WorldWideScience

Sample records for based fecoc ternary

  1. Contribution to the Study of the Relation between Microstructure and Electrochemical Behavior of Iron-Based FeCoC Ternary Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Benhalla-Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the relation between microstructure and electrochemical behavior of four iron-based FeCoC ternary alloys. First, the arc-melted studied alloys were characterized using differential thermal analyses and scanning electron microscopy. The established solidification sequences of these alloys show the presence of two primary crystallization phases (δ(Fe and graphite as well as two univariante lines : peritectic L+(Fe↔(Fe and eutectic L↔(Fe+Cgraphite. The ternary alloys were thereafter studied in nondeaerated solution of 10−3 M NaHCO3 + 10−3 M Na2SO4, at 25°C, by means of the potentiodynamic technique. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of the FeCoC alloys depends on the carbon amount and the morphology of the phases present in the studied alloys.

  2. Impact of Precipitants on the Structure and Properties of Fe-Co-Ce Composite Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Co-Ce composite catalysts were prepared by coprecipitation method using CO(NH22, NaOH, NH4HCO3, and NH3·H2O as precipitant agents. The effects of the precipitant agents on the physicochemical properties of the Fe-Co-Ce based catalysts were investigated by SEM, TEM, BET, TG-DTA, and XRD. It was found that the precipitant agents remarkably influenced the morphology and particle size of the catalysts and affected the COD removal efficiency, decolorization rate, and pH of methyl orange for catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO. The specific surface area of the Fe-Co-Ce composite catalysts successively decreased in the order of NH3·H2O, NH4HCO3, NaOH, and CO(NH22, which correlated to an increasing particle size that increased for each catalyst. For the CWAO of a methyl orange aqueous solutions, the effects of precipitant agents NH3·H2O and NaOH were superior to those of CO(NH22 and NH4HCO3. The catalyst prepared using NH3·H2O as the precipitant agent was mostly composed of Fe2O3, CoO, and CeO2. The COD removal efficiency of methyl orange aqueous solution for NH3·H2O reached 92.9% in the catalytic wet air oxidation. Such a catalytic property was maintained for six runs.

  3. Magnetic properties of FeCoC thin films prepared by various sputtering methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edon, V; Dubourg, S [CEA, DAM, LE RIPAULT, F-37260 Monts (France); Vernieres, J; Bobo, J-F, E-mail: sebastien.dubourg@cea.fr [LNMH-CEMES-CNRS-ONERA, F-31055 Toulouse (France)

    2011-07-06

    In order to grow nanocrystallized soft magnetic thin films, FeCoC alloys were first deposited by reactive sputtering in Ar/C{sub 2}H{sub 2} plasma. This deposition process rendered it possible to incorporate a carbon content between 0 and 30 at.% into the FeCo samples. The films were then compared to FeCoC samples obtained from a Fe{sub 65}Co{sub 35}/C composite target, with an adjustable amount of C slots. Layers with soft magnetic properties were achieved when increasing the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} rate during the reactive deposition, whereas films deposited by sputtering of FeCo and C on the same target demonstrated a very high coercivity. Permeability spectra measurements (and published elsewhere) demonstrated that FeCoC prepared with acetylene is a very promising material for high-frequency magnetic devices.

  4. An efficient ternary serial adder based on carbon nanotube FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Moaiyeri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient ternary serial adder for nanotechnology employing negative, positive and standard ternary logics. Multiple-valued logic results in chips with more density, less complexity and high-bandwidth data transfer. The unique properties of CNTFETs such as the capability of adapting the desired threshold voltage by changing the diameters of the nanotubes and same carrier mobility for the n-type and p-type devices play an important role in designing this circuit. The proposed design method considerably reduces the number of required devices of a ternary serial adder. In addition, the results of the simulations conducted using HSPICE with the Stanford comprehensive 32 nm CNTFET model, demonstrate improvements in terms of speed and power-delay product as compared to the cutting-edge CNTFET-based ternary designs.

  5. Sigma Delta Modulation Based Ternary FIR Filter Mapping on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayabuddin Memon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper single-bit SDM (Sigma Delta Modulation based TFF (Ternary FIR Filter with balanced ternary coefficients (i.e. -1/0/+1 has been mapped on small commercially available FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays. Filter coefficients were obtained using second order sigma delta modulator. The filter structure is based on a hierarchical adder tree that can easily be pipelined for high performance purpose. Filter structure was coded in VHDL (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language and simulated in Quartus-II software. The filter exhibits low I/O (Input Output and core area usage and high performance-achieving clock speeds close to 200MHz on a low-cost FPGA and over 500MHz on a latest FPGA commercially available device. This single-bit ternary filter is intended to support video and audio processing applications in mobile communication systems.

  6. Ternary jitter-based true random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latypov, Rustam; Stolov, Evgeni

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a novel family of generators producing true uniform random numbers in ternary logic is presented. The generator consists of a number of identical ternary logic combinational units connected into a ring. All the units are provided to have a random delay time, and this time is supposed to be distributed in accordance with an exponential distribution. All delays are supposed to be independent events. The theory of the generator is based on Erlang equations. The generator can be used for test production in various systems. Features of multidimensional random vectors, produced by the generator, are discussed.

  7. ZnO based ternary transparent conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polity, Angelika; Meyer, Bruno K.; Kraemer, Thorsten; Wang, Changzhong [I. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Haboeck, Ute; Hoffmann, Axel [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    ZnO{sub 1-x}S {sub x} films in the whole composition range were deposited by radio-frequency reactive sputtering on different substrates. Raman measurements verified that the LO phonon of ZnO shifts towards lower frequencies as a function of the S content in the alloyed films. The composition dependence of the band gap energy in the ternary system was determined by optical transmission and the optical bowing parameter was found to be about 3 eV. We compare this behavior to ZnOSe films which can, however, only be synthesized in a narrow composition range close to the binary constituents ZnO and ZnSe. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Electronic structure of ternary hydrides based on light elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgaz, E. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: orgaz@eros.pquim.unam.mx; Membrillo, A. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Castaneda, R. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Aburto, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-12-08

    Ternary hydrides based on light elements are interesting owing to the high available energy density. In this work we focused into the electronic structure of a series of known systems having the general formula AMH{sub 4}(A=Li,Na,M=B,Al). We computed the energy bands and the total and partial density of states using the linear-augmented plane waves method. In this report, we discuss the chemical bonding in this series of complex hydrides.

  9. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John

    2016-09-22

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ³11 wt% and ³80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (£100 °C) and pressures (£100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement. For the first approach, possible pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides based on Mg with various first row transition metals were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. In particular, the Mg/Mn ternary boride and mixed-metal borohydride were found to be a suitable pair and

  10. Infrared target recognition based on improved joint local ternary pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junding; Wu, Xiaosheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a simple, efficient, yet robust approach, named joint orthogonal combination of local ternary pattern, for automatic forward-looking infrared target recognition. It gives more advantages to describe the macroscopic textures and microscopic textures by fusing variety of scales than the traditional LBP-based methods. In addition, it can effectively reduce the feature dimensionality. Further, the rotation invariant and uniform scheme, the robust LTP, and soft concave-convex partition are introduced to enhance its discriminative power. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve competitive results compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  11. DESIGN OF TERNARY COUNTER BASED ON ADIABATIC DOMINO CIRCUIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Qiankun; Wang Pengjun; Zheng Xuesong

    2013-01-01

    By researching the ternary counter and low power circuit design method,a novel design of low power ternary Domino counter on switch-level is proposed.Firstly,the switch-level structure expression of ternary loop operation circuit with enable pin is derived according to the switch-signal theory,and the one bit ternary counter is obtained combining the ternary adiabatic Domino literal operation circuit and buffer.Then the switch-level structure expression of enable signal circuit is derived,and the four bits ternary counter is obtained by cascade connection.Finally,the circuit is simulated by Spice tool and the output waveforms transform in proper order indicating that the logic function is correct.The energy consumption of the four bits ternary adiabatic Domino counter is 63% less than the conventional Domino counterpart.

  12. A Thermodynamic Approach to Predict Formation Enthalpies of Ternary Systems Based on Miedema's Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Mahbubeh Sadat; Abbasi, Roozbeh; Kashani-Bozorg, Seyed Farshid

    2016-07-01

    A novel modification to the thermodynamic semi-empirical Miedema's model has been made in order to provide more precise estimations of formation enthalpy in ternary alloys. The original Miedema's model was modified for ternary systems based on surface concentration function revisions. The results predicted by the present model were found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data of over 150 ternary intermetallic compounds. The novel proposed model is capable of predicting formation enthalpies of ternary intermetallics with small discrepancies of ≤20 kJ/mol as well as providing reliable enthalpy variations.

  13. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.

  14. Preparation and influence of pH on the dynamic magnetic property of magnetic FeCoC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Hongmei; Wei, Jinwu; Zhu, Zengtai; Cao, Derang; Liu, Qingfang [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Jianbo, E-mail: wangjb@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory for Special Function Materials and Structural Design of the Ministry of the Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-07-01

    FeCoC films were successfully prepared by electrochemical deposition method in different citric acid concentrations and pH values. The morphology, structure and magnetic properties were investigated. FeCoC films deposited at different citric acid concentrations have good soft magnetic performance. As the pH value increases from 2.49 to 6.02, the atomic ratio of Fe:Co range from 0.72 to 0.95. The coercivities of the films deposited at different pH values first increase and then decrease with increasing pH. The resonance frequency of the films can be tuned by controlling the pH value, and in an appropriate pH value a wide absorption peak can be obtained. - Highlights: • We have successfully prepared FeCoC soft magnetic films by electrochemical deposition method. • The resonance frequency can be controlled by changing pH value. • A widely absorption peak will be obtained when the pH value is appropriate.

  15. THE INTERFACE OF TERNARY-BORIDE-BASED HARD CLADDING MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.G. Wang; Z.Q. Li; D. Zhang

    2004-01-01

    The interfacial microstructure of ternary-boride-based hard cladding material (YF2) has been studied using scanning electron microanalyser (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS). Results show that there are chemical reactions and elements diffusion in the interfacial zone, which make the interface bonding well and bonding strength ideal at the interface. The results gotten by studying of crack produced by Vickers indentation technique in the interfacial zone show that it is difficult to produce crack in the interface, the crack length in the cladding layer is longer than that to the interface, the crack which propagate to the interface stops at the interface rather than propagates along the interface. This suggests negligible residual stresses have developed because of thermal expansion mismatch. The bonding strength of the interface is 550MPa, which has been gotten by cutting test. The result gotten by analyzing the fracture surface shows that the fracture occurs at the side of cladding layer, which confirms that the bonding strength at the interface is higher than that in the cladding layer.

  16. Adjustable 3-D structure with enhanced interfaces and junctions towards microwave response using FeCo/C core-shell nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daoran; Liang, Xiaohui; Liu, Wei; Ma, Jianna; Zhang, Yanan; Ji, Guangbin; Meng, Wei

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the 3-D honeycomb-like FeCo/C nanocomposites were synthesized through the carbon thermal reduction under an inert atmosphere. The enhanced microwave absorption properties of the composites were mainly attributed to the unique three dimensional structure of the FeCo/C nanocomposites, abundant interfaces and junctions, and the appropriate impedance matching. The Cole-Cole semicircles proved the sufficient dielectric relaxation process. The sample calcinated at 600°C for 4h showed the best microwave absorption properties. A maximum reflection loss of -54.6dB was achieved at 10.8GHz with a thickness of 2.3mm and the frequency bandwidth was as large as 5.3GHz. The results showed that the as-prepared FeCo/C nanocomposite could be a potential candidate for microwave absorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Evaporation-Based Model of Thermal Neutron Induced Ternary Fission of Plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestone, J. P.

    Ternary fission probabilities for thermal neutron induced fission of plutonium are analyzed within the framework of an evaporation-based model where the complexity of time-varying potentials, associated with the neck collapse, are included in a simplistic fashion. If the nuclear temperature at scission and the fission-neck-collapse time are assumed to be ~1.2 MeV and ~10^-22 s, respectively, then calculated relative probabilities of ternary-fission light-charged-particle emission follow the trends seen in the experimental data. The ability of this model to reproduce ternary fission probabilities spanning seven orders of magnitude for a wide range of light-particle charges and masses implies that ternary fission is caused by the coupling of an evaporation-like process with the rapid re-arrangement of the nuclear fluid following scission.

  18. An evaporation-based model of thermal neutron induced ternary fission of plutonium

    CERN Document Server

    Lestone, J P

    2007-01-01

    Ternary fission probabilities for thermal neutron induced fission of plutonium are analyzed within the framework of an evaporation-based model where the complexity of time-varying potentials, associated with the neck collapse, are included in a simplistic fashion. If the nuclear temperature at scission and the fission-neck-collapse time are assumed to be ~1.2 MeV and ~10^-22 s, respectively, then calculated relative probabilities of ternary-fission light-charged-particle emission follow the trends seen in the experimental data. The ability of this model to reproduce ternary fission probabilities spanning seven orders of magnitude for a wide range of light-particle charges and masses implies that ternary fission is caused by the coupling of an evaporation-like process with the rapid re-arrangement of the nuclear fluid following scission.

  19. Two step synthesis, electromagnetic and microwave absorbing properties of FeCo@C core–shell nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afghahi, S.S.S., E-mail: salmanafghahi@gmail.com [Materials Science and Engineering Imam Hossein University, Department of Engineering, Babaei Highway, P.O. Box: 15816-18711, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokuhfar, A. [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box: 19395-1999, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    In this research synthesis of FeCo@C core–shell nanoparticles was done using a novel two step process including the microemulsion technique and alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron beam diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy confirm the formation of FeCo@graphite core–shell nanostructure. Compared with FeCo nanoparticles with an oxide shell, the graphite shell restricts the growth of the FeCo nanoparticles, leading to lower saturation magnetization and higher natural-resonance frequency. The electromagnetic characteristics including permittivity, permeability and loss tangents of FeCo nanoparticles/nanoencapsulates were determined in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz. Results show that the graphite coating dramatically improves electromagnetic wave absorption of FeCo nanoparticles due to several dielectric/magnetic loss mechanisms. The main mechanism enhancing the dielectric loss tangent is Deby's dual relaxation phenomenon and for magnetic loss is the ferromagnetic resonance. The maximum reflection loss of −40 dB at 2.5 mm thickness and the maximum effective absorption bandwidth (RL<−20 dB) of 5.6 GHz at 3 mm thickness were obtained for FeCo nanoencapsulates. - Highlights: • FeCo@C core–shell nanoparticles were synthesized using a novel two step process. • Graphite coating dramatically improves the EM wave absorption of FeCo NPs. • FeCo@C nanoparticles represent high values of both magnetic and dielectric losses. • Maximum RL of −40 dB was obtained at 2.5 mm thickness. • Maximum effective bandwidth (RL<−20 dB) of 5.6 GHz was obtained at 3 mm thickness.

  20. Ternary Tree and Clustering Based Huffman Coding Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa R. Suri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the focus was on the use of ternary tree over binary tree. Here, a new two pass Algorithm for encoding Huffman ternary tree codes was implemented. In this algorithm we tried to find out the codeword length of the symbol. Here I used the concept of Huffman encoding. Huffman encoding was a two pass problem. Here the first pass was to collect the letter frequencies. You need to use that information to create the Huffman tree. Note that char values range from -128 to 127, so you will need to cast them. I stored the data as unsigned chars to solve this problem, and then the range is 0 to 255. Open the output file and write the frequency table to it. Open the input file, read characters from it, gets the codes, and writes the encoding into the output file. Once a Huffman code has been generated, data may be encoded simply by replacing each symbol with its code. To reduce the memory size and fasten the process of finding the codeword length for a symbol in a Huffman tree, we proposed a memory efficient data structure to represent the codeword length of Huffman ternary tree. In this algorithm we tried to find out the length of the code of the symbols used in the tree.

  1. Ternary System of Fe-based Ionic Liquid, Ethanol and Water for Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解美莹; 李沛沛; 郭惠锋; 高丽霞; 余江

    2012-01-01

    Fe-based ionic liquid (Fe-IL) was synthesized by mixing FeCl3·6H2O and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [Bmim]C1 in this paper. The phase diagram of a ternary Fe-IL, ethanol and water system was investigated to construct a ternary desulfurization solution for wet flue gas desulfurization. The effects of flow rate and concentration of SO2, reaction temperature, pH and Fe-IL fraction in aqueous desulfurization solution on the desulfiariza- tion efficiency were investigated. The results shows that the best composition of ternary desulfurization solution of Fe-IL, ethanol and water is 1 : 1.5 : 3 by volume ratio, and pH should be controlled at 2.0. Under such conditions, a desulfurization rate greater than 90% could be obtained. The product of sulfuric acid had inhibition effect on the wet desulfurization process. With applying this new ternary desulfurization solution, not only the catalyst Fe-IL can be recycled and reused, but also the product sulfuric acid can be separated directly from the ternary desulfurization system.

  2. Multi-criteria decision-making approach with incomplete certain information based on ternary AHP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianqiang

    2006-01-01

    It is not uncommon in multiple criteria decision-making that the numerical values of alternatives of some criteria are subject to imprecision, uncertainty and indetermination and the information on weights of criteria is incomplete certain. A new multiple criteria decision- making method with incomplete certain information based on ternary AHP is proposed. This improves on Takeda's method. In this method, the ternary comparison matrix of the alternatives under each pseudo-criteria is constructed, the eigenvector associated with the maximum eigenvalue of the ternary comparison matrix is attained as to normalize priority vector of the alternatives, then the order of alternatives is obtained by solving two kinds of linear programming problems. Finally, an example is given to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  3. Corrosion and wear protective composition modulated alloy coatings based on ternary Ni-P-X alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leisner, P.; Benzon, M. E.; Christoffersen, Lasse

    1996-01-01

    Scattered reporting in the litterature describes a number of ternary Ni-P-X alloyes (where X can be Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pd, Re or W) with promising corrosin and wear protective performance. Based on a systematic study of Ni-P-X alloys it is the intention to produce coatings with improved corrosion...

  4. Preparation and Catalytic Properties of Polymer-Bound Schiff Base Ternary Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Cheng-jun; WANG Rong-min; HE Yu-feng; WANG Yun-pu; XIA Chun-gu

    2004-01-01

    The polymer-bound Schiff base ternary manganese complexes [PS-SalPhe-Mn-L (L = Phen, Bipy and 8HQ)-] have been prepared from the polymer-bound Schiff base ligand, a manganese salt and the second ligand, such as 1,10-phenanthroline(phen), 2,2′-bipyridyl(bipy) and 8-quinolinol(8HQ). The polymer-bound Schiff base ternary manganese complexes were characterized by means of infrared spectrometry and ICPAES. The catalytic activities of the complexes have been studied in the aerobic epoxidation of long-chain linear a[iphatic olefins. It is shown that 1-octene or 1-decene can be directly oxidized by molecular oxygen when catalyzed by PS-SalPhe-Mn-L(L=Phen, Bipy and 8HQ), and 1,2-epoxy alkane can be afforded in these reactions.

  5. Ternary alloys based on II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Tomashyk, Vasyl; Shcherbak, Larysa

    2013-01-01

    Phase Equilibria in the Systems Based on ZnSSystems Based on ZnSeSystems Based on ZnTeSystems Based on CdSSystem Based on CdSeSystem Based on CdTeSystems Based on HgSSystems Based on HgSeSystems Based on HgTeIndexReferences appear at the end of each chapter.

  6. Facial expression recognition based on improved local ternary pattern and stacked auto-encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Qiu, Weigen

    2017-08-01

    In order to enhance the robustness of facial expression recognition, we propose a method of facial expression recognition based on improved Local Ternary Pattern (LTP) combined with Stacked Auto-Encoder (SAE). This method uses the improved LTP extraction feature, and then uses the improved depth belief network as the detector and classifier to extract the LTP feature. The combination of LTP and improved deep belief network is realized in facial expression recognition. The recognition rate on CK+ databases has improved significantly.

  7. Crystal structure prediction and electronic properties of Li-based ternary compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergniory, Maia G.; Sanna, Antonio; Ernst, Arthur; Romero, Aldo H.; Gross, Eberhard K.U. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, 06120 Halle (Germany); Marques, Miguel A.L.; Botti, Silvana; Valencia, Irais [Universite de Lyon, F-69000 Lyon, France and LPMCN, CNRS, UMR 5586, Universite Lyon 1, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Amsler, Max; Goedecker, Stefan [Department of Physics, Universitaet Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Chulkov, Evgueni V. [Donostia International Physics Center, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    On the basis of ab initio first principles and using the Minimal Hopping Algorithm we predict the crystal structure of non synthesized LiYZ (Y=Au,Ag, Z=Te,Se) based ternary compounds. We find that, as distinct from expectation, the crystal structure depends strongly on the composition, thus every compound belongs to a different symmetry group and has complexly different electronic properties. We analyze the fundamental physics below these features considering the calculated ground state structure.

  8. Ternary fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Balasubramaniam; K R Vijayaraghavan; C Karthikraj

    2015-09-01

    We present the ternary fission of 252Cf and 236U within a three-cluster model as well as in a level density approach. The competition between collinear and equatorial geometry is studied by calculating the ternary fragmentation potential as a function of the angle between the lines joining the stationary middle fragment and the two end fragments. The obtained results for the 16O accompanying ternary fission indicate that collinear configuration is preferred to equatorial configuration. Further, for all the possible third fragments, the potential energy surface (PES) is calculated corresponding to an arrangement in which the heaviest and the lightest fragments are considered at the end in a collinear configuration. The PES reveals several possible ternary modes including true ternary modes where the three fragments are of similar size. The complete mass distributions of Si and Ca which accompanied ternary fission of 236U is studied within a level density picture. The obtained results favour several possible ternary combinations.

  9. Understanding ternary poly(potassium benzimidazolide)-based polymer electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Han, Junyoung;

    2016-01-01

    swelling, high electrolyte uptake, dramatic plasticization and increase of the ion conductivity for the formed poly(potassium benzimidazolide)-based structure. Further increasing the concentration of the bulk solution to 50 wt.% resulted in dehydration and extensive crystallization of the polymer matrix......Poly(2,20-(m-phenylene)-5,50-bisbenzimidazole) (m-PBI) can dissolve large amounts of aqueous electrolytes to give materials with extraordinary high ion conductivity and the practical applicability has been demonstrated repeatedly in fuel cells, water electrolysers and as anion conducting component...... in fuel cell catalyst layers. This work focuses on the chemistry of m-PBI in aqueous potassium hydroxide. Equilibration in aqueous KOH with concentrations of 15e20 wt.% was found to result in ionization of the polymer, causing released intermolecular hydrogen bonding. This allowed for extensive volume...

  10. Optimisation and Characterisation of Anti-Fouling Ternary SAM Layers for Impedance-Based Aptasensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miodek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An aptasensor with enhanced anti-fouling properties has been developed. As a case study, the aptasensor was designed with specificity for human thrombin. The sensing platform was developed on screen printed electrodes and is composed of a self-assembled monolayer made from a ternary mixture of 15-base thiolated DNA aptamers specific for human thrombin co-immobilised with 1,6-hexanedithiol (HDT and further passivated with 1-mercapto-6-hexanol (MCH. HDT binds to the surface by two of its thiol groups forming alkyl chain bridges and this architecture protects from non-specific attachment of molecules to the electrode surface. Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS, the aptasensor is able to detect human thrombin as variations in charge transfer resistance (Rct upon protein binding. After exposure to a high concentration of non-specific Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA solution, no changes in the Rct value were observed, highlighting the bio-fouling resistance of the surface generated. In this paper, we present the optimisation and characterisation of the aptasensor based on the ternary self-assembled monolayer (SAM layer. We show that anti-fouling properties depend on the type of gold surface used for biosensor construction, which was also confirmed by contact angle measurements. We further studied the ratio between aptamers and HDT, which can determine the specificity and selectivity of the sensing layer. We also report the influence of buffer pH and temperature used for incubation of electrodes with proteins on detection and anti-fouling properties. Finally, the stability of the aptasensor was studied by storage of modified electrodes for up to 28 days in different buffers and atmospheric conditions. Aptasensors based on ternary SAM layers are highly promising for clinical applications for detection of a range of proteins in real biological samples.

  11. Optimisation and Characterisation of Anti-Fouling Ternary SAM Layers for Impedance-Based Aptasensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miodek, Anna; Regan, Edward M; Bhalla, Nikhil; Hopkins, Neal A E; Goodchild, Sarah A; Estrela, Pedro

    2015-09-29

    An aptasensor with enhanced anti-fouling properties has been developed. As a case study, the aptasensor was designed with specificity for human thrombin. The sensing platform was developed on screen printed electrodes and is composed of a self-assembled monolayer made from a ternary mixture of 15-base thiolated DNA aptamers specific for human thrombin co-immobilised with 1,6-hexanedithiol (HDT) and further passivated with 1-mercapto-6-hexanol (MCH). HDT binds to the surface by two of its thiol groups forming alkyl chain bridges and this architecture protects from non-specific attachment of molecules to the electrode surface. Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), the aptasensor is able to detect human thrombin as variations in charge transfer resistance (Rct) upon protein binding. After exposure to a high concentration of non-specific Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) solution, no changes in the Rct value were observed, highlighting the bio-fouling resistance of the surface generated. In this paper, we present the optimisation and characterisation of the aptasensor based on the ternary self-assembled monolayer (SAM) layer. We show that anti-fouling properties depend on the type of gold surface used for biosensor construction, which was also confirmed by contact angle measurements. We further studied the ratio between aptamers and HDT, which can determine the specificity and selectivity of the sensing layer. We also report the influence of buffer pH and temperature used for incubation of electrodes with proteins on detection and anti-fouling properties. Finally, the stability of the aptasensor was studied by storage of modified electrodes for up to 28 days in different buffers and atmospheric conditions. Aptasensors based on ternary SAM layers are highly promising for clinical applications for detection of a range of proteins in real biological samples.

  12. Improved Activity Assay Method for Arginine Kinase Based on a Ternary Heteropolyacid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝玉; 郭勤; 郭智; 王希成

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new system for the activity assay of arginine kinase (AK), based on the spectrophotometric determination of an ascorbic acid-reduced blue ternary heteropolyacid composed of bismuth, molybdate and the released phosphate from N-phospho-L-arginine (PArg) formed in the forward catalysis reaction.The assay conditions, including the formulation of the phosphate determination reagent (PDR), the assay timing, and the linear activity range of the enzyme concentration, have been tested and optimized.For these conditions, the ternary heteropolyacid color is completely developed within 1 min and is stable for at least 15 min, with an absorbance maximum at 700 nm and a molar extinction coefficient of 15.97 (mmol/L)-1 · cm-1 for the phosphate.Standard curves for phosphate show a good linearity of 0.999.Compared with previous activity assay methods for AK, this system exhibits superior sensitivity, reproducibility, and adaptability to various conditions in enzymological studies.This method also reduces the assay time and avoids the use of some expensive instruments and reagents.

  13. Neutronics and activation analysis of lithium-based ternary alloys in IFE blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, Alejandra, E-mail: aleja311@berkeley.edu [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94706 (United States); Kramer, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA (United States); Meier, Wayne; DeMuth, James; Reyes, Susana [TerraPower, Bellevue, WA 98005 (United States); Fratoni, Massimiliano [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94706 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Monte Carlo calculations were performed on numerous lithium ternary alloys. • Elements with high neutron multiplication performed well with low absorbers. • Enriching lithium decreases minimum lithium concentration of alloys by 60% or more. • Alloys that performed well neutronically were selected for activation calculations. • Alloys activated, except LiBaBi, do not pose major environmental or safety concerns. - Abstract: An attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant in fusion blankets is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is carrying an effort to develop a lithium-based ternary alloy that maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) and at the same time reduces overall flammability concerns. This study evaluates the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy chamber in order to inform such development. 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and the fusion energy multiplication factor (EMF). It was found that elements that exhibit low absorption cross sections and higher q-values such as Pb, Sn, and Sr, perform well with those that have high neutron multiplication such as Pb and Bi. These elements meet TBR constrains ranging from 1.02 to 1.1. However, most alloys do not reach EMFs greater than 1.15. Additionally, it was found that enriching lithium with {sup 6}Li significantly increases the TBR and decreases the minimum lithium concentration by more than 60%. The amount of enrichment depends on how much total lithium is in the alloy to begin with. Alloys that performed well in the TBR

  14. Density functional theory based screening of ternary alkali-transition metal borohydrides: A computational material design project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo; Landis, David; Voss, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    We present a computational screening study of ternary metal borohydrides for reversible hydrogen storage based on density functional theory. We investigate the stability and decomposition of alloys containing 1 alkali metal atom, Li, Na, or K (M1); and 1 alkali, alkaline earth or 3d/4d transition...

  15. Composition Optimization of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloy Blankets for Fusion Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolodosky, Alejandra

    The goal of this dissertation is to examine the neutronic properties of a novel type of fusion reactor blanket material in the form of lithium-based ternary alloys. Pure liquid lithium, first proposed as a blanket for fusion reactors, is utilized as both a tritium breeder and a coolant. It has many attractive features such as high heat transfer and low corrosion properties, but most importantly, it has a very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns including degradation of the concrete containment structure. The work of this thesis began as a collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in an effort to develop a lithium-based ternary alloy that can maintain the beneficial properties of lithium while reducing the reactivity concerns. The first studies down-selected alloys based on the analysis and performance of both neutronic and activation characteristics. First, 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and energy multiplication factor (EMF). Alloys with adequate results based on TBR and EMF calculations were considered for activation analysis. Activation simulations were executed with 50 years of irradiation and 300 years of cooling. It was discovered that bismuth is a poor choice due to achieving the highest decay heat, contact dose rates, and accident doses. In addition, it does not meet the waste disposal ratings (WDR). The straightforward approach to obtain Monte Carlo TBR and EMF results required 231 simulations per alloy and became computationally expensive, time consuming, and inefficient. Consequently, alternate methods were pursued. A collision history-based methodology recently developed for the Monte Carlo code Serpent, calculates perturbation effects on practically

  16. Ternary Organic Solar Cells Based on Two Compatible Nonfullerene Acceptors with Power Conversion Efficiency >10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Guo, Yuan; Yi, Yuanping; Huo, Lijun; Xue, Xiaonan; Sun, Xiaobo; Fu, Huiting; Xiong, Wentao; Meng, Dong; Wang, Zhaohui; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas P; Sun, Yanming

    2016-12-01

    Two different nonfullerene acceptors and one copolymer are used to fabricate ternary organic solar cells (OSCs). The two acceptors show unique interactions that reduce crystallinity and form a homogeneous mixed phase in the blend film, leading to a high efficiency of ≈10.3%, the highest performance reported for nonfullerene ternary blends. This work provides a new approach to fabricate high-performance OSCs.

  17. Synthesis and spectral characterization of ternary mixed-vanadyl β-diketonate complexes with Schiff bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranwal, Balram Prasad; Tripathi, Kiran; Singh, Alok Kumar; Tripathi, Saurabh

    2012-06-01

    A new method to synthesize some mononuclear ternary oxovanadium(IV) complexes of the general formula [VO(β-dike)(SB)] (where Hβ-dike=acetylacetone; benzoylacetone or dibenzoylmethane, HSB=Schiff bases) has been explored by stepwise substitutions of acetylacetonate ion of VO(acac)(2) with Schiff bases. The substituted acetylacetone could be fractionated out with p-xylene as an azeotrope. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, molecular weight determinations, spectral (electronic, infrared, (1)H NMR, EPR and powder XRD) studies, magnetic susceptibility measurements and cyclic voltammetry. Molar conductance measurements indicated the complexes to be non-electrolytes in nitrobenzene. Bidentate chelating nature of β-diketones and Schiff base anions in the complexes was established by infrared and NMR spectra. Molecular weight determinations confirmed mononuclear nature of the complexes. The EPR spectra illustrated coupling of the unpaired electron with (51)V nucleus (I=7/2). Cyclic voltammograms of all the complexes displayed two-step oxidation processes. The oxidation peak potential corresponded to the quasireversible one-electron oxidation process of the metal center, yielding V(V) species. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated spherical particles of ∼200 nm diameter. The synthesized complexes are mixed-ligand complexes showing a considerable hydrolytic stability in which vanadium is having coordination number 5. A square pyramidal geometry around vanadium has been assigned in all the complexes.

  18. Prediction of Activities in Fe-Based Ternary Liquid Alloys by Hoch-Arpshofen Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGHong—wei; LIANChao; TAODong—ping

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties for an alloy system play an important role in the materials science and engineer- ing. Therefore, theoretical calculations having the flexibility to deal with complexity are very useful and have scien- tific meaning. The Hoch-Arpshofen model was deduced from physical principles and is applicable to binary, ternary and larger system using its binary interaction parameters only. Calculations of the activities of Fe-based liquid alloys are calculated using Hoch-Arpshofen model from data on the binary subsystems. Results for the activities for Fe-Au- Ni, Fe-Cr-Ni, Fe-Co-Cr and Fe-Co-Ni systems at required temperature are presented by Hoch-Arpshofen model. The average relative errors of prediction are 7.8%, 4.5%, 4.9~ and 2.7%, respectively. It shows that the calcu- lated results are in good agreement with the experimental data except Fe-Au-Ni system, which exhibits strong inter- action between unlike atoms. The model provides a simple, reliable and general method for calculating the activities for Fe-based liquid alloys.

  19. Determination of tetracycline in milk by using nucleotide/lanthanide coordination polymer-based ternary complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hongliang; Ma, Chanjiao; Song, Yonghai; Xu, Fugang; Chen, Shouhui; Wang, Li

    2013-12-15

    The meta-organic coordination polymers have been emerged as fascinating nanomaterials because of their tunable nature. In this work, we employed lanthanide coordination polymer self-assembled from adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and europium ion (Eu(3+)) as receptor reagent and citrate (Cit) as ancillary ligand to construct a fluorescent sensor for the detection of tetracycline (Tc) in milk. The co-coordination of Cit and Tc with Eu(3+) on the surface of the coordination polymer AMP/Eu leads to the formation of ternary complex which emitted strong fluorescence due to the removal of coordinated water molecules and an intramolecular energy transfer from Tc to Eu(3+). The fluorescent intensity of Eu(3+) displayed a good linear response to Tc concentrations in the range of 0.1-20 μM with a detection limit of 60 nM. This method was successfully applied to determine the levels of Tc in milk, which is the first application of coordination polymer as a fluorescent sensor in real sample. Compared with other Eu(3+)-based fluorescent methods for Tc detection, the presented method allows simple, direct analysis of Tc without requiring special reaction media or complicated prepreparation processes. This straightforward strategy could be extended to the preparation of other lanthanide coordination polymer-based fluorescent probes for applications in biosensing, imaging, drug delivery, and so on. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Automated Facial Expression Recognition Using Gradient-Based Ternary Texture Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of human expression from facial image is an interesting research area, which has received increasing attention in the recent years. A robust and effective facial feature descriptor is the key to designing a successful expression recognition system. Although much progress has been made, deriving a face feature descriptor that can perform consistently under changing environment is still a difficult and challenging task. In this paper, we present the gradient local ternary pattern (GLTP—a discriminative local texture feature for representing facial expression. The proposed GLTP operator encodes the local texture of an image by computing the gradient magnitudes of the local neighborhood and quantizing those values in three discrimination levels. The location and occurrence information of the resulting micropatterns is then used as the face feature descriptor. The performance of the proposed method has been evaluated for the person-independent face expression recognition task. Experiments with prototypic expression images from the Cohn-Kanade (CK face expression database validate that the GLTP feature descriptor can effectively encode the facial texture and thus achieves improved recognition performance than some well-known appearance-based facial features.

  1. Sputtered tungsten-based ternary and quaternary layers for nanocrystalline diamond deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walock, Michael J; Rahil, Issam; Zou, Yujiao; Imhoff, Luc; Catledge, Shane A; Nouveau, Corinne; Stanishevsky, Andrei V

    2012-06-01

    Many of today's demanding applications require thin-film coatings with high hardness, toughness, and thermal stability. In many cases, coating thickness in the range 2-20 microm and low surface roughness are required. Diamond films meet many of the stated requirements, but their crystalline nature leads to a high surface roughness. Nanocrystalline diamond offers a smoother surface, but significant surface modification of the substrate is necessary for successful nanocrystalline diamond deposition and adhesion. A hybrid hard and tough material may be required for either the desired applications, or as a basis for nanocrystalline diamond film growth. One possibility is a composite system based on carbides or nitrides. Many binary carbides and nitrides offer one or more mentioned properties. By combining these binary compounds in a ternary or quaternary nanocrystalline system, we can tailor the material for a desired combination of properties. Here, we describe the results on the structural and mechanical properties of the coating systems composed of tungsten-chromium-carbide and/or nitride. These WC-Cr-(N) coatings are deposited using magnetron sputtering. The growth of adherent nanocrystalline diamond films by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition has been demonstrated on these coatings. The WC-Cr-(N) and WC-Cr-(N)-NCD coatings are characterized with atomic force microscopy and SEM, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation.

  2. Photocytotoxic ternary copper(II) complexes of histamine Schiff base and pyridyl ligands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samya Banerjee; Akanksha Dixit; K Sesha Maheswaramma; Basudev Maity; Sanjoy Mukherjee; Arun Kumar; Anjali A Karande; Akhil R Chakravarty

    2016-02-01

    Ternary copper(II) complexes of salicylaldehyde-histamine Schiff base (HL) and pyridyl ligands, viz. [Cu(bpy)(L)](ClO4) (1) and [Cu(dppz)(L)](ClO4) (2), where bpy is 2,2′-bipyridine (in 1) and dppz is dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine (in 2), were synthesized, characterized and their DNA binding, photo-activated DNA cleavage activity and photocytotoxicity studied. The 1:1 electrolytic one-electron paramagnetic complexes showed a d-d band near 670 nm in aqueous DMF (1:1 v/v). The crystal structure of complex 1 showed the metal in CuN4O distorted square-pyramidal geometry. Complex 2 intercalatively binds to calf-thymus (ct) DNA with a binding constant (b) of ∼105 M−1. It exhibited moderate chemical nuclease activity but excellent DNA photocleavage activity in red light of 647 nm forming $^{\\bullet}\\text{OH}$ radicals. It showed remarkable photocytotoxicity in human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) giving IC50 of 1.6 M in visible light (400-700 nm) with low dark toxicity. The photo-induced cell death is via generation of oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species.

  3. Electrorheological fluid of kaolinite-based ternary nanocomposite and its properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Baoxiang; ZHAO; Xiaopeng; YAO; Yuan

    2005-01-01

    According to the physical and chemical design, a kind of kaolinite /dimethylsulfoxide/carboxymethyl starch (CMS) ternary nanocomposite was prepared by the two-step composite method. Firstly, the polar liquid-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was directly intercalated into the interlayer of kaolinite, and then the intercalated complex was composite with CMS by the solution method. The results showed that DMSO moderately intercalated the interlayer of kaolinite and the basal spacing of kaolinite was swollen from 0.715 to 1.120 nm. Under the electric fields of 5 kV mm-1 and volume fraction 30%, the static shear stress of kaolinite/DMSO/CMS ternary ERF could reach 17 kPa, which was 14 times and 4.25 times higher than that of pure kaolinite ERF and kaolinite/CMS ERF respectively. At the suitable component ratio (kaolinite:DMSO:CMS=1:0.75:0.6) of nanocomposite, a stronger synergetic effect and the optimum electrorheological effect could be attained. The ternary nanocomposite ERF also had good temperature effect and sedimentation properties. The sedimentation part of ternary nanocomposite ERF was only 9% after 30 days. The results of dielectric properties showed that the dielectric constant and conductivity of ternary nanocomposite ERF had been improved more enormously than that of the single component ERF and binary composite ERF. So the polarization and dielectric mismatch were strengthened, which was suitable to the enhancement of ER effect.

  4. True ternary fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K. R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; von Oertzen, W.

    2015-04-01

    The study of the ternary fission of nuclei has received new interest recently. It is of general interest for nuclear dynamics, although the process is very rare. In the present work, we discuss the possibilities of true ternary fission (fragment masses A >30 ) in 252Cf for different mass splits. These mass splits are strongly favored in a collinear geometry. Based on the three cluster model (TCM), it is shown that the true ternary fission into fragments with almost equal masses is one of the possible fission modes in 252Cf . For general decays it is shown that the formation of the lightest fragment at the center has the highest probability. Further the formation of tin isotopes and/or other closed shell fragments are favored. For the decay products the presence of closed shell nuclei among the three fragments enhances the decay probabilities.

  5. Sn-Sb-Se based binary and ternary alloys for phase change memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyung-Min

    2008-10-28

    In this work, the effect of replacing Ge by Sn and Te by Se was studied for a systematic understanding and prediction of new potential candidates for phase change random access memories applications. The temperature dependence of the electrical/structural properties and crystallization kinetics of the Sn-Se based binary and Sn-Sb-Se based ternary alloys were determined and compared with those of the GeTe and Ge-Sb-Te system. The temperature dependence of electrical and structural properties were investigated by van der Pauw measurements, X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectometry. By varying the heating rate, the Kissinger analysis has been used to determine the combined activation barrier for crystallization. To screen the kinetics of crystallization, a static laser tester was employed. In case of binary alloys of the type Sn{sub x}Se{sub 1-x}, the most interesting candidate is SnSe{sub 2} since it crystallizes into a single crystalline phase and has high electrical contrast and reasonably high activation energy for crystallization. In addition, the SnSe{sub 2}-Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} pseudobinary alloy system also might be sufficient for data retention due to their higher transition temperature and activation energy for crystallization in comparison to GeTe-Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} system. Furthermore, SnSe{sub 2}-Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} pseudobinary alloys have a higher crystalline resistivity. The desired rapid crystallization speed can be obtained for Sn{sub 1}Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 5} and Sn{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 7} alloys. (orig.)

  6. Efficient and Stable Ternary Organic Solar Cells Based on Two Planar Nonfullerene Acceptors with Tunable Crystallinity and Phase Miscibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jialin; Peng, Jiajun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Liang, Ziqi

    2017-06-21

    Planar perylene diimides (PDIs), when used as nonfullerene acceptors for organic photovoltaics, are constrained by their large π-aggregation in solid state. To tackle this issue, another planar nonfullerene acceptor 3,9-bis(2-methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-indanone)-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2',3'-d']-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene (ITIC) with weak crystallinity and near-infrared light absorption is introduced into the PTB7-Th:PDI binary blend to fabricate efficient and stable ternary solar cells. We have finely tuned the PDI/ITIC weight ratio to investigate the influences of individual ITIC and PDI on the optical, electronic, and morphological properties of the PTB7-Th:ITIC:PDI ternary blend. Compared to the binary blend, complementary optical absorption is achieved in all ternary blends. More importantly, it is found that ITIC plays a critical role on largely suppressing the PDI aggregates in the PTB7-Th:PDI blend, while PDI aids to form an interpenetrating network morphology to facilitate charge transport in the PTB7-Th:ITIC blend. Consequently, when the PDI/ITIC ratio is 3:7 (w/w), the PTB7-Th:ITIC:PDI based inverted solar cells exhibit the highest power conversion efficiency of 8.64% due to their favorable out-of-plane π-π stacking, finest phase-separation morphology, and highest charge mobility. Remarkably, the optimal cells that are solution-processed in air show the promising efficiency of 7.09%, suggesting good ambient stability of such ternary solar cells.

  7. Isolation and properties of transcribing ternary complexes of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase positioned at a single template base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, J R; Krummel, B; Chamberlin, M J

    1987-07-05

    We have studied the conditions needed for the formation of stable ternary complexes by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase using a procedure in which elongation by the majority of active enzyme molecules is halted at a specific template base. Stable complexes of this sort, containing RNA chains as short as 15 nucleotides, have been formed from three different promoter sites (T7 A1, lambda PL, and E. coli rrnB P1) using di- and trinucleotides as primers in reactions limited by the presence of only three of the nucleoside triphosphate substrates. The resulting ternary complexes can be stored for at least five days without loss in activity, and provide useful reagents and substrates for studies of the properties of RNA polymerases engaged in chain elongation and termination. At all three promoter sites abortive initiation, leading to synthesis and release of oligomers up to ten nucleotides, competes with productive initiation, leading to the formation of stable elongating complexes. Thus the relative instability of ternary RNA polymerase complexes bearing transcripts shorter than ten nucleotides may be a general feature of the transcription initiation reaction.

  8. Moving least squares-based multi-functional sensing technique or estimating viscosity and density of ternary solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dan; WEI Guo; SUN Jin-wei; LIU Xin

    2009-01-01

    In the osmotic dehydration process of food, on-line estimation of concentrations of two components in ternary solution with NaCI and sucrose was performed based on multi-functional sensing technique.Moving Least Squares were adopted in approximation procedure to estimate the viscosity of such interested ternary solu-tion with the given data set.As a result, in one mode of using total experimental data as calibration data andvalidation data, the relative deviations of estimated viscosities are less than ~ 1.24%.In the other mode, by taking total experimental data except the ones for estimation as calibration data, the relative deviations are less than±3.47%.In the same way, the density of ternary solution can be also estimated with deviations less than ± 0.11% and ± 0.30% respectively in these two models.The satisfactory and accurate results show the ex-traordinary efficiency of Moving Least Squares behaved in signal approximation for multi-functional sensors.

  9. Nanoassembly of Polydisperse Photonic Crystals based on Binary and Ternary Polymer Opal Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Qibin; Schafer, Christian; Spahn, Peter; Gallei, Markus; Herrmann, Lars; Petukhov, Andrei; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2016-01-01

    Ordered binary and ternary photonic crystals, composed of different sized polymer-composite spheres with diameter ratios up to 120%, are generated using bending induced oscillatory shearing (BIOS). This viscoelastic system creates polydisperse equilibrium structures, producing mixed opaline colored films with greatly reduced requirements for particle monodispersity, and very different sphere size ratios, compared to other methods of nano-assembly.

  10. GaSb based ternary and quaternary diffused junction devices for TPV applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, V.S.; Saban, S.B.; Morgan, M.D.; Horne, W.E.; Evans, B.D.; Ketterl, J.R. [EDTEK Inc. 7082 S. 220th Street Kent, Washington 98032 (United States); Morosini, M.B.; Patel, N.B. [Instituto de Fisica, UNICAMP, Campinas, Brasil (Brazil); Field, H. [NREL, Golden, Colorado (United States)

    1997-03-01

    In this work we report the characteristics of ternary, GaInSb (Eg=0.70eV) and quarternary, GaInAsSb (Eg=0.5eV) diffused junction photovoltaic devices. The unique feature of the quarternary device is the extended long-wavelength response to 2.1 microns enabling the efficient use of the blackbody-like thermal sources operating at 1373 K in thermophotovoltaic energy conversion systems. The ternary device was fabricated by diffusing zinc into a n-type (100) oriented GaInSb substrate. For the quarternary, a four micron thick Te doped GaInAsSb layer grown by LPE on a n-type GaSb(100) wafer was used as the starting substrate for zinc diffusion. The ternary device exhibits an open circuit voltage of 0.38 V, Fill Factor of 0.63 and a short circuit current of 0.8A/cm{sup 2}, while the corresponding values for the quarternary device are 0.25 V, 0.58 and 0.8A/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The peak internal quantum efficiency for the ternary is over 90{percent} and that of the quarternary is above 75{percent}. Process optimization should improve the performance charcateristics of the quarternary. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Nanoindentation Characterization of a Ternary Clay-Based Composite Used in Ancient Chinese Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwei Hou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ternary clay-based composite material (TCC, composed of lime, clay and sand, and usually modified with sticky rice and other organic compounds as additives, was widely used historically in Chinese construction and buildings due to its high mechanical performance. In this study, to gain an insight into the micromechanical mechanism of this cementitious material, the nanomechanical properties and volume fraction of mechanically different phases of the binder matrix are derived from the analysis of grid nanoindentation tests. Results show that there are five distinct mechanical phases, where the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H and geopolymer present in the binder matrix are almost identical to those produced in ordinary Portland cement (OPC and alkali-activated fly-ash geopolymer materials in nano-mechanical performance. The nano-mechanical behavior of calcite produced by the carbonation of lime in this binder is close to the calcite porous outer part of some sea urchin shells. Compared to OPC, the C-S-H contained in the TCC has a relatively lower ratio of indentation modulus to indentation hardness, implying a relatively lower resistance to material fracture. However, the geopolymer and calcite, at nearly the same volume content as the C-S-H, help to enhance the strength and durability of the TCC by their higher energy resistance capacity or higher strength compared to the C-S-H. Rediscovering of TCC offers a potential way to improve modern concrete’s strength and durability through synergy of multi-binders and the addition of organic materials if TCC can be advanced in terms of its workability and hardening rate.

  12. Towards large-scale production of solution-processed organic tandem modules based on ternary composites: Design of the intermediate layer, device optimization and laser based module processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ning; Kubis, Peter; Forberich, Karen

    2014-01-01

    We report on a novel approach including: 1. the design of an efficient intermediate layer, which facilitates the use of most high performance active materials in tandem structure and the compatibility of the tandem concept with large-scale production; 2. the concept of ternary composites based on...

  13. Towards tailoring the magnetocaloric response in FeRh-based ternary compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barua, Radhika, E-mail: barua.r@husky.neu.edu; Jiménez-Villacorta, Félix; Lewis, L. H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    In this work, we demonstrate that the magnetocaloric response of FeRh-based compounds may be tailored for potential magnetic refrigeration applications by chemical modification of the FeRh lattice. Alloys of composition Fe(Rh{sub 1−x}A{sub x}) or (Fe{sub 1−x}B{sub x})Rh (A = Cu, Pd; B = Ni; 0 < x < 0.06) were synthesized via arc-melting and subsequent annealing in vacuum at 1000 °C for 48 h. The magnetocaloric properties of the FeRh-based systems were determined using isothermal M(H) curves measured in the vicinity of the magnetostructural temperature (T{sub t}). It is found that the FeRh working temperature range (δT{sub FWHM}) may be chemically tuned over a wide temperature range, 100 K ≤ T ≤ 400 K. While elemental substitution consistently decreases the magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub mag}) of the FeRh-based ternary alloys from that of the parent FeRh compound (ΔS{sub mag},{sub FeRh} ∼ 17 J/kg K; ΔS{sub mag,FeRh-ternary =} 7–14 J/kg K at H{sub app} = 2 T), the net refrigeration capacity (RC), defined as the amount of heat that can be transferred during one magnetic refrigeration cycle, of the modified systems is significantly higher (RC{sub FeRh} ∼ 150 J/kg; RC{sub FeRh-ternary =} 170–210 J/kg at H{sub app} = 2 T). These results are attributed to stoichiometry-induced changes in the FeRh electronic band structure and beneficial broadening of the magnetostructural transition due to local chemical disorder.

  14. Activity Coefficient Derivatives of Ternary Systems Based on Scatchard's Neutral Electrolyte description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D G

    2007-05-16

    Activity coefficient derivatives with respect to molality are presented for the Scatchard Neutral Electrolyte description of a ternary common-ion electrolyte system. These quantities are needed for the calculation of 'diffusion Onsager coefficients' and in turn for tests of the Onsager Reciprocal Relations in diffusion. The usually-omitted b{sub 23} term is included. The direct SNE binary approximations and a further approximation are discussed. Binary evaluation strategies other than constant ionic strength are considered.

  15. Metal-amino acid (or peptide)-nucleoside (or related bases) ternary complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terron, A.; Fiol, J.J.; Herrero, L.A.; Garcia-Raso, A. [Departament de Quimica. Universitat de les Illes Balears. Palma de Mallorca. (Spain); Apella, M.C. [Cerela Centro de Referencia de Lactobacilos, Tucaman, Argentina (Antigua and Barbuda); Caubet, A.; Moreno, V. [Departament de Quimica Inorganica. Universitat de Barcelona. Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    The knowledge of simultaneous metal ion interaction with proteins and nucleic acids is one of the most exciting subjects inside the Inorganic Biochemistry. In the last years, several groups have published articles on the synthesis and characterization of ternary complexes bringing relevant data on the structure and stability of metallo biomolecules. In this short review, the last contributions found in the literature are collected. Comments on the factors influencing the behaviour and stability of these systems are offered. (Author) 100 refs.

  16. Plasmonic-resonance-based ternary composite complementary enhancement of the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lihua; Li, Meiya; Liu, Xiaolian; Luoshan, Mengdai; Zhang, Feng; Guo, Kaimo; Zhu, Yongdan; Sun, Beilei; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2016-10-01

    Graphene (G), TiO2 fusiform nanorods (TiO2NRs) adsorbed with Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) are prepared and blended as multifunctional materials into TiO2 nanocrystalline film to form a novel ternary (G-TiO2NRs-Au) composite photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effects of G-TiO2NRs-Au on the properties of the photoanode and DSSC are investigated. Results show that, by blending G-TiO2NRs-Au, the light absorption and scattering of the photoanode are obviously improved, and the charge transfer resistance R2 and electron recombination are decreased, resulting in a significant enhancement in the short-circuit current density (J sc) and the photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSSCs. The maximum J sc of 17.66 mA cm-2 and PCE of 8.56% are obtained in the optimal G-TiO2NRs-Au-based DSSC, about 33.6% and 35.0% higher than that obtained in the conventional TiO2-based DSSC. This significant improvement in the performance of the DSSC can be attributed to the ternary composite complementary effects of multi-functions from the surface plasmon resonance of AuNPs, light scattering of TiO2NRs, and the improved dye loading and fast electron transmission channel from graphene. This study provides an effective way of ternary composite complementary enhancement of the J sc and PCE of the DSSCs.

  17. Quantum dot ternary-valued full-adder: Logic synthesis by a multiobjective design optimization based on a genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klymenko, M. V.; Remacle, F., E-mail: fremacle@ulg.ac.be [Department of Chemistry, B6c, University of Liege, B4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2014-10-28

    A methodology is proposed for designing a low-energy consuming ternary-valued full adder based on a quantum dot (QD) electrostatically coupled with a single electron transistor operating as a charge sensor. The methodology is based on design optimization: the values of the physical parameters of the system required for implementing the logic operations are optimized using a multiobjective genetic algorithm. The searching space is determined by elements of the capacitance matrix describing the electrostatic couplings in the entire device. The objective functions are defined as the maximal absolute error over actual device logic outputs relative to the ideal truth tables for the sum and the carry-out in base 3. The logic units are implemented on the same device: a single dual-gate quantum dot and a charge sensor. Their physical parameters are optimized to compute either the sum or the carry out outputs and are compatible with current experimental capabilities. The outputs are encoded in the value of the electric current passing through the charge sensor, while the logic inputs are supplied by the voltage levels on the two gate electrodes attached to the QD. The complex logic ternary operations are directly implemented on an extremely simple device, characterized by small sizes and low-energy consumption compared to devices based on switching single-electron transistors. The design methodology is general and provides a rational approach for realizing non-switching logic operations on QD devices.

  18. Quantum dot ternary-valued full-adder: Logic synthesis by a multiobjective design optimization based on a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymenko, M. V.; Remacle, F.

    2014-10-01

    A methodology is proposed for designing a low-energy consuming ternary-valued full adder based on a quantum dot (QD) electrostatically coupled with a single electron transistor operating as a charge sensor. The methodology is based on design optimization: the values of the physical parameters of the system required for implementing the logic operations are optimized using a multiobjective genetic algorithm. The searching space is determined by elements of the capacitance matrix describing the electrostatic couplings in the entire device. The objective functions are defined as the maximal absolute error over actual device logic outputs relative to the ideal truth tables for the sum and the carry-out in base 3. The logic units are implemented on the same device: a single dual-gate quantum dot and a charge sensor. Their physical parameters are optimized to compute either the sum or the carry out outputs and are compatible with current experimental capabilities. The outputs are encoded in the value of the electric current passing through the charge sensor, while the logic inputs are supplied by the voltage levels on the two gate electrodes attached to the QD. The complex logic ternary operations are directly implemented on an extremely simple device, characterized by small sizes and low-energy consumption compared to devices based on switching single-electron transistors. The design methodology is general and provides a rational approach for realizing non-switching logic operations on QD devices.

  19. Elastic and electronic properties of antiperovskite-type Pd- and Pt-based ternary carbides from first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannikov, V.V.; Ivanovskii, A.L., E-mail: ivanovskii@ihim.uran.ru

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • 23 Pd- and Pt-based antiperovskite-type ternary carbides are probed from first principles. • Structural, elastic, electronic properties and inter-atomic bonding are evaluated. • A rich variety of mechanical and electronic properties was predicted. -- Abstract: By means of first-principles calculations, the structural, elastic, and electronic properties of a broad series of proposed Pd- and Pt-based antiperovskite-type ternary carbides AC(Pd,Pt){sub 3}, where A are Zn, Ca, Al, Ga, In, Ge, Hg, Sn, Cd, Pb, Ag, Sc, Ti, Y, Nb, Mo, and Ta, have been studied, and their stability, elastic constants, bulk, shear, and Young’s moduli, compressibility, Pugh’s indicator, Poisson’s ratio, indexes of elastic anisotropy, as well as electronic properties have been evaluated. We found that these materials should demonstrate a rich variety of mechanical and electronic properties depending on the type of A sublattices, which can include (unlike the majority of known 3d-metal-based antiperovskites) both sp elements and d atoms. We believe that the presented results will be useful for future synthesis of these phases, as well as for expanding our knowledge of this interesting group of antiperovskite-type materials.

  20. Influence of Surface Energy on Organic Alloy Formation in Ternary Blend Solar Cells Based on Two Donor Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobalasingham, Nemal S; Noh, Sangtaik; Howard, Jenna B; Thompson, Barry C

    2016-10-05

    The compositional dependence of the open-circuit voltage (Voc) in ternary blend bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is correlated with the miscibility of polymers, which may be influenced by a number of attributes, including crystallinity, the random copolymer effect, or surface energy. Four ternary blend systems featuring poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophene) (P3HT75-co-EHT25), poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-(hexyl-3-carboxylate)), herein referred to as poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-hexylesterthiophene) (P3HT50-co-3HET50), poly(3-hexylthiophene-thiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole) (P3HTT-DPP-10%), and an analog of P3HTT-DPP-10% with 40% of 3-hexylthiophene exchanged for 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethylthiophen-2-yl (3MEO-T) (featuring an electronically decoupled oligoether side-chain), referred to as P3HTTDPP-MEO40%, are explored in this work. All four polymers are semicrystalline and rich in rr-P3HT content and perform well in binary devices with PC61BM. Except for P3HTTDPP-MEO40%, all polymers exhibit similar surface energies (∼21-22 mN/m). P3HTTDPP-MEO40% exhibits an elevated surface energy of around 26 mN/m. As a result, despite the similar optoelectronic properties and binary solar cell performance of P3HTTDPP-MEO40% compared to P3HTT-DPP-10%, the former exhibits a pinned Voc in two different sets of ternary blend devices. This is a stark contrast to previous rr-P3HT-based systems and demonstrates that surface energy, and its influence on miscibility, plays a critical role in the formation of organic alloys and can supersede the influence of crystallinity, the random copolymer effect, similar backbone structures, and HOMO/LUMO considerations. Therefore, we confirm surface energy compatibility as a figure-of-merit for predicting the compositional dependence of the Voc in ternary blend solar cells and highlight the importance of polymer miscibility in organic alloy formation.

  1. Copper-based diamond-like ternary semiconductors for thermoelectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoug, Eric John

    Heightened global concern over greenhouse gas emissions has led to an increased demand for clean energy conversion technologies. Thermoelectric materials convert directly between thermal and electrical energy and can increase the efficiency of existing processes via waste heat recovery and solid-state climate control applications. The conversion efficiency of available thermoelectric materials and the devices comprised of them is unfortunately quite low, and thus new materials must be developed in order for thermoelectrics to keep pace with competing technologies. One approach to increasing the conversion efficiency of a given material is to decrease its lattice thermal conductivity, which has traditionally been accomplished by introducing phonon scattering centers into the material. These scattering centers also tend to degrade electronic transport in the material, thereby minimizing the overall effect on the thermoelectric performance. The purpose of this work is to develop materials with inherently low lattice thermal conductivity such that no extrinsic modifications are required. A novel approach in which complex ternary semiconductors are derived from well-known binary or elemental semiconductors is employed to identify candidate materials. Ternary diamond-like compounds, namely Cu2SnSe 3 and Cu3SbSe4, are synthesized, characterized, and optimized for thermoelectric applications. It is found that sample-to-sample variations in hole concentration limits the plausibility of Cu2SnSe3 as a thermoelectric material. Cu3SbSe 4 is found to be a promising material that can achieve thermoelectric performance comparable to state-of-the-art materials when optimized. This work uncovers anomalous thermal conductivity in several Cu-Sb-Se ternary compounds, which is used to develop a set of guidelines relating crystal structure to inherently low lattice thermal conductivity.

  2. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fratoni, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-22

    , low electrical conductivity and therefore low MHD pressure drop, low chemical reactivity, and extremely low tritium inventory; the addition of sodium (FLiNaBe) has been considered because it retains the properties of FliBe but also lowers the melting point. Although many of these blanket concepts are promising, challenges still remain. The limited amount of beryllium available poses a problem for ceramic breeders such as the HCPB. FLiBe and FLiNaBe are highly viscous and have a low thermal conductivity. Lithium lead possesses a poor thermal conductivity which can cause problems in both DCLL and LiPb blankets. Additionally, the tritium permeation from these two blankets into plant components can be a problem and must be reduced. Consequently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is attempting to develop a lithium-based alloy—most likely a ternary alloy—which maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns for use in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The LLNL concept employs inertial confinement fusion (ICF) through the use of lasers aimed at an indirect-driven target composed of deuterium-tritium fuel. The fusion driver/target design implements the same physics currently experimented at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The plant uses lithium in both the primary coolant and blanket; therefore, lithium-related hazards are of primary concern. Although reducing chemical reactivity is the primary motivation for the development of new lithium alloys, the successful candidates will have to guarantee acceptable performance in all their functions. The scope of this study is to evaluate the neutronics performance of a large number of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of the IFE engine and assess their properties upon activation. This manuscript is organized as follows: Section 12 presents the models and methodologies used for the analysis; Section

  3. Formation of ternary complexes between a macrotricyclic host and hetero-guest pairs: an acid-base controlled selective complexation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tao; Chen, Chuan-Feng

    2007-10-11

    A triptycene-based cylindrical macrotricyclic host can include diquat and electron-rich aromatics simultaneously to form stable ternary complexes, which is stabilized not only by a charge-transfer (CT) interaction between electron-rich and electron-deficient guests but also by the face to face pi-stacking interactions between the host and the guests. Moreover, a selective complexation process between a ternary complex containing benzidine and a binary complex can be effectively controlled by the use of acid and base.

  4. Microstructures in a ternary eutectic alloy: devising metrics based on neighbourhood relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennstedt, A.; Choudhury, A.; Ratke, L.; Nestler, B.

    2016-03-01

    Ternary eutectics, where three phases form simultaneously from the melt, present an opportunity to study the fundamental science of microstructural pattern formation during the process of solidification. In this paper we investigate these phenomena, both experimentally and by phase-field simulations. The aim is to develop necessary characterisation tools which can be applied to both experimentally determined and simulated microstructures for a quantitative comparison between simulations and experiments. In SEM images of experimental cross sections of directionally solidified Ag-Al-Cu ternary eutectic alloy at least six different types of microstructures are observed. Corresponding 3D phase-field simulations for different solidification conditions and compositions allow us to span and isolate the material parameters which influence the formation of three-phase patterns. Both experimental and simulated microstructures were analysed regarding interface lengths, triple points and number of neighbours. As a result of this integrated experimental and computational effort we conclude that neighbourhood relationships as described herein, turn out to be an appropriate basis to characterise order in patterns.

  5. Study on La–Mg based ternary system for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capurso, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.capurso@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Naik, Mehraj-ud-din; Lo Russo, Sergio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Maddalena, Amedeo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Saccone, Adriana; Gastaldo, Federica; De Negri, Serena [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Genova, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: ► Explorative study in the Mg-rich corner of the La–Pd–Mg ternary system. ► The studied alloys lay on the La{sub 2}(Mg{sub 1−x}Pd{sub x}){sub 17} compositional line. ► Higher Pd content results in lower H{sub 2} capacity, but higher equilibrium pressures. ► The highest absorbed hydrogen quantity is 4.8 wt% at 2 MPa and 310 °C. -- Abstract: An explorative study on the hydriding/dehydriding characteristics of the La{sub 2}(Mg,Pd){sub 17} ternary alloy, with different Pd content, is presented. All the samples were prepared by induction melting of the selected elements, characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction, to detect present phases, and subsequently milled with a high-energy shaker apparatus. The hydrogen reaction kinetics and thermodynamics properties have been investigated by means of a volumetric Sievert’s apparatus. The measured H{sub 2} gravimetric capacity of the alloy varied with the Pd content, being the highest for the sample without Pd (>4.5 wt%). A possible correlation between the constituent phases individuated with microanalysis and the variation in the hydrogenation behaviour is proposed.

  6. State-of-the-art Sn2+-based ternary oxides as photocatalysts for water splitting: electronic structures and optoelectronic properties

    KAUST Repository

    Noureldine, Dalal

    2016-09-19

    Developing visible light responsive metal oxide photocatalysts is a challenge that must be conquered to achieve high efficiency for water splitting or hydrogen evolution reactions. Valence band engineering is possible by forming ternary oxides using the combination of a metal cation with an s2d10 electronic configuration and a transition metal oxide with a d0 configuration. Many (Sn2+, Bi3+, Pb2+)-based ternary metal oxide photocatalysts have been reported for hydrogen and/or oxygen evolution under visible irradiation. Sn2+-based materials have attracted particular attention because tin is inexpensive, abundant and more environmentally friendly than lead or bismuth. In this review, we provide a fruitful library for Sn2+-based photocatalysts that have been reported to evolve hydrogen using sacrificial reagents, including SnNb2O6, Sn2Nb2O7, SnTaxNb2−xO6, SnTa2O6, Sn2Ta2O7, SnWO4 (α and β phases), SnSb2O6·nH2O, and Sn2TiO4. The synthesis method used in the literature and the resultant morphology and crystal structure of each compound are discussed. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the electronic structure and density of states are provided, and the consequent optoelectronic properties such as band gap, nature of the bandgap, dielectric constant, and effective masses are summarized. This review will help highlight the main challenges for Sn2+-based materials.

  7. Biodegradable polymer based ternary blends for removal of trace metals from simulated industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, N; Arungalai Vendan, S

    2016-02-01

    The ternary blends consisting of Chitosan (CS), Nylon 6 (Ny 6) and Montmorillonite clay (MM clay) were prepared by the solution blending method with glutaraldehyde. The prepared ternary blends were characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The FTIR results showed that the strong intermolecular hydrogen bondings were established between chitosan, nylon 6 and montmorillonite clay. TGA showed the thermal stability of the blend is enhanced by glutaraldehyde as Crosslink agent. Results of XRD indicated that the relative crystalline of the pure chitosan film was reduced when the polymeric network was reticulated by glutaraldehyde. Finally, the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the morphology of the blend was rough and heterogenous. Further, it confirms the interaction between the functional groups of the blend components. The extent of removal of the trace metals was found to be almost the same. The removal of these metals at different pH was also done and the maximum removal of the metals was observed at pH 4.5 for both trace metals. Adsorption studies and kinetic analysis have also been made. Moreover, the protonation of amine groups is induced an electrostatic repulsion of cations. When the pH of the solution was more than 5.5, the sorption rate began to decrease. Besides, the quantity of adsorbate on absorbent was fitted as a function in Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm. The sorption kinetics was tested for pseudo first order and pseudo second order reaction. The kinetic experimental data correlated with the second order kinetic model and rate constants of sorption for kinetic models were calculated and accordingly, the correlation coefficients were obtained.

  8. Assessment of the physical, mechanical, and moisture-retention properties of pullulan-based ternary co-blended films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongyang; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Jie; Jin, Zhengyu

    2014-11-04

    Multi-component substances made through direct blending or blending with co-drying can form films on the surfaces of intermediate moisture foods (IMFs), which help retain moisture and protect food texture and flavor. An IMF film system based on pullulan, with glycerol serving as the plasticizer, was studied using alginate and four different types of polysaccharides (propyleneglycol alginate, pectin, carrageenan, and aloe polysaccharide) as the blend-modified substances. The physical, mechanical, color, transparency, and moisture-retention properties of the co-blended films with the polysaccharides were assessed. A new formula was established for the average moisture retention property, water barrier, tensile strength, elongation at break, and oxygen barrier property of the ternary co-blended films using the Design Expert software. The new model established for moisture content measurement used an indirect method of film formation on food surfaces by humectants, which should expedite model validation and allow a better comprehension of moisture transfer through edible films.

  9. Ternary systems based on PVDF, BaTiO{sub 3} and MWCNTs: Fabrication, characterization, electromagnetic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacciotti, Ilaria [University of Rome “Niccolò Cusano”, RU INSTM, Via Don Carlo Gnocchi 3, 00166-Rome (Italy); Valentini, Manlio; Nanni, Francesca [University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Enterprise Engineering Department, RU INSTM-Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133-Rome (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    In this work, ternary bulk systems based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), synthesised barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}, BT) nanopowder and multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were fabricated by film stacking technique, starting from solvent cast films. The main purpose was to investigate the influence of BT and MWCNTs addition to the polymeric matrix on its microstructural and dielectrical properties. In order to achieve it, different BT concentrations, ranging between the 60 and 75 %wt, were tested, whereas a MWCNTs content of 2 %wt was maintained constant. The morphology was studied by observation at scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the microstructure and crystalline phases investigated by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and the electromagnetic properties measured in the microwave region (8-12 GHz). The electromagnetic response of the investigated bulk systems was also simulated as function of the sample thickness.

  10. Determination of thermodynamic properties of aluminum based binary and ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altıntas, Yemliha [Abdullah Gül University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Aksöz, Sezen [Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Physics, 50300, Nevşehir (Turkey); Keşlioğlu, Kâzım, E-mail: kesli@erciyes.edu.tr [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Maraşlı, Necmettin [Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, 34210, Davutpaşa, İstanbul (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    In the present work, the Gibbs–Thomson coefficient, solid–liquid and solid–solid interfacial energies and grain boundary energy of a solid Al solution in the Al–Cu–Si eutectic system were determined from the observed grain boundary groove shapes by measuring the thermal conductivity of the solid and liquid phases and temperature gradient. Some thermodynamic properties such as the enthalpy of fusion, entropy of fusion, the change of specific heat from liquid to solid and the electrical conductivity of solid phases at their melting temperature were also evaluated by using the measured values of relevant data for Al–Cu, Al–Si, Al–Mg, Al–Ni, Al–Ti, Al–Cu–Ag, Al–Cu–Si binary and ternary alloys. - Highlights: • The microstructure of the Al–Cu–Si eutectic alloy was observed through SEM. • The three eutectic phases (α-Al, Si, CuAl{sub 2}) have been determined by EDX analysis. • Solid–liquid and solid–solid interfacial energies of α-Al solution were determined. • ΔS{sub f},ΔH{sub M}, ΔC{sub P}, electrical conductivity of solid phases for solid Al solutions were determined. • G–T coefficient and grain boundary energy of solid Al solution were determined.

  11. Omnidirectional photonic band gap enlarged by one-dimensional ternary unmagnetized plasma photonic crystals based on a new Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haifeng [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Nanjing Artillery Academy, Nanjing 211132 (China); Liu Shaobin [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves of Southeast University, Nanjing Jiangsu 210096 (China); Kong Xiangkun; Bian Borui; Dai Yi [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2012-11-15

    In this paper, an omnidirectional photonic band gap realized by one-dimensional ternary unmagnetized plasma photonic crystals based on a new Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure, which is composed of homogeneous unmagnetized plasma and two kinds of isotropic dielectric, is theoretically studied by the transfer matrix method. It has been shown that such an omnidirectional photonic band gap originates from Bragg gap in contrast to zero-n gap or single negative (negative permittivity or negative permeability) gap, and it is insensitive to the incidence angle and the polarization of electromagnetic wave. From the numerical results, the frequency range and central frequency of omnidirectional photonic band gap can be tuned by the thickness and density of the plasma but cease to change with increasing Fibonacci order. The bandwidth of omnidirectional photonic band gap can be notably enlarged. Moreover, the plasma collision frequency has no effect on the bandwidth of omnidirectional photonic band gap. It is shown that such new structure Fibonacci quasiperiodic one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals have a superior feature in the enhancement of frequency range of omnidirectional photonic band gap compared with the conventional ternary and conventional Fibonacci quasiperiodic ternary plasma photonic crystals.

  12. Dynamic treatment of ternary fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubchenya, V. A.; Yavshits, S. G.

    1988-06-01

    The new dynamic model of light charged particle (LCP) formation in ternary fission is presented. The model is based on the assumption that light particles are formed as a result of two random neck ruptures during the time interval about one single-particle period. The connection of the final stage of ternary fission and of the saddle point descent stage was obtained in the framework of the density moments method. The analysis of LCP formation has shown that LCP mass and charge distributions are strongly governed by statistical nucleon exchange in the LCP-light fragment double system. New semiclassical expressions for the calculations of LCP yields and relative ternary fission probability are given. The results of calculations are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  13. 基于三值光学计算机的旅行商问题的求解实现%Solving TSP based on ternary optical computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈云付; 樊孝领

    2011-01-01

    根据三值光计算机具有的巨并行性特点,对给定城市数的旅行商问题进行研究.首先将旅行商问题进行预处理,并转换为改进的符号数(modified signed-digit,MSD)表示形式;然后根据三值光学计算机的位数众多和MSD加法的无进位过程,建立了相应的计算方法,用自主开发的三值逻辑光处理器系统进行求解.结果表明,在数据量同样的情况下,与电子计算机相比,三值光学计算机需较少的计算步数就可以解决旅行商问题,显示出三值光学计算机潜在的优势.%Through the ternary optical computer, this paper studied the traveling salesman problem with arbitrarily definite number of nodes. The traveling salesman problem was first preproeessed and transformed into the form of modified signed-digit ( MSD ) data format. Then based on the characteristic of giant parallelism of the ternary optical computer and the MSD addition of non-carry process, established a calculation to solve the problem using the self-developed ternary optical processor system.Experiments show that under the same amount of data, as compared with the electronic computer, ternary optical computer can solve the traveling salesman problem with less number of steps, which demonstrates the potential advantages of ternary optical computer.

  14. On the importance of thermodynamic investigations for the re-assessment of selected ternary Fe-base systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presoly, P.; Bernhard, C.

    2016-07-01

    Reliable thermodynamic data are essential for the design and the production of new alloying systems. Particularly, the knowledge of the high-temperature phase transformations (TLiquid, TSolid, TPerit, Tγ→δ) are important for the solidification and the further processing. Investigations of selected commercial Dual-Phase, TRIP and high-Mn TWIP steels by DTA/DSC measurements show that the experimental results differ significantly from the calculation results of thermodynamic databases with respect to the phase transformation temperature and sequence. Based on these findings, it is very important to identify the defective subsystems of complex alloys in order to optimise the thermodynamic databases. In order to verify a quaternary system, e.g. the Fe-C-Si-Mn system, it is important to check the corresponding ternary subsystems. This was performed by DSC measurements of selected model alloys. By doing so, it was found that in Si- and Mn-alloyed Dual-Phase steels the thermodynamic description of the Fe-Si-Mn system is currently inadequate. This is a very important result, since all new designed steel grades for the automotive industry are based on a Fe-C-Si-Mn matrix.

  15. Monolayer MoS2 metal insulator transition based memcapacitor modeling with extension to a ternary device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Karim; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2016-09-01

    Memcapacitor model based on its one possible physical realization is developed and simulated in order to know its limitation before making a real device. The proposed device structure consists of vertically stacked dielectric layer and MoS2 monolayer between two external metal plates. The Metal Insulator Transition (MIT) phenomenon of MoS2 monolayer is represented in terms of percolation probabilty which is used as the system state. Cluster based site percolation theory is used to mimic the MIT of MoS2 which shows slight discontinuous change in MoS2 monolayer conductivity. The metal to insulator transition switches the capacitance of the device in hysterical way. An Ioffe Regel criterion is used to determine the MIT state of MoS2 monolayer. A good control of MIT time in the range of psec is also achieved by changing a single parameter in the model. The model shows memcapacitive behavior with an edge of fast switching (in psec range) over the previous general models. The model is then extended into vertical cascaded version which behaves like a ternary device instead of binary.

  16. Monolayer MoS2 metal insulator transition based memcapacitor modeling with extension to a ternary device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Karim Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Memcapacitor model based on its one possible physical realization is developed and simulated in order to know its limitation before making a real device. The proposed device structure consists of vertically stacked dielectric layer and MoS2 monolayer between two external metal plates. The Metal Insulator Transition (MIT phenomenon of MoS2 monolayer is represented in terms of percolation probabilty which is used as the system state. Cluster based site percolation theory is used to mimic the MIT of MoS2 which shows slight discontinuous change in MoS2 monolayer conductivity. The metal to insulator transition switches the capacitance of the device in hysterical way. An Ioffe Regel criterion is used to determine the MIT state of MoS2 monolayer. A good control of MIT time in the range of psec is also achieved by changing a single parameter in the model. The model shows memcapacitive behavior with an edge of fast switching (in psec range over the previous general models. The model is then extended into vertical cascaded version which behaves like a ternary device instead of binary.

  17. Solvent effect on H-bond cooperativity factors in ternary complexes of methanol, octan-1-ol, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol with some bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonov, Boris N; Varfolomeev, Mikhail A; Abaidullina, Dilyara I

    2008-03-01

    Cooperative hydrogen bonds in ternary complexes (ROH)(2)...B (ROH-alcohols; B-bases) formed in pure bases (B) and solutions in n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Based on the observations, the authors were able to propose an original method of evaluating solvent effects on cooperativity factors in the complexes. Frequencies of cooperative hydrogen bonds OH...B (nu(b)) were determined for ternary complexes of pyridine with aliphatic alcohols (methanol, octan-1-ol) and for 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol with three different bases (acetonitrile, diethyl ether, tetrahydrofuran). The solvent shifts of nu(b) were found to correlate with an empirical thermochemical parameter of the solvent, S(VW). The cooperativity factors were determined for the complexes (ROH)(2)...B in all studied media. It has been found that the cooperativity factors are almost independent of the solvent. In addition, a method was proposed of estimating the frequencies and cooperativity factors for ternary complexes (ROH)(2)...B in the gas phase. It has been found that in gas phase the cooperativity factors are practically the same as in condensed media.

  18. Spontaneous incorporation of gold in palladium-based ternary nanoparticles makes durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deli; Liu, Sufen; Wang, Jie; Lin, Ruoqian; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Rus, Eric; Silberstein, Katharine E.; Lowe, Michael A.; Lin, Feng; Nordlund, Dennis; Liu, Hongfang; Muller, David A.; Xin, Huolin L.; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2016-01-01

    Replacing platinum by a less precious metal such as palladium, is highly desirable for lowering the cost of fuel-cell electrocatalysts. However, the instability of palladium in the harsh environment of fuel-cell cathodes renders its commercial future bleak. Here we show that by incorporating trace amounts of gold in palladium-based ternary (Pd6CoCu) nanocatalysts, the durability of the catalysts improves markedly. Using aberration-corrected analytical transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that gold not only galvanically replaces cobalt and copper on the surface, but also penetrates through the Pd–Co–Cu lattice and distributes uniformly within the particles. The uniform incorporation of Au provides a stability boost to the entire host particle, from the surface to the interior. The spontaneous replacement method we have developed is scalable and commercially viable. This work may provide new insight for the large-scale production of non-platinum electrocatalysts for fuel-cell applications. PMID:27336795

  19. Synthesis, characteristics and luminescent properties of a new Tb(III) ternary complex applied in near UV-based LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Naiqun; Li, Liping; Yang, Yamin; Zhang, Aiqin; Jia, Husheng; Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Bingshe

    2015-11-01

    A novel Tb(III) ternary complex, Tb(p-BBA)3UA, was synthesized with 4-benzoylbenzoic acid (p-BBA) as primary ligand and undecylenic acid (UA) as reactive ligand. Tb(III) complex exhibits high thermal stability and wide and strong excitation bands from 310 nm to 400 nm when monitored at 543 nm, which matches well with the 365 nm UV chip. The complex displays Tb(III) characteristic peaks at 488, 543, 584 and 619 nm under the excitation of 365 nm UV-light. The intramolecular energy transfer process was also discussed. Meanwhile, the complex has longer fluorescence lifetime (1.317 ms) and higher quantum yield (44.8%). When used in LED with 365 nm UV chip (power efficiency is 17.3 lm/W), the complex still maintained its qualified luminescent performance. All the results indicate that Tb(p-BBA)3UA can be applied as a green component for fabrication of near UV-based white LED.

  20. A new ternary composite based on carbon nanotubes/polyindole/graphene with preeminent electrocapacitive performance for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weigang; Wu, Shishan

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a hybrid nanocomposite based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), polyindole (PIn) and reduced graphene oxides (RGO) was firstly fabricated and the optimal feed ratio of this composite was investigated. The morphology and structure of CNTs/PIn/RGO composite were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The electrocapacitive performances of this ternary electrode composite were researched by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). And the specific surface area and pore size distribution of the samples were investigated by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The prepared composite shows high dispersibility, high specific capacitance and excellent stability. Specifically, the CNTs/PIn/RGO composite exhibits a large specific capacitance of 383 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and outstanding cycling stability of 88.79% capacitive retention after 3000 cycles at 10 A g-1. It was anticipated that CNTs/PIn/RGO12 composite could be a practical and valuable material for the application of supercapacitors.

  1. Spontaneous incorporation of gold in palladium-based ternary nanoparticles makes durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deli; Liu, Sufen; Wang, Jie; Lin, Ruoqian; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Rus, Eric; Silberstein, Katharine E.; Lowe, Michael A.; Lin, Feng; Nordlund, Dennis; Liu, Hongfang; Muller, David A.; Xin, Huolin L.; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2016-06-01

    Replacing platinum by a less precious metal such as palladium, is highly desirable for lowering the cost of fuel-cell electrocatalysts. However, the instability of palladium in the harsh environment of fuel-cell cathodes renders its commercial future bleak. Here we show that by incorporating trace amounts of gold in palladium-based ternary (Pd6CoCu) nanocatalysts, the durability of the catalysts improves markedly. Using aberration-corrected analytical transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that gold not only galvanically replaces cobalt and copper on the surface, but also penetrates through the Pd-Co-Cu lattice and distributes uniformly within the particles. The uniform incorporation of Au provides a stability boost to the entire host particle, from the surface to the interior. The spontaneous replacement method we have developed is scalable and commercially viable. This work may provide new insight for the large-scale production of non-platinum electrocatalysts for fuel-cell applications.

  2. Co-based ternary nanocomposites: synthesis and their superior performances for hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol and adsorption for methyl blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fang-Yuan; Fan, Yan-Ling; Ni, Jing-Jing; Xu, Ting-Ting; Song, Ji-Ming, E-mail: songjm@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: jiming@ahu.edu.cn [Anhui University, The Key Laboratory of Environment Friendly Polymer Materials of Anhui Province, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering (China)

    2016-01-15

    A new kind of Co-based ternary nanocomposites has been obtained via one step without any additional surfactant at zero centigrade degree. Some experimental parameters play crucial roles in determining the morphologies and homogeneity of the final products, such as reaction temperature and the introduction of Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}·5H{sub 2}O. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, UV–Vis, XPS, and BET. The result reveals that the as-prepared samples are Co{sub 1.29}Ni{sub 1.71}O{sub 4}–Co{sub 3}S{sub 4}–Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} Co-based ternary nanocomposites with an elliptic morphology composed of numerous fold-shaped superthin films (average thickness of ca. 2 nm). Interestingly, the obtained nanocomposites display superior performance for the hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol at room temperature in the presence of NaBH{sub 4}. More importantly, the as-prepared nanocomposites show the huge adsorption capacity for methyl blue at room temperature, reaches 1100 mg g{sup −1}. Graphical Abstract: A kind of new-type Co-based ternary nanocomposites has been obtained via one step without surfactants at zero centigrade degree. The as-prepared nanocomposites display superior performance for the hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH{sub 4} at room temperature.

  3. Efficient ternary organic photovoltaics incorporating a graphene-based porphyrin molecule as a universal electron cascade material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianakis, M M; Konios, D; Kakavelakis, G; Charalambidis, G; Stratakis, E; Coutsolelos, A G; Kymakis, E; Anastasiadis, S H

    2015-11-14

    A graphene-based porphyrin molecule (GO-TPP) was synthesized by covalent linkage of graphene oxide (GO) with 5-(4-aminophenyl)-10,15,20-triphenyl porphyrin (TPP-NH2). The yielded graphene-based material is a donor-acceptor (D-A) molecule, exhibiting strong intermolecular interactions between the GO core (A) and the covalently anchored porphyrin molecule (D). To demonstrate the universal role of GO-TPP as an electron cascade material, ternary blend organic photovoltaics based on [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric-acid-methyl-ester (PC71BM) as an electron acceptor material and two different polymer donor materials, poly[N-9'-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(40,70-di-2-thienyl-20,10,30-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) and the highly efficient poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}) (PTB7), were fabricated. The addition of GO-TPP into the active layer implies continuous percolation paths between the D-A interfaces, enhancing charge transport, reducing exciton recombination and thus improving the photovoltaic performance of the device. A simultaneous increase of short circuit current density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF), compared to the PTB7:PC71BM reference cell, led to an improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.81% for the PTB7:GO-TPP:PC71BM-based device, owing mainly to the more efficient energy level offset between the active layer components.

  4. Influence of the active layer nanomorphology on device performance for ternary PbS(x)Se(1-x) quantum dots based solution-processed infrared photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Taojian; Cheng, Haijuan; Fu, Chunjie; He, Bo; Li, Weile; Xu, Junfeng; Tang, Yi; Yang, Shengyi; Zou, Bingsuo

    2016-04-22

    In this paper, the influence of the active layer nanomorphology on device performance for ternary PbS(x)Se(1-x) quantum dot-based solution-processed infrared photodetector is presented. Firstly, ternary PbS(x)Se(1-x) quantum dots (QDs) in various chemical composition were synthesized and the bandgap of the ternary PbS(x)Se(1-x) QDs can be controlled by the component ratio of S/(S + Se), and then field-effect transistor (FET) based photodetectors Au/PbS0.4Se0.6:P3HT/PMMA/Al, in which ternary PbS0.4Se0.6 QDs doped with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) act as the active layer and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as the dielectric layer, were presented. By changing the weight ratio of P3HT to PbS0.4Se0.6 QDs (K = M(P3HT):M(QDs)) in dichlorobenzene solution, we found that the device with K = 2:1 shows optimal electrical property in dark; however, the device with K = 1:2 demonstrated optimal performance under illumination, showing a maximum responsivity and specific detectivity of 55.98 mA W(-1) and 1.02 × 10(10) Jones, respectively, at low V(DS) = -10 V and V(G) = 3 V under 980 nm laser with an illumination intensity of 0.1 mW cm(-2). By measuring the atomic force microscopy phase images of PbS0.4Se0.6:P3HT films in different weight ratio K, our experimental data show that the active layer nanomorphology has a great influence on the device performance. Also, it provides an easy way to fabricate high performance solution-processed infrared photodetector.

  5. A novel method based on selective laser sintering for preparing high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy ternary composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Yan, Chunze; Shi, Yunsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-09-21

    A novel method based on selective laser sintering (SLS) process is proposed for the first time to prepare complex and high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy (CF/PA12/EP) ternary composites. The procedures are briefly described as follows: prepare polyamide12 (PA12) coated carbon fibre (CF) composite powder; build porous green parts by SLS; infiltrate the green parts with high-performance thermosetting epoxy (EP) resin; and finally cure the resin at high temperature. The obtained composites are a ternary composite system consisting of the matrix of novolac EP resin, the reinforcement of CFs and the transition thin layer of PA12 with a thickness of 595 nm. The SEM images and micro-CT analysis prove that the ternary system is a three-dimensional co-continuous structure and the reinforcement of CFs are well dispersed in the matrix of EP with the volume fraction of 31%. Mechanical tests show that the composites fabricated by this method yield an ultimate tensile strength of 101.03 MPa and a flexural strength of 153.43 MPa, which are higher than those of most of the previously reported SLS materials. Therefore, the process proposed in this paper shows great potential for manufacturing complex, lightweight and high-performance CF reinforced composite components in aerospace, automotive industries and other areas.

  6. A novel method based on selective laser sintering for preparing high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy ternary composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Yan, Chunze; Shi, Yunsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-09-01

    A novel method based on selective laser sintering (SLS) process is proposed for the first time to prepare complex and high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy (CF/PA12/EP) ternary composites. The procedures are briefly described as follows: prepare polyamide12 (PA12) coated carbon fibre (CF) composite powder; build porous green parts by SLS; infiltrate the green parts with high-performance thermosetting epoxy (EP) resin; and finally cure the resin at high temperature. The obtained composites are a ternary composite system consisting of the matrix of novolac EP resin, the reinforcement of CFs and the transition thin layer of PA12 with a thickness of 595 nm. The SEM images and micro-CT analysis prove that the ternary system is a three-dimensional co-continuous structure and the reinforcement of CFs are well dispersed in the matrix of EP with the volume fraction of 31%. Mechanical tests show that the composites fabricated by this method yield an ultimate tensile strength of 101.03 MPa and a flexural strength of 153.43 MPa, which are higher than those of most of the previously reported SLS materials. Therefore, the process proposed in this paper shows great potential for manufacturing complex, lightweight and high-performance CF reinforced composite components in aerospace, automotive industries and other areas.

  7. A novel method based on selective laser sintering for preparing high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy ternary composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Yan, Chunze; Shi, Yunsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-01-01

    A novel method based on selective laser sintering (SLS) process is proposed for the first time to prepare complex and high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy (CF/PA12/EP) ternary composites. The procedures are briefly described as follows: prepare polyamide12 (PA12) coated carbon fibre (CF) composite powder; build porous green parts by SLS; infiltrate the green parts with high-performance thermosetting epoxy (EP) resin; and finally cure the resin at high temperature. The obtained composites are a ternary composite system consisting of the matrix of novolac EP resin, the reinforcement of CFs and the transition thin layer of PA12 with a thickness of 595 nm. The SEM images and micro-CT analysis prove that the ternary system is a three-dimensional co-continuous structure and the reinforcement of CFs are well dispersed in the matrix of EP with the volume fraction of 31%. Mechanical tests show that the composites fabricated by this method yield an ultimate tensile strength of 101.03 MPa and a flexural strength of 153.43 MPa, which are higher than those of most of the previously reported SLS materials. Therefore, the process proposed in this paper shows great potential for manufacturing complex, lightweight and high-performance CF reinforced composite components in aerospace, automotive industries and other areas. PMID:27650254

  8. Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by α-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 μm-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated.

  9. Zirconia-based luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid materials with ternary europium (III) complexes bonded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Li, Zhiqiang; Xu, Yang; Wang, Yige

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a novel red-emitting organic-inorganic hybrid material with europium (III) lanthanide β-diketonate complexes linked to a zirconia was reported, which was realized by adduct formation with zirconia-tethered terpyridine moieties. Luminescence enhancement of the hybrid material has been observed compared with pure Eu(tta)3·2H2O. Transparent and strongly luminescent thin films based on PMMA were also prepared at room temperature, which are highly luminescent under UV-light irradiation and possess a promising prospect in the area of optics.

  10. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fratoni, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Pre-conceptual fusion blanket designs require research and development to reflect important proposed changes in the design of essential systems, and the new challenges they impose on related fuel cycle systems. One attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. If the chemical reactivity of lithium could be overcome, the result would have a profound impact on fusion energy and associated safety basis. The overriding goal of this project is to develop a lithium-based alloy that maintains beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns. To minimize the number of alloy combinations that must be explored, only those alloys that meet certain nuclear performance metrics will be considered for subsequent thermodynamic study. The specific scope of this study is to evaluate the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) engine. The results of this study will inform the development of lithium alloys that would guarantee acceptable neutronics performance while mitigating the chemical reactivity issues of pure lithium.

  11. Dielectric Relaxation of Lanthanide-Based Ternary Oxides: Physical and Mathematical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium-doped hafnium oxides (CexHf1−xO2 and lanthanum-doped zirconium oxides (LaxZr1−xO2 were investigated. The highest dielectric constants, k, were obtained from lightly doped oxides with an La content of x=0.09 and a Ce content of x=0.1, for which k-values of 33~40 were obtained. The dielectric relaxation appears to be related to the size of crystal grains formed during annealing, which was dependent on the doping level. The physical and mathematical models were used to analyze the relationship between k-values and frequencies. The variations in the k-values up to megahertz frequencies for both CexHf1−xO2 and LaxZr1−xO2 are simulated based on the Curie-von Schweidler (CS or Havriliak-Negami (HN relationships. Concerning the lightly doped CexHf1−xO2 and LaxZr1−xO2, the data extracted are best modeled by the HN law, while LaxZr1−xO2 with doping level from x=0.22 to 0.63 are best modelled based on the CS law.

  12. Ternary rare-earth based alternative gate-dielectrics for future integration in MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Juergen; Lopes, Joao Marcelo; Durgun Oezben, Eylem; Luptak, Roman; Lenk, Steffi; Zander, Willi; Roeckerath, Martin [IBN 1-IT, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The dielectric SiO{sub 2} has been the key to the tremendous improvements in Si-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) device performance over the past four decades. It has, however, reached its limit in terms of scaling since it exhibits a leakage current density higher than 1 A/cm{sup 2} and does not retain its intrinsic physical properties at thicknesses below 1.5 nm. In order to overcome these problems and keep Moore's law ongoing, the use of higher dielectric constant (k) gate oxides has been suggested. These high-k materials must satisfy numerous requirements such as the high k, low leakage currents, suitable band gap und offsets to silicon. Rare-earth based dielectrics are promising materials which fulfill these needs. We will review the properties of REScO{sub 3} (RE = La, Dy, Gd, Sm, Tb) and LaLuO{sub 3} thin films, grown with pulsed laser deposition, e-gun evaporation or molecular beam deposition, integrated in capacitors and transistors. A k > 20 for the REScO{sub 3} (RE = Dy, Gd) and around 30 for (RE = La, Sm, Tb) and LaLuO{sub 3} are obtained. Transistors prepared on SOI and sSOI show mobility values up to 380 cm{sup 2}/Vs on sSOI, which are comparable to such prepared with HfO{sub 2}.

  13. Ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shay, J L; Pamplin, B R

    2013-01-01

    Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors: Growth, Electronic Properties, and Applications covers the developments of work in the I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 ternary chalcopyrite compounds. This book is composed of eight chapters that focus on the crystal growth, characterization, and applications of these compounds to optical communications systems. After briefly dealing with the status of ternary chalcopyrite compounds, this book goes on describing the crystal growth of II-IV-V2 and I-III-VI2 single crystals. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the energy band structure of these semiconductor compounds, illustrat

  14. Magnetic Properties of Cr-based Ternary Compound CrAlGe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Soshi; Mitsui, Yoshifuru; Umetsu, Rie Y.; Koyama, Keiichi

    Structural and magnetic properties of Cr-based compound CrAlGe were investigated. The crystal structure was found to be an orthorhombic TiSi2-type with lattice parameters a = 0.4770 nm, b = 0.8254 nm and c = 0.8725 nm at room temperature. Magnetization curve of CrAlGe showed the ferromagnetic behavior. The saturation magnetic moment, spontaneous magnetic moment and Curie temperature of CrAlGe were determined to be 0.45 μB/f.u., 0.41 μB/f.u. and TC = 80 K, respectively. For the temperature T below 30 K, the decrease in the square of the spontaneous magnetization M0(T)2 was proportional to T2. However, for 30

  15. Feature learning and change feature classification based on deep learning for ternary change detection in SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Maoguo; Yang, Hailun; Zhang, Puzhao

    2017-07-01

    Ternary change detection aims to detect changes and group the changes into positive change and negative change. It is of great significance in the joint interpretation of spatial-temporal synthetic aperture radar images. In this study, sparse autoencoder, convolutional neural networks (CNN) and unsupervised clustering are combined to solve ternary change detection problem without any supervison. Firstly, sparse autoencoder is used to transform log-ratio difference image into a suitable feature space for extracting key changes and suppressing outliers and noise. And then the learned features are clustered into three classes, which are taken as the pseudo labels for training a CNN model as change feature classifier. The reliable training samples for CNN are selected from the feature maps learned by sparse autoencoder with certain selection rules. Having training samples and the corresponding pseudo labels, the CNN model can be trained by using back propagation with stochastic gradient descent. During its training procedure, CNN is driven to learn the concept of change, and more powerful model is established to distinguish different types of changes. Unlike the traditional methods, the proposed framework integrates the merits of sparse autoencoder and CNN to learn more robust difference representations and the concept of change for ternary change detection. Experimental results on real datasets validate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed framework.

  16. Ternary optical computer principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金翊; 何华灿; 吕养天

    2003-01-01

    The fundamental principle and the characteristics of ternary optical computer, using horizontal polarized light, vertical polarized light and no-intensity to express information, are propounded in thispaper. The practicability to make key parts of the ternary optical computer from modern micro or integrated optical devices, opto-electronic and electro-photonic elements is discussed. The principle can be applied in three-state optical fiber communication via horizontal and vertical polarized light.

  17. A mediator-free glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase/chitosan/α-zirconium phosphate ternary biocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Min; Wen, Jiwu; Liu, Lijun; He, Deyong; Kuang, Ren-yun; Shi, Taqing

    2014-01-15

    A novel glucose oxidase/chitosan/α-zirconium phosphate (GOD/chitosan/α-ZrP) ternary biocomposite was prepared by co-intercalating glucose oxidase (GOD) and chitosan into the interlayers of α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) via a delamination-reassembly procedure. The results of X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and ultraviolet spectrum characterizations indicated not only the layered and hybrid structure of the GOD/chitosan/α-ZrP ternary biocomposite but also the recovered activity of the intercalated GOD improved by the co-intercalated chitosan. By depositing the GOD/chitosan/α-ZrP biocomposite film onto a glassy carbon electrode, the direct electrochemistry of the intercalated GOD was achieved with a fast electron transfer rate constant, k(s), of 7.48±3.52 s(-1). Moreover, this GOD/chitosan/α-ZrP biocomposite modified electrode exhibited a sensitive response to glucose in the linear range of 0.25-8.0 mM (R=0.9994, n=14), with a determination limit of 0.076 mM.

  18. Binary and Ternary Catalytic Systems for Olefin Metathesis Based on MoCl5/SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Victor I.; Belyaev, Boris A.; Butenko, Tamara A.; Finkelshtein, Eugene Sh.

    Kinetics of α-olefin metathesis in the presence of binary (MoCl5/ SiO2-Me4Sn) and ternary catalytic systems (MoCl5/SiO2-Me4Sn-ECl4, E = Si or Ge) was studied. Specifically, kinetics and reactivity of 1-decene, 1-octene, and 1-hexene in the metathesis reaction at 27°C and 50°C in the presence of MoCl5/ SiO2-SnMe4 were examined and evaluated in detail. It was shown that experimental data comply well with the simple kinetic equation for the rate of formation of symmetrical olefins with allowance for the reverse reaction and catalyst deactivation: r = left( {k_1 \\cdot c_α - k_{ - 1} \\cdot c_s } right) \\cdot e^{ - k_d \\cdot tilde n_{tot} } . The coefficients for this equation were determined, and it was shown that these α-olefins had practically the same reactivity. It was found that reactivation in the course of metathesis took place due to the addition of a third component (silicon tetrachloride or germanium tetrachloride in combination with tetramethyltin) to a partially deactivated catalyst. The number of active centers was determined (5-6% of the amount of Mo) and the mechanisms of formation, deactivation, and reactivation were proposed for the binary and ternary catalytic systems. The role of individual components of the catalytic systems was revealed.

  19. Photovoltaic cells based on ternary P3HT:PCBM:polymethine dye active layer transparent in the visible range of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliznyuk, Valery N.; Gasiorowski, Jacek; Ishchenko, Alexander A.; Bulavko, Gennadiy V.; Rahaman, Mahfujur; Hingerl, Kurt; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Sariciftci, Niyazi S.

    2016-12-01

    Optical and photovoltaic properties were studied for ternary photovoltaic cells containing a traditional donor-acceptor bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) active layer modified with polymethine dye molecules in a broad range of compositions and wavelengths. An effect of composition induced optical transparency, due to the strong modification of the density of states, was observed for symmetrical compositions with approximately equal amount of components. Based on our spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies we can suggest that the variation of the refractive index, which is significantly reduced in the visible range for ternary systems, is involved in the physical mechanism of the phenomenon. Despite of an addition of the IR absorbing component (which allows broadening of the absorption band to up to 800 nm) no improvement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is observed in comparison to the binary BHJ system (P3HT:PCBM). Nevertheless, we believe that further advance of the efficiency will be possible if the energy levels will be chemically designed to avoid formation of charge traps at the BHJ interface during light excitation. Such fine adjustment of the system should become possible with a proper choice of polymer:dye composition due to a high versatility of the polymethine dyes demonstrated in previous studies.

  20. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-based ternary rare earth (Eu3+, Tb3+) hybrid materials with organically modified silica-oxygen bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiu-Ping; Yan, Bing

    2012-08-15

    A series of ternary rare earth (Eu(3+), Tb(3+)) complexes are covalently coated to the 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) by a simple in situ sol-gel method by the bifunctional silylated monomer TTA-Si and TAA-Si (TTA-Si and TAA-Si are 3-(triethoxysilyl)propylisocyanate (TEPIC) modified thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) and trifluoroacetylacetone (TAA), respectively). The resulting materials are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electronic microscope, transmission electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, ultraviolet visible diffused reflection measure, photoluminescence spectra, and X-ray diffraction. The photoluminesce measurements indicated that these hybrids exhibit characteristic red and green luminescence originating from the corresponding ternary rare earth ion (Eu(3+), Tb(3+)). The luminescence quenching effect of MWCNT networks have been successfully restrained by coating a relatively thicker silica-oxygen-based organic-inorganic complex. Furthermore, the fluorescence lifetimes and emission quantum efficiencies of Eu(3+) hybrid materials are also determined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparison between HfO2/Al2O3 nano-laminates and ternary HfxAlyO compound as the dielectric material in InGaAs based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Igor; Pokroy, Boaz; Eizenberg, Moshe; Ritter, Dan

    2016-09-01

    We compare the electrical properties of HfO2/Al2O3 nano-laminates with those of the ternary HfxAlyO compound in metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. The dielectrics were deposited by atomic layer deposition on InGaAs. Water, ozone, and oxygen plasma were tested as oxygen precursors, and best results were obtained using water. The total dielectric thickness was kept constant in our experiments. It was found that the effective dielectric constant increased and the leakage current decreased with the number of periods. Best results were obtained for the ternary compound. The effect of the sublayer thicknesses on the electrical properties of the interface was carefully investigated, as well as the role of post-metallization annealing. Possible explanations for the observed trends are provided. We conclude that the ternary HfxAlyO compound is more favorable than the nano-laminates approach for InGaAs based MOS transistor applications.

  2. High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrode Based on Cobalt Oxide-Manganese Dioxide-Nickel Oxide Ternary 1D Hybrid Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh K; Sarkar, Debasish; Karmakar, Keshab; Mandal, Kalyan; Khan, Gobinda Gopal

    2016-08-17

    We report a facile method to design Co3O4-MnO2-NiO ternary hybrid 1D nanotube arrays for their application as active material for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. This as-prepared novel supercapacitor electrode can store charge as high as ∼2020 C/g (equivalent specific capacitance ∼2525 F/g) for a potential window of 0.8 V and has long cycle stability (nearly 80% specific capacitance retains after successive 5700 charge/discharge cycles), significantly high Coulombic efficiency, and fast response time (∼0.17s). The remarkable electrochemical performance of this unique electrode material is the outcome of its enormous reaction platform provided by its special nanostructure morphology and conglomeration of the electrochemical properties of three highly redox active materials in a single unit.

  3. Microstructural and Electronic Origins of Open-Circuit Voltage Tuning in Organic Solar Cells Based on Ternary Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Mollinger, Sonya A.

    2015-09-22

    © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Organic ternary heterojunction photovoltaic blends are sometimes observed to undergo a gradual evolution in open-circuit voltage (Voc) with increasing amounts of a second donor or an acceptor. The Voc is strongly correlated with the energy of the charge transfer state in the blend, but this value depends on both local and mesoscopic orders. In this work, the behavior of Voc in the presence of a wide range of interfacial electronic states is investigated. The key charge transfer state interfaces responsible for Voc in several model systems with varying morphology are identified. Systems consisting of one donor with two fullerene molecules and of one acceptor with a donor polymer of varying regio-regularity are used. The effects from the changing energetic disorder in the material and from the variation due to a law of simple mixtures are quantified. It has been found that populating the higher-energy charge transfer states is not responsible for the observed change in Voc upon the addition of a third component. Aggregating polymers and miscible fullerenes are compared, and it has been concluded that in both cases charge delocalization, aggregation, and local polarization effects shift the lowest-energy charge transfer state distribution. The open-circuit voltage evolution and charge transfer state interfaces in ternary organic photovoltaic blends are investigated using several model systems. The changes in subgap spectra from energetic disorder and increased population of higher energy states are analyzed and the lowest charge transfer state distribution is observed to shift due to local aggregation and delocalization effects.

  4. Ternary fission of superheavy elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, M.; Vijayaraghavan, K. R.; Manimaran, K.

    2016-01-01

    Ternary fission of superheavy nuclei is studied within the three-cluster model potential energy surfaces (PESs). Due to shell effects, the stability of superheavy nuclei has been predicted to be associated with Z =114 , 120, and 126 for protons and N =184 for neutrons. Taking some representative nuclei we have extended the ternary fission studies to superheavy nuclei. We adopted two minimization procedures to minimize the potential and considered different arrangements of the fragments. The PES from one-dimensional minimization reveals a strong cluster region favoring various ternary breakups for an arrangement in which the lightest fragment is kept at the center. The PES obtained from two-dimensional minimization reveals strong preference of ternary fragmentation in the true ternary fission region. Though the dominant decay mode of superheavy nuclei is α decay, the α -accompanied ternary breakup is found to be a nonfavorable one. Further, the prominent ternary combinations are found to be associated with the neutron magic number.

  5. Ternary fission induced by polarized neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönnenwein, Friedrich

    2013-12-01

    Ternary fission of (e,e) U- and Pu- isotopes induced by cold polarized neutrons discloses some new facets of the process. In the so-called ROT effect shifts in the angular distributions of ternary particles relative to the fission fragments show up. In the so-called TRI effect an asymmetry in the emission of ternary particles relative to a plane formed by the fragment momentum and the spin of the neutron appear. The two effects are shown to be linked to the components of angular momentum perpendicular and parallel to the fission axis at the saddle point of fission. Based on theoretical models the spectroscopic properties of the collective transitional states at the saddle point are inferred from experiment.

  6. Organic ternary solar cells: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Tayebeh; Khoram, Parisa; Min, Jie; Brabec, Christoph J

    2013-08-21

    Recently, researchers have paid a great deal of attention to the research and development of organic solar cells, leading to a breakthrough of over 10% power conversion efficiency. Though impressive, further development is required to ensure a bright industrial future for organic photovoltaics. Relatively narrow spectral overlap of organic polymer absorption bands within the solar spectrum is one of the major limitations of organic solar cells. Among different strategies that are in progress to tackle this restriction, the novel concept of ternary organic solar cells is a promising candidate to extend the absorption spectra of large bandgap polymers to the near IR region and to enhance light harvesting in single bulk-heterojunction solar cells. In this contribution, we review the recent developments in organic ternary solar cell research based on various types of sensitizers. In addition, the aspects of miscibility, morphology complexity, charge transfer dynamics as well as carrier transport in ternary organic composites are addressed.

  7. Ternary carbon composite films for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Minh-Hai; Jeong, Hae Kyung

    2017-09-01

    A simple, binder-free, method of making supercapacitor electrodes is introduced, based on modification of activated carbon with graphite oxide and carbon nanotubes. The three carbon precursors of different morphologies support each other to provide outstanding electrochemical performance, such as high capacitance and high energy density. The ternary carbon composite shows six times higher specific capacitance compared to that of activated carbon itself with high retention. The excellent electrochemical properties of the ternary composite attribute to the high surface area of 1933 m2 g-1 and low equivalent series resistance of 2 Ω, demonstrating that it improve the electrochemical performance for supercapacitor applications.

  8. Coelectrodeposition of Ternary Mn-Oxide/Polypyrrole Composites for ORR Electrocatalysts: A Study Based on Micro-X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and X-ray Fluorescence Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto Bozzini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Low energy X-ray fluorescence (XRF and soft X-ray absorption (XAS microspectroscopies at high space-resolution are employed for the investigation of the coelectrodeposition of composites consisting of a polypyrrole(PPy-matrix and Mn-based ternary dispersoids, that have been proposed as promising electrocatalysts for oxygen-reduction electrodes. Specifically, we studied Mn–Co–Cu/PP, Mn–Co–Mg/PPy and Mn–Ni–Mg/PPy co-electrodeposits. The Mn–Co–Cu system features the best ORR electrocatalytic activity in terms of electron transfer number, onset potential, half-wave potential and current density. XRF maps and micro-XAS spectra yield compositional and chemical state distributions, contributing unique molecular-level information on the pulse-plating processes. Mn, Ni, Co and Mg exhibit a bimodal distribution consisting of mesoscopic aggregates of micrometric globuli, separated by polymer-rich ridges. Within this common qualitative scenario, the individual systems exhibit quantitatively different chemical distribution patterns, resulting from specific electrokinetic and electrosorption properties of the single components. The electrodeposits consist of Mn3+,4+-oxide particles, accompanied by combinations of Co0/Co2+, Ni0/Ni2+ and Cu0,+/Cu2+ resulting from the alternance of cathodic and anodic pulses. The formation of highly electroactive Mn3+,4+ in the as-fabricated material is a specific feature of the ternary systems, deriving from synergistic stabilisation brought about by two types of bivalent dopants as well as by galvanic contact to elemental metal; this result represents a considerable improvement in material quality with respect to previously studied Mn/PPy and Mn-based/PPy binaries.

  9. Thermoelectric Properties of Polyacrylonitrile-Based Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupov, K.; Khovaylo, V.; Muratov, D.; Kozhitov, L.; Arkhipov, D.; Pryadun, V.; Vasiliev, A.

    2016-07-01

    A polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based nanocomposite with 20 wt.% Fe-Co/C has been prepared by infrared pyrolysis. Morphological and structural studies revealed that the composite consists of polyacrylonitrile as a plastifier, Fe-Co as a filler alloy, and carbon, which was formed during combustion of the polymer. Electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of the composite are rather low at ambient temperatures and do not exceed 1 Ohm m and 0.5 W/m K, respectively. However, due to a very low Seebeck coefficient, the calculated figure of merit ZT of the nanocomposite does not exceed 2.1 × 10-8.

  10. Visible-near-infrared luminescent lanthanide ternary complexes based on beta-diketonate using visible-light excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lining; Qiu, Yannan; Liu, Tao; Feng, Jing; Deng, Wei; Shi, Liyi

    2015-11-01

    We used the synthesized dinaphthylmethane (Hdnm) ligand whose absorption extends to the visible-light wavelength, to prepare a family of ternary lanthanide complexes, named as [Ln(dnm)3 phen] (Ln = Sm, Nd, Yb, Er, Tm, Pr). The properties of these complexes were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyses, and excitation and emission spectroscopy. Generally, excitation with visible light is much more advantageous than UV excitation. Importantly, upon excitation with visible light (401-460 nm), the complexes show characteristic visible (Sm(3+)) as well as near-infrared (Sm(3+), Nd(3+), Yb(3+), Er(3+), Tm(3+), Pr(3+)) luminescence of the corresponding lanthanide ions, attributed to the energy transfer from the ligands to the lanthanide ions, an antenna effect. Now, using these near-infrared luminescent lanthanide complexes, the luminescent spectral region from 800 to 1650 nm, can be covered completely, which is of particular interest for biomedical imaging applications, laser systems, and optical amplification applications.

  11. Amplifying and compressing optical filter based on one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal structure containing gain medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi-Ghaleh, Kazem; Ebrahimpour, Zeinab; Moslemi, Fatemeh

    2015-07-01

    The transmission spectrum properties of the one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal (1DTPC) structure, composed of dielectric (D), metal (M) and gain (G) materials, with three different arrangements of (DGM)N, (GDM)N and (DMG)N, where N is the number of periodicity, were investigated. Two full photonic band gaps and N-1 resonant peaks, localized between them, were observed on transmittance spectra on near-UV spectrum region. When the gained layer was placed in front of the metal, the peaks appeared with higher resolution. There is a peak, localized on the higher band-edge of the first gap, which shows very interesting property than the other peaks. Thus, it amplifies and compresses faster with increase in the N and strength of the gain coefficient. The effects of the gain coefficient and periodicity number are graphically illustrated. This communication presents a PC structure that can be a good candidate to design an amplifying and compressing single or multi-channel optical filter in the UV region.

  12. Improved Ternary Subdivision Interpolation Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huawei; QIN Kaihuai

    2005-01-01

    An improved ternary subdivision interpolation scheme was developed for computer graphics applications that can manipulate open control polygons unlike the previous ternary scheme, with the resulting curve proved to be still C2-continuous. Parameterizations of the limit curve near the two endpoints are given with expressions for the boundary derivatives. The split joint problem is handled with the interpolating ternary subdivision scheme. The improved scheme can be used for modeling interpolation curves in computer aided geometric design systems, and provides a method for joining two limit curves of interpolating ternary subdivisions.

  13. Investigation of a novel ternary electrolyte based on dimethyl sulfite and lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Zhu, Lu; Wu, Feng; Li, Li; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Shi

    2014-01-01

    Lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate (LiODFB) has been used as a novel lithium salt for battery in recent studies. In this study, a series of novel electrolytes has been prepared by adding 30 vol% dimethyl sulfite (DMS) or dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as co-solvent into an ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + LiX mixture, in which the LiX could be LiClO4, LiODFB, LiBOB, LiTFSI, or LiCF3SO3. These ternary electrolytes have been investigated for use in lithium ion batteries. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis shows that characteristic functional groups (-CO3, -SO3) undergo red-shift or blue-shift with the addition of different lithium salts. The LiODFB-EC/EMC/DMS electrolyte exhibits high ionic conductivity, which is mainly because of the low melting point of DMS, and LiODFB possessing high solubility. The Li/MCMB cells containing this novel electrolyte exhibit high capacities, good cycling performance, and excellent rate performance. These performances are probably because both LiODFB and DMS can assist in the formation of SEI films by reductive decomposition. Additionally, the discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO2 half cell containing LiODFB-EC/EMC/DMS electrolyte is 130.9 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, and it is very comparable with the standard-commercial electrolyte. The results show that this study produces a promising electrolyte candidate for lithium ion batteries.

  14. Computer recognition of slag property diagrams in ternary systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinxiong Lu; Li Wang; Jiongming Zhang; Xinhua Wang

    2004-01-01

    In order to take data information from the slag property diagram in a ternary system automatically and actually, a picture recognition and drawing software has been developed by Visual Basic 6.0 based on the image coding principle of computer system and the graphics programming method of VB. This software can transform the ternary system isopleth diagram from bitmap format to data file and establish a corresponding database which can be applied to rapidly retrieve a mass of data and make correlative thermodynamics or kinetics calculation. Besides, it still has the function of drawing the ternary system diagram which can draw different kinds of property parameters in the same diagram.

  15. Superior performance of highly flexible solid-state supercapacitor based on the ternary composites of graphene oxide supported poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haihan; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Han, Gaoyi

    2016-08-01

    Ternary composite electrodes based on carbon nanotubes thin films (CNFs)-loaded graphene oxide (GO) supported poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)- carbon nanotubes (GO/PEDOT-CNTs) have been prepared via a facile one-step electrochemical codeposition method. The effect of long and short CNTs-incorporated composites (GO/PEDOT-lCNTs and GO/PEDOT-sCNTs) on the electrochemical behaviors of the electrodes is investigated and compared. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the incorporation of CNTs effectively improves the electrochemical performances of the GO/PEDOT electrodes. Long CNTs-incorporated GO/PEDOT-lCNTs electrodes have more superior electrochemical behaviors with respect to the short CNTs-incorporated GO/PEDOT-lCNTs electrodes, which can be attributed to the optimized composition and specific microstructures of the former. To verify the feasibility of the prepared composite electrodes for utilization as flexible supercapacitor, a solid-state supercapacitor using the CNFs-loaded GO/PEDOT-lCNTs electrodes is fabricated and tested. The device shows lightweight, ultrathin, and highly flexible features, which also has a high areal and volumetric specific capacitance (33.4 m F cm-2 at 10 mV s-1 and 2.7 F cm-3 at 0.042 A cm-3), superior rate capability, and excellent cycle stability (maintaining 97.5% for 5000 cycles). This highly flexible solid-state supercapacitor has great potential for applications in flexible electronics, roll-up display, and wearable devices.

  16. Investigation of ternary and quaternary high-temperature fixed-point cells, based on platinum-carbon-X, as blind comparison artefacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W.; Machin, G.; Bloembergen, P.; Lowe, D.; Wang, T.

    2016-11-01

    Extensive studies of platinum-carbon eutectic alloy based high temperature fixed point cells have shown that this alloy has extremely good metrological potential as a temperature reference. However, it’s possible adoption as an accepted reference standard means that its eutectic temperature value will soon be agreed with an uncertainty less than most radiation thermometry scales at that temperature. Thus it will lack credibility if used as a future scale comparison artefact. To avoid this, the fixed-point cell can be deliberately doped with an impurity to change its transition temperature by an amount sufficient to test the accuracy of the scales of the institutes, involved in the comparison. In this study dopants of palladium and iridium were added to platinum-carbon to produce ternary alloy and quaternary alloy fixed-point cells. The stability of these artefacts was demonstrated and the fixed-point cells were used to compare the ITS-90 scales of NIM and NPL. It was found that the fixed point temperatures could be changed by an appreciable amount while retaining the stability and repeatability required for comparison artefacts.

  17. Cathodic Deposition of Components in BiSbTe Ternary Compounds as Thermoelectric Films Using Choline-Chloride-Based Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golgovici, Florentina; Cojocaru, Anca; Nedelcu, Marin; Visan, Teodor

    2010-09-01

    This paper reports electrodeposition of BiTe, SbTe, and BiSbTe films using ionic liquids based on choline chloride (ChCl) and malonic acid mixtures (1:1 moles) at 80°C to 85°C. The electrolyte contained bismuth and/or antinomy species and tellurium species with 1.5 mM to 50 mM concentrations; Pt sheet, Pt mesh, and Pt wire were used for working, auxiliary, and quasireference electrodes, respectively. Cyclic voltammograms revealed the beginning and cathodic peak of pure Te deposition; at more negative potentials simultaneous codeposition of binary or ternary compounds as limiting currents or a series of peaks were observed. Correspondingly, two or three dissolution (stripping) anodic peaks were observed. Nyquist and Bode impedance spectra show differences in Pt behavior due to its polarization at various cathodic potentials. Equivalent-circuit components providing the best fit to the data were calculated. Deposition of BiSbTe films on copper plates was also performed by electrolysis at controlled potentials or current pulses. Some measurements of Seebeck coefficients of the obtained films were carried out.

  18. Ternary fission of (_

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Naderi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Using three cluster model, the ternary fission of (_"98" ^"252" Cf is studied. We applied collinear and equatorial configurations to study the ternary fission of (_"98" ^"252" Cf when three fragments are Sn, Ni and Ca. The potential energy of collinear and equatorial configurations is calculated. We calculated the potential energy for odd and even values of A3. Also, we compared the potential energy for (_"50" ^(A_"1" Sn+(_"28" ^(A_"2" Ni+(_"20" ^(A_"3" Ca and (_"50" ^(A_"1" -"1" Sn+(_"28" ^(A_"2" +"1" Ni+(_"20" ^(A_"3" Ca to investigate the influence of neutron numbers of three fragments. Obtained results show that for (_"50" ^(A_"1" Sn+(_"28" ^(A_"2" Ni+(_"20" ^(A_"3" Ca reaction with even A3 in collinear and equatorial configurations, the potential energy and penetration probability have ,respectively, minimum and maximum values in A3=48 whereas for odd values of A3 the minimum value for the potential energy and the maximum value of penetration probability take place in A3=49. For (_"50" ^(A_"1" -"1" Sn+(_"28" ^(A_"2" +"1" Ni+(_"20" ^(A_"3" Ca reactions in collinear and equatorial cases, the minimum value of potential energy and maximum value of penetration probability take place in A3=49 and A3=50, respectively, for even and odd values of A3. Also, among all the possible reactions the lowest value of potential energy and highest value of penetration probability happen for (_"50" ^132Sn+(_"28" ^72Ni+(_"20" ^48Ca configuration.

  19. Study of fatigue and fracture behavior of NbCr{sub 2}-based alloys: Phase stability in Nb-Cr-Ni ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.H.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Liu, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-12-01

    Phase stability in a ternary Nb-Cr-Ni Laves phase system was studied in this paper. Their previous study in NbCr{sub 2}-based transition-metal Laves phases has shown that the average electron concentration factor, e/a, is the dominating factor in controlling the phase stability of NbCr{sub 2}-based Laves phases when the atomic size ratios are kept identical. Since Ni has ten out-shell electrons, the substitution of Ni for Cr in NbCr{sub 2} will increase the average electron concentration of the alloy, thus leading to the change of the crystal structures from C15 to C14. In this paper, a number of pseudo-binary Nb(Cr,Ni){sub 2} alloys were prepared, and the crystal structures of the alloys after a long heat-treatment at 1000 C as a function of the Ni content were determined by the X-ray diffraction technique. The boundaries of the C15/C14 transition were determined and compared to their previous predictions. It was found that the electron concentration and phase stability correlation is obeyed in the Nb-Cr-Ni system. However, the e/a ratio corresponding to the C15/C14 phase transition was found to move to a higher value than the predicted one. The changes in the lattice constant, Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were also determined as a function of the Ni content, which were discussed in light of the phase stability difference of the alloys.

  20. Parity violation in ternary fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönnenwein, F.; Belozerov, A. V.; Beda, A. G.; Burov, S. I.; Danilyan, G. V.; Martem'yanov, A. N.; Pavlov, V. S.; Shchenev, V. A.; Bondarenko, L. N.; Mostovoĭ, Yu. A.; Geltenbort, P.; Last, J.; Schreckenbach, K.

    1994-01-01

    The parity-violating correlation between incoming neutron spin and fragment momentum has been measured simultaneously for binary and ternary fission of 233U(n, f) and 239Pu(n, f). The experiment has been performed with a polarized cold neutron beam of the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble/France. The ratios of the parity-violating asymmetry coefficients, α ternf and α binnf, for ternary and binary fission, respectively, are found to be {α ternf}/{α binnf = 1.05 ± 0.10 } and 1.12 ± 0.08 for the 233U and 239Pu target nucleus, respectively. Both experiments are compatible with {α ternf}/{α binnf = 1 }. The implications of this result for models of ternary fission are discussed. The conclusion drawn is that ternary particles are emitted at the very last stage of fission.

  1. Necessary conditions for ternary algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairlie, David B [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Nuyts, Jean, E-mail: david.fairlie@durham.ac.u, E-mail: jean.nuyts@umons.ac.b [Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite de Mons, 20 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2010-11-19

    Ternary algebras, constructed from ternary commutators, or as we call them, ternutators, defined as the alternating sum of products of three operators, have been shown to satisfy cubic identities as necessary conditions for their existence. Here we examine the situation where we permit identities not solely constructed from ternutators or nested ternutators and we find that in general, these impose additional restrictions; for example, the anti-commutators or commutators of the operators must obey some linear relations among themselves.

  2. Ternary generalizations of Grassmann algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Abramov, V V

    1996-01-01

    We propose the ternary generalization of the classical anti-commutativity and study the algebras whose generators are ternary anti-commutative. The integral over an algebra with an arbitrary number of generators N is defined and the formula of a change of variables is proved. In analogy with the fermion integral we define an analogue of the Pfaffian for a cubic matrix by means of Gaussian type integral and calculate its explicit form in the case of N=3.

  3. Monolayer MoS2 metal insulator transition based memcapacitor modeling with extension to a ternary device

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Karim Khan; Byoung Hun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Memcapacitor model based on its one possible physical realization is developed and simulated in order to know its limitation before making a real device. The proposed device structure consists of vertically stacked dielectric layer and MoS2 monolayer between two external metal plates. The Metal Insulator Transition (MIT) phenomenon of MoS2 monolayer is represented in terms of percolation probabilty which is used as the system state. Cluster based site percolation theory is used to mimic the M...

  4. Solid solution or amorphous phase formation in TiZr-based ternary to quinternary multi-principal-element films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariana Braic; Viorel Braic; Alina Vladescu; Catalin N. Zoita; Mihai Balaceanu

    2014-01-01

    TiZr-based multicomponent metallic films composed of 3-5 constituents with almost equal atomic concentrations were prepared by co-sputtering of pure metallic targets in an Ar atmosphere. X-ray diffraction was employed to determine phase composition, crystalline structure, lattice parameters, texture and crystallite size of the deposited films. The deposited films exhibited only solid solution (fcc, bcc or hcp) or amorphous phases, no intermetallic components being detected. It was found that the hcp structure was stabilized by the presence of Hf or Y, bcc by Nb or Al and fcc by Cu. For the investigated films, the atomic size difference, mixing enthalpy, mixing entropy, Gibbs free energy of mixing and the electronegativity difference for solid solution and amorphous phases were calculated based on Miedema's approach of the regular solution model. It was shown that the atomic size difference and the ratio between the Gibbs free energies of mixing of the solid solution and amorphous phases were the most significant parameters controlling the film crystallinity.

  5. Solid solution or amorphous phase formation in TiZr-based ternary to quinternary multi-principal-element films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Braic

    2014-08-01

    The deposited films exhibited only solid solution (fcc, bcc or hcp or amorphous phases, no intermetallic components being detected. It was found that the hcp structure was stabilized by the presence of Hf or Y, bcc by Nb or Al and fcc by Cu. For the investigated films, the atomic size difference, mixing enthalpy, mixing entropy, Gibbs free energy of mixing and the electronegativity difference for solid solution and amorphous phases were calculated based on Miedema׳s approach of the regular solution model. It was shown that the atomic size difference and the ratio between the Gibbs free energies of mixing of the solid solution and amorphous phases were the most significant parameters controlling the film crystallinity.

  6. A europium(III) organic ternary complex applied in fabrication of near UV-based white light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; He, P.; Liu, S.; Shi, J.; Gong, M.

    2009-10-01

    A β-diketone, 2-acetylfluorene-4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-dione (HAFTFBD), and its three europium(III) complexes, Eu(AFTFBD)3ṡ2H2O, Eu(AFTFBD)3(TPPO)2 and Eu(AFTFBD)3phen, were designed and synthesized, where TPPO was triphenylphosphine oxide and phen was 1,10-phenanthroline. The complexes were characterized by IR, UV-visible, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results show that the Eu(III) complexes exhibit a high thermal stability,and wide and strong excitation bands when monitored at 613 nm. Excited by ˜395 nm near UV light, the complexes emitted strong and characteristic red light due to f- f transitions of the central Eu3+ ion, and no emission from the ligands was found. The photoluminescence mechanism of the europium(III) complexes was investigated and proposed as a ligand-sensitized luminescence process. Among the three europium(III) complexes, Eu(AFTFBD)3phen exhibits the highest thermal stability and the most excellent photoluminescence properties. A bright red light-emitting diode was fabricated by coating the Eu(AFTFBD)3phen complex onto an ˜395 nm-emitting InGaN chip, and the LED showed appropriate CIE chromaticity coordinates ( x=0.66, y=0.33). A white LED with CIE chromaticity coordinates ( x=0.32, y=0.32) was prepared with Eu(AFTFBD)3phen as red phosphor, indicating that Eu(AFTFBD)3phen can be applied as a red component for fabrication of near ultraviolet-based white light-emitting diodes.

  7. Ternary Weighted Function and Beurling Ternary Banach Algebra l1ω(S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehghanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let S be a ternary semigroup. In this paper, we introduce our notation and prove some elementary properties of a ternary weight function ω on S. Also, we make ternary weighted algebra l1ω(S and show that l1ω(S is a ternary Banach algebra.

  8. Neutronless -accompanied ternary fission of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandulescu, A.; Cârstoiu, F.; Misicu, S.; Florescu, A.; Ramayya, A. V.; Hamilton, J. H.; Greiner, W.

    1998-01-01

    A new type of decay corresponding to the neutronless -accompanied fragmentation of is studied. We employ a cluster model similar to the model used for the description of cluster radioactivity. No preformation factors were considered. The ternary relative isotopic yields were calculated as the ratio of the penetrability of a given ternary fragmentation over the sum of penetrabilities of all possible ternary neutronless fragmentations. The corresponding barriers between the light and heavy fragments and between the cluster and the two heavier fragments were computed with the help of a double-folding potential generated by M3Y-NN effective interaction and realistic fragment ground-state deformations. Also, we studied the influence of the fragment excitation energies on the yields, by including the level densities and the -stretching of the fragments. The new phenomenon could be experimentally observed by the triple-gamma coincidence technique between the fragments and .

  9. Pattern Avoidance in Ternary Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Gabriel, Nathan; Pudwell, Lara; Tay, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the enumeration of ternary trees (i.e. rooted ordered trees in which each vertex has 0 or 3 children) avoiding a contiguous ternary tree pattern. We begin by finding recurrence relations for several simple tree patterns; then, for more complex trees, we compute generating functions by extending a known algorithm for pattern-avoiding binary trees. Next, we present an alternate one-dimensional notation for trees which we use to find bijections that explain why certain pairs of tree patterns yield the same avoidance generating function. Finally, we compare our bijections to known "replacement rules" for binary trees and generalize these bijections to a larger class of trees.

  10. Liquid-liquid equilibria for ternary polymer mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Suk Yung [Division of Chemical Engineering and Molecular Thermodynamics Laboratory, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Young Chan, E-mail: ycbae@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Chemical Engineering and Molecular Thermodynamics Laboratory, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-24

    Graphical abstract: We developed a molecular thermodynamic model for multicomponent systems and discribed the phase equilibrium for ternary polymer mixtures by using the model parameters obtained from the binary systems. Research highlights: {yields} Model parameters were obtained from the binary systems. {yields} The obtained parameters were directly used to predict the ternary data. {yields} The undetermined parameters were used to correlate the ternary data. {yields} The proposed model agreed well with the experimental data. - Abstract: A molecular thermodynamic model for multicomponent systems based on a closed-packed lattice model is presented based on two contributions; entropy and energy contribution. The calculated liquid-liquid equilibria of ternary chainlike mixtures agreed with Monte Carlo simulation results. The proposed model can satisfactorily predict Types 0, 1, 2 and 3 phase separations of the Treybal classification. The model parameters obtained from the binary systems were used to directly predict real ternary systems and the calculated results correlated well with experimental data using few adjustable parameters. Specific interactions in associated binary systems were considered using a secondary lattice.

  11. Liquid-liquid equilibria for ternary polymer mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Suk Yung; Bae, Young Chan

    2011-01-01

    A molecular thermodynamic model for multicomponent systems based on a closed-packed lattice model is presented based on two contributions; entropy and energy contribution. The calculated liquid-liquid equilibria of ternary chainlike mixtures agreed with Monte Carlo simulation results. The proposed model can satisfactorily predict Types 0, 1, 2 and 3 phase separations of the Treybal classification. The model parameters obtained from the binary systems were used to directly predict real ternary systems and the calculated results correlated well with experimental data using few adjustable parameters. Specific interactions in associated binary systems were considered using a secondary lattice.

  12. 基于电路三要素理论的三值绝热加法器设计%Design of Ternary Adiabatic Adder Based on Theory of Three Essential Circuit Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪鹏君; 李昆鹏

    2011-01-01

    通过对加法器和绝热电路工作原理及结构的研究,本文提出一种三值绝热加法器设计方案.该方案首先以电路三要素理论为指导,推导出一位三值绝热全加器的元件级函数式,并利用自举的NMOS管实现相应的电路结构,完成对电路的能量注入和恢复.然后在此基础上,进一步得到四位三值绝热加法器.最后 PSPICE模拟验证所设计的电路具有正确的逻辑功能和明显的低功耗特性.%Through the research on working principle and structure of adder and adiabatic circuits, a design of ternary adiabatic adder was presented in this paper.First,the component-level function expressions of one bit ternary adiabatic full-adder were derived under the guidance of the theory of three essential circuit elements, and the corresponding circuit structure were realizing by using the bootstapped NMOS FET, which enable the circuit to accomplish the energy injection and recovery. Then, the four bits ternary adiabatic adder was realized based on this circuit. Finally, PSPICE simulation results indicate that the proposed circuit has correct logic function and the obvious low power characteristics.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of binary and ternary complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions based on 4-aminotoluene-3-sulfonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheim, Abeer A.; Abdou, Safaa N.; Abd El-Wahab, Zeinab H.

    2013-03-01

    Salicylidene (4-aminotoluene-3-sulfonic acid) Schiff base ligand H2L, and its binary and ternary Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes using 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOqu) and 2-aminopyridine (2-Ampy) as secondary ligands have been synthesised and characterized via elemental analysis, spectral data (IR, 1H NMR, mass and solid reflectance), molar conductance, magnetic moment, TG-DSC measurements and XRPD analysis. Correlation of all spectroscopic data suggest that H2L ligand acts as monoanionic terdentate ligand with ONO sites coordinating to the metal ions via deprotonated phenolic-O, azomethine-N and sulfonate-O while 2-Ampy behaves as a neutral monodentate ligand via amino group-N and 8-HOqu behaves as a monoanionic bidentate ligand through the ring-N and deprotonated phenolic-O. The thermal behavior of these complexes shows that the coordinated water molecules were eliminated from the complexes at relatively higher temperatures than the hydrated water and there are two routes in removal of coordinated water molecules. All complexes have mononuclear structure and the tetrahedral, square planar or an octahedral geometry have been proposed. The ligand and its complexes have been screened for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Among the synthesised compounds, the binary and ternary Ni(II) complexes, (2, 8 and 10) and ternary Zn(II) complex, (12) were found to be very effective against Candida albicans and Bacillus subtilis than all other complexes with MICs of 2 and 8 μg/mL, respectively.

  14. Diffuse interface simulation of ternary fluids in contact with solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Yu; Ding, Hang; Gao, Peng; Wu, Yan-Ling

    2016-03-01

    In this article we developed a geometrical wetting condition for diffuse-interface simulation of ternary fluid flows with moving contact lines. The wettability of the substrate in the presence of ternary fluid flows is represented by multiple contact angles, corresponding to the different material properties between the respective fluid and the substrate. Displacement of ternary fluid flows on the substrate leads to the occurrence of moving contact point, at which three moving contact lines meet. We proposed a weighted contact angle model, to replace the jump in contact angle at the contact point by a relatively smooth transition of contact angle over a region of 'diffuse contact point' of finite size. Based on this model, we extended the geometrical formulation of wetting condition for two-phase flows with moving contact lines to ternary flows with moving contact lines. Combining this wetting condition, a Navier-Stokes solver and a ternary-fluid model, we simulated two-dimensional spreading of a compound droplet on a substrate, and validated the numerical results of the drop shape at equilibrium by comparing against the analytical solution. We also checked the convergence rate of the simulation by investigating the axisymmetric drop spreading in a capillary tube. Finally, we applied the model to a variety of applications of practical importance, including impact of a circular cylinder into a pool of two layers of different fluids and sliding of a three-dimensional compound droplet in shear flows.

  15. Factoring with qutrits: Shor's algorithm on ternary and metaplectic quantum architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, Alex; Roetteler, Martin; Svore, Krysta M.

    2017-07-01

    We determine the cost of performing Shor's algorithm for integer factorization on a ternary quantum computer, using two natural models of universal fault-tolerant computing: (i) a model based on magic state distillation that assumes the availability of the ternary Clifford gates, projective measurements, classical control as its natural instrumentation set; (ii) a model based on a metaplectic topological quantum computer (MTQC). A natural choice to implement Shor's algorithm on a ternary quantum computer is to translate the entire arithmetic into a ternary form. However, it is also possible to emulate the standard binary version of the algorithm by encoding each qubit in a three-level system. We compare the two approaches and analyze the complexity of implementing Shor's period-finding function in the two models. We also highlight the fact that the cost of achieving universality through magic states in MTQC architecture is asymptotically lower than in generic ternary case.

  16. An approach to determine enthalpies of formation for ternary compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Y.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach of experiment and theoretical computation to acquire enthalpies of formation for ternary compounds is described. The enthalpies of formation (DHf for Al71Fe19Si10 and Al31Mn6Ni2 are measured via a calorimeter. Miedema model, CALPHAD and first-principles method are employed to calculate DHf for the above compounds and several Al-based ternary compounds. It is found that first-principles generated data yield good agreements with experimental values and thus can be used as key 'experimental data', which are needed for CALPHAD approach.

  17. Thermodynamic description of Au-Ag-Si ternary system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the available experimental information, the Ag-Si binary system was thermodynamically assessed using the CALPHAD method. The solution phases, including liquid, fcc-Al and diamond-A4, were modeled as substitutional solutions, of which the excess Gibbs energies were expressed by Redlich-Kister polynomial functions. Combined with previous assessment of the Ag-Au and Au-Si binary systems, thermodynamic description of the Au-Ag-Si ternary system was performed to reproduce the reported phase equilibria. Thermodynamic properties of liquid alloys, liquidus projection and several vertical and isothermal sections of this ternary system were calculated, which are in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data.

  18. Ternary compounds and isothermal section in Lu-Fe-Ga ternary system at 773 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fusheng; Ao, Weiqin; Pan, Laicai; Wang, Qibao; Yan, Jialing; Li, Junqin

    2013-06-01

    The isothermal section of the Lu-Fe-Ga ternary system at 773 K was investigated and constructed based on X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Thirteen binary compounds, Lu2Fe17, Lu6Fe23, LuFe2, LuGa3, LuGa2, Lu3Ga5, LuGa, Lu3Ga2, Lu5Ga3, Fe3Ga, Fe6Ga5, Fe3Ga4, FeGa3, nine ternary solid solutions, T1-LuFe2-1.43Ga0-0.57, T2-LuFe1.34-0.92Ga0.68-1.08, T3-LuFe0.52-0.26Ga1.48-1.74, T5-LuFe2.04-1.72Ga0.96-1.28, T6-Lu6Fe23-21.4Ga0-1.6, T7-Lu2Fe17-14.5Ga0-3.5, T8-Lu2Fe12.9-8.1Ga4.1-8.9, T9-LuFe6.8-5.5Ga5.2-6.5, T10-LuFe5.2-4.5Ga6.8-7.5, and two ternary compounds, T4-LuFe2.35Ga0.65 and T11-Lu2FeGa8 have been confirmed. The structures of the five new ternary compounds or solid solution T2, T3, T4, T5 and T8 are determined by Rietveld refinement method.

  19. Fabrication of porous ethyl cellulose microspheres based on the acetone-glycerin-water ternary system: Controlling porosity via the solvent-removal mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Watanabe, Chie; Kurumado, Yu; Takama, Masashi

    2015-08-01

    Porous ethyl cellulose (EC) microspheres were prepared from the acetone-glycerin-water ternary system using an oil/water (O/W)-type emulsion solvent extraction method. The O/ W type emulsion was prepared using acetone dissolved ethyl cellulose as an oil phase and aqueous glycerin as a water phase. The effects of the different solvent extraction modes on the porosity of the microspheres were investigated. The specific surface area of the porous EC microspheres was estimated by the gas adsorption method. When the solvent was extracted rapidly by mixing the emulsion with water instantaneously, porous EC microspheres with a maximum specific surface area of 40.7±2.1 m2/g were obtained. On the other hand, when water was added gradually to the emulsion, the specific surface area of the fabricated microspheres decreased rapidly with an increase in the infusion period, with the area being 25-45% of the maximum value. The results of an analysis of the ternary phase diagram of the system suggested that the penetration of water and glycerin from the continuous phase to the dispersed phase before solidification affected the porosity of the fabricated EC microspheres.

  20. Elevated temperature corrosion behavior of iron-base ternary alloys that develop Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and/or Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ barrier scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarajan, V.; Levy, A.V.

    1978-05-01

    The elevated temperature corrosion behavior of iron-base ternary alloys that develop Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and/or Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ barrier scales was investigated by exposing them to a mixed gas environment at 982/sup 0/C whose PO/sub 2/ was approximately 10/sup -18/ atm and whose PS/sub 2/ was approximately 10/sup -6/ atm. The alloys containing 18% Cr and 2.5 to 5% Al had the best corrosion resistance of the alloys tested. They developed a duplex Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ scale through which sulfur did not readily diffuse. The 18% Cr alloy containing only 1% Al formed a Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ scale and had poor corrosion resistance because of rapid sulfur diffusion through the scale. Alloys that contained 10% Al and 0 to 15% Cr did not have good corrosion resistance because of sulfur diffusion through the single Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ scale which formed. Alloys with 18% Cr that contained Si as a ternary addition did not develop continuous SiO/sub 2/ layers beneath the Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ outer scale and exhibited poor corrosion resistance.

  1. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, P; Ramšak, A; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I

    2008-12-10

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  2. A Simple Refraction Experiment for Probing Diffusion in Ternary Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Cecil A.; Mankidy, Bijith D.; Gupta, Vinay K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion is a fundamental phenomenon that is vital in many chemical processes such as mass transport in living cells, corrosion, and separations. We describe a simple undergraduate-level experiment based on Weiner's Method to probe diffusion in a ternary aqueous mixture of small molecular-weight molecules. As an illustration, the experiment…

  3. Application of Analytic Geometry to Ternary and Quaternary Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    Advantages of representing ternary and quaternary composition diagrams by means of rectangular coordinates were pointed out in a previous paper (EJ 288 693). A further advantage of that approach is that analytic geometry, based on rectangular coordinates, is directly applicable as demonstrated by the examples presented. (JN)

  4. Moessbauer studies of ternary superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, C.W.; Van Landuyt, G.L.; Barnet, C.D.; Shenoy, G.K.; Dunlap, B.D.; Fradin, F.Y.

    1978-01-01

    Moessbauer studies of the ternary Chevrel phase and rare earth rhodium boride superconductors have been made. Anomalous phonon properties at the Sn site in SnMo/sub 6/S/sub 8/, SnMo/sub 6/Se/sub 8/, and La/sub 0/ /sub 98/Sn/sub 0/ /sub 02/Mo/sub 6/Se/sub 8/ have been investigated. Studies of polarization of conduction electrons at the site of the magnetic ion have been made by means of the /sup 151/Eu Moessbauer effect in Eu/sub x/Sn/sub 1-x/Mo/sub 6/S/sub 8/ and the effects of such polarization on superconducting properties discussed. The Moessbauer effect in /sup 166/Er has been used to investigate the electronic ground state in the ternary compound ErRh/sub 4/B/sub 4/ both in the superconducting and magnetically ordered states.

  5. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  6. Electrochemical Fabrication and Characterization of Corrosion-Resistant, Ternary, Lead-Based Alloys as a New Material for Steel Surface Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyev, A. Sh.; Tahirli, H. M.; Elrouby, Mahmoud; Soltanova, N. Sh.; Tagiev, D. B.

    2016-06-01

    This article presents the study of the synthesis of the ternary Pb-Sb-Te alloy on the stainless steel substrate via electrochemical method. The corrosion resistance of the electrodeposited alloy has been investigated via subjecting the electro-synthesized alloy to a corrosive medium containing sulfide ions; this medium is similar to the petroleum refining environment. The resulting film of the electrodeposited alloy was analyzed by the scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray diffraction to determine the morphology and the phase structure of the electrodeposited film. It was found that the electrodeposited Pb-Sb-Te alloy thin film is a multiphase composition. The obtained data reveal that the most corrosion-resistant phase is the PbSb2Te4 alloy.

  7. Fabrication and efficient visible light photocatalytic properties of novel zinc indium sulfide (ZnIn2S4) - graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)/bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) nanorod-based ternary nanocomposites with enhanced charge separation via Z-scheme transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Natarajan, Thillai Sivakumar

    2016-11-15

    Novel ZnIn2S4-g-C3N4/BiVO4 nanorod-based ternary nanocomposite photocatalysts with enhanced visible light absorption were synthesized and systematically characterized to confirm the formation of ZnIn2S4 marigold flowers, the layered structure of the g-C3N4, BiVO4 nanorods, and the formation of binary and ternary nanocomposites. The visible light absorption of BiVO4 was significantly improved after coupling with g-C3N4 and ZnIn2S4, which was confirmed by UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopic analysis. Ternary ZnIn2S4-g-C3N4/BiVO4 nanocomposites exhibited excellent visible light photocatalytic decomposition efficiency (VL-PDE) when used for the degradation of congo red (CR) dye and metronidazole (MTZ) pharmaceutical, as well as excellent stability and reusability. The ternary 5%ZnIn2S4-50%-g-C3N4/BiVO4 nanocomposite showed higher VL-PDE for CR (81.5%) and MTZ (59%) degradation than the binary composites, g-C3N4 and BiVO4. Radical quenching experiments showed that h(+), OH, and O2(-) were the reactive radicals, validating that the Z-scheme charge carrier transfer mechanism was responsible for the enhanced VL-PDE of the ternary ZnIn2S4-g-C3N4/BiVO4 nanocomposites, which was further confirmed by photoluminescence analysis. Furthermore, kinetic studies showed that the degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and that the ternary photocatalysts could be reused up to three times with good stability. The enhanced visible light absorption, high surface area, high adsorption capacity, Z-scheme charge carrier transfer, and increased lifetime of photo-produced electron-hole pairs were responsible for the increased visible light photocatalytic decomposition efficiency.

  8. Thermodynamic modeling of the Au-Sb-Si ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J., E-mail: jiang.wang@empa.ch [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Joining and Interface Technology, Uberlandstrasse 129, Duebendorf, Zuerich CH-8600 (Switzerland); Liu, Y.J. [Western Transportation Institute, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States); Liu, L.B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhou, H.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Jin, Z.P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2011-02-10

    Research highlights: > Thermodynamic optimization of the Au-Sb binary system was updated. > The Si-Sb binary system was assessed from critical review of experimental information. > Thermodynamic modeling of the Au-Sb-Si ternary system was performed. > The phase relations of this ternary system are useful to design Au-based solders. - Abstract: Thermodynamic optimization of the Au-Sb binary system was updated as well as the Si-Sb binary system was assessed thermodynamically using the CALPHAD method based on the critical review of the available experimental information from the published literature. The solution phases including liquid, fcc{sub A}1(Au), diamond{sub A}4(Si) and rhombohedral{sub A}7(Sb), are modeled as substitutional solutions and their excess Gibbs energies are expressed by a Redlich-Kister polynomial. The solubility of Si in the intermetallic compound AuSb{sub 2} is not taken into account because of the lack of experimental information. Combined with previous assessment of the Au-Si binary system, thermodynamic modeling of the Au-Sb-Si ternary system was performed to reproduce well the measured phase equilibria. The liquidus projection and several vertical sections of this ternary system were calculated, which are in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data.

  9. Ternary diffusion path in terms of eigenvalues and eigenvectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram-Mohan, L. R.; Dayananda, Mysore A.

    2016-04-01

    Based on the transfer matrix methodology, a new analysis is presented for the description of slopes of the ternary diffusion path for a solid-solid diffusion couple. Concentration profiles and diffusion paths for isothermal, ternary diffusion couples are examined in the context of eigenvalues and eigenvectors obtained from the diagonalisation of the ? ternary interdiffusion coefficients employed for their representation. New relations are derived relating the decoupled interdiffusion fluxes to combinations of concentration gradients through the major and minor eigenvalues, and the diffusion path becomes parallel to the major eigenvector at each path end. General expressions for the slope of the ternary diffusion path at any section of the couple are also derived in terms of eigenvalue and eigenvector parameters. Expressions for the path slope at the Matano plane involve only concentrations, major and minor eigenvalues and eigenvector parameters. New constraints relating the eigenvalues and the concentration gradients of the individual components are also presented at selected sections, where the diffusion path is parallel to the straight line joining the terminal composition points on an isotherm. Applications of the various relations are illustrated with the aid of a hypothetical couple and an experimental Cu-Ni-Zn diffusion couple.

  10. A high-speed interconnect network using ternary logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Long, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high-speed interconnect network (ICN) for a multiprocessor system using ternary logic. By using ternary logic and a fast point-to-point communication technique called STARI (Self-Timed At Receiver's Input), the communication between the proc......This paper describes the design and implementation of a high-speed interconnect network (ICN) for a multiprocessor system using ternary logic. By using ternary logic and a fast point-to-point communication technique called STARI (Self-Timed At Receiver's Input), the communication between...... the processors is free of clock skew and insensitive to any delay differences in buffers and wires. In addition, the number of signal wires and pins are reduced by 50 percent in comparison with a similar binary implementation. The ICN architecture is based on a crossbar topology and the high-speed part consists...... of two LSI GaAs chips, Interface and Crossbar, which were implemented in a 0.8 μm MESFET process. In a 4×4 ICN, communication at 300 Mbit/s per wire was demonstrated, which is twice as fast as pure synchronous and four times faster than pure asynchronous communication in the specific test set-up...

  11. Ternary and senary representations using DNA double-crossover tiles

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Byeonghoon; Son, Junyoung; Kim, Junghoon; Hwang, Si Un; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Kim, Min Hyeok; Kim, Byung-Dong; Chang, Iksoo; Liu, Wing Kam; Kim, Moon Ki; Park, Sung Ha

    2016-01-01

    The information capacity of double-crossover (DX) tiles was successfully increased beyond a binary representation to higher base representations. By controlling the length and the position of DNA hairpins on the DX tile, ternary and senary (base-3 and base-6) digit representations were realized and verified by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Also, normal mode analysis (NMA) was carried out to study the mechanical characteristics of each structure.

  12. Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient estimation for ternary systems: an ideal ternary alcohol system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allie-Ebrahim, Tariq; Zhu, Qingyu; Bräuer, Pierre; Moggridge, Geoff D; D'Agostino, Carmine

    2017-06-21

    The Maxwell-Stefan model is a popular diffusion model originally developed to model diffusion of gases, which can be considered thermodynamically ideal mixtures, although its application has been extended to model diffusion in non-ideal liquid mixtures as well. A drawback of the model is that it requires the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients, which are not based on measurable quantities but they have to be estimated. As a result, numerous estimation methods, such as the Darken model, have been proposed to estimate these diffusion coefficients. However, the Darken model was derived, and is only well defined, for binary systems. This model has been extended to ternary systems according to two proposed forms, one by R. Krishna and J. M. van Baten, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2005, 44, 6939-6947 and the other by X. Liu, T. J. H. Vlugt and A. Bardow, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2011, 50, 10350-10358. In this paper, the two forms have been analysed against the ideal ternary system of methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol and using experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients. In particular, using pulsed gradient stimulated echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSTE-NMR) we have measured the self-diffusion coefficients in various methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol mixtures. The experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients were then used as the input data required for the Darken model. The predictions of the two proposed multicomponent forms of this model were then compared to experimental values of mutual diffusion coefficients for the ideal alcohol ternary system. This experimental-based approach showed that the Liu's model gives better predictions compared to that of Krishna and van Baten, although it was only accurate to within 26%. Nonetheless, the multicomponent Darken model in conjunction with self-diffusion measurements from PGSTE-NMR represents an attractive method for a rapid estimation of mutual diffusion in multicomponent systems, especially when compared to exhaustive

  13. Ternary Blend Composed of Two Organic Donors and One Acceptor for Active Layer of High-Performance Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Won; Choi, Yoon Suk; Ahn, Hyungju; Jo, Won Ho

    2016-05-04

    Ternary blends composed of two donor absorbers with complementary absorptions provide an opportunity to enhance the short-circuit current and thus the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells. In addition to complementary absorption of two donors, ternary blends may exhibit favorable morphology for high-performance solar cells when one chooses properly the donor pair. For this purpose, we develop a ternary blend with two donors (diketopyrrolopyrrole-based polymer (PTDPP2T) and small molecule ((TDPP)2Ph)) and one acceptor (PC71BM). The solar cell made of a ternary blend with 10 wt % (TDPP)2Ph exhibits higher PCE of 7.49% as compared with the solar cells with binary blends, PTDPP2T:PC71BM (6.58%) and (TDPP)2Ph:PC71BM (3.21%). The higher PCE of the ternary blend solar cell is attributed mainly to complementary absorption of two donors. However, a further increase in (TDPP)2Ph content in the ternary blend (>10 wt %) decreases the PCE. The ternary blend with 10 wt % (TDPP)2Ph exhibits well-developed morphology with narrow-sized fibrils while the blend with 15 wt % (TDPP)2Ph shows phase separation with large-sized domains, demonstrating that the phase morphology and compatibility of ternary blend are important factors to achieve a high-performance solar cell made of ternary blends.

  14. Role of electron concentration in softening and hardening of ternary molybdenum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of various combinations of hafnium, tantalum, rhenium, osmium, iridium, and platinum in ternary molybdenum alloys on alloy softening and hardening were determined. Hardness tests were conducted at four test temperatures over the temperature range 77 to 411 K. Results showed that hardness data for ternary molybdenum alloys could be correlated with anticipated results from binary data based upon expressions involving the number of s and d electrons contributed by the solute elements. The correlation indicated that electron concentration plays a dominant role in controlling the hardness of ternary molybdenum alloys.

  15. Photovoltaic Devices Employing Ternary PbSxSe1-x Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Wanli; Luther, Joseph; Zheng, Haimei; Wu, Yue; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2009-02-05

    We report solar cells based on highly confined nanocrystals of the ternary compound PbSxSe1-x. Crystalline, monodisperse alloyed nanocrystals are obtained using a one-pot, hot injection reaction. Rutherford back scattering and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy suggest that the S and Se anions are uniformly distributed in the alloy nanoparticles. Photovoltaic devices made using ternary nanoparticles are more efficient than either pure PbS or pure PbSe based nanocrystal devices.

  16. Highly Efficient Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Based on 1D Ternary Doped Porous Carbons Derived from Carbon Nanotube Directed Conjugated Microporous Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    He, Yafei

    2016-10-11

    © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.One-dimensional (1D) porous materials have shown great potential for gas storage and separation, sensing, energy storage, and conversion. However, the controlled approach for preparation of 1D porous materials, especially porous organic materials, still remains a great challenge due to the poor dispersibility and solution processability of the porous materials. Here, carbon nanotube (CNT) templated 1D conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) are prepared using a layer-by-layer method. As-prepared CMPs possess high specific surface areas of up to 623 m2 g-1 and exhibit strong electronic interactions between p-type CMPs and n-type CNTs. The CMPs are used as precursors to produce heteroatom-doped 1D porous carbons through direct pyrolysis. As-produced ternary heteroatom-doped (B/N/S) 1D porous carbons possess high specific surface areas of up to 750 m2 g-1, hierarchical porous structures, and excellent electrochemical-catalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction. Both of the diffusion-limited current density (4.4 mA cm-2) and electron transfer number (n = 3.8) for three-layered 1D porous carbons are superior to those for random 1D porous carbon. These results demonstrate that layered and core-shell type 1D CMPs and related heteroatom-doped 1D porous carbons can be rationally designed and controlled prepared for high performance energy-related applications.

  17. Magnetically separable ternary g-C3N4/Fe3O4/BiOI nanocomposites: Novel visible-light-driven photocatalysts based on graphitic carbon nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Mitra; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz

    2016-03-01

    The present work demonstrates preparation of magnetically separable ternary g-C3N4/Fe3O4/BiOI nanocomposites as novel visible-light-driven photocatalysts. The resultant samples were characterized using XRD, EDX, SEM, TEM, UV-Vis DRS, FT-IR, PL, BET, and VSM techniques. The results revealed that weight percent of BiOI has considerable effect on photodegradation of rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. Among the prepared samples, the g-C3N4/Fe3O4/BiOI (20%) nanocomposite has the best photocatalytic activity. The activity of this nanocomposite is about 10, 22, and 21-fold higher than that of the g-C3N4 sample in degradation of rhodamine B, methylene blue, and methyl orange under the visible-light irradiation. The excellent activity of the magnetic nanocomposite was attributed to more harvesting of the visible-light irradiation and efficiently separation of the electron-hole pairs. More importantly, the nanocomposite was magnetically separated after five successive cycles.

  18. High-Efficient Circuits for Ternary Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Faghih Mirzaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New ternary adders, which are fundamental components of ternary addition, are presented in this paper. They are on the basis of a logic style which mostly generates binary signals. Therefore, static power dissipation reaches its minimum extent. Extensive different analyses are carried out to examine how efficient the new designs are. For instance, the ternary ripple adder constructed by the proposed ternary half and full adders consumes 2.33 μW less power than the one implemented by the previous adder cells. It is almost twice faster as well. Due to their unique superior characteristics for ternary circuitry, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are used to form the novel circuits, which are entirely suitable for practical applications.

  19. Ternary fission and cluster radioactivities

    CERN Document Server

    Poenaru, D N; Greiner, W; Gherghescu, R A; Hamilton, J H; Ramayya, A V

    2002-01-01

    Ternary fission yield for different kinds of light particle accompanied fission processes is compared to the Q-values for the corresponding cold phenomena, showing a striking correlation. The experimental evidence for the existence of a quasimolecular state in sup 1 sup 0 Be accompanied fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf may be explained using a three-center phenomenological model which generates a third minimum in the deformation energy at a separation distance very close to the touching point. This model is a natural extension of the unified approach to three groups of binary decay modes (cold fission, cluster radioactivities and alpha decay), illustrated by sup 2 sup 3 sup 4 U decay modes, and the alpha valley on the potential energy surfaces of sup 1 sup 0 sup 6 Te. New measurements of cluster decay modes, confirming earlier predictions within analytical superasymmetric fission model, are included in a comprehensive half-life systematics. (authors)

  20. Synthesis of ternary nitrides by mechanochemical alloying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, C.J.H.; Zhu, J.J.; Lindelov, H.;

    2002-01-01

    Ternary metal nitrides ( of general formula MxM'N-y(z)) attract considerable interest because of their special mechanical, electrical, magnetic, and catalytic properties. Usually they are prepared by ammonolysis of ternary oxides (MxM'O-y(m)) at elevated temperatures. We show that ternary...... nitrides by mechanochemical alloying of a binary transition metal nitride (MxN) with an elemental transition metal. In this way, we have been able to prepare Fe3Mo3N and Co3Mo3N by ball-milling of Mo2N with Fe and Co, respectively. The transformation sequence from the starting materials ( the binary...

  1. Ternary and Multi-Bit FIR Filter Area-Performance Tradeoffs in FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil-Ur-Rahman Dayo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, performance and area of conventional FIR (Finite Impulse Responce filters versus ternary sigma delta modulated FIR filter is compared in FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays using VHDL (Verilog Description Language. Two different approaches were designed and synthesized at same spectral performance by obtaining a TIR (Target Impulse Response. Both filters were synthesized on adaptive LUT (Look Up Table FPGA device in pipelined and non-pipelined modes. It is shown that the Ternary FIR filter occupies approximately the same area as the corresponding multi-bit filter, but for a given specification, the ternary FIR filter has 32% better performance in non-pipelined and 72% in pipelined mode, compared to its equivalent Multi-Bit filter at its optimum 12-bit coefficient quantization. These promising results shows that ternary logic based (i.e. +1,0,-1 filters can be used for huge chip area savings and higher performance.

  2. Spectral responses in near-infrared of the mixed compounds III-V ternary and quaternary, based on GaSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbow, B.; Rezzoug, N.; Peremarti, C.; Mezerreg, A.; Llinares, C.

    1993-09-01

    From the simulation of the spectral response of the different photodetector devices elaborated in our laboratory (C.E.M.), we determine the influence of geometrical and physical parameters in order to achieve the best photodetector operating at the wavelength 2.55 μm. In this paper we present: Gao{0.6}In{0.4}Sbn/Ga{0.6}In{0.4}Sbp homojunctions matched on GaSbp substrate, Ga{0.75}In{0.25}As{0.23}Sbp/GaSbn ternary heterojunction and GaSbp/Ga{0.74}In{0.26}As{0.23}Sb0.77p/GaSbn quaternary heterojunction. The GaSbp layer with an energy band gap greater than Ga{0.74}In{0.26}As{0.23}Sb0.77p optical gap will act as a window, reducing the effect of surface recombinaison. Results of the simulation are compared to experimental curves to determine the values of photoelectrical parameters (diffusion length, recombination velocity at the surface ...). Les mesures de réponse spectrale dans la gamme [0,4 eV à 2 eV] ont été effectuées sur des homojonctions, Ga{0,6}In{0,4}Sbn/Ga{0,6}In{0,4}Sbp déposées sur un substrat de GaSb et des hétérostructures ternaires Ga{0,75}In{0,25}Sbp/GaSbn et quaternaires GaSbp/Ga{0,74}In{0,26}As{0,23}Sb0,77p/GaSbn. La couche de GaSbp avec un gap plus grand que celui de Ga{0,74}In{0,26}As{0,23}Sb0,77p joue le rôle d'effet fenêtre. En s'appuyant sur les résultats de la simulation et en accordant les spectres expérimentaux aux spectres théoriques, on détermine les valeurs des paramètres photoélectriques (longueurs de diffusion, les vitesses de recombinaison en surface ... ) intervenant dans le rendement quantique.

  3. Phase evolution and correlation between tolerance factor and electromechanical properties in BNT-based ternary perovskite compounds with calculated end-member Bi(Me0.5Ti0.5)O3 (Me = Zn, Mg, Ni, Co).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wangfeng; Shen, Bo; Zhai, Jiwei; Liu, Feng; Li, Peng; Liu, Baihui; Zhang, Yang

    2016-09-28

    In this work, the structure of end-member Bi(Me0.5Ti0.5)O3 (Me = Zn, Ni, Mg, Co) was calculated through a first-principles method and lead-free piezoelectric ternary systems (0.94 -x)(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3-xBi(Me0.5Ti0.5)O3 (Me = Zn, Ni, Mg, Co) (BNT-BT-Bi(Me0.5Ti0.5)O3) were designed to achieve a large strain response for actuator applications. Composition-driven phase transition characteristics and the resulting associated piezoelectric and electromechanical properties were systematically investigated, and schematic phase diagrams were constructed. XRD measurements, Raman spectra analysis and temperature-dependent polarization and strain hysteresis loops indicate that Bi(Me0.5Ti0.5)O3 substitution induces a phase transformation from a ferroelectric rhombohedral to an ergodic relaxor pseudo-cubic phase, accounting for the large strain response (>0.3%) with a high normalized strain Smax/Emax (≥550 pm V(-1)) at around the corresponding critical composition in the vicinity of room temperature. In addition, correlations between the tolerance factor t of the added end-member, the calculated tetragonality and the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition were sought. In comparison to other reported BNT-based systems, there is a noticeable correlation between the MPB composition and the calculated tetragonality of the end-member Bi(Me0.5Ti0.5)O3, and the t value corresponding to the formation of the MPB composition is approximately 0.981 in the present ternary system with low tolerance factor end-members. As a result, we believe that the general correlations and design principles obtained from the present comprehensive research will be effective to predict the approximate MPB region quickly in BNT-based ceramics with an excellent actuating performance.

  4. Comparison Of Modified Dual Ternary Indexing And Multi-Key Hashing Algorithms For Music Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Sridhar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have compared two indexing algorithms that have been used to index and retrieve Carnatic music songs. We have compared a modified algorithm of the Dual ternary indexing algorithm for music indexing and retrieval with the multi-key hashing indexing algorithm proposed by us. The modification in the dual ternary algorithm was essential to handle variable length query phrase and to accommodate features specific to Carnatic music. The dual ternary indexing algorithm is adapted for Carnatic music by segmenting using the segmentation technique for Carnatic music. The dual ternary algorithm is compared with the multi-key hashing algorithm designed by us for indexing and retrieval in which features like MFCC, spectral flux, melody string and spectral centroid are used as features for indexing data into a hash table. The way in which collision resolution was handled by this hash table is different than the normal hash table approaches. It was observed that multi-key hashing based retrieval had a lesser time complexity than dual-ternary based indexing The algorithms were also compared for their precision and recall in which multi-key hashing had a better recall than modified dual ternary indexing for the sample data considered.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B. William [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chiu, Ing L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  6. Cohesion energy calculations for ternary ionic novel crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez P, G.; Cabrera, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Mijangos, R.R. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-88, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Valdez, E. [Escuela Nacional de Estudios Profesionales Acatlan, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Santa Cruz Acatlan, Naucalpan (Mexico); Duarte, C. [Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Sonora, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The present work calculates the value of the link energy of a crystalline ternary structure newly formed by alkali halides. The ternary structure prepared with different concentrations of KCl{sub x}KBrRbCl{sub 2} maintains a very good miscibility and stability. The calculation is based on the use of a generalization of the Vegard law (which generally is valid for binary compounds) for calculating the values of the lattice constant and the repulsive m exponent. The value of the lattice parameter given by X-ray diffractometry agrees with the close approximation of the calculated value of the method used. It also compares the value of energy cohesion obtained by the Born expression with more complex approximations. (Author)

  7. Thermodynamic calculations in ternary titanium–aluminium–manganese system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA I. KOSTOV

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations in the ternary Ti–Al–Mn system are shown in this paper. The thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage thermochemical software and database, with the aim of determining thermodynamic properties, such as activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values of the enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at two different temperatures: 2000 and 2100 K. Bearing in mind that no experimental data for the Ti–Al–Mn ternary system have been obtained or reported. The obtained results represent a good base for further thermodynamic analysis and may be useful as a comparison with some future critical experimental results and thermodynamic optimization of this system.

  8. CMOS Design of Ternary Arithmetic Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴训威; F.Prosser

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents CMOS circuit designs of a ternary adder and a ternary multiplier,formulated using transmission function theory.Binary carry signals appearing in these designs allow conventional look-ahead carry techniques to be used.compared with previous similar designs,the circuits proposed in this paper have advantages such as low dissipation,low output impedance,and simplicity of construction.

  9. Binary and ternary copper(II) complexes of a new Schiff base ligand derived from 4-acetyl-5,6-diphenyl-3(2H)-pyridazinone: Synthesis, spectral, thermal, antimicrobial and antitumor studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebl, Magdy; Adly, Omima M. I.; Abdelrhman, Ebtesam M.; El-Shetary, B. A.

    2017-10-01

    A new Schiff base ligand was synthesized by the reaction of 4-acetyl-5,6-diphenyl-3(2H)-pyridazinone with ethylenediamine. A series of binary copper(II) Schiff base complexes have been synthesized by using various copper(II) salts; AcO-, NO3-, ClO4-, Cl- and Br-. Ternary complexes were synthesized by using auxiliary ligands (L‧) [N,O-donor; 8-hydroxyquinoline and glycine or N,N-donor; 1,10-phenanthroline, bipyridyl and 2-aminopyridine]. The structures of the Schiff base and its complexes were characterized by elemental and thermal analyses, IR, electronic, mass, 1H NMR and ESR spectra in addition to conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The obtained complexes include neutral binuclear complexes as well as neutral and cationic mononuclear complexes according to the anion used and the experimental conditions. The ESR spin Hamiltonian parameters of some complexes were calculated and discussed. The metal complexes exhibited octahedral and square planar geometrical arrangements depending on the nature of the anion. Kinetic parameters (Ea, A, ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) of the thermal decomposition stages were evaluated using Coats-Redfern equations. The antimicrobial activity of the Schiff base and its complexes was screened against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli), yeast (Candida albicans) and fungus (Aspergillus fumigatus). The antitumor activity of the Schiff base and some of its Cu(II) complexes was investigated against HepG-2 cell line.

  10. Realizing Ternary Logic in FPGAs for SWL DSP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Din

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently SWL (Short Word Length DSP (Digital Signal Processing applications has been proposed to overcome multiplier complexity that is evident in most of the digital applications. These SWL applications have been processed through sigma-delta modulation as a key element. For such applications, adder design plays vital role and can impact upon the chip area and its performance. In this paper, a ternary approach for adder tree has been proposed instead of binary that can accommodate more data with less chip-area at the cost of extra pin. The proposed ternary adder tree has been designed and developed in Quartus-II using three different design strategies namely T-gate (Ternary gate, LUT (Look Up Table and algebraic equations. Through rigorous simulation it was found that T-gate technique results in superior performance, an average of 23.5 and 33% improvement compared to the same adder structure based on Boolean Algebraic Equation and LUT, respectively. The proposed adder design would benefit the efficient implementation of SWL applications.

  11. TEM Investigations on Layered Ternary Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijun LIN; Meishuan LI; Yanchun ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    Layered ternary ceramics represent a new class of solids that combine the merits of both metals and ceramics.These unique properties are strongly related to their layered crystal structures and microstructures. The combination of atomic-resolution Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) represents a powerful method to link microstructures of materials to macroscopic properties, allowing layered ternary ceramics to be investigated in an unprecedented detail. Vicrostructural information obtained using TEM is useful in understanding the formation mechanism, layered stacking characteristics, and defect structures for layered ternary ceramics down to atomic-scale level; and thus provides insight into understanding the "Processing-Structure-Property" relationship of layered ternary ceramics. Transmission electron microscopic characterizations of layered ternary ceramics in Ti-Si-C, Ti-Al-C, Cr-Al-C, Zr-Al-C, Ta-Al-C and Ti-Al-N systems are reviewed.

  12. On Approximate -Ternary -Homomorphisms: A Fixed Point Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho YJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using fixed point methods, we prove the stability and superstability of -ternary additive, quadratic, cubic, and quartic homomorphisms in -ternary rings for the functional equation , for each .

  13. Elliptic curves and positive definite ternary forms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xueli(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Pei Dingyi, Rosenberger, G. , Wang Xueli, The eligible numbers of positive definite ternary forms, Math. Zeitschriften,2000, 235: 479-497.[2]Wang Xueli, Pei Dingyi, Modular forms of 3/2 weight and one conjecture of Kaplansky, preprint.[3]Jones, B., The regularity of a genus of positive ternary quadratic forms, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 1931, 33: 111-124.[4]Kaplansky, I., The first nontrivial genus of positive definite ternary forms, Math. Comp., 1995, 64: 341-345.[5]Antoniadis, J. A., Bungert, M., Frey, G., Properties of twists of elliptic curves, J. Reine Angew Math., 1990, 405: 1-28.

  14. Ternary chalcogenide micro-pseudocapacitors for on-chip energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-05-11

    We report the successful fabrication of a micro-pseudocapacitor based on ternary nickel cobalt sulfide for the first time, with performance substantially exceeding that of previously reported micro-pseudocapacitors based on binary sulfides. CoNi2S4 micro-pseudocapacitor exhibits a maximum energy density of 18.7 mWh/cm3 at a power density of 1163 mW/cm3, opens up an avenue for exploring new family of ternary oxides/sulfides based micro-pseudocapacitors.

  15. Collins Model and Phase Diagram of 2D Ternary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Chuan-Mei; CHEN Li-Rong

    2004-01-01

    The Collins model is introduced into the two-dimensional (2D) alternative ternary system having the Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential. The Gibbs free energy of this ternary system is calculated, and according to thermodynamic theory, a group of equations that determine the solid-liquid diagram of ternary system are derived, some isothermal sectional diagrams of the 2D ternary system are obtained. The results are quite similar to the behavior of three-dimensional substances.

  16. Measurement of zinc activity in the ternary In–Zn–Sn alloys by EMF method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, C.K., E-mail: ckbehera.met@itbhu.ac.in; Sonaye, A.

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: • Activity of zinc in the ternary In–Zn–Sn system has been measured in the temperature range 753–853 K by EMF method. • Isoactivity lines for zinc reflect the positive deviation from the ideality at 813 K. • The activity of indium in In–Sn binary system shows negative deviation from Raoult's law over entire range of composition. • Ternary excess molar free energies at 813 K are computed by Darken's treatment. • Calculated molar excess free energies for the ternary systems are compared with the Chou's theoretical model data. - Abstract: Activity of zinc in liquid In–Zn–Sn alloys has been measured by electrochemical technique based on molten salt electrolyte galvanic cell in the temperature range 753–853 K along three ternary sections of Zn{sub x}(In{sub y}Sn{sub 1−y}){sub 1−x} where y = 0.67, 0.50 and 0.33. The activity of indium in In–Sn binary alloys has also been measured by the same technique in the same temperature range. The activity of Zinc in In–Zn–Sn alloys shows positive deviation from the Raoult's law over entire range of composition. The activity of indium in In–Sn alloys shows negative deviations from ideality for entire composition. The excess molar free energies have been computed by the Darken's treatment of the ternary solutions using In–Sn binary data and ternary data in this study. Isoactivity curves at 813 K in the ternary In–Zn–Sn alloys were derived by combining the activity data of In–Zn and Sn–Zn alloys. The values of excess molar free energy in this study are in good agreement with those calculated from the general model calculation proposed by Chou.

  17. Ternary interaction parameters in calphad solution models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleno, Luiz T.F., E-mail: luizeleno@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Schön, Claudio G., E-mail: schoen@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Computational Materials Science Laboratory. Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    2014-07-01

    For random, diluted, multicomponent solutions, the excess chemical potentials can be expanded in power series of the composition, with coefficients that are pressure- and temperature-dependent. For a binary system, this approach is equivalent to using polynomial truncated expansions, such as the Redlich-Kister series for describing integral thermodynamic quantities. For ternary systems, an equivalent expansion of the excess chemical potentials clearly justifies the inclusion of ternary interaction parameters, which arise naturally in the form of correction terms in higher-order power expansions. To demonstrate this, we carry out truncated polynomial expansions of the excess chemical potential up to the sixth power of the composition variables. (author)

  18. Heteronanostructured Co@carbon nanotubes-graphene ternary hybrids: synthesis, electromagnetic and excellent microwave absorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaosi; Hu, Qi; Cai, Hongbo; Xie, Ren; Bai, Zhongchen; Jiang, Yang; Qin, Shuijie; Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2016-11-01

    In order to explore high efficiency microwave absorption materials, heteronanostructured Co@carbon nanotubes-graphene (Co@CNTs-G) ternary hybrids were designed and produced through catalytic decomposition of acetylene at the designed temperature (400, 450, 500 and 550 °C) over Co3O4/reduced graphene oxide (Co3O4/RGO). By regulating the reaction temperatures, different CNT contents of Co@CNTs-G ternary hybrids could be synthesized. The investigations indicated that the as-prepared heteronanostructured Co@CNTs-G ternary hybrids exhibited excellent microwave absorption properties, and their electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties could be tuned by the CNT content. The minimum reflection loss (RL) value reached approximately ‑65.6, ‑58.1, ‑41.1 and ‑47.5 dB for the ternary hybrids synthesized at 400, 450, 500 and 550 °C, respectively. And RL values below ‑20 dB (99% of electromagnetic wave attenuation) could be obtained over the as-prepared Co@CNTs-G ternary hybrids in the large frequency range. Moreover, based on the obtained results, the possible enhanced microwave absorption mechanisms were discussed in details. Therefore, a simple approach was proposed to explore the high performance microwave absorbing materials as well as to expand the application field of graphene-based materials.

  19. Mechanical properties, anisotropy and hardness of group IVA ternary spinel nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ying-Chun; Chen, Min

    2013-10-01

    In this work, new ternary cubic spinel structures are designed by the substitutional method. The structures, elasticity properties, intrinsic hardness and Debye temperature of the cubic ternary spinel nitrides are studied by first principles based on the density-functional theory. The results show that γ-CSn2N4, γ-SiC2N4, γ-GeC2N4 and γ-SnC2N4 are not mechanically stable. The elastic constants Cij of these cubic spinel structures are obtained using the stress-strain method. Derived elastic constants, such as bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson coefficient and brittle/ductile behaviour are estimated using Voigt-Reuss-Hill theories. The B/G value, the Poisson's ratio and anisotropic factor are calculated for eight ternary stable crystals. Based on the microscopic hardness model, we further estimate the Vickers hardness of all the stable crystals. From the calculated hardness of the stable group IVA ternary spinel nitrides by Gao's and Jiang's methods, it is observed that the stable group IVA ternary spinel nitrides are not superhard materials except for γ-CSi2N4. Furthermore, the Debye temperature for the eight stable crystals is also estimated.

  20. Crystal Growth of Ternary Compound Semiconductors in Low Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2014-01-01

    A low gravity material experiment will be performed in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). There are two sections of the flight experiment: (I) crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, by physical vapor transport (PVT) and (II) melt growth of CdZnTe by directional solidification. The main objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the grown crystals as results of buoyancy-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. This talk will focus on the ground-based studies on the PVT crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions.

  1. Thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Yb ternary system supported by first-principles calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase relationships of the ternary Al-Cu-Yb system have been assessed using a combination of CALPHAD method and first principles calculations. A self-consistent thermodynamic parameter was established based on the experimental and theoretical information. Most of the binary intermetallic phases, except Al3Yb, Al2Yb, Cu2Yb and Cu5Yb, were assumed to be zero solubility in the ternary system. Based on the experimental data, eight ternary intermetallic compounds were taken into consideration in this system. Among them, three were treated as line compounds with large homogeneity ranges for Al and Cu. The others were treated as stoichiometric compounds. The calculated phase diagrams were in agreement with available experimental and theoretical data.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of a novel stationary phase, Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS), based upon ternary oxide support for high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amparo, Maura R.; Marques, Fabiana A.; Faria, Anizio M., E-mail: anizio@pontal.ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (FACIP/UFU), Ituiutaba, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Integradas do Pontal

    2013-09-15

    A new stationary phase based on the thermal immobilization of poly(methyltetradecylsiloxane) (PMTDS) on silica particles coated with a mixture of zirconia and titania was prepared and evaluated for the chromatographic separation of test mixtures. The spherical particles were characterized by elemental analysis, SEM, FTIR and {sup 29}Si NMR. The physicochemical properties of PMTDS phase supported on Si-Zr/Ti were intermediate between PMTDS phases supported on titanized silica and zirconized silica. The chromatographic performance of Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS) phase was similar to PMTDS phases based on metal oxide coated silica having only one metal oxide and the preparation of a Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS) phase allowed evaluation of the effect of each oxide, zirconia and titania, on the separation process and on the stability of the immobilized polymer phase. The hydrolytic stability of Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS) stationary phase was similar to the Si-Ti(PMTDS) phase, improving the chemical stability of the silica-based PMTDS phase by about 100%. (author)

  3. Density functional for ternary non-additive hard sphere mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Matthias

    2011-10-19

    Based on fundamental measure theory, a Helmholtz free energy density functional for three-component mixtures of hard spheres with general, non-additive interaction distances is constructed. The functional constitutes a generalization of the previously given theory for binary non-additive mixtures. The diagrammatic structure of the spatial integrals in both functionals is of star-like (or tree-like) topology. The ternary diagrams possess a higher degree of complexity than the binary diagrams. Results for partial pair correlation functions, obtained via the Ornstein-Zernike route from the second functional derivatives of the excess free energy functional, agree well with Monte Carlo simulation data. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  4. SiGeSn Ternaries for Efficient Group IV Heterostructure Light Emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von den Driesch, Nils; Stange, Daniela; Wirths, Stephan; Rainko, Denis; Povstugar, Ivan; Savenko, Aleksei; Breuer, Uwe; Geiger, Richard; Sigg, Hans; Ikonic, Zoran; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Grützmacher, Detlev; Mantl, Siegfried; Buca, Dan

    2017-02-03

    SiGeSn ternaries are grown on Ge-buffered Si wafers incorporating Si or Sn contents of up to 15 at%. The ternaries exhibit layer thicknesses up to 600 nm, while maintaining a high crystalline quality. Tuning of stoichiometry and strain, as shown by means of absorption measurements, allows bandgap engineering in the short-wave infrared range of up to about 2.6 µm. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence experiments indicate ternaries near the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition, proving their potential for ternary-based light emitters in the aforementioned optical range. The ternaries' layer relaxation is also monitored to explore their use as strain-relaxed buffers, since they are of interest not only for light emitting diodes investigated in this paper but also for many other optoelectronic and electronic applications. In particular, the authors have epitaxially grown a GeSn/SiGeSn multiquantum well heterostructure, which employs SiGeSn as barrier material to efficiently confine carriers in GeSn wells. Strong room temperature light emission from fabricated light emitting diodes proves the high potential of this heterostructure approach.

  5. Ternary arsenides based on platinum–indium and palladium–indium fragments of the Cu{sub 3}Au-type: Crystal structures and chemical bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharova, Elena Yu.; Andreeva, Natalia A.; Kazakov, Sergey M. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1-3, GSP-1, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Alexey N., E-mail: alexei@inorg.chem.msu.ru [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1-3, GSP-1, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 31, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • Three metal-rich platinum–indium and palladium–indium arsenides were synthesized. • Their crystal structures were determined from powder XRD. • Electronic structures and bonding were studied using DFT/FP-LAPW calculations. • Multi-centered Pt–In or Pd–In bonding was revealed using ELF and ELI-D analysis. • Extra pairwise Pt–Pt interactions are observed only for Pt-based compounds. - Abstract: Three metal-rich palladium–indium and platinum–indium arsenides, Pd{sub 5}InAs, Pt{sub 5}InAs, and Pt{sub 8}In{sub 2}As, were synthesized using a high-temperature ampoule technique. Their crystal structures were determined from Rietveld analysis of powder diffraction data. All the compounds crystallize in tetragonal system with P4/mmm space group (Pd{sub 5}InAs: a = 3.9874(1) Å, c = 6.9848(2) Å, Z = 1, R{sub p} = 0.053; R{sub b} = 0.013; Pt{sub 5}InAs: a = 3.9981(2) Å, c = 7.0597(4) Å, Z = 1, R{sub p} = 0.058, R{sub b} = 0.016; Pt{sub 8}In{sub 2}As: a = 3.9872(3) Å, c = 11.1129(7) Å, Z = 1, R{sub p} = 0.047; R{sub b} = 0.014). The first two compounds belong to the Pd{sub 5}TlAs structure type, while the third one is isotypic with the recently discovered Pd{sub 8}In{sub 2}Se. Main structural units in all arsenides are indium-centered [TM{sub 12}In] cuboctahedra (TM = Pd, Pt) of the Cu{sub 3}Au type, single- and double-stacked along the c axis in TM{sub 5}InAs and Pt{sub 8}In{sub 2}As, respectively, alternating with [TM{sub 8}As] rectangular prisms. DFT electronic structure calculations predict all three compounds to be 3D metallic conductors and Pauli-like paramagnets. According to the bonding analysis based on the electron localization function and electron localizability indicator topologies, all compounds feature multi-centered interactions between transition metal and indium in their heterometallic fragments. Additionally, pairwise interactions between platinum atoms are also observed, indicating a somewhat more localized bonding

  6. Ternary supramolecular quantum-dot network flocculation for selective lectin detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, Maria; Wang, Junyou; Carvalho, Rui Rijo; Velders, Aldrik H.

    2016-01-01

    We present a versatile, tuneable, and selective nanoparticle-based lectin biosensor, based on flocculation of ternary supramolecular nanoparticle networks (NPN), formed through the sequential binding of three building blocks. The three building blocks are β-cyclodextrin-capped CdTe quantum dots,

  7. Design of a novel quantum reversible ternary up-counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Pouran; Haghparast, Majid

    2015-08-01

    Reversible logic has been recently considered as an interesting and important issue in designing combinational and sequential circuits. The combination of reversible logic and multi-valued logic can improve power dissipation, time and space utilization rate of designed circuits. Only few works have been reported about sequential reversible circuits and almost there are no paper exhibited about quantum ternary reversible counter. In this paper, first we designed 2-qutrit and 3-qutrit quantum reversible ternary up-counters using quantum ternary reversible T-flip-flop and quantum reversible ternary gates. Then we proposed generalized quantum reversible ternary n-qutrit up-counter. We also introduced a new approach for designing any type of n-qutrit ternary and reversible counter. According to the results, we can conclude that applying second approach quantum reversible ternary up-counter is better than the others.

  8. PMGA and its application in area and power optimization for ternary FPRM circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengjun, Wang; Kangping, Li; Huihong, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Based on the research of population migration algorithms (PMAs), a population migration genetic algorithm (PMGA) is proposed, combining a PMA with a genetic algorithm. A scheme of area and power optimization for a ternary FPRM circuit is proposed by using the PMGA. Firstly, according to the ternary FPRM logic function expression, area and power estimation models are established. Secondly, the PMGA is used to search for the best area and power polarity. Finally, 10 MCNC Benchmark circuits are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the ternary FPRM circuits optimized by the PMGA saved 13.33% area and 20.00% power on average than the corresponding FPRM circuits optimized by a whole annealing genetic algorithm. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (No. LY13F040003), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61234002, 61306041), and the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University.

  9. Breast mass classification on mammograms using radial local ternary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Hara, Takeshi; Endo, Tokiko; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Textural features can be useful in differentiating between benign and malignant breast lesions on mammograms. Unlike previous computerized schemes, which relied largely on shape and margin features based on manual contours of masses, textural features can be determined from regions of interest (ROIs) without precise lesion segmentation. In this study, therefore, we investigated an ROI-based feature, namely, radial local ternary patterns (RLTP), which takes into account the direction of edge patterns with respect to the center of masses for classification of ROIs for benign and malignant masses. Using an artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF) classifiers, the classification abilities of RLTP were compared with those of the regular local ternary patterns (LTP), rotation invariant uniform (RIU2) LTP, texture features based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and wavelet features. The performance was evaluated with 376 ROIs including 181 malignant and 195 benign masses. The highest areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves among three classifiers were 0.90, 0.77, 0.78, 0.86, and 0.83 for RLTP, LTP, RIU2-LTP, GLCM, and wavelet features, respectively. The results indicate the usefulness of the proposed texture features for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions and the superiority of the radial patterns compared with the conventional rotation invariant patterns.

  10. On the Dissolution Behavior of Sulfur in Ternary Silicate Slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Youn-Bae; Park, Joo Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Sulfur dissolution behavior, in terms of sulfide capacity ( C S), in ternary silicate slags (molten oxide slags composed of MO - NO - SiO2, where M and N are Ca, Mn, Fe, and Mg), is discussed based on available experimental data. Composition dependence of the sulfur dissolution, at least in the dilute region of sulfur, may be explained by taking into account the cation-anion first-nearest-neighbor (FNN) interaction (stability of sulfide) and the cation-cation second-nearest-neighbor (SNN) interaction over O anion (oxygen proportions in silicate slags). When the Gibbs energy of a reciprocal reaction MO + NS = MS + NO is positive, the sulfide capacity of slags with virtually no SiO2 or low SiO2 concentration decreases as the concentration of MO increases. However, in some slags, as SiO2 concentration increases, replacing NO by MO at a constant SiO2 concentration may increase sulfide capacity when the basicity of NO is less than that of MO. This phenomenon is observed as rotation of iso- C S lines in ternary silicate slags, and it is explained by simultaneous consideration of the stability of sulfide and oxygen proportions in the silicate slags. It is suggested that a solution model for the prediction of sulfide capacity should be based on the actual dissolution mechanism of sulfur rather than on the simple empirical correlation.

  11. Genetic Synthesis of New Reversible/Quantum Ternary Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEIBUK, V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods of quantum/reversible logic synthesis are based on the use of the binary nature of quantum computing. However, multiple-valued logic is a promising choice for future quantum computer technology due to a number of advantages over binary circuits. In this paper we have developed a synthesis of ternary reversible circuits based on Muthukrishnan-Stroud gates using a genetic algorithm. The method of coding chromosome is presented, and well-grounded choice of algorithm parameters allowed obtaining better circuit schemes of one- and n-qutrit ternary comparators compared with other methods. These parameters are quantum cost of received reversible devices, delay time and number of constant input (ancilla lines. Proposed implementation of the genetic algorithm has led to reducing of the device delay time and the number of ancilla qutrits to 1 and 2n-1 for one- and n-qutrits full comparators, respectively. For designing of n-qutrit comparator we have introduced a complementary device which compares output functions of 1-qutrit comparators.

  12. Characterization of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and refractory metals in binary and ternary silicon-based films using ion beam methods; Caracterisation des elements: carbone, azote, oxygene et metal refractaire dans des depots binaires et ternaires a base de silicium par methodes d'analyse utilisant les faisceaux d'ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somatri-Bouamrane, R. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire]|[Universite Claude Bernard, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1996-12-19

    Ion beam methods (non Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reactions) have been carried out in order to characterize silicon-based films. The cross sections for the reactions {sup 12}C({alpha},{alpha}), {sup 14}N({alpha},{alpha}), {sup 16}O({alpha},{alpha}), {sup 28}Si({alpha},{alpha}) and {sup 14}N({alpha},p) have been measured within 2 and 7 MeV. CVD beta SiC films could be analyzed and the interface between silicon carbide and the (100) silicon substrate was studied. The epitaxial growth of the beta SiC film could be modelled by comparing the results obtained with ion beam analysis, infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Moreover, the stoichiometry of low pressure CVD Me-Si-N (Me=Re, W, Ti, Ta) ternary systems was studied. The evolution of the nitrogen content in W-Si-N systems allowed to study their stability with respect to the annealing conditions. (N.T.)

  13. Energetics of ternary nitrides: Li-Ca-Zn-N and Ca-Ta-N systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, J.M.; Navrotsky, A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Kowach, G.R.; Balbarin, V.E.; DiSalvo, F.J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1997-07-01

    High-temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry was used to study the energetics of ternary nitride formation. The standard enthalpies of formation of several binary and ternary nitrides were determined. These values in kJ mol{sup {minus}1} are {Delta}H{sub f}{degrees}(Li{sub 3}N) = {minus}166.1 {+-} 4.8, {Delta}H{sub f}{degrees}(Ca{sub 3}N{sub 2}) = 439.7{+-} 6.6, {Delta}H{sub f}{degrees}(Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2}) = 43.5 {+-} 4.1, {Delta}H{sub f}{degrees}(Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}) = 849.7 {+-} 11.7, {Delta}H{sub f}{degrees}(Ca{sub 2}ZnN{sub 2}) = {minus}378.9 {+-} 8.6, {Delta}H{sub f}{degrees}(Sr{sub 2}ZnN{sub 2}) = {minus}385.6 {+-} 14.3, {Delta}H{sub f}{degrees}(LiCaN) = {minus}216.8 {+-} 10.8, {Delta}H{sub f}{degrees}(LiZnN) = {minus}137.5 {+-} 6.8, and {Delta}H{sub f}{degrees}(CaTaN{sub 2}) = 1643.8 {+-} 9.6. These enthalpies of formation are small in magnitude compared to analogous values for oxides. However, the enthalpies of formation of the ternaries from binary nitrides can be quite substantial, confirming significant energetic stabilization of ternary nitrides. The energetics of ternary nitride formation appears to be dominated by the acid/base character of the cations. A linear relationship was found between the enthalpies of formation of the ternaries from binary nitrides and the ionic potential ratio of the two cations. 43 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. The ternary sorption system U(VI)-phosphate-silica explained by spectroscopy and thermodynamic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Stockmann, Madlen; Heim, Karsten; Mueller, Katharina; Brendler, Vinzenz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Comarmond, M.J.; Payne, T.E. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia); Steudtner, Robin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2017-06-01

    Spectroscopic data of sorption processes potentially provide direct impact on Surface Complexation Modelling (SCM) approaches. Based on spectroscopic data of the ternary sorption system U(VI)/phosphate/silica strongly suggesting the formation of a precipitate as the predominant surface process, SCM calculations accurately reproduced results from classical batch experiments.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of ternary PtxPdyAuz fuel cell nanocatalyst growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brault, P.; Coutanceau, C.; C. Jennings, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation of PEMFC cathodes based on ternary Pt70Pd15Au15 and Pt50Pd25Au25 nanocatalysts dispersed on carbon indicate systematic Au segregation from the particle bulk to the surface, leading to an Au layer coating the cluster surface and to the spontaneous formation of a Pt...

  16. Superconducting state parameters of ternary metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aditya M Vora

    2011-12-01

    The well-known empty core (EMC) model potential of Ashcroft was used to study the theoretical investigation of the superconducting state parameters (SSP) viz. electron–phonon coupling strength , Coulomb pseudopotential $\\mu^{\\ast}$, transition temperature $T_{C}$, isotope effect exponent and effective interaction strength $N_{O}V$ of some ternary metallic glasses. Most recent local field correction function due to Sarkar et al is used to study the screening influence on the aforesaid properties. Quadratic $T_{C}$ equations have been proposed and found successful. Also, the present findings are found to be in qualitative agreement with other such earlier reported data, which confirms the superconducting phase in the ternary superconductors. The pseudo-alloy-atom (PAA) model was applied for the first time instead of Vegard’s law.

  17. Ternary rare earth-lanthanide sulfides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Takuo; Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Beaudry, Bernard J.

    1987-01-06

    A new ternary rare earth sulfur compound having the formula: La.sub.3-x M.sub.x S.sub.4 where M is a rare earth element selected from the group europium, samarium and ytterbium and x=0.15 to 0.8. The compound has good high-temperature thermoelectric properties and exhibits long-term structural stability up to 1000.degree. C.

  18. Solid-liquid equilibria in the ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Rui-Zhi; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Wei; Sang, Shi-Hua

    2017-09-01

    The solubilities of the ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O were investigated by isothermal method at 398 K. On the basis of the experimental data, the phase diagram was plotted. In the phase diagram of ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K, no complex salt or solid solution was found. It belongs to simple co-saturation type. There are only one invariant point, two univariant curves, and two crystallization fields corresponding to NaBr and KBr. Using the equilibrium solubilities data of the ternary system at 398 K, mixing ioninteraction parameter ΨNa,K,Br of Pitzer's equation was fitted by multiple linear regression method. Based on the Pitzer model and its extended Harvie-Weare (HW) model, the solubilities of phase equilibrium in the ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K were calculated. The phase diagram of the ternary system was plotted. The results show that calculated values have a good agreement with measured experimental data. It can demonstrate the accuracy of the experimental data, and it also shows that reasonable parameters of the Pitzer model can be used in ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K.

  19. Self-assembled ternary complexes stabilized with hyaluronic acid-green tea catechin conjugates for targeted gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kun; Bae, Ki Hyun; Lee, Fan; Xu, Keming; Chung, Joo Eun; Gao, Shu Jun; Kurisawa, Motoichi

    2016-03-28

    Nanosized polyelectrolyte complexes are attractive delivery vehicles for the transfer of therapeutic genes to diseased cells. Here we report the application of self-assembled ternary complexes constructed with plasmid DNA, branched polyethylenimine and hyaluronic acid-green tea catechin conjugates for targeted gene delivery. These conjugates not only stabilize plasmid DNA/polyethylenimine complexes via the strong DNA-binding affinity of green tea catechin, but also facilitate their transport into CD44-overexpressing cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. The hydrodynamic size, surface charge and physical stability of the complexes are characterized. We demonstrate that the stabilized ternary complexes display enhanced resistance to nuclease attack and polyanion-induced dissociation. Moreover, the ternary complexes can efficiently transfect the difficult-to-transfect HCT-116 colon cancer cell line even in serum-supplemented media due to their enhanced stability and CD44-targeting ability. Confocal microscopic analysis demonstrates that the stabilized ternary complexes are able to promote the nuclear transport of plasmid DNA more effectively than binary complexes and hyaluronic acid-coated ternary complexes. The present study suggests that the ternary complexes stabilized with hyaluronic acid-green tea catechin conjugates can be widely utilized for CD44-targeted delivery of nucleic acid-based therapeutics.

  20. Ternary fission of 260No in collinear configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M.; Seif, W. M.; Hashem, A. S.; Botros, M. M.; Abdul-Magead, I. A. M.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the collinear ternary fission of the 260No isotope. The calculations are performed in the framework of the three cluster model for all possible accompanied light particles of even mass numbers A = 4 - 52. The folding nuclear and Coulomb interaction potentials are used, based on the M3Y-Reid nucleon-nucleon force for the nuclear part. The deformation of the involved fragments and their relative orientations with respect to each other inside the fissioning nuclei are considered. Among all possible fragmentation channels, the suggested most probable channels are indicated as the ones showing a peak in the Q-value and a local minimum in the fragmentation potential, with respect to the mass and charge asymmetries. The indicated favored fragmentation channels from the approximate spherical calculations and those obtained after considering the deformations of the produced fragments are discussed in detail. In addition to the preferred heavy fragments of closed shells, favored prolate ones of high deformations appear when the nuclear deformations are taken into account. Among indicated fifty six favored channels, a collinear ternary fission of the 260No isotope is indicated to be most favored through the fragmentation channels of 15058Ce+410Be+40100Zr,60152Nd+412Be+3896Sr,58150Ce+614C+3896Sr,58148Ce+616C+3896Sr,54140Xe+822O+4098Zr,42106Mo+1848Ar+42106Mo and 41104Nb+2052Ca+41104Nb.

  1. Predicting toxicity of aromatic ternary mixtures to algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU GuangHua; WANG Chao; WANG PeiFang; YANG ChengZhi

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are often polluted with more than one type of contaminant, and information on the combined toxic effects of mixed pollutants on aquatic organisms is scarce at present. Acute toxicity of aromatic compounds and their ternary mixtures to the alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) was determined by the algae growth inhibition test. The median effective concentration (EC_(50)) value for a single aromatic compound and EC_(50mix) values for mixtures were obtained, the logarithm of n-octanol/water partition coefficient (logP_(mix)) and the frontier orbital energy gap (△E_(mix) for mixtures were calculated. Based on the quantitative structure-activity relationship model for single chemical toxicity log(1/EC_(50)) =0.426logP-1.150△E+12.61 (n=15, R~2=0.917 and Q~2=0.878), the following two-descriptor model was developed for the ternary mixture toxicity of aromatic compounds: log(1/EC_(50mix))=O.68210gP_(mix)-O.367△E_(mix)+ 4.971 (n=44, R~2-0.869 and Q~2=0.843). This model can be used to predict the combined toxicity of mixtures containing toxicants with different mechanisms of action.

  2. Multi-texture local ternary pattern for face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Almabrok; Asari, Vijayan

    2017-05-01

    In imagery and pattern analysis domain a variety of descriptors have been proposed and employed for different computer vision applications like face detection and recognition. Many of them are affected under different conditions during the image acquisition process such as variations in illumination and presence of noise, because they totally rely on the image intensity values to encode the image information. To overcome these problems, a novel technique named Multi-Texture Local Ternary Pattern (MTLTP) is proposed in this paper. MTLTP combines the edges and corners based on the local ternary pattern strategy to extract the local texture features of the input image. Then returns a spatial histogram feature vector which is the descriptor for each image that we use to recognize a human being. Experimental results using a k-nearest neighbors classifier (k-NN) on two publicly available datasets justify our algorithm for efficient face recognition in the presence of extreme variations of illumination/lighting environments and slight variation of pose conditions.

  3. A study of phase separation in ternary alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saswata Bhattacharyya; T A Abinandanan

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the evolution of microstructure when a disordered ternary alloy is quenched into a ternary miscibility gap. We have used computer simulations based on multicomponent Cahn–Hilliard (CH) equations for A and B, the compositions (in mole fraction) of A and B, respectively. In this work, we present our results on the effect of relative interfacial energies on the temporal evolution of morphologies during spinodal phase separation of an alloy with average composition, A = 1/4, B = 1/4 and A = 1/2. Interfacial energies between the ‘A’ rich, ‘B’ rich and ‘C’ rich phases are varied by changing the gradient energy coefficients. The phases associated with a higher interfacial energy are found to be more rounded than those with lower energy. Further, the kinetic paths (i.e. the history of A-rich, B-rich and C-rich regions in the microstructure) are also affected significantly by the relative interfacial energies of the three phases.

  4. Synthesis and Photoluminescence Properties of New Europium, Terbium (Ⅲ)Ternary Complexes Based on β-diketone%新的稀土Eu,Tb(Ⅲ)β-二酮三元配合物的合成与光谱性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程果; 魏长平; 任晓明; 王贺

    2012-01-01

    The β-diketone l-(4-aminophenyl)-3-phe-nylpropane-1,3-dione(L) was synthesized by classical Claisen condensation reaction, and the composition of the (3-diketone L was confirmed by elemental analysis and 1H NMR spectra. The result of 1H NMR spectra indicated that the ligand L existed as an enol form iso-mer, which was consistent with the result of IR analysis. With L as the first ligand and 1 ,10-phenanthro-line (phen) or 2 ,2'-bipyridin (bipy) as the secondary ligand, four new rare-earth Eu, Tb ( IH ) ternary complexes were prepared in ethanol solution. The ligand L and ternary complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR spectra, IR spectra, UV-vis spectra, phosphorescence spectra and fluorescence spectra. IR spectra indicated that; the rare-earth ion in the ternary complexes was coordinated with six oxygen atoms of three L ligands and two nitrogen atoms ofthe second ligand. The UV-vis spectra showed that the main absorption was from the ligand L in the ternary complexes. The fluorescence spectra demonstrated that the complexes could emit characteristic fluorescence of rare-earth ion and the strongest emission band was narrow which was attributed to the transitions of the 4f electrons of the central ions. The fluorescence intensity of Tb ( III ) ternary complexes was obviously higher than that of Eu ( HI ) ternary complexes, and this indicated that the energy level difference between the triplet state of ligand L and the emission energy of Tb3+ was well matched. The fluorescence spectra also showed that the phen was a better secondary ligand than bipy. So, the Tb(L)3phen exhibited the highest emission than others. It is an excellent green-emitter which would be regarded as a valuable material with bright green fluorescence.%采用Claisen缩合反应合成了一种β-二酮1-(4-氨基苯)-3-苯基丙烷-1,3-二酮(L:C15H13NO2),以元素分析和1H NMR谱确定了其组成,核磁和红外分析结果表明L主要以烯醇式存在.以L为第一

  5. Ternary q-Virasoro-Witt Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammar, F [Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Makhlouf, A [Laboratoire de Mathematiques, Informatique et Applications, Universite de Haute Alsace, 4, rue des Freres Lumiere F-68093 Mulhouse (France); Silvestrov, S, E-mail: Faouzi.Ammar@rnn.fss.t, E-mail: Abdenacer.Makhlouf@uha.f, E-mail: sergei.silvestrov@math.lth.s [Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-07-02

    In this paper we construct ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras which q-deform the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos using su(1, 1) enveloping algebra techniques. The ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos depend on a parameter and are not Nambu-Lie algebras for all but finitely many values of this parameter. For the parameter values for which the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras are Nambu-Lie, the corresponding ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed in this paper are also Hom-Nambu-Lie because they are obtained from the ternary Nambu-Lie algebras using the composition method. For other parameter values this composition method does not yield a Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra structure for q-Virasoro-Witt algebras. We show however, using a different construction, that the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras of Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos, as well as the general ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras we construct, carry a structure of the ternary Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra for all values of the involved parameters.

  6. Atomistic simulation of defect structure in ternary intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.C.; Ternes, J.K.; Farkas, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-08-01

    Interatomic potentials of the Embedded Atom type were used to study defect structure in ternary intermetallics. Interatomic potentials with appropriate inner consistency were developed for the modeling of ternary systems. Alloys were considered in the Nb-Al-Ti and in the Ni-Al-Ti systems. The stability of ternary phases in these systems was studied, particularly the B2 phase in Nb rich alloys of the Nb-Al-Ti system. The effects of increasing Ti additions in these alloys were studied, as well as the APB energies in these ternary alloys.

  7. Phase equilibria in the ternary In-Ni-Sn system at 700 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmetterer, C; Zemanova, A; Flandorfer, H; Kroupa, A; Ipser, H

    2013-04-01

    The phase equilibria of the ternary system In-Ni-Sn were investigated experimentally at 700 °C using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) including electron micro probe analysis (EMPA) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). A corresponding isothermal section was established based on these results. This particular temperature was chosen because it allowed obtaining reliable results within reasonable time. The existence of the ternary phase InNi6Sn5 was confirmed whereas the ternary compound In2NiSn, reported earlier in literature, was found to be part of a large solid solution field based on binary InNi. The ternary solubility of the binary phases was established, and continuous solid solutions were found between the isostructural phases Ni3Sn LT and InNi3 as well as between Ni3Sn2 HT and InNi2. In addition, this isothermal section could be well reproduced by CALPHAD modelling. The resulting calculated isotherm at 700 °C is presented, too, and compared with the experimental results.

  8. Developing Backward Chaining Algorithm of Inference Engine in Ternary Grid Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliadi Erdani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The inference engine is one of main components of expert system that influences the performance of expert system. The task of inference engine is to give answers and reasons to users by inference the knowledge of expert system. Since the idea of ternary grid issued in 2004, there is only several developed method, technique or engine working on ternary grid knowledge model. The in 2010 developed inference engine is less efficient because it works based on iterative process. The in 2011 developed inference engine works statically and quite expensive to compute. In order to improve the previous inference methods, a new inference engine has been developed. It works based on backward chaining process in ternary grid expert system. This paper describes the development of inference engine of expert system that can work in ternary grid knowledge model. The strategy to inference knowledge uses backward chaining with recursive process. The design result is implemented in the form of software. The result of experiment shows that the inference process works properly, dynamically and more efficient to compute in comparison to the previous developed methods.

  9. Comparison Of Modified Dual Ternary Indexing And Multi-Key Hashing Algorithms For Music Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Sridhar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have compared two indexing algorithms that have been used to index and retrieveCarnatic music songs. We have compared a modified algorithm of the Dual ternary indexing algorithmfor music indexing and retrieval with the multi-key hashing indexing algorithm proposed by us. Themodification in the dual ternary algorithm was essential to handle variable length query phrase and toaccommodate features specific to Carnatic music. The dual ternary indexing algorithm is adapted forCarnatic music by segmenting using the segmentation technique for Carnatic music. The dual ternaryalgorithm is compared with the multi-key hashing algorithm designed by us for indexing and retrieval inwhich features like MFCC, spectral flux, melody string and spectral centroid are used as features forindexing data into a hash table. The way in which collision resolution was handled by this hash table isdifferent than the normal hash table approaches. It was observed that multi-key hashing based retrievalhad a lesser time complexity than dual-ternary based indexing The algorithms were also compared fortheir precision and recall in which multi-key hashing had a better recall than modified dual ternaryindexing for the sample data considered.

  10. FP-LAPW methodology based theoretical investigation of structural, electronic and optical properties of MgxPb1-xS, MgxPb1-xSe and MgxPb1-xTe ternary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyaya, Surya; Bhattacharjee, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    The structural, electronic and optical properties of MgxPb1-xS, MgxPb1-xSe and MgxPb1-xTe alloys for 0≤ x≤1 in their rock-salt (B1) crystallographic phase have been calculated using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method under the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Using the Wu-Cohen generalized-gradient approximation (WC-GGA) induced exchange-correlation potential scheme, the ground state structural parameters such as equilibrium lattice constants, bulk modulus and its pressure derivatives are calculated and deviations of the lattice constants from Vegard's law and the bulk modulus from linear concentration dependence have been observed for the alloys. Electronic band structures and density of states have been calculated using Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnsoexit3b2tex.batn (TB-mBJ) parameterization scheme to study the electronic properties of the binary compounds and their ternary alloys. Using the approach of Zunger and co-workers, the microscopic origins of band gap bowing have been discussed in term of volume deformation, charge exchange and structural relaxation. Optical properties of the binary compounds and their ternary alloys have been calculated in terms of their respective dielectric function, refractive index, reflectivity and optical conductivity. Few calculated results are compared with available experimental and other theoretical data.

  11. Comparison Of Modified Dual Ternary Indexing And Multi-Key Hashing Algorithms For Music Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Sridhar, Rajeswari; Karthiga, S; T, Geetha; 10.5121/ijaia.2010.1305

    2010-01-01

    In this work we have compared two indexing algorithms that have been used to index and retrieve Carnatic music songs. We have compared a modified algorithm of the Dual ternary indexing algorithm for music indexing and retrieval with the multi-key hashing indexing algorithm proposed by us. The modification in the dual ternary algorithm was essential to handle variable length query phrase and to accommodate features specific to Carnatic music. The dual ternary indexing algorithm is adapted for Carnatic music by segmenting using the segmentation technique for Carnatic music. The dual ternary algorithm is compared with the multi-key hashing algorithm designed by us for indexing and retrieval in which features like MFCC, spectral flux, melody string and spectral centroid are used as features for indexing data into a hash table. The way in which collision resolution was handled by this hash table is different than the normal hash table approaches. It was observed that multi-key hashing based retrieval had a lesser ...

  12. Neutron Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michael [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoffman, Elizabeth [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Sindelar, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcua-Duaz, Brenda [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kohse, Gordon [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-06-17

    The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the response of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.

  13. Binary and Ternary Fission Within the Statistical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamian, Gurgen G.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Antonenko, Nikolai V.; Scheid, Werner

    The binary and ternary nuclear fission are treated within the statistical model. At the scission point we calculate the potentials as functions of the deformations of the fragments in the dinuclear model. The potentials give the mass and charge distributions of the fission fragments. The ternary fission is assumed to occur during the binary fission.

  14. Density-Driven segregation in Binary and Ternary Granular Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David

    2015-01-01

    We present a first experimental study of density-induced segregation within a three-dimensional, vibrofluidised, ternary granular system. Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT), we study the steady-state particle distributions achieved by binary and ternary granular beds under a variety of

  15. Density-Driven segregation in Binary and Ternary Granular Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David

    2015-01-01

    We present a first experimental study of density-induced segregation within a three-dimensional, vibrofluidised, ternary granular system. Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT), we study the steady-state particle distributions achieved by binary and ternary granular beds under a variety of

  16. Balanced ternary addition using a gated silicon nanowire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.A.; Van der Heijden, J.; Verduijn, J.; Klein, M.; Remacle, F.; Rogge, S.

    2011-01-01

    Ternary logic has the lowest cost of complexity, here, we demonstrate a CMOS hardware implementation of a ternary adder using a silicon metal-on-insulator single electron transistor. Gate dependent rectifying behavior of a single electron transistor (SET) results in a robust three-valued output as a

  17. Demonstration of Complementary Ternary Graphene Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Ji; Kim, So-Young; Noh, Jinwoo; Shim, Chang Hoo; Jung, Ukjin; Lee, Sang Kyung; Chang, Kyoung Eun; Cho, Chunhum; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2016-12-01

    Strong demand for power reduction in state-of-the-art semiconductor devices calls for novel devices and architectures. Since ternary logic architecture can perform the same function as binary logic architecture with a much lower device density and higher information density, a switch device suitable for the ternary logic has been pursued for several decades. However, a single device that satisfies all the requirements for ternary logic architecture has not been demonstrated. We demonstrated a ternary graphene field-effect transistor (TGFET), showing three discrete current states in one device. The ternary function was achieved by introducing a metal strip to the middle of graphene channel, which created an N-P-N or P-N-P doping pattern depending on the work function of the metal. In addition, a standard ternary inverter working at room temperature has been achieved by modulating the work function of the metal in a graphene channel. The feasibility of a ternary inverter indicates that a general ternary logic architecture can be realized using complementary TGFETs. This breakthrough will provide a key stepping-stone for an extreme-low-power computing technology.

  18. Ternary semitransparent organic solar cells with a laminated top electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makha, Mohammed; Testa, Paolo; Anantharaman, Surendra Babu; Heier, Jakob; Jenatsch, Sandra; Leclaire, Nicolas; Tisserant, Jean-Nicolas; Véron, Anna C.; Wang, Lei; Nüesch, Frank; Hany, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Tinted and colour-neutral semitransparent organic photovoltaic elements are of interest for building-integrated applications in windows, on glass roofs or on facades. We demonstrate a semitransparent organic photovoltaic cell with a dry-laminated top electrode that achieves a uniform average visible transmittance of 51% and a power conversion efficiency of 3%. The photo-active material is based on a majority blend composed of a visibly absorbing donor polymer and a fullerene acceptor, to which a selective near-infrared absorbing cyanine dye is added as a minority component. Our results show that organic ternary blends are attractive for the fabrication of semitransparent solar cells in general, because a guest component with a complementary absorption can compensate for the inevitably reduced current generation capability of a high-performing binary blend when applied as a thin, semitransparent film. PMID:28179960

  19. Ternary semitransparent organic solar cells with a laminated top electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makha, Mohammed; Testa, Paolo; Anantharaman, Surendra Babu; Heier, Jakob; Jenatsch, Sandra; Leclaire, Nicolas; Tisserant, Jean-Nicolas; Véron, Anna C; Wang, Lei; Nüesch, Frank; Hany, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Tinted and colour-neutral semitransparent organic photovoltaic elements are of interest for building-integrated applications in windows, on glass roofs or on facades. We demonstrate a semitransparent organic photovoltaic cell with a dry-laminated top electrode that achieves a uniform average visible transmittance of 51% and a power conversion efficiency of 3%. The photo-active material is based on a majority blend composed of a visibly absorbing donor polymer and a fullerene acceptor, to which a selective near-infrared absorbing cyanine dye is added as a minority component. Our results show that organic ternary blends are attractive for the fabrication of semitransparent solar cells in general, because a guest component with a complementary absorption can compensate for the inevitably reduced current generation capability of a high-performing binary blend when applied as a thin, semitransparent film.

  20. Photophysical study of blue-light excitable ternary Eu(III) complexes and their encapsulation into polystyrene nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Räsänen, Markus, E-mail: mpvras@utu.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Takalo, Harri [DHR Finland Oy, Innotrac Diagnostics, Biolinja 12, FIN-20750 Turku (Finland); Soukka, Tero [Department of Biochemistry/Biotechnology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Haapakka, Keijo; Kankare, Jouko [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)

    2015-04-15

    In this work, 14 ternary Eu(III) complexes were studied by means of spectroscopy. The studied Eu(III) complexes consisted of Lewis bases (4′-(4-diethylaminophenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine (L{sup 8}) or 1,10-phenanthroline (L{sup 9})) and differently substituted β-diketones. The ternary complexes with L{sup 8} show the excitation peak at 405 nm and the quantum yield even 76%. The brightest ternary complex at the 405 nm excitation was Eu(L{sup 3}){sub 3}L{sup 8} while Eu(L{sup 7}){sub 3}L{sup 8} (HL{sup 3}=4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione, HL{sup 7}=1-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-4,4,5,5,5-pentafluoro-1,3-pentanedione) was found to be the brightest at the ligand-centred excitation maximum. The ternary complexes were studied mainly in toluene as the model environment for the polystyrene nanoparticle cavities. The complexes were successfully loaded into the polystyrene nanoparticles enabling their bioanalytical application in aqueous environment. The encapsulation of the complexes preserved, or even enhanced, their good photophysical features. - Highlights: • Ternary Eu{sup 3+} complexes with some β-diketone and substituted terpyridine were studied. • Ternary complexes with substituted terpyridine showed blue-light excitability. • Ternary complexes were successfully loaded into the polystyrene nanoparticles. • Encapsulation of the complexes preserved their good photophysical features.

  1. Ternary Tree and Memory-Efficient Huffman Decoding Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa R. Suri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the focus was on the use of ternary tree over binary tree. Here, a new one pass Algorithm for Decoding adaptive Huffman ternary tree codes was implemented. To reduce the memory size and fasten the process of searching for a symbol in a Huffman tree, we exploited the property of the encoded symbols and proposed a memory efficient data structure to represent the codeword length of Huffman ternary tree. In this algorithm we tried to find out the staring and ending address of the code to know the length of the code. And then in second algorithm we tried to decode the ternary tree code using binary search method. In this algorithm we tried to find out the staring and ending address of the code to know the length of the code. And then in second algorithm we tried to decode the ternary tree code using binary search method.

  2. Protamine/DNA/Niosome Ternary Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery to the Retina: The Role of Protamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puras, G; Martínez-Navarrete, G; Mashal, M; Zárate, J; Agirre, M; Ojeda, E; Grijalvo, S; Eritja, R; Diaz-Tahoces, A; Avilés-Trigueros, M; Fernández, E; Pedraz, J L

    2015-10-05

    The present study aimed to evaluate the incorporation of protamine into niosome/DNA vectors to analyze the potential application of this novel ternary formulation to deliver the pCMS-EGFP plasmid into the rat retina. Binary vectors based on niosome/DNA and ternary vectors based on protamine/DNA/niosomes were prepared and physicochemically characterized. In vitro experiments were performed in ARPE-19 cells. At 1:1:5 protamine/DNA/niosome mass ratio, the resulted ternary vectors had 150 nm size, positive charge, spherical morphology, and condensed, released, and protected the DNA against enzymatic digestion. The presence of protamine in the ternary vectors improved transfection efficiency, cell viability, and DNA condensation. After ocular administration, the EGFP expression was detected in different cell layers of the retina depending on the administration route without any sign of toxicity associated with the formulations. While subretinal administration transfected mainly photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells at the site of injection, intravitreal administration produced a more uniform distribution of the protein expression through the inner layers of the retina. The protein expression in the retina persisted for at least one month after both administrations. Our study highlights the flattering properties of protamine/DNA/niosome ternary vectors for efficient and safe gene delivery to the rat retina.

  3. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  4. Thermodynamic re-modelling of the ternary Al–Cr–Ti system with refined Al–Cr description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witusiewicz, V.T., E-mail: v.vitusevych@access-technology.de [ACCESSe.V., Intzestr. 5, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Bondar, A.A. [Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, Krzhyzhanovsky Str. 3, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Hecht, U. [ACCESSe.V., Intzestr. 5, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Velikanova, T.Ya. [Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, Krzhyzhanovsky Str. 3, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic refinement of the Al–Cr system. • Key experimental investigations of the ternary Al–Cr–Ti alloys. • Thermodynamic modelling of the complete Al–Cr–Ti system. - Abstract: In the present paper, the ternary Al–Cr–Ti and binary constituent Al–Cr systems are thermodynamically re-modelled based on new experimental information reported in the literature within the past few years. Few key experiments were performed with selected ternary alloys in order to complement data on phase equilibria in the composition range of common TiAl-based alloys. Six sample compositions were prepared and analyzed in the as-cast and annealed conditions by means of SEM/EDS, XRD and DTA techniques. The elaborated thermodynamic description was applied to calculate selected phase equilibria as to provide a comparison between calculated and experimental results. The calculations are shown to reproduce the experimental data reasonably well.

  5. Flashpoint prediction for ternary mixtures of alcohols with water for CFD simulation of unsteady flame propagation during explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skřínský, Jan; Vereš, Ján; Ševčíková, Silvie Petránková

    2016-06-01

    Aqueous solutions of binary and ternary mixtures of alcohols are of considerable interest for a wide range of scientists and technologists. Simple dimensionless experimental formulae based on rational reciprocal and polynomial functions are proposed for correlation of the flashpoint data of binary mixtures of two components. The formulae are based on data obtained from flashpoint experiments and predictions. The main results are the derived experimental flashpoint values for ternary mixtures of two aqueous-organic solutions and the model prediction of maximum explosion pressure values for the studied mixtures. Potential application for the results concerns the assessment of fire and explosion hazards, and the development of inherently safer designs for chemical processes containing binary and ternary partially miscible mixtures of an aqueous-organic system. The goal of this article is to present the results of modelling using these standard models and to demonstrate its importance in the area of CFD simulation.

  6. [Construction of Three-Dimensional Isobologram for Ternary Pollutant Mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China) Isobolographic analysis was widely used in the interaction assessment of binary mixtures. However, how to construct a three-dimensional (3D) isobologram for the assessment of toxicity interaction within ternary mixtures is still not reported up to date. The main purpose of this paper is to develop a 3D isobologram where the relative concentrations of three components are acted as three coordinate axes in 3D space to examine the toxicity interaction within ternary mixtures. Taking six commonly used pesticides in China, including three herbicides (2, 4-D, desmetryne and simetryn) and three insecticides ( dimethoate, imidacloprid and propoxur) as the mixture components, the uniform design ray procedure (UD-Ray) was used to rationally design the concentration composition of various components in the ternary mixtures so that effectively and comprehensively reflected the variety of actual environmental concentrations. The luminescent inhibition toxicities of single pesticides and their ternary mixtures to Vibrio fischeri at various concentration levels were determined by the microplate toxicity analysis. Selecting concentration addition (CA) as the addition reference, 3D isobolograms were constructed to study the toxicity interactions of various ternary mixtures. The results showed that the 3D isobologram could clearly and directly exhibit the toxicity interactions of ternary mixtures, and extend the use of isobolographic analysis into the ternary mixtures.

  7. Designing a Novel Ternary Multiplier Using CNTFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Azimi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, multipliers are included as substantial keys of many systems with high efficiency such as FIR filters, microprocessors and processors of digital signals. The efficiency of the systems are mainly evaluated by their multipliers capability since multipliers are generally the slowest components of a system while occupying the most space. Multiple Valued Logic reduces the number of the required operations to implement a function and decreases the chip surface. Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors (CNTFET are considered as good substitutes for Silicon Transistors (MOSFET. Combining the abilities of Carbon Nanotubes Transistors with the advantages of Multiple Valued can provide a unique design which has a higher speed and less complexity. In this paper, a new multiplier is presented by nanotechnology using a ternary logic that improves the consuming power, raises the speed and decreased the chip surface as well. The presented design is simulated using CNTFET of Stanford University and HSPICE software, and the results are compared with other instances.

  8. Ternary compound thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    A group of ternary compound semiconductor (I-III-VI2) thin films for future applications in photovoltaic devices is proposed. The consideration of these materials (CuInSe2, CuInTe2 and especially CuInS2) for long range device development is emphasized. Much of the activity to date has been concerned with the growth and properties of CuInX2 films. X-ray and electron diffraction analyses, Hall mobility and coefficient, resistivity and carrier concentration variations with substrate and film temperature as well as grain size data have been determined. Both p- and n-type films of CuInS2 and CuInSe2 have been produced. Single and double source deposition techniques have been utilized. Some data have been recorded for annealed films.

  9. Ternary alloy nanocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SOUMEN SAHA; SONALIKA VAIDYA; KANDALAM V RAMANUJACHARY; SAMUEL E LOFLAND; ASHOK K GANGULI

    2016-04-01

    Cu–Fe–Ni ternary alloys (size ∼55–80 nm) with varying compositions viz. CuFeNi (A1), CuFe2Ni (A2) and CuFeNi2 (A3) were successfully synthesized using microemulsion. It is to be noted that synthesis of nanocrystallineternary alloys with precise composition is a big challenge which can be overcome by choosing an appropriate microemulsion system. High electrocatalytic activity towards HER in alkaline medium was achieved by the formation of alloys of metals with low and high binding energies. A high value of current density (228 mA cm$^2$) at an overpotential of 545 mV was obtained for CuFeNi (A1), which is significantly high as compared to the previously reported Ni$_{59}$Cu$_{41}$ alloy catalyst.

  10. Facile Synthesis of Ternary Boron Carbonitride Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Lijie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a novel and facile approach for the synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B–C–N nanotubes was reported. Growth occurred by heating simple starting materials of boron powder, zinc oxide powder, and ethanol absolute at 1150 °C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. As substrate, commercial stainless steel foil with a typical thickness of 0.05 mm played an additional role of catalyst during the growth of nanotubes. The nanotubes were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, and EELS. The results indicate that the synthesized B–C–N nanotubes exhibit a bamboo-like morphology and B, C, and N elements are homogeneously distributed in the nanotubes. A catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid (VLS mechanism was proposed for the growth of the nanotubes.

  11. On Ternary Inclusion-Exclusion Polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, Gennady

    2010-01-01

    Taking a combinatorial point of view on cyclotomic polynomials leads to a larger class of polynomials we shall call the inclusion-exclusion polynomials. This gives a more appropriate setting for certain types of questions about the coefficients of these polynomials. After establishing some basic properties of inclusion-exclusion polynomials we turn to a detailed study of the structure of ternary inclusion-exclusion polynomials. The latter subclass is exemplified by cyclotomic polynomials $\\Phi_{pqr}$, where $p

  12. The competition numbers of ternary Hamming graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Boram

    2010-01-01

    The competition graph of a digraph D is a graph which has the same vertex set as D and has an edge between x and y if and only if there exists a vertex v in D such that (x,v) and (y,v) are arcs of D. For any graph G, G together with sufficiently many isolated vertices is the competition graph of some acyclic digraph. The competition number k(G) of a graph G is defined to be the smallest number of such isolated vertices. In general, it is hard to compute the competition number k(G) for a graph G and it has been one of important research problems in the study of competition graphs to characterize a graph by its competition number. In this paper, we give the exact values of the competition numbers of ternary Hamming graphs.

  13. Accurate evaluation of lowest band gaps in ternary locally resonant phononic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Gang; Shao Li-Hui; Liu Yao-Zong; Wen Ji-Hong

    2006-01-01

    Based on a better understanding of the lattice vibration modes, two simple spring-mass models are constructed in order to evaluate the frequencies on both the lower and upper edges of the lowest locally resonant band gaps of the ternary locally resonant phononic crystals. The parameters of the models are given in a reasonable way based on the physical insight into the band gap mechanism. Both the lumped-mass methods and our models are used in the study of the influences of structural and the material parameters on frequencies on both edges of the lowest gaps in the ternary locally resonant phononic crystals. The analytical evaluations with our models and the theoretical predictions with the lumped-mass method are in good agreement with each other. The newly proposed heuristic models are helpful for a better understanding of the locally resonant band gap mechanism, as well as more accurate evaluation of the band edge frequencies.

  14. Preparation of lignosulfonate-acrylamide-chitosan ternary graft copolymer and its flocculation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kunpeng; Lou, Tao; Wang, Xuejun; Zhao, Wenhua

    2015-11-01

    As flocculant plays an important role in wastewater treatment, searching for high efficient and cost-effective flocculants has always become the challenge in chemical industry. In the current work, lignosulfonate-acrylamide-chitosan ternary copolymer was designed and prepared as a new kind of flocculant. The elemental analysis and structure characterization of FTIR and XRD showed that acrylamide successfully grafted onto the two natural polymers and amorphous macromolecules were formed. The natural polymers-based flocculant was water soluble and pH independent. As it had multiple functional groups from the raw materials, the amphoteric flocculant showed high color removal efficiency to anionic (acid blue 113, >95%), neutral (reactive black 5, >95%) and cationic dyes (methyl orange, >50%) in a wide range of flocculant dosage and pH windows. The ternary flocculant, based on lignosulfonate, chitosan, and acrylamide, might be a promising material in practical applications from the perspective of cost, source and performance.

  15. Magnetic structures of new uranium or rare earth based ternary stannides T{sub 2}M{sub 2}Sn (T = RE, U and M = Ni, Pd); Structures magnetiques de nouveaux stannures ternaires a base d'uranium ou de terres rares T{sub 2}M{sub 2}Sn (T=U, RE et M=Ni, Pd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffargue, D

    1997-07-15

    Magnetic structures of new ternary stannides T{sub 2}M{sub 2}Sn (T = U, RE and M Ni, Pd) have been determined by powder neutron diffraction. A precise study of U{sub 2}M{sub 2}Sn (M = Ni, Pd) compounds showed several relations between structural and magnetic properties. The hybridization effects between 5f(U) and 3d(Ni) states is responsible for the weak magnetic moment observed on the uranium atoms in U{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn, and explains why this stannide is close to a magnetic instability. In the system U{sub 2}Pd{sub 2+x}Sn{sub 1-x}, the reduction of the magnetic moment when the palladium composition increases shows the influence of 5f(U) - 4d(Pd) hybridization. In this solid solution, the evolution of the magnetic structure with the composition confirms an empirical law: the uranium magnetic moments are directed perpendicularly to the shortest U-U links. The extension of this study to the new Rare Earth based stannides RE{sub 2}Pd{sub 2,04}Sn{sub 0,96} (RE = Ce, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) evidenced systematic correlations between complicated magnetic structures. All these compounds present two magnetic transitions, characterized first by a sine-wave modulation, then at lower temperatures by a commensurate magnetic structure. (author)

  16. Ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Büyükmumcu, Z.; Davi, M.; Denschlag, H. O.; Gönnenwein, F.; Boulyga, S. F.

    2003-03-01

    An experiment measuring ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f) was carried out at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin using the Lohengrin recoil mass separator. Parameters of energy distributions were determined for 27 ternary particles up to 30Mg and their yields were calculated. The yields of 17 further ternary particles were estimated on the basis of the systematics developed. The heaviest particles observed in the experiment are 37Si and 37S; their possible origin is discussed.

  17. Proofs of two conjectures on ternary weakly regular bent functions

    OpenAIRE

    Helleseth, Tor; Hollmann, Henk D. L.; Kholosha, Alexander; Wang, Zeying; Xiang, Qing

    2008-01-01

    We study ternary monomial functions of the form $f(x)=\\Tr_n(ax^d)$, where $x\\in \\Ff_{3^n}$ and $\\Tr_n: \\Ff_{3^n}\\to \\Ff_3$ is the absolute trace function. Using a lemma of Hou \\cite{hou}, Stickelberger's theorem on Gauss sums, and certain ternary weight inequalities, we show that certain ternary monomial functions arising from \\cite{hk1} are weakly regular bent, settling a conjecture of Helleseth and Kholosha \\cite{hk1}. We also prove that the Coulter-Matthews bent functions are weakly regular.

  18. Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu ternary eutectic solder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I.E.; Yost, F.G.; Smith, J.F.; Miller, C.M.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1996-06-18

    A Pb-free solder includes a ternary eutectic composition consisting essentially of about 93.6 weight % Sn-about 4.7 weight % Ag-about 1.7 weight % Cu having a eutectic melting temperature of about 217 C and variants of the ternary composition wherein the relative concentrations of Sn, Ag, and Cu deviate from the ternary eutectic composition to provide a controlled melting temperature range (liquid-solid ``mushy`` zone) relative to the eutectic melting temperature (e.g. up to 15 C above the eutectic melting temperature). 5 figs.

  19. Surface exciton-polaritons in ternary mixed crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The surface exciton-polaritons in ternary mixed crystals are investigated. The numerical calculations for several Ⅲ-Ⅴ and Ⅱ-Ⅵ compound systems are performed and the polariton frequencies as functions of the wave-vector and the compositions for ternary mixed crystals AlxGa1-xAs, CdxZn1-xSe and AlxGa1-xN as examples are given and discussed. The results show that the dependence of the energies of surface polaritons on the composition of ternary mixed crystals are slightly nonlinear different from the bulk modes.

  20. Formation mechanism of the low-frequency locally resonant band gap in the two-dimensional ternary phononic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Gang; Liu Yao-Zong; Wen Ji-Hong; Yu Dian-Long

    2006-01-01

    The low-frequency band gap and the corresponding vibration modes in two-dimensional ternary locally resonant phononic crystals are restudied successfully with the lumped-mass method. Compared with the work of C. Goffaux and J. Sanchez-Dehesa (Phys. Rev. B 67 14 4301(2003)), it is shown that there exists an error of about 50% in their calculated results of the band structure, and one band is missing in their results. Moreover, the in-plane modes shown in their paper are improper, which results in the wrong conclusion on the mechanism of the ternary locally resonant phononic crystals. Based on the lumped-mass method and better description of the vibration modes according to the band gaps, the locally resonant mechanism in forming the subfrequency gaps is thoroughly analysed. The rule used to judge whether a resonant mode in the phononic crystals can result in a corresponding subfrequency gap is also verified in this ternary case.

  1. Regularities of Formation of Ternary Intermetallic Compounds between One Transition Element and Two Non-transition Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The pattern recognition methods and a four-parameter model, based on extension of Miedema's cellular model of alloy phases, are used to study the regularities of formation of ternary compounds between one transition element (T) and two non-transition elements (N, N') (T-N-N'system). The influences of φ (electronegativity), 1/3(nws (valence electron density in Wagner-Seitz cell), R(Pauling's metallic radii) and Z (number of valence electrons in atom) on the formation of the ternary intermetallic compounds were investigated.

  2. Regularities of formation of ternary alloy phases between non-transition metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚莉秀; 陈瑞亮; 钦佩; 陈念贻; 陆文聪

    2000-01-01

    Using a four-parameter model based on extended Miedema’ s cellular model of alloy phases and pattern recognition methods, the regularities of formation of ternary intermetallic compounds between non-transition metals have been investigated. The criterion of formation can be expressed as some empirical functions of Φ (electronegativity), nws1/3( valence electron density in Wagn-er-Seitz cell), R (Pauling’s metallic radius) and Z (number of valence electrons in atom).

  3. Regularities of formation of ternary alloy phases between non-transition metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using a four-parameter model based on extended Miedema's cellular model of alloy phases and pattern recognition methods, the regularities of formation of ternary intermetallic compounds between non-transition metals have been investigated. The criterion of formation can be expressed as some empirical functions of Ф (electronegativity), n1/3WS (valence electron density in Wagner-Seitz cell), R (Pauling's metallic radius) and Z (number of valence electrons in atom).

  4. PHASE EQUILIBRIUM FOR THE TERNARY SYSTEM VINYL CHLORIDE-CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE-POLY (VINYL CHLORIDE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Jianfeng; WENG Zhixue; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren

    1991-01-01

    Swelling capacity of vinyl chloride (VC) in chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) with 25- 40 wt% Cl at temperature 30- 57 ℃ was studied and their relationships were correlated with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption equations. A ternary phase diagram for VC-CPE-PVC was also established.In-situ polymerization conditions of CPE-g -VC were proposed and CPE content control was analyzed for the manufacturing process of CPE-g-VC graft product based on results of phase equilibrium study.

  5. Regular Functions with Values in Ternary Number System on the Complex Clifford Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We define a new modified basis i^ which is an association of two bases, e1 and e2. We give an expression of the form z=x0+ i ^z0-, where x0 is a real number and z0- is a complex number on three-dimensional real skew field. And we research the properties of regular functions with values in ternary field and reduced quaternions by Clifford analysis.

  6. Solution-based colloidal synthesis of hybrid P3HT: Ternary CuInSe2 nanocomposites using a novel combination of capping agents for low-cost photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailesh Narain; Chawla, Parul; Akanksha; Srivastava, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, ternary CuInSe2 (CISe) chalcopyrite nanocrystallites efficiently passivated by a novel combination of capping agents viz: aniline and 1-octadecene during chemical route synthesis were dispersed in conducting polymer matrix poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By varying the composition and concentration of the ligands, the properties of the resulting CISe nanocrystallites and its corresponding polymer nanocomposites thus could be tailored. The structural, morphological and optical studies accomplished by various complimentary techniques viz. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Contact angle, Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman have enabled us to compare the different hybrid organic (polymer)-inorganic nanocomposites. On the basis of aniline-octadecene equilibrium phase diagram, the polydispersity of the CISe nanocrystals could be tuned by using controlled variations in the reaction conditions of nucleation and growth such as composition of the solvent and temperature. To the best of author's knowledge, the beneficial effects of both the capping agents; aniline and octadecene contributing well in tandem in the development of large-sized (100-125 nm) high quality, sterically- and photo-oxidative stable polycrystalline CISe and its corresponding polymer (P3HT):CISe composites with enhanced charge transfer efficiency has been reported for the first time. The low-cost synthesis and ease of preparation renders this method of great potential for its possible application in low-cost hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaics. The figure shows the Temperature vs Mole fraction graph of two different phases (aniline and 1-octadecene) in equilibrium.

  7. The Mapping Synthesis of Ternary Functions under Fixed Polarities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈偕雄; 吴浩敏

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes a mapping method simplifying the Reed-Muller expansion(“RM expansion”)of a ternary function under fixed polarities and the transformation of the RM expansion coefficients with different fixed polarities.

  8. The theory and geological application of ternary statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D. H.

    A statistical procedure for defining the relationship of three interdependent variables was developed. A plotting scheme was devised which would reduce any three variable values to a single representative point. The centroid of a triangle formed by the three input values provided the best definition for such a point. Ternary statistical plots were made of geological data which were previously analyzed using conventional statistical and graphical methods. In instances where multiple plots were needed to define the correlation of three variables, ternary statistical analysis reduced the same correlation to a single plot. Ternary statistical plots emphasized features not shown on the conventional plots. Ternary statistical techniques provided a more complete and less complex approach.

  9. Phase diagram of the Al-Er-Mo ternary system at 873 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yanfang; Yang, Wenchao; Tang, Chenghuang; Lan, Yanni; Zhan, Yong Zhong

    2015-11-01

    The phase relationship in the Al-Er-Mo ternary system at 873 K has been investigated based on the equilibrated method mainly by means of X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The existence of 10 binary compounds and two ternary compounds has been confirmed. The results present that the isothermal section at 873 K is governed by 15 single-phase regions, 29 two-phase regions and 15 three-phase regions. By using the phase-disappearing method, Al8Mo3 has a narrow homogeneity range (from 72 to 73 at% Al), while the homogeneity range of AlMo3 is from 21% to 28.5% at% Al. Also, the maximum solubility of Al in Mo is about 16 at%.

  10. Reflectance properties of one-dimensional metal-dielectric ternary photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, G. N., E-mail: gnpandey2009@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, AmityUniversity, Noida (U.P.) (India); Kumar, Narendra [Department of Physics (CASH), Modi University of Science and Technology, Lakshmangarh, Sikar, Rajsthan (India); Thapa, Khem B. [Department of Physics, U I E T, ChhatrapatiShahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur- (UP) (India); Ojha, S. P. [Department of Physics IIT, Banaras Hindu University (India)

    2016-05-06

    Metallic photonic crystal has a very important application in absorption enhancement in solar cells. It has been found that an ultra-thin metallic layer becomes transparent due to internal scattering of light through the each interface of the dielectric and metal surfaces. The metal has absorption due to their surface plasmon and the plasmon has important parameters for changing optical properties of the metal. We consider ternary metallic-dielectric photonic crystal (MDPC) for having large probabilities to change the optical properties of the MDPC and the photonic crystals may be changed by changing dimensionality, symmetry, lattice parameters, Filling fraction and effective refractive index refractive index contrast. In this present communication, we try to show that the photonic band gap in ternary metal-dielectric photonic crystal can be significantly enlarged when air dielectric constant is considered. All the theoretical analyses are made based on the transfer matrix method together with the Drude model of metal.

  11. Calculation of activity coefficients for components in ternary Ti alloys and intermetallics as matrix of composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱艳; 杨延清; 孙军

    2004-01-01

    Based on Kohler's ternary solution model and Miedema's model for calculating the formation heat of binary solution, the integral equation was established for calculating the activity coefficients in ternary alloys and intermetallics. The activity coefficients for components in alloy Ti-5Al-2.5Sn, Ti-6Al-4V and intermetallics TiAl, Ti3 Al and Ti2 AlNb were calculated with the equations. The calculated data coincide well with the experimental ones found in literatures. According to the calculated activity coefficients and activities, it can be predicted that the interfacial reaction in SiC/Ti3 Al composite is more severe than that in composites SiC/Ti2 AlNb and SiC/TiAl.

  12. Reflectance properties of one-dimensional metal-dielectric ternary photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, G. N.; Kumar, Narendra; Thapa, Khem B.; Ojha, S. P.

    2016-05-01

    Metallic photonic crystal has a very important application in absorption enhancement in solar cells. It has been found that an ultra-thin metallic layer becomes transparent due to internal scattering of light through the each interface of the dielectric and metal surfaces. The metal has absorption due to their surface plasmon and the plasmon has important parameters for changing optical properties of the metal. We consider ternary metallic-dielectric photonic crystal (MDPC) for having large probabilities to change the optical properties of the MDPC and the photonic crystals may be changed by changing dimensionality, symmetry, lattice parameters, Filling fraction and effective refractive index refractive index contrast. In this present communication, we try to show that the photonic band gap in ternary metal-dielectric photonic crystal can be significantly enlarged when air dielectric constant is considered. All the theoretical analyses are made based on the transfer matrix method together with the Drude model of metal.

  13. On the ternary Ag – Cu – Ga system: Electromotive force measurement and thermodynamic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierlotka, Wojciech, E-mail: wojtek@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Materials Science and Engineering Department, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Jendrzejczyk-Handzlik, Dominika; Fitzner, Krzysztof; Handzlik, Piotr [Non-Ferrous Metals Department, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    The ternary silver–copper–gallium system found application as a solder material in jewel crafting and electronics, thus a phase diagram of this system seems to be important tool, which is necessary for a proper application of different alloys. The activity of gallium in liquid phase was determined by electromotive measurement technique and after that the equilibrium diagram of Ag – Cu – Ga was modeled based on available experimental data using Calphad approach. A set of Gibbs energies was found and used for calculation a phase diagram and thermodynamic properties of liquid phase. The experimental data was reproduced well by calculation. - Highlights: • For the first time activity of Ga in liquid Ag – Cu – Ga alloys was measured. • For the first time the ternary Ag – Cu – Ga system was thermodynamically modeled. • Modeled Ag – Cu – Ga system reproduces experimental data well.

  14. Ternary cluster decay within the liquid drop model

    CERN Document Server

    Royer, G; Dubillot, M; Leonard, E

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal ternary and binary fission barriers of $^{36}$Ar, $^{56}$Ni and $^{252}$Cf nuclei have been determined within a rotational liquid drop model taking into account the nuclear proximity energy. For the light nuclei the heights of the ternary fission barriers become competitive with the binary ones at high angular momenta since the maximum lies at an outer position and has a much higher moment of inertia.

  15. Ternary cluster decay within the liquid drop model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, G.; Degiorgio, K.; Dubillot, M.; Leonard, E.

    2008-05-01

    Longitudinal ternary and binary fission barriers of 36Ar, 56Ni and 252Cf nuclei have been determined within a rotational liquid drop model taking into account the nuclear proximity energy. For the light nuclei the heights of the ternary fission barriers become competitive with the binary ones at high angular momenta since the maximum lies at an outer position and has a much higher moment of inertia.

  16. Regularities of Formation of Ternary Intermetallic Compound between Transition Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixiu YAO; Jie YANG; Chenzhou YE; Nianyi CHEN

    2001-01-01

    Four parameters, φ (electronegativity), nws1/3 (valence electron density in Wagner-Seitz cell),R (Pauling's metallic radius) and Z (number of valence electrons in atom), and the pattern recognition methods were used to investigate the regularities of formation of ternary intermetallic compounds between three transition elements. The obtained mathematical model expressed by some inequalities can be used as a criterion of ternary compound formation in "unknown" phase diagrams of alloy systems.

  17. An intimately bonded titanate nanotube–polyaniline–gold nanoparticle ternary composite as a scaffold for electrochemical enzyme biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoqiang, E-mail: liuxiaoqiang@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental and Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan Province, 475004 (China); Zhu, Jie; Huo, Xiaohe; Yan, Rui [Institute of Environmental and Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan Province, 475004 (China); Wong, Danny K.Y., E-mail: Danny.Wong@mq.edu.au [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2016-03-10

    In this work, titanate nanotubes (TNTs), polyaniline (PANI) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were assembled to form a ternary composite, which was then applied on an electrode as a scaffold of an electrochemical enzyme biosensor. The scaffold was constructed by oxidatively polymerising aniline to produce an emeraldine salt of PANI on TNTs, followed by gold nanoparticle deposition. A novel aspect of this scaffold lies in the use of the emeraldine salt of PANI as a molecular wire between TNTs and GNPs. Using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a model enzyme, voltammetric results demonstrated that direct electron transfer of HRP was achieved at both TNT-PANI and TNT-PANI-GNP-modified electrodes. More significantly, the catalytic reduction current of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by HRP was ∼75% enhanced at the TNT-PANI-GNP-modified electrode, compared to that at the TNT-PANI-modified electrode. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant of HRP was found to be ∼3 times larger at the TNT-PANI-GNP-modified electrode than that at the TNT-PANI-modified electrode. Based on chronoamperometric detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, a linear range from 1 to 1200 μM, a sensitivity of 22.7 μA mM{sup −1} and a detection limit of 0.13 μM were obtained at the TNT-PANI-GNP-modified electrode. The performance of the biosensor can be ascribed to the superior synergistic properties of the ternary composite. - Highlights: • A ternary TiO{sub 2} nanotube–polyaniline–gold nanoparticle composite was developed. • New synthetic route for ternary composite with a polyaniline molecular wire between TiO{sub 2} nanotubes and gold nanoparticles. • An electrochemical biosensor with ternary composite as a scaffold. • Ternary composite facilitated improved analytical performance of electrochemical biosensor.

  18. ThermoData Engine (TDE) software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept. 7. Ternary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diky, Vladimir; Chirico, Robert D; Muzny, Chris D; Kazakov, Andrei F; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Magee, Joseph W; Abdulagatov, Ilmutdin; Kang, Jeong Won; Frenkel, Michael

    2012-01-23

    ThermoData Engine (TDE) is the first full-scale software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept, as reported in this journal. The present paper describes the first application of this concept to the evaluation of thermophysical properties for ternary chemical systems. The method involves construction of Redlich-Kister type equations for individual properties (excess volume, thermal conductivity, viscosity, surface tension, and excess enthalpy) and activity coefficient models for phase equilibrium properties (vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibrium). Constructed ternary models are based on those for the three pure component and three binary subsystems evaluated on demand through the TDE software algorithms. All models are described in detail, and extensions to the class structure of the program are provided. Reliable evaluation of properties for the binary subsystems is essential for successful property evaluations for ternary systems, and algorithms are described to aid appropriate parameter selection and fitting for the implemented activity coefficient models (NRTL, Wilson, Van Laar, Redlich-Kister, and UNIQUAC). Two activity coefficient models based on group contributions (original UNIFAC and NIST-KT-UNIFAC) are also implemented. Novel features of the user interface are shown, and directions for future enhancements are outlined.

  19. Crystal structures of Two Potential Tumor Imaging Agents and Therapeutic Agents-Copper(II)Ternary Complexes With Salicylidene-tyrosinato Schiff Base and Nitrogen-donor Chelating Lewis Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhao WANG; Guan Liang CAI; Ling XIA; Jun Jian YAO; Hong Yan CHEN; Zhao Xing MENG; Bo Li LIU

    2004-01-01

    The crystal structures of two potential tumor imaging agents and therapeutic agents -copper(II) complexes with salicylidene-tyrosinato Schiff base and nitrogen-donor chelating Lewis base,[Cu(sal-tyr)(bipy)] 1 and [Cu(sal-tyr)(phen)]·2CH3OH 2, are presented. Our work is helpful to get deep understanding of novel 64Cu tumor imaging agents and therapeutic agents.

  20. Impact of ternary blends of biodiesel on diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pongamia and waste cooking oils are the main non edible oils for biodiesel production in India. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the fuel properties and investigate the impact on engine performance using Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel and their ternary blend with diesel. The investigation of the fuel properties shows that Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel have poor cold flow property. This will lead to starting problem in the engine operation. To overcome this problem the ternary blends of diesel, waste cooking biodiesel and Pongamia biodiesel are prepared. The cloud and pour point for ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 were found to be 7 °C and 6.5 °C which are comparable to cloud and pour point of diesel 6 °C and 5 °C, respectively. The result of the test showed that brake specific fuel consumption for Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel is higher than ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 due to their lower energy content. The brake thermal efficiency of ternary blend and diesel is comparable while the Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel have low efficiency. The result of investigation showed that ternary blend can be developed as alternate fuel.

  1. Potentiometric studies on ternary complexes involving some divalent transition metal ions, gallic acid and biologically abundant aliphatic dicarboxylic acids in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelatty Mohamed Radalla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation of binary and ternary complexes of the divalent transition metal ions, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ with gallic acid and the biologically important aliphatic dicarboxylic acids (adipic, succinic, malic, malonic, maleic, tartaric and oxalic acids were investigated by means of the potentiometric technique at 25 °C and I = 0.10 mol dm−3 NaNO3. The acid-base properties of the ligands were investigated and discussed. The acidity constants of gallic acid and aliphatic dicarboxylic acids were determined and used for determining the stability constants of the binary and ternary complexes formed in the aqueous medium under the above experimental conditions. The formation of the different 1:1 and 1:2 binary complexes and 1:1:1 ternary complexes are inferred from the corresponding potentiometric pH-metric titration curves. The ternary complex formation was found to occur in a stepwise manner. The stability constants of these binary and ternary systems were calculated. The values of Δ log K, percentage of relative stabilization (%R.S. and log X were evaluated and discussed. The concentration distribution of the various complex species formed in solution was evaluated and discussed. The mode of chelation of ternary complexes formed was ascertained by conductivity measurements.

  2. Thermodynamic description of the Mg-Nd-Zn ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, H.Y.; Huang, G.X.; Bo, H.; Xu, G.L. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Liu, L.B., E-mail: pdc@mail.csu.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Non-ferrous Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Center of Phase Diagram and Materials Design and Manufacture, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Jin, Z.P. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Non-ferrous Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Center of Phase Diagram and Materials Design and Manufacture, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2011-02-17

    A thermodynamic description of the Mg-Nd-Zn system was developed by means of the CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagrams) method. The constituent binary systems Mg-Nd and Nd-Zn were re-optimized based on the experimental phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties available in the literature. Combining with the thermodynamic parameters of the Mg-Zn system cited from the reference, the Mg-Nd-Zn ternary system was evaluated. The Gibbs energies of the solution phases (liquid, BCC{sub A}2, DHCP, HCP{sub A}3 and HCP{sub Z}n) were described by the subregular solution model with the Redlich-Kister polynomial function, and those of the stoichiometric compounds, Nd{sub 2}Zn{sub 17}, NdZn{sub 11H}, NdZn{sub 11L}, Nd{sub 3}Zn{sub 22}, Nd{sub 13}Zn{sub 58}, Nd{sub 3}Zn{sub 11}, NdZn{sub 3}, NdZn{sub 2} and Mg{sub 2}Nd, were described by the sublattice model. The compounds Mg{sub 3}Nd and Mg{sub 41}Nd{sub 5} in the Mg-Nd-Zn system were treated as the formulae (Mg, Zn){sub 3}(Mg, Nd) and (Mg, Nd, Zn){sub 41}(Mg, Nd){sub 5}. The order-disorder transition between BCC{sub B}2 and BCC{sub A}2 phases was treated using a two-sublattice model (Mg, Nd, Zn){sub 0.5}(Mg, Nd, Zn){sub 0.5}. Based on experimental data, four stable ternary compounds {tau}{sub 1}(Mg{sub 7}Nd{sub 1}Zn{sub 12}), {tau}{sub 2}(Mg{sub 7}Nd{sub 2}Zn{sub 11}), {tau}{sub 3}(Mg{sub 6}Nd{sub 1}Zn{sub 3}) and {tau}{sub 4}(Mg{sub 6}Nd{sub 3}Zn{sub 11}) were taken into consideration in this system. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters of the Mg-Nd-Zn system was obtained. Projection of the liquidus surface, selected vertical and isothermal sections were calculated using the proposed thermodynamic description. Comprehensive comparisons between the calculated and measured phase diagrams show that almost all the accurate experimental information is satisfactorily accounted for by the present thermodynamic description.

  3. In-beam investigation of ternary fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotte, R.; Fromm, W. D.; Hentschel, E.; Ortlepp, H. G.; Schilling, K. D.; Seidel, W.; Stary, F.; Zwicker, G.

    1988-06-01

    Nuclear fission accompanied by long-range alpha particles has been investigated. Fission was induced by irradiating a natural uranium target with 13.5 MeV deuterons. The alpha energy and angular distributions are similar to those observed in spontaneous or thermal neutron induced fission. The correlation angle between alpha particles and light fission fragments has a most probable value ofbar \\vartheta _{l f - α } = 82.1^circ ± 0.9^circ and a dispersion (FWHM) of Δϑ=18.4°±1.2°. The mean value and dispersion of the energy distribution arebar E_α = 14.8 ± 1.0 MeV and ΔE=9.1±1.2 MeV (FWHM), respectively. The peak-to-valley ratio of the ternary fission fragment mass distribution is found to increase with increasing alpha energy. For near-symmetric mass division, a strong broadening of the angular distribution is observed. The results are discussed in the frame of a multichannel-fission model.

  4. On the decoding process in ternary error-correcting output codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sergio; Pujol, Oriol; Radeva, Petia

    2010-01-01

    A common way to model multiclass classification problems is to design a set of binary classifiers and to combine them. Error-Correcting Output Codes (ECOC) represent a successful framework to deal with these type of problems. Recent works in the ECOC framework showed significant performance improvements by means of new problem-dependent designs based on the ternary ECOC framework. The ternary framework contains a larger set of binary problems because of the use of a "do not care" symbol that allows us to ignore some classes by a given classifier. However, there are no proper studies that analyze the effect of the new symbol at the decoding step. In this paper, we present a taxonomy that embeds all binary and ternary ECOC decoding strategies into four groups. We show that the zero symbol introduces two kinds of biases that require redefinition of the decoding design. A new type of decoding measure is proposed, and two novel decoding strategies are defined. We evaluate the state-of-the-art coding and decoding strategies over a set of UCI Machine Learning Repository data sets and into a real traffic sign categorization problem. The experimental results show that, following the new decoding strategies, the performance of the ECOC design is significantly improved.

  5. A study of the formation constants of ternary and quaternary complexes of some bivalent transition metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADHURJYA NEOG

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of hetero-ligand 1:1:1, M(II-Opda-Sal/Gly ternary and 1:1:1:1, M(II-Opda-Sal-Gly quaternary complexes, where M(II = Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd; Opda = o‑phenylenediamine, Sal = salicylic acid, Gly = glycine, was studied pH-metrically in aqueous medium. The formation constants for the resulting ternary and quaternary complexes were evaluated at a constant ionic strength, μ = 0.20 mol dm-3 and temperature, 30±0.1 °C. The order of the formation constants in terms of the metal ion for both type of complexes was found to be Cu(II > Ni(II > Zn(II > Cd(II. This order was explained based on the increasing number of fused rings, the coordination number of the metal ions, the Irving – William order and the stability of various species. The expected species formed in solution were pruned with the Fortran IV program SPEPLOT and the stability of the ternary and quaternary complexes is explained.

  6. Ab initio atomistic thermodynamics study on the oxidation mechanism of binary and ternary alloy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shi-Yu, E-mail: buaasyliu@gmail.com [College of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Liu, Shiyang [Institute of Information Optics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004 (China); Li, De-Jun [College of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wang, Sanwu, E-mail: sanwu-wang@utulsa.edu [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (United States); Guo, Jing; Shen, Yaogen, E-mail: meshen@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-02-14

    Utilizing a combination of ab initio density-functional theory and thermodynamics formalism, we have established the microscopic mechanisms for oxidation of the binary and ternary alloy surfaces and provided a clear explanation for the experimental results of the oxidation. We construct three-dimensional surface phase diagrams (SPDs) for oxygen adsorption on three different Nb-X(110) (X = Ti, Al or Si) binary alloy surfaces. On the basis of the obtained SPDs, we conclude a general microscopic mechanism for the thermodynamic oxidation, that is, under O-rich conditions, a uniform single-phase SPD (type I) and a nonuniform double-phase SPD (type II) correspond to the sustained complete selective oxidation and the non-sustained partial selective oxidation by adding the X element, respectively. Furthermore, by revealing the framework of thermodynamics for the oxidation mechanism of ternary alloys through the comparison of the surface energies of two separated binary alloys, we provide an understanding for the selective oxidation behavior of the Nb ternary alloy surfaces. Using these general microscopic mechanisms, one could predict the oxidation behavior of any binary and multi-component alloy surfaces based on thermodynamics considerations.

  7. Large field-induced-strain at high temperature in ternary ferroelectric crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaojin; Chen, Lijun; Yuan, Guoliang; Luo, Haosu; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.

    2016-10-01

    The new generation of ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 ferroelectric single crystals have potential applications in high power devices due to their surperior operational stability relative to the binary system. In this work, a reversible, large electric field induced strain of over 0.9% at room temperature, and in particular over 0.6% above 380 K was obtained. The polarization rotation path and the phase transition sequence of different compositions in these ternary systems have been determined with increasing electric field applied along [001] direction based on x-ray diffraction data. Thereafter, composition dependence of field-temperature phase diagrams were constructed, which provide compositional and thermal prospectus for the electromechanical properties. It was found the structural origin of the large stain, especially at higher temperature is the lattice parameters modulated by dual independent variables in composition of these ternary solid solution crystals.

  8. Composition dependent band offsets of ZnO and its ternary alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haitao; Chen, Junli; Wang, Yin; Wang, Jian; Guo, Hong

    2017-01-30

    We report the calculated fundamental band gaps of wurtzite ternary alloys Zn1-xMxO (M = Mg, Cd) and the band offsets of the ZnO/Zn1-xMxO heterojunctions, these II-VI materials are important for electronics and optoelectronics. Our calculation is based on density functional theory within the linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) approach where the modified Becke-Johnson (MBJ) semi-local exchange is used to accurately produce the band gaps, and the coherent potential approximation (CPA) is applied to deal with configurational average for the ternary alloys. The combined LMTO-MBJ-CPA approach allows one to simultaneously determine both the conduction band and valence band offsets of the heterojunctions. The calculated band gap data of the ZnO alloys scale as Eg = 3.35 + 2.33x and Eg = 3.36 - 2.33x + 1.77x(2) for Zn1-xMgxO and Zn1-xCdxO, respectively, where x being the impurity concentration. These scaling as well as the composition dependent band offsets are quantitatively compared to the available experimental data. The capability of predicting the band parameters and band alignments of ZnO and its ternary alloys with the LMTO-CPA-MBJ approach indicate the promising application of this method in the design of emerging electronics and optoelectronics.

  9. Mean centering of double divisor ratio spectra, a novel spectrophotometric method for analysis of ternary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Said A.; Elzanfaly, Eman S.; Salem, Maissa Y.; El-Zeany, Badr A.

    2016-01-01

    A novel spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of ternary mixtures without previous separation, showing significant advantages over conventional methods. The new method is based on mean centering of double divisor ratio spectra. The mathematical explanation of the procedure is illustrated. The method was evaluated by determination of model ternary mixture and by the determination of Amlodipine (AML), Aliskiren (ALI) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in laboratory prepared mixtures and in a commercial pharmaceutical preparation. For proper presentation of the advantages and applicability of the new method, a comparative study was established between the new mean centering of double divisor ratio spectra (MCDD) and two similar methods used for analysis of ternary mixtures, namely mean centering (MC) and double divisor of ratio spectra-derivative spectrophotometry (DDRS-DS). The method was also compared with a reported one for analysis of the pharmaceutical preparation. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines and accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness were found to be within the acceptable limits.

  10. An electrochemical hydrogen meter for measuring hydrogen in sodium using a ternary electrolyte mixture

    CERN Document Server

    Sridharan, R; Nagaraj, S; Gnanasekaran, T; Periaswami, G

    2003-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor for measuring hydrogen concentration in liquid sodium that is based on a ternary mixture of LiCl, CaCl sub 2 and CaHCl as the electrolyte has been developed. DSC experiments showed the eutectic temperature of this ternary system to be approx 725 K. Impedance spectroscopic analysis of the electrolyte indicated ionic conduction through a molten phase at approx 725 K. Two electrochemical hydrogen sensors were constructed using the ternary electrolyte of composition 70 mol% LiCl:16 mol% CaHCl:14 mol% CaCl sub 2 and tested at 723 K in a mini sodium loop and at hydrogen levels of 60-250 ppb in sodium. The sensors show linear response in this concentration range and are capable of detecting a change of 10 ppb hydrogen in sodium over a background level of 60 ppb. Identification of this electrolyte system and its use in a sensor for measuring hydrogen in sodium are described in this paper.

  11. Capillary-assisted fabrication of biconcave polymeric microlenses from microfluidic ternary emulsion droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisisako, Takasi; Ando, Takuya; Hatsuzawa, Takeshi

    2014-12-29

    In this study, a simple capillary-based approach for producing biconcave polymeric microlenses with uniform size and shape from ternary emulsion droplets is presented. Monodisperse ternary emulsion droplets (0.6-4.0 nL) are produced which contain a photocurable segment of an acrylate monomer and two non-curable segments of silicone oil (SO) by using a microfluidic sheath-flowing droplet generator on a glass chip. The curvature radius of the interfaces separating the droplet segments, as well as the droplet size, and production rate can be flexibly varied by changing the flow conditions of the organic and aqueous phases. Subsequently, off-chip suspension photopolymerization yields non-spherical polymeric microparticles with two spherical concave surfaces templated by two SO segments at random positions. By ultraviolet light irradiation of ternary droplets with two SO segments trapped by the interior wall of a cylindrical microcapillary (internal diameter: 130 μm), biconcave microlenses can be produced with two spherical concave surfaces with a common lens axis. The produced lenses are suitable for use as optical diverging lenses.

  12. Delay Insensitive Ternary CMOS Logic for Secure Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. P. Nair

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As digital circuit design continues to evolve due to progress of semiconductor processes well into the sub 100 nm range, clocked architectures face limitations in a number of cases where clockless asynchronous architectures generate less noise and produce less electro-magnetic interference (EMI. This paper develops the Delay-Insensitive Ternary Logic (DITL asynchronous design paradigm that combines design aspects of similar dual-rail asynchronous paradigms and Boolean logic to create a single wire per bit, three voltage signaling and logic scheme. DITL is compared with other delay insensitive paradigms, such as Pre-Charge Half-Buffers (PCHB and NULL Convention Logic (NCL on which it is based. An application of DITL is discussed in designing secure digital circuits resistant to side channel attacks based on measurement of timing, power, and EMI signatures. A Secure DITL Adder circuit is designed at the transistor level, and several variance parameters are measured to validate the efficiency of DITL in resisting side channel attacks. The DITL design methodology is then applied to design a secure 8051 ALU.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of Prussian blue analogs described by Heisenberg ternary alloy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Yusuf

    2015-11-01

    Within the framework of Monte Carlo simulation technique, we simulate magnetic behavior of Prussian blue analogs based on Heisenberg ternary alloy model. We present phase diagrams in various parameter spaces, and we compare some of our results with those based on Ising counterparts. We clarify the variations of transition temperature and compensation phenomenon with mixing ratio of magnetic ions, exchange interactions, and exchange anisotropy in the present ferro-ferrimagnetic Heisenberg system. According to our results, thermal variation of the total magnetization curves may exhibit N, L, P, Q, R type behaviors based on the Néel classification scheme.

  14. Thermodynamic assessment of the Al-Mo-V ternary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic assessment of the Al-Mo-V ternary system was performed by means of the CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram approach based on the thermodynamic descriptions of three constitutive binary systems (Al-Mo, Al-V and Mo-V as well as the experimental phase equilibria data available in the literature. The solution phases, i.e. liquid, bcc (Mo, V and fcc (Al, were described using the substitutional solution models with the Redlich-Kister equation. The binary phases in the Al-Mo and Al-V systems with the solubilities of the third element were modeled using the sublattice models. An optimal set of thermodynamic parameters for the Al-Mo-V system was obtained. Six isothermal sections at 1200, 1000, 750, 715, 675 and 630°C and liquidus projection with isotherm were calculated. The reaction scheme for the entire Al-Mo-V system was also constructed. Comparisons between the calculated and measured phase diagrams indicated that almost all the reliable experimental information was satisfactorily accounted for by the present modeling.

  15. Symmetric and asymmetric ternary fission of hot nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Wilczynski, J.; Leegte, H. K. W.; Siemssen, R. H.; Wilschut, H. W.; Grotowski, K.; Panasiewicz, A.; Sosin, Z.; Wieloch, A.

    1993-07-01

    Emission of α particles accompanying fusion-fission processes in the 40Ar +232Th reaction at E(40Ar) = 365 MeV was studied in a wide range of in-fission-plane and out-of-plane angles. The exact determination of the emission angles of both fission fragments combined with the time-of-flight measurements allowed us to reconstruct the complete kinematics of each ternary event. The coincident energy spectra of α particles were analyzed by using predictions of the energy spectra of the statistical code cascade . The analysis clearly demonstrates emission from the composite system prior to fission, emission from fully accelerated fragments after fission, and also emission during scission. The analysis is presented for both symmetric and asymmetric fission. The results have been analyzed using a time-dependent statistical decay code and confronted with dynamical calculations based on a classical one-body dissipation model. The observed near-scission emission is consistent with evaporation from a dinuclear system just before scission and evaporation from separated fragments just after scission. The analysis suggests that the time scale of fission of the hot composite systems is long (about 7×10-20 s) and the motion during the descent to scission almost completely damped.

  16. Multistate Memristive Tantalum Oxide Devices for Ternary Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonjoo; Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Siemon, Anne; Linn, Eike; Waser, Rainer; Rana, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Redox-based resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) offers excellent properties to implement future non-volatile memory arrays. Recently, the capability of two-state ReRAMs to implement Boolean logic functionality gained wide interest. Here, we report on seven-states Tantalum Oxide Devices, which enable the realization of an intrinsic modular arithmetic using a ternary number system. Modular arithmetic, a fundamental system for operating on numbers within the limit of a modulus, is known to mathematicians since the days of Euclid and finds applications in diverse areas ranging from e-commerce to musical notations. We demonstrate that multistate devices not only reduce the storage area consumption drastically, but also enable novel in-memory operations, such as computing using high-radix number systems, which could not be implemented using two-state devices. The use of high radix number system reduces the computational complexity by reducing the number of needed digits. Thus the number of calculation operations in an addition and the number of logic devices can be reduced. PMID:27834352

  17. Multistate Memristive Tantalum Oxide Devices for Ternary Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonjoo; Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Siemon, Anne; Linn, Eike; Waser, Rainer; Rana, Vikas

    2016-11-01

    Redox-based resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) offers excellent properties to implement future non-volatile memory arrays. Recently, the capability of two-state ReRAMs to implement Boolean logic functionality gained wide interest. Here, we report on seven-states Tantalum Oxide Devices, which enable the realization of an intrinsic modular arithmetic using a ternary number system. Modular arithmetic, a fundamental system for operating on numbers within the limit of a modulus, is known to mathematicians since the days of Euclid and finds applications in diverse areas ranging from e-commerce to musical notations. We demonstrate that multistate devices not only reduce the storage area consumption drastically, but also enable novel in-memory operations, such as computing using high-radix number systems, which could not be implemented using two-state devices. The use of high radix number system reduces the computational complexity by reducing the number of needed digits. Thus the number of calculation operations in an addition and the number of logic devices can be reduced.

  18. The role of In in III-nitride ternary semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Redondo cubero, A

    This proposal aims to study the role of In in the outstanding efficiency of luminescent devices based on group III-nitride ternary semiconductors. To study the microscopic environments of In in GaInN and AlInN, Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) experiments will be performed using the PAC-probes $^{111m}$Cd($^{111}$Cd), $^{115}$Cd($^{115}$In) and $^{117}$Cd($^{117}$In). Temperature dependent PAC measurements using the $^{111}$In($^{111}$Cd) probe indicated that In in GaN and AlN forms a complex with a defect, possibly a nitrogen vacancy (V$_{N}$), which is stable up to high temperatures and might be involved in the luminescence mechanisms. Analysing these results two questions arose: \\\\ \\\\1. Does the fact that the actual measurement is performed with the daughter nucleus $^{111}$Cd (being an acceptor) influence the probe-defect interaction? This question can be answered by performing measurements with the complementary probe $^{117}$Cd($^{117}$In). \\\\ \\\\ 2. What is the significance of $\\textit{a...

  19. Ternary Content Addressable Memory Types And Matchline Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulthana A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ternary Content Addressable Memory (TCAM used in many application like network routers and packet classification. To reduce the power consumption of matchlines, the matchline partitioning scheme is used. Matchline is partitioned into NOR and NAND type matchline. If NAND (NOR type TCAM cell is used then NAND (NOR type matchline is used. NOR type TCAM has feature of high speed and high compare power. NAND type TCAM has low speed and low compare power. The NAND and NOR type matchlines are combined to form the pai-sigma matchlines. In pai segment the NAND type cells are connected in parallel to form the NAND type matchline. In sigma segment NOR type cells are connected in series to form the NOR type matchline. When compare operation is performed all NAND type matchlines are activated because switching power is low. Based on the match result of the NAND matchlines the NOR matchlines are activated because of high speed. The matchline incurs the problem of short circuit current due to mismatch and match result of NAND and NOR matchlines. NAND type matchline exist the problem of charge sharing when the search result of the NAND line is mismatches. This proposed TCAM has less compare (search power compared to the NAND/NOR type TCAM cell.

  20. Error Correcting Coding for a Non-symmetric Ternary Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Bitouze, Nicolas; Rosnes, Eirik

    2009-01-01

    Ternary channels can be used to model the behavior of some memory devices, where information is stored in three different levels. In this paper, error correcting coding for a ternary channel where some of the error transitions are not allowed, is considered. The resulting channel is non-symmetric, therefore classical linear codes are not optimal for this channel. We define the maximum-likelihood (ML) decoding rule for ternary codes over this channel and show that it is complex to compute, since it depends on the channel error probability. A simpler alternative decoding rule which depends only on code properties, called $\\da$-decoding, is then proposed. It is shown that $\\da$-decoding and ML decoding are equivalent, i.e., $\\da$-decoding is optimal, under certain conditions. Assuming $\\da$-decoding, we characterize the error correcting capabilities of ternary codes over the non-symmetric ternary channel. We also derive an upper bound and a constructive lower bound on the size of codes, given the code length and...

  1. Integrated Ternary Bioinspired Nanocomposites via Synergistic Toughening of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shanshan; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Anyuan; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2015-12-22

    With its synergistic toughening effect and hierarchical micro/nanoscale structure, natural nacre sets a "gold standard" for nacre-inspired materials with integrated high strength and toughness. We demonstrated strong and tough ternary bioinspired nanocomposites through synergistic toughening of reduced graphene oxide and double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT) and covalent bonding. The tensile strength and toughness of this kind of ternary bioinspired nanocomposites reaches 374.1 ± 22.8 MPa and 9.2 ± 0.8 MJ/m(3), which is 2.6 and 3.3 times that of pure reduced graphene oxide film, respectively. Furthermore, this ternary bioinspired nanocomposite has a high conductivity of 394.0 ± 6.8 S/cm and also shows excellent fatigue-resistant properties, which may enable this material to be used in aerospace, flexible energy devices, and artificial muscle. The synergistic building blocks with covalent bonding for constructing ternary bioinspired nanocomposites can serve as the basis of a strategy for the construction of integrated, high-performance, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based nanocomposites in the future.

  2. Thermoelectric properties of Co(x)Ni(4-x)Sb(12-y)Sn(y) ternary skutterudites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jon A.; Dynys, Frederick W.; Sehirlioglu, Alp

    2014-01-01

    Thermoelectric materials based on the skutterudite crystal structure have demonstrated enhanced performance (ZT greater than 1), along with good thermal stability and favorable mechanical properties. Binary skutterudites, with single and multiple fillers, have been intensively studied in recent years. Compared to binary skutterudites, the ternary systems have received less attention, e.g. Ni4Sb8Sn4. Ternary skutterudites are isoelectronic variants of binary skutterudites; cation substitutions appear to be isostructural to their binary analogues. In general, ternary skutterudites exhibit lower thermal conductivity. Ternary systems of Ni4Bi8Ge4, Ni4Sb8Ge4, and Ni4Sb8Sn4 were investigated using combined solidification and sintering steps. Skutterudite formation was not achieved in the Ni4Bi8Ge4 and Ni4Sb8Ge4 systems; skutterudite formation occurred in Ni4Sb8Sn4 system. P-type material was achieved by Co substitution for Ni. Thermoelectric properties were measured from 298 K to 673 K for Ni4Sb8Sn4, Ni4 Sb7Sn5 and Co2Ni2Sb7Sn5. N-type Ni4Sb8Sn4 exhibit the highest figure of merit of 0.1 at 523 K.

  3. Neutronless $^{10}Be$-Accompanied Ternary Fission of $^{252}Cf$

    CERN Document Server

    Sandulescu, A; Misicu, S; Florescu, A; Ramayya, A V; Hamilton, J H; Greiner, W

    1998-01-01

    A new type of decay corresponding to the neutronless $^{10}$Be-accompanied fragmentation of $^{252}$Cf is studied. We employ a cluster model similar to the model used for the description of cluster radioactivity. No preformation factors were considered. The ternary relative isotopic yields were calculated as the ratio of the penetrability of a given ternary fragmentation over the sum of penetrabilities of all possible ternary neutronless fragmentations. The corresponding barriers between the light and heavy fragment and between the $^{10}$Be cluster and the two heavier fragments were computed with the help of a double folding potential generated by M3Y-$NN$ effective interaction and realistic fragment ground state deformations. Also, we studied the influence of the fragment excitation energies on the yields, by including the level densities and the $\\beta$-stretching of the fragments. The new phenomenon could be experimentally observed by the triple gamma coincidence technique between the fragments and $^{10}...

  4. Completed Local Ternary Pattern for Rotation Invariant Texture Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H. Rassem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC, have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter’s weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.

  5. On the interpretation, verification and calibration of ternary probabilistic forecasts

    CERN Document Server

    Jupp, Tim E; Coelho, Caio A S; Stephenson, David B

    2011-01-01

    We develop a geometrical interpretation of ternary probabilistic forecasts in which forecasts and observations are regarded as points inside a triangle. Within the triangle, we define a continuous colour palette in which hue and colour saturation are defined with reference to the observed climatology. In contrast to current methods, forecast maps created with this colour scheme convey all of the information present in each ternary forecast. The geometrical interpretation is then extended to verification under quadratic scoring rules (of which the Brier Score and the Ranked Probability Score are well--known examples). Each scoring rule defines an associated triangle in which the square roots of the \\emph{score}, the \\emph{reliability}, the \\emph{uncertainty} and the \\emph{resolution} all have natural interpretations as root--mean--square distances. This leads to our proposal for a \\emph{Ternary Reliability Diagram} in which data relating to verification and calibration can be summarised. We illustrate these id...

  6. Kinematic Correlation of the Ternary Fission for the System 197Au + 197Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Junlong; Li, Xian; Yan, Shiwei; Wu, Xizhen; Li, Zhuxia

    Collisions of very heavy nuclei 197Au + 197Au at the energy of 15A MeV has been studied with the improved quantum molecular dynamics model. The experimental mass distributions of ternary fission fragments for the system 197Au + 197 Au are reproduced well. The direct and sequential ternary fission modes are studied by the time dependent snapshots of typical ternary events. The analysis of deviation from Viola systematics indicates the nonstatistical feature of the ternary fission in these reactions.

  7. Ternary fission yields of 241Pu(nth,f)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Ulli; Faust, Herbert; Fioni, Gabriele; Friedrichs, Thomas; Groß, Martin; Oberstedt, Stephan

    1998-10-01

    Ternary events in the thermal neutron induced fission of 241Pu were studied with the recoil separator LOHENGRIN at the Institut Laue Langevin in Grenoble. Yields and energy distributions could be determined for most isotopes of the elements hydrogen to oxygen. Also several heavier nuclei up to 30Mg could be observed. Yields were measured for 42 isotopes, for further 17 isotopes upper limits could be deduced. For the first time the halo nuclei 11Li and 14Be were found in neutron induced fission with yields of some 10-10 per fission. This is orders of magnitude lower than predicted by most of the ternary fission models.

  8. PM1 steganographic algorithm using ternary Hamming Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PM1 algorithm is a modification of well-known LSB steganographic algorithm. It has increased resistance to selected steganalytic attacks and increased embedding efficiency. Due to its uniqueness, PM1 algorithm allows us to use of larger alphabet of symbols, making it possible to further increase steganographic capacity. In this paper, we present the modified PM1 algorithm which utilizies so-called syndrome coding and ternary Hamming code. The modified algorithm has increased embedding efficiency, which means fewer changes introduced to carrier and increased capacity.[b]Keywords[/b]: steganography, linear codes, PM1, LSB, ternary Hamming code

  9. Ternary Weakly Amenable C*-algebras and JB*-triples

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Tony; Russo, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    A well known result of Haagerup from 1983 states that every C*-algebra A is weakly amenable, that is, every (associative) derivation from A into its dual is inner. A Banach algebra B is said to be ternary weakly amenable if every continuous Jordan triple derivation from B into its dual is inner. We show that commutative C*-algebras are ternary weakly amenable, but that B(H) and K(H) are not, unless H is finite dimensional. More generally, we inaugurate the study of weak amenability for Jordan Banach triples, focussing on commutative JB*-triples and some Cartan factors.

  10. Magnetic structures of new ternary uranium and rare earths stannides T{sub 2}M{sub 2}Sn (T=U, RE and M=Ni, Pd); Structures magnetiques de nouveaux stannures ternaires a base d`uranium ou de terres rares T{sub 2}M{sub 2}Sn (T=U, RE et M =Ni, Pd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffargue, D

    1997-07-11

    Magnetic structures of new ternary stannides T{sub 2}M{sub 2}Sn (T = U, RE and M Ni, Pd) have been determined by powder neutron diffraction. A precise study of U{sub 2}M{sub 2}Sn (M = Ni, Pd) compounds showed several relations between structural and magnetic properties. The hybridization effects between 5f(U) and 3d(Ni) states is responsible for the weak magnetic moment observed on the uranium atoms in U{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn, and explains why this stannide is close to a magnetic instability. In the system U{sub 2}Pd{sub 2+x}Sn{sub t-x}, the reduction of the magnetic moment when the palladium composition increases shows the influence of 5f(U) - 4d(Pd) hybridization. In this solid solution, the evolution of the magnetic structure with the composition confirms an empirical law: the uranium magnetic moments are directed perpendicularly to the shortest U-U links. The extension of this study to the new Rare based stannides RE{sub 2}Pd{sub 2,04}Sn{sub 0,96} (RE = Ce, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) evidenced systematic correlations between complicated magnetic structures. All these compounds present two magnetic transitions, characterized first by a sine-wave modulation, then at lower temperatures by a commensurate magnetic structure. (author) 78 refs.

  11. Effect of rubber polarity on selective wetting of carbon nanotubes in ternary blends

    OpenAIRE

    Le, H.H.; M. Parsaker; M. N. Sriharish; S. Henning; Menzel, M.; S. Wiessner; Das, A; Q. K. Do; Heinrich, G.; H-J. Radusch

    2015-01-01

    Based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the rubber-filler gel (wetting concept) the kinetics of selective wetting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in ternary styrene butadiene rubber (SBR)/butadiene rubber (BR)/natural rubber (NR) blends was qualitatively and quantitatively characterized. Almost all CNTs are found to be wetted by the non-polar NR but not by the other non-polar rubber like BR or weakly polar SBR. It was proposed that phos...

  12. Models to estimate viscosities of ternary metallic melts and their comparisons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王习东; 李文超

    2003-01-01

    Three models, based on Chou's general geometric thermodynamic model, to predict the viscosity of ternary metallic melts have been established. The calculation equations of the model have been deduced. The experimental viscosity data of Ag-Au-Cu systems were used to verify the models and the calculation results with the models are consistent with the reported experimental data. The advantages, requirement and applicability of the models have been analyzed and compared. The models have also been utilized to predict the viscosity of Ag-Sn-Cu system. The viscosity of the system was experimentally measured and the results are consistent with the calculated value of the models.

  13. Demixing and gelation behavior of ternary cellulose acetate solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuvers, A.J.; Altena, F.W.; Smolders, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The demixing behavior on cooling of ternary systems of cellulose acetate/solvent/water has been examined for CA concentrations up to 40 wt% CA in several solvents. Cloud points have been measured as a function of cooling rate. The rapid process of liquid - liquid demixing can be discriminated from t

  14. Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Measuring Ternary Phase Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Jennifer K.; Terrance, Jacob C.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is presented for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in which the ternary phase diagram of water, 1-propanol and n-heptane is measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The experiment builds upon basic concepts of NMR spectral analysis, typically taught in the undergraduate…

  15. Intermolecular Interactions in Ternary Glycerol–Sample–H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Peter; Rasmussen, Erik Lumby; Koga, Yoshikata

    2011-01-01

    We studied the intermolecular interactions in ternary glycerol (Gly)–sample (S)–H2O systems at 25 °C. By measuring the excess partial molar enthalpy of Gly, HGlyEHEGly, we evaluated the Gly–Gly enthalpic interaction, HGly-GlyEHEGly--Gly, in the presence of various samples (S). For S, tert...

  16. Studies on Molecular Interaction in Ternary Liquid Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uvarani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity for the ternary liquid mixtures of cyclohexanone with 1-propanol and 1-butanol in carbon tetrachloride were measured at 303 K. The acoustical parameters and their excess values were calculated. The trends in the variation of these excess parameters were used to discuss the nature and strength of the interactions present between the component molecules.

  17. Ternary phase diagram calculations of pentaerythritol-pentaglycerine-neopentylglycol system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, A.; Talekar, A. [Chemical and Materials Engineering Department (MS388), University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Chandra, D., E-mail: dchandra@unr.edu [Chemical and Materials Engineering Department (MS388), University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Chien, W.-M. [Chemical and Materials Engineering Department (MS388), University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)

    2012-05-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ternary phase diagrams of polyalcohols are developed using the CALPHAD method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These ternary phase diagrams are thermodynamically calculated for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Orientational disorder is observed in the high temperature (energy storage) phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyalcohols are potential thermal energy storage materials. - Abstract: The pentaerythritol (PE)-pentaglycerine (PG)-neopentylglycol (NPG) ternary system has been thermodynamically assessed using the CALPHAD method and Thermo-Calc software. The PE-PG, PG-NPG, PE-NPG binary systems have also been calculated using CALPHAD on the basis of reported binary experimental data. The solution phases are modeled as substitutional solutions, in which the excess Gibbs energies are expressed by the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu polynomial. The PE-NPG binary phase diagram was modeled using Henrian solution model, and the liquid phase was assumed ideal. The PG-NPG system was optimized using regular and sub-regular solution models and show invariant equilibria at 298 K. The PE-NPG binary system was calculated from room temperature to the liquid phase temperatures. The modeled phase diagrams and the experimental data are in good agreement. A set of self consistent thermodynamic parameters formulating the Gibbs energies of various phases in the PE-PG-NPG ternary system are obtained in the present work. Thermodynamic properties, several vertical and isopleth sections have been calculated and are in good agreement with experimental data.

  18. Ternary numbers and algebras. Reflexive numbers and Berger graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A

    2007-01-01

    The Calabi-Yau spaces with SU(n) holonomy can be studied by the algebraic way through the integer lattice where one can construct the Newton reflexive polyhedra or the Berger graphs. Our conjecture is that the Berger graphs can be directly related with the $n$-ary algebras. To find such algebras we study the n-ary generalization of the well-known binary norm division algebras, ${\\mathbb R}$, ${\\mathbb C}$, ${\\mathbb H}$, ${\\mathbb O}$, which helped to discover the most important "minimal" binary simple Lie groups, U(1), SU(2) and G(2). As the most important example, we consider the case $n=3$, which gives the ternary generalization of quaternions and octonions, $3^n$, $n=2,3$, respectively. The ternary generalization of quaternions is directly related to the new ternary algebra and group which are related to the natural extensions of the binary $su(3)$ algebra and SU(3) group. Using this ternary algebra we found the solution for the Berger graph: a tetrahedron.

  19. Hierarchic structure formation in binary and ternary polymer blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger, M; Walheim, S; Budkowski, A; Steiner, U

    The phase morphology of multi-component polymer blends is governed by the interfacial interactions of its components. We discuss here the domain morphology in thin films of model binary and ternary polymer blends containing polystyrene, poly(methyl metacrylate), and poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS, PMMA,

  20. Solidification of ternary systems with a nonlinear phase diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, D. V.; Dubovoi, G. Yu.; Malygin, A. P.; Nizovtseva, I. G.; Toropova, L. V.

    2017-02-01

    The directional solidification of a ternary system with an extended phase transition region is theoretically studied. A mathematical model is developed to describe quasi-stationary solidification, and its analytical solution is constructed with allowance for a nonlinear liquidus line equation. A deviation of the liquidus equation from a linear function is shown to result in a substantial change in the solidification parameters.

  1. Surface tension of non-ideal binary and ternary liquid mixtures at various temperatures and p = 81.5 kPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafati, A.A., E-mail: rafati_aa@yahoo.co [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagheri, A. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, M. [Department of Material Engineering, Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Experimental surface tensions for binary mixtures (1,2-ethandiol + water), (1,2-ethandiol + acetonitrile), and (acetonitrile + water) at temperatures of 283.15 K, 298.15 K, and 308.15 K and the ternary mixture (1,2-ethandiol/water/acetonitrile) at 298.15 K have been measured with the Du Nouey ring tensiometer. The surface tension of the above mentioned binary and ternary systems were correlated with empirical and thermodynamic based models. The methods of Pando et al. and Ku et al. were used to correlate the ternary surface tension data. The Fu et al., Kalies et al. and Wang et al. models were also applied to predict surface tension in the ternary system. The mean average absolute deviations obtained from the comparison of experimental and calculated surface tension values for ternary system with three models are less than 2.4%, which leads to concluding that these models show a good accuracy in different situations in comparison with other predictive equations.

  2. Resolution of overlapped spectra for the determination of ternary mixture using different and modified spectrophotometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Bahia Abbas; El-Zaher, Asmaa Ahmed; Mahrouse, Marianne Alphonse; Ahmed, Maha Said

    2016-08-01

    Four new spectrophotometric methods were developed, applied to resolve the overlapped spectra of a ternary mixture of [aliskiren hemifumarate (ALS)-amlodipine besylate (AM)-hydrochlorothiazide (HCT)] and to determine the three drugs in pure form and in combined dosage form. Method A depends on simultaneous determination of ALS, AM and HCT using principal component regression and partial least squares chemometric methods. In Method B, a modified isosbestic spectrophotometric method was applied for the determination of the total concentration of ALS and HCT by measuring the absorbance at 274.5 nm (isosbestic point, Aiso). On the other hand, the concentration of HCT in ternary mixture with ALS and AM could be calculated without interference using first derivative spectrophotometric method by measuring the amplitude at 279 nm (zero crossing of ALS and zero value of AM). Thus, the content of ALS was calculated by subtraction. Method C, double divisor first derivative ratio spectrophotometry (double divisor 1DD method), was based on that for the determination of one drug, the ratio spectra were obtained by dividing the absorption spectra of its different concentrations by the sum of the absorption spectra of the other two drugs as a double divisor. The first derivative of the obtained ratio spectra were then recorded using the appropriate smoothing factor. The amplitudes at 291 nm, 380 nm and 274.5 nm were selected for the determination of ALS, AM and HCT in their ternary mixture, respectively. Method D was based on mean centering of ratio spectra. The mean centered values at 287, 295.5 and 269 nm were recorded and used for the determination of ALS, AM and HCT, respectively. The developed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines and proved to be accurate, precise and selective. Satisfactory results were obtained by applying the proposed methods to the analysis of pharmaceutical dosage form.

  3. Molecular designing of novel ternary copolymers of donor-acceptor polymers using genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Vinita [Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Bakhshi, A.K., E-mail: akbakhshi2000@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)

    2010-08-03

    Graphical abstract: Alternate arrangement of donor acceptor moieties in the carbon backbone chain of an organic conjugated polymer is capable of inducing charge transfer and affects the electronic properties of the copolymer. Genetic algorithm along with simple NFC (negative factor counting) and IIM (inverse iteration method) has been used to optimize the properties of novel ternary copolymers based on polypyrrole PPy, polythiophene PTh and polyfuran PFu (as donor moieties) and containing >C=O and >C=CF{sub 2} bridging units as acceptor moieties. - Abstract: An efficient designing route to novel ternary copolymers consisting of polypyrrole (PPy), polythiophene (PTh) and polyfuran (PFu) is developed with the help of genetic algorithm. Using the band structure results obtained from ab initio crystal orbital (CO) calculations, the electronic structures and conduction properties of real ternary copolymers based on donor acceptor type polymers are investigated. The electron rich heterocyclic rings in the backbone chain of the copolymer are joined together by electron withdrawing groups Y, carbonyl group (>C=O) and difluoromethylene group (>C=CF{sub 2}) in an attempt to design the conducting polymer with lowest band gap. A comparative study of various electronic properties is presented. The effects of substitution on the behaviour and properties of the copolymers as well as on the density of states (DOS) are discussed. Band gap decreases as a result of substitution on the polymer backbone chain due to decrease in ionization potential and increase in electron affinity values. This is expected to enhance the intrinsic conductivity of the resulting copolymer. Use of alternate donor acceptor moieties within the repeat units should maximize the extended {pi} conjugation.

  4. Review of Reactivity Experiments for Lithium Ternary Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolind, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fratoni, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Lithium is often the preferred choice as breeder and coolant in fusion blankets as it offers high tritium breeding, excellent heat transfer and corrosion properties, and most importantly, it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and exacerbates plant safety concerns. Consequently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is attempting to develop a lithium-based alloy—most likely a ternary alloy—which maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns for use in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The LLNL concept employs inertial confinement fusion (ICF) through the use of lasers aimed at an indirect-driven target composed of deuterium-tritium fuel. The fusion driver/target design implements the same physics currently experimented at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The plant uses lithium in both the primary coolant and blanket; therefore, lithium related hazards are of primary concern. Reducing chemical reactivity is the primary motivation for the development of new lithium alloys, and it is therefore important to come up with proper ways to conduct experiments that can physically study this phenomenon. This paper will start to explore this area by outlining relevant past experiments conducted with lithium/air reactions and lithium/water reactions. Looking at what was done in the past will then give us a general idea of how we can setup our own experiments to test a variety of lithium alloys.

  5. Thermodynamic model for glass forming ability of ternary metallic glass systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The thermodynamic model of multicomponent chemical short range order (MCSRO) was established in order to evaluate the glass forming ability (GFA) of ternary alloys. Comprehensive numerical calculations using MSCRO software were conducted to obtain the composition dependence of the MCSRO undercooling in Zr-Ni-Cu, Zr-Si-Cu and Pd-Si-Cu ternary systems. By the MCSRO undercooling principle, the composition range of Zr-Ni-Cu system with optimum GFA is determined to be 62.5~75Zr, 5~20Cu, 12.5~25Ni (n(Ni)/n(Cu)=1~5). The TTT curves of Zr-Ni-Cu system were also calculated based on the MCSRO model. The critical cooling rates for Zr-based alloy with deep MSCRO undercooling are estimated to be as low as 100?K/s, which is consistent with the practical cooling rate in the preparation of Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG). The calculation also illustrates that the easy glass forming systems such as Pd-based alloys exhibit an extraordinary deep MCSRO undercooling. It is shown that the thermodynamic model of MCSRO provides an effective method for the alloy designing of BMG.

  6. Formation Equilibria of Ternary Metal Complexes with Citric Acid and Glutamine (Alanine) in Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进平; 牛春吉; 杨魁跃; 倪嘉缵

    2004-01-01

    The species and their formation constants in the ternary systems were obtained by the Scogs2 software from potentiometric titration data. The Comics software was used to calculate the distribution of species in the ternary systems. MLXH, MLXH2 and MLXH3 are the common species in these systems. The coordination behaviors of the rare earths are very similar and their stability is closely matched. The ternary rare earth complexes are more stable than the corresponding ternary complexes of calcium. The ternary zinc complex with glutamine as the secondary ligand is more stable than the corresponding complexes of rare earths, but the ternary complex with alanine as the secondary ligand shows an inverse trend. The distributions of species in the ternary systems vary with pH changing. A prediction can be made that exogenous rare earths can affect the species of Ca and Zn in human body.

  7. Design of ternary low-power Domino JKL flip-flop and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Pengjun; Yang Qiankun; Zheng Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    By researching the ternary flip-flop and the adiabatic Domino circuit,a novel design of low-power ternary Domino JKL flip-flop on the switch level is proposed.First,the switch-level structure of the ternary adiabatic Domino JKL flip-flop is derived according to the switch-signal theory and its truth table.Then the ternary loop operation circuit and ternary reverse loop operation circuit are achieved by employing the ternary JKL flip-flop.Finally,the circuit is simulated by using the Spice tool and the results show that the logic function is correct.The energy consumption of the ternary adiabatic Domino JKL flip-flop is 69% less than its conventional Domino counterpart.

  8. High Permeability Ternary Palladium Alloy Membranes with Improved Sulfur and Halide Tolerances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Coulter

    2010-12-31

    and ternary membranes on a simulated flue gas stream and experienced significant difficulty in mounting and testing the sputter deposited membranes. IdaTech was able to successfully test PdAu and PdAuPt membranes and saw similar sulfur tolerance to what TDA found. The Program met all the deliverables on schedule and on budget. Over ten presentations at national and international conferences were made, four papers were published (two in progress) in technical journals, and three students (2 at GT and 1 at CSM) completed their doctorates using results generated during the course of the program. The three major findings of program were; (1) the DFT modeling was verified as a predictive tool for the permeability of Pd based ternary alloys, (2) while magnetron sputtering is useful in precisely fabricating binary and ternary alloys, the mechanical durability of membranes fabricated using this technique are inferior compared to cold rolled membranes and this preparation method is currently not ready for industrial environments, (3) based on both modeling and experimental verification in pure gas and mixed gas environments PdAu and PdAuPt alloys were found to have the combination of the highest permeability and tolerance to sulfur.

  9. Studies on ternary silver sulfides; Fukugo gin ryukabutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-31

    Some sulfides containing silver show high ion mobility based on movability of silver, whose application is expected. Studies have been carried out centrally on synthesis of new compounds of ternary silver sulfides by elucidating the relationship among their compositions, structures and properties by means of crystal chemical studies mainly on their phase relationship. A few new compounds have been synthesized, such as the ones having the argyrodite family compound structure including transition metals. The synthesizing process takes a kind of turbulent liquid state structure at elevated temperatures because of movability of silver, but silver is fixed at low temperatures in different sites between skeleton structures made by other atoms. These studies on phase transfer, structures, and silver movability have been based on X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopic measurements, NMR, measurements of electric and thermal characteristics. For the studies related to compositions and structures of ternary metal sulfides which take compound crystalline structure, a structure analyzing method based on multi-dimensional hyperspatial groups was used. This paper reports the summary of the studies in seven chapters, and dwells on the remaining problems and future prospects. 158 refs., 114 figs., 65 tabs.

  10. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in TbFeGa ternary alloys grown by cosputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranchal, R., E-mail: rociran@fis.ucm.es; Gutiérrez-Díez, V.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we have studied the magnetic anisotropy of as-grown TbFeGa ternary alloys with a Ga doping between 10 and 16% and a Tb content between 9 and 12%. The samples were deposited by cosputtering at room temperature in the oblique incidence from two targets with a TbFe{sub 2} and Fe{sub 3}Ga nominal composition. Samples with different compositions were achieved keeping constant the DC growth power at 100 W in the TbFe{sub 2} and modifying the pulsed power between 60 and 120 W in the Fe{sub 3}Ga target, respectively. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicate the presence of crystalline TbFe{sub 2}-based phases. It has been obtained perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in all the samples except when the pulsed power increases up to 120 W that corresponds to a 16% of Ga. The existence of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy seems to be related to the presence of TbFe{sub 2}-based phases with a composition close to the TbFe{sub 2}. - Highlights: ► TbFeGa ternary alloys were cosputtered from TbFe{sub 2} and Fe{sub 3}Ga targets. ► The studied alloys exhibit a structure close to the cubic TbFe{sub 2} Laves phase. ► Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy seems to be related to TbFe{sub 2}-based phases.

  11. APPLICATION OF THE ANNEXATION PRINCIPLE TO THE STUDYOF THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF TERNARY METALLICMELTS Cd-Pb-Sb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Zhang

    2001-01-01

    Based on the phase diagrams, measured activities and the annexation principle, the calculating models of mass action concentrations for Cd-Pb, Pb-Sb and Cd-Sb binary as well as Cd-Pb-Sb ternary metallic melts have been formulated. The results of calculation both agree with practice and obey the mass action law. This in turn testifies that the models formulated can reflect the structural reality of corresponding melts and the annexation principle is applicable to these melts.``

  12. Application of Annexation Principle in Investigation of Thermodynamic Property of Ternary Metallic Melt Fe-Cr-Ni

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the phase diagrams,the measured activities and the principle of annexation, a calculation model for mass action concentrations of Fe-Cr-Ni melts, has been formulated. The calculated results not only agree well with measured values, but also obey the law of mass action. It showed that the model can reflect the structural reality of given melts and the principle of annexation is applicable to the ternary metallic melts.

  13. Composition dependent band offsets of ZnO and its ternary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haitao; Chen, Junli; Wang, Yin; Wang, Jian; Guo, Hong

    2017-01-01

    We report the calculated fundamental band gaps of wurtzite ternary alloys Zn1−xMxO (M = Mg, Cd) and the band offsets of the ZnO/Zn1−xMxO heterojunctions, these II-VI materials are important for electronics and optoelectronics. Our calculation is based on density functional theory within the linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) approach where the modified Becke-Johnson (MBJ) semi-local exchange is used to accurately produce the band gaps, and the coherent potential approximation (CPA) is applied to deal with configurational average for the ternary alloys. The combined LMTO-MBJ-CPA approach allows one to simultaneously determine both the conduction band and valence band offsets of the heterojunctions. The calculated band gap data of the ZnO alloys scale as Eg = 3.35 + 2.33x and Eg = 3.36 − 2.33x + 1.77x2 for Zn1−xMgxO and Zn1−xCdxO, respectively, where x being the impurity concentration. These scaling as well as the composition dependent band offsets are quantitatively compared to the available experimental data. The capability of predicting the band parameters and band alignments of ZnO and its ternary alloys with the LMTO-CPA-MBJ approach indicate the promising application of this method in the design of emerging electronics and optoelectronics. PMID:28134298

  14. Ternary nanocomposite of polyaniline/manganese dioxide/titanium nitride nanowire array for supercapacitor electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Chi; Xie, Yibing, E-mail: ybxie@seu.edu.cn; Du, Hongxiu; Wang, Wei [Southeast University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-01-15

    The electroactive polyaniline (PANI) and manganese oxide (MnO{sub 2}) were integrated with titanium nitride (TiN) nanowire array (NWA) to form PANI/MnO{sub 2}/TiN ternary nanocomposite for supercapacitor application. TiN NWA was prepared via a seed-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and ammonia nitridization process. The electroactive MnO{sub 2} and PANI was layer-by-layer coated on TiN NWA to form heterogeneous coaxial structure through a stepwise electrodeposition process. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the well-separated TiN NWA was composed of well-distributed nanowires with diameters in the range of 10–30 nm and a total length of 1.5 μm. A villiform MnO{sub 2} layer with a thickness of 10–20 nm covered on TiN NWA to form MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA composite. The coral-like PANI layer with thicknesses in the range of 20–50 nm covered on the above MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA to form PANI/MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA. Electrochemical measurements showed that a high specific capacitance of 674 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1} (based on total mass of PANI/MnO{sub 2}) was obtained for PANI/MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA ternary nanocomposite, which was much higher than that of PANI/MnO{sub 2}/carbon-cloth composites reported previously. This ternary nanocomposite also showed a good rate and cycling stability. Moreover, in comparison with PANI/TiN NWA or MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA, the specific capacitance of PANI/MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA was obviously enhanced due to the extra pseudocapacitance contribution and the effective surface area of coral-like PANI layer, showing the advantage of manipulating the heterogeneous coaxial configuration between PANI and MnO{sub 2} for fundamentally improved capacitive performance. These results demonstrated that PANI/MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA ternary nanocomposite was a promising candidate electrode material for supercapacitor application.

  15. Particular features of ternary fission induced by polarized neutrons in the major actinides U,235233 and Pu,241239

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagarski, A.; Gönnenwein, F.; Guseva, I.; Jesinger, P.; Kopatch, Yu.; Kuzmina, T.; Lelièvre-Berna, E.; Mutterer, M.; Nesvizhevsky, V.; Petrov, G.; Soldner, T.; Tiourine, G.; Trzaska, W. H.; Zavarukhina, T.

    2016-05-01

    Ternary fission in (n ,f ) reactions was studied with polarized neutrons for the isotopes U,235233 and Pu,241239. A cold longitudinally polarized neutron beam was available at the High Flux Reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, France. The beam was hitting the fissile targets mounted at the center of a reaction chamber. Detectors for fission fragments and ternary particles were installed in a plane perpendicular to the beam. In earlier work it was discovered that the angular correlations between neutron spin and the momenta of fragments and ternary particles were very different for 233U or 235U. These correlations could now be shown to be simultaneously present in all of the above major actinides though with different weights. For one of the correlations it was observed that up to scission the compound nucleus is rotating with the axis of rotation parallel to the neutron beam polarization. Entrained by the fragments also the trajectories of ternary particles are turned away albeit by a smaller angle. The difference in turning angles becomes observable upon reversing the sense of rotation by flipping neutron spin. All turning angles are smaller than 1∘. The phenomenon was called the ROT effect. As a distinct second phenomenon it was found that for fission induced by polarized neutrons an asymmetry in the emission probability of ternary particles relative to a plane formed by fragment momentum and neutron spin appears. The asymmetry is attributed to the Coriolis force present in the nucleus while it is rotating up to scission. The size of the asymmetry is typically 10-3. This asymmetry was termed the TRI effect. The interpretation of both effects is based on the transition state model. Both effects are shown to be steered by the properties of the collective (J ,K ) transition states which are specific for any of the reactions studied. The study of asymmetries of ternary particle emission in fission induced by slow polarized neutrons provides a new

  16. Thermophysical properties for (diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + octane) ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosteiro, L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Casas, L.M., E-mail: lmcasas@uvigo.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Curras, M.R. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Mariano, A.B. [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Comahue, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina); Legido, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Thermophysical properties of (diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + octane) were measured. > Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities were determined and correlated. > Ternary surface tension deviations were correlated using Cibulka equation. > Intermolecular interactions based on the derived properties trend were discussed. - Abstract: The density and speed of sound of the ternary mixture (diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + octane) have been measured at atmospheric pressure and in the temperature range T = (288.15 to 308.15) K. Besides, surface tension has been also determined for the same mixture at T = 298.15 K. The experimental measurements have allowed the calculation of the corresponding derived properties: excess molar volumes, excess isentropic compressibilities, and surface tension deviations. Excess properties have been correlated using Nagata and Tamura equation and correlation for the surface tension deviation has been done with the Cibulka equation. Good accuracy has been obtained. Based on the variations of the derived properties values with composition, a qualitative discussion about the intermolecular interactions was drawn.

  17. The best glass-forming compositions in Al-Co(or Ni)-Y ternary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yingmin [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Shek, Chan Hung [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)]. E-mail: apchshek@cityu.edu.hk; Qiang, Jianbing [State Key Laboratory of Materials Modification and Department of Materials Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Dong, Chuang [State Key Laboratory of Materials Modification and Department of Materials Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Pang, Shujie [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Tao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2007-05-31

    The present work aims at the investigation of the largest glass-forming abilities in the Al-Co(or Ni)-Y ternary systems. In the reduced isothermal sections of their ternary phase diagrams, the e/a-based composition line passes through three known phases, Al{sub 50}Co(or Ni){sub 50}, Al{sub 33}Co(or Ni){sub 33}Y{sub 33} and {alpha}-Y. The atomic cluster-based criterion was incarnated into the Co(or Ni){sub 3}Y{sub 7}-Al composition line. The crossing of the two composition lines gives the composition of Al{sub 23}Co(or Ni){sub 23}Y{sub 54}. The critical diameters for a full glassy state are 4 mm and 3 mm for the Ni-bearing and Co-bearing alloys, respectively. Thermal analysis indicates that the compositions are not eutectic points. The characteristic thermodynamic parameters are T {sub g} = 645 K, T {sub x} = 694 K and T {sub g}/T {sub m} = 0.64 for Al{sub 23}Ni{sub 23}Y{sub 54} and T {sub g} = 648 K, T {sub x} = 681 K and T {sub g}/T {sub m} = 0.63 for Al{sub 23}Co{sub 23}Y{sub 54}.

  18. Probing Ternary Solvent Effect in High V(oc) Polymer Solar Cells Using Advanced AFM Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Ding, Yi; Soliman, Mikhael; Lorenzo, Josie; Dhasmana, Nitesh; Chantharasupawong, Panit; Ievlev, Anton V; Gesquiere, Andre J; Tetard, Laurene; Thomas, Jayan

    2016-02-01

    This work describes a simple method to develop a high V(oc) low band gap PSCs. In addition, two new atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanoscale characterization techniques to study the surface morphology and physical properties of the structured active layer are introduced. With the help of ternary solvent processing of the active layer and C60 buffer layer, a bulk heterojunction PSC with V(oc) more than 0.9 V and conversion efficiency 7.5% is developed. In order to understand the fundamental properties of the materials ruling the performance of the PSCs tested, AFM-based nanoscale characterization techniques including Pulsed-Force-Mode AFM (PFM-AFM) and Mode-Synthesizing AFM (MSAFM) are introduced. Interestingly, MSAFM exhibits high sensitivity for direct visualization of the donor-acceptor phases in the active layer of the PSCs. Finally, conductive-AFM (cAFM) studies reveal local variations in conductivity in the donor and acceptor phases as well as a significant increase in photocurrent in the PTB7:ICBA sample obtained with the ternary solvent processing.

  19. New real ternary and pseudoternary phases in the Li-Au-In system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytriv, G. S.; Pavlyuk, V. V.; Pauly, H.; Eckert, J.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2011-05-01

    Two real ternary lithium gold indides LiAu 2In and Li 280Au 22In 130 (Li 0.65Au 0.05In 0.30) were found in the Li-Au-In system. They are isostructural to the respective Ag-alloys. LiAu 2In crystallizes in the MnCu 2Al-type structure ( Fm-3 m, Heusler phase, a=6.4982(8) Å, based on single crystal XRD-data) and Li 280Au 22In 130 in the Li 278Ag 40In 114-type structure ( F-43 m, a=19.9970(2) Å, based on powder XRD-data). The analogy of the two ternary systems Li-Au-In and Li-Ag-In is additionally reaffirmed by the wide homogeneity range of the pseudoternary solid solution with NaTl-type structure (Zintl phase),which expands not only in the direction of the quasibinary cut Li(Au xIn 1- x) with 0≤ x≤0.5, but also into the directions of both higher and lower Li-concentrations.

  20. A Facile Method for Synthesizing Dendritic Core–Shell Structured Ternary Metallic Aerogels and Their Enhanced Electrochemical Performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Qiurong; Zhu, Chengzhou; Li, Yijing; Xia, Haibing; Engelhard, Mark H.; Fu, Shaofang; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-11-08

    Currently, three dimensional self-supported metallic structures are attractive for their unique properties of high porosity, low density, excellent conductivity etc. that promote their wide application in fuel cells. Here, for the first time, we report a facile synthesis of dendritic core-shell structured Au/Pt3Pd ternary metallic aerogels via a one-pot self-assembly gelation strategy. The as-prepared Au/Pt3Pd ternary metallic aerogels demonstrated superior electrochemical performances toward oxygen reduction reaction compared to commercial Pt/C. The unique dendritic core-shell structures, Pt3Pd alloyed shells and the cross-linked network structures are beneficial for the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction performances of the Pt-based materials via the electronic effect, geometric effect and synergistic effect. This strategy of fabrication of metallic hydrogels and aerogels as well as their exceptional properties hold great promise in a variety of applications.

  1. Designing ternary blend bulk heterojunction solar cells with reduced carrier recombination and a fill factor of 77%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Nicola; Jiao, Xuechen; Heumueller, Thomas; Baran, Derya; Matt, Gebhard J.; Fladischer, Stefanie; Spiecker, Erdmann; Ade, Harald; Brabec, Christoph J.; Ameri, Tayebeh

    2016-09-01

    In recent years the concept of ternary blend bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on organic semiconductors has been widely used to achieve a better match to the solar irradiance spectrum, and power conversion efficiencies beyond 10% have been reported. However, the fill factor of organic solar cells is still limited by the competition between recombination and extraction of free charges. Here, we design advanced material composites leading to a high fill factor of 77% in ternary blends, thus demonstrating how the recombination thresholds can be overcome. Extending beyond the typical sensitization concept, we add a highly ordered polymer that, in addition to enhanced absorption, overcomes limits predicted by classical recombination models. An effective charge transfer from the disordered host system onto the highly ordered sensitizer effectively avoids traps of the host matrix and features an almost ideal recombination behaviour.

  2. Integrated ternary artificial nacre via synergistic toughening of reduced graphene oxide/double-walled carbon nanotubes/poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shanshan; Wu, Mengxi; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2016-07-01

    The synergistic toughening effect of building blocks and interface interaction exists in natural materials, such as nacre. Herein, inspired by one-dimensional (1D) nanofibrillar chitin and two-dimensional (2D) calcium carbonate platelets of natural nacre, we have fabricated integrated strong and tough ternary bio-inspired nanocomposites (artificial nacre) successfully via the synergistic effect of 2D reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets and 1D double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) and hydrogen bonding cross-linking with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix. Moreover, the crack mechanics model with crack deflection by 2D rGO nanosheets and crack bridging by 1D DWNTs and PVA chains induces resultant artificial nacre exhibiting excellent fatigue-resistance performance. These outstanding characteristics enable the ternary bioinspired nanocomposites have many promising potential applications, for instance, aerospace, flexible electronics devices and so forth. This synergistic toughening strategy also provides an effective way to assemble robust graphene-based nanocomposites.

  3. Ternary choline chloride/caffeic acid/ethylene glycol deep eutectic solvent as both a monomer and template in a molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Najing; Liu, Xiao; Li, Liteng; Tang, Baokun; Row, Kyung Ho

    2017-05-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer based on a ternary deep eutectic solvent comprised of choline chloride/caffeic acid/ethylene glycol was prepared. The caffeic acid in the ternary deep eutectic solvent was used as both a monomer and template. The molecularly imprinted polymer based on the ternary deep eutectic solvent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis, atomic force microscopy, and elemental analysis. A series of molecularly imprinted polymers based on choline chloride/caffeic acid/ethylene glycol with different molar ratios was prepared and applied to the molecular recognition of polyphenols. A comparison of the recognition ability of molecularly imprinted polymers to polyphenols revealed that the choline chloride/caffeic acid/ethylene glycol (1:0.4:1, molar ratio) molecularly imprinted polymer had the best molecular recognition effect with 132 μg/g of protocatechuic acid, 104 μg/g of catechins, 80 μg/g of epicatechin, and 123 μg/g of caffeic acid in 6 h, as well as good molecular recognition ability for polyphenols from a Radix Asteris sample. These results show that the ternary deep eutectic solvent based molecularly imprinted polymer is a potential medium that can be applied to drug purification, drug delivery, and drug analysis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Ternary Reactions in 197AU + 197AU Collisions Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwira-Chalot, I.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Wilczyński, J.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Auditore, L.; Baran, V.; Brzychczyk, J.; Cardella, G.; Cavallaro, S.; Chatterjee, M. B.; Colonna, M.; de Filippo, E.; di Toro, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guazzoni, P.; Kowalski, S.; La Guidara, E.; Lanzanò, G.; Lanzalone, G.; Maiolino, C.; Majka, Z.; Nicolis, N. G.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Piasecki, E.; Pirrone, S.; Płaneta, R.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.; Russotto, P.; Schmidt, K.; Sochocka, A.; Świderski, Ł.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Wieleczko, J. P.; Zetta, L.; Zipper, W.

    Ternary events originating from the 197Au + 197Au reaction at 15 MeV/nucleon, studied by using the multidetector array CHIMERA at LNS Catania, have been collected in almost complete 2π range of the forward hemisphere of CHIMERA thus extending the angular range of our previously reported preliminary data. Energy- and time calibrations for heavy fragments at large angles were supplemented with an analysis of coincidence events of binary strongly damped reactions. Contrary to the previous preliminary results, the new complete data clearly show presence of sequential fission processes in which one of Au-like nuclei undergoes fission after re-separation of the primary binary system. Mechanism of these two types of reactions observed in our data, sequential fission reactions and prompt ternary processes, are presently studied using comparisons with predictions of the stochastic BNV model of Baran, Colonna and Di Toro and the QMD model of Łukasik.

  5. Lane of parallel through carry in ternary optical adder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yi; HE Huacan; AI Lirong

    2005-01-01

    At the present 50 to 100 microseconds are necessary for a liquid crystal to change its state from opacity to clarity; 1.14× 10-5 microseconds are however proved to be enough for light to pass through a clarity liquid crystal device. Rooted from this great difference in time, an optical adder was constructed with parallel through carry lanes (PTCL) composed of liquid crystals. Because all carries in PTCL process in parallel, the carry delay in the ternary optical computer's adder is avoided. Eliminating the carry delay in adder of ternary optical computer by physical means, the PTCL is also applicable for other types of optical adders. Moreover a light diagram of the adder and one PTCL structure are provided.

  6. Ternary structure reveals mechanism of a membrane diacylglycerol kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dianfan; Stansfeld, Phillip J.; Sansom, Mark S. P.; Keogh, Aaron; Vogeley, Lutz; Howe, Nicole; Lyons, Joseph A.; Aragao, David; Fromme, Petra; Fromme, Raimund; Basu, Shibom; Grotjohann, Ingo; Kupitz, Christopher; Rendek, Kimberley; Weierstall, Uwe; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Cherezov, Vadim; Liu, Wei; Bandaru, Sateesh; English, Niall J.; Gati, Cornelius; Barty, Anton; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Chapman, Henry N.; Diederichs, Kay; Messerschmidt, Marc; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J.; Marvin Seibert, M.; Caffrey, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Diacylglycerol kinase catalyses the ATP-dependent conversion of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid in the plasma membrane of Escherichia coli. The small size of this integral membrane trimer, which has 121 residues per subunit, means that available protein must be used economically to craft three catalytic and substrate-binding sites centred about the membrane/cytosol interface. How nature has accomplished this extraordinary feat is revealed here in a crystal structure of the kinase captured as a ternary complex with bound lipid substrate and an ATP analogue. Residues, identified as essential for activity by mutagenesis, decorate the active site and are rationalized by the ternary structure. The γ-phosphate of the ATP analogue is positioned for direct transfer to the primary hydroxyl of the lipid whose acyl chain is in the membrane. A catalytic mechanism for this unique enzyme is proposed. The active site architecture shows clear evidence of having arisen by convergent evolution.

  7. Bremsstrahlung emission of photons accompanying ternary fission of 252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydanyuk, S. P.; Olkhovsky, V. S.; Mandaglio, G.; Manganaro, M.; Fazio, G.; Giardina, G.; Saccá, C.

    2011-02-01

    We present the first results on the bremsstrahlung emission of photons accompanying ternary spontaneous fission of the 252Cf nucleus. We also compare our calculations on the basis of quantum model with preliminary experimental data and find a good agreement between theory and experiment for photon energies up to 500 keV, when the α-particle emission is in presence of the field of two fission fragments of the daughter nucleus.

  8. Some new quasi-twisted ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Let [n, k, d]_q code be a linear code of length n, dimension k and minimum Hamming distance d over GF(q. One of the basic and most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with best possible minimum distances. In this paper seven quasi-twisted ternary linear codes are constructed. These codes are new and improve the best known lower bounds on the minimum distance in [6].

  9. Nicral ternary alloy having improved cyclic oxidation resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, C. A.; Lowell, C. E.; Khan, A. S.

    1982-01-01

    NiCrAl alloys are improved by the addition of zirconium. These alloys are in the Beta or gamma/gamma' + Beta region of the ternary system. Zirconium is added in a very low amount between 0.06 and 0.20 weight percent. There is a narrow optimum zirconium level at the low value of 0.13 weight percent. Maximum resistance to cyclic oxidation is achieved when the zirconium addition is at the optimum value.

  10. Synthesis and proton conductibility of ternary germanic heteropoly acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG Xiaoguang; WU Qingyin

    2004-01-01

    The ternary germanic heteropoly acids H5GeW11VO40·22H2O and H5GeMo11VOd0.24H2O were synthesized for the first time by the stepwise acidification and the stepwise addition of solution of the component elements. The products were characterized by ICP, IR, UV, XRD and TG-DTA. The proton conductibility and the activation energy of proton conduction of the heteropoly acids were investigated.

  11. Ternary fission of 260No in equatorial configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M.; Seif, W. M.; Hashem, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    Spontaneous ternary fission is one of the observed decay modes of heavy nuclei. We systematically investigate the equatorial ternary fission of the 260No isotope. In the framework of the three-cluster model, the three-body interaction potential is calculated in terms of the folded M3Y-Reid nucleon-nucleon force and the Coulomb one. The relative orientations of the deformed heavy nuclei participating in the fragmentation process are taken into account. All possible emitted light particles with even mass numbers A = 4-52 are considered. The favored fragmentation channels are estimated as the ones characterized with peaks in the Q-value and local minima in the fragmentation potential. In the absence of nuclear deformations, the closed shell effects are found to play the key role in determining the channels of minimum fragmentation potential and the involved two heavier fragments tend to be of comparable sizes. Inclusion of nuclear deformations manifest the participation of highly deformed prolate nuclei, with large mass asymmetry, as heavy fragment partners in the estimated favored fragmentation channels. The results indicate that the equatorial ternary fission of 260No is most favored with the light emitted nuclei 4,6,8 2He and 10 4Be through the fragmentation channels 155 60Nd + 4 2He + 101 0Zr, 153 60Nd + 6 2He + 101 40Zr, 152 60Nd + 8 2He + 100 40Zr, and 152 0Nd + 10 4Be + 98 38Sr, respectively.

  12. The partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra

    CERN Document Server

    Bremner, Murray R

    2010-01-01

    The alternating ternary sum in an associative algebra, $abc - acb - bac + bca + cab - cba$, gives rise to the partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra with products $\\dashv$ and $\\vdash$ by making the argument $a$ the center of each term: $a \\dashv b \\dashv c - a \\dashv c \\dashv b - b \\vdash a \\dashv c + c \\vdash a \\dashv b + b \\vdash c \\vdash a - c \\vdash b \\vdash a$. We use computer algebra to determine the polynomial identities in degree $\\le 9$ satisfied by this new trilinear operation. In degrees 3 and 5 we obtain $[a,b,c] + [a,c,b] \\equiv 0$ and $[a,[b,c,d],e] + [a,[c,b,d],e] \\equiv 0$; these identities define a new variety of partially alternating ternary algebras. We show that there is a 49-dimensional space of multilinear identities in degree 7, and we find equivalent nonlinear identities. We use the representation theory of the symmetric group to show that there are no new identities in degree 9.

  13. Experimental investigation and thermodynamic assessment of phase equilibria in the Nb–Si–Zr ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Guo, Y.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yang, S.Y.; Shi, Z.; Wang, C.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Research Center of Materials Design and Applications, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Liu, X.J., E-mail: lxj@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Research Center of Materials Design and Applications, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • The sections of Nb–Si–Zr system at 1373, 1473 and 1573 K were determined. • Large solubilities of Nb in αZr{sub 5}Si{sub 4}, Zr{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and Zr{sub 2}Si phases were observed. • The thermodynamic assessment of Nb–Si–Zr ternary system was carried out. - Abstract: In this study, the phase equilibria of Nb–Si–Zr at 1373 K, 1473 K and 1573 K were experimentally determined by means of back-scattered electron (BSE), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that there were five three-phase regions and sixteen two-phase regions in the studied isothermal sections, and no any ternary compounds were found. The solubility of Si in the Nb–Zr side is very small. Large solubilities of Nb in αZr{sub 5}Si{sub 4}, Zr{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and Zr{sub 2}Si phases were observed, otherwise the solubilities of Nb in ZrSi{sub 2}, αZrSi and Zr{sub 3}Si phases are relatively small. Based on the present experimental results, the thermodynamic assessment of Nb–Si–Zr system was carried out using the CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) method. The current calculated phase diagrams are in reasonable agreement with the present experimental data.

  14. Experimental investigation of the phase equilibria in the Co-Fe-Ti ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Chaohui; Chen, Chong; Peng, Yingbiao; Du, Yong; Li, Kun [Central South Univ., State Key of Powder Metallurgy, Changsha (China); Lu, Xingxu [Central South Univ., State Key of Powder Metallurgy, Changsha (China); Central South Univ., School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changsha (China)

    2015-08-15

    Phase equilibria in the Co-Fe-Ti ternary system were investigated by means of the equilibrated alloy method with X-ray powder diffraction and electron probe microanalysis. No ternary compounds were found. The experimental results indicated the existence of seven two-phase and one three-phase regions at 600 C, five two-phase and two three-phase regions at 800 C, and six two-phase and two three-phase regions at 950 C. The solubility of Co in TiFe{sub 2} was determined to be larger than 54 at.% at all investigated temperatures, and the solubilities of Fe in TiCo{sub 3} and Ti{sub 2}Co showed an appreciable increase with increasing temperature. The three-phase equilibrium in the Ti-rich corner at 800 C was revealed to be ((β-Ti) + Ti(Fe, Co) + Ti{sub 2}Co) rather than ((α-Ti) + Ti(Fe, Co) + Ti{sub 2}Co) reported in previous investigations. Based on the experimental data obtained in the present work, three isothermal sections at 600, 800 and 950 C were established.

  15. The band gap of II-Vi ternary alloys in a tight-binding description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin, Daniel; Blanquero, Rafael [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F (Mexico); De Coss, Romeo [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    We present tight-binding calculations for the band gap of II-Vi pseudobinary ternary alloys. We use an sp{sup 3} s* tight-binding Hamiltonian which include spin-orbit coupling. The band gap composition dependence is calculated using a extended version of the virtual crystal approximation, which introduce an empirical correction factor that takes into account the non-linear dependence of the band gap with the composition. The results compare quite well with the experimental data, both for the ternary alloys with wide band gap and for the narrow band gap ones. [Spanish] Presentamos el calculo de la banda de energia prohibida de aleaciones ternarias de compuestos II-VI. El calculo, que incluye interaccion espin-orbita, se hace con el metodo de enlace fuerte, utilizando una base ortogonal de cinco orbitales atomicos por atomo (sp{sup 3} s*), en conjunto con la aproximacion del cristal virtual. En la aproximacion del cristal virtual, incluimos un factor de correccion que toma en cuenta la no linealidad de la banda de energia prohibida como funcion de la concentracion. Con esta correccion nuestros resultados reproducen aceptablemente los datos experimentales hallados en la literatura.

  16. Effect of rubber polarity on selective wetting of carbon nanotubes in ternary blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Le

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on atomic force microscopy (AFM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis of the rubber-filler gel (wetting concept the kinetics of selective wetting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs in ternary styrene butadiene rubber (SBR/butadiene rubber (BR/natural rubber (NR blends was qualitatively and quantitatively characterized. Almost all CNTs are found to be wetted by the non-polar NR but not by the other non-polar rubber like BR or weakly polar SBR. It was proposed that phospholipids, which are linked to the α-terminal of NR can interact with the CNT surface through cation-π interactions forming strong bonding between NR and CNTs. Using the corrected surface tension value of NR, which involves the effect of phospholipids found in our previous work the selective wetting of CNTs in ternary rubber blends can be well predicted using the Z-model for a thermodynamic equilibrium state. By replacing the non-polar BR by a polar rubber like nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR as a blend component CNTs are wetted by NBR slightly more than by NR thanks to the strong interaction between CNTs and nitrile groups of NBR. SBR remains unbound to CNTs in both blends.

  17. Molecular designing of novel ternary copolymers of donor-acceptor polymers using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vinita; Bakhshi, A. K.

    2010-08-01

    An efficient designing route to novel ternary copolymers consisting of polypyrrole (PPy), polythiophene (PTh) and polyfuran (PFu) is developed with the help of genetic algorithm. Using the band structure results obtained from ab initio crystal orbital (CO) calculations, the electronic structures and conduction properties of real ternary copolymers based on donor acceptor type polymers are investigated. The electron rich heterocyclic rings in the backbone chain of the copolymer are joined together by electron withdrawing groups Y, carbonyl group (>C dbnd O) and difluoromethylene group (>C dbnd CF 2) in an attempt to design the conducting polymer with lowest band gap. A comparative study of various electronic properties is presented. The effects of substitution on the behaviour and properties of the copolymers as well as on the density of states (DOS) are discussed. Band gap decreases as a result of substitution on the polymer backbone chain due to decrease in ionization potential and increase in electron affinity values. This is expected to enhance the intrinsic conductivity of the resulting copolymer. Use of alternate donor acceptor moieties within the repeat units should maximize the extended π conjugation.

  18. Modification of both d33 and TC in a potassium-sodium niobate ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2015-12-28

    In this work, we simultaneously achieved a giant d33 and a high TC in a lead-free piezoelectric ternary system of (1-x-y)K0.48Na0.52NbO3-xBiFeO3-yBi0.5Na0.5ZrO3 {(1-x-y)KNN-xBF-yBNZ}. Owing to the rhombohedral-orthorhombic-tetragonal (R-O-T) phase coexistence and the enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties, the ceramics with a composition of (x = 0.006, y = 0.04) show a giant d33 of ∼428 pC N(-1) together with a TC of ∼318 °C, thereby proving that the design of ternary systems is an effective way to achieve both high d33 and high TC in KNN-based materials. In addition, a good thermal stability for piezoelectricity was also observed in these ceramics (e.g., d33 > 390 pC N(-1), T ≤ 300 °C). This is the first time such a good comprehensive performance in potassium-sodium niobate materials has been obtained. As a result, we believe that this type of material system with both giant d33 and high TC is a promising candidate for high-temperature piezoelectric devices.

  19. First-principles study of the ternary semiconductor alloys (Ga,Al)(As,Sb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Haj Hassan, F., E-mail: hassan.f@ul.edu.l [Universite Libanaise, Faculte des sciences (I), Laboratoire de Physique de Materiaux, Elhadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Condensed Matter Section, The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Breidi, A. [Universite Libanaise, Faculte des sciences (I), Laboratoire de Physique de Materiaux, Elhadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Denses, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, 1 Bd. Arago, 57078 Metz (France); Ghemid, S.; Amrani, B.; Meradji, H. [Laboratoire LPR, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Annaba, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Pages, O. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Denses, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, 1 Bd. Arago, 57078 Metz (France)

    2010-06-04

    First-principles calculations are performed to study the structural, electronic, optical and thermodynamic properties of technologically important Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As, Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Sb, GaAs{sub x}Sb{sub 1-x} and AlAs{sub x}Sb{sub 1-x} ternary alloys using the full potential-linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals method within the density functional theory. We use both Wu-Cohen and Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximations of the exchange-correlation energy that are based on the optimization of total energy and corresponding potential, respectively. Our investigation on the effect of composition on lattice constant, bulk modulus, ionicity, band gap, effective mass and refractive index for ternary alloys shows almost non-linear dependence on the composition. The bowing of the fundamental gap versus composition predicted by our calculations is in good agreement with available experiment data. The different roles of structural and chemical effects on the gap bowing and its variation with composition are identified and discussed. It is found that charge-exchange effect overwhelms the other contributions to the gap bowing. Besides, a regular-solution model is used to investigate the thermodynamic stability of the alloys which mainly indicates a phase miscibility gap. In addition, the quasi-harmonic Debye model is applied to determine the thermal properties at room temperature.

  20. Density functional theory predictions of the composition of atomic layer deposition-grown ternary oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ciaran; Elliott, Simon D

    2013-05-01

    The surface reactivity of various metal precursors with different alkoxide, amide, and alkyl ligands during the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ternary oxides was determined using simplified theoretical models. Quantum chemical estimations of the Brønsted reactivity of a metal complex precursor at a hydroxylated surface are made using a gas-phase hydrolysis model. The geometry optimized structures and energies for a large suite of 17 metal precursors (including cations of Mg, Ca, Sr, Sc, Y, La, Ti, Zr, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Al, and Ga) with five different anionic ligands (conjugate bases of tert-butanol, tetramethyl heptanedione, dimethyl amine, isopropyl amidine, and methane) and the corresponding hydrolyzed complexes are calculated using density functional theory (DFT) methods. The theoretically computed energies are used to determine the energetics of the model reactions. These DFT models of hydrolysis are used to successfully explain the reactivity and resulting stoichiometry in terms of metal cation ratios seen experimentally for a variety of ALD-grown ternary oxide systems.

  1. Ternary surface monolayers for ultrasensitive (zeptomole) amperometric detection of nucleic acid hybridization without signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Campuzano, Susana; Halford, Colin; Haake, David A; Wang, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    A ternary surface monolayer, consisting of coassembled thiolated capture probe, mercaptohexanol and dithiothreitol, is shown to offer dramatic improvements in the signal-to-noise characteristics of electrochemical DNA hybridization biosensors based on common self-assembled monolayers. Remarkably low detection limits down to 40 zmol (in 4 μL samples) as well as only 1 CFU Escherichia coli per sensor are thus obtained without any additional amplification step in connection to the commonly used horseradish peroxidase/3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine system. Such dramatic improvements in the detection limits (compared to those of common binary alkanethiol interfaces and to those of most electrochemical DNA sensing strategies without target or signal amplification) are attributed primarily to the remarkably higher resistance to nonspecific adsorption. This reflects the highly compact layer (with lower pinhole density) produced by the coupling of the cyclic- and linear-configuration "backfillers" that leads to a remarkably low background noise even in the presence of complex sample matrixes. A wide range of surface compositions have been investigated, and the ternary mixed monolayer has been systematically optimized. Detailed impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies shed useful insights into the surface coverage. The impressive sensitivity and high specificity of the simple developed methodology indicate great promise for a wide range of nucleic acid testing, including clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, food safety, and forensic analysis.

  2. Characterization of interfaces in Binary and Ternary Polymer Blends by Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathaiah, C.

    2015-06-01

    A miscible blend is a single-phase system with compact packing of the polymeric chains/segments due configuration/conformational changes upon blending. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is the most employed method to ascertain whether the blend is miscible or immiscible. Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy (PLS) has been employed in recent times to study miscibility properties of polymer blends by monitoring the ortho-Positronium annihilation lifetimes as function of composition. However, just free volume monitoring and the DSC methods fail to provide the composition dependent miscibility of blends. To overcome this limitation, an alternative approach based on hydrodynamic interactions has been developed to derive this information using the same o-Ps lifetime measurements. This has led to the development of a new method of measuring composition dependent miscibility level in binary and ternary polymer blends. Further, the new method also provides interface characteristics for immiscible blends. The interactions between the blend components has a direct bearing on the strength of adhesion at the interface and hence the hydrodynamic interaction. Understanding the characteristic of interfaces which decides the miscibility level of the blend and their end applications is made easy by the present method. The efficacy of the present method is demonstrated for few binary and ternary blends.

  3. Exploration of a ternary deep eutectic solvent of methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide/chalcone/formic acid for the selective recognition of rutin and quercetin in Herba Artemisiae Scopariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wanwan; Tang, Baokun; Row, Kyung Ho

    2017-08-01

    Methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide/chalcone/formic acid, a green ternary deep eutectic solvent, was applied as a functional monomer and dummy template simultaneously in the synthesis of a new molecularly imprinted polymer. Ternary deep eutectic solvent based molecularly imprinted polymers are used as a solid-phase extraction sorbent in the separation and purification of rutin and quercetin from Herba Artemisiae Scopariae combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy were applied to characterize the deep eutectic solvent based molecularly imprinted polymers synthesized using different molar ratios of chalcone. The static and competitive adsorption tests were performed to examine the recognition ability of the molecularly imprinted polymers to rutin and quercetin. The ternary deep eutectic solvent consisting of formic acid/chalcone/methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (1:0.05:0.5) had the best molecular recognition effect. After optimization of the washing solvents (methanol/water, 1:9) and eluting solvents (acetonitrile/acetic acid, 9:1), a reliable analytical method was developed for strong recognition towards rutin and quercetin in Herba Artemisiae Scopariae with satisfactory extraction recoveries (rutin: 92.48%, quercetin: 94.23%). Overall, the chalcone ternary deep eutectic solvent-based molecularly imprinted polymer coupled with solid-phase extraction is an effective method for the selective purification of multiple bioactive compounds in complex samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Design of a Ternary Reversible/Quantum Adder using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly G. Deibuk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available —Typical methods of quantum/reversible synthesis are based on using the binary character of quantum computing. However, multi-valued logic is a promising choice for future computer technologies, given a set of advantages when comparing to binary circuits. In this work, we have developed a genetic algorithm-based synthesis of ternary reversible circuits using Muthukrishnan-Stroud gates. The method for chromosomes coding that we present, as well as a judicious choice of algorithm parameters, allowed obtaining circuits for half-adder and full adder which are better than other published methods in terms of cost, delay times and amount of input ancillary bits. A structure of the circuits is analyzed in details, based on their decomposition.

  5. Comparison of actual vs synthesized ternary phase diagrams for solutes of cryobiological interest☆

    OpenAIRE

    F W Kleinhans; Mazur, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Phase diagrams are of great utility in cryobiology, especially those consisting of a cryoprotective agent (CPA) dissolved in a physiological salt solution. These ternary phase diagrams consist of plots of the freezing points of increasing concentrations of solutions of cryoprotective agents (CPA) plus NaCl. Because they are time-consuming to generate, ternary diagrams are only available for a small number of CPA's. We wanted to determine whether accurate ternary phase diagrams could be synthe...

  6. Comparison Of Modified Dual Ternary Indexing And Multi-Key Hashing Algorithms For Music Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In this work we have compared two indexing algorithms that have been used to index and retrieve Carnatic music songs. We have compared a modified algorithm of the Dual ternary indexing algorithm for music indexing and retrieval with the multi-key hashing indexing algorithm proposed by us. The modification in the dual ternary algorithm was essential to handle variable length query phrase and to accommodate features specific to Carnatic music. The dual ternary indexing algorithm is ...

  7. Mapping of Diffusion and Nanohardness Properties of Fcc Co-Al-V Alloys Using Ternary Diffusion Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanyun; Xu, Guanglong; Cui, Yuwen

    2017-09-01

    Ternary diffusion behavior in Co-Al-V ternary alloys was investigated at 1373 K and 1473 K (1100 °C and 1200 °C) by the solid-state diffusion-couple technique. The extraction and interpolation of diffusion data allows the diffusion properties of Fcc Co-Al-V alloys to be mapped in the composition arrays of Al and V. A full picture of the diffusion properties was then constructed by interpolating all accessible interdiffusivities and impurity diffusivities of Co-Al binary and Co-Al-V ternary with a Redlich-Kister polynomial, in a graphic manner depicting a rapid increase of Al diffusion with increasing Al and a weak decrease with the V addition alone. Further incorporation of a nanoindentation technique enables the nanohardness property of the Co-Al-V fcc alloys to be screened in the Al and V arrays. The hardenability in the Co-Al-V alloy system has been evidenced; specifically, the alloy arrays containing higher contents of V, being solution-and-quenching processed, exhibit more effective strengthening than those with the addition of Al. The discovery of Co-Al-V alloys with comparable nanohardness but differing alloy compositions could facilitate the strengthening design of next generation Co-based alloys.

  8. Preparation and photoluminescence enhancement in terbium(III ternary complexes with β-diketone and monodentate auxiliary ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devender Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new solid ternary complexes of terbium(III ion based on β-diketone ligand acetylacetone (acac and monodentate auxiliary ligands (aqua/urea/triphenylphosphineoxide/pyridine-N-oxide had been prepared. The structural characterizations of synthesized ternary compounds were studied by means of elemental analysis, infrared (IR, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral techniques. The optical characteristics were investigated with absorption as well as photoluminescence spectroscopy. Thermal behavior of compounds was examined by TGA/DTA analysis and all metal complexes were found to have good thermal stability. The luminescence decay time of complexes were also calculated by monitoring at emission wavelength corresponding to 5D4 → 7F5 transition. A comparative inspection of the luminescent behavior of prepared ternary compounds was performed in order to determine the function of auxiliary ligands in the enhancement of luminescence intensity produced by central terbium(III ion. The color coordinates values suggested that compounds showed bright green emission in visible region in electromagnetic spectrum. Complexes producing green light could play a significant role in the fabrication of efficient light conversion molecular devices for display purposes and lightning systems.

  9. Modelling of volumetric properties of binary and ternary mixtures by CEOS, CEOS/GE and empirical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOJAN D. DJORDJEVIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many cubic equations of state coupled with van der Waals-one fluid mixing rules including temperature dependent interaction parameters are sufficient for representing phase equilibria and excess properties (excess molar enthalpy HE, excess molar volume VE, etc., difficulties appear in the correlation and prediction of thermodynamic properties of complex mixtures at various temperature and pressure ranges. Great progress has been made by a new approach based on CEOS/GE models. This paper reviews the last six-year of progress achieved in modelling of the volumetric properties for complex binary and ternary systems of non-electrolytes by the CEOS and CEOS/GE approaches. In addition, the vdW1 and TCBT models were used to estimate the excess molar volume VE of ternary systems methanol + chloroform + benzene and 1-propanol + chloroform + benzene, as well as the corresponding binaries methanol + chloroform, chloroform + benzene, 1-propanol + chloroform and 1-propanol + benzene at 288.15–313.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Also, prediction of VE for both ternaries by empirical models (Radojković, Kohler, Jackob–Fitzner, Colinet, Tsao–Smith, Toop, Scatchard, Rastogi was performed.

  10. A TDG/CBP/RARα Ternary Complex Mediates the Retinoic Acid-dependent Expression of DNA Methylation-sensitive Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Léger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG is a multifunctional enzyme, which is essential for embryonic development. It mediates the base excision repair (BER of G:T and G:U DNA mismatches arising from the deamination of 5-methyl cytosine (5-MeC and cytosine, respectively. Recent studies have pointed at a role of TDG during the active demethylation of 5-MeC within CpG islands. TDG interacts with the histone acetylase CREB-binding protein (CBP to activate CBP-dependent transcription. In addition, TDG also interacts with the retinoic acid receptor α (RARα, resulting in the activation of RARα target genes. Here we provide evidence for the existence of a functional ternary complex containing TDG, CBP and activated RARα. Using global transcriptome profiling, we uncover a coupling of de novo methylation-sensitive and RA-dependent transcription, which coincides with a significant subset of CBP target genes. The introduction of a point mutation in TDG, which neither affects overall protein structure nor BER activity, leads to a significant loss in ternary complex stability, resulting in the deregulation of RA targets involved in cellular networks associated with DNA replication, recombination and repair. We thus demonstrate for the first time a direct coupling of TDG’s epigenomic and transcription regulatory function through ternary complexes with CBP and RARα.

  11. Critical size dependence of domain formation observed in coarse-grained simulations of bilayers composed of ternary lipid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelopulos, George A.; Nagai, Tetsuro; Bandara, Asanga; Panahi, Afra; Straub, John E.

    2017-09-01

    Model cellular membranes are known to form micro- and macroscale lipid domains dependent on molecular composition. The formation of macroscopic lipid domains by lipid mixtures has been the subject of many simulation investigations. We present a critical study of system size impact on lipid domain phase separation into liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered macroscale domains in ternary lipid mixtures. In the popular di-C16:0 PC:di-C18:2 PC:cholesterol at 35:35:30 ratio mixture, we find systems with a minimum of 1480 lipids to be necessary for the formation of macroscopic phase separated domains and systems of 10 000 lipids to achieve structurally converged conformations similar to the thermodynamic limit. To understand these results and predict the behavior of any mixture forming two phases, we develop and investigate an analytical Flory-Huggins model which is recursively validated using simulation and experimental data. We find that micro- and macroscale domains can coexist in ternary mixtures. Additionally, we analyze the distributions of specific lipid-lipid interactions in each phase, characterizing domain structures proposed based on past experimental studies. These findings offer guidance in selecting appropriate system sizes for the study of phase separations and provide new insights into the nature of domain structure for a popular ternary lipid mixture.

  12. Simultaneous improvement in short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and fill factor of polymer solar cells through ternary strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qiaoshi; Zhang, Fujun; Li, Lingliang; Wang, Jian; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Weihua; Deng, Zhenbo

    2015-02-18

    We present a smart strategy to simultaneously increase the short circuit current (Jsc), the open circuit voltage (Voc), and the fill factor (FF) of polymer solar cells (PSCs). A two-dimensional conjugated small molecule photovoltaic material (SMPV1), as the second electron donor, was doped into the blend system of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl (PC71BM) to form ternary PSCs. The ternary PSCs with 5 wt % SMPV1 doping ratio in donors achieve 4.06% champion power conversion efficiency (PCE), corresponding to about 21.2% enhancement compared with the 3.35% PCE of P3HT:PC71BM-based PSCs. The underlying mechanism on performance improvement of ternary PSCs can be summarized as (i) harvesting more photons in the longer wavelength region to increase Jsc; (ii) obtaining the lower mixed highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level by incorporating SMPV1 to increase Voc; (iii) forming the better charge carrier transport channels through the cascade energy level structure and optimizing phase separation of donor/acceptor materials to increase Jsc and FF.

  13. Ternary and quaternary nanocomposites based on polystyrene, SBS, organically modified clay and silicone-polyether;Compositos e/ou nanocompositos ternarios e quaternarios de poliestireno, SBS, argila e silicona-polieter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Manuela L.Q.A.; Lourenco, Emerson; Paiva, Raphael E.F.; Felisberti, Maria I.; Yoshida, Inez V.P., E-mail: valeria@iqm.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    This work aims the study of toughened nanocomposites based on polystyrene (PS), poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (SBS), organically modified clay (C20A) and silicone-polyether, PDMS-POE. The intercalation of the copolymer PDMS-POE into the clay galleries increased the interlamellar distance, improving the exfoliation of the clay during the extrusion process of the materials. C20A/PDMS-POE nanocomposite, MC20A, was prepared by mechanical mixture using 1:1 wt% ratio. MC20A was incorporated into PS and PS/SBS blends using an extruder. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction and stress-strain mechanical tests. MC20A/PS/SBS, prepared by extrusion, showed an increase in the interlamellar distance, suggesting the intercalation of PS or SBS into the clay galleries. The PDMSPOE acted as a 'plasticizer' for PS and PS/SBS blend. However, this effect was not reverted by the clay addition. On the contrary, the 'plasticizer' effect was intensified by the clay maybe due to the slip characteristics of PDMS-POE associated with the lamella orientation. (author)

  14. Spectrofluorometric determination of vanadium based on the formation of a ternary complex between vanadium, peroxides, and 2-alpha-pyridylthioquinaldinamide. Application to the determination of hydrogen peroxide and peroxy acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleologos, E K; Giokas, D L; Tzouwara-Karayanni, S M; Karayannis, M I

    2002-01-01

    A selective and sensitive method for the determination of the total amount of vanadium in nutritional and biological substrates is proposed. The method is based on the reaction of vanadium with 2-alpha-pyridylthioquinaldinamide (PTQA) in the presence of H2O2. The product of this reaction emits constant fluorescence, in a sulfuric acid environment, at 490 nm, with the exciting radiation set at 340 nm. Various parameters such as acidity, flow rate, solvents, and temperature were studied. The presence of a surface-active agent was also considered in order to increase sensitivity. At the optimal conditions, a calibration curve was constructed, revealing a linear range of 2-100 microg L(-1) and a detection limit as low as 0.5 microg L(-1) while the RSD ranged in the area of 0.1-1.8%, depending on vanadium concentration. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of a wide variety of food samples, which are known to contribute to the dietary required amount of vanadium and to relevant biological matrixes. Reversing the conditions of the above reaction, the effect of the peroxy group on the vanadium-PTQA system was examined. The formation of a vanadyl complex was revealed which was suitable for the determination of hydrogen peroxide and peroxy acids. Linear calibration curves in the range of 0.2-50 microM for H2O2 and 0.1-2 microM for a respective peroxy acid were obtained, yielding detection limits of 0.05 and 0.03 microM, respectively.

  15. Lattice anisotropy in uranium ternary compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskova, S.; Adamska, A.M.; Havela, L.

    2012-01-01

    Several U-based intermetallic compounds (UCoGe, UNiGe with the TiNiSi structure type and UNiAl with the ZrNiAl structure type) and their hydrides were studied from the point of view of compressibility and thermal expansion. Confronted with existing data for the compounds with the ZrNiAl structure...

  16. Simulation of dendritic growth for ternary alloys based on modified cellular automaton model%基于改进元胞自动机模型的三元合金枝晶生长的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石玉峰; 许庆彦; 柳百成

    2012-01-01

    Based on the binary cellular automaton method, a modified cellular automaton model for temary alloys is developed to simulate dendrite growth controlled by solutal effects and microsegregation in the low Peclet number regime by coupling PanEngine, which is a multicomponent thermodynamic and equilibrium calculation engine. The model can be used to calculate the interfacial equilibrium composition by considering the influence of Gibbs-Thomson effect induced curvature undercooling, and multicomponents contributed constitutional undercooling. Meanwhile, the growth velocity of interface is determined by solving the solute conservation equation simultaneously with dimensionless solute supersaturation equation for each alloying element. Moreover, equilibrium liquidus temper- ature and equilibrium solid concentration at the interface are derived by PanEngine. Free dendrite growth of A1-7%Si-χMg temary alloys is simulated by the present model, which shows that the increase of solute Mg can suppress the growths of both primary and secondary dendrite arms. Meanwhile, constrained columnar dendrite growth of A1-7%Si-0.5%Mg with the increases of pulling veloc- ity and constant thermal gradient during directional solidification is calculated. The results reveal the competitive growth of columnar dendrites, and demonstrate that the primary dendrite arm spacing would decrease as the pulling velocity increases, which accords well with the Hunt model.%在二元合金元胞自动机模型的基础上,通过耦合多元合金热力学相平衡求解器PanEngine,建立了三元合金改进的元胞自动机模型,可模拟初生相枝晶的生长过程.模型考虑了曲率过冷和成分过冷对界面平衡溶质成分的影响,通过不同组元的无量纲溶质过饱和度方程和界面溶质守恒方程之间的耦合来求解界面生长速率,并通过PanEngine计算界面处的液相线温度.采用本模型模拟了A1—7%Si-χMg三元合金自由枝晶的

  17. Isothermal section of the Ho-Fe-Ga ternary system at 773 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, F.S.; Yu, Y.J.; Zhang, W.H. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen University and Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Li, J.Q., E-mail: junqinli@szu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen University and Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Ao, W.Q. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen University and Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2011-02-03

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: > Isothermal section of Ho-Fe-Ga ternary system at 773 K. > Crystal structure of new compound HoFe{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 1.8}. > Homogeneity ranges of the solid solutions in Ho-Fe-Ga system at 773 K. - Abstract: The isothermal section of the Ho-Fe-Ga ternary phase diagram at 773 K was constructed based on X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Fourteen binary compounds and twelve ternary compounds have been confirmed: Ho{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} Ho{sub 6}Fe{sub 23}, HoFe{sub 3}, HoFe{sub 2}, HoGa{sub 3}, HoGa{sub 2}, Ho{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}, HoGa, Ho{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}, Ho{sub 5}Ga{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}Ga, Fe{sub 6}Ga{sub 5}, Fe{sub 3}Ga{sub 4}, FeGa{sub 3}, {kappa}{sub 1}-HoFe{sub 6.02-5.24}Ga{sub 5.98-6.76}, {kappa}{sub 2}-HoFe{sub 4.98-4.59}Ga{sub 7.02-7.41}, {kappa}{sub 3}-HoFe{sub 17-14.07}Ga{sub 0-2.93}, {kappa}{sub 4}-HoFe{sub 13.39-8.45} Ga{sub 3.61-8.55}, {kappa}{sub 5}-Ho{sub 2}FeGa{sub 8}, {kappa}{sub 6}-HoFe{sub 3-2.52}Ga{sub 0-0.48}, {kappa}{sub 7}-HoFe{sub 2.36-1.91}Ga{sub 0.64-1.09}, {kappa}{sub 8}-Ho{sub 2}FeGa{sub 8}, {kappa}{sub 9}-HoFe{sub 2-1.46} Ga{sub 0-0.54}, {kappa}{sub 10}-HoFe{sub 1.28-1.16}Ga{sub 0.72-0.84}, {kappa}{sub 11}-HoFe{sub 0.43-0.34}Ga{sub 1.57-1.66}, and {kappa}{sub 12}-HoFe{sub 0.26-0.19}Ga{sub 1.74-1.81}. The maximum solid solubilities of Ga in HoFe{sub 2}, HoFe{sub 3} and Ho{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} were determined to be 18.1, 11.9 and 15.4 at.%, respectively. The structures of the ternary compounds were refined by Rietveld refinement method. It was shown that all the solid solutions in the ternary system are formed by random distribution of Ga and Fe on the transition metal sites.

  18. Study on the oscillatory behaviour of the lattice parameter in ternary iron-nitrogen compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Rebaza, A.V.; Desimoni, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP, CC No 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Peltzer y Blanca, E.L., E-mail: eitelpyb@ing.unlp.edu.ar [Grupo de Estudio de Materiales y Dispositivos Electronicos (GEMyDE), Facultad de Ingenieria, UNLP, IFLYSIB-CONICET, CC No. 565, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    The structural properties of the XFe{sub 3}N (X=Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) cubic ternary iron based nitrides as well as the preferential occupation site of X in the structure were studied using Full Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave method, within the Density Functional Theory formalism, Wien2k code, the exchange-correlation potential described with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof expression, based in the Local Spin Density Approximation and Generalized Gradient Approximation. According the calculations, the Sc, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn, atoms preferred the corner sites of the cubes, while Ti, V, Cr and Mn occupy the centre of the faces of the equilibrium structures. The equilibrium structure lattice parameters have an oscillatory behaviour with the atomic number of X, with decreasing amplitude as the atomic number of X increases. This trend do not correlated with the atomic radii of X.

  19. Molecular dynamics study of the ternary Cu50Ti25Zr25 bulk glass forming alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celtek M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and thermodynamic properties of a ternary Cu50Ti25Zr25 metallic glass forming alloy in solid-liquid to glass phases were studied using molecular dynamics (MD method based on tight-binding (TB potentials. An atomic description of the melting, glass formation and crystallization process has been analyzed using different heating and cooling rates. The computed Glass Forming Ability (GFA parameters are in good agreement with experimental data. The structure analysis of the Cu50Ti25Zr25 based on molecular dynamics simulation will be also presented and compared with available MD results. We have also discussed the crystallization transition with two different interatomic potentials used in this work

  20. Continuous and discontinuous precipitation in Fe-1 at.%Cr-1 at.%Mo alloy upon nitriding; crystal structure and composition of ternary nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Tobias; Ramudu Meka, Sai; Rheingans, Bastian; Bischoff, Ewald; Waldenmaier, Thomas; Yeli, Guma; Martin, Tomas L.; Bagot, Paul A. J.; Moody, Michael P.; Mittemeijer, Eric J.

    2016-05-01

    The internal nitriding response of a ternary Fe-1 at.%Cr-1 at.%Mo alloy, which serves as a model alloy for many CrMo-based steels, was investigated. The nitrides developing upon nitriding were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. The developed nitrides were shown to be (metastable) ternary mixed nitrides, which exhibit complex morphological, compositional and structural transformations as a function of nitriding time. Analogous to nitrided binary Fe-Cr and Fe-Mo alloys, in ternary Fe-Cr-Mo alloys initially continuous precipitation of fine, coherent, cubic, NaCl-type nitride platelets, here with the composition (Cr½,Mo½)N¾, occurs, with the broad faces of the platelets parallel to the {1 0 0}α-Fe lattice planes. These nitrides undergo a discontinuous precipitation reaction upon prolonged nitriding leading to the development of lamellae of a novel, hexagonal CrMoN2 nitride along {1 1 0}α-Fe lattice planes, and of spherical cubic, NaCl-type (Cr,Mo)Nx nitride particles within the ferrite lamellae. The observed structural and compositional changes of the ternary nitrides have been attributed to the thermodynamic and kinetic constraints for the internal precipitation of (misfitting) nitrides in the ferrite matrix.

  1. Ternary fission of {sup 260}No in equatorial configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, M.; Seif, W.M.; Hashem, A.S. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2016-10-15

    Spontaneous ternary fission is one of the observed decay modes of heavy nuclei. We systematically investigate the equatorial ternary fission of the {sup 260}No isotope. In the framework of the three-cluster model, the three-body interaction potential is calculated in terms of the folded M3Y-Reid nucleon-nucleon force and the Coulomb one. The relative orientations of the deformed heavy nuclei participating in the fragmentation process are taken into account. All possible emitted light particles with even mass numbers A = 4-52 are considered. The favored fragmentation channels are estimated as the ones characterized with peaks in the Q-value and local minima in the fragmentation potential. In the absence of nuclear deformations, the closed shell effects are found to play the key role in determining the channels of minimum fragmentation potential and the involved two heavier fragments tend to be of comparable sizes. Inclusion of nuclear deformations manifest the participation of highly deformed prolate nuclei, with large mass asymmetry, as heavy fragment partners in the estimated favored fragmentation channels. The results indicate that the equatorial ternary fission of {sup 260}No is most favored with the light emitted nuclei {sup 4,6,8}{sub 2}He and {sup 10}{sub 4}Be through the fragmentation channels {sup 155}{sub 60}Nd + {sup 4}{sub 2}He + {sup 101}{sub 40}Zr, {sup 153}{sub 60}Nd + {sup 6}{sub 2}He + {sup 101}{sub 40}Zr, {sup 152}{sub 60}Nd + {sup 8}{sub 2}He + {sup 100}{sub 40}Zr, and {sup 152}{sub 60}Nd + {sup 10}{sub 4}Be + {sup 98}{sub 38}Sr, respectively. (orig.)

  2. Combined statistical and dynamical model of ternary nuclear fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestone, J. P.

    2004-08-01

    The statistical theory of particle evaporation from hot compound nuclei can be used to calculate the probability that particles are evaporated from the nuclear surface with not enough energy to surmount the Coulomb barrier. These quasievaporated particles exist between the nuclear surface and the Coulomb barrier for a short period of time before returning to the nuclear fluid. Occasionally, a quasievaporated charged particle emitted into the region surrounding the pre-scission neck material, fails to be reabsorbed by either of the main fragments as they accelerate away from each other after scission. This new particle emission mechanism can be used to explain many of the properties of ternary nuclear fission.

  3. ESTIMATING ERROR BOUNDS FOR TERNARY SUBDIVISION CURVES/SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam Mustafa; Jiansong Deng

    2007-01-01

    We estimate error bounds between ternary subdivision curves/surfaces and their control polygons after k-fold subdivision in terms of the maximal differences of the initial control point sequences and constants that depend on the subdivision mask. The bound is independent of the process of subdivision and can be evaluated without recursive subdivision.Our technique is independent of parametrization therefore it can be easily and efficiently implemented. This is useful and important for pre-computing the error bounds of subdivision curves/surfaces in advance in many engineering applications such as surface/surface intersection, mesh generation, NC machining, surface rendering and so on.

  4. Electroless ternary NiCeP coatings: Preparation and characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaraju, J.N., E-mail: jnbalraj@nal.res.in [Surface Engineering Division, CSIR National Aerospace Laboratories, Post Bag No. 1779 Bangalore 560017, Karnataka (India); Chembath, Manju [Surface Engineering Division, CSIR National Aerospace Laboratories, Post Bag No. 1779 Bangalore 560017, Karnataka (India)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rare earth element (Ce) has been successfully codeposited in NiP matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface analysis carried out by XPS showed that the Ce is present in +3 and +4 oxidation state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Palladium stability test indicated that the Ce salts in electroless nickel bath has reduced the stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cerium codeposition in NiP matrix has increased the microhardness both in as-plated and annealed conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher thermal stability has been obtained by Ce incorporation. - Abstract: Electroless ternary NiCeP deposits were prepared from alkaline citrate bath containing nickel sulphate, cerium chloride and sodium hypophosphite. Concentration of rare earth cerium was varied from 1 to 2 g/L to obtain ternary deposits containing variable Ce and P contents. The influence of cerium on the deposit properties was analysed. The deposit exhibited a maximum cerium content of 6.2 {+-} 0.1 wt.% when the cerium chloride concentration was 2 g/L. The result of the Pd stability test showed that the stability of the bath was reduced due to Ce salt addition. The microhardness measurements made on both as-plated and heat treated samples exhibited a peak hardness of 1006 {+-} 11 VHN for cerium concentration of 1.5 g/L. The concept of kinetic strength analysis was proved to be applicable only for binary and not for ternary alloys due to multistep deposition mechanism with different kinetic energies. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of as-plated and heat treated samples revealed peaks corresponding to Ni (1 1 1) and nickel phosphide (Ni{sub 3}P). Higher amount of Ce incorporation in NiP matrix increased the crystallisation temperature of the deposit which could be due to the suppression of nickel crystallisation prior to Ni{sub 3}P compound formation and thus increasing the activation energy for the formation of stable phases. Surface compositional analysis

  5. Superconductivity in sodium-hydrogen-C{sub 60} ternary compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaeda, K. [Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki (Japan); Kroeber, J. [Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki (Japan); Inokuchi, H. [Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki (Japan); Yonehara, Y. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chem.; Ichimura, K. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chem.

    1997-02-15

    The magnetic properties of the superconducting sodium-hydrogen-C{sub 60} ternary compound have been investigated by means of SQUID and ESR. The superconducting parameters (the penetration depth {lambda} and the coherence length {xi}) are estimated to be {lambda} = 2800 A and {xi} = 38 A using H{sub c1}(0) = 90 G and H{sub c2}(0) = 22 T. The spin susceptibility and the ESR linewidth decrease sharply below {proportional_to}250 K, suggesting the presence of some phase transition. (orig.)

  6. Plutonium microstructures. Part 2. Binary and ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

    1983-12-01

    This report is the second of three parts that exhibit illustrations of inclusions in plutonium metal from inherent and tramp impurities, of intermetallic and nonmetallic constituents from alloy additions, and of the effects of thermal and mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of the microstructures in binary cast alloys and a few selected ternary alloys that result from measured additions of diluent elements, and of the microconstituents that are characteristic of phase fields in extended alloy systems. Microhardness data are given and the etchant used in the preparation of each sample is described.

  7. Representations of Clifford algebras of ternary quartic forms

    CERN Document Server

    Coskun, Emer; Mustopa, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Given a nondegenerate ternary form $f=f(x_1,x_2,x_3)$ of degree 4 over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero, we use the geometry of K3 surfaces to construct a certain positive-dimensional family of irreducible representations of the generalized Clifford algebra associated to $f.$ From this we obtain the existence of linear Pfaffian representations of the quartic surface $X_f=\\{w^4=f(x_1,x_2,x_3)\\},$ as well as information on the Brill-Noether theory of a general smooth curve in the linear system $|\\mathcal{O}_{X_f}(3)|.$

  8. Modeling adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on microporous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsalvo, Matias Alfonso; Shapiro, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work is to analyze the adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on the basis of the multicomponent potential theory of adsorption (MPTA). In the MPTA, the adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external potential field emitted by the solid adsorbent. This makes...... it possible using the same equation of state to describe the thermodynamic properties of the segregated and the bulk phases. For comparison, we also used the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) to describe adsorption equilibria. The main advantage of these two models is their capabilities to predict...

  9. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Characterization of Ternary Copper(II Complex Derived from N-(salicylidene-L-valine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaramurthy Santha Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ternary Schiff base copper(II complex [CuL(tmpda] (where H2L is N-(salicylidene-L-valine; tmpda is N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-1,3-propanediamine has been characterized by UV-Vis., FTIR, and single crystal XRD. The crystal structure displays a distorted square pyramidal geometry in which Schiff base is bonded to the Cu(II ion via phenolate oxygen, imine nitrogen, and an oxygen atom of the carboxylate group through the basal plane and the chelating diamine, N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-1,3-propanediamine, displays an axial and equatorial mode of binding via NN-donor atoms.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of Mercury (II by simultaneous micelle mediated extraction through ternary complex formation in water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Nekouei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a micelle mediated extraction procedure for preconcentration of trace quantities of Hg(II as a prior step to its simultaneous spectrophotometric determination has been developed. The method is based on a ternary ion-association of Hg(II, Xylidyl Blue (XB and cationic surfactant (CTAB. Major factors affecting the efficiency of the method has been studied. The limit of detection (LOD under optimum conditions based on 3Sb was 4.65 ng mL-1. The proposed method has been applied for determination of trace amount of mercury in water samples with satisfactory results.

  11. Liquid-liquid equilibria for binary and ternary polymer solutions with PC-SAFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvig, Thomas; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2004-01-01

    Two algorithms for evaluating liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) for binary and ternary polymer solutions are presented. The binary algorithm provides the temperature versus concentration cloud-point curve at fixed pressure, whereas the ternary algorithm provides component 1 versus component 2...

  12. INTERVAL-VALUED INTUITIONISTIC FUZZY BI-IDEALS IN TERNARY SEMIRINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. KRISHNASWAMY

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notions of interval-valued fuzzy bi-ideal, interval-valued anti fuzzy bi-ideal and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy bi-ideal in ternary semirings and some of the basic properties of these ideals are investigated. We also introduce normal interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy ideals in ternary semirings.

  13. Numeric Simulation of Single Passage Ternary Turbulence Model in Hydraulic Torque Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫清东; 魏巍

    2003-01-01

    Based on the renormalization group theory, a hydraulic torque converter 3-D turbulent single flow passage model is constructed and boundary condition is determined for analyzing the influence of the fluid field characteristic and parameters on the macroscopic model. Numerical simulation of the single fluid path is processed by computational fluid dynamics and the calculated results approach to experimental data well, and especially in low transmission ratio the torque and head results are more close to experimental data than the calculated results of beam theory. This shows that the appropriate ternary analysis method and reasonable assumption of boundary condition may analyze the flow field more precisely and predict the performance of torque converter more accurately.

  14. Molecular Collective Vibrations in the Ternary Neutronless Fission of $^{252}Cf$

    CERN Document Server

    Misicu, S; Sandulescu, A; Greiner, W

    1999-01-01

    Based on a recent experimental finding which may suggest the existence of a tri-nuclear molecular structure before the cold ternary fragmentation of $^{252}$Cf takes place, we solved the eigenvalue problem of a certain class of vibrations which are very likely to occur in these molecules. These oscillations are the result of the joined action of rotations of the heavier fragments and the transversal vibrations of the lighter spherical cluster with respect to the fission axis. In the calculation of the interaction between the heavier fragments we took into account higher multipole deformations, including the hexadecupole one, and introduced a repulsive nuclear part to insure the creation of a potential pocket in which a few molecular states can be accommodated. The possibility to observe the de-excitation of such states is discussed in connection with the molecular life-time.

  15. Solid—Liquid Equilibria of Several Binary and Ternary Systems Containing Meleic Anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAPeisheng; CHENMingming; 等

    2002-01-01

    Solid-liquid equilibria(SLE) of three binary systems and seven ternary systems containing maleic anhydride(MA) are measured by visual method. The experimental data are compared with the calculated ones with modified universal quasichemical functional group activity coefficient(UNIFAC) method in which the interaction parameters between groups come from two sources,dortmund data bank (DDB), if there′s any,and correlations based on our former presented experimental SLE data of twenty binary systems.New groups of MA,ACCOO group,COO group,>C=O group and cy-CH2 group are defined and the SLE data of maleic anhydride in isopropyl acetate in literature are cited in order to assess the new interaction parameters,correlated with Wilson equation and the λh equation.The modified UNIFAC method with these new regressed interaction parameters is also used to predict other three binary systems containing maleic anhydride.

  16. Isotopic Soret effect in ternary mixtures: Theoretical predictions and molecular simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artola, Pierre-Arnaud, E-mail: pierre-arnaud.artola@u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique, Université de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Rousseau, Bernard [Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique, CNRS Université de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)

    2015-11-07

    In this paper, we study the Soret effect in ternary fluid mixtures of isotopic argon like atoms. Soret coefficients have been computed using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics and a theoretical approach based on our extended Prigogine model (with mass effect) and generalized to mixtures with any number of components. As is well known for binary mixture studies, the heaviest component always accumulates on the cold side whereas the lightest species accumulate on the hot side. An interesting behavior is observed for the species with the intermediate mass: it can accumulate on both sides, depending on composition and mass ratios. A simple picture can be given to understand this change of sign: the intermediate mass species can be seen as evolving in an equivalent fluid whose species mass varies with composition. An excellent prediction of all simulated data has been obtained using our model including the change of sign of the Soret coefficient for species with intermediate mass.

  17. Elastic properties of sulphur and selenium doped ternary PbTe alloys by first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, Ashoka, E-mail: rcmallik@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Chetty, Raju, E-mail: rcmallik@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Mallik, Ramesh Chandra, E-mail: rcmallik@physics.iisc.ernet.in [Thermoelectric Materials and Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Lead telluride (PbTe) is an established thermoelectric material which can be alloyed with sulphur and selenium to further enhance the thermoelectric properties. Here, a first principles study of ternary alloys PbS{sub x}Te{sub (1−x)} and PbSe{sub x}Te{sub (1−x)} (0≤x≤1) based on the Virtual Crystal Approximation (VCA) is presented for different ratios of the isoelectronic atoms in each series. Equilibrium lattice parameters and elastic constants have been calculated and compared with the reported data. Anisotropy parameter calculated from the stiffness constants showed a slight improvement in anisotropy of elastic properties of the alloys over undoped PbTe. Furthermore, the alloys satisfied the predicted stability criteria from the elastic constants, showing stable structures, which agreed with the previously reported experimental results.

  18. Recognition and sensing of low-epitope targets via ternary complexes with oligonucleotides and synthetic receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kyung-Ae; Barbu, Mihaela; Halim, Marlin; Pallavi, Payal; Kim, Benjamin; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M.; Pecic, Stevan; Taylor, Steven; Worgall, Tilla S.; Stojanovic, Milan N.

    2014-11-01

    Oligonucleotide-based receptors or aptamers can interact with small molecules, but the ability to achieve high-affinity and specificity of these interactions depends strongly on functional groups or epitopes displayed by the binding targets. Some classes of targets are particularly challenging: for example, monosaccharides have scarce functionalities and no aptamers have been reported to recognize, let alone distinguish from each other, glucose and other hexoses. Here we report aptamers that differentiate low-epitope targets such as glucose, fructose or galactose by forming ternary complexes with high-epitope organic receptors for monosaccharides. In a follow-up example, we expand this method to isolate high-affinity oligonucleotides against aromatic amino acids complexed in situ with a nonspecific organometallic receptor. The method is general and enables broad clinical use of aptamers for the detection of small molecules in mix-and-measure assays, as demonstrated by monitoring postprandial waves of phenylalanine in human subjects.

  19. 辛三代数的Frattini子代数%THE FRATTINI SUBALGEBRA OF SYMPLECTIC TERNARY ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白喜梅; 白瑞蒲

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the Prattini subalgebra of symplectic ternary algebras and elementary symplectic ternary algebras. By using the properties of the Prattini subalgebra of symplectic ternary algebras and elementary symplectic ternary algebras, the non-imbedding theorem of symplectic ternary algebras is obtained, which generalizes the result of Prattini subsystem of Lie triple systems.%本文研究了辛三代数的Frattini子代数和基本辛三代数的问题.利用Frattini子代数和基本辛三代数的性质,得到了辛三代数的非嵌入定理,从而推广了李三系中关于Frattini子系的结果.

  20. Release of DNA binary complexes from the ternary complexes by carboxymethyl poly(L-histidine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayama, Shoichiro; Sudo, Miyuki; Kawakami, Hiroyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The DNA ternary complexes with carboxymethyl poly(L-histidine) (CM-PLH) and poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) have released the DNA binary complexes with PEI by the protonation of CM-PLH at endosomal/lysosomal pH. The dissociation of the CM-PLH from the CM-PLH/PEI/DNA ternary complexes is proved by the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis between the CM-PLH and PEI. The resulting PEI/DNA binary complexes easily released DNA, as compared with the CM-PLH/PEI/DNA ternary complexes, which was examined by competitive exchange with dextran sulfate. The release of the DNA binary complexes from the ternary complexes is promising mechanism for higher transfection activity by the CM-PLH/PEI/DNA ternary complexes.

  1. Algebras with ternary law of composition combining Z_2 and Z_3 gradings

    CERN Document Server

    Abramov, V; Liivapuu, O

    2015-01-01

    In the present article we investigate the possibility of combining the usual Grassmann algebras with their ternary Z_3-graded counterpart, thus creating a more general algebra with coexisting quadratic and cubic constitutive relations. We recall the classification of ternary and cubic algebras according to the symmetry properties of ternary products under the action of the S_3 permutation group. Instead of only two kinds of binary algebras, symmetric or antisymmetric, here we get four different generalizations of each of these two cases. Then we study a particular case of algebras generated by two types of variables, the generators of Grassmann algebra and generators of ternary analog of Grassmann algebra, satisfying quadratic and cubic relations respectively, i.e. the generators of Grassmann algebra anticommute and a triple product of any three generators of a ternary analog of Grassmann algebra is equal to cyclic permutation of generators in this product multiplied by a primitive 3rd root of unity. The inva...

  2. Decision tree method applied to computerized prediction of ternary intermetallic compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Decision tree method and atomic parameters were used to find the regularities of the formation of ternary intermetallic compounds in alloy systems. The criteria of formation can be expressed by a group of inequalities with two kinds of atomic parameters Zl (number of valence electrons in the atom of constituent element) and Ri/Rj (ratio of the atomic radius of constituent element i and j) as independent variables. The data of 2238 known ternary alloy systems were used to extract the empirical rules governing the formation of ternary intermetallic compounds, and the facts of ternary compound formation of other 1334 alloy systems were used as samples to test the reliability of the empirical criteria found. The rate of correctness of prediction was found to be nearly 95%. An expert system for ternary intermetallic compound formation was built and some prediction results of the expert system were confirmed.

  3. OPTIMIZED LOCAL TERNARY PATTERNS: A NEW TEXTURE MODEL WITH SET OF OPTIMAL PATTERNS FOR TEXTURE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Madasamy Raja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Texture analysis is one of the important as well as useful tasks in image processing applications. Many texture models have been developed over the past few years and Local Binary Patterns (LBP is one of the simple and efficient approach among them. A number of extensions to the LBP method have been also presented but the problem remains challenging in feature vector generation and comparison. As textures are oriented and scaled differently, a texture model should effectively handle grey-scale variation, rotation variation, illumination variation and noise. The length of the feature vector in a texture model also plays an important role in deciding the time complexity of the texture analysis. This study proposes a new texture model, called Optimized Local Ternary Patterns (OLTP in the spatial methods of texture analysis. The proposed texture model is based on Local Ternary Patterns (LTP, which in turn is based on LBP. A new concept called “Level of Optimality” to select the optimal set of patterns is discussed in this study. This proposed texture model uses only optimal patterns to extract the textural information from the digital images and thereby reducing the length of the feature vector. This proposed model is robust to image rotation, grey-scale transformation, histogram equalization and noise. The results are compared with other widely used texture models by applying classification tests to variety of texture images from the standard Brodatz texture database. Experimental results prove that the proposed texture model is robust to grey-scale variation, image rotation, histogram equalization and noise. Experimental results also show that the proposed texture model improves the classification accuracy and the speed of the classification process. In all tested tasks, the proposed method outperforms the earlier methods.

  4. All possible ternary fragmentations of Cf252 in collinear configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimaran, K.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2011-03-01

    All possible ternary fragmentations in fission of Cf252 are studied in collinear configuration within a spherical approximation using the recently proposed “three cluster model.” The potential energy surface of collinear configuration exhibits a strong valley around Ca48 and its neighboring nuclei Ca50, Ti54, and Cr60. Such strong minima are not seen in the potential energy surface of an equatorial configuration. As a consequence of strong minima in the potential, the overall relative yield is higher for the ternary fragmentation with Ca48, Ca50, Ti54, Cr60, and Ge82 as the third fragment. The results of potential energy and relative yield calculations reveal that collinear configuration increases the probability of emission of heavy fragments like Ca48 (doubly magic nucleus) and its neighboring nuclei as the third fragment. The obtained results indicate that the collinear configuration is the preferred configuration for intermediate nuclei (Ca48, Ca50, Ti54, and Cr60) as the third fragment in particle accompanied fission while the equatorial configuration may be a preferred configuration for light nuclei (He4, Be10) as the third fragment.

  5. Formation of ternary Mg–Cu–Dy bulk metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X F Wu; Y Kang; F F Wu; K Q Qiu; L K Meng

    2011-12-01

    The glass-forming ability (GFA) of ternary Mg–Cu–Dy alloys was systematically investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) techniques. The results showed that a series of ternary Mg–Cu–Dy bulk metallic glasses (BGMs) with a diameter of 4–8 mm were successfully fabricated in the system with conventional Cu-mold casting method. Mg55Cu32Dy13, Mg60Cu27Dy13, Mg65Cu25Dy10 and Mg70Cu17Dy13 BMGs exhibit a clear glass transition, a broad supercooled liquid region and different crystallization and melting behaviours. They have supercooled liquid region ($\\Delta T_{x}$) from 41 K to 65 K, reduced glass transition temperature ($T_{rg}$) from 0.5363 to 0.5974 and parameter from 0.4038 to 0.4136. The shows a relatively good agreement with the GFA of the BGMs. On the other hand, a high fracture compressive strength of 624 MPa was obtained for Mg60Cu27Dy13 BMG.

  6. Thermodynamic Modeling of the Al-Cr-Mn Ternary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Senlin; Jung, In-Ho

    2017-03-01

    The phase diagram information available in the literature on the Al-Cr-Mn system was comprehensively evaluated and optimized for the first time to obtain a set of Gibbs energies of all the solid and liquid phases in the Al-Cr-Mn system. The Modified Quasi-chemical Model (MQM) was utilized to describe the Gibbs energy of the liquid phase of the Al-Cr-Mn system. The Compound Energy Formalism (CEF) was used to model the solid solution phases. A revision of the Al-Mn system was simultaneously conducted to consider the γ_H (Al8Mn5) phase. The liquid Cr-Mn phase was also remodeled using the Modified Quasi-chemical Model (MQM) to obtain a consistent description of the ternary Al-Cr-Mn liquid phase. Accurate description of the phase diagram of the entire Al-Cr-Mn system was obtained from the thermodynamic models with optimized parameters in the present study, and the model parameters can be used to predict the thermodynamic properties of the ternary system.

  7. On a Class of Ternary Inclusion-Exclusion Polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, Gennady

    2010-01-01

    A ternary inclusion-exclusion polynomial is a polynomial of the form \\[ Q_{{p,q,r}}=\\frac{(z^{pqr}-1)(z^p-1)(z^q-1)(z^r-1)} {(z^{pq}-1)(z^{qr}-1)(z^{rp}-1)(z-1)}, \\] where $p$, $q$, and $r$ are integers $\\ge3$ and relatively prime in pairs. This class of polynomials contains, as its principle subclass, the ternary cyclotomic polynomials corresponding to restricting $p$, $q$, and $r$ to be distinct odd prime numbers. Our object here is to continue the investigation of the relationship between the coefficients of $Q_{{p,q,r}}$ and $Q_{{p,q,s}}$, with $r\\equiv s\\pmod{pq}$. More specifically, we consider the case where $1\\le s<\\max(p,q)

  8. Binding Energy Calculations for Novel Ternary Ionic Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mijangos, Ricardo; Vazquez-Polo, Gustavo

    2002-03-01

    Theoretical calculations for the binding energy between metalic ions and negative ions on a novel ternary ionic lattice is carried out for several solid solutions prepared with different concentrations and characterized recently (1). The ternary lattices that reach a good miscibility are: KCl(x)KBr(y)RbCl(z) in three different concentrations: (x=y=z=0.33), (x=0.5, y=0.25, z=0.25) and (x=0.33, y=0.07, z=0.60). The binding energy for these novel structures is calculated from the lattice constants obtained by X ray diffractometry analysis performed on the samples and the Vegard law (2). For the repulsive force exponent m, an average of the m values was considered. The energy values obtained by the Born´expression are compared with corresponding energy values from the lattice with more complex expressions, such as the Born Mayer, Born-Van der Walls. There is a good aggreement between all these calculations. (1)R. R. Mijangos, A. Cordero-Borboa, E. Alvarez, M. Cervantes, Physics Letters A 282 (2001) 195-200. (2) G. Vazquez-Polo, R. R. Mijangos et al. Revista Mexicana de Fisica, 47, Diciembre 2001. In Press.

  9. Ternary geochemical-tracing system in natural gas accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of geochemical-tracing system of gas generation and accumulation is helpful to re-elucidating the gas migration and accumulation in time and space. To deduce the complex process of gas accumulation, a ternary geochemical-tracing system is set up, according to stable isotope inheritance of source rocks, kinetic fractionation of stable isotopes, time-accumulating effect of noble gas isotopes, mantle-derived volatile inheritance, and organic molecule inheritance of light hydrocarbons and thermally kinetic fractionation in their generation, in combination with the previous achievements of gas geochemistry and geochemical parameters of gas-source correlation. There are tight interactions for the geochemical parameters with much information about parent inheritance and special biomarkers, in which they are confirmed each other, reciprocally associated and preferentially used for the requirement so that we can use these geochemical parameters to effectively demonstrate the sources of natural gas, sedimentary environments and thermal evolution of source rocks, migration and accumulation of natural gas, and rearrangement of natural gas reservoirs. It is necessary for the ternary geochemical-tracing system to predict the formation of high efficient gas reservoir and their distribution in time and space.

  10. Thermoelectric materials: ternary penta telluride and selenide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Jeffrey W.

    2002-06-04

    Ternary tellurium compounds and ternary selenium compounds may be used in fabricating thermoelectric devices with a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 1.5 or greater. Examples of such compounds include Tl.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5, Tl.sub.2 GeTe.sub.5, K.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5 and Rb.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5. These compounds have similar types of crystal lattice structures which include a first substructure with a (Sn, Ge) Te.sub.5 composition and a second substructure with chains of selected cation atoms. The second substructure includes selected cation atoms which interact with selected anion atoms to maintain a desired separation between the chains of the first substructure. The cation atoms which maintain the desired separation between the chains occupy relatively large electropositive sites in the resulting crystal lattice structure which results in a relatively low value for the lattice component of thermal conductivity (.kappa..sub.g). The first substructure of anion chains indicates significant anisotropy in the thermoelectric characteristics of the resulting semiconductor materials.

  11. Thermoelectric materials ternary penta telluride and selenide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    Ternary tellurium compounds and ternary selenium compounds may be used in fabricating thermoelectric devices with a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 1.5 or greater. Examples of such compounds include Tl.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5, Tl.sub.2 GeTe.sub.5, K.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5 and Rb.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5. These compounds have similar types of crystal lattice structures which include a first substructure with a (Sn, Ge) Te.sub.5 composition and a second substructure with chains of selected cation atoms. The second substructure includes selected cation atoms which interact with selected anion atoms to maintain a desired separation between the chains of the first substructure. The cation atoms which maintain the desired separation between the chains occupy relatively large electropositive sites in the resulting crystal lattice structure which results in a relatively low value for the lattice component of thermal conductivity (.kappa..sub.g). The first substructure of anion chains indicates significant anisotropy in the thermoelectric characteristics of the resulting semiconductor materials.

  12. Effects of Hydrogen on Acceptor Activation in Ternary Nitride Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fioretti, Angela N. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Colorado School of Mines, Golden CO 80401 USA; Stokes, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Colorado School of Mines, Golden CO 80401 USA; Young, Matthew R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Gorman, Brian [Colorado School of Mines, Golden CO 80401 USA; Toberer, Eric S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Colorado School of Mines, Golden CO 80401 USA; Tamboli, Adele C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Colorado School of Mines, Golden CO 80401 USA; Zakutayev, Andriy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA

    2017-02-09

    Doping control is necessary to unlock the scientific and technological potential of many materials, including ternary II-IV-nitride semiconductors, which are closely related to binary GaN. In particular, ZnSnN2 has been reported to have degenerate doping density, despite bandgap energies that are well suited for solar energy conversion. Here, we show that annealing Zn-rich Zn1+xSn1-xN2 grown with added hydrogen reduces its free electron density by orders of magnitude, down to 4 x 1016 cm-3. This experimental observation can be explained by hydrogen passivation of acceptors in Zn1+xSn1-xN2 during growth, lowering the driving force for unintentional donor formation. These results indicate that the doping control principles used in GaN can be translated to ZnSnN2, suggesting that other strategies used in binary III-Vs can be applied to accelerate the technological development of ternary II-IV-N2 materials.

  13. Thermodiffusion in binary and ternary nonpolar hydrocarbon + alcohol mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Morteza; Saghir, M. Ziad

    2012-12-01

    Thermodiffusion in complex mixtures, such as associating, molten metal, and polymer mixtures is difficult to model usually owing to the occurrence of a sign change in the thermodiffusion coefficient when the mixture concentration and temperature change. A mixture comprised of a nonpolar hydrocarbon and an alcohol is a complex and highly non-ideal mixture. In this paper an existing binary non-equilibrium thermodynamics model (Eslamian and Saghir, Physical Review E 80, 061201, 2009) developed for aqueous mixtures of alcohols is examined against the experimental data of binary nonpolar hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. For ternary mixtures, non-equilibrium thermodynamic expressions developed by the authors for aqueous mixtures of alcohols (Eslamian and Saghir, Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, DOI 10.1002/cjce.20581) is used to predict thermodiffusion coefficients of ternary nonpolar hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. The rationale behind the sign change is elucidated and attributed to an anomalous change in the molecular structure and therefore viscosity of such mixtures. Model predictions of thermodiffusion coefficients of binary mixtures predict a sign change consistent with the experimental data although the model is still too primitive to capture all structural complexities. For instance, in the methanol-benzene mixture where the model predictions are poorest, the viscosity data show that when concentration varies, the mixture's molecular structure experiences a severe change twice, the first major change leading to a maximum in the thermodiffusion coefficient, whereas the second change causes a sign change.

  14. Contrasting performance of donor-acceptor copolymer pairs in ternary blend solar cells and two-acceptor copolymers in binary blend solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlyabich, Petr P; Rudenko, Andrey E; Burkhart, Beate; Thompson, Barry C

    2015-02-04

    Here two contrasting approaches to polymer-fullerene solar cells are compared. In the first approach, two distinct semi-random donor-acceptor copolymers are blended with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) to form ternary blend solar cells. The two poly(3-hexylthiophene)-based polymers contain either the acceptor thienopyrroledione (TPD) or diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP). In the second approach, semi-random donor-acceptor copolymers containing both TPD and DPP acceptors in the same polymer backbone, termed two-acceptor polymers, are blended with PC61BM to give binary blend solar cells. The two approaches result in bulk heterojunction solar cells that have the same molecular active-layer components but differ in the manner in which these molecular components are mixed, either by physical mixing (ternary blend) or chemical "mixing" in the two-acceptor (binary blend) case. Optical properties and photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies of the binary and ternary blends were found to have similar features and were described as a linear combination of the individual components. At the same time, significant differences were observed in the open-circuit voltage (Voc) behaviors of binary and ternary blend solar cells. While in case of two-acceptor polymers, the Voc was found to be in the range of 0.495-0.552 V, ternary blend solar cells showed behavior inherent to organic alloy formation, displaying an intermediate, composition-dependent and tunable Voc in the range from 0.582 to 0.684 V, significantly exceeding the values achieved in the two-acceptor containing binary blend solar cells. Despite the differences between the physical and chemical mixing approaches, both pathways provided solar cells with similar power conversion efficiencies, highlighting the advantages of both pathways toward highly efficient organic solar cells.

  15. Measurement and Prediction of Vapor Pressure for H2O+CH3OH/C2H5OH+[BMIM][DBP] Ternary Working Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓冬; 胡大鹏; 赵宗昌

    2013-01-01

    The ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dibutylphosphate ([BMIM][DBP]) was prepared and the vapor pressures of three set of binary solutions H2O(1)/CH3OH(1)/C2H5OH(1)+[BMIM][DBP](2) were measured at different temperature and in the ILs mole fraction range from 0.1 to 0.6 with a static equilibrium apparatus. The measured vapor pressures were correlated with Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) activity coefficient model and the average relative deviations (ARD) between experimental and correlated vapor pressures for these binary solutions were 3.19%, 2.42% and 2.95%, respectively. Then, the vapor pressures of two set of ternary solutions H2O(1)+CH3OH(2)/C2H5OH(2)+[BMIM][DBP](3) were measured with an inclined boiling apparatus and further predicted with NRTL activity coefficient model based on the binary interaction parameters coming from fitting the vapor pressures of the binary solutions. The results indicated that the ternary solutions containing [BMIM][DBP] were shown a strong negative deviation from Raoult’s Law when the mole fraction of [BMIM][DBP] was larger than 0.2, which meant that ternary solutions could absorb the refrigerant vapors at the same or below solution temperature. Meanwhile, the average relative deviations between experimental and predicted vapor pressures for ternary solutions were 2.92% and 3.06%, respectively. Consequently, the NRTL active coefficient model used for non-electrolyte solutions was still valid for predicting vapor-liquid equilibrium of binary or ternary solutions containing ILs.

  16. Atomistic study of ternary oxides as high-temperature solid lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongyu

    Friction and wear are important tribological phenomena tightly associated with the performance of tribological components/systems such as bearings and cutting machines. In the process of contact and sliding, friction and wear lead to energy loss, and high friction and wear typically result in shortened service lifetime. To reduce friction and wear, solid lubricants are generally used under conditions where traditional liquid lubricants cannot be applied. However, it is challenging to maintain the functionality of those materials when the working environment becomes severe. For instance, at elevated temperatures (i.e., above 400 °C), most traditional solid lubricants, such as MoS2 and graphite, will easily oxidize or lose lubricity due to irreversible chemical changes. For such conditions, it is necessary to identify materials that can remain thermally stable as well as lubricious over a wide range of temperatures. Among the currently available high-temperature solid lubricants, Ag-based ternary metal oxides have recently drawn attention due to their low friction and ability to resist oxidation. A recent experimental study showed that the Ag-Ta-O ternary exhibited an extremely low coefficient of friction (0.06) at 750 °C. To fully uncover the lubricious nature of this material as a high-temperature solid lubricant, a series of tribological investigations were carried out based on one promising candidate - silver tantalate (AgTaO3). The study was then extended to alternative materials, Cu-Ta-O ternaries, to accommodate a variety of application requirements. We aimed to understand, at an atomic level, the effects of physical and chemical properties on the thermal, mechanical and tribological behavior of these materials at high temperatures. Furthermore, we investigated potassium chloride films on a clean iron surface as a representative boundary lubricating system in a nonextreme environment. This investigation complemented the study of Ag/Cu-Ta-O and enhanced the

  17. 信息化与工业化融合的理论模型探索--基于三元经济结构视角%Exploration about Theoretical Foundation of Integration of Information Technology and Industrialization---Based on Ternary Perspective of Economic Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飒; 林木西

    2014-01-01

    通过对信息化与工业化融合(简称“两化融合”)的文献梳理,发现对其内涵、本质和指标体系构建方面的研究不少,但对理论模型的研究几乎没有。通过对传统二元经济理论在新形势下的局限性分析,得出两化融合源于新经济发展带来的三元经济理论,并提出一个简单三元经济模型,得出农业现代化和两化融合的“中国特色新二元经济”形态是三元经济理论的中国化体现。%Through literature review about the integration of information technology and industrialization (referred as “Integration of the Two”) , we found there are many studies about its meaning , nature and terms of the index system , but lack of theoretical foundation research . By analyzing the theoretical limitations of the traditional dual economy in the new situation , we propose integration of the two triples from ternary economic theory brought from development of the new economic , so we put forward a framework for simple ternary eco-nomic model and get the conclusion :“the new dual economy with Chinese characteristics” referred as agricultural modernization and inte-gration of the two is the reflection of ternary economic theory in China .

  18. Derivative-ratio spectrophotometric method for the determination of ternary mixture of aspirin, paracetamol and salicylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Yazbi, Fawzi A.; Hammud, Hassan H.; Assi, Sulaf A.

    2007-10-01

    A derivative spectrophotometric method was developed for the assay of a ternary mixture of aspirin (ASP), paracetamol (PAR) and salicylic acid (SAL). The method is based on the use of the first and second derivatives of the ratio spectra and measurement at zero-crossing wavelengths. The ratio spectra were obtained by dividing the absorption spectrum of the mixture by that of one of the components. The concentration of the other components are then determined from their respective calibration curves treated similarly. The described method was applied for the determination of these combinations in synthetic mixtures and dosage forms. The results obtained were accurate and precise.

  19. Predicting Composition Dependence of Glass Forming Ability in Ternary Al-Cu-Y System by Thermodynamic Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The composition dependence of glass forming ability in the ternary Al-Cu-Y system is predicted by thermodynamic calculations based on the Miedema’s model and Alonso’s method. By comparing the relative energetic status of the amorphous phase versus the solid solution phase, a hexagonal composition region that energetically favoring the metallic glass formation is predicted. The glass formation driving force and crystallization resistance are further calculated and the composition of Al72Cu10Y18 is pinpointed with the largest glass forming ability in the Al-Cu-Y system. The calculation results are well supported by the experimental observations reported in the literature.

  20. Physical properties of ternary silicide superconductors Li2XSi3 (X = Rh, Os): An ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. A.; Zilani, M. A. K.; Parvin, F.; Hadi, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    An ab initio method, based on the plane wave pseudopotential and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), is performed to investigate the physical properties such as structural, elastic, electronic and bonding properties of newly synthesized Li2RhSi3 and predicted Li2OsSi3 ternary silicide superconductors for the first time. Both of these compounds are mechanically stable and are brittle in nature. They also have good machinability. Electronic band structures reveal that these compounds have metallic characteristics. They possess complex bonding nature (metallic, covalent and ionic). According to theoretical Vickers hardness, Li2RhSi3 is softer than Li2OsSi3.

  1. Materials in the Li-Mo-O ternary system of interest for use in rechargeable lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo

    The thermodynamic and kinetic properties of lithium molybdenum oxide bronzes, which are of interest as possible positive electrode materials for use in rechargeable lithium batteries were characterized in this study. Within the Li-Mo-O ternary system, the phases Li4Mo5O12, Li2MoO3, and Li6Mo2O7 were investigated. Based upon theoretical considerations related to electrode potentials, capacities, and weight, lithium cells using these bronze materials as positive electrode reactants, should have a relatively high specific energy. Electrochemical techniques were used in order to determine the potentials and capacities of Li4Mo5O12, Li2MoO3, and Li6Mo2O7 in lithium-based cells. Equilibrium open-circuit voltages were recorded at selected compositions. An alternative method, voltage-relazation, was used in both the Li-Mo-O and the Li-Pb systems. The chemical diffusion coefficients of lithium in selected phases were measured using the Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT). Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of the products formed during discharge were recorded and compared to those of the parent materials. Room temperature electrochemical experiments were conducted using cells of the following type: Li / 1M LiAsF6 in PC / LixMoOy. Powder X-ray diffraction results for the various phases formed during reaction with lithium showed that the parent framework remains largely unchanged during lithium insertion. The principles underlying the difference between the dynamic and equilibrium behavior of Li-Mo-O and related systems that can undergo both insertion and reconstitution reactions were investigated. As a result, the room temperature metastable ternary phase diagram was constructed and compared to the high temperature equilibrium ternary phase diagram.

  2. Resolution of Ternary Mixture of Aspirin, Atorvastatin, and Clopidogrel by Chemometric-Assisted UV Spectroscopic and Liquid Chromatography Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohamed Issa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two chemometrics-assisted UV spectrophotometric methods were proposed for the resolution of ternary mixtures without any chemical pretreatment. The first method is based on modification of H-point standard addition method which permits simultaneous analysis of three species from a unique calibration set by making the simultaneous addition of the three analytes. Quotient between the spectra of aspirin, atorvastatin, and clopidogrel was obtained and the results showed that simultaneous determination of aspirin, atorvastatin, and clopidogrel can be obeyed in the linear range 2.5–20 μg mL−1 of aspirin, 2.5–17.5 μg mL−1 of atorvastatin, and 2.5–20 μg mL−1 of clopidogrel in ternary mixture. The second method is based on the combination of the first derivative spectra and Cramer's matrix rule. In the matrix calculation, clopidogrel has zero crossing point at 316.8 and 212 nm, while for atorvastatin the zero crossing point at 250 nm where the matrix is greatly simplified and easily solved. The linear concentration ranges were 2.5–20 μg mL−1 aspirin, 2.5–17.5 μg mL−1 atorvastatin and 2.5–20 μg mL−1 clopidogrel in ternary mixtures. The results proved that the simultaneous determination of aspirin, atorvastatin, and clopidogrel could be obeyed. Both methods were applied for capsules containing the three ingredients and results were in good concordance with alternative liquid chromatography.

  3. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablet containing domperidone ternary solid dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dasharath M; Patel, Sweeti P; Patel, Chhagan N

    2014-10-01

    Fast dissolving tablet containing domperidone ternary solid dispersion was developed to improve the dissolution of drug and stability of solid dispersion. Binary and ternary solid dispersions were prepared by fusion method. They were characterized by solubility study, in vitro dissolution, dissolution efficiency, and stability study. The solid state properties of solid dispersions were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Ternary solid dispersion was successfully incorporated into fast dissolving tablet by direct compression method. Tablets were characterized for pre-compression parameters, post-compression parameters, and stability study. Optimized ternary solid dispersion containing ratio 1:2:1.5 of drug: Gelucire 50/13: Poloxamer 188 gave maximum dissolution. The FTIR, DSC, and XRD studies of solid dispersions were confirmed the formation of solid dispersion. Ternary solid dispersion was more stable compared to binary solid dispersion at accelerated environment conditions for one month as confirmed by DSC study. Crospovidone as a superdisintegrant (4%) showed good result with disintegration time of 19 s and dissolution near to 100% in 0.1N HCL at 30 min. The studies indicated that the dissolution of drug and stability of solid dispersion was improved in the presence of ternary agent (surfactant) as compared to binary solid dispersion. It was concluded that fast dissolving tablet containing ternary solid dispersion was stable at accelerated environmental conditions for 1 month.

  4. [Synthesis, characterization and luminescence properties of novel beta-diketone and Eu(III) ternary complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; Wei, Chang-Ping; Ren, Xiao-Ming; Wang, He; Wei, Wen-Tao

    2011-09-01

    The novel beta-diketone 1-(4-bromophenyl)-3-phenylpropane-1, 3-dione (L) was synthesized at room temperature by classical Claisen condensation reaction. With the beta-diketone L as the first ligand and phen as the secondary ligand, and a new rare-earth Eu (III) ternary complex was prepared. The ligand L and ternary complex were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, UV spectra and fluorescence spectra. IR spectra indicated that: the novel ligand L contained the structure of beta-diketone, where the content of enol was high; the Eu3+ ion in the ternary complex was coordinated with six oxygen atoms of three L ligands and two nitrogen atoms of the second ligand phen. UV spectra showed that the main absorption was from the first ligand L in the Eu (III) ternary complex. The excitation and emission spectra of the ternary complex were measured and investigated. Fluorescence spectra demonstrated that the ternary complex could emit characteristic fluorescence of rare earth Eu3+ ion and the strongest emission band was narrow which was attributed to the 5 D0 --> 7 F2 transitions of the 4f electrons of the central Eu3+ ions. So, the new Eu(III) ternary complex is an excellent red-emitter which would be regarded as a valuable material with bright red fluorescence because it presents good monochromaticity.

  5. Multi-modal fission in collinear ternary cluster decay of 252Cf(sf, fff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. von Oertzen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the multiple decay modes of collinear fission in 252Cf(sf, fff, with three fragments as suggested by the potential energy surface (PES. Fission as a statistical decay is governed by the phase space of the different decay channels, which are suggested in the PES-landscape. The population of the fission modes is determined by the minima in the PES at the scission points and on the internal potential barriers. The ternary collinear decay proceeds as a sequential process, in two steps. The originally observed ternary decay of 252Cf(sf into three different masses (e.g. 132–140Sn, 52–48Ca, 68–72Ni, observed by the FOBOS group in the FLNR (Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions of the JINR (Dubna the collinear cluster tripartition (CCT, is one of the ternary fission modes. This kind of “true ternary fission” of heavy nuclei has often been predicted in theoretical works during the last decades. In the present note we discuss different ternary fission modes in the same system. The PES shows pronounced minima, which correspond to several modes of ternary fragmentations. These decays have very similar dynamical features as the previously observed CCT-decays. The data obtained in the experiments on CCT allow us to extract the yields for different decay modes using specific gates on the measured parameters, and to establish multiple modes of the ternary fission decay.

  6. Process of electroless plating Cu-Sn-Zn ternary alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cu-Sn-Zn ternary alloy layer with 10 μm thickness was prepared through electroless plating method. The influences of process conditions including the concentration of metallic salts, reductant and complex agent on Cu-Sn-Zn alloy were studied in details.The stability to bear color changes and corrosion resistance of Cu-Sn-Zn film layer were studied through air-exposure experiment and electrochemical analyses test respectively. The results show that the performances of Cu-Sn-Zn film layer are obviously superior to brass matrix. By use of SEM,EDS and XRD, the morphology, microstructure and chemical composition were investigated. The results show that complex agent can increase the content of Sn and Zn, improve the evenness and compactness and decrease needle holes, therefore the properties of electroless plating layer such as the stability to bear color changes and corrosion resistance are improved remarkably.The probable mechanism of complex agent was discussed.

  7. Designing and analysing parallel control for multifeed ternary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Solar-González

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a parallel control structure for improving the behaviour of a chemical plant having recycling and multi- ple feed streams; a ternary system is taken as an example,having an A + B → C second-order irreversible reaction. Material recycling dynamics can induce the so-called snowball effect in the presence of disturbance in the feed stream. The snowball effect can be prevented by distributing load through the parallel control scheme. A control structure was thus pro- posed where product composition was regulated by means of simultaneous feedback manipulation of final column vapour boilup rate and reactor temperature. An extension was made for one reactor, one distillation column and recycle stream configuration. Nonlinear simulations showed that effective composition control could be obtained with moderate vapour boilup control efforts.

  8. Morphological Control Agent in Ternary Blend Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Chung Liao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic photovoltaic (OPV promise low cost solar energy and have caused an explosive increase in investigations during the last decade. Control over the 3D morphology of BHJ blend films in various length scales is one of the pillars accounting for the significant advance of OPV performance recently. In this contribution, we focus on the strategy of incorporating an additive into BHJ blend films as a morphological control agent, i.e., ternary blend system. This strategy has shown to be effective in tailoring the morphology of BHJ through different inter- and intra-molecular interactions. We systematically review the morphological observations and associated mechanisms with respect to various kinds of additives, i.e., polymers, small molecules and inorganic nanoparticles. We organize the effects of morphological control (compatibilization, stabilization, etc. and provide general guidelines for rational molecular design for additives toward high efficiency and high stability organic solar cells.

  9. Ternary oxide nanostructures and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stanislaus S.; Park, Tae-Jin

    2009-09-08

    A single crystalline ternary nanostructure having the formula A.sub.xB.sub.yO.sub.z, wherein x ranges from 0.25 to 24, and y ranges from 1.5 to 40, and wherein A and B are independently selected from the group consisting of Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, In, Ir, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, Os, P, Pb, Pd, Pr, Pt, Rb, Re, Rh, Ru, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Tc, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, and Zn, wherein the nanostructure is at least 95% free of defects and/or dislocations.

  10. Issues Affecting the Synthetic Scalability of Ternary Metal Ferrite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Morrow

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ternary Mn-Zn ferrite (MnxZn1-xFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs have been prepared by the thermal decomposition of an oleate complex, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS mediated hydrazine decomposition of the chloride salts, and triethylene glycol (TREG mediated thermal decomposition of the metal acetylacetonates. Only the first method was found to facilitate the synthesis of uniform, isolable NPs with the correct Mn : Zn ratio (0.7 : 0.3 as characterized by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES. Scaling allowed for retention of the composition and size; however, attempts to prepare Zn-rich ferrites did not result in NP formation. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA indicated that the incomplete decomposition of the metal-oleate complexes prior to NP nucleation for Zn-rich compositions is the cause.

  11. Si-Ge-metal ternary phase diagram calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J. P.; Borshchevsky, A.

    1990-01-01

    Solution crystal growth and doping conditions of Si-Ge alloys used for high-temperature thermoelectric generation are determined here. Liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) has been successfully employed recently to obtain single-crystalline homogeneous layers of Si-Ge solid solutions from a liquid metal solvent. Knowledge of Si-Ge-metallic solvent ternary phase diagrams is essential for further single-crystal growth development. Consequently, a thermodynamic equilibrium model was used to calculate the phase diagrams of the Si-Ge-M systems, including solid solubilities, where M is Al, Ga, In, Sn, Pb, Sb, or Bi. Good agreement between calculated liquidus and solidus data and experimental DTA and microprobe results was obtained. The results are used to compare the suitability of the different systems for crystal growth (by LPE-type process).

  12. Comprehensive characterization of chitosan/PEO/levan ternary blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Muge Sennaroglu; Mutlu, Esra Cansever; Kazak, Hande; Sinan Keskin, S; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Eroglu, Mehmet S

    2014-02-15

    Ternary blend films of chitosan, PEO (300,000) and levan were prepared by solution casting method and their phase behavior, miscibility, thermal and mechanical properties as well as their surface energy and morphology were characterized by different techniques. FT-IR analyses of blend films indicated intermolecular hydrogen bonding between blend components. Thermal and XRD analysis showed that chitosan and levan suppressed the crystallinity of PEO up to nearly 25% of PEO content in the blend, which resulted in more amorphous film structures at higher PEO/(chitosan+levan) ratios. At more than 30% of PEO concentration, contact angle (CA) measurements showed a surface enrichment of PEO whereas at lower PEO concentrations, chitosan and levan were enriched on the surfaces leading to more amorphous and homogenous surfaces. This result was further confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. Cell proliferation and viability assay established the high biocompatibility of the blend films.

  13. Hardness and Microstructure of Binary and Ternary Nitinol Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    The hardness and microstructure of twenty-six binary and ternary Nitinol (nickel titanium, nickel titanium hafnium, nickel titanium zirconium and nickel titanium tantalum) compounds were studied. A small (50g) ingot of each compound was produced by vacuum arc remelting. Each ingot was homogenized in vacuum for 48 hr followed by furnace cooling. Specimens from the ingots were then heat treated at 800, 900, 1000 or 1100 degree C for 2 hr followed by water quenching. The hardness and microstructure of each specimen was compared to the baseline material (55-Nitinol, 55 at.% nickel - 45 at.% titanium, after heat treatment at 900 degC). The results show that eleven of the studied compounds had higher hardness values than the baseline material. Moreover, twelve of the studied compounds had measured hardness values greater 600HV at heat treatments from 800 to 900 degree C.

  14. Ternary metal-rich sulfide with a layered structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Hugo F.; Yao, Xiaoqiang

    1993-08-17

    A ternary Nb-Ta-S compound is provided having the atomic formula, Nb.sub.1.72 Ta.sub.3.28 S.sub.2, and exhibiting a layered structure in the sequence S-M3-M2-M1-M2-M3-S wherein S represents sulfur layers and M1, M2, and M3 represent Nb/Ta mixed metal layers. This sequence generates seven sheets stacked along the [001] direction of an approximate body centered cubic crystal structure with relatively weak sulfur-to-sulfur van der Waals type interactions between adjacent sulfur sheets and metal-to-metal bonding within and between adjacent mixed metal sheets.

  15. Structural and Thermoelectric Properties of Ternary Full-Heusler Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K.; Eguchi, M.; Miyazaki, Y.

    2016-09-01

    The thermoelectric properties of ternary full-Heusler alloys, Co2 YZ, which are in a ferromagnetic state up to high temperature above 300 K, were measured and are discussed in terms of the crystal structure and electronic states. Among the full-Heusler alloys studied, the Co2MnSi sample exhibited the highest absolute value of Seebeck coefficient and also the highest electrical conductivity in the temperature range from 300 K to 1023 K. The highest power factor of 2.9 × 10-3 W/m-K2 was obtained for the Co2MnSi sample at 550 K, demonstrating the potential of half-metallic full-Heusler alloys as thermoelectric materials.

  16. Acetone-butanol-ethanol competitive sorption simulation from single, binary, and ternary systems in a fixed-bed of KA-I resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinglan; Zhuang, Wei; Ying, Hanjie; Jiao, Pengfei; Li, Renjie; Wen, Qingshi; Wang, Lili; Zhou, Jingwei; Yang, Pengpeng

    2015-01-01

    Separation of butanol based on sorption methodology from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation broth has advantages in terms of biocompatibility and stability, as well as economy, and therefore gains much attention. In this work a chromatographic column model based on the solid film linear driving force approach and the competitive Langmuir isotherm equations was used to predict the competitive sorption behaviors of ABE single, binary, and ternary mixture. It was observed that the outlet concentration of weaker retained components exceeded the inlet concentration, which is an evidence of competitive adsorption. Butanol, the strongest retained component, could replace ethanol almost completely and also most of acetone. In the end of this work, the proposed model was validated by comparison of the experimental and predicted ABE ternary breakthrough curves using the real ABE fermentation broth as a feed solution. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  17. Ternary-fission mass distribution of 252Cf: A level-density approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, M.; Karthikraj, C.; Selvaraj, S.; Arunachalam, N.

    2014-11-01

    We study here the ternary-fission mass distribution of the 252Cf nucleus for a fixed third fragment 48Ca using the level-density approach within the framework of statistical theory. For the evaluation of nuclear level densities, the single-particle energies of the finite-range droplet model are used. Our results for temperatures T =1 and 2 MeV reproduce qualitatively the experimental expectation of ternary fragmentation of 132Sn +72Ni +48Ca . In addition, different possible ternary-fission modes are highlighted.

  18. Influence of alloy ingredients on mechanical properties of ternary boride hard alloy clad materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fu-tian; SONG Shi-xue; YANG Jun-ru; HUANG Wei-ling; HUANG Chuan-zhen; CHENG Xin; LI Zhao-qian

    2004-01-01

    Using Mo, B-Fe alloy and Fe powders as raw materials, and adding C, Cr and Ni ingredients, respectively, or C, Cr and Ni mixed powders, ternary boride hard alloy clad materials was prepared on Q235 steel substrate by means of in-situ reaction and vacuum liquid phase sintering technology. The influence of alloy ingredients on the mechanical properties of ternary boride hard alloy clad materials was investigated. The results indicate that a mixture of 0.8% C, 5% Cr and 2% Ni ingredients gives a ternary boride hard alloy clad material with optimal mechanical properties, such as high transverse rupture strength, high hardness and good wear resistance.

  19. Ternary Free Energy Lattice Boltzmann Model with Tunable Surface Tensions and Contact Angles

    CERN Document Server

    Semprebon, Ciro; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2015-01-01

    We present a new ternary free energy lattice Boltzmann model. The distinguishing feature of our model is that we are able to analytically derive and independently vary all fluid-fluid surface tensions and the solid surface contact angles. We carry out a number of benchmark tests: (i) double emulsions and liquid lenses to validate the surface tensions, (ii) ternary fluids in contact with a square well to compare the contact angles against analytical predictions, and (iii) ternary phase separation to verify that the multicomponent fluid dynamics is accurately captured. Additionally we also describe how the model here presented here can be extended to include an arbitrary number of fluid components.

  20. Imidazole-Functionalized Fullerene as a Vertically Phase-Separated Cathode Interfacial Layer of Inverted Ternary Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Liu, Qing; Zhen, Jieming; Fang, Zhimin; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Shangfeng

    2017-01-25

    By using a facile one-pot nucleophilic addition reaction, we synthesized a novel imidazole (IMZ)-functionalized fullerene (C60-IMZ), and applied it as a third component of inverted ternary polymer solar cells (PSCs), leading to dramatic efficiency enhancement. According to FT-IR, XPS spectroscopic characterizations, and elemental analysis, the chemical structure of C60-IMZ was determined with the average IMZ addition number estimated to be six. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of C60-IMZ measured by cyclic voltammetry was -3.63 eV, which is up-shifted relative to that of 6,6-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM). Upon doping C60-IMZ as a third component into an active layer blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and PC61BM, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the inverted ternary PSCs was 3.4% under the optimized doping ratio of 10 wt %, dramatically higher than that of the control device ITO/P3HT:PC61BM/MoO3/Ag based on the binary P3HT:PC61BM blend (1.3%). The incorporation of C60-IMZ results in enhancement of the absorption of P3HT:PC61BM blend film, increase of the electron mobility of the device, and rougher film surface of the P3HT:PC61BM active layer beneficial for interfacial contact with the Ag anode. Furthermore, C60-IMZ doped in P3HT:PC61BM blend may migrate to the surface of ITO cathode via vertical phase separation as revealed by XPS depth analysis, consequently forming a cathode interfacial layer (CIL), which can lower the work function (WF) of ITO cathode. Thus, the interfacial contact between the active layer and ITO cathode is improved, facilitating electron transport from the active layer to ITO cathode. The effectiveness of C60-IMZ as a vertically phase-separated CIL on efficiency enhancement of inverted ternary PSCs is further verified by doping it into another active layer system comprised of a low-bandgap conjugated polymer, poly(thieno[3,4-b]-thiophene/benzodithiophene) (PTB7), blended with [6,6]-phenyl C71

  1. Design analysis of phosphor-free monolithic white light-emitting-diodes with InGaN/ InGaN multiple quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Kee Ooi; Jing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Phosphor-free monolithic white light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on InGaN/ InGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on ternary InGaN substrates are proposed and analyzed in this study. Simulation studies show that LED devices composed of multi-color-emitting InGaN/ InGaN quantum wells (QWs) employing ternary InGaN substrate with engineered active region exhibit stable white color illumination with large output power (∼ 170 mW) and high external quantum efficiency (EQE) (∼ 50%). The chromaticity c...

  2. Application of the annexation principle to the study of thermodynamic properties of ternary metallic melts In-Pb-Ag and In-Bi-Sb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the phase diagrams, measured activities and the annexation principle, the calculating models of mass action concentrations for In-Pb-Ag and In-Bi-Sb ternary metallic melts have been formulated. The results of calculation both agree with practice, and obey the law of mass action, showing that the models formulated can reflect the structural reality of the corresponding melts and the annexation principle is applicable to the them.

  3. Ternary metal complexes of guaifenesin drug: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and in vitro anticancer activity of the metal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, W H; Mahmoud, N F; Mohamed, G G; El-Sonbati, A Z; El-Bindary, A A

    2015-01-01

    The coordination behavior of a series of transition metal ions named Cr(III), Fe(III), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) with a mono negative tridentate guaifenesin ligand (GFS) (OOO donation sites) and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) is reported. The metal complexes are characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, (1)H NMR, solid reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance, UV-vis spectral studies, mass spectroscopy, ESR, XRD and thermal analysis (TG and DTG). The ternary metal complexes were found to have the formulae of [M(GFS)(Phen)Cl]Cl·nH2O (M=Cr(III) (n=1) and Fe(III) (n=0)), [M(GFS)(Phen)Cl]·nH2O (M=Mn(II) (n=0), Zn(II) (n=0) and Cu(II) (n=3)) and [M(GFS)(Phen)(H2O)]Cl·nH2O (M=Co(II) (n=0), Ni(II) (n=0) and Cd(II) (n=4)). All the chelates are found to have octahedral geometrical structures. The ligand and its ternary chelates are subjected to thermal analyses (TG and DTG). The GFS ligand, in comparison to its ternary metal complexes also was screened for their antibacterial activity on gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and for in vitro antifungal activity against (Candida albicans). The activity data show that the metal complexes have antibacterial and antifungal activity more than the parent GFS ligand. The complexes were also screened for its in vitro anticancer activity against the Breast cell line (MFC7) and the results obtained show that they exhibit a considerable anticancer activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Decrease-radix design principle for carrying/borrowing free multi-valued and application in ternary optical computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN JunYong; JIN Yi; ZUO KaiZhong

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a new theory referred to as the decrease-radix design (DRD) is proposed,which is found in the research of logic units of ternary (tri-valued) optical computer.Based on the theory proposed,the principles and the regulations of the DRD for making operation units of multi-valued operation with carrying/borrowing free are also presented.The research work has come to the following important conclusion:let D be a special state contained in n physical informative states,then one may figure out any multi-valued processors within n(n×n) carrying/borrowing free n-valued units by the composition some of n×n×(n-1) simplest basic operating units according to the regulations of DRD proposed in this paper.The detailed systematic way of our design regulations is highlighted step by step in the paper with an example of design of a tri-valued logic optical operating unit.The real architecture,the procedure,and the experimental results of our sample in tri-valued logic operating unit are given.Finally,a re-constructible model of ternary logical optical processor is introduced.The theory proposed in the paper has laid down a solid foundation for the design of re-constructible carrying/borrowing free operating units in ternary optical computers and can be widely used as the designing reference in a variety of multi-valued logic operating units.

  5. Rotational-echo double-resonance NMR-restrained model of the ternary complex of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Lynda M. [Washington University, One, Department of Chemistry (United States)], E-mail: mcdowell@wuchem.wustl.edu; Poliks, Barbara [Binghamton University, Department of Physics (United States); Studelska, Daniel R. [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Immunology (United States); O' Connor, Robert D. [Washington University, One, Department of Chemistry (United States); Beusen, Denise D.; Schaefer, Jacob [Washington University, One, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2004-01-15

    The 46-kD enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase catalyzes the condensation of shikimate-3-phosphate (S3P) and phosphoenolpyruvate to form EPSP. The reaction is inhibited by N-(phosphonomethyl)-glycine (Glp), which, in the presence of S3P, binds to EPSP synthase to form a stable ternary complex. We have used solid-state NMR and molecular modeling to characterize the EPSP synthase-S3P-Glp ternary complex. Modeling began with the crystal coordinates of the unliganded protein, published distance restraints, and information from the chemical modification and mutagenesis literature on EPSP synthase. New inter-ligand and ligand-protein distances were obtained. These measurements utilized the native {sup 31}P in S3P and Glp, biosynthetically {sup 13}C-labeled S3P, specifically {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N labeled Glp, and a variety of protein-{sup 15}N labels. Several models were investigated and tested for accuracy using the results of both new and previously published rotational-echo double resonance (REDOR) NMR experiments. The REDOR model is compared with the recently published X-ray crystal structure of the ternary complex, PDB code 1G6S. There is general agreement between the REDOR model and the crystal structure with respect to the global folding of the two domains of EPSP synthase and the relative positioning of S3P and Glp in the binding pocket. However, some of the REDOR data are in disagreement with predictions based on the coordinates of 1G6S, particularly those of the five arginines lining the binding site. We attribute these discrepancies to substantive differences in sample preparation for REDOR and X-ray crystallography. We applied the REDOR restraints to the 1G6S coordinates and created a REDOR-refined xray structure that agrees with the NMR results.

  6. Experimental study and thermodynamic description of the erbium–hydrogen–zirconium ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascaro, Aurore [CEA-Saclay, Nuclear Energy Division, Nuclear Materials Department, SRMA, LA2M, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Chimie Métallurgique des Terres Rares, Institut de Chimie et des Matériaux Paris-Est, CNRS, Université Paris-Est Créteil, 2-8 rue H. Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Toffolon-Masclet, Caroline [CEA-Saclay, Nuclear Energy Division, Nuclear Materials Department, SRMA, LA2M, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Raepsaet, Caroline [CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/NIMBE/LEEL, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Crivello, Jean-Claude [Chimie Métallurgique des Terres Rares, Institut de Chimie et des Matériaux Paris-Est, CNRS, Université Paris-Est Créteil, 2-8 rue H. Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Joubert, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.joubert@icmpe.cnrs.fr [Chimie Métallurgique des Terres Rares, Institut de Chimie et des Matériaux Paris-Est, CNRS, Université Paris-Est Créteil, 2-8 rue H. Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)

    2015-01-15

    The erbium–hydrogen–zirconium (Er–H–Zr) ternary system has been investigated experimentally at 350 °C using high purity materials. The extent of the ternary homogeneity domains have been measured using two combined experimental techniques: X-ray diffraction and ion beam analysis. An isothermal section is proposed according to these measurements. The three binary systems Er–H, Er–Zr and H–Zr were already assessed using the Calphad method. After making them compatible with each other and assigning the enthalpy of formation of the new generated end-members (including in H–Zr system) to the results of DFT calculations, the ternary system has been calculated without using any ternary parameter. The calculated isothermal section at 350 °C shows a fair agreement with the experimental data and the behavior at higher temperature is predicted.

  7. Effect of repeated presentation on sweetness intensity of binary and ternary mixtures of sweeteners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schiffman, Susan S; Sattely-Miller, Elizabeth A; Graham, Brevick G; Zervakis, Jennifer; Butchko, Harriett H; Stargel, W Wayne

    2003-01-01

    .... The individual components in the binary sweetener combinations were intensity-anchored with 5% sucrose, while the individual sweeteners in the ternary mixtures were intensity-anchored with 3% sucrose...

  8. Mechanism of Ternary Fission in System 197Au+197Au at 15 AMeV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>For very heavy nuclear systems there is very clear evidence for fission into three comparable mass fragments. The responsible mechanisms for this type of fission are the direct ternary fission and

  9. Enhanced KR-Fundamental Measure Functional for Inhomogeneous Binary and Ternary Hard Sphere Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Shi-Qi (世琦 周)

    2011-01-01

    An enhanced KR-fundamental measure functional (FMF) is elaborated and employed to investigate binary and ternary hard sphere fluids near a planar hard wall or confined within two planar hard walls separated by certain interval...

  10. Modeling and Implementation of Reliable Ternary Arithmetic and Logic Unit Design Using Vhdl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meruva Kumar Raja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Multivalve logic is a reliable method for defining, analyzing, testing and implementing the basic combinational circuitry with VHDL simulator. It offers better utilization of transmission channels because of its high speed for higher information carried out and it gives more efficient performance. One of the main realizing of the MVL (ternary logic is that reduces the number of required computation steps, simplicity and energy efficiency in digital logic design. This paper using reliable method is brought out for implementing the basic combinational, sequential and TALU (Ternary Arithmetic and Logic Unit circuitry with minimum number of ternary switching circuits (Multiplexers. In this the potential of VHDL modelling and simulation that can be applied to ternary switching circuits to verify its functionality and timing specifications. An intention is to show how proposed simulator can be used to simulate MVL circuits and to evaluate system performance.

  11. Visible-light driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene-violet by rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO ternary nanohybrid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangavel, Srinivas [Nanomaterials Research Lab ( NmRL ), Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114, Tamil Nadu (India); Center of Excellence in Advanced Materials and Green Technologies, Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore 641 112, Tamil Nadu (India); Thangavel, Sakthivel [Nanomaterials Research Lab ( NmRL ), Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Raghavan, Nivea [Nanomaterials Research Lab ( NmRL ), Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114, Tamil Nadu (India); Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Venugopal, Gunasekaran, E-mail: gunasekaran@karunya.edu [Nanomaterials Research Lab ( NmRL ), Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114, Tamil Nadu (India); Solid State Electronics Lab, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2016-04-25

    A novel ternary nanohybrid structure was constructed with reduced graphene-oxide/iron-oxide/zinc-oxide (rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO) via a facile hydrothermal method. The structural, morphological and optical properties were explored using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectra and photoluminescence (PL) studies. The functional groups of ternary nanohybrid were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. SEM images confirm the presence of two-dimensional GO sheets, one dimensional Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and ZnO nanorods. The PL spectra showed the quenching effect which has been observed from the reduction of electron–hole recombination in hybrid. Degradation efficiency of this system was evaluated and compared with pure ZnO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO. Under visible light condition, the ternary nanohybrid has shown an excellent photocatalytic degradation of methylene-violet dye. The degradation efficiency of rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO was systematically analyzed by absorption spectra and total organic carbon removal techniques. Our experimental results will show the potential way for the development of futuristic rGO based nanohybrids as an effective photocatalytic materials for waste-water treatment and environmental remedial applications. - Graphical abstract: A new ternary nanohybrid has been constructed with 1D Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–ZnO and 2D rGO sheets to utilize as visible-light photocatalyst. Highly active photocatalyst has been prepared by a feasible hydrothermal approach. For the first time, rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO ternary nanohybrid exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of methylene-violet (dye) and the same can be used for environmental remediation applications. - Highlights: • Ternary nanohybrid constructed with 1D ZnO, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and 2D rGO. • Aggregation free rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO nanohybrid exhibits superior photocatalytic activity. • rGO boost up

  12. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on the Physical Stability of Binary and Ternary Amorphous Solid Dispersions of Celecoxib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tian; Taylor, Lynne S

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of different polymers, alone or in combination, in inhibiting the crystallization of celecoxib (CEX) from amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) exposed to different temperatures and relative humidities was evaluated. It was found that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and PVP-vinyl acetate formed stronger or more extensive hydrogen bonding with CEX than cellulose-based polymers. This, combined with their better effectiveness in raising the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the dispersions, provided better physical stabilization of amorphous CEX against crystallization in the absence of moisture when compared with dispersions formed with cellulose derivatives. In ternary dispersions containing 2 polymers, the physical stability was minimally impaired by the presence of a cellulose-based polymer when the major polymer present was PVP. On exposure to moisture, stability of the CEX ASDs was strongly affected by both the dispersion hygroscopicity and the strength of the intermolecular interactions. Binary and ternary ASDs containing PVP appeared to undergo partial amorphous-amorphous phase separation when exposed 94% relative humidity, followed by crystallization, whereas other binary ASDs crystallized directly without amorphous-amorphous phase separation.

  13. Crystal Growth of ZnSe and Related Ternary Compound Semiconductors by Vapor Transport in Low Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Ramachandran, N.

    2013-01-01

    Crystals of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, will be grown by physical vapor transport in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). The objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the crystals grown by vapor transport as results of buoyance-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions.

  14. Creation of a sharp cube texture in ribbon substrates of Cu-40% Ni- M ( M = Fe, Cr, V) ternary alloys for high-temperature second generation superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Rodionov, D. P.; Gervas'eva, I. V.; Suaridze, T. R.; Egorova, L. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    The structure and the process of texture formation in ribbons made of Cu-Ni- M ( M = Fe, Cr, V) ternary alloys have been studied upon cold rolling deformation to a degree of 99% and subsequent recrystallization annealing. The possibility of obtaining a perfect cube texture in a thin ribbon made of copper-nickel-based ternary alloys with additives of iron, chromium, and vanadium has been shown, which opens the prospects of the use of these alloys as substrates in the technology of production of tapes of high-temperature second-generation superconductors. Optimal annealing regimes have been determined, which make it possible to obtain a perfect biaxial texture close to single-crystalline one with the content of cube-oriented grains {001}±10° more than 99% on the surface of the textured ribbon.

  15. Thermodynamics of Binary and Ternary Solutions of Multivalent Electrolytes with Formation of 1: 1 and 1: 2 Complexes, within the Mean Spherical Approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Arenas, J.; Simonin, J. P.; Bernard, O. [Univ Paris 06, PECSA, CNRS, UMR 7195, F-75252 Paris (France); Torres-Arenas, J. [Univ Guanajuato, Div Ciencias and Ingn, Guanajuato 37150 (Mexico); Ruas, A.; Moisy, Ph. [CEA Marcoule, DEN DRCP, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2010-07-01

    The mean activity ({gamma}{+-}) and osmotic ({Phi}) coefficients for binary and ternary aqueous solutions of trivalent electrolytes (mainly made up of lanthanide salts) are described in the framework of the primitive model of ionic solutions, using the binding mean spherical approximation (BiMSA). This model, based on the Wertheim formalism, accounts for (chemical or electrostatic) association of ions. In this work, the multivalent cation and the anion are allowed to form 1: 1 (pairs) and 1: 2 (trimers) complexes. Expressions for {gamma}{+-}) and {Phi} are given which satisfy the Gibbs-Duhem relation. The model involves concentration-dependent cation size and effective relative permittivity, variations that can be interpreted in terms of solvent effects. The theory is applied to aqueous solutions of binary and ternary mixtures at 25 C with common anion. (authors)

  16. Analytic calculation of formation enthalpies directly from interatomic potentials for binary and ternary refractory metal systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    An analytic method is proposed to calculate the formation enthalpy directly from empirical n-body potential and applied to the binary and ternary systems consisting of the refractory metals Mo, Nb, Ta and W. It turns out that the calculated enthalpies are in overall agreement with experimental observations and some other theoretical calculations. Interestingly, it shows that the formation enthalpies of the ternary systems are significantly affected by those of the constituent binary systems.

  17. Understanding of the dissipation mechanism in ternary fission for the system 197Au+197Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun-Long; Li, Xian; Wu, Xi-Zhen; Li, Zhu-Xia; Yan, Shi-Wei

    2009-03-01

    The mass number distributions of three fragments from the ternary fission of the system 197Au+197Au are reproduced rather well by using the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model without any adjusting parameter. It is found that the probability of ternary fission evidently depends on the incident energy and the impact parameter, and the two-body dissipation is the main mechanism responsible for the formation of the third fragment with comparable mass.

  18. Experimental study of the phase diagram of the Ag-Au-Sb ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoro, E. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques, Universite de Cocody, UFR-SSMT, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast) and Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l' Etat Solide, UMR 8648 Bat 410-415, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Minerale et Bioinorganique, EA401, Fac. Pharm., Universite de Paris-Sud XI, 5, rue JB Clement 92296 Chatenay Malabry (France); Servant, C. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l' Etat Solide, UMR 8648 Bat 410-415, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)]. E-mail: colette.servant@lpces.u-psud.fr; Legendre, B. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Minerale et Bioinorganique, EA401, Fac. Pharm., Universite de Paris-Sud XI, 5, rue JB Clement 92296 Chatenay Malabry (France)

    2006-12-21

    The phase diagram of the Ag-Au-Sb ternary system has been assessed using X-ray diffraction analysis, electron-probe micro-analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Four isopletic sections were studied: 80, 70 and 10 at.% Ag and 10 at.% Au. Three ternary invariant reactions were noted. This study is part of an international program, COST 531, about lead-free soldering materials.

  19. Surface tension isotherms of the dioxane-acetone-water and glycerol-ethanol-water ternary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambulatov, R. S.; Dadashev, R. Kh.; Elimkhanov, D. Z.; Dadashev, I. N.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the experimental and theoretical studies of the concentration dependence of surface tension of aqueous solutions of the 1,4-dioxane-acetone-water and glycerol-ethanol-water ternary systems were given. The studies were performed by the hanging-drop method on a DSA100 tensiometer. The maximum error of surface tension was 1%. The theoretical models for calculating the surface tension of the ternary systems of organic solutions were analyzed.

  20. PREDICTION ON THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF TERNARY LIQUID ALLOYS BY MODIFIED COORDINATION EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.P.Tao

    2001-01-01

    The coordination numbers in the Molecular Interaction Volume Model can be calcu-lated from the common physical quantities of pure matters.A significant advantage ofthe model lies in its ability to predict the thermodynamic properties of ternary liqmdalloys using only the binary infinite dilute activity coefficients,and the predicted values are in good agreement with the experimental data of ternary liquid alloys,whichshows that the model is reliable,convenient and economic.

  1. The micro-flow reaction system featured the liquid-liquid interface created with ternary mixed carrier solvents in a capillary tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuhara, Yuji; Jinno, Naoya; Hashimoto, Masahiko; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    A micro-flow reaction system was developed in which liquid-liquid interface was created based on the tube radial distribution of ternary mixed carrier solvents. The system was constructed from double capillary tubes having different inner diameters (100 and 250 µm i.d.). The smaller tube was inserted into the larger one through a T-type joint. The reaction of a protein with a fluorescence derivatizing reagent was adopted as a model. A water-acetonitrile mixture (3:1 volume ratio) including bovine serum albumin (hydrophilic) was delivered into the large tube from the inside through the small tube and an acetonitrile-ethyl acetate mixture (7:4 volume ratio) containing fluorescamine (hydrophobic) as a derivatizing reagent was delivered from the outside through the joint. Solutions were mixed through the double capillary tubes to promote ternary mixed carrier solvents (water-acetonitrile-ethyl acetate; 1:2:1 volume ratio). The liquid-liquid interface was created based on the tube radial distribution of ternary solvents in the larger tube. The derivatization reaction was performed in the larger, or reaction, tube in the micro-flow system. The fluorescence intensity of the fluorescamine-derivatized bovine serum albumin obtained by the system, which specifically included the kinetic liquid-liquid interface in the tube, was greater than that obtained through a batch reaction using a homogeneous solution of water-acetonitrile (1:2 volume ratio).

  2. Ternary fission of a heavy nuclear system within a three-center shell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    Background: Since more than 40 years of theoretical and experimental studies of true ternary fission, one is still quite far from its understanding. The true ternary fission channel, being strongly suppressed by the macroscopic properties of the potential energy, may, however, be present with a significant probability due to shell effects. Purpose: Development of a model for the multidimensional potential energy suitable for analysis of the nucleus-nucleus collisions with the possibility of ternary exit channel. Study of the potential possibility of fission of actinides into three heavy fragments. Method: The asymmetric three-center shell model of deformed nucleus is developed in this paper. The model can be applied for analysis of ternary as well as binary fission processes. Results: The potential energy surfaces for few ternary combinations in the fission channel are calculated for the 252Cf nucleus. Their properties are discussed. Conclusions: The potential energy structures are compared with the experimental observations. It was found that the potential energy has pronounced valleys favorable for ternary fission with formation of doubly magic tin as one of the fragments and two other lighter fragments. The positions of the found fission valleys are in a good agreement with the experimental data.

  3. α-accompanied cold ternary fission of Pu-244238 isotopes in equatorial and collinear configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Krishnan, Sreejith; Priyanka, B.

    2015-04-01

    The cold ternary fission of 238Pu, 240Pu, 242Pu, and 244Pu isotopes, with 4He as light charged particle, in equatorial and collinear configuration has been studied within the unified ternary fission model. The fragment combination 100Zr+4He+134Te possessing the near doubly magic nuclei 134Te(N =82 ,Z =52 ) gives the highest yield in the α-accompanied ternary fission of 238Pu. For the α-accompanied ternary fission of 240Pu, 242Pu, and 244Pu isotopes, the highest yield was found for the fragment combination with doubly magic nuclei 132Sn(N =82 ,Z =50 ) as the heavier fragment. The deformation and orientation of fragments have also been taken into account for the α-accompanied ternary fission of Pu-244238 isotopes, and it has been found that, in addition to the closed-shell effect, ground-state deformation also plays an important role in determining the isotopic yield in the ternary fission process. The emission probability and kinetic energy of long-range α particles have been calculated and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  4. Equilibrium studies of ternary systems containing some selected transition metal ions, triazoles and aromatic carboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Mohamed Magdy; Radalla, Abd-Elatty; Qasem, Fatma; Khaled, Rehab [Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt)

    2014-01-15

    Solution equilibria of the binary and ternary complex systems of the divalent transition metal ions Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} with 1,2,4-triazole (TRZ), 3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (TRZSH), and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (TRZAM) and aromatic carboxylic acids (phthalic, anthranilic, salicylic, and 5-sulfosalicylic acid) have been studied pH-metrically at (25.0±0.1) .deg. C, and a constant ionic strength I=1x10{sup -1} mol L{sup -1} NaNO{sub 3} in an aqueous medium. The potentiometric titration curves show that binary and ternary complexes of these ligands are formed in solution. The stability constants of the different binary and ternary complexes formed were calculated on the basis of computer analysis of the titration data. The relative stability of the different ternary complex species is expressed in terms of Δ log K values, log X and R. S.% parameters. The effect of temperature of the medium on both the proton-ligand equilibria for TRZAM and phthalic acid and their metal-ligand equilibria with Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} has been studied along with the corresponding thermodynamic parameters. The complexation behavior of ternary complexes is ascertained using conductivity measurements. In addition, the formation of ternary complexes in solution has been confirmed by using UV-visible spectrophotometry.

  5. Reduced ternary molybdenum and tungsten sulfides and hydroprocessing catalysis therewith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenbeck, Shane J.; McCarley, Robert E.; Schrader, Glenn L.; Xie, Xiaobing

    1999-02-16

    New amorphous molybdenum/tungsten sulfides with the general formula M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n (L.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x, where L is molybdenum or tungsten and M is a ternary metal, has been developed. Characterization of these amorphous materials by chemical and spectroscopic methods (IR, Raman, PES) shows that the (M.sub.6 S.sub.8).sup.0 cluster units are present. Vacuum thermolysis of the amorphous Na.sub.2x (Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x .multidot.yMeOH first produces poorly crystalline NaMo.sub.6 S.sub.8 by disproportionation at 800.degree. C. and well-crystallized NaMo.sub.6 S.sub.8 at .gtoreq. 900.degree. C. Ion-exchange of the sodium material in methanol with soluble M.sup.2+ and M.sup.3+ salts (M=Sn, Co, Ni, Pb, La, Ho) produces the M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n (Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x .multidot.yMeOH compounds. Additionally, the new reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides with the general formula M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8+x (MeOH).sub.y ›MMOS! (M=Sn, Co, Ni) is an effective hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst both as-prepared and after a variety of pretreatment conditions. Under specified pretreatment conditions with flowing hydrogen gas, the SnMoS type catalyst can be stabilized, and while still amorphous, can be considered as "Chevrel phase-like" in that both contain Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8 cluster units. Furthermore, the small cation NiMoS and CoMoS type pretreated catalyst showed to be very active HDS catalysts with rates that exceeded the model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS.sub.2 catalysts.

  6. Complete Maps for the Internal Oxidation of Ideal Ternary Alloys Forming Insoluble Oxides under High Oxidant Pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.GESMUNDO; S.WANG; Y.NIU

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the conditions of stability of the different forms of internal oxidation of ideal ternary A-B-C alloys, where A is the most noble and C the most reactive component, forming insoluble oxide and exposed to high pressures of a single oxidant. The treatment, based on an extension to ternary alloys of Wagner's criterion for the transition from internal to external oxidation in binary alloys, allows to predict the existence of three different forms of internal oxidation. In fact, in addition to the most common kinds of internal attack, involving the coupled internal oxidation of B+C beneath external AO scales and the internal oxidation of C beneath external BO scales, a third mode, involving the internal oxidation of C beneath external scales composed of mixtures of AO+BO, becomes also possible under special conditions. A combination of the boundary conditions for the existence of these different types of internal oxidation allows to predict three different kinds of complete maps for the internal oxidation in these systems, one of which involves only two modes, while the other two involve all the three possible modes of internal oxidation.

  7. Simultaneous determination of some artificial sweeteners in ternary formulations by FT-IR and EI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosa, Nicoleta; Moldovan, Zaharie; Bratu, Ioan

    2012-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used in food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries all over the world. In this study some non-nutritive sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame-K, sodium cyclamate and sodium saccharin were simultaneously determined in ternary mixtures using FT-IR and EI-MS measurements. FT-IR method is based on direct measurements of the peak height values and area centered on 1736 cm-1, 836 cm-1, 2854 cm-1 and 1050 cm-1 for aspartame, acesulfame-K, sodium cyclamate and sodium saccharin, respectively. Mass spectrometry determinations show the characteristic peaks at m/z 91 and 262 for aspartame,m/z 43 and 163 acesulfame-K,m/z 83 and 97 for sodium cyclamate andm/z 104 and 183 for sodium saccharin. The results obtained by EI-MS in different formulations are in agreement with the FT-IR ones and provide also essential data concerning the purity grade of the components. It is concluded that FT-IR and EI-MS procedures developed in this work represent a fast, sensitive and low cost alternative in the quality control of such sweeteners in different ternary formulations.

  8. Growth mechanism of nanowires: binary and ternary chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Su, Ching Hua; Hopkins, R. H.; Arnold, B.; Choa, Fow-Sen; Cullum, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Semiconductor nanowires exhibit very exciting optical and electrical properties including high transparency and a several order of magnitude better photocurrent than thin film and bulk materials. We present here the mechanism of nanowire growth from the melt-liquid-vapor medium. We describe preliminary results of binary and ternary selenide materials in light of recent theories. Experiments were performed with lead selenide and thallium arsenic selenide systems which are multifunctional material and have been used for detectors, acoustooptical, nonlinear and radiation detection applications. We observed that small units of nanocubes and elongated nanoparticles arrange and rearrange at moderate melt undercooling to form the building block of a nanowire. Since we avoided the catalyst, we observed self-nucleation and uncontrolled growth of wires from different places. Growth of lead selenide nanowires was performed by physical vapor transport method and thallium arsenic selenide nanowire by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method. In some cases very long wires (>mm) are formed. To achieve this goal experiments were performed to create situation where nanowires grew on the surface of solid thallium arsenic selenide itself.

  9. Ternary blend cements concrete. Part II: Transport mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irassar, E. F.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available With today’s extensive use of cements containing two or more additions (blended cements, predicting concrete durability on the grounds of its strength alone leads to errors that may affect the service life of the resulting structures. Indeed, concrete of a given strength class can be made from different materials and proportions of widely varying durability. The present study evaluated water absorption, sorptivity and initial surface absorption in concrete made with unadditioned Portland, binary (limestone and ternary (limestone and granulated slag blend cement.En la actualidad con la utilización de cementos con dos o más adiciones (cementos compuestos predecir la durabilidad del hormigón a partir sólo de su resistencia conduce a cometer errores que pueden afectar la vida útil de las construcciones de hormigón. Pues es bien conocido que se pueden elaborar hormigones de una misma clase resistente con distintos materiales y proporciones, que podrán presentar un comportamiento durable totalmente diferente. En este trabajo se evalúa la absorción de agua, la capacidad de absorción, la absorción inicial superficial de hormigones elaborados con cemento Portland sin adición, cementos compuestos binario (caliza y ternario (escoria granulada y caliza.

  10. Phase relations in the U-Mo-Al ternary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, H.; Tougait, O.; Dubois, S.

    2009-06-01

    The phase relations in the U-Mo-Al system of quenched samples annealed at 800 °C for 2 weeks and at 400 °C for 2 months have been established using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis performed at room temperature. Two ternary Al-rich phases, UMo 2-xAl 20+x and U 6Mo 4+xAl 43-x are found stable at 800 °C and 400 °C. They show significant homogeneity ranges resulting from Mo/Al substitution mechanism on various mixed crystallographic sites, as evidenced by single-crystal structure refinements. Substitution of up to 25 at.% of Al by Mo atoms is also observed for UAl 2 (cubic MgCu 2-type) giving a quite large extension (UAl 2-xMo x, 0 nuclear fuel plates can be successively estimated as composed of the two- and three-phase fields equilibrium indicated on the assessment of the phase relations drawn for samples heat-treated at 400 °C.

  11. Measurements on thermodiffusion in ternary hydrocarbon mixtures at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S.; Saghir, M. Z.

    2009-09-01

    Experimental investigations on thermodiffusion have been conducted for five different ternary mixtures of methane, n-butane, and n-dodecane at a high temperature and pressure. While the mole fraction of methane was fixed at 0.2 the mole fraction of n-dodecane was varied from 0.7 to 0.2. The experiments were performed in a microgravity environment on board the satellite FOTON-M3. It was found that in all mixtures, n-dodecane separated to the cold side whereas methane segregated to the hot side. n-butane, the species with an intermediate density, showed a change in sign as its mole fraction was increased. At low concentrations it collected on the cold side but moved in the opposite direction with an increase in its mole fraction. The role of the relative density coupled with the species concentrations has been used to explain the thermodiffusion factor in each mixture. Computational investigations showed a similar behavior. However, the theoretical model was not able to capture the sign change of n-butane accurately. The inadequate representation of the significance of the relative densities and the mole fraction of the species has been found as the reason for this.

  12. Lattice-matched heteroepitaxy of wide gap ternary compound semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Klaus J.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of applications are identified for heteroepitaxial structures of wide gap I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 semiconductors, and are assessed in comparison with ternary III-V alloys and other wide gap materials. Non-linear optical applications of the I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 compound heterostructures are discussed, which require the growth of thick epitaxial layers imposing stringent requirements on the conditions of heteroepitaxy. In particular, recent results concerning the MOCVD growth of ZnSi(x)Ge(1-x)P2 alloys lattice-matching Si or GaP substrates are reviewed. Also, heterostructures of Cu(z)Ag(1-z)GaS2 alloys that lattice-match Si, Ge, GaP or GaAs substrates are considered in the context of optoelectronic devices operating in the blue wavelength regime. Since under the conditions of MOCVD, metastable alloys of the II-IV-V2 compounds and group IV elements are realized, II-IV-V2 alloys may also serve as interlayers in the integration of silicon and germanium with exactly lattice-matched tetrahedrally coordinated compound semiconductors, e.g. ZnSi(x)Ge(1-x)P2.

  13. Alloy multilayers and ternary nanostructures by direct-write approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrati, F.; Sachser, R.; Gazzadi, G. C.; Frabboni, S.; Terfort, A.; Huth, M.

    2017-10-01

    The fabrication of nanopatterned multilayers, as used in optical and magnetic applications, is usually achieved by two independent steps, which consist in the preparation of multilayer films and in the successive patterning by means of lithography and etching processes. Here we show that multilayer nanostructures can be fabricated by using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID), which allows the direct writing of nanostructures of any desired shape with nanoscale resolution. In particular, {[{{{Co}}}2{{Fe}}/{{Si}}]}n multilayers are prepared by the alternating deposition from the metal carbonyl precursors, {{{HFeCo}}}3{({{CO}})}12 and {{Fe}}{({{CO}})}5, and neopentasilane, {{{Si}}}5{{{H}}}12. The ability to fabricate nanopatterned multilayers by FEBID is of interest for the realization of hyperbolic metamaterials and related nanodevices. In a second experiment, we treated the multilayers by low-energy electron irradiation in order to induce atomic species intermixing with the purpose to obtain ternary nanostructured compounds. Transmission electron microscopy and electrical transport measurements indicate that in thick multilayers, (n = 12), the intermixing is only partial, taking place mainly in the upper part of the structures. However, for thin multilayers, (n = 2), the intermixing is such that a transformation into the L21 phase of the Co2FeSi Heusler compound takes place over the whole sample volume.

  14. Critical temperature of a mixed ferro-ferrimagnetic ternary alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dely, Ján; Bobák, Andrej; Žukovič, Milan

    2010-01-01

    We study the critical properties of a mixed ferro-ferrimagnetic ternary alloy of the type ABpC1-p on a cubic lattice consisting of three different Ising spins SA = 3/2, SB = 2, and SC = 5/2. The A ions are linked with either the B or C ions which are randomly distributed in the lattice with the concentration p or 1-p, respectively. The exchange interactions between nearest neighbours only, JAB > 0 and JAC JAC|JAB and concentration p on the critical behaviour of the system are investigated and the results from both methods are compared. We find that the critical temperature of the mixed ferro-ferrimagnet for a special value of R does not depend on the concentration p. The relation between the studied model and the structure of the Prussian blue analog such as (Fe11pMn111-p)1.5[Cr111(CN)6] · nH2O is also discussed.

  15. Control mechanism of double-rotator-structure ternary optical computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, SONG; Liping, YAN

    2017-03-01

    Double-rotator-structure ternary optical processor (DRSTOP) has two characteristics, namely, giant data-bits parallel computing and reconfigurable processor, which can handle thousands of data bits in parallel, and can run much faster than computers and other optical computer systems so far. In order to put DRSTOP into practical application, this paper established a series of methods, namely, task classification method, data-bits allocation method, control information generation method, control information formatting and sending method, and decoded results obtaining method and so on. These methods form the control mechanism of DRSTOP. This control mechanism makes DRSTOP become an automated computing platform. Compared with the traditional calculation tools, DRSTOP computing platform can ease the contradiction between high energy consumption and big data computing due to greatly reducing the cost of communications and I/O. Finally, the paper designed a set of experiments for DRSTOP control mechanism to verify its feasibility and correctness. Experimental results showed that the control mechanism is correct, feasible and efficient.

  16. Transmission properties of one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiveshwari, Laxmi [Department of Physics, K. B. Womens' s College, Hazaribagh 825 301 (India); Awasthi, S. K. [Department of Physics and Material Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida 201 304 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Omnidirectional photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals (PPC) composed of single negative metamaterials. The band characteristics and transmission properties are investigated through the transfer matrix method. We show that the proposed structure can trap light in three-dimensional space due to the elimination of Brewster's angle transmission resonance allowing the existence of complete PBG. The results are discussed in terms of incident angle, layer thickness, dielectric constant of the dielectric material, and number of unit cells (N) for TE and TM polarizations. It is seen that PBG characteristics is apparent even in an N ≥ 2 system, which is weakly sensitive to the incident angle and completely insensitive to the polarization. Finite PPC could be used for multichannel transmission filter without introducing any defect in the geometry. We show that the locations of the multichannel transmission peaks are in the allowed band of the infinite structure. The structure can work as a single or multichannel filter by varying the number of unit cells. Binary PPC can also work as a polarization sensitive tunable filter.

  17. Ion Beam Nanostructuring of HgCdTe Ternary Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Aleksey B.; Savkina, Rada K.; Udovytska, Ruslana S.; Gudymenko, Oleksandr I.; Kladko, Vasyl P.; Korchovyi, Andrii A.

    2017-05-01

    Systematic study of mercury cadmium telluride thin films subjected to the ion beam bombardment was carried out. The evolution of surface morphology of (111) Hg1 - x Cd x Te ( x 0.223) epilayers due to 100 keV B+ and Ag+ ion irradiation was studied by AFM and SEM methods. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods were used for the investigation of the chemical compound and structural properties of the surface and subsurface region. It was found that in the range of nanoscale, arrays of holes and mounds on Hg0.777Cd0.223Te (111) surface as well as the polycrystalline Hg1 - x Cd x Te cubic phase with alternative compound ( x 0.20) have been fabricated using 100 keV ion beam irradiation of the basic material. Charge transport investigation with non-stationary impedance spectroscopy method has shown that boron-implanted structures are characterized by capacity-type impedance whereas for silver-implanted structures, an inductive-type impedance (or "negative capacitance") is observed. A hybrid system, which integrates the nanostructured ternary compound (HgCdTe) with metal-oxide (Ag2O) inclusions, was fabricated by Ag+ ion bombardment. The sensitivity of such metal-oxide-semiconductor hybrid structure for sub-THz radiation was detected with NEP 4.5 × 10-8 W/Hz1/2at ν ≈ 140 GHz and 296 K without amplification.

  18. Ternary Phase Diagrams that Relate to the Plutonium Immobilization Ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B b; Krikorian, O H; Vance, E R; Stewart, M W

    2001-01-01

    The plutonium immobilization ceramic consists primarily of a pyrochlore titanate phase of the approximate composition Ca{sub 0.97}Hf{sub 0.17}Pu{sub 0.22}U{sub 0.39}Gd{sub 0.24} Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. In this study, a series of ternary phase diagrams was constructed to evaluate the relationship of various titanate phases (e.g., brannerite, zirconolite-2M, zirconolite-4M, and perovskite) to pyrochlore titanates, usually in the presence of excess TiO{sub 2} (rutile), and at temperatures in the vicinity of 1350 C. To facilitate the studies, U, Th, and Ce were used as surrogates for Pu in a number of the phase diagrams in addition to the use of Pu itself. The effects of impurity oxides, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO, were also studied on pyrochlore (Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and zirconolite (CaHfTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}) mixtures. Either electron microprobe (at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) or quantitative SEM-EDS (at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization) were used to evaluate the compositions of the phases.

  19. Iron binary and ternary coatings with molybdenum and tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yar-Mukhamedova, Gulmira, E-mail: gulmira-alma-ata@mail.ru [Institute Experimental and Theoretical Physics Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 050038, Al-Farabi av., 71, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Ved, Maryna; Sakhnenko, Nikolay; Karakurkchi, Anna; Yermolenko, Iryna [National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnic Institute”, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • High quality coatings of double Fe-Mo and ternary Fe-Mo-W electrolytic alloys can be produced both in a dc and a pulsed mode. • Application of unipolar pulsed current allows receiving an increased content of the alloying components and their more uniform distribution over the surface. • It is established that Fe-Mo and Fe-Mo-W coatings have an amorphous structure and exhibit improved corrosion resistance and microhardness as compared with the steel substrate due to the inclusion molybdenum and tungsten. - Abstract: Electrodeposition of Fe-Mo-W and Fe-Mo layers from a citrate solution containing iron(III) on steel and iron substrates is compared. The utilization of iron(III) compounds significantly improved the electrolyte stability eliminating side anodic redox reactions. The influence of concentration ratios and electrodeposition mode on quality, chemical composition, and functional properties of the alloys is determined. It has been found that alloys deposited in pulse mode have more uniform surface morphology and chemical composition and contain less impurities. Improvement in physical and mechanical properties as well as corrosion resistance of Fe-Mo and Fe-Mo-W deposits when compared with main alloy forming metals is driven by alloying components chemical passivity as well as by alloys amorphous structure. Indicated deposits can be considered promising materials in surface hardening technologies and repair of worn out items.

  20. Fac-mer equilibria of coordinated iminodiacetate (ida2-) in ternary CuII(ida)(H-1B)- complex formation (B = imidazole, benzimidazole) in aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susmita Bandyopadhyay; G N Mukherjee

    2003-08-01

    pH potentiometric and spectrophotometric investigations on the complex formation equilibria of CuII with iminodiacetate (ida2-) and heterocyclic N-bases, viz. imidazole and benzimidazole (B), in aqueous solution in binary and ternary systems using different molar ratios of the reactants indicated the formation of complexes of the types, Cu(ida), Cu(ida)(OH)-, (ida)Cu(OH)Cu(ida)-, Cu(B)2+, Cu(H-1B)+, Cu(ida)(H-1B)-, (ida)Cu(B)Cu(ida) and (ida)Cu(H-1B)Cu(ida)-. Formation constants of the complexes at 25 ± 1° at a fixed ionic strength, = 0.1 mol dm-3 (NaNO3) in aqueous solution were evaluated and the complex formation equilibria were elucidated with the aid of speciation curves. Departure of the experimental values of the reproportionation constants (log Cu) of ternary Cu(ida)(H-1B)- complexes from the statistically expected values, despite their formation in appreciable amounts at equilibrium, were assigned to fac(f)-mer(m) equilibria of the ida2- ligand coordinated to CuII, as the N-heterocyclic donors, (H-1B)-, coordinate trans- to the N-(ida2-) atom in the binary Cu(ida) complex to form the ternary Cu(ida) (H-1B)- complexes.

  1. Facile synthesis of the flower-like ternary heterostructure of Ag/ZnO encapsulating carbon spheres with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohua; Su, Shuai; Wu, Guangli; Li, Caizhu; Qin, Zhe; Lou, Xiangdong; Zhou, Jianguo

    2017-06-01

    To utilize sunlight more effectively in photocatalytic reactions, the flower-like ternary heterostructure of Ag/ZnO encapsulating carbon spheres (Ag/ZnO@C) was successfully synthesized by a green and facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The carbon spheres (CSs) were wrapped by ZnO nanosheets, forming flower-like microstructures, and Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were deposited on the surface of the ZnO nanosheets. The Ag/ZnO@C ternary heterostructure exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to those of Ag/ZnO, ZnO@C and pure ZnO for the degradation of Reactive Black GR and metronidazole under sunlight and visible light irradiation. This was attributed to the enhanced visible light absorption and effective charge separation based on the synergistic effect of ZnO, Ag NPs, and CSs. Due to the surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag NPs and surface photosensitizing effect of CSs, Ag/ZnO@C exhibited enhanced visible light absorption. Meanwhile, Ag NPs and CSs can both act as rapid electron transfer units to improve the separation of photogenerated charge carriers in Ag/ZnO@C. The primary active species were determined, and the photocatalytic mechanism was proposed. This work demonstrates an effective way to improve the photocatalytic performance of ZnO and provides information for the facile synthesis of noble metal/ZnO@C ternary heterostructure.

  2. Authentication of Nigella sativa seed oil in binary and ternary mixtures with corn oil and soybean oil using FTIR spectroscopy coupled with partial least square.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohman, Abdul; Ariani, Rizka

    2013-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with multivariate calibration of partial least square (PLS) was developed and optimized for the analysis of Nigella seed oil (NSO) in binary and ternary mixtures with corn oil (CO) and soybean oil (SO). Based on PLS modeling performed, quantitative analysis of NSO in binary mixtures with CO carried out using the second derivative FTIR spectra at combined frequencies of 2977-3028, 1666-1739, and 740-1446 cm(-1) revealed the highest value of coefficient of determination (R (2), 0.9984) and the lowest value of root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC, 1.34% v/v). NSO in binary mixtures with SO is successfully determined at the combined frequencies of 2985-3024 and 752-1755 cm(-1) using the first derivative FTIR spectra with R (2) and RMSEC values of 0.9970 and 0.47% v/v, respectively. Meanwhile, the second derivative FTIR spectra at the combined frequencies of 2977-3028 cm(-1), 1666-1739 cm(-1), and 740-1446 cm(-1) were selected for quantitative analysis of NSO in ternary mixture with CO and SO with R (2) and RMSEC values of 0.9993 and 0.86% v/v, respectively. The results showed that FTIR spectrophotometry is an accurate technique for the quantitative analysis of NSO in binary and ternary mixtures with CO and SO.

  3. Computation of Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data for Binary and Ternary Mixtures of Methanol, Water, and Ethanoic Acid from T, p, x, and HmE Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daming Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE data for the strongly associated ternary system methanol + water + ethanoic acid and the three constituent binary systems have been determined by the total pressure-temperature-liquid-phase composition-molar excess enthalpy of mixing of the liquid phase (p, T, x, HmE for the binary systems using a novel pump ebulliometer at 101.325 kPa. The vapor-phase compositions of these binary systems had been calculated from Tpx and HmE based on the Q function of molar excess Gibbs energy through an indirect method. Moreover, the experimental T, x data are used to estimate nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL, Wilson, Margules, and van Laar model parameters, and these parameters in turn are used to calculate vapor-phase compositions. The activity coefficients of the solution were correlated with NRTL, Wilson, Margules, and van Laar models through fitting by least-squares method. The VLE data of the ternary system were well predicted from these binary interaction parameters of NRTL, Wilson, Margules, and van Laar model parameters without any additional adjustment to build the thermodynamic model of VLE for the ternary system and obtain the vapor-phase compositions and the calculated bubble points.

  4. Authentication of Nigella sativa Seed Oil in Binary and Ternary Mixtures with Corn Oil and Soybean Oil Using FTIR Spectroscopy Coupled with Partial Least Square

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rohman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR combined with multivariate calibration of partial least square (PLS was developed and optimized for the analysis of Nigella seed oil (NSO in binary and ternary mixtures with corn oil (CO and soybean oil (SO. Based on PLS modeling performed, quantitative analysis of NSO in binary mixtures with CO carried out using the second derivative FTIR spectra at combined frequencies of 2977–3028, 1666–1739, and 740–1446 cm−1 revealed the highest value of coefficient of determination (, 0.9984 and the lowest value of root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC, 1.34% v/v. NSO in binary mixtures with SO is successfully determined at the combined frequencies of 2985–3024 and 752–1755 cm−1 using the first derivative FTIR spectra with and RMSEC values of 0.9970 and 0.47% v/v, respectively. Meanwhile, the second derivative FTIR spectra at the combined frequencies of 2977–3028 cm−1, 1666–1739 cm−1, and 740–1446 cm−1 were selected for quantitative analysis of NSO in ternary mixture with CO and SO with and RMSEC values of 0.9993 and 0.86% v/v, respectively. The results showed that FTIR spectrophotometry is an accurate technique for the quantitative analysis of NSO in binary and ternary mixtures with CO and SO.

  5. Multifunctional properties related to magnetostructural transitions in ternary and quaternary Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubenko, Igor, E-mail: igor_doubenko@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Quetz, Abdiel; Pandey, Sudip; Aryal, Anil; Eubank, Michael [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Rodionov, Igor; Prudnikov, Valerii; Granovsky, Alexander [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Vorob' evy Gory, 11999I Moscow (Russian Federation); Lahderanta, Erkki [Lappeenranta University of Technology, 53851 (Finland); Samanta, Tapas; Saleheen, Ahmad; Stadler, Shane [Department of Physics & Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Ali, Naushad [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In this report, the results of a study on the effects of compositional variations induced by the small changes in concentrations of the parent components and/or by the substitution of Ni, Mn, or In by an extra element Z, on the phase transitions, and phenomena related to the magnetostructural transitions in off-stoichiometric Ni–Mn–In based Heusler alloys are summarized. The crystal structures, phase transitions temperatures, and magnetic and magnetocaloric properties were analyzed for representative samples of the following systems (all near 15 at% indium concentration): Ni–Mn–In, Ni–Mn–In–Si, Ni–Mn–In–B, Ni–Mn–In–Cu, Ni–Mn–In–Cu–B, Ni–Mn–In–Fe, Ni–Mn–In–Ag, and Ni–Mn–In–Al. - Highlights: • The experimental results on phase transitions temperatures, adiabatic temperature changes, magnetoresistance and heat flow for the ternary and quaternary Heusler alloys based on Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} demonstrate high sensitivity of magnetic properties to the small changes in concentrations of the parent components and/or by the substitution of Ni, Mn, or In by an additional element Z. • The phenomena related to the magnetostructural transitions strongly depend on the weighted average radius of constituent ions.

  6. Ternary NiCoP nanosheet arrays: An excellent bifunctional catalyst for alkaline overall water splitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingjie Li; Haichuan Zhang; Ming Jiang; Yun Kuang; Xiaoming Sun; Xue Duan

    2016-01-01

    Exploring bifunctional catalysts for the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions (HER and OER) with high efficiency,low cost,and easy integration is extremely crucial for future renewable energy systems.Herein,ternary NiCoP nanosheet arrays (NSAs) were fabricated on 3D Ni foam by a facile hydrothermal method followed by phosphorization.These arrays serve as bifunctional alkaline catalysts,exhibiting excellent electrocatalytic performance and good working stability for both the HER and OER.The overpotentials of the NiCoP NSA electrode required to drive a current density of 50 mA/cm2 for the HER and OER are as low as 133 and 308 mV,respectively,which is ascribed to excellent intrinsic electrocatalytic activity,fast electron transport,and a unique superaerophobic structure.When NiCoP was integrated as both anodic and cathodic material,the electrolyzer required a potential as low as ~1.77 V to drive a current density of 50 mA/cm2 for overall water splitting,which is much smaller than a reported electrolyzer using the same kind of phosphide-based material and is even better than the combination of Pt/C and Ir/C,the best known noble metal-based electrodes.Combining satisfactory working stability and high activity,this NiCoP electrode paves the way for exploring overall water splitting catalysts.

  7. Energetic multifunctionalized nitraminopyrazoles and their ionic derivatives: ternary hydrogen-bond induced high energy density materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2015-04-15

    Diverse functionalization was introduced into the pyrazole framework giving rise to a new family of ternary hydrogen-bond induced high energy density materials. By incorporating extended cationic interactions, nitramine-based ionic derivatives exhibit good energetic performance and enhanced molecular stability. Performance parameters including heats of formation and detonation properties were calculated by using Gaussian 03 and EXPLO5 v6.01 programs, respectively. It is noteworthy to find that 5-nitramino-3,4-dinitropyrazole, 4, has a remarkable measured density of 1.97 g cm(-3) at 298 K, which is consistent with its crystal density (2.032 g cm(-3), 150 K), and ranks highest among azole-based CHNO compounds. Energetic evaluation indicates that, in addition to the molecular compound 4, some ionic derivatives, 9, 11, 12, 17, 19, and 22, also have high densities (1.83-1.97 g cm(-3)), excellent detonation pressures and velocities (P, 35.6-41.6 GPa; vD, 8880-9430 m s(-1)), as well as acceptable impact and friction sensitivities (IS, 4-30 J; FS, 40-240 N). These attractive features highlight the application potential of nitramino hydrogen-bonded interactions in the design of advanced energetic materials.

  8. Study of a ternary diagram gel according to a methodology of experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier, J P; Puech, E; Tichadou, J L

    1985-10-01

    Synopsis The purpose of this work was to compare two methods to determine the formulation of a gel: a 'classical'method previously used and a rational method using matrixes based on the Scheffe algorithm which is particularly useful in the study of these type of mixtures. This gel was composed of three products: C12-C15 Alcohols Benzoate, Cyclomethicone and Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer in water. The ratios of these compounds were studied according to five criteria: compatibility between phases, consistency, whiteness, cost and 'skin spreading'. To determine the incompatibility zone inside the ternary diagram, we carried out our study by a systematic sequential walk strategy (seven experiments). Three parameters (consistency, whiteness, cost) were optimized using the Scheffe algorithm. This method only needs a limited number of experiments on which to base an empirical mathematical model of the studied phenomena as a function of the different experimental factors. The formulation is therefore discussed as a function of the first degree linear, the second degree and a third degree 'reduced cubical'model. The validity of the possible models are also discussed and the 'reduced cubical'best fits our phenomena.

  9. Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-15

    The sodium–nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250–350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of β"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 μm) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. Finally, the cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

  10. Cluster description of cold (neutronless) α ternary fission of 252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Săndulescu, A.; Carstoiu, F.; Bulboacă, I.; Greiner, W.

    1999-10-01

    A coplanar three body cluster model (two deformed fragments and an α particle) similar to the model used for the description of cold binary fission was employed for the description of cold (neutronless) α accompanied fission of 252Cf. No preformation factors were considered. The three body potential was computed with the help of a double folding potential generated by the M3Y-NN effective interaction and realistic fragment ground state deformations. From the minimum action principle, the α particle trajectory equations, the corresponding ternary barriers, and an approximate WKB expression for the barrier penetrability are obtained. The relative cold ternary yields were calculated as the ratio of the penetrability of a given ternary fragmentation and the sum of the penetrabilities of all possible cold ternary fragmentations. Different scenarios were considered depending on the trajectories of the fragments. It was shown that two regions of cold fragmentation exist, a deformed one corresponding to large fragment deformations and a spherical one around 132Sn, similarly to the case of the cold binary fission of 252Cf. We have shown that for the scenario corresponding to the Lagrange point, where all forces acting on the α particle are in equilibrium, the cold α ternary yields of 252Cf are strongly correlated with the cold binary yields of the daughter nucleus 248Cm into the same heavy fragments. For all other scenarios only the spherical splittings are favored. We concluded that due to the present available experimental data on cold α ternary yields only the Lagrange scenario could describe the cold α ternary fission of 252Cf.

  11. The atomic structure of ternary amorphous TixSi1-xO2 hybrid oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, M; Köhler, T; Rauls, E; Frauenheim, T; Schmidt, W G

    2014-06-25

    Atomic length-scale order characteristics of binary and ternary amorphous oxides are presented within the framework of ab initio theory. A combined numerically efficient density functional based tight-binding molecular dynamics and density functional theory approach is applied to model the amorphous (a) phases of SiO2 and TiO2 as well as the amorphous phase of atomically mixed TixSi1-xO2 hybrid-oxide alloys over the entire composition range. Short and mid-range order in the disordered material phases are characterized by bond length and bond-angle statistics, pair distribution function analysis, coordination number and coordination polyhedra statistics, as well as ring statistics. The present study provides fundamental insights into the order characteristics of the amorphous hybrid-oxide frameworks formed by versatile types of TiOn and SiOm coordination polyhedra. In a-SiO2 the fourfold crystal coordination of Si ions is almost completely preserved and the atomic structure is widely dominated by ring-like mid-range order characteristics. In contrast, the structural disorder of a-TiO2 arises from short-range disorder in the local coordination environment of the Ti ion. The coordination number analysis indicates a large amount of over and under-coordinated Ti ions (coordination defects) in a-TiO2. Aside from the ubiquitous distortions of the crystal-like coordinated polyhedra, even the basic coordination-polyhedra geometry type changes for a significant fraction of TiO6 units (geometry defects). The combined effects of topological and chemical disorder in a-TixSi1-xO2 alloys lead to a continuos increase in both the Si as well as the Ti coordination number with the chemical composition x. The important roles of intermediate fivefold coordination states of Ti and Si cations are highlighted for ternary a-TixSi1-xO2 as well as for binary a-TiO2. The continuous decrease in ring size with increasing Ti content reflects the progressive loss of mid-range order structure

  12. Facile aerosol synthesis and characterization of ternary crumpled graphene-TiO₂-magnetite nanocomposites for advanced water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Wang, Wei-Ning; Biswas, Pratim; Fortner, John D

    2014-07-23

    In this work, the synthesis and characterization of multifunctional crumpled graphene-based ternary nanocomposite photocatalysts for advanced water treatment applications is described. Currently, a major hurdle for the scale-up and optimization of aqueous, graphene-based photocatalysts is restacking of graphene nanosheets due to strong π-π interactions. To overcome this hurdle, a fast and facile aerosol technique to synthesize monomeric, aggregation-resistant, crumpled graphene-based photocatalysts was developed. The aerosol route utilizes water evaporation-induced confinement forces to effectively crumple graphene oxide and subsequently encapsulate commercially available TiO2 and magnetite nanoparticles. The as-synthesized crumpled graphene-TiO2-magnetite (GOTIM) ternary core-shell nanostructures are shown to possess superior aqueous-based photocatalytic properties (over a 20-fold enhancement in some cases) compared to TiO2 alone. Total GOTIM photocatalytic reactivity is confirmed to also include efficient photoreduction reaction pathways, in addition to expected oxidation routes typical of TiO2-based photocatalysts, significantly expanding photocatalytic application potential compared to TiO2 alone. Reaction kinetics and proposed mechanisms (both oxidative and reductive) are described for a model organic compound, here as methyl orange. Further, with the addition of hole scavengers such as EDTA, and/or lowering the O2 concentration, we demonstrate enhancement of photocatalyzed reduction reactions, suggesting potential for directed, controlled reduction applications. In addition to robust aqueous stability, low-field magnetic susceptibility is demonstrated, allowing for low-energy, in situ material separations, which are critical for material recycling and reuse.

  13. Experimental study and effect of particulate interference on the microhardness, wear and microstructural properties of ternary doped coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayomi, O. S. I., E-mail: ojosundayfayomi3@gmail.com [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Canaanland, Ota (Nigeria); Popoola, A. P. I. [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Joseph, O. O.; Inegbenebor, A. O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Canaanland, Ota (Nigeria); Olukanni, D. O. [Department of Civil Engineering, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Ota, Ogun State (Nigeria)

    2016-07-25

    This paper studies effects of the composite particle infringement of ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on zinc rich ternary based coating. The corrosion-degradation property in 3.5% NaCl was investigatedusing polarization technique. The structural characteristics of the multilayer produce coatings were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The mechanical response of the coated samples was studied using a diamond base Dura –Scan) micro-hardness tester and a MTR-300 dry abrasive wear tester. The combined effect of the coatings gave highly-improved performance on microhardness, corrosion and wear damage. This also implies that protection of wind-energy structures in marine environments can be achieved by composite strengthening capacity.

  14. Efficient hydrogen evolution by ternary molybdenum sulfoselenide particles on self-standing porous nickel diselenide foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haiqing; Yu, Fang; Huang, Yufeng; Sun, Jingying; Zhu, Zhuan; Nielsen, Robert J.; He, Ran; Bao, Jiming; Goddard, William A., III; Chen, Shuo; Ren, Zhifeng

    2016-09-01

    With the massive consumption of fossil fuels and its detrimental impact on the environment, methods of generating clean power are urgent. Hydrogen is an ideal carrier for renewable energy; however, hydrogen generation is inefficient because of the lack of robust catalysts that are substantially cheaper than platinum. Therefore, robust and durable earth-abundant and cost-effective catalysts are desirable for hydrogen generation from water splitting via hydrogen evolution reaction. Here we report an active and durable earth-abundant transition metal dichalcogenide-based hybrid catalyst that exhibits high hydrogen evolution activity approaching the state-of-the-art platinum catalysts, and superior to those of most transition metal dichalcogenides (molybdenum sulfide, cobalt diselenide and so on). Our material is fabricated by growing ternary molybdenum sulfoselenide particles on self-standing porous nickel diselenide foam. This advance provides a different pathway to design cheap, efficient and sizable hydrogen-evolving electrode by simultaneously tuning the number of catalytic edge sites, porosity, heteroatom doping and electrical conductivity.

  15. Synthesis and magnetic property of T4 virus-supported gold-coated iron ternary nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Ziming; Sun Hongjing; Gao Faming, E-mail: fmgao@ysu.edu.cn; Hou Li; Li Na [Yanshan University, Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry (China)

    2012-12-15

    Herein, we present a novel method based on the use of the symmetrical T4 bacteriophage capsid as a scaffold for preparing the gold-coated iron ternary core/shell nanostructure. Results showed that the thick gold shell was obtained to effectively protect Fe core from oxidation. Magnetic measurements showed that the nanocomposites were superparamagnetic at room temperature with a blocking temperature of about 35 K. At 3 K, its coercivity of 1142.86 Oe was larger than the existing experimental values. The magnetic property of Au/T4 was also tested, demonstrating the source of the magnetic sample arising from the Fe core only. The absorption spectrum of the Fe-Au/T4 complex was measured and compared with gold/virus. Different thickness gold shells were controlled in the synthesis by tuning the Au salt addition. On the basis of results and discussion, we further speculated the general growing mechanism of the template-supported Fe-Au process.

  16. A new approach to fabricate bioactive silica binary and ternary hybrid microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulou, A; Efthimiadou, E K; Kordas, G

    2015-08-01

    Bioactive microspheres represent an extremely developing field in biomedical applications, such as bone tissue engineering and bone pathologies (metabolic bone disease, trauma or bone cancer). Their innate osteogenic properties have turned them to biomaterials with improved added value. The aim of this study was to prepare binary and ternary hybrid silica microspheres with enhanced bioactive properties according to our previous synthetic procedure. In brief, the synthetic approach based on the emulsifier free-emulsion polymerization method, by which polystyrene (PS) microspheres were produced and used as core template for the sol-gel coating method. During the coating reaction an inorganic shell was fabricated by silane and phosphate precursors (tetraethoxysilane, trimethylphosphate). The final microspheres were treated by different catalyst concentrations, during the coating process, which resulted in the formation of diffused voids (a porous-like structure). The in vitro bioactivity of the resultant microspheres was studied by treatment in simulated body fluids (SBF). The bioassay evaluation indicates the deposition of a bone-like apatite layer on microspheres' surface with enhanced bioresorbability, which verifies their bioactivity and permits their application in the treatment of bone pathologies.

  17. PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC₇₁BM ternary blend assisted platform as a photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Qayyum; Ahmad, Zubair; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2015-01-07

    We present a ternary blend-based bulk heterojunction ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PFO-DBT: MEH-PPV:PC71BM/LiF/Al photodetector. Enhanced optical absorption range of the active film has been achieved by blending two donor components viz. poly[2,7-(9,9-di-octyl-fluorene)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PFO-DBT) and poly(2-methoxy-5(2'-ethylhexyloxy) phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV) along with an acceptor component, i.e., (6,6)-phenyl-C71 hexnoic acid methyl ester. The dependency of the generation rate of free charge carriers in the organic photodetector (OPD) on varied incident optical power density was investigated as a function of different reverse biasing voltages. The photocurrent showed significant enhancement as the intensity of light impinging on active area of OPD is increased. The ratio of Ilight to Idark of fabricated device at -3 V was ~3.5 × 10(4). The dynamic behaviour of the OPD under on/off switching irradiation revealed that sensor exhibits quick response and recovery time of ∼800 ms and 500 ms, respectively. Besides reliability and repeatability in the photoresponse characteristics, the cost-effective and eco-friendly fabrication is the added benefit of the fabricated OPD.

  18. Superior Electrical Conductivity in Hydrogenated Layered Ternary Chalcogenide Nanosheets for Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Shao, Wei; Hang, Xudong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhu, Wenguang; Xie, Yi

    2016-05-04

    As the properties of ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) crystals are strongly related to their electronic structures, more and more attempts were carried out to tune their electronic structures to meet the high standards for the construction of next-generation smart electronics. Herein, for the first time, we show that the conductive nature of layered ternary chalcogenide with formula of Cu2 WS4 can be switched from semiconducting to metallic by hydrogen incorporation, accompanied by a high increase in electrical conductivity. In detail, the room-temperature electrical conductivity of hydrogenated-Cu2 WS4 nanosheet film was almost 10(10) times higher than that of pristine bulk sample with a value of about 2.9×10(4)  S m(-1) , which is among the best values for conductive 2D nanosheets. In addition, the metallicity in the hydrogenated-Cu2 WS4 is robust and can be retained under high-temperature treatment. The fabricated all-solid-state flexible supercapacitor based on the hydrogenated-Cu2 WS4 nanosheet film shows promising electrochemical performances with capacitance of 583.3 F cm(-3) at a current density of 0.31 A cm(-3) . This work not only offers a prototype material for the study of electronic structure regulation in 2D crystals, but also paves the way in searching for highly conductive electrodes.

  19. Spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of ternary mixture of amlodipine besylate, olmesartan medoxomil and hydrochlorothiazide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merey, Hanan A.; Ramadan, Nesrin K.; Diab, Sherine S.; Moustafa, Azza A.

    Four, accurate, precise, and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are developed for the simultaneous determination of a ternary mixture containing amlodipine besylate (AM), olmesartan medoxomil (OL) and hydrochlorothiazide (HZ), where AM is determined at its λmax 364.6 nm (0D), while (OL) and (HZ) are determined by different methods. Method (A) depends on determining OL and HZ by measuring the second derivative of the ratio spectra (2DD) at 254.4 and 338.6 nm, respectively. Method (B) is first derivative of the double divisor ratio spectra (D-1DD) at 260.4 and 273.0 nm for OL and HZ, respectively. Method (C) based on successive spectrophotometric resolution technique (SSRT). The technique starts with the ratio subtraction method then measuring OL and HZ at their isoabsorptive point at 260.0 nm, while HZ is measured using the amplitude of first derivative at 335.2 nm. Method (D) is mean centering of the ratio spectra (MCR) at 252.0 nm and 220.0 nm for OL and HZ, respectively. The specificity of the developed methods is investigated by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures containing different ratios of the three drugs and their combined dosage form. The obtained results are statistically compared with those obtained by the official or reported methods, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision at p = 0.05.

  20. Dispersion of nonresonant third-order nonlinearities in GeSiSn ternary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonardis, Francesco; Troia, Benedetto; Soref, Richard A.; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si), tin (Sn), and germanium (Ge) alloys have attracted research attention as direct band gap semiconductors with applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In particular, GeSn field effect transistors can exhibit very high performance in terms of power reduction and operating speed because of the high electron drift mobility, while the SiGeSn system can be constructed using CMOS-compatible techniques to realize lasers, LED, and photodetectors. The wide Si, Ge and Sn transparencies allow the use of binary and ternary alloys extended to mid-IR wavelengths, where nonlinearities can also be employed. However, neither theoretical or experimental predictions of nonlinear features in SiGeSn alloys are reported in the literature. For the first time, a rigorous and detailed physical investigation is presented to estimate the two photon absorption (TPA) coefficient and the Kerr refractive index for the SiGeSn alloy up to 12 μm. The TPA spectrum, the effective TPA wavelength cut-off, and the Kerr nonlinear refractive index have been determined as a function of alloy compositions. The promising results achieved can pave the way to the demonstration of on-chip nonlinear-based applications, including mid-IR spectrometer-on-a-chip, all-optical wavelength down/up-conversion, frequency comb generation, quantum-correlated photon-pair source generation and supercontinuum source creation, as well as Raman lasing. PMID:27622979

  1. PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC71BM Ternary Blend Assisted Platform as a Photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qayyum Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a ternary blend-based bulk heterojunction ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PFO-DBT: MEH-PPV:PC71BM/LiF/Al photodetector. Enhanced optical absorption range of the active film has been achieved by blending two donor components viz. poly[2,7-(9,9-di-octyl-fluorene-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-ylbenzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PFO-DBT and poly(2-methoxy-5(2'-ethylhexyloxy phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV along with an acceptor component, i.e., (6,6-phenyl-C71 hexnoic acid methyl ester. The dependency of the generation rate of free charge carriers in the organic photodetector (OPD on varied incident optical power density was investigated as a function of different reverse biasing voltages. The photocurrent showed significant enhancement as the intensity of light impinging on active area of OPD is increased. The ratio of Ilight to Idark of fabricated device at −3 V was ~3.5 × 104. The dynamic behaviour of the OPD under on/off switching irradiation revealed that sensor exhibits quick response and recovery time of ∼800 ms and 500 ms, respectively. Besides reliability and repeatability in the photoresponse characteristics, the cost-effective and eco-friendly fabrication is the added benefit of the fabricated OPD.

  2. Dispersion of nonresonant third-order nonlinearities in GeSiSn ternary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leonardis, Francesco; Troia, Benedetto; Soref, Richard A.; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.

    2016-09-01

    Silicon (Si), tin (Sn), and germanium (Ge) alloys have attracted research attention as direct band gap semiconductors with applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In particular, GeSn field effect transistors can exhibit very high performance in terms of power reduction and operating speed because of the high electron drift mobility, while the SiGeSn system can be constructed using CMOS-compatible techniques to realize lasers, LED, and photodetectors. The wide Si, Ge and Sn transparencies allow the use of binary and ternary alloys extended to mid-IR wavelengths, where nonlinearities can also be employed. However, neither theoretical or experimental predictions of nonlinear features in SiGeSn alloys are reported in the literature. For the first time, a rigorous and detailed physical investigation is presented to estimate the two photon absorption (TPA) coefficient and the Kerr refractive index for the SiGeSn alloy up to 12 μm. The TPA spectrum, the effective TPA wavelength cut-off, and the Kerr nonlinear refractive index have been determined as a function of alloy compositions. The promising results achieved can pave the way to the demonstration of on-chip nonlinear-based applications, including mid-IR spectrometer-on-a-chip, all-optical wavelength down/up-conversion, frequency comb generation, quantum-correlated photon-pair source generation and supercontinuum source creation, as well as Raman lasing.

  3. Active-state models of ternary GPCR complexes: determinants of selective receptor-G-protein coupling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf C Kling

    Full Text Available Based on the recently described crystal structure of the β2 adrenergic receptor--Gs-protein complex, we report the first molecular-dynamics simulations of ternary GPCR complexes designed to identify the selectivity determinants for receptor-G-protein binding. Long-term molecular dynamics simulations of agonist-bound β2AR-Gαs and D2R-Gαi complexes embedded in a hydrated bilayer environment and computational alanine-scanning mutagenesis identified distinct residues of the N-terminal region of intracellular loop 3 to be crucial for coupling selectivity. Within the G-protein, specific amino acids of the α5-helix, the C-terminus of the Gα-subunit and the regions around αN-β1 and α4-β6 were found to determine receptor recognition. Knowledge of these determinants of receptor-G-protein binding selectivity is essential for designing drugs that target specific receptor/G-protein combinations.

  4. Discrete ternary particle swarm optimization for area optimization of MPRM circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Haizhen; Wang Pengjun; Wang Disheng; Zhang Huihong

    2013-01-01

    Having the advantage of simplicity,robustness and low computational costs,the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is a powerful evolutionary computation tool for synthesis and optimization of ReedMuller logic based circuits.Exploring discrete PSO and probabilistic transition rules,the discrete ternary particle swarm optimization (DTPSO) is proposed for mixed polarity Reed-Muller (MPRM) circuits.According to the characteristics of mixed polarity OR/XNOR expression,a tabular technique is improved,and it is applied in the polarity conversion of MPRM functions.DTPSO is introduced to search the best polarity for an area of MPRM circuits by building parameter mapping relationships between particles and polarities.The computational results show that the proposed DTPSO outperforms the reported method using maxterm conversion starting from POS Boolean functions.The average saving in the number of terms is about 11.5%; the algorithm is quite efficient in terms of CPU time and achieves 12.2% improvement on average.

  5. Three orthogonal ultrasounds fabricate uniform ternary Al-Sn-Cu immiscible alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, W.; Wang, B. J.; Liu, H. M.; Hu, L.; Wei, B.

    2016-11-01

    The production of Al based monotectic alloys with uniform microstructure is usually difficult due to the large density difference between the two immiscible liquid phases, which limits the application of such alloys. Here, we apply three orthogonal ultrasounds during the liquid phase separation process of ternary Al71.9Sn20.4Cu7.7 immiscible alloy. A uniform microstructure consisting of fine secondary (Sn) phase dispersed on Al-rich matrix is fabricated in the whole alloy sample with a large size of 30 × 30 × 100 mm. The numerical calculation results indicate that the coupled effect of three ultrasounds promotes the sound pressure level and consequently enlarges the cavitation zone within the alloy melt. The strong shockwaves produced by cavitation prevent the (Sn) droplets from coalescence, and keep them suspended in the parent Al-rich liquid phase. This accounts for the formation of homogeneous composite structures. Thus the introduction of three orthogonal ultrasounds is an effective way to suppress the macrosegregation caused by liquid phase separation and produce bulk immiscible alloys with uniform structures.

  6. High-throughput search of ternary chalcogenides for p-type transparent electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingming; Cerqueira, Tiago F. T.; Cui, Wenwen; Nogueira, Fernando; Botti, Silvana; Marques, Miguel A. L.

    2017-01-01

    Delafossite crystals are fascinating ternary oxides that have demonstrated transparent conductivity and ambipolar doping. Here we use a high-throughput approach based on density functional theory to find delafossite and related layered phases of composition ABX2, where A and B are elements of the periodic table, and X is a chalcogen (O, S, Se, and Te). From the 15 624 compounds studied in the trigonal delafossite prototype structure, 285 are within 50 meV/atom from the convex hull of stability. These compounds are further investigated using global structural prediction methods to obtain their lowest-energy crystal structure. We find 79 systems not present in the materials project database that are thermodynamically stable and crystallize in the delafossite or in closely related structures. These novel phases are then characterized by calculating their band gaps and hole effective masses. This characterization unveils a large diversity of properties, ranging from normal metals, magnetic metals, and some candidate compounds for p-type transparent electrodes. PMID:28266587

  7. Heusler compounds as ternary intermetallic nanoparticles: Co{sub 2}FeGa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basit, Lubna; Wang Changhai; Jenkins, Catherine A; Balke, Benjamin; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Fecher, Gerhard H; Felser, Claudia [Johannes Gutenberg - Universitaet, Institut fuer analytische und anorganische Chemie, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Mugnaioli, Enrico; Kolb, Ute [Johannes Gutenberg - Universitaet, Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Elektronenmikroskopie-Zentrum Mainz (EMZM), 55099 Mainz (Germany); Nepijko, Sergej A; Schoenhense, Gerd [Johannes Gutenberg - Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Klimenkov, Michael, E-mail: felser@uni-mainz.d [Institut fuer Materialforschung I, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-04-21

    This work describes the preparation of ternary nanoparticles based on the Heusler compound Co{sub 2}FeGa. Nanoparticles with sizes of about 20 nm were synthesized by reducing a methanol impregnated mixture of CoCl{sub 2} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} {center_dot} 9H{sub 2}O and Ga(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O after loading on fumed silica. The dried samples were heated under pure H{sub 2} gas at 900 {sup 0}C. The obtained nanoparticles-embedded in silica-were investigated by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, temperature dependent magnetometry and Moessbauer spectroscopy. All methods clearly revealed the Heusler-type L2{sub 1} structure of the nanoparticles. In particular, anomalous XRD data demonstrate the correct composition in addition to the occurrence of the L2{sub 1} structure. The magnetic moment of the particles is about 5{mu}{sub B} at low temperature in good agreement with the value of bulk material. This suggests that the half-metallic properties are conserved even in particles on the 10 nm scale.

  8. Mechanical, Thermal and Surface Investigations of Chitosan/Agar/PVA Ternary Blended Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esam A. El-Hefian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical and thermal properties of chitosan/agar/poly vinyl alcohol (CS/AG/PVA ternary blended films having various proportions considering chitosan as the main component were investigated. The various variables static water contact angle such as contact angle, drop base area, drop volume and drop height was also studied in correlation with the variation of time. Results obtained from mechanical measurements showed a noticeable increase in the tensile strength (TS coincided with a sharp decrease in elongation percent at break (E% of blended films with increasing agar and PVA contents. The DSC results prevailed the development of an interaction between chitosan individual components: agar and PVA. Moreover, an enhancement of the wettability of the blends was obtained with increasing agar and PVA contents. It was also found that the pure CS film and the blended films with 90/05/05 and 80/10/10 compositions were more affected by time than blended films with other compositions when the contact angle, the drop height and the drop length were studied as a function of time. In addition, when the drop is initially placed on the substrate, the drop area and the drop volume of all films remained almost constant up to a certain time after which they showed a slight difference with the elapse of time.

  9. ARRANGING MULTICAST FORWARDING TABLE IN CLASS SEQUENCE IN TERNARY-CAM FOR LINE-SPEED LOOKUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yufeng; Qiu Han; Lan Julong; Wang Binqiang

    2009-01-01

    PIM-SM (Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode) is a main multicast routing protocol in the IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6). It can use either a shared tree or a shortest path tree to deliver data packets, consequently the multicast IP lookup engine requires, in some cases, two searches to get a correct lookup result according to its multicast forwarding rule, and it may result in a new requirement of doubling the lookup speed of the lookup engine. The ordinary method to satisfy this requirement in TCAM (Ternary Content Addressable Memory) based lookup engines is to exploit parallelism among multiple TCAMs. However, traditional parallel methods always induce more resources and higher design difficulty. We propose in this paper a novel approach to solve this problem. By arranging multicast forwarding table in class sequence in TCAM and making full use of the intrinsic characteristic of the TCAM, our approach can get the right lookup result with just one search and a single TCAM, while keeping the hardware of lookup engine unchanged. Experimental results have shown that the approach make it possible to satisfy forwarding IPv6 multicast packets at the full link rate of 20 Gb/s with just one TCAM with the current TCAM chip.

  10. Binary and ternary nano-catalysts as cathode materials in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimm, Bryan Dunning

    The need for alternative energy, in order to reduce dependence on petroleum based fuels, has increased in recent years. Public demand is at an all-time high for low emitting or none polluting energy sources, driving the research for cleaner technology. Lithium batteries and fuel cells have the ability to produce this alternative energy with much cleaner standards, while allowing for portability and high energy densities. This work focuses on the performance of nanocatalysts in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell or PEMFC. A key technical challenge is the sluggish rate for oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode of PEMFC, which requires highly-active and stable catalysts. Our investigation is directed at increasing stability and durability as well as reducing high loading of noble metals in these catalyst materials. Binary and ternary structured nanomaterials, e.g., Pt51V1Co48/C and Pd xCu1-x/C, have been synthesized and tested in a PEMFC, in order to gain a better understanding of their durability and efficiency. In addition to electrochemical characterization, synchrotron x-ray techniques at the Advance Photon Source in Argonne National Lab have also been used for the structural characterization.

  11. Corrosion and anodic behaviour of zinc and its ternary alloys in alkaline battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kannan, A. R.; Muralidharan, S.; Sarangapani, K. B.; Balaramachandran, V.; Kapali, V.

    Several attempts are being made to avoid the use of mercury-bearing zinc/zinc alloys as anodes in alkaline power sources. The work presented here suggests the possible use of some ternary alloys based on zinc of purity 99.9 to 99.95 wt.% as anodes in 10 M NaOH solution with sodium citrate, sodium stannate and calcium oxide as complexing agents and inhibitors. The corrosion of zinc and its alloys in 10 M NaOH solution is under cathodic control; in other alkaline electrolytes, it is under anodic control. Anode efficiency of up to 99.0% is achieved. The corrosion rates of zinc and its alloys are found to be comparable with those of mercury-bearing zinc in the chosen electrolytes. It is concluded that both dry cells and Zn-air batteries can be constructed with the above anodes and alkaline electrolytes. Thus, the presence of mercury, either in the anode or in the electrolyte, is avoided.

  12. High-throughput search of ternary chalcogenides for p-type transparent electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingming; Cerqueira, Tiago F. T.; Cui, Wenwen; Nogueira, Fernando; Botti, Silvana; Marques, Miguel A. L.

    2017-03-01

    Delafossite crystals are fascinating ternary oxides that have demonstrated transparent conductivity and ambipolar doping. Here we use a high-throughput approach based on density functional theory to find delafossite and related layered phases of composition ABX2, where A and B are elements of the periodic table, and X is a chalcogen (O, S, Se, and Te). From the 15 624 compounds studied in the trigonal delafossite prototype structure, 285 are within 50 meV/atom from the convex hull of stability. These compounds are further investigated using global structural prediction methods to obtain their lowest-energy crystal structure. We find 79 systems not present in the materials project database that are thermodynamically stable and crystallize in the delafossite or in closely related structures. These novel phases are then characterized by calculating their band gaps and hole effective masses. This characterization unveils a large diversity of properties, ranging from normal metals, magnetic metals, and some candidate compounds for p-type transparent electrodes.

  13. Ternary Phases (Heusler) in the System Ti-Co-Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinskiy, Andrey; Karlsen, Ole Bjørn; Sørby, Magnus H.; Prytz, Øystein

    2016-09-01

    Some of the Heusler-phases (XY 2 Z and XYZ) are known to have large homogeneity ranges which can be useful for tuning material properties. In this work, we have revised the isothermal section of the Ti-Co-Sn system at 973 K (700 °C). A total of 29 ternary compositions, mostly in the regions TiCo2-x Sn for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and Ti1+y Co2Sn1-y for 0 ≤ y ≤ 1, were prepared by arc-melting, then ball-milled and annealed. The resulting annealed powder samples were studied by applying the Rietveld method to X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data. Half-Heusler TiCoSn was not observed. The Heusler phase observed in TiCo2-x Sn has compositions ranging from TiCo1.52Sn to TiCo2Sn and has the half-Heusler structure where the excess of Co is located on the semi-filled tetrahedral site 4d (¾, ¾, ¾) in the space group F-43m. At 1273 K (1000 °C), this solid solubility is expanded from TiCo2Sn to TiCo with full solid solubility where Ti is gradually replacing Sn (Ti1+y Co2Sn1-y for 0 ≤ y ≤ 1), while at 973 K (700 °C) there is a small solubility gap for 0.0 ≤ y ≤ 0.2.

  14. Ternary eutectic dendrites: Pattern formation and scaling properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rátkai, László; Szállás, Attila; Pusztai, Tamás [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Mohri, Tetsuo [Center for Computational Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Gránásy, László, E-mail: granasy.laszlo@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-21

    Extending previous work [Pusztai et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 032401 (2013)], we have studied the formation of eutectic dendrites in a model ternary system within the framework of the phase-field theory. We have mapped out the domain in which two-phase dendritic structures grow. With increasing pulling velocity, the following sequence of growth morphologies is observed: flat front lamellae → eutectic colonies → eutectic dendrites → dendrites with target pattern → partitionless dendrites → partitionless flat front. We confirm that the two-phase and one-phase dendrites have similar forms and display a similar scaling of the dendrite tip radius with the interface free energy. It is also found that the possible eutectic patterns include the target pattern, and single- and multiarm spirals, of which the thermal fluctuations choose. The most probable number of spiral arms increases with increasing tip radius and with decreasing kinetic anisotropy. Our numerical simulations confirm that in agreement with the assumptions of a recent analysis of two-phase dendrites [Akamatsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 105502 (2014)], the Jackson-Hunt scaling of the eutectic wavelength with pulling velocity is obeyed in the parameter domain explored, and that the natural eutectic wavelength is proportional to the tip radius of the two-phase dendrites. Finally, we find that it is very difficult/virtually impossible to form spiraling two-phase dendrites without anisotropy, an observation that seems to contradict the expectations of Akamatsu et al. Yet, it cannot be excluded that in isotropic systems, two-phase dendrites are rare events difficult to observe in simulations.

  15. Electrochemical combustion of indigo at ternary oxide coated titanium anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. León

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The film of iridium and tin dioxides doped with antimony (IrO2-SnO2–Sb2O5 deposited on a Ti substrate (mesh obtained by Pechini method was used for the formation of ·OH radicals by water discharge. Detection of ·OH radicals was followed by the use of the N,N-dimethyl-p-nitrosoaniline (RNO as a spin trap. The electrode surface morphology and composition was characterized by SEM-EDS. The ternary oxide coating was used for the electrochemical combustion of indigo textile dye as a model organic compound in chloride medium. Bulk electrolyses were then carried out at different volumetric flow rates under galvanostatic conditions using a filter-press flow cell. The galvanostatic tests using RNO confirmed that Ti/IrO2-SnO2-Sb2O5 favor the hydroxyl radical formation at current densities between 5 and 7 mA cm-2, while at current density of 10 mA cm-2 the oxygen evolution reaction occurs. The indigo was totally decolorized and mineralized via reactive oxygen species, such as (·OH, H2O2, O3 and active chlorine formed in-situ at the Ti/IrO2-SnO2-Sb2O5 surface at volumetric flow rates between 0.1-0.4 L min-1 and at fixed current density of 7 mA cm-2. The mineralization of indigo carried out at 0.2 L min-1 achieved values of 100 %, with current efficiencies of 80 % and energy consumption of 1.78 KWh m-3.

  16. Topological and metrical property characterization of radical subunits for ternary hard sphere crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative characterization on the topological and metrical properties of radical subunits (polyhedra for two new ternary hard sphere crystals was studied. These two ideal crystalline structures are numerically constructed by filling small and medium spheres into interstices (corresponding to regular tetrahedral and octahedral pores of perfect face centered cubic (FCC and hexagonal close packed (HCP crystals formed by the packing of large spheres. Topological properties such as face number, edge number, vertex number of each radical polyhedron (RP, edge number of each RP face and metrical properties such as volume, surface area, total perimeter and pore volume of each RP, area and perimeter of each RP face were analyzed and compared. The results show that even though the overall packing densities for FCC and HCP ternary crystals are the same, different characteristics of radical polyhedra for corresponding spheres in these two crystals can be identified. That is, in the former structure RPs are more symmetric than those in the latter; the orientations of corresponding RP in the latter are twice as many as that in the former. Moreover, RP topological and metrical properties in the HCP ternary crystal are much more complicated than those in the FCC ternary crystal. These differences imply the structure and property differences of these two ternary crystals. Analyses of RPs provide intensive understanding of pores in the structure.

  17. Topological and metrical property characterization of radical subunits for ternary hard sphere crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; An, Xizhong; Wang, Defeng; Qian, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative characterization on the topological and metrical properties of radical subunits (polyhedra) for two new ternary hard sphere crystals was studied. These two ideal crystalline structures are numerically constructed by filling small and medium spheres into interstices (corresponding to regular tetrahedral and octahedral pores) of perfect face centered cubic (FCC) and hexagonal close packed (HCP) crystals formed by the packing of large spheres. Topological properties such as face number, edge number, vertex number of each radical polyhedron (RP), edge number of each RP face and metrical properties such as volume, surface area, total perimeter and pore volume of each RP, area and perimeter of each RP face were analyzed and compared. The results show that even though the overall packing densities for FCC and HCP ternary crystals are the same, different characteristics of radical polyhedra for corresponding spheres in these two crystals can be identified. That is, in the former structure RPs are more symmetric than those in the latter; the orientations of corresponding RP in the latter are twice as many as that in the former. Moreover, RP topological and metrical properties in the HCP ternary crystal are much more complicated than those in the FCC ternary crystal. These differences imply the structure and property differences of these two ternary crystals. Analyses of RPs provide intensive understanding of pores in the structure.

  18. Assessment of ternary iron-cyclodextrin-2-naphthol complexes using NMR and fluorescence spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weixi; Tarr, Matthew A.

    2006-12-01

    Recent research has indicated that ternary complexes can be formed among carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin, certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (e.g. anthracene and 2-naphthol), and Fe 2+ in aqueous solution. The formation of these ternary complexes has been suggested as the reason for improved reaction efficiency in iron catalyzed Fenton degradation (H 2O 2 + Fe 2+ → rad OH + OH - + Fe 3+) of PAHs and other pollutants. In the present work, several other cyclodextrins were examined to determine their ability to form similar ternary complexes with 2-naphthol and Fe 2+. Fluorescence and NMR techniques were employed in this study. Results showed that hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, β-cyclodextrin, and α-cyclodextrin were able to encapsulate 2-naphthol molecules, but their binding with Fe 2+ was weak. On the contrary, sulfated-β-cyclodextrin has significant binding with Fe 2+, but it showed little inclusion of 2-naphthol molecules. Consequently, none of these four cyclodextrins formed significant amounts of ternary complexes in aqueous solution. The techniques used in this study provide useful methods for assessing the ability of cyclodextrins to form ternary complexes with guest compounds and metal ions.

  19. Light charged particle accompanied ternary fission of {sup 242}Cm using the Coulomb and proximity potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K.P.; Krishnan, Sreejith; Priyanka, B. [Kannur University, School of Pure and Applied Physics, Kerala (India)

    2014-04-15

    The cold ternary fission of {sup 242}Cm with {sup 4}He, {sup 10}Be and {sup 14}C as light charged particle has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential with the fragments in equatorial configuration. The favorable fragment combinations are obtained from the cold valley plot (plot of driving potential vs. mass number of fragments) and by calculating the yield for charge minimized fragments. The maximum yield in the {sup 4}He accompanied ternary fission is obtained for the fragmentation channel {sup 104}Mo + {sup 134}Te + {sup 4}He and for the {sup 10}Be accompanied ternary fission, the maximum yield is found for the fragmentation channel {sup 98}Zr + {sup 134}Te + {sup 10}Be. It is to be noted that, in the case of {sup 14}C accompanied ternary fission, the maximum yield is obtained for the fragmentation channel {sup 94}Sr + {sup 134}Te + {sup 14}C and the next higher yield is found for the fragmentation channel {sup 96}Zr + {sup 132}Sn + {sup 14}C. Thus, the fragment combinations with maximum yields reveal the role of doubly magic and near doubly magic nuclei in cold ternary fission. (orig.)

  20. Phase equilibria in the Gd-Ni binary and Mg-Ni-Gd ternary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guanglong; Fei, Houjun [Central South Univ., Hunan (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Cui, Yu-Wen [Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies of Materials, Madrid (Spain); Zhang, Ligang [Central South Univ., Hunan (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Freiberg Univ. of Mining and Technology (Germany). Centre for Innovation Competence; Zheng, Feng; Liu, Libin; Jin, Zhanpeng [Central South Univ., Hunan (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Scientific Center of Phase Diagram and Materials Design and Preparation, Hunan (China)

    2012-10-15

    Phase equilibria of the Gd-Ni binary and Mg-Ni-Gd ternary systems were critically investigated using equilibrated alloys and differential scanning calorimeter measurements. The phase diagram of the Gd-Ni binary system was updated from scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimeter results obtained on binary samples over the entire composition range. Major changes made in the present work include the absence of the Gd{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} and GdNi{sub 4} compounds and the congruent melting point of the GdNi compound. An isothermal section of the Mg-Ni-Gd ternary system at 673K was constructed from the investigations on 22 ternary alloys. In total, six ternary compounds were identified in this work, three of which were observed to crystallize in the Cu{sub 4}MgSn ({tau}1), Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2} ({tau}2), and Ru{sub 4}Al{sub 3}B{sub 2}-type ({tau}3) structures, respectively. As in most of the Mg-rare-earth metal-transition metal ternary systems, a long-period-stacking ordered phase was identified to have an 18R structure and a melting temperature of 806K. Noticeable solid solubility of Ni in the Mg{sub 5}Gd and Mg{sub 3}Gd binary compounds was observed.