (S). For S, tert...... little effect on HGly-GlyEHEGly--Gly. This contrasts with our earlier studies on 1P–S–H2O in that Na+, F− and Cl− are found as hydration centers from the induced changes on HIP-IPEHEIP--IP in the presence of S, while Br−, I−, and SCN− are found to act as hydrophiles. In comparison with the Hofmeister...... ranking of these ions, the kosmotropes are hydration centers and the more kosmotropic the higher the hydration number, consistent with the original Hofmeister’s concept of “H2O withdrawing power.” Br−, I− and SCN−, on the other hand, acted as hydrophiles and the more chaotropic they are the more...

  4. Radiation-induced segregation in binary and ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, P.R.; Rehn, L.E.

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of our current knowledge of radiation-induced segregation of major and minor elements in simple binary and ternary alloys as derived from experimental techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, ion-backscattering, infrared emissivity measurements and transmission electron microscopy. Measurements of the temperature, dose and dose-rate dependences as well as of the effects of such materials variables as solute solubility, solute misfit and initial solute concentration has proved particularly valuable in understanding the mechanisms of segregation. The interpretation of these data in terms of current theoretical models which link solute segregation behavior to defect-solute binding interactions and/or to the relative diffusion rates of solute and solvent atoms the interstitial and vacancy migration mechanisms has, in general, been fairly successful and has provided considerable insight into the highly interrelated phenomena of solute-defect trapping, solute segregation, phase stability and void swelling. Specific examples in selected fcc, bcc and hcp alloy systems are discussed with particular emphasis given to the effects of radiation-induced segregation on the phase stability of single-phase and two-phase binary alloys and simple Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. (Auth.)

  5. Contribution to the aluminum-tin-zinc ternary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drápala, J.; Kostiuková, G.; Losertová, M.

    2017-11-01

    The Sn-Zn-Al alloys are one of significant candidates in the proposal of alternative lead-free solders for higher temperature soldering. This paper deals with the study of the aluminum-tin-zinc system. Twenty Sn-Zn-Al alloys together with six binary Sn-Zn alloys were prepared and studied experimentally. Alloys were prepared from pure Sn, Zn and Al (melting and cooling in a vacuum resistance furnace). The specimens were studied metallographically including the micro-hardness measurements, complete chemical analysis (ICP-AES, OES), X-ray micro-analysis of alloys by SEM and EDX in order to determine the composition and identification of individual phases. Significant temperatures and enthalpies of phase transformations were determined by DTA. After long-term annealing of selected alloys in vacuum followed by quenching the structural and chemical microanalyses of the present phases and their limit concentrations were carried out. The achieved results were compared with the thermodynamic modelling of the ternary Sn-Zn-Al system (computer programs THERMOCALC, MTDATA, PANDAT and databases CALPHAD, COST). Electrical resistivity, density, magnetic susceptibility and wettability of Sn-Zn-Al solders were measured as well.

  6. Effects of magnetic atoms on the properties of ternary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, B.D.; Shenoy, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    Until recently it has been commonly accepted that small impurities of magnetic atoms were severely detrimental to superconductivity, and that superconductivity and long-range magnetic ordering could not occur in the same materials. In known binary and pseudo-binary compounds, this is still the case. However, many recent experiments on ternary superconductors have shown that the effects of magnetism are considerably more complex. In some cases, the addition of magnetic atoms has been found to enhance superconducting properties by increasing the superconducting critical field, without significantly lowering the transition temperature. In many cases, compounds will show both superconducting and long range magnetic ordering transitions. The destruction of superconductivity by ferromagnetic ordering and the coexistence of superconductivity with antiferromagnetic ordering is now well established. Hyperfine interaction measurements have played a significant role in the investigations of these materials, including measurement of the magnitude of the exchange interaction between rare-earth spin and conduction electron spin, elucidation of the mechanism for critical field enhancement, specification of crystalline field ground states, and studies of the nature of magnetic ordering

  7. Control mechanism of double-rotator-structure ternary optical computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, SONG; Liping, YAN

    2017-03-01

    Double-rotator-structure ternary optical processor (DRSTOP) has two characteristics, namely, giant data-bits parallel computing and reconfigurable processor, which can handle thousands of data bits in parallel, and can run much faster than computers and other optical computer systems so far. In order to put DRSTOP into practical application, this paper established a series of methods, namely, task classification method, data-bits allocation method, control information generation method, control information formatting and sending method, and decoded results obtaining method and so on. These methods form the control mechanism of DRSTOP. This control mechanism makes DRSTOP become an automated computing platform. Compared with the traditional calculation tools, DRSTOP computing platform can ease the contradiction between high energy consumption and big data computing due to greatly reducing the cost of communications and I/O. Finally, the paper designed a set of experiments for DRSTOP control mechanism to verify its feasibility and correctness. Experimental results showed that the control mechanism is correct, feasible and efficient.

  8. Iron binary and ternary coatings with molybdenum and tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yar-Mukhamedova, Gulmira, E-mail: gulmira-alma-ata@mail.ru [Institute Experimental and Theoretical Physics Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 050038, Al-Farabi av., 71, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Ved, Maryna; Sakhnenko, Nikolay; Karakurkchi, Anna; Yermolenko, Iryna [National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnic Institute”, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • High quality coatings of double Fe-Mo and ternary Fe-Mo-W electrolytic alloys can be produced both in a dc and a pulsed mode. • Application of unipolar pulsed current allows receiving an increased content of the alloying components and their more uniform distribution over the surface. • It is established that Fe-Mo and Fe-Mo-W coatings have an amorphous structure and exhibit improved corrosion resistance and microhardness as compared with the steel substrate due to the inclusion molybdenum and tungsten. - Abstract: Electrodeposition of Fe-Mo-W and Fe-Mo layers from a citrate solution containing iron(III) on steel and iron substrates is compared. The utilization of iron(III) compounds significantly improved the electrolyte stability eliminating side anodic redox reactions. The influence of concentration ratios and electrodeposition mode on quality, chemical composition, and functional properties of the alloys is determined. It has been found that alloys deposited in pulse mode have more uniform surface morphology and chemical composition and contain less impurities. Improvement in physical and mechanical properties as well as corrosion resistance of Fe-Mo and Fe-Mo-W deposits when compared with main alloy forming metals is driven by alloying components chemical passivity as well as by alloys amorphous structure. Indicated deposits can be considered promising materials in surface hardening technologies and repair of worn out items.

  9. Transmission properties of one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiveshwari, Laxmi; Awasthi, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Omnidirectional photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals (PPC) composed of single negative metamaterials. The band characteristics and transmission properties are investigated through the transfer matrix method. We show that the proposed structure can trap light in three-dimensional space due to the elimination of Brewster's angle transmission resonance allowing the existence of complete PBG. The results are discussed in terms of incident angle, layer thickness, dielectric constant of the dielectric material, and number of unit cells (N) for TE and TM polarizations. It is seen that PBG characteristics is apparent even in an N ≥ 2 system, which is weakly sensitive to the incident angle and completely insensitive to the polarization. Finite PPC could be used for multichannel transmission filter without introducing any defect in the geometry. We show that the locations of the multichannel transmission peaks are in the allowed band of the infinite structure. The structure can work as a single or multichannel filter by varying the number of unit cells. Binary PPC can also work as a polarization sensitive tunable filter

  10. Transmission properties of one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiveshwari, Laxmi [Department of Physics, K. B. Womens' s College, Hazaribagh 825 301 (India); Awasthi, S. K. [Department of Physics and Material Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida 201 304 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Omnidirectional photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals (PPC) composed of single negative metamaterials. The band characteristics and transmission properties are investigated through the transfer matrix method. We show that the proposed structure can trap light in three-dimensional space due to the elimination of Brewster's angle transmission resonance allowing the existence of complete PBG. The results are discussed in terms of incident angle, layer thickness, dielectric constant of the dielectric material, and number of unit cells (N) for TE and TM polarizations. It is seen that PBG characteristics is apparent even in an N ≥ 2 system, which is weakly sensitive to the incident angle and completely insensitive to the polarization. Finite PPC could be used for multichannel transmission filter without introducing any defect in the geometry. We show that the locations of the multichannel transmission peaks are in the allowed band of the infinite structure. The structure can work as a single or multichannel filter by varying the number of unit cells. Binary PPC can also work as a polarization sensitive tunable filter.

  11. Multifunctional properties related to magnetostructural transitions in ternary and quaternary Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubenko, Igor, E-mail: igor_doubenko@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Quetz, Abdiel; Pandey, Sudip; Aryal, Anil; Eubank, Michael [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Rodionov, Igor; Prudnikov, Valerii; Granovsky, Alexander [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Vorob' evy Gory, 11999I Moscow (Russian Federation); Lahderanta, Erkki [Lappeenranta University of Technology, 53851 (Finland); Samanta, Tapas; Saleheen, Ahmad; Stadler, Shane [Department of Physics & Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Ali, Naushad [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In this report, the results of a study on the effects of compositional variations induced by the small changes in concentrations of the parent components and/or by the substitution of Ni, Mn, or In by an extra element Z, on the phase transitions, and phenomena related to the magnetostructural transitions in off-stoichiometric Ni–Mn–In based Heusler alloys are summarized. The crystal structures, phase transitions temperatures, and magnetic and magnetocaloric properties were analyzed for representative samples of the following systems (all near 15 at% indium concentration): Ni–Mn–In, Ni–Mn–In–Si, Ni–Mn–In–B, Ni–Mn–In–Cu, Ni–Mn–In–Cu–B, Ni–Mn–In–Fe, Ni–Mn–In–Ag, and Ni–Mn–In–Al. - Highlights: • The experimental results on phase transitions temperatures, adiabatic temperature changes, magnetoresistance and heat flow for the ternary and quaternary Heusler alloys based on Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} demonstrate high sensitivity of magnetic properties to the small changes in concentrations of the parent components and/or by the substitution of Ni, Mn, or In by an additional element Z. • The phenomena related to the magnetostructural transitions strongly depend on the weighted average radius of constituent ions.

  12. Photoluminescent nano-sized ternary and quaternary complexes of thorium(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranwal, B.P.; Jain, A.K.; Varma, A.; Singh, A.K.; Fatma, T.

    2011-01-01

    Some ternary and quaternary complexes of thorium(IV) with the general formula [Th(OOCCH 3 ) 2-n (SB) n (OOCC 15 H 31 ) 2 ] (HSB=Schiff bases and n=1 or 2) have been synthesized by the stepwise substitutions of acetate ions from thorium(IV) acetate, first with straight chain carboxylic acid and then with Schiff bases. The complexes are characterized by elemental analyses, spectral (electronic, infrared, 1 H NMR, FAB mass, photoluminescence and powder XRD) and TEM studies. Conductance measurements indicated non-conducting behaviour of the complexes. Structural parameters from powder XRD data for complexes 5 and 6 which indicate poorly crystalline nano-sized triclinic particles. Electronic absorption spectra of the complexes showed π → π * and n → π * charge transfer transitions. All complexes displayed fluorescence and a correlation was sought between luminescence spectra of complexes in solution at room temperature. On the basis of physico-chemical studies, coordination number 8 was assigned for thorium(IV) in the complexes. The morphology and microstructure of the complexes were examined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the selected area electron diffraction (SAED). (orig.)

  13. Experimental study and effect of particulate interference on the microhardness, wear and microstructural properties of ternary doped coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayomi, O. S. I., E-mail: ojosundayfayomi3@gmail.com [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Canaanland, Ota (Nigeria); Popoola, A. P. I. [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Joseph, O. O.; Inegbenebor, A. O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Canaanland, Ota (Nigeria); Olukanni, D. O. [Department of Civil Engineering, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Ota, Ogun State (Nigeria)

    2016-07-25

    This paper studies effects of the composite particle infringement of ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on zinc rich ternary based coating. The corrosion-degradation property in 3.5% NaCl was investigatedusing polarization technique. The structural characteristics of the multilayer produce coatings were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The mechanical response of the coated samples was studied using a diamond base Dura –Scan) micro-hardness tester and a MTR-300 dry abrasive wear tester. The combined effect of the coatings gave highly-improved performance on microhardness, corrosion and wear damage. This also implies that protection of wind-energy structures in marine environments can be achieved by composite strengthening capacity.

  14. Effect on strength of ternary alloying additions in L12 intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuanpang.

    1991-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of {111} antiphase boundaries (APBs) as well as the site preference of ternary additions in an A 3 B intermetallic with L1 2 structure are studied, using a thermodynamic model. A survey of the results from a variety of ternary alloying additions to Ni 3 Al has shown that there is a conflict in the actual role which solid solution strengthening plays in the athermal increment of yield strength. For instance, a good quantitative agreement with linear concentration law is observed only in alloys with stoichiometric compositions but not in the general case of non-stoichiometric alloys. In the light of the possibility that micro-segregation could explain the experimental discrepancy, the author extends the binary solid solution strengthening theory to the ternary system in an L1 2 structure for the four real systems of Ni-Al-Si, Ni-Al-Ti, Ni-Al-Hf, and Ni-Al-V. It is found that ternary site preference plays an important role in the ternary solid solution strengthening theory with L1 2 structure. Good quantitative agreement was found between the calculated and experimentally measured strength for both stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric alloys

  15. A new method to estimate the atomic volume of ternary intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, M.; Merlo, F.

    2011-01-01

    The atomic volume of an A x B y C z ternary intermetallic compound can be calculated starting from volumes of some proper A-B, A-C and B-C binary phases. The three methods by Colinet, Muggianu and Kohler, originally used to estimate thermodynamic quantities, and a new method here proposed, were tested to derive volume data in eight systems containing 91 ternary phases with the known structure. The comparison between experimental and calculated volume values shows the best agreement both for the Kohler method and for the new proposed procedure. -- Graphical abstract: Synopsys: the volume of a ternary intermetallic compound can be calculated starting from volumes of some binary phases, selected by the methods of Colinet, Muggianu, Kohler and a new method proposed here. The so obtained values are compared with the experimental ones for eight ternary systems. Display Omitted Research highlights: → The application of some thermodinamic methods to a crystallochemical problem. → The prevision of the average atomic volume of ternary intermetallic phases. → The proposal of a new procedure to select the proper starting set of binary phases.

  16. Crystallization, data collection and processing of the chymotrypsin–BTCI–trypsin ternary complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Gisele Ferreira; Teles, Rozeni Chagas Lima; Cavalcante, Nayara Silva; Neves, David; Ventura, Manuel Mateus [Laboratório de Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília-DF (Brazil); Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro Gonçalves, E-mail: joao@lnls.br [Center for Structural Molecular Biology (CeBiME), Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), CP 6192, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Freitas, Sonia Maria de, E-mail: joao@lnls.br [Laboratório de Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília-DF (Brazil)

    2007-12-01

    A ternary complex of the proteinase inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized and its crystal structure was solved by molecular replacement. A ternary complex of the black-eyed pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5, 10%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 6000 and 5%(v/v) 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as precipitant. BTCI is a small protein with 83 amino-acid residues isolated from Vigna unguiculata seeds and is able to inhibit trypsin and chymotrypsin simultaneously by forming a stable ternary complex. X-ray data were collected from a single crystal of the trypsin–BTCI–chymotrypsin ternary complex to 2.7 Å resolution under cryogenic conditions. The structure of the ternary complex was solved by molecular replacement using the crystal structures of the BTCI–trypsin binary complex (PDB code) and chymotrypsin (PDB code) as search models.

  17. Experimental and predicted refractive index properties in ternary mixtures of associated liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sechenyh, Vitaliy V.; Legros, Jean-Claude; Shevtsova, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Measurements of refractive indices of 200 different aqueous ternary mixtures have been performed for two wave lengths. → Refractive indices of the associated ternary mixtures can be modeled with a relative error of about 0.9. → Difference between experimental and calculated derivatives of refractive index with concentration is unsatisfactory large. - Abstract: Refractive indices of ternary mixtures formed by (water + ethanol + k-ethylene glycol) (when k is mono, di or tri) and (water + t-butanol + dimethyl sulfoxide) are presented over a wide range of mixture compositions. All measurements have been conducted at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure using two light sources: one in the visible (λ = 670 nm) and the other in the infrared (λ = 925 nm) spectrum. The performance of several mixing rules that are commonly used in modeling optical constants are examined. We demonstrate that the refractive indices of the associated ternary mixtures can be modeled with a relative error of about 0.9% by using the thermodynamical properties of the pure components. The concentration derivatives of the refractive index are an important parameter, as they are required for different experimental techniques. These derivatives have been determined from the experimental data on refractive indices. However, applying mixing rules for calculation of the derivatives of the refractive indices with respect to concentrations does not provide satisfactory results in the case of ternary mixtures of associated liquids.

  18. Crystallization, data collection and processing of the chymotrypsin–BTCI–trypsin ternary complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, Gisele Ferreira; Teles, Rozeni Chagas Lima; Cavalcante, Nayara Silva; Neves, David; Ventura, Manuel Mateus; Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro Gonçalves; Freitas, Sonia Maria de

    2007-01-01

    A ternary complex of the proteinase inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized and its crystal structure was solved by molecular replacement. A ternary complex of the black-eyed pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5, 10%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 6000 and 5%(v/v) 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as precipitant. BTCI is a small protein with 83 amino-acid residues isolated from Vigna unguiculata seeds and is able to inhibit trypsin and chymotrypsin simultaneously by forming a stable ternary complex. X-ray data were collected from a single crystal of the trypsin–BTCI–chymotrypsin ternary complex to 2.7 Å resolution under cryogenic conditions. The structure of the ternary complex was solved by molecular replacement using the crystal structures of the BTCI–trypsin binary complex (PDB code) and chymotrypsin (PDB code) as search models

  19. Multichannel tunable omnidirectional photonic band gaps of 1D ternary photonic crystal containing magnetized cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Suneet Kumar; Panda, Ranjita; Chauhan, Prashant Kumar; Shiveshwari, Laxmi

    2018-05-01

    By using the transfer matrix method, theoretical investigations have been carried out in the microwave region to study the reflection properties of multichannel tunable omnidirectional photonic bandgaps (OPBGs) based on the magneto-optic Faraday effect. The proposed one dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystal consists of alternate layers of quartz, magnetized cold plasma (MCP), and air. In the absence of an external magnetic field, the proposed structure possesses two OPBGs induced by Bragg scattering and is strongly dependent on the incident angle, the polarization of the incident light, and the lattice constant unlike to the single-negative gap and zero- n ¯ gap. Next, the reflection properties of OPBGs have been made tunable by the application of external magnetic field under right hand and left hand polarization configurations. The results of this manuscript may be utilized for the development of a new kind of tunable omnidirectional band stop filter with ability to completely stop single to multiple bands (called channels) of microwave frequencies in the presence of external static magnetic field under left-hand polarization and right-hand polarization configurations, respectively. Moreover, outcomes of this study open a promising way to design tunable magneto-optical devices, omnidirectional total reflectors, and planar waveguides of high Q microcavities as a result of evanescent fields in the MCP layer to allow propagation of light.

  20. Glass forming ability: Miedema approach to (Zr, Ti, Hf)-(Cu, Ni) binary and ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Joysurya [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, 191 Auditorium Road, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269, CT (United States)], E-mail: jbasu@engr.uconn.edu; Murty, B.S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Ranganathan, S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2008-10-06

    Miedema's approach has been useful in determining the glass forming composition range for a particular alloy system. The concept of mixing enthalpy and mismatch entropy can be used in order to quantify Inoue's criteria of bulk metallic glass formation. In the present study, glass forming composition range has been determined for different binary and ternary (Zr, Ti, Hf)-(Cu, Ni) alloys based on the mixing enthalpy and mismatch entropy calculations. Though copper and nickel appear next to each other in the periodic table, the glass forming ability of the copper and nickel bearing alloys is different. Thermodynamic analysis reveals that the glass forming behaviour of Zr and Hf is similar, whereas it is different from that of Ti. The smaller atomic size of Ti and the difference in the heat of mixing of Ti, Zr, Hf with Cu and Ni leads to the observed changes in the glass forming behaviour. Enthalpy contour plots can be used to distinguish the glass forming compositions on the basis of the increasing negative enthalpy of the composition. This method reveals the high glass forming ability of binary Zr-Cu, Hf-Cu, Hf-Ni systems over a narrow composition range.