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Sample records for based epidemiological study

  1. Epidemiologic studies based on the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.

    1996-01-01

    There are great opportunities in the post-Chernobyl experience for significant epidemiologic research, perhaps even more in the area of disaster research than in the area of the human health effects of ionizing radiation. But the potential opportunity for learning the effects of radioiodine on the thyroid is very great and has aroused widespread national and international investigative interest. The opportunities for significant epidemiologic research are, however, severely limited currently by the worsening economic situation in Belarus and Ukraine, where the greatest exposure occurred, and by the lack of personnel trained in appropriate methods of study, the lack of modern equipment, the lack of supplies, the poor communication facilities, and the difficulties of accurate dose estimation. the disadvantages may or may not outweigh the obvious advantages of large numbers, the extensive direct thyroidal measurements made shortly after the accident in 1986, the magnitude of the releases of radioiodine, and the retention of the former Soviet system of universal medical care. Both the European Commission (EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have been working actively to strengthen the infrastructure of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. New scientific knowledge has yet to emerge from the extensive epidemiologic work but information of considerable public health significance has begun to accumulate. The bulk of the thyroid cancer has been shown to be valid by international pathology review; both EC and WHO representatives have declared the increase in thyroid cancer among children to have been caused in large part by Chernobyl. No increase in leukemia has been seen in the general population. The WHO pilot studies have shown no evidence of an increase in psychologic or neurologic complications among those exposed in utero. Ongoing epidemiologic work can be described by review of the inventory that the WHO has begun to maintain and publish. 20 refs., 7 tabs

  2. Epidemiological studies on syncope--a register based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    thesis demonstrated that the ICD-10 discharge diagnosis could reliably identify a cohort of patients admitted for syncope and that the discharge code carried a high number of unexplained cases despite use of numerous tests. The last studies showed that syncope is a common cause for hospital contact......The epidemiology and prognosis of ‘fainting’ or syncope has puzzled physicians over the years. Is fainting dangerous? This is a question often asked by the patient--and the answer is ‘it depends on a lot of things’. The diverse pathophysiology of syncope and the underlying comorbidites...... of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope, differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken...

  3. Epidemiological studies on syncope--a register based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-08-01

    The epidemiology and prognosis of ‘fainting’ or syncope has puzzled physicians over the years. Is fainting dangerous? This is a question often asked by the patient--and the answer is ‘it depends on a lot of things’. The diverse pathophysiology of syncope and the underlying comorbidites of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope, differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken from smaller studies from different clinical settings with wide differences in patient morbidity. Through the extensive Danish registries we examined the characteristics and prognosis of the patients hospitalized due to syncope in a nationwide study. The aims of the present thesis were to investigate: 1) the use, validity and accuracy of the ICD-10 diagnosis of syncope R55.9 in the National Patient Registry for the use of this diagnosis in the epidemiology of syncope, 2) diagnostics used and etiology of a random selection of patients who had a discharge diagnosis of R55.9, 3) the incidence, prevalence and cardiovascular factors associated with the risk of syncope, 4) the prognosis in healthy individuals discharged after syncope, and 5) the prognosis of patients after syncope and evaluation of the CHADS2 score as a tool for short and long-term risk prediction. The first studies of the present thesis demonstrated that the ICD-10 discharge diagnosis could reliably identify a cohort of patients admitted for syncope and that the discharge code carried a high number of unexplained cases despite use of numerous tests. The last studies showed that syncope is a common cause for hospital contact in Denmark and that the risk of syncope is tightly associated with cardiovascular comorbidities and use of pharmacotherapy. Furthermore in patients with no comorbidities (or healthy

  4. Myasthenia Gravis: a population-based epidemiological study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rutledge, S

    2016-02-01

    Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is a disorder affecting components of the neuromuscular junction. Epidemiological studies show rising incidence and prevalence rates. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and prevalence of MG in the Republic of Ireland. Data sources included patient lists from consultant neurologists and ophthalmologists, a neuroimmunology laboratory, general practitioners and the Myasthenia Gravis Association. A total of 1,715 cases were identified, of which 706 definite, probable or possible autoimmune and congenital MG cases were included. The overall prevalence rate from the data obtained is 15.38\\/100,000. The study demonstrated a female preponderance (female:male of 1.3: 1) and some geographical variation within Ireland. The average incidence rate for the years 2000 to 2009 was 11.3 per year; the rate for the current decade is 18 per year. The increasing number of diagnoses may be due to improved access to diagnostic investigations and increasing awareness of the clinical manifestations.

  5. Epidemiology of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Silja A S; Ilonen, Ilkka; Laaksonen, Sanna; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Salo, Jarmo A; Rantanen, Tuomo

    2017-12-01

    Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM) is a rare cancer of the mesothelial cells in the peritoneum with poor prognosis. Earlier reports from other countries indicate an incidence of 0.2-3 new cases per million per year. No previous studies have examined the national epidemiology of MPeM in Nordic countries. This study aimed to clarify the epidemiology of MPeM in Finland over a 12-year period. The data consisted of cancer notifications, laboratory notifications, and death certificate information in the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR) and Statistics Finland (SF) of all MPeM patients from 2000 to 2012 in Finland. We also collected data on occupational disease compensations from the Workers' Compensation Center (WCC) of Finland. Any missing information was collected from the respective patient's file of every patient obtained from health institutions that had treated the patients. Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2012, 90 new MPeM cases (56 males, 34 females) occurred in Finland. Median annual incidence was four new cases, which corresponded to 0.74 new cases per million per year. MPeM was deemed an occupational disease in 21 patients (23.3%). 71 patients (78.9%) of whom had a known cause of death, with a median survival of 4 months. The number of deaths linked to other disease than mesothelioma was 28/74 (37.8%). Our study indicates that MPeM in Finland is rare and fatal, which is in accordance with previous reports from other countries. MPeM is also a fatal disease, since most of the patients died due to MPeM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Epidemiology of subtypes of hyperthyroidism in Denmark: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bulow; Knudsen, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Few population-based studies have described the epidemiology of subtypes of hyperthyroidism. Design: A prospective population-based study, monitoring two well-defined Danish cohorts in Aalborg with moderate iodine deficiency (nZ311 102) and Copenhagen with only mild iodine deficiency (n...

  7. Evaluation of epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.

    1995-01-01

    The publication is intended for readers with a professional background in radiation protection who are not experts in the field of epidemiology. The potentials and the limits of epidemiology are shown and concepts and terminology of radioepidemilogic studies as well as epidemiology in general are explained, in order to provide the necessary basis for understanding or performing evaluations of epidemiologic studies. (orig./VHE) [de

  8. Epidemiology of hypospadias in Europe : a registry-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, Jorieke E. H.; Loane, Maria; Vrijheid, Martine; Pierini, Anna; Nijman, Rien J. M.; Addor, Marie-Claude; Barisic, Ingeborg; Beres, Judit; Braz, Paula; Budd, Judith; Delaney, Virginia; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Martos, Carmen; Mullaney, Carmel; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J.; O'Mahony, Mary; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Tucker, David; Wellesley, Diana; Zymak-Zakutnia, Natalya; Bakker, Marian K.; de Walle, Hermien E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation. The prevalence of hypospadias has a large geographical variation, and recent studies have reported both increasing and decreasing temporal trends. It is unclear whether hypospadias prevalence is associated with maternal age. To analyze the prevalence

  9. Modelling indoor electromagnetic fields (EMF) from mobile phone base stations for epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34472641X; Vermeulen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; van Eijsden, M.; van Strien, R.; Bürgi, A.; Loomans, E.; Guxens, M.; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Huss, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/331385880

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from mobile phone base stations can be reliably modelled for outdoor locations, using 3D radio wave propagation models that consider antenna characteristics and building geometry. For exposure assessment in epidemiological studies, however, it is

  10. Epidemiology of congenital diaphragmatic hernia in Europe : a register-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGivern, Mark R.; Best, Kate E.; Rankin, Judith; Wellesley, Diana; Greenlees, Ruth; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; de Walle, Hermien; Barisic, Ingeborg; Beres, Judit; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Calzolari, Elisa; Doray, Berenice; Draper, Elizabeth S.; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; O'Mahony, Mary; Braz, Paula; McDonnell, Bob; Mullaney, Carmel; Nelen, Vera; Queisser-Luft, Anette; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Sipek, Antonin; Thompson, Rosie; Tucker, David; Wertelecki, Wladimir; Martos, Carmen

    Introduction Published prevalence rates of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) vary. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of CDH using data from high-quality, population-based registers belonging to the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT). Methods Cases of CDH delivered

  11. Epidemiology of hypospadias in Europe: a registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Jorieke E H; Loane, Maria; Vrijheid, Martine; Pierini, Anna; Nijman, Rien J M; Addor, Marie-Claude; Barisic, Ingeborg; Béres, Judit; Braz, Paula; Budd, Judith; Delaney, Virginia; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsøyr, Kari; Martos, Carmen; Mullaney, Carmel; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O'Mahony, Mary; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Tucker, David; Wellesley, Diana; Zymak-Zakutnia, Natalya; Bakker, Marian K; de Walle, Hermien E K

    2015-12-01

    Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation. The prevalence of hypospadias has a large geographical variation, and recent studies have reported both increasing and decreasing temporal trends. It is unclear whether hypospadias prevalence is associated with maternal age. To analyze the prevalence and trends of total hypospadias, isolated hypospadias, hypospadias with multiple congenital anomalies, hypospadias with a known cause, and hypospadias severity subtypes in Europe over a 10-year period and to investigate whether maternal age is associated with hypospadias. We included all children with hypospadias born from 2001 to 2010 who were registered in 23 EUROCAT registries. Information on the total number of births and maternal age distribution for the registry population was also provided. We analyzed the total prevalence of hypospadias and relative risks by maternal age. From 2001 to 2010, 10,929 hypospadias cases were registered in 5,871,855 births, yielding a total prevalence of 18.61 per 10,000 births. Prevalence varied considerably between different registries, probably due to differences in ascertainment of hypospadias cases. No significant temporal trends were observed with the exceptions of an increasing trend for anterior and posterior hypospadias and a decreasing trend for unspecified hypospadias. After adjusting for registry effects, maternal age was not significantly associated with hypospadias. Total hypospadias prevalence was stable in 23 EUROCAT registries from 2001 to 2010 and was not significantly influenced by maternal age.

  12. Determination of exposure due to mobile phone base stations in an epidemiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzke, H. P.; Osterhoff, J.; Peklo, K.; Voigt, H.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate a supposed relationship between exposure by mobile phone base stations and well-being, an epidemiological cross sectional study is carried out within the German Mobile Telecommunication Research Program. In a parallel project, a method for the classification of electromagnetic exposure due to mobile phone base stations has been developed. This is based on the results of measurements of high frequency immissions in the interior of more than 1100 rooms and at outdoor locations, the calculation of the emissions of mobile phone antennas under free space propagation conditions and empirically determined transmission factors for the propagation of electromagnetic waves in different types of residential areas for passage of walls and windows. Standard tests (correlation-test, kappa-test, Bland-Altman-Plot, analysis of sensitivity and specificity) show that the method for computational exposure assessment developed in this project is applicable for a first classification of exposures due to mobile phone base stations in epidemiological studies. (authors)

  13. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases in Greater Noida: Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Roy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are associated with numerous problems each of which needs to be addressed separately [1]. Accidents, therefore, can be studied in terms of agent, host and environmental factors and epidemiologically classified into time, place and person distribution [2]. Objectives: 1.To assess the prevalence of RTAs coming to hospital and 2.To know the epidemiological factors related to RTAs and associated prevalence in hospital based study. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at SMSR, Gr Noida, in 2012. The study group consisted of all the RTA victims reporting to casualty in the last one year. The victims of the accidents were interviewed on a pretested semi structured performa. Results: In that one year period total number of reported accident cases was 144. The age groups of the study subjects were between 13-65 years. Out of total study subjects, only 16 were female. Again out of the total accident cases 45% were attended by police and of all injured, 45.8% were driver by occupation (7% without driving license. Among these drivers, 11% were not attentive during driving because of various reasons. Ambulance services had reached in 46.5% cases. Fracture was the most common type (60% of injury among all types of injuries. Among the applicable population only 33% wore helmet or seat belts. Conclusions: Only half of the total accident cases were attended by police and again only half of them received ambulance services. One third injuries were because of not wearing seat belt and helmets.

  14. Deposition-based passive monitors for assigning radon, thoron inhalation doses for epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayya, Y. S.; Mishra, R.; Prajith, R.; Gole, A. C.; Sapra, B. K.; Chougaonkar, M. P.; Nair, R. R. K.; Ramola, R. C.; Karunakara, N.; Koya, P. K. M.

    2012-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection dose limits for radiation protection have been based on linearly extrapolating the high-dose risk coefficients obtained from the Japanese A bomb survivor data to low doses. The validity of these extrapolations has been questioned from time to time. To overcome this, epidemiological studies have been undertaken across the world on populations chronically exposed to low-radiation levels. In the past decade, the results of these studies have yielded widely differing, and sometimes, contradictory, conclusions. While recent residential radon studies have shown statistically significant radon risks at low doses, high-level natural radiation (HLNR) studies in China and India have not shown any low-dose risks. Similar is the case of a congenital malformation study conducted among the HLNR area populations in Kerala (India)). It is thus necessary to make efforts at overcoming the uncertainties in epidemiological studies. In the context of HLNR studies, assigning radon and thoron doses has largely been an area of considerable uncertainty. Conventionally, dosimetry is carried out using radon concentration measurements, and doses have been assigned using assumed equilibrium factors for the progeny species. Gas-based dose assignment is somewhat inadequate due to variations in equilibrium factors and possibly due to significant thoron. In this context, passive, deposition-based progeny dosimetry appears to be a promising alternative method to assess inhalation doses directly. It has been deployed in various parts of India, including HBRAs and countries in Europe. This presentation discusses the method, the results obtained and their relevance to dose assignment in Indian epidemiological studies. (authors)

  15. Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP): a population-based case–control study in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegaux, Florence; Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Rébillard, Xavier; Trétarre, Brigitte; Anger, Antoinette; Randrianasolo, Hasina; Mulot, Claire; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Iborra, François; Bringer, Jean-Pierre; Leizour, Benoit; Thuret, Rodolphe

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male in most Western countries, including France. Despite a significant morbidity and mortality to a lesser extent, the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Indeed, the only well-established risk factors to date are age, ethnicity and a family history of prostate cancer. We present, here, the rationale and design of the EPIdemiological study of Prostate CAncer (EPICAP), a population-based case–control study specifically designed to investigate the role of environmental and genetic factors in prostate cancer. The EPICAP study will particularly focused on the role of circadian disruption, chronic inflammation, hormonal and metabolic factors in the occurrence of prostate cancer. EPICAP is a population-based case–control study conducted in the département of Hérault in France. Eligible cases are all cases of prostate cancers newly diagnosed in 2012-2013 in men less than 75 years old and residing in the département of Hérault at the time of diagnosis. Controls are men of the same age as the cases and living in the département of Hérault, recruited in the general population. The sample will include a total of 1000 incident cases of prostate cancer and 1000 population-based controls over a 3-year period (2012-2014). The cases and controls are face-to-face interviewed using a standardized computed assisted questionnaire. The questions focus primarily on usual socio-demographic characteristics, personal and family medical history, lifestyle, leisure activities, residential and occupational history. Anthropometric measures and biological samples are also collected for cases and controls. The EPICAP study aims to answer key questions in prostate cancer etiology: (1) role of circadian disruption through the study of working hours, chronotype and duration/quality of sleep, (2) role of chronic inflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs, (3) role of hormonal and metabolic factors through a detailed questionnaire

  16. Epidemiology of small intestinal atresia in Europe: a register-based study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Best, Kate E

    2012-09-01

    The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe.

  17. Epidemiological studies on syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    thesis demonstrated that the ICD-10 discharge diagnosis could reliably identify a cohort of patients admitted for syncope and that the discharge code carried a high number of unexplained cases despite use of numerous tests. The last studies showed that syncope is a common cause for hospital contact......The epidemiology and prognosis of ''fainting'' or syncope has puzzled physicians over the years. Is fainting dangerous? This is a question often asked by the patient--and the answer is ''it depends on a lot of things''. The diverse pathophysiology of syncope and the underlying comorbidites...... of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken...

  18. Fibromyalgia: epidemiology and risk factors, a population-based case-control study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukaddem, Afaf; Chaaya, Monique; Slim, Zeinab F N; Jaffa, Miran; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Uthman, Imad

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) and assess its risk factors. Using data from the 2009 Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) study conducted in Lebanon, a population-based case control study was performed. The sample included 34 FM patients, frequency matched with 136 controls free from any musculoskeletal complaints and randomly sampled from the population. The controls were frequency matched with cases by age and gender. The 34 female FM cases were prevalent cases which existed for a long period of time and all those who consulted a doctor were previously misdiagnosed. Family history of joint problems (OR = 4.93, 95% CI: 1.56-15.58) and working status (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.04-6.93) were significant risk factors for FM, after adjusting for body mass index, distress level, smoking status and residence location. This was the first study to address the epidemiology of FM in Lebanon and the region. The chronic nature of FM that is characterized by frequent bouts of intense disabling pain and symptoms constitutes a significant health and economic burden. Clustering of cases in coastal areas was partially explained by other factors such as body mass index, distress level, smoking and work status. The high burden of FM found in our study calls for further investigation of potential risk factors of this condition. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. The epidemiology of pituitary adenomas in Iceland, 1955-2012: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustsson, Tomas Thor; Baldvinsdottir, Tinna; Jonasson, Jon G; Olafsdottir, Elinborg; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Thorsson, Arni V; Carroll, Paul V; Korbonits, Márta; Benediktsson, Rafn

    2015-11-01

    Pituitary adenomas (PA) are among the most common human neoplasms. To describe the epidemiology and assess the disease burden of clinically significant PAs, population-based studies are needed. Iceland has a small well-defined population. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology of PAs in Iceland over an expanded period of time. This is a retrospective observational study, including all PAs diagnosed in Iceland from 1955 to 2012. Extensive clinical information was gathered in a database. Prevalence rates for all PA subtypes were calculated along with standardized incidence rates (SIR). Sex ratios and relationships with adenoma size, age, and symptoms were assessed. We identified 471 individuals: 190 men and 281 women. Total prevalence in 2012 was 115.57/100, 000, prolactinomas were most prevalent (54.37/100, 000) followed by non-functioning adenomas (NFPAs) (42.32/100 ,000). Throughout the period, NFPAs were most common (43.0%) followed by prolactinomas (39.9%) and 11.3% had acromegaly and 5.7% Cushing's disease. Women are diagnosed younger with smaller adenomas. Total SIR has increased significantly and is now 5.8/100 000 per year. In this nationwide study spanning six decades, we have confirmed PAs rising prevalence and incidence rates noted in recent studies. We demonstrated higher overall prevalence and incidence rates than ever previously recorded with an increasing predominance of NFPAs, which is not explained by incidental findings alone. There is a relationship with the introduction of imaging modalities, but the vast majority of patients are symptomatic at diagnosis. This underlines the importance of increased awareness, education, and appropriate allocation of resources for this growing group of patients. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  20. Epidemiology of Mixed Connective Tissue Disease, 1985-2014: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungprasert, Patompong; Crowson, Cynthia S; Chowdhary, Vaidehi R; Ernste, Floranne C; Moder, Kevin G; Matteson, Eric L

    2016-12-01

    To characterize the epidemiology of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) from 1983 to 2014. An inception cohort of patients with incident MCTD in 1985-2014 in Olmsted County, Minnesota was identified based on comprehensive individual medical record review. Diagnosis of MCTD required fulfillment of at least 1 of the 4 widely accepted diagnostic criteria without fulfillment of classification criteria for other connective tissue diseases. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory investigations, and mortality. A total of 50 incident cases of MCTD were identified (mean age 48.1 years and 84% were female). The annual incidence of MCTD was 1.9 per 100,000 population. Raynaud's phenomenon was the most common initial symptoms (50%), followed by arthralgia (30%) and swollen hands (16%). The diagnosis was frequently delayed with the median time from first symptom to fulfillment of criteria of 3.6 years. At fulfillment of criteria, arthralgia was the most prevalent manifestation (86%), followed by Raynaud's phenomenon (80%), swollen hands (64%), leukopenia/lymphopenia (44%), and heartburn (38%). Evolution to other connective tissue occurred infrequently with a 10-year rate of evolution of 8.5% and 6.3% for systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis, respectively. The overall mortality was not different from the general population with a standardized mortality ratio of 1.1 (95% confidence interval 0.4-2.6). This study was the first population-based study of MCTD to provide a complete picture of epidemiology and clinical characteristics of MCTD. MCTD occurred in about 2 persons per 100,000 per year. Evolution to other connective diseases occurred infrequently and the mortality was not affected. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  1. National Trends in the Epidemiology of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A National Cancer Data Base Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddoughi, Sahar A; Abdelsattar, Zaid M; Blackmon, Shanda H

    2018-02-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains an aggressive malignancy that is difficult to cure. However, the treatment paradigm of MPM has evolved, and the national practice patterns are unknown. This study examined the national trends in the epidemiology, national treatment patterns, and survival of patients with this disease. We identified all patients (n = 19,134) with MPM from the National Cancer Data Base from 2004 to 2013. We analyzed patient, tumor characteristics, and treatment patterns using descriptive statistics and used Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate survival stratified by the type of therapy administered. Four histologic subtypes were represented in the National Cancer Data Base, these included sarcomatoid (n = 2,355 [12.3%]), epithelioid (n = 6,858 [35.8%]), biphasic (n = 13,617 [11%]), and not otherwise specified (n = 8,560 [44.7%]). Across all subtypes, the prevalence of mesothelioma was highest among white men. Sarcomatoid had the worst survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.2; p Data Base. Although survival remains poor, multimodality therapy with surgical resection is associated with the best survival for MPM. Further research is needed to improve survival and overall patient outcomes. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement error in epidemiologic studies of air pollution based on land-use regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagaña, Xavier; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Rivera, Marcela; Agis, David; Foraster, Maria; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto; Künzli, Nino

    2013-10-15

    Land-use regression (LUR) models are increasingly used to estimate air pollution exposure in epidemiologic studies. These models use air pollution measurements taken at a small set of locations and modeling based on geographical covariates for which data are available at all study participant locations. The process of LUR model development commonly includes a variable selection procedure. When LUR model predictions are used as explanatory variables in a model for a health outcome, measurement error can lead to bias of the regression coefficients and to inflation of their variance. In previous studies dealing with spatial predictions of air pollution, bias was shown to be small while most of the effect of measurement error was on the variance. In this study, we show that in realistic cases where LUR models are applied to health data, bias in health-effect estimates can be substantial. This bias depends on the number of air pollution measurement sites, the number of available predictors for model selection, and the amount of explainable variability in the true exposure. These results should be taken into account when interpreting health effects from studies that used LUR models.

  3. Cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders: a systematic review of population-based, epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moylan Steven

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple studies have demonstrated that rates of smoking and nicotine dependence are increased in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, significant variability exists in the epidemiological literature exploring this relationship, including study design (cross-sectional versus prospective, the population assessed (random sample versus clinical population and diagnostic instrument utilized. Methods We undertook a systematic review of population-based observational studies that utilized recognized structured clinical diagnostic criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM or International Classification of Diseases (ICD for anxiety disorder diagnosis to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders. Results In total, 47 studies met the predefined inclusion criteria, with 12 studies providing prospective information and 5 studies providing quasiprospective information. The available evidence suggests that some baseline anxiety disorders are a risk factor for initiation of smoking and nicotine dependence, although the evidence is heterogeneous and many studies did not control for the effect of comorbid substance use disorders. The identified evidence however appeared to more consistently support cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence as being a risk factor for development of some anxiety disorders (for example, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, although these findings were not replicated in all studies. A number of inconsistencies in the literature were identified. Conclusions Although many studies have demonstrated increased rates of smoking and nicotine dependence in individuals with anxiety disorders, there is a limited and heterogeneous literature that has prospectively examined this relationship in population studies using validated diagnostic criteria. The most consistent evidence supports smoking and nicotine dependence as

  4. The Epidemiology of Hypoparathyroidism in Italy: An 8-Year Register-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Cristiana; Pepe, Jessica; Biamonte, Federica; Manai, Rizieri; Biondi, Piergianni; Nieddu, Luciano; Cianferotti, Luisella; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Minisola, Salvatore

    2017-03-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a rare endocrine disorder, but few studies have focused on the epidemiology and hospital management of the disease and none has been performed in Italy. We investigated the prevalence of different forms of hypoparathyroidism among hospitalized patients in Italy during an 8-year period. This study is designed as a retrospective register-based study. We retrieved data from the "Record of Hospital Discharge" (SDO) of the Italian Health Ministry, from the year 2006 to 2013 and analyzed the codes corresponding to hypoparathyroidism-related diagnoses. The inpatient prevalence of the disease was also calculated after excluding repeated hospitalizations. Overall, 27,692 hospitalization episodes for hypoparathyroidism were identified during the entire period (72.2% in women and 27.8% in men; mean age 49.5 ± 22.9 years). The mean length of stay was 7.4 ± 9.8 days (25.9% of the episodes requiring less than 3 days of stay). The mean hospitalization rate for hypoparathyroidism was 5.9/100,000 inhabitants per year and there was a significant decrease during the period of 2006-2013 (p hypoparathyroidism was 1.4/100,000 inhabitants per year and the trend showed a significant reduction during the years (p hypoparathyroidism among inpatients was 5.3/100,000 inhabitants per year, and there was a significant decrease over the years (p Hypoparathyroidism, particularly the postsurgical form of the disease, is not an uncommon condition among hospitalized patients in Italy. We observed a tendency to a decrease in the frequency of hospitalization during the period 2006-2013.

  5. Epidemiologic aspects of deliberate self-poisoning in adolescents: a hospital-based study in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi N

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The object of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of deliberate self-poisoning in adolescents referred to the only poisoning center in Tehran. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, all cases of acute poisoning at the Loghman Hakim Hospital from May to December 2003 were reviewed. Data for adolescents (13-19 years of age were analyzed by SPSS for Windows, version 13 and STATA, version 8. Results: From a total of 9203 cases of deliberate self-poisoning, 28.5% were adolescents (2626 cases. The male/female ratio was 1/2.2. Approximately 87% were unmarried and 56% were students, while a total of 4859 different drugs/agents were used for self-poisoning (an average of 1.85 for each case. The majority of patients was from urban areas and had no history of attempted suicide. There was no difference between males and females regarding history of psychiatric and somatic disorders, though there was a significant difference in the average of age between male and female adolescents. Conclusions: Among adolescents, self-poisoning is more common in girls while the mean of age is younger in boys. Although the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in adolescents appears to be less than the general population, this may be related to differences in their situations or due to underestimation of their frequencies. Psychiatric care should be a necessary component of the care administered to adolescents who attempt suicide and must be based on the needs and basic assessment of the patient’s status. Research regarding the familial history of abuse, neglect, self-harm/ poi- soning should be undertaken so that such social issues can be prioritized and addressed.

  6. CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF ORAL CANCER: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil H Agrawal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is heading towards various types of non-communicable diseases, which are also known as modern epidemics. Among these modern epidemics cancer is among the ten commonest cause of mortality in developing countries including India. Oral cancer is a major problem in India and accounts for 50-70% of all the cancers diagnosed. Ninety percent (90% of oral cancers in South East Asia including India are linked to tobacco chewing and tobacco smoking. Research question: What is the profile of Oral cancer (Oral cavity cases reported in the hospital? Objective: To study the clinico-epidemiological profile associated with Oral cancer cases. Methods: Study Design: Hospital based, Cross -sectional study. Settings: Shri Siddhivinayak Ganapati Cancer Hospital, Miraj, Maharashtra. Participants and Sample size: As it is a time bound study sample size comprised of all the confirmed cases of oral cancer reported in the hospital during the study period. The study was carried out from 1st March 2005 to 28th February 2006. Study variables included demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, enquiries regarding modifiable risk factors such as tobacco usage, alcohol consumption, site involved (within oral cavity, staging, histopathological examination, treatment modality used. Data entry and statistical analysis was done using Microsoft excel. Data presented in form of percentages and proportions. Results: Out of the total 160 cases, majority of the subjects were above 40 years age. 36 (22% of subjects were young adults (below 40 years age. 125 (78% subjects were male. Most of the subjects belonged to upper lower and lower middle socio-economic scale according to modified Kuppuswamy classification. It was observed that 139 (87% cases consumed tobacco in all forms. Out of these, ninety cases consumed tobacco in chewable form. Tobacco was chewed mainly in the form of gutka. Only ten (10 female subjects chewed tobacco. No female subjects smoked. The most

  7. Epidemiology of constipation in São Paulo, Brazil: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinzon, Décio; Dias-Bastos, Telma R P; Medeiros da Silva, Aline; Eisig, Jaime N; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data on constipation in South America are limited. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of constipation in Brazil. Telephone and personal surveys were conducted among community-dwelling adults in homes with land-based telephones in São Paulo. Data were weighted by numbers of adults, total residents, and telephones in each household. To account for potential nonresponse and noncoverage bias, results were further adjusted according to Brazilian census data. Among 4570 households contacted, 3050 adults (66.7%) participated. Respondents (mean [SE] age: 42.6 [2.7] years) were primarily women (53.1%). A minority of all respondents reported symptoms consistent with constipation, including a perception of incomplete voiding in 8.0%; expending efforts to defecate in 7.6%; ≤2 stools weekly in 9.0%; and hard stools in 12.7%. Prevalences of these symptoms and efforts to manage them were more frequent in women (P ≤ 0.004), but most were not significantly associated with advancing age. With increasing age, proportions of respondents with ≤2 stools per week declined (P = 0.001), whereas use of bowel enemas (P = 0.026) and digital maneuvers to disimpact stool increased (P constipation symptoms, the vast majority of respondents did not report using prescription medications, but some used natural remedies (29.5%) and/or laxatives (13.4%). Symptoms of constipation are prevalent in São Paulo, particularly among women. On the other hand, most survey respondents did not use medications or other remedies that manage this condition. These findings may point to an unmet gastrointestinal treatment need. Future research is needed to corroborate our findings in rural settings and to further evaluate potential predictors and consequences of constipation in South America.

  8. A Data Base Management System for Clinical and Epidemiologic Studies In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Design and Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Kosmides, Victoria S.; Hochberg, Marc C.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the development, design specifications, features and implementation of a data base management system (DBMS) for clinical and epidemiologic studies in SLE. The DBMS is multidimensional with arrays formulated across patients, studies and variables. The major impact of this DBMS has been to increase the efficiency of managing and analyzing vast amounts of clinical and laboratory data and, as a result, to allow for continued growth in research productivity in areas related t...

  9. Potential for bias in epidemiologic studies that rely on glass-based retrospective assessment of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    Retrospective assessment of exposure to radon remains the greatest challenge in epidemiologic efforts to assess lung cancer risk associated with residential exposure. An innovative technique based on measurement of α-emitting, long-lived daughters embedded by recoil into household glass may one day provide improved radon dosimetry. Particulate air pollution is known, however, to retard the plate-out of radon daughters. This would be expected to result in a differential effect on dosimetry, where the calibration curve relating the actual historical radon exposure to the remaining α-activity in the glass would be different in historically smoky and nonsmoky environments. The resulting open-quotes measurement confoundingclose quotes can distort inferences about the effect of radon and can also produce spurious evidence for synergism between radon exposure and cigarette smoking. 18 refs., 4 figs

  10. Chloroquine induced pruritus - questionnaire based epidemiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloroquine (CQ) is a very useful drug with a broad spectrum of uses (as anti malarial, anti amoebiasis and for connective tissue diseases). A major side effect preventing or limiting its utilization in blacks is chloroquine induced pruritus (CP). A descriptive cross sectional questionnaire based epidemiological study of ...

  11. Epidemiology of Endometriosis in France: A Large, Nation-Wide Study Based on Hospital Discharge Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter von Theobald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess the prevalence of hospitalization for endometriosis in the general population in France and in each French region and to describe temporal trends, rehospitalization rates, and prevalence of the different types of endometriosis. The analyses were carried out on French hospital discharge data and covered the period 2008–2012 and a population of 14,239,197 women of childbearing age. In this population, the prevalence of hospitalization for endometriosis was 0.9%, ranging from 0.4% to 1.6% between regions. Endometriosis affected 1.5% of hospitalized women of childbearing age, ranging from 1.0% to 2.4% between regions. The number of patients hospitalized for endometriosis significantly increased over the study period (p<0.01. Of these, 4.2% were rehospitalized at least once at one year: ranging from 2.7% to 6.3% between regions. The cumulative rehospitalization rate at 3 years was 6.9%. The types of endometriosis according to the procedures performed were as follows: ovarian (40–50%, peritoneal (20–30%, intestinal (10–20%, and ureteral or bladder (<10%, with significant differences between regions. This is the first detailed epidemiological study of endometriosis in France. Further studies are needed to assess the reasons for the increasing prevalence of endometriosis and for the significant differences in regional prevalence of this disease.

  12. Epidemiological Features of Congenital Anomalies in Tabriz District, a Population Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Karamooz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Congenital anomalies are responsible for a remarkable proportion of mortalities and morbidities of the newborn population. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological features of birth defects in rural areas of Tabriz, northwest of Iran. Material and Methods : The study population comprised live births under 8 years old in Tabriz district. All health records of the children under 8 years old were evaluated. Results : Out of 22500 live births, we documented 254 cases with congenital anomalies. The prevalence rate of birth defects was 113 per 10000 births (95% CI: 99 to 126. Anomalies of the nervous system were the most common defects, accounting for 24% of birth defects. It was followed by the heart diseases anomalies and the eye/ear anomalies. The highest prevalence rate for birth defects was observed in the north-eastern region with 386 per 10000 live births (95% CI: 215 to 556 and the lowest prevalence rate was observed in the north-western region with 15 per 10000 live births     (95% CI: -14 to 45. Conclusion : The remarkable geographic disparities in the prevalence of birth defects in the region may indicate for a new investigation for the etiology of congenital anomalies.

  13. Epidemiology of zoonotic hepatitis E: a community-based surveillance study in a rural population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Cai; Huang, Shou-Jie; Wu, Ting; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Zhong-Ze; Ai, Xing; Yan, Qiang; Yang, Chang-Lin; Cai, Jia-Ping; Jiang, Han-Min; Wang, Yi-Jun; Ng, Mun-Hon; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E is caused by two viral genotype groups: human types and zoonotic types. Current understanding of the epidemiology of the zoonotic hepatitis E disease is founded largely on hospital-based studies. The epidemiology of hepatitis E was investigated in a community-based surveillance study conducted over one year in a rural city in eastern China with a registered population of 400,162. The seroprevalence of hepatitis E in the cohort was 38%. The incidence of hepatitis E was 2.8/10,000 person-years. Totally 93.5% of the infections were attributed to genotype 4 and the rest, to genotype 1. Hepatitis E accounted for 28.4% (102/359) of the acute hepatitis cases and 68.9% (102/148) of the acute viral hepatitis cases in this area of China. The disease occurred sporadically with a higher prevalence during the cold season and in men, with the male-to-female ratio of 3∶1. Additionally, the incidence of hepatitis E increased with age. Hepatitis B virus carriers have an increased risk of contracting hepatitis E than the general population (OR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.5-4.2). Pre-existing immunity to hepatitis E lowered the risk (relative risk  = 0.34, 95% CI 0.21-0.55) and reduced the severity of the disease. Hepatitis E in the rural population of China is essentially that of a zoonosis due to the genotype 4 virus, the epidemiology of which is similar to that due to the other zoonotic genotype 3 virus.

  14. Epidemiology of zoonotic hepatitis E: a community-based surveillance study in a rural population in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Cai Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E is caused by two viral genotype groups: human types and zoonotic types. Current understanding of the epidemiology of the zoonotic hepatitis E disease is founded largely on hospital-based studies. METHODS: The epidemiology of hepatitis E was investigated in a community-based surveillance study conducted over one year in a rural city in eastern China with a registered population of 400,162. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of hepatitis E in the cohort was 38%. The incidence of hepatitis E was 2.8/10,000 person-years. Totally 93.5% of the infections were attributed to genotype 4 and the rest, to genotype 1. Hepatitis E accounted for 28.4% (102/359 of the acute hepatitis cases and 68.9% (102/148 of the acute viral hepatitis cases in this area of China. The disease occurred sporadically with a higher prevalence during the cold season and in men, with the male-to-female ratio of 3∶1. Additionally, the incidence of hepatitis E increased with age. Hepatitis B virus carriers have an increased risk of contracting hepatitis E than the general population (OR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.5-4.2. Pre-existing immunity to hepatitis E lowered the risk (relative risk  = 0.34, 95% CI 0.21-0.55 and reduced the severity of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis E in the rural population of China is essentially that of a zoonosis due to the genotype 4 virus, the epidemiology of which is similar to that due to the other zoonotic genotype 3 virus.

  15. The epidemiology of polypharmacy in older adults: register-based prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morin L

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lucas Morin,1 Kristina Johnell,1 Marie-Laure Laroche,2,3 Johan Fastbom,1 Jonas W Wastesson1 1Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2University Hospital of Limoges, Service de Pharmacologie, Toxicologie et Pharmacovigilance, Limoges, France; 3Faculté de Médecine, Université de Limoges, Limoges, France Objective: Polypharmacy is the concomitant use of several drugs by a single person, and it increases the risk of adverse drug-related events in older adults. Little is known about the epidemiology of polypharmacy at the population level. We aimed to measure the prevalence and incidence of polypharmacy and to investigate the associated factors. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted using register data with national coverage in Sweden. A total of 1,742,336 individuals aged ≥65 years at baseline (November 1, 2010 were included and followed until death or the end of the study (December 20, 2013. Results: On average, individuals were exposed to 4.6 (SD =4.0 drugs at baseline. The prevalence of polypharmacy (5+ drugs was 44.0%, and the prevalence of excessive polypharmacy (10+ drugs was 11.7%. The incidence rate of polypharmacy among individuals without polypharmacy at baseline was 19.9 per 100 person-years, ranging from 16.8% in individuals aged 65–74 years to 33.2% in those aged ≥95 years (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] =1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42–1.56. The incidence rate of excessive polypharmacy was 8.0 per 100 person-years. Older adults using multi-dose dispensing were at significantly higher risk of developing incident polypharmacy compared with those receiving ordinary prescriptions (HR =1.51, 95% CI 1.47–1.55. When adjusting for confounders, living in nursing home was found to be associated with lower risks of incident polypharmacy and incident excessive polypharmacy (HR =0.79 and HR =0.86, p<0.001, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence and incidence of polypharmacy are high among

  16. Epidemiology of multiple congenital anomalies in Europe: A EUROCAT population-based registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calzolari, Elisa; Barisic, Ingeborg; Loane, Maria

    2014-01-01

    for classification of congenital anomaly cases followed by manual review of potential MCA cases by geneticists. MCA cases are defined as cases with two or more major anomalies of different organ systems, excluding sequences, chromosomal and monogenic syndromes. RESULTS: The combination of an epidemiological...... and clinical approach for classification of cases has improved the quality and accuracy of the MCA data. Total prevalence of MCA cases was 15.8 per 10,000 births. Fetal deaths and termination of pregnancy were significantly more frequent in MCA cases compared with isolated cases (p ... more frequently prenatally diagnosed (p Live born infants with MCA were more often born preterm (p 

  17. An expert-based job exposure matrix for large scale epidemiologic studies of primary hip and knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubak, Tine Steen; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2014-01-01

    in population studies of the work-relatedness of hip and knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: Based on all 2227 occupational titles in the Danish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (D-ISCO 88), we constructed 121 job groups comprising occupational titles with expected homogeneous......BACKGROUND: When conducting large scale epidemiologic studies, it is a challenge to obtain quantitative exposure estimates, which do not rely on self-report where estimates may be influenced by symptoms and knowledge of disease status. In this study we developed a job exposure matrix (JEM) for use...... exposure patterns in addition to a minimally exposed job group, which was not included in the JEM. The job groups were allocated the mean value of five experts' ratings of daily duration (hours/day) of standing/walking, kneeling/squatting, and whole-body vibration as well as total load lifted (kg...

  18. Methodological exploratory study applied to occupational epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G. Gaburo; Vasques, MOnica Heloisa B.; Fontinele, Ricardo S.; Sordi, Gian Maria A.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization of epidemiologic methods and techniques has been object of practical experimentation and theoretical-methodological reflection in health planning and programming process. Occupational Epidemiology is the study of the causes and prevention of diseases and injuries from exposition and risks in the work environment. In this context, there is no intention to deplete such a complex theme but to deal with basic concepts of Occupational Epidemiology, presenting the main characteristics of the analysis methods used in epidemiology, as investigate the possible determinants of exposition (chemical, physical and biological agents). For this study, the social-demographic profile of the IPEN-CNEN/SP work force was used. The knowledge of this reference population composition is based on sex, age, educational level, marital status and different occupations, aiming to know the relation between the health aggravating factors and these variables. The methodology used refers to a non-experimental research based on a theoretical methodological practice. The work performed has an exploratory character, aiming a later survey of indicators in the health area in order to analyze possible correlations related to epidemiologic issues. (author)

  19. The epidemiology of hospitalized influenza in children, a two year population-based study in the People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The epidemiology and disease burden of annual influenza in children in mainland People's Republic of China have not been reported in detail. To understand the incidence and epidemiology of laboratory-proven influenza hospitalization in children in China, a review of available laboratory and hospital admission data was undertaken. Methods We conducted a retrospective population-based study in Suzhou and the surrounding area of Jiangsu province, China for hospitalized cases of respiratory illness at Suzhou Children's Hospital. Cases of pneumonia or respiratory illness were identified from hospital computer data bases. Routine virological testing by fluorescent monoclonal antibody assay of all hospitalized children identified influenza and other viruses. We calculated incidence rates using census population denominators. Results Of 7,789 specimens obtained during 2007 and 2008, 85 were positive for influenza A and 25 for influenza B. There were 282 specimens with parainfluenza virus and 1392 with RSV. Influenza occurred throughout the year, with peaks in the winter, and in August/September. Overall estimated annual incidence of laboratory-proven influenza hospitalization was 23-27/100,000 children 0-4 years old, and 60/100,000 in infants 0-6 months, with an average hospitalization of 9 days. Conclusions Influenza disease in young children in this part of China is a relatively common cause of hospitalization, and occurs throughout the year. The use of influenza vaccine in Chinese children has the potential to reduce the effect of influenza in the children, as well as in their communities. Studies are needed to further assess the burden of influenza, and to develop and refine effective strategies of immunization of young children in China. PMID:20353557

  20. Cytopathological Examination and Epidemiological Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytopathological Examination and Epidemiological Study of Cervicitis in Commercial Sex Workers (Csws) in Coal City (Enugu), Nigeria. ... was collected from the endocervix of about one hundred and eighteen (n=118) CSWs between November, 2014 and February, 2015 using the liquid-based cytology (LBC) method.

  1. Proposal for a revised Reference Concentration (RfC) for manganese based on recent epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lisa A; Goodman, Julie E; Beck, Barbara D

    2009-12-01

    In 1993, based on observations of subclinical neurological effects in workers, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) published a Reference Concentration (RfC) of 0.05 microg/m(3) for manganese (Mn). The geometric mean exposure concentration, 150 microg/m(3) respirable Mn, was considered the lowest observable adverse effect level (LOAEL), and uncertainty factors (UFs) were applied to account for sensitive populations, database limitations, a LOAEL, subchronic exposure, and potential differences in toxicity of different forms of Mn. Based on a review of more recent literature, we propose two alternate Mn RfCs. Of 12 more recent occupational studies of eight cohorts with chronic exposure durations, examining subclinical neurobehavioral effects, predominantly on the motor system, three were considered appropriate for development of an RfC. All three studies yielded no observable adverse effect levels (NOAELs) of approximately 60 microg/m(3) respirable Mn. Converting the occupational NOAEL to a human equivalent concentration (HEC) of 21microg/m(3) (for continuous exposure) and applying a UF of 10 to account for intraspecies variability yielded an RfC of 2microg/m(3). We also derived a similar RfC (7 microg/m(3)) using an Mn benchmark dose (BMD) as the point of departure. Overall confidence in both RfCs is medium.

  2. Dysphagia: epidemiology, risk factors and impact on quality of life--a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslick, G D; Talley, N J

    2008-05-01

    Data on the population epidemiology of dysphagia are scarce. Little is known about the prevalence, risk factors and impact on quality of life of dysphagia in the general community. To determine the magnitude and impact of dysphagia in the general community. A random sample of 1000 individuals of Sydney, Australia, were mailed a validated self-report questionnaire to assess dysphagia. Measured were dysphagia symptoms, potential mechanisms, risk factors, psychological disorders, quality of life and demographics. The response rate of included subjects (n = 926) was 73% (n = 672). Dysphagia ever was reported by 16% (n = 110). Multiple logistic regression analysis found that odynophagia was independently associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (OR = 3.41, 95% CI: 1.16-10.04). Intermittent dysphagia was independently associated with GERD (OR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.76-4.98) and anxiety (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.19). The presence of progressive dysphagia was independently associated with depression (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.07-1.67). Progressive dysphagia was independently associated with reduced 'general health' (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.90-0.99), while intermittent dysphagia was associated with a reduction in the 'role physical' subscale (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-0.99). Dysphagia is remarkably common in the general population. GERD is a risk factor for dysphagia as well as odynophagia. Intermittent dysphagia was associated with anxiety, while progressive dysphagia was associated with depression.

  3. Serum Uric Acid Levels and Risk of Incident Hypertriglyceridemia: A Longitudinal Population-based Epidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rongjiong; Ren, Ping; Chen, Qingmei; Yang, Tianmeng; Chen, Changxi; Mao, Yushan

    2017-09-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is one of lipid metabolism abnormalities; however, it is still debatable whether serum uric acid is a cause or a consequence of hypertriglyceridemia. We performed the study to investigate the longitudinal association between serum uric acid levels and hypertriglyceridemia. The study included 4190 subjects without hypertriglyceridemia. The subjects had annual health examinations for 8 years to assess incident hyperglyceridemia, and the subjects were divided into groups based on the serum uric acid quartile. Cox regression models were used to analyze the risk factors of development hypertriglyceridemia. During follow-up, 1461 (34.9%) subjects developed hypertriglyceridemia over 8 years of follow-up. The cumulative incidence of hypertriglyceridemia was 28.2%, 29.1%, 36.9%, and 45.6% in quartile 1,2,3 and 4, respectively ( P for trend uric acid levels were independently and positively associated with the risk of incident hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia has become a serious public health problem. This longitudinal study demonstrates that high serum uric acid levels increase the risk of hypertriglyceridemia. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  4. EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC BEHAVIOUR AND PEIPLE MIGRANTION ON THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA : A MODEL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Bhattacharya

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to study the socio economic behaviour of migrant labourers in the context of the control of the diseases like malaria. The paper, therefore, makes a model and survey based study in the city of Kolkata, India to drive home the point that low income of people particularly of the migrant workers can be a major hurdle in the malaria control programme. The paper first looks at the economic behaviour pattern theoretically from neo-classical optimization exercise and the tries to test the theoetical result empirically from primary survey. The theoritical model gives the result that low income people is likely to take less rest and discontinue medical tratment. Since migrant workers of less developed counties are usually low-income people, pur model suggests that migrant workers will have incomplete treatment and their migration even before complete recovery may contribute to spread of the disease. We hage empirically tested the model econometrically by a logit model, and derived the result that migrat workers do take less rest and discontinue treatment becouse of economic compulsion. Thus the data support the result of the theoretical model and refeals a behafiour pattern, conducive to spread of malaria infection. The paper drives some policy prescriptions on the basis of these studies like infurance support, health survillance of migrant population as a part of integrated malaria control programme.

  5. An epidemiological profile of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A community-based study in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different definitions used for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD preclude getting reliable prevalence estimates. Study objective was to find the prevalence of COPD as per standard Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease definition, risk factors associated, and treatment seeking in adults >30 years. Methodology: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Delhi, among 1200 adults, selected by systematic random sampling. Pretested questionnaire was used to interview all subjects and screen for symptoms of COPD. Postbronchodilator spirometry was done to confirm COPD. Statistical Analysis: Adjusted odds ratio (aOR was calculated by multivariable analysis to examine the association of risk factors with COPD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was developed to assess predictability. Results: The prevalence of COPD was 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.5, 11.9%. Tobacco smoking was the strongest risk factor associated (aOR 9.48; 95% CI 4.22, 14.13 followed by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, occupational exposure, age, and biomass fuel. Each pack-year of smoking increased 15% risk of COPD. Ex-smokers had 63% lesser risk compared to current smokers. Clinical allergy seems to preclude COPD (aOR 0.06; 95% CI 0.02, 0.37. ROC analysis showed 94.38% of the COPD variability can be assessed by this model (sensitivity 57.4%; positive predictive value 93.3%. Only 48% patients were on treatment. Treatment continuation was impeded by its cost. Conclusion: COPD prevalence in the region of Delhi, India, is high, and our case-finding population study identified a high rate of patients who were not on any treatment. Our study adds to creating awareness on the importance of smoking cessation, early diagnosis of COPD, and the need for regular treatment.

  6. Towards non-conventional methods of designing register-based epidemiological studies: An application to pediatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tong; Brew, Bronwyn; Sjölander, Arvid; Almqvist, Catarina

    2017-07-01

    Various epidemiological designs have been applied to investigate the causes and consequences of fetal growth restriction in register-based observational studies. This review seeks to provide an overview of several conventional designs, including cohort, case-control and more recently applied non-conventional designs such as family-based designs. We also discuss some practical points regarding the application and interpretation of family-based designs. Definitions of each design, the study population, the exposure and the outcome measures are briefly summarised. Examples of study designs are taken from the field of low birth-weight research for illustrative purposes. Also examined are relative advantages and disadvantages of each design in terms of assumptions, potential selection and information bias, confounding and generalisability. Kinship data linkage, statistical models and result interpretation are discussed specific to family-based designs. When all information is retrieved from registers, there is no evident preference of the case-control design over the cohort design to estimate odds ratios. All conventional designs included in the review are prone to bias, particularly due to residual confounding. Family-based designs are able to reduce such bias and strengthen causal inference. In the field of low birth-weight research, family-based designs have been able to confirm a negative association not confounded by genetic or shared environmental factors between low birth weight and the risk of asthma. We conclude that there is a broader need for family-based design in observational research as evidenced by the meaningful contributions to the understanding of the potential causal association between low birth weight and subsequent outcomes.

  7. The epidemiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders in Mexico: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Colombo, Aurelio; Morgan, Douglas; Bravo-González, Dalia; Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro; Méndez-Martínez, Socorro; Schmulson, Max

    2012-01-01

    Aims. The frequency of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in the general population of Mexico is unknown. Methods. To determine the prevalence of FGIDs, associated depression, and health care utilization, a population-based sampling strategy was used to select 500 households in the State of Tlaxcala, in central Mexico. Household interviews were conducted by two trained physicians using the Rome II Modular Questionnaire, a health-care and medication used questionnaire and the CES-D depression scale. Results. The most common FGIDs were IBS: 16.0% (95% CI: 12.9-19.5); functional bloating: 10.8% (8.2-13.9); unspecified functional bowel disorder: 10.6% (8.0-13.6); and functional constipation (FC): 7.4% (5.3-10.1). Uninvestigated heartburn was common: 19.6% (16.2-23.4). All FGIDs were equally prevalent among both genders, except for IBS (P = 0.001), IBS-C (P < 0.001), IBS-A/M (P = 0.049), and FC (P = 0.039) which were more frequent in women. Subjects with FGIDs reported higher frequencies of medical visits: 34.6 versus 16.8%; use of medications: 40.7 versus 21.6%; (both P < 0.001); and reported depression: 26.7 versus 6.7%, (P < 0.001). Conclusion. In this first population-based study of FGIDs in Mexico, heartburn, IBS, functional distension, and FC were common. Only IBS, IBS-C, IBS-A/M, and FC were more frequent in women. Finally, FGIDs in Mexico had an increased burden of health care utilization and depression.

  8. The Epidemiology of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Mexico: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio López-Colombo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The frequency of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs in the general population of Mexico is unknown. Methods. To determine the prevalence of FGIDs, associated depression, and health care utilization, a population-based sampling strategy was used to select 500 households in the State of Tlaxcala, in central Mexico. Household interviews were conducted by two trained physicians using the Rome II Modular Questionnaire, a health-care and medication used questionnaire and the CES-D depression scale. Results. The most common FGIDs were IBS: 16.0% (95% CI: 12.9–19.5; functional bloating: 10.8% (8.2–13.9; unspecified functional bowel disorder: 10.6% (8.0–13.6; and functional constipation (FC: 7.4% (5.3–10.1. Uninvestigated heartburn was common: 19.6% (16.2–23.4. All FGIDs were equally prevalent among both genders, except for IBS (P=0.001, IBS-C (P<0.001, IBS-A/M (P=0.049, and FC (P=0.039 which were more frequent in women. Subjects with FGIDs reported higher frequencies of medical visits: 34.6 versus 16.8%; use of medications: 40.7 versus 21.6%; (both P<0.001; and reported depression: 26.7 versus 6.7%, (P<0.001. Conclusion. In this first population-based study of FGIDs in Mexico, heartburn, IBS, functional distension, and FC were common. Only IBS, IBS-C, IBS-A/M, and FC were more frequent in women. Finally, FGIDs in Mexico had an increased burden of health care utilization and depression.

  9. A community-based epidemiological study of peripheral neuropathies in Assiut, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Mahmoud R; Darwish, Esam S; Khedr, Eman M; Sabry, Mahmoud M; Abdulah, Mohamed A

    2012-12-01

    There is very little published information about the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of peripheral neuropathies. The current study is a community-based survey was conducted in the Assiut Governorate to estimate their prevalence and clinical profile. A door-to-door study was carried out on 42,223 persons from rural and urban communities in the Assiut Governorate, Egypt. There were 13,288 (31.5%) subjects from the urban and 28,935 (68·5%) from the rural area. All subjects filled in a questionnaire designed specifically for diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy. Positive cases were then given a complete medical and neurological examination, routine laboratory tests, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging (magnetic resonance). The crude prevalence rate (CPR) of peripheral neuropathy was 3181/100,000 inhabitants. There was a significantly higher prevalence in the rural compared with the urban population (3795 versus 1844/100,000) and in females than males (4473 versus 1943/100,000; Psyndrome (1686/100,000). Diabetic neuropathy was the most common non-compressive neuropathy with a CPR of 649/100,000. Type II diabetes was recorded in 241 patients with a CPR of 571/100,000. Compressive radiculopathy had a crude prevalence of 358/100,000; traumatic and iatrogenic radiculopathy had a prevalence rate of 149/100,000. Less common conditions were: uremic neuropathy (21/100,000) hepatic neuropathy (14/100,000), Bell's palsy (28/100,000), Guillian-Barre' syndrome (12/100,000), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (12/100,000), hereditary sensory motor neuropathy (12/100,000), and idiopathic neuropathy (92/100,000). The overall prevalence of peripheral neuropathies was high in comparison to other studies. Entrapment neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy, and spondylotic radiculopathy were the most common. Overall, the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy was higher in the rural than in the urban population.

  10. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorder in self reported irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. An epidemiological population based study of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykletun Arnstein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Methods Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077. Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Results Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4% was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60. Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12 followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.

  11. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorder in self reported irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). An epidemiological population based study of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykletun, Arnstein; Jacka, Felice; Williams, Lana; Pasco, Julie; Henry, Margaret; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Kotowicz, Mark A; Berk, Michael

    2010-08-05

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077). Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4%) was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60). Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12) followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.

  12. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALIGNANT TUMORS OF LARGE SALIVARY GLANDS (POPULATION-BASED STUDY

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    V. M. Merabishvili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant tumors of large salivary glands are a relatively rare malignancy. In 2014 as a whole in Russia 1236 cases of these diseases were registered. According to the latest data of the Interna- tional Agency for Research on Cancer (Volume X the most common standardized incidence rate in various countries ranges from 0.6-0.9 per 100,000 men and 0.4-0.6 per 100,000 women. aim of study. The aim of this study is to carry out for the first time in Russia an estimation of a complex of analytical rates including an evaluation of observed and relative survival rates to assess the effectiveness of cancer control related to patients with a diagnosis of malignant tumors of large salivary glands. material and methods. An estimation of a complex of analytical rates was conducted in accordance with database of the Population-based Cancer Registry of St. Petersburg. There were selected 896 patients with a diagnosis of malignant tumors of large salivary glands from 1994 to 2013. Results. It was found that the most frequent value of the standardized incidence rates of malignant tumors of large salivary glands in different countries of the world community for the male population was 0.6-0.9 per 100,000 population and 0.4-0.6 for the female. These values were 0000 equal to 0.7 and 0.4 0/ in Russia (2014, and 0.6 and 0.5 0/ in St. Petersburg (2014. The vast majority 0000 of recorded cases of malignant tumors of large salivary glands were for S07.9 - of malignant tumors of large salivary glands undefined. 46.6 % of primary patients had early stages (I + II. A relative 5-year survival rate was 61.9 % for men and 69.9 % for women, which was slightly less than the European average (Eurocare. Conclusion. This study for the first time in Russia allowed estimating series of analytical rates character- izing the effectiveness of cancer control related to patients with malignant tumors of large salivary glands in St. Petersburg including estimations of a 5

  13. Epidemiology of infertility in China: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z; Zheng, D; Wu, H; Li, R; Xu, S; Kang, Y; Cao, Y; Chen, X; Zhu, Y; Xu, S; Chen, Z-J; Mol, B W; Qiao, J

    2018-03-01

    To assess the current prevalence of and risk factors for infertility among couples of reproductive age in China. Population-based cross-sectional study. We approached 25 270 couples in eight provinces/municipalities, of whom 18 571 (response rate 74%) were interviewed. Couples living together and married for more than 1 year, of whom the female spouse was 20-49 years old. Women were approached via telephone and face-to-face conversation to complete the standardised and structured questionnaire by trained interviewers. Prevalence of and risk factors for infertility. Among women 'at risk' of pregnancy, the prevalence of infertility was 15.5% (2680/17 275). Among 10 742 women attempting to become pregnant, the prevalence of infertility was 25.0% (2680/10 742), which increased with age in the second population. Among women who failed to achieve pregnancy in the last 12 months, 3470 finished our questionnaire about fertility care, and 55.2% (1915/3470) of them had sought medical help. Sociodemographic risk factors for infertility included lower educational level [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.4, 95% CI 2.0-5.5] and employment (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.9-2.9). Clinical risk factors were irregular menstrual cycle (aOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.5), light menstrual blood volume (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.0), history of cervicitis (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0) and endometriosis (aOR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-9.3), previous stillbirth (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.3) and miscarriage (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 2.1-3.5). In addition, history of operation was a significant risk factor of infertility. Among couples of reproductive age in China, the prevalence of infertility was 25%, and almost half of the couples experiencing infertility had not sought medical help. In China, 25% of couples actively attempting to become pregnant suffered infertility. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Epidemiological patterns of leukaemia in 184 countries: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Filho, Adalberto; Piñeros, Marion; Ferlay, Jacques; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Monnereau, Alain; Bray, Freddie

    2018-01-01

    Leukaemia is a heterogeneous group of haemopoietic cancers that comprises a number of diverse and biologically distinct subgroups. We examine the leukaemia burden worldwide and highlight the distinct incidence patterns in order to elucidate explanatory factors that may support preventive measures and health resource planning. We aimed to estimate the global burden of leukaemia incidence according to the four major subtypes stratified by age and sex. In this population-based study, we assessed leukaemia incidence for the major subtypes using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Volume X (CI5-X), which includes data from 290 cancer registries in 68 countries covering the diagnostic period 2003-07, for all ages and both sexes. We then extracted counts and incidence rates in 184 countries for the year 2012 from IARC's GLOBOCAN database of national estimates. We calculated age-specific incidence rates per 100 000 person-years and age-standardised rates (ASRs) using the world standard population by country, sex, age group, and where applicable, by major subtypes. We excluded from all analyses registries for which the total number of leukaemia cases was less than 100 or the proportion of microscopically verified (MV%) cases was less than 80% (2572 cases). 717 863 cases between 2003-07 were included in this analysis. More than 350 000 new leukaemia cases were estimated in 2012. We observed substantial variation in incidence between and within world regions. The highest leukaemia incidence rates for both sexes were estimated in Australia and New Zealand (ASR per 100 000 11·3 in males and 7·2 in females), Northern America (10·5 in males and 7·2 in females), and western Europe (9·6 in males and 6·0 in females), and the lowest was in in western Africa (1·4 in males and 1·2 in females). Rates were generally higher in males than females with an overall male to female ratio of 1·4. In children, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was the main subtype in all studied

  15. Epidemiological studies in mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    hypothesis' it was reduced to being an innocent disorder in the 1980s but is now again recognized as a potential risk factor for an accelerated loss of lung function. Whereas early studies in mainly occupational cohorts showed no effect of chronic mucus hypersecretion on decline in lung function...... with the presence of mucus. In asthma recent findings suggest that in epidemiology chronic mucus hypersecretion may indicate lack of control which leads to an accelerated loss of lung function and increased mortality in subjects with self-reported asthma....

  16. Reconstructing Historical VOC Concentrations in Drinking Water for Epidemiological Studies at a U.S. Military Base: Summary of Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris L. Maslia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A U.S. government health agency conducted epidemiological studies to evaluate whether exposures to drinking water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOC at U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, were associated with increased health risks to children and adults. These health studies required knowledge of contaminant concentrations in drinking water—at monthly intervals—delivered to family housing, barracks, and other facilities within the study area. Because concentration data were limited or unavailable during much of the period of contamination (1950s–1985, the historical reconstruction process was used to quantify estimates of monthly mean contaminant-specific concentrations. This paper integrates many efforts, reports, and papers into a synthesis of the overall approach to, and results from, a drinking-water historical reconstruction study. Results show that at the Tarawa Terrace water treatment plant (WTP reconstructed (simulated tetrachloroethylene (PCE concentrations reached a maximum monthly average value of 183 micrograms per liter (μg/L compared to a one-time maximum measured value of 215 μg/L and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s current maximum contaminant level (MCL of 5 μg/L during the period November 1957–February 1987. At the Hadnot Point WTP, reconstructed trichloroethylene (TCE concentrations reached a maximum monthly average value of 783 μg/L compared to a one-time maximum measured value of 1400 μg/L during the period August 1953–December 1984. The Hadnot Point WTP also provided contaminated drinking water to the Holcomb Boulevard housing area continuously prior to June 1972, when the Holcomb Boulevard WTP came on line (maximum reconstructed TCE concentration of 32 μg/L and intermittently during the period June 1972–February 1985 (maximum reconstructed TCE concentration of 66 μg/L. Applying the historical reconstruction process to quantify contaminant

  17. A Population-Based Epidemiologic Study of Female Sexual Dysfunction Risk in Mainland China: Prevalence and Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunni; Tong, Jiali; Zhu, Lan; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Tao; Lang, Jinghe; Xie, Yu

    2017-11-01

    the first large-scale, nationally based epidemiologic study of female sexual dysfunction in mainland China. The limitations of the study design included an overpowered study caused by the large sample, the under-representation of younger and unmarried women, and no information on the women's partners, their values and knowledge, and detailed medical conditions. The prevalence rate of female sexual dysfunction in mainland China was modest overall, although variations existed across regions and social groups. Zhang C, Tong J, Zhu L, et al. A Population-Based Epidemiologic Study of Female Sexual Dysfunction Risk in Mainland China: Prevalence and Predictors. J Sex Med 2017;14:1348-1356. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Frequent Users of Pornography. A Population Based Epidemiological Study of Swedish Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedin, Carl Goran; Akerman, Ingrid; Priebe, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    Frequent use of pornography has not been sufficiently studied before. In a Swedish survey 2015 male students aged 18 years participated. A group of frequent users of pornography (N = 200, 10.5%) were studied with respect to background and psychosocial correlates. The frequent users had a more positive attitude to pornography, were more often…

  19. [Surgical Treated Spondylodiscitis Epidemiological Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares do Brito, Joaquim; Tirado, António; Fernandes, Pedro

    2016-05-01

    The term spondylodiscitis aims to describe any spinal infection. Medical treatment is the gold standard; nevertheless, surgical treatment can be indicated. The aim of this work was to study the epidemiological profile in a group of patients with spondylodiscitis surgically treated in the same medical institution between 1997 and 2013. Eighty five patients with spondylodiscitis were surgically treated in this period. The authors analysed clinical data and image studies for each patient. We treated 51 male and 34 female patients with an average age of 48 years old (min: 6 - max: 80). The lumbar spine was more often affected and Mycobacterium tuberculosis the most frequent pathogen. The number of cases through the years has been grossly stable, with a slight increase of dyscitis due to Staphylococcus aureus and decrease of the dyscitis without pathogen identification. Paravertebral abscess was identified in 39 patients and 17 had also neurological impairment, mostly located in the thoracic spine and with tuberculous aetheology. Immunosuppression was documented in 10 patients. In this epidemiologic study we found a tuberculous infection, male gender and young age predominance. Despite a relative constant number of patients operated over the years, pyogenic infections due to Staphylococcus aureus seems to be uprising. Paravertebral abscess and neurological impairment are important dyscitis complications, especially in tuberculous cases. Spinal infections requiring surgical treatment are still an important clinical condition. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus represent the main pathogens with a growing incidence for the latest.

  20. Genetic, epidemiological, and clinical aspects of hereditary pancreatitis: a population-based cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brusgaard, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In a population-based, well-defined group of patients first regarded as having pancreatitis of unknown origin (PUO), we identified, described, and compared the clinical and genetic aspects of patients with hereditary pancreatitis (HP) and with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance...... regulator gene (CFTR) and serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 gene (SPINK1) mutations with patients who retained the diagnosis of true idiopathic pancreatitis (tIP) after genetic testing for HP, SPINK1, and CFTR mutations. METHODS: Patients with PUO were identified in the Danish National Registry...... of Patients or were referred by clinicians. DNA from blood was analyzed for cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1), SPINK1, and CFTR mutations. Considering the diagnosis of HP, a pedigree was drawn for each patient. RESULTS: A genetic mutation was found in 40% of 122 patients with PUO. After testing first...

  1. The metabolic syndrome: a critical appraisal based on the CUORE epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaoli, Simona; Stamler, Jeremiah; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Panico, Salvatore; Vanuzzo, Diego; Cesana, Giancarlo; Mancia, Giuseppe; Pilotto, Lorenza; Mattiello, Amalia; Chiodini, Paolo; Palmieri, Luigi

    2009-06-01

    Multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain problematic. Here we assess the association between epidemic obesity and the other MetS traits, and MetS utility for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment. Italian population-based Progetto CUORE data were used: 17 252 women and men ages 35-69 years, baseline 1984-1993, mean follow-up of 10 years, for nonfatal plus fatal CVD events. NCEP-ATP III criteria defined MetS. Epidemic obesity was strongly related to epidemic rates of the four other MetS traits. Only four of 16 possible MetS trait combinations were common; their CVD hazard ratios ranged from 1.21 to 1.70. In multivariate analyses MetS was no better than the sum of its parts in predicting CVD, important information was lost due to omission of non-HDL-C and smoking, and from considering MetS traits as yes/no variables. CVD risk prediction by MetS was less strong for men and no stronger for women than by classical risk factors (blood pressure, diabetes, serum cholesterol, smoking, overweight/obesity). These findings are concordant with the inference that epidemic obesity importantly influences epidemic occurrence of the other MetS traits; they also indicate that use of MetS for CVD risk assessment has limitations and needs critical reconsideration.

  2. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile: a hospital-based descriptive study in Argentina and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Lopardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was conducted in four tertiary hospitals in Argentina and Mexico in order to describe the occurrence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI in these settings. The objective was to evaluate the incidence of CDI in at-risk populations in Argentina (one center and Mexico (three centers and to further explore potential study sites for vaccine development in this region. A prospective, descriptive, CDI surveillance study was conducted among hospitalized patients aged ≥40 years who had received ≥48 h of antibiotic treatment. Stool samples were collected from those with diarrhea within 30 days after starting antibiotics and analyzed for toxins A and B by ELISA, and positive samples were further tested by toxinogenic culture and restriction endonuclease analysis type assay. Overall, 466 patients were enrolled (193 in Argentina and 273 in Mexico of whom 414 completed the follow-up. Of these, 15/414 (3.6% experienced CDI episodes occurring on average 18.1 days after admission to hospital and 15.9 days after the end of antibiotics treatment. The incidence rate of CDI was 3.1 (95% CI 1.7–5.2 per 1000 patient-days during hospitalization, and 1.1 (95% CI 0.6–1.8 per 1000 patient-days during the 30-day follow-up period. This study highlighted the need for further evaluation of the burden of CDI in both countries, including the cases occurring after discharge from hospital.

  3. Temporal Variation in Air Pollution Concentrations and Preterm Birth—A Population Based Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertil Forsberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence of adverse birth outcomes due to exposure to air pollution during gestation. However, recent negative studies are also reported. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ozone and vehicle exhaust exposure (NO2 on the length of the gestational period and risk of preterm delivery. We used data from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry on all vaginally delivered singleton births in the Greater Stockholm area who were conceived during 1987–1995 (n = 115,588. Daily average levels of NO2 (from three measuring stations and ozone (two stations were used to estimate trimester and last week of gestation average exposures. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the two air pollutants and three exposure windows, while logistic regression models were used when analyzing associations with preterm delivery ( < 37 weeks gestation. Five percent were born preterm. The median gestational period was 40 weeks. Higher levels of ozone during the first trimester were associated with shorter gestation as well as with an elevated risk of preterm delivery, the odds ratio from the most complex model was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.00–1.13 per 10 μg/m3 increase in the mean daily 8-h maximum concentration. Higher levels of ozone during the second trimester were associated with shorter gestation but the elevated risk of preterm delivery was not statistically significant. Higher levels of ozone and NO2 during the last week of gestation were associated with a shorter duration of gestation and NO2 also with preterm delivery. There were no significant associations between first and second trimester NO2 exposure estimates and studied outcomes. The effect of first trimester ozone exposure, known to cause oxidative stress, was smallest among women who conceived during autumn when vitamin D status, important for fetal health, in Scandinavian women is the highest.

  4. Age assessment based on third molar mineralisation : An epidemiological-radiological study on a Central-European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Elisabeth; Robold, Matthias; Proff, Peter; Kirschneck, Christian

    2017-03-01

    The method published in 1973 by Demirjian et al. to assess age based on the mineralisation stage of permanent teeth is standard practice in forensic and orthodontic diagnostics. From age 14 onwards, however, this method is only applicable to third molars. No current epidemiological data on third molar mineralisation are available for Caucasian Central-Europeans. Thus, a method for assessing age in this population based on third molar mineralisation is presented, taking into account possible topographic and gender-specific differences. The study included 486 Caucasian Central-European orthodontic patients (9-24 years) with unaffected dental development. In an anonymized, randomized, and blinded manner, one orthopantomogram of each patient at either start, mid or end of treatment was visually analysed regarding the mineralisation stage of the third molars according to the method by Demirjian et al. Corresponding topographic and gender-specific point scores were determined and added to form a dental maturity score. Prediction equations for age assessment were derived by linear regression analysis with chronological age and checked for reliability within the study population. Mineralisation of the lower third molars was slower than mineralisation of the upper third molars, whereas no jaw-side-specific differences were detected. Gender-specific differences were relatively small, but girls reached mineralisation stage C earlier than boys, whereas boys showed an accelerated mineralisation between the ages of 15 and 16. The global equation generated by regression analysis (age = -1.103 + 0.268 × dental maturity score 18 + 28 + 38 + 48) is sufficiently accurate and reliable for clinical use. Age assessment only based on either maxilla or mandible also shows good prognostic reliability.

  5. A population-based study of tuberculosis epidemiology and innovative service delivery in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M; Lau, A; Langlois-Klassen, D; Boffa, J; Manfreda, J; Long, R

    2012-01-01

    To compare and interpret tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in a Canadian population across two decennials (1989-1998 and 1999-2008) as a benchmark for World Health Organization targets and the long-term goal of TB elimination. The population under study was served by two urban clinics in the first decennial and two urban and one provincial clinic in the second. TB rates among Status Indians, Canadian-born 'others' and the foreign-born were estimated using provincial and national databases. Program performance was measured in on-reserve Status Indians in each decennial. In each decennial, the incidence rate in Status Indians and the foreign-born was greater than that in the Canadian-born 'others'; respectively 27.7 and 33.0 times in Status Indians, and 8.0 and 20.9 times in the foreign-born. Between decennials, the rate fell by 56% in Status Indians, 58% in Canadian-born 'others', and 18% in the foreign-born. On-reserve Status Indians had higher rates than off-reserve Status Indians, and the three-clinic model out-performed the two-clinic model among those on-reserve. Rates in the foreign-born varied by World Bank region, and were highest among those from Africa and Asia. Status Indians and the foreign-born are at increased risk of TB in Canada. Significant progress towards TB elimination has been made in Status Indians but not in the foreign-born.

  6. Epidemiological study around La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The North Cotentin is in France, the area where have been led until now, the biggest number of epidemiology studies on the effects of ionizing radiations on man, in order to assess the leukemia incidences and other cancer pathologies around nuclear facilities. The North Cotentin concentrates four nuclear installations.The objective of this file is to take stock of the situation in this field. In 1995 and 1998 have been published two sections of an epidemiology study about the incidence of leukemia in North Cotentin (J.F. Viel study for the period 1978-1992, Spira study for 1993-1997). The study of the Professor Spira does not bring to the fore a significant excess of leukemia for the period 1978-1997. The report of the professor Spira advocates several complementary epidemiology studies to precise or complete the data and lighten the causes of leukemia in North Cotentin. The studies of J.F.Viel shows that it does not exist a significant excess of cases in the studied area (25 cases for 22.8 expected cases, so a non significant difference) but notices an aggregate at the limit to be significant in the Beaumont-Hague canton (4 cases for 1.4 expected cases). J.F.Viel puts forward a relationship between the risk increase (of leukemia incidence) and some individual characteristics linked to the way of life of the studied persons: the North Cotentin beaches frequenting by the mothers or the children at least one time by month, the consumption of fish or shellfish having a local origin at least one time by week. This study suggests that it is the radioactivity, on the beaches on in fishes and shellfish that would be at the origin of the additional noticed leukemia. The authorities asked at the beginning of 1997, a scientific commission directed by the Professor Souleau to propose a new epidemiology study on the leukemia risk around La Hague. The report concludes that the leukemia incidence in the North Cotentin is in accordance with the expected incidence (25 observed

  7. A Dish-based Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for assessment of dietary intakes in epidemiologic studies in Iran: Design and development

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli; Ahmad Esmaillzadeh; Somayeh Rajaie; Gholamreza Askari; Christine Feinle-Bisset; Peyman Adibi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Earlier forms of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in Iran have extensive lists of foods, traditional categories and food-based design, mostly with the interviewer-administered approach. The aim of the current paper is to describe the development of a dish-based, machine-readable, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (DFQ). Methods: Within the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health and Nutrition project, we created a nove...

  8. Epidemiology of traffic injuries and motor vehicles utilization in the Capital of Iran: A population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soori Hamid

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries are a serious public health problem worldwide. The incidence rate of fatal road traffic injuries is 26.4 per 100000 in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem in Iran. Different routine sources are available for road traffic injuries in Iran, but they present several limitations. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of road traffic injuries in greater Tehran, using a population-based approach which is less prone to under-estimation compared to service-based data. Methods In the year 2008, 2488 households were randomly selected for a face to face interview. Trained interviewers referred to the selected households to collect the subjects' demographic information, as well as their motor vehicle utilization and traffic injuries during the year prior to data collection. All interviews were recorded using a digital voice recorder and reviewed by a quality control team the day after the interview. The Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to analyze continuous variables. Chi-square test -including a test for trend for ordinal data- was used to analyze categorical variables. Ninety-five percent confidence interval was calculated for point estimates of incidences using Poisson or binomial distribution assumptions accordingly. Results There were 119 traffic injury cases including 3 deaths (33 per 100 000 in the survey sample (n = 9100. The annual incidence of all traffic injuries for 1000 population was 13.1 (95% CI: 10.8 - 15.6, and that of fatal traffic injuries was 33.0 per 100 000 population (95% CI: 6.80 - 96.32. The annual incidence of collision traffic injury for 1000 motorcycles was 95. Conclusion This population-based study demonstrates that the morbidity rate of RTIs is about ten times higher than the national figures reported by other available sources; and this can serve as an important warning to countries like Iran to prioritize this issue in

  9. Headache, migraine, and structural brain lesions and function: population based Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing-MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurth, T.; Mohamed, S.; Zhu, Y.C.; Dufouil, C.; Tzourio, Ch.; Kurth, T.; Zhu, Y.C.; Dufouil, C.; Tzourio, Ch.; Kurth, T.; Maillard, P.; Mazoyer, B.; Zhu, Y.C.; Chabriat, H.; Bousser, M.G.; Tzourio, Ch.; Zhu, Y.C.; Chabriat, H.; Bousser, M.G.; Mazoyer, B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association of overall and specific headaches with volume of white matter hyper-intensities, brain infarcts, and cognition. Design: Population based, cross sectional study. Setting: Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing study, Nantes, France. Participants: 780 participants (mean age 69, 58.5% women) with detailed headache assessment. Main outcome measures: Brain scans were evaluated for volume of white matter hyper-intensities (by fully automated imaging processing) and for classification of infarcts (by visual reading with a standardised assessment grid). Cognitive function was assessed by a battery of tests including the mini-mental state examination. Results: 163 (20.9%) participants reported a history of severe headache and 116 had migraine, of whom 17 (14.7%) reported aura symptoms. An association was found between any history of severe headache and increasing volume of white matter hyper-intensities. The adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest third for total volume of white matter hyper-intensities was 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 3.1, P for trend 0.002) for participants with any history of severe headache when compared with participants without severe headache being in the lowest third. The association pattern was similar for all headache types. Migraine with aura was the only headache type strongly associated with volume of deep white matter hyper-intensities (highest third odds ratio 12.4, 1.6 to 99.4, P for trend 0.005) and with brain infarcts (3.4, 1.2 to 9.3). The location of infarcts was predominantly outside the cerebellum and brain stem. Evidence was lacking for cognitive impairment for any headache type with or without brain lesions. Conclusions: In this population based study, any history of severe headache was associated with an increased volume of white matter hyper-intensities. Migraine with aura was the only headache type associated with brain infarcts. Evidence that headache of any type by itself or in

  10. Internal dosimetry for epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groer, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    In traditional epidemiologic analyses, a single valued summary index, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR), is quite popular. The SMR is simply the ratio of the number of deaths observed in the study population to the number of deaths expected if the study population were subject to the age-specific rates of a standard population. SMRs for all causes or specific causes can be calculated. For such a simple analysis an exposed cohort is often characterized by an average organ or whole body dose or dose interval, and the necessary dose estimation effort is relatively minor. Modern statistical methods focus on the estimation of the cause-specific mortality rate λ for study populations exposed to ionizing radiations or toxic chemicals. The dependence of λ on factors other than demographic characteristics, such as race and sex, is usually described through a parametric model. Such factors, often called covariates or covariables, are incorporated in the mathematical expression for the hazard rate. The external gamma dose or the internal lung dose from inhaled uranium are good examples for covariates. This type of analysis permits the use of individual doses and gives a detailed and quantitative description of the mortality rate as a function of the covariables, but at the cost of a major dosimetric effort. The generation of the necessary dose information and also the calculational efforts become especially taxing for time-dependent covariates such as an internal, cumulative organ dose. 4 refs

  11. Snowboard traumatology: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigozzi, F; Santori, N; Di Salvo, V; Parisi, A; Di-Luigi, L

    1997-06-01

    In the past 10 years, snowboarding has become a popular winter sport among young people, and the number of accidents has increased proportionately. The incidence of traumas from snowboarding is shown to be 4 to 6 for every 1000 medical examinations, which is similar to that of downhill skiing. However, other important statistical differences exist between the two sports. This study of 106 snowboarding-related injury cases analyzes the epidemiology of these injuries in Italy. Results found that 45.1% of injuries are located in the upper limbs and that significant advantages are obtained with the introduction of guards to protect the upper limbs during descent. Serious ligament injuries to the knee are more rare in snowboarding than in downhill skiing. In both sports, injuries are more common with rigid boots, which lead to a higher incidence of injury to the upper limbs. Finally, a high percentage of injury to beginners was found in this study. Training courses for those who are considering taking up the sport of snowboarding could significantly lower their risk of trauma.

  12. Evaluation and validity of a polymerase chain reaction-based open reading frame typing method to dissect the molecular epidemiology for Acinetobacter baumannii in an epidemiologic study of a hospital outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Yuji; Yuki, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Takaaki; Ichimura, Sadahiro; Kawana, Akihiko; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2016-11-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is regarded as one of the most important pathogens in hospital outbreaks. To obtain an efficient and simple epidemiologic method of surveillance during outbreaks, we assessed the applicability of the polymerase chain reaction-based open reading frames typing (POT) method and compared it with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The POT method was found to have sufficient discriminatory power to identify the strains and would be widely applicable to epidemiologic surveillance during hospital outbreaks. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Automated High-Throughput Genotyping for Study of Global Epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Based on Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supply, Philip; Lesjean, Sarah; Savine, Evgueni; Kremer, Kristin; van Soolingen, Dick; Locht, Camille

    2001-01-01

    Large-scale genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is especially challenging, as the current typing methods are labor-intensive and the results are difficult to compare among laboratories. Here, automated typing based on variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) of genetic elements named mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs) in 12 mammalian minisatellite-like loci of M. tuberculosis is presented. This system combines analysis of multiplex PCRs on a fluorescence-based DNA analyzer with computerized automation of the genotyping. Analysis of a blinded reference set of 90 strains from 38 countries (K. Kremer et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:2607–2618, 1999) demonstrated that it is 100% reproducible, sensitive, and specific for M. tuberculosis complex isolates, a performance that has not been achieved by any other typing method tested in the same conditions. MIRU-VNTRs can be used for analysis of the global genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis complex strains at different levels of evolutionary divergence. To fully exploit the portability of this typing system, a website was set up for the analysis of M. tuberculosis MIRU-VNTR genotypes via the Internet. This opens the way for global epidemiological surveillance of tuberculosis and should lead to novel insights into the evolutionary and population genetics of this major pathogen. PMID:11574573

  14. Issues in epidemiological studies of radiofrequency workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, B.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews some of the issues in a proposed epidemiological study of radiofrequency workers. First a few other epidemiological studies are discussed to illustrate some of the common problems such as inadequate definition of effects and/or exposure. Then technical problems in determining dosage and responses as well as study design are reviewed, and finally the administrative aspects of ethics, industrial relations and costs are considered

  15. BioBank Japan project: Epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Highlights ? For precision medicine, genetic, clinical and environmental information is crucial. ? Biobank Japan project constructed a clinical database of 200,000 patients. ? This supplement reported the epidemiological studies in the Biobank Japan.

  16. Epidemiological Study of Heart Failure in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a complex clinical syndrome that results from any structural or functional impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood. HF is one of the most important and severe end stages of many cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies of HF have focused mainly on the prevalence, incidence, mortality, fatality, and distribution and temporal trends of these indicators among different populations. This review highlights important epidemiological studies of HF in China.

  17. Epidemiological studies on radiation workers in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo Yong Choi; Hai Won Chung

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objectives: The aim of this study is to analyze the occupational exposure for external radiation and to evaluate radiation effects on Korean radiation workers. Methods: The National Dose Registry contains radiation exposure records for all monitored radiation workers since its creation in 1983. We are carrying out epidemiological survey for radiation workers. The items of information included personal identification, employment and dose data. The frequencies of various types of chromosome aberrations in radiation workers were compared with controls. The data were analyzed according to year, sex, age, duration of occupation, exposure dose, etc. using SPSS statistical package(version 15.0). The goodness-of-fit test for Poisson assumption and dispersion test for detecting heterogeneity for Poisson distribution were done with chromosomal aberrations among study subjects. Results: The total number of workers registered from 1983 to 2005 was 61,610. The number of workers steadily increased and the accumulated dose somewhat increased. The collective annual dose of radiation workers was 345.823 man Sv and the mean annual dose was 1.34mSv. The frequencies of chromosome aberrations in 102 workers were compared with those in 42 controls. The frequencies of all types of chromosome aberrations in the exposed subjects were higher than those in the control group. Poisson regression analysis showed that there was significant association of chromosome aberrations with radiation dose, duration of work, age and alcohol intake. We started to survey radiation workers in order to evaluate radiation effects, collected epidemiological data for 9,157 workers at present and analyzed their lifetime radiation exposure doses. Follow-up is carrying out using the Korean Mortality Data, Cancer Registry and individual investigation. Among study patients, 11 of 38 deaths were identified with cancer. Conclusions: The data on occupational doses shows that

  18. [HIV and syphilis coinfection in pregnancy and vertical HIV transmission: a study based on epidemiological surveillance data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Lisiane M W; Gonçalves, Tonantzin Ribeiro; Barcellos, Nêmora Tregnago

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the rate of HIV and syphilis coinfection among pregnant women living in Porto Alegre, Brazil, as well as the association of coinfection with vertical HIV transmission and socioeconomic variables. This analytical retrospective cross-sectional study employed data from the regular epidemiological surveillance system for the period from 2010 to 2013. Data were obtained regarding pregnant women with HIV and exposed children, syphilis in pregnancy, and congenital syphilis. The study population included 1 500 HIV-positive women with deliveries from 2010 to 2013. Of these, 155 (10.3%) were also infected with syphilis, corresponding to an HIV and syphilis coinfection rate of 10.2% (± 1.5%). The coinfected group had lower education levels, higher prevalence of black women, and greater HIV exposure related to drug use by the woman or a partner. Coinfected women had more delayed HIV diagnosis (for example, during childbirth) and greater prevalence of lacking prenatal care (44%). Crude analysis showed an association between vertical HIV transmission and HIV and syphilis co-infection (PR = 2.1; 95%CI: 1.21-3.74; P = 0.01) that persisted in the adjusted analysis. A profile of increased vulnerability was identified among pregnant women with HIV and syphilis coinfection. A positive impact of the treatment to reduce congenital syphilis and eliminate vertical transmission of HIV depends on enhanced access to qualified health care.

  19. Epidemiology of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) in Northern Italy: a 15-year population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanoso, Mariagrazia; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Boiardi, Luigi; Manenti, Lucio; Tumiati, Bruno; Cavazza, Alberto; Luberto, Ferdinando; Pipitone, Nicolò; Salvarani, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) over a 15-year period in a defined area of northern Italy. All patients with incident GPA diagnosed from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2009 living in the Reggio Emilia area were identified by looking at computerized hospital discharge diagnoses, by contacting Reggio Emilia Hospital physicians and community-based specialists, and by checking the databases of the pathology and the laboratory departments and the Reggio Emilia district database for rare diseases. Patients were classified according to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) algorithm. Patients were followed up from the time of diagnosis until either their death or December 31, 2011. For each case, we identified 20 control subjects from the same geographic area matched for age and gender. A total of 18 patients (7 men and 11 women) with GPA were identified. The overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate (IR) was 2.4 per million (95% CI: 1.2-3.5). The mean annual IR increased from 1.7/million/year during 1995-1999 to 3.4 during 2005-2009. The highest IR occurred in females aged 70-79 years (13.5 per million; 95% CI: 5.0-30.0) and in males aged ≥ 80 years (14.9 per million; 95% CI: 2.5-49.4). The prevalence of GPA on December 31, 2009 was 34.3 per million (95% CI: 20.3-54.2). The point prevalence per million increased from 17.8 (95% CI: 7.7-35.1) in 1999 to 34.3 (95% CI: 20.3-54.2) in 2009. Survival among individuals with GPA was significantly reduced compared to that observed in the matched control population (p < 0.001). In the Italian population, GPA is very uncommon and GPA patients have reduced survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The descriptive epidemiology of delirium symptoms in a large population-based cohort study: results from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H J; Barnes, Linda E; Stephan, Blossom C M; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Meagher, David; Copeland, John; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol

    2014-07-28

    In the general population, the epidemiological relationships between delirium and adverse outcomes are not well defined. The aims of this study were to: (1) construct an algorithm for the diagnosis of delirium using the Geriatric Mental State (GMS) examination; (2) test the criterion validity of this algorithm against mortality and dementia risk; (3) report the age-specific prevalence of delirium as determined by this algorithm. Participant and informant data in a randomly weighted subsample of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study were taken from a standardized assessment battery. The algorithmic definition of delirium was based on the DSM-IV classification. Outcomes were: proportional hazard ratios for death; odds ratios of dementia at 2-year follow-up. Data from 2197 persons (representative of 13,004) were used, median age 77 years, 64% women. Study-defined delirium was associated with a new dementia diagnosis at two years (OR 8.82, 95% CI 2.76 to 28.2) and death (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.60), even after adjustment for acute illness severity. Similar associations were seen for study-defined subsyndromal delirium. Age-specific prevalence as determined by the algorithm increased with age from 1.8% in the 65-69 year age group to 10.1% in the ≥85 age group (p delirium, age-specific period prevalence ranged from 8.2% (65-69 years) to 36.1% (≥85 years). These results demonstrate the possibility of constructing an algorithmic diagnosis for study-defined delirium using data from the GMS schedule, with predictive criterion validity for mortality and dementia risk. These are the first population-based analyses able to account prospectively for both illness severity and an earlier study diagnosis of dementia.

  1. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorder in self reported irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). An epidemiological population based study of women

    OpenAIRE

    Mykletun, Arnstein; Jacka, Felice; Williams, Lana; Pasco, Julie; Henry, Margaret; Nicholson, Geoffrey C.; Kotowicz, Mark A.; Berk, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is h...

  2. Invasive mucormycosis in children: an epidemiologic study in European and non-European countries based on two registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Dorothea Pana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucormycosis has emerged as a rare but frequently fatal invasive fungal disease. Current knowledge on paediatric mucormycosis is based on case reports and small series reported over several decades. Contemporary data on a large cohort of patients is lacking. Methods Two large international registries (Zygomyco.net and FungiScope™ were searched for mucormycosis cases in ≤19 year-old patients. Cases enrolled between 2005 and 2014 were extracted, and dual entries in the two databases merged. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnostic procedures, therapeutic management and final outcome were recorded and analysed with SPSS v.12. Results Sixty-three unique cases (44 proven and 19 probable were enrolled from 15 countries (54 in European and 9 in non-European countries. Median age was 13 years [Interquartile Range (IQR 7.7] with a slight predominance (54.1 % of females. Underlying conditions were haematological malignancies (46 %, other malignancies (6.3 %, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (15.9 %, solid organ transplantation, trauma/surgery and diabetes mellitus (4.8 % each and a variety of other diseases (7.9 %; in 9.5%, no underlying medical condition was found. Neutropenia was recorded in 46 % of the patients. The main sites of infection were lungs (19 %, skin and soft tissues (19 %, paranasal sinus/sino-orbital region (15.8 % and rhino-cerebral region (7.9 %. Disseminated infection was present in 38.1 %. Mucormycosis diagnosis was based on several combinations of methods; culture combined with histology was performed in 31 cases (49.2 %. Fungal isolates included Rhizopus spp. (39.7 %, Lichtheimia spp. (17.5 %, Mucor spp. (12.7 %, Cunninghamella bertholletiae (6.3 % and unspecified (23.8 %. Treatment comprised amphotericin B (AmB monotherapy in 31.7 % or AmB in combination with other antifungals in 47.7 % of the cases, while 14.3 % received no antifungals. Surgery alone was performed in 6.3 %, and combined

  3. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. I. Prevalence at birth based on multiple sources of case ascertainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA); Sanders, M.; Monsen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the neural tube defects (NTDs), anencephalus and spina bifida, have for the most part been based on single sources of case ascertainment in past studies. The present investigation attempts total ascertainment of NTD cases in the newborn population of Los Angeles County residents for the period 1966 to 1972. Design of the study, sources of data, and estimates of prevalence rates based on single and multiple sources of case ascertainment are here discussed. Anencephalus cases totaled 448, spina bifida 442, and encephalocele 72, giving prevalence rates of 0.52, 0.51, and 0.08 per 1000 total births, respectively, for these neural tube defects - rates considered to be low. The Los Angeles County prevalence rates are compared with those of other recent North American studies and support is provided for earlier suggestions of low rates on the West Coast.

  4. Validation of the Long-term Difficulties Inventory (LDI) and the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) as measures of stress in epidemiological population-based cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmalen, J.G.M.; Bos, E.H.; de Jonge, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Stress questionnaires are included in many epidemiological cohort studies but the psychometric characteristics of these questionnaires are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to describe these characteristics for two short questionnaires measuring the lifetime and past year

  5. NASA Remote Sensing Data for Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Vicente, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the need for improved observations of environmental factors to better understand the links between human health and the environment, NASA has established a new program to significantly improve the utilization of NASA's diverse array of data, information, and observations of the Earth for health applications. This initiative, lead by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the following goals: (1) To encourage interdisciplinary research on the relationships between environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, vegetation) and health, (2) Develop practical early warning systems, (3) Create a unique system for the exchange of Earth science and health data, (4) Provide an investigator field support system for customers and partners, (5) Facilitate a system for observation, identification, and surveillance of parameters relevant to environment and health issues. The NASA Environment and Health Program is conducting several interdisciplinary projects to examine applications of remote sensing data and information to a variety of health issues, including studies on malaria, Rift Valley Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis, Dengue Fever, Ebola, African Dust and health, meningitis, asthma, and filariasis. In addition, the NASA program is creating a user-friendly data system to help provide the public health community with easy and timely access to space-based environmental data for epidemiological studies. This NASA data system is being designed to bring land, atmosphere, water and ocean satellite data/products to users not familiar with satellite data/products, but who are knowledgeable in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. This paper discusses the most recent results of the interdisciplinary environment-health research projects and provides an analysis of the usefulness of the satellite data to epidemiological studies. In addition, there will be a summary of presently-available NASA Earth science data and a description of how it may be obtained.

  6. The CoLaus study: a population-based study to investigate the epidemiology and genetic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirnadel Heide A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases and their associated risk factors remain the main cause of mortality in western societies. In order to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs in the Caucasian population of Lausanne, Switzerland, we conducted a population-based study (Colaus Study. A secondary aim of the CoLaus study will be to determine new genetic determinants associated with CVRFs. Methods Single-center, cross-sectional study including a random sample of 6,188 extensively phenotyped Caucasian subjects (3,251 women and 2,937 men aged 35 to 75 years living in Lausanne, and genotyped using the 500 K Affymetrix chip technology. Results Obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2, smoking, hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg and/or treatment, dyslipidemia (high LDL-cholesterol and/or low HDL-cholesterol and/or high triglyceride levels and diabetes (fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7 mmol/l and/or treatment were present in 947 (15.7%, 1673 (27.0%, 2268 (36.7%, 2113 (34.2% and 407 (6.6% of the participants, respectively, and the prevalence was higher in men than in women. In both genders, the prevalence of obesity, hypertension and diabetes increased with age. Conclusion The prevalence of major CVRFs is high in the Lausanne population in particular in men. We anticipate that given its size, the depth of the phenotypic analysis and the availability of dense genome-wide genetic data, the CoLaus Study will be a unique resource to investigate not only the epidemiology of isolated, or aggregated CVRFs like the metabolic syndrome, but can also serve as a discovery set, as well as replication set, to identify novel genes associated with these conditions.

  7. Oligodendrogliomas in pediatric and adult patients: an outcome-based study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau CSM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Christine SM Lau,1,2 Krishnaraj Mahendraraj,1 Ronald S Chamberlain1–4 1Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2Saint George’s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies; 3Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, 4Department of Surgery, Banner MD Anderson Cancer Center, Gilbert, AZ, USA Introduction: Oligodendrogliomas (OGs account for <20% of all intracranial tumors and 25% of gliomas. Despite improvements in imaging techniques allowing for earlier diagnosis, OG is rare among the pediatric population. This study examines a large cohort of OG patients in an effort to define the demographic, clinical, and pathologic factors associated with clinical and survival outcomes.Methods: Data on 7,001 OG patients were abstracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER database (1973–2013. Pediatric patients were defined as ≤19 years old, and adult patients were defined as age ≥20 years.Results: Among 7,001 OG patients, 6.5% were pediatric (mean age 12 ± 6 years, and 93.5% were adult (mean age 46 ± 15 years. Overall, OGs were more common among males, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.28:1. Overall, OGs were more common among Caucasians (76.9% and also among the African American (10.8% pediatric vs. 4.0% adult and Hispanic (12.8% pediatric vs. 11.8% adult. OGs occurred most commonly in the temporal lobe of pediatric patients and the frontal lobes of adults. Surgical resection was the primary treatment modality for both pediatric and adult populations (70.6% and 40.5%, followed by combined surgery and radiation (19.7% and 41.2%. Surgical resection was associated with significantly improved survival in both groups. Pediatric patients had a lower overall mortality (19.8% vs. 48.5% and lower cancer-specific mortality (17.6% vs. 36.8%.Conclusion: OGs most often present in Caucasian males in their fifth decade of life with tumors >4 cm in size

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection in a Minor Ethnic Group of Vietnam: A Multiethnic, Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, Tran Thanh; Tuan, Vo Phuoc; Dung, Ho Dang Quy; Tung, Pham Huu; Tri, Tran Dinh; Thuan, Ngo Phuong Minh; Tam, Le Quang; Nam, Bui Chi; Giang, Do Anh; Hoan, Phan Quoc; Uchida, Tomohisa; Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Khien, Vu Van; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2018-03-01

    The Helicobacter pylori -induced burden of gastric cancer varies based on geographical regions and ethnic grouping. Vietnam is a multiethnic country with the highest incidence of gastric cancer in Southeast Asia, but previous studies focused only on the Kinh ethnic group. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using 494 volunteers (18-78 years old), from 13 ethnic groups in Daklak and Lao Cai provinces, Vietnam. H. pylori status was determined by multiple tests (rapid urease test, culture, histology, and serology). cagA and vacA genotypes were determined by PCR-based sequencing. The overall H. pylori infection rate was 38.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that variations in geographical region, age, and ethnicity were independent factors associated with the risk of H. pylori acquisition. Therefore, multicenter, multiethnic, population based study is essential to assess the H. pylori prevalence and its burden in the general population. Only the E De ethnicity carried strains with Western-type CagA (82%) and exhibited significantly lower gastric mucosal inflammation compared to other ethnic groups. However, the histological scores of Western-type CagA and East-Asian-type CagA within the E De group showed no significant differences. Thus, in addition to bacterial virulence factors, host factors are likely to be important determinants for gastric mucosal inflammation and contribute to the Asian enigma.

  9. A Dish-based Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for assessment of dietary intakes in epidemiologic studies in Iran: Design and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Earlier forms of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ used in Iran have extensive lists of foods, traditional categories and food-based design, mostly with the interviewer-administered approach. The aim of the current paper is to describe the development of a dish-based, machine-readable, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (DFQ. Methods: Within the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health and Nutrition project, we created a novel FFQ using Harvard FFQ as a model. Results: The following steps were taken to develop the questionnaire: Construction of a list of commonly consumed Iranian foods, definition of portion sizes, design of response options for consumption frequency of each food item and finally a pilot test of the preliminary DFQ. From a comprehensive list of foods and mixed dishes, we included those that were nutrient-rich, consumed reasonably often or contributed to between-person variations. We focused on mixed dishes, rather than their ingredients, along with foods. To shorten the list, the related food items or mixed dishes were categorized together in one food group. These exclusions resulted in a list of 106 foods or dishes in the questionnaire. The portion sizes used in the FFQ were obtained from our earlier studies that used dietary recalls and food records. The frequency response options for the food list varied from 6-9 choices from "never or less than once a month" to "12 or more times per day". Conclusions: The DFQ could be a reasonable dietary assessment tool for future epidemiological studies in the country. Validation studies are required to assess the validity and reliability of this newly developed questionnaire.

  10. A Dish-based Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessment of Dietary Intakes in Epidemiologic Studies in Iran: Design and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshteli, Ah; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Rajaie, Somayeh; Askari, Gholamreza; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Adibi, Peyman

    2014-01-01

    Earlier forms of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in Iran have extensive lists of foods, traditional categories and food-based design, mostly with the interviewer-administered approach. The aim of the current paper is to describe the development of a dish-based, machine-readable, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (DFQ). Within the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health and Nutrition project, we created a novel FFQ using Harvard FFQ as a model. THE FOLLOWING STEPS WERE TAKEN TO DEVELOP THE QUESTIONNAIRE: Construction of a list of commonly consumed Iranian foods, definition of portion sizes, design of response options for consumption frequency of each food item and finally a pilot test of the preliminary DFQ. From a comprehensive list of foods and mixed dishes, we included those that were nutrient-rich, consumed reasonably often or contributed to between-person variations. We focused on mixed dishes, rather than their ingredients, along with foods. To shorten the list, the related food items or mixed dishes were categorized together in one food group. These exclusions resulted in a list of 106 foods or dishes in the questionnaire. The portion sizes used in the FFQ were obtained from our earlier studies that used dietary recalls and food records. The frequency response options for the food list varied from 6-9 choices from "never or less than once a month" to "12 or more times per day". The DFQ could be a reasonable dietary assessment tool for future epidemiological studies in the country. Validation studies are required to assess the validity and reliability of this newly developed questionnaire.

  11. Epidemiological studies of Czech miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    1995-01-01

    Lung cancer risk from radon was analysed in three cohorts of uranium (N=4320+5628) and burnt clay (N=915) miners. The follow-up of miners was extended up to 1990. Most of the cases (708) have been observed in the oldest (S) cohort followed since 1952. The other two cohorts, 18 years younger in average with substantially lower exposures, contributed 72 cases. Therefore, the main analyses of risk from radon were based on the S cohort. The data of the S cohort were subjected to checks both as for the individual exposures of the miners and the completeness of follow-up. The present mortality analyses from other causes suggest the follow-up is correct. The general patterns of mortality from violent deaths and diseases other than lung cancer show similar features in all the three cohorts, i.e. decreasing trend with time since first exposure in the first case, and increasing trend in the second one, confirming thus the healthy worker effect, in the first 20 years. A raised mortality was observed in later periods in respiratory and circulatory diseases and also in cancers other than lung cancer, suggesting that smoking habits among miners might be more frequent than in the general population. The estimates of lung cancer risk from radon exposure were based on relative linear models, where cumulative exposures were lagged by 5 years. The linear effect of cumulative exposure was substantially modified by time since exposure, exposure rate, and age at exposure. From the estimated intercept, it can be deduced that in the absence of exposure to radon, the estimated mortality from lung cancer in the cohort is about 1.5 times higher than in the general population. (orig.) [de

  12. An epidemiological study on pattern of thoraco-abdominal injuries sustained in fatal road traffic accidents of Bangalore: Autopsy-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bayapa Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The statistical profile reflects a global estimate of 5.1 million deaths in 2000, which was due to injuries that accounted for 10% of deaths due to all causes. Out of this, a quarter of injury-related deaths occurred in the South-East Asian region. Road Traffic Accident (RTA is one among the top 5 causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries. Most common cause of blunt abdominal trauma in India is road traffic accident followed by pedestrian accidents, abdominal blows, and fall from heights. Aims: To analyze the epidemiology and pattern of fatal thoraco-abdominal injuries in road traffic accidents. Materials and Methods: An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 100 post-mortems of road traffic accident between November 2008 and May 2010 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, KIMS Hospital Bangalore. Results: The majority of the victims were aged 21 to 40 years, 50 (50.0%, most of the victims were male 92 (92.0%; and male/female ratio was 11.5:1. Commonest offending agents in heavy motor vehicles were 54 (54.0%. Bony cage sustained injuries were observed in 71; out of this, fractures of ribs were observed in 45 (63.3% victims, clavicle in 14 (19.7%, sternum was 6 (8.4%, and vertebrae 6 (8.4% of fatal road traffic accidents. Internal thoracic injuries were observed in 26 cases. Among internal thoracic injuries, lungs were the most commonly involved organ 24 (92.3% followed by the heart 2 (7.6%. Lung sustained more lacerations 19 (79.1% than contusions 5 (20.8%. Internal abdominal injuries were observed in 49 cases. In road traffic accidents, the most commonly injured abdominal organs were solid organs such as liver 16 (32.6% followed by spleen 9 (18.3%. Conclusions: Majority of the times in road traffic accidents, young and productive males were injured or lost their life. This study may help the

  13. An epidemiological study on pattern of thoraco-abdominal injuries sustained in fatal road traffic accidents of Bangalore: Autopsy-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, N Bayapa; Hanumantha; Madithati, Pallavi; Reddy, N Nagarjuna; Reddy, C Sainarasimha

    2014-04-01

    The statistical profile reflects a global estimate of 5.1 million deaths in 2000, which was due to injuries that accounted for 10% of deaths due to all causes. Out of this, a quarter of injury-related deaths occurred in the South-East Asian region. Road Traffic Accident (RTA) is one among the top 5 causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries. Most common cause of blunt abdominal trauma in India is road traffic accident followed by pedestrian accidents, abdominal blows, and fall from heights. To analyze the epidemiology and pattern of fatal thoraco-abdominal injuries in road traffic accidents. An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 100 post-mortems of road traffic accident between November 2008 and May 2010 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, KIMS Hospital Bangalore. The majority of the victims were aged 21 to 40 years, 50 (50.0%), most of the victims were male 92 (92.0%); and male/female ratio was 11.5:1. Commonest offending agents in heavy motor vehicles were 54 (54.0%). Bony cage sustained injuries were observed in 71; out of this, fractures of ribs were observed in 45 (63.3%) victims, clavicle in 14 (19.7%), sternum was 6 (8.4%), and vertebrae 6 (8.4%) of fatal road traffic accidents. Internal thoracic injuries were observed in 26 cases. Among internal thoracic injuries, lungs were the most commonly involved organ 24 (92.3%) followed by the heart 2 (7.6%). Lung sustained more lacerations 19 (79.1%) than contusions 5 (20.8%). Internal abdominal injuries were observed in 49 cases. In road traffic accidents, the most commonly injured abdominal organs were solid organs such as liver 16 (32.6%) followed by spleen 9 (18.3%). Majority of the times in road traffic accidents, young and productive males were injured or lost their life. This study may help the planners to take safety measures, to implement strict traffic rules, to

  14. Psoriasis and comorbidities. Epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a prevalent chronic inflammatory disease whose exact aetiology is not fully understood, but both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the onset and progression of the disease. At the skin level, psoriasis is characterized by localized or widespread thick raised...... silvery-white scaling and pruritic plaques and studies have shown that psoriasis negatively affects patients' quality of life, and depression occurs more often in patients with psoriasis. However, data have shown that psoriasis is a systemic disease which affects the joints, vasculature, and other tissues...... as well. Indeed, approximately one-third of patients with psoriasis develop psoriatic arthritis, and patients with severe psoriasis have a shortened life expectancy. Although our knowledge of the pathogenesis of psoriasis has advanced significantly in the past decade, as have the pharmacological treatment...

  15. Validation of the Long-term Difficulties Inventory (LDI) and the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) as measures of stress in epidemiological population-based cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmalen, J G M; Bos, E H; de Jonge, P

    2012-12-01

    Stress questionnaires are included in many epidemiological cohort studies but the psychometric characteristics of these questionnaires are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to describe these characteristics for two short questionnaires measuring the lifetime and past year occurrence of stress: the List of Threatening Events (LTE) as a measure of acute stress and the Long-term Difficulties Inventory (LDI) as a measure of chronic stress. This study was performed in a general population cohort consisting of 588 females (53.7%) and 506 males (46.3%), with a mean age of 53.5 years (s.d.=11.3 years). Respondents completed the LTE and the LDI for the past year, and for the age categories of 0-12, 13-18, 19-39, 40-60, and >60 years. They also completed questionnaires on perceived stress, psychological distress (the General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12), anxiety and depression (the Symptom Checklist, SCL-8) and neuroticism (the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire - Revised Short Scale, EPQ-RSS-N). Approximately 2 years later, 976 respondents (89%) completed these questionnaires for a second time. The stability of the retrospective reporting of long-term difficulties and life events was satisfactory: 0.7 for the lifetime LDI and 0.6 for the lifetime LTE scores. The construct validity of these lists is indicated by their positive associations with psychological distress, mental health problems and neuroticism. This study in a large population-based sample shows that the LDI and LTE have sufficient validity and stability to include them in major epidemiological cohort studies.

  16. New Epidemiological and Clinical Signatures of 18 Pathogens from Respiratory Tract Infections Based on a 5-Year Study.

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    Xiaohong Liao

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infections (RTIs are a heavy burden on society. However, due to the complex etiology of RTIs, the clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these infections remain challenging, especially in developing countries.To determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 18 respiratory pathogens, we analyzed 12,502 patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs by performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR on patient pharyngeal swabs.Samples positive for at least 1 pathogen were obtained from 48.42% of the total patients. Of these pathogen-positive patients, 17.99% were infected with more than 1 pathogen. Of the 18 pathogens analyzed, four were detected with a positive detection rate (PDR > 5%: influenza A virus (IAV > respiratory syncytial virus (RSV >Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP > human coronavirus (HCoV. The pathogens with the 4 highest co-infection rates (CIRs were as follows: HCoV > human bocavirus (HBoV > enterovirus (EV > parainfluenza virus (PIV. The overall positive detection rate (PDR varied significantly according to patient age, the season and year of detection, and the disease subgroup, but not according to patient sex. The individual PDRs of the pathogens followed 3 types of distributions for patient sex, 4 types of distributions for patient age, 4 types of seasonal distributions, 2 types of seasonal epidemic trends, 4 types of yearly epidemic trends, and different susceptibility distributions in the disease subgroups. Additionally, the overall CIR showed significantly different distributions according to patient sex, patient age, and the disease subgroup, whereas the CIRs of individual pathogens suggested significant preference characteristics.IAV remains the most common pathogen among the pathogens analyzed. More effort should be directed toward the prevention and control of pathogens that show a trend of increasing incidence such as HCoV, human adenovirus (ADV, and RSV. Although clinically

  17. Effective Factors in Severity of Traffic Accident-Related Traumas; an Epidemiologic Study Based on the Haddon Matrix

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    Kambiz Masoumi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traffic accidents are the 8th cause of mortality in different countries and are expected to rise to the 3rd rank by 2020. Based on the Haddon matrix numerous factors such as environment, host, and agent can affect the severity of traffic-related traumas. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effective factors in severity of these traumas based on Haddon matrix. Methods: In the present 1-month cross-sectional study, all the patients injured in traffic accidents, who were referred to the ED of Imam Khomeini and Golestan Hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran, during March 2013 were evaluated. Based on the Haddon matrix, effective factors in accident occurrence were defined in 3 groups of host, agent, and environment. Demographic data of the patients and data regarding Haddon risk factors were extracted and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: 700 injured people with the mean age of 29.66 ± 12.64 years (3-82 were evaluated (92.4% male. Trauma mechanism was car-pedestrian in 308 (44% of the cases and car-motorcycle in 175 (25%. 610 (87.1% cases were traffic accidents and 371 (53% occurred in the time between 2 pm and 8 pm. Violation of speed limit was the most common violation with 570 (81.4% cases, followed by violation of right-of-way in 57 (8.1% patients. 59.9% of the severe and critical injuries had occurred on road accidents, while 61.3% of the injuries caused by traffic accidents were mild to moderate (p < 0.001. The most common mechanisms of trauma for critical injuries were rollover (72.5%, motorcycle-pedestrian (23.8%, and car-motorcycle (13.14% accidents (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the most important effective factors in severity of traffic accident-related traumas were age over 50, not using safety tools, and undertaking among host-related factors; insufficient environment safety, road accidents and time between 2 pm and 8 pm among environmental factors; and finally, rollover, car

  18. Epidemiological features and specificities of HCV infection: a hospital-based cohort study in a university medical center of Calabria region

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    Liberto MC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidemiological status of HCV in Europe, and in particular in Mediterranean countries, is continuously evolving. The genotype distribution is related to improvement of healthcare conditions, expansion of intravenous drug use and immigration. We review and characterize the epidemiology of the distribution of HCV genotypes within Calabria, an area of Southern Italy. We focus on the pattern of distinct HCV genotype changes over the last 16 years; particularly subtype 1b and genotype 4. We collected data by evaluating a hospital-based cohort of chronic hepatitis C patients; in addition, we report an update including new patients enrolled during last eight months.

  19. Epidemiological studies on the relation between diet and COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, C.

    2000-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. In the early 1990's several dietary factors were suggested to protect against COPD, based on proposed biological mechanisms and a small number of epidemiological studies.

  20. Methodologic assessment of radiation epidemiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the late effects of ionizing radiation have utilized the entire spectrum of situations in which man has been exposed. These studies have provided insights into the dependence of human effects upon not only dose to target tissues but also other dimensions of exposure, host characteristics, and time following exposure. Over the past three decades studies have progressed from the mere identification of effects to their measurement. Because investigators of human effects have no control over the exposure situation, validity must be sought in the consistency of findings among independent studies and with accepted biologic principles. Because exposure may be confounded with factors that are hidden from view, bias may enter into any study of human exposure. Avoidance of bias and attainment of sufficient power to detect relationships that are real are methodologic challenges. Many methodologic issues, e.g., those associated with the definition and measurement of specific end-points, or with the selection of appropriate controls, permeate epidemiologic work in all fields. Others, especially those concerned with the measurement of exposure, the patterning of events in time after exposure, and the prediction of events beyond the scope of existing observations give radiation epidemiology its distinctive character

  1. Epidemiology of cardiovascular malformations among newborns in Monchegorsk (north-west Russia: a register-based study

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    Vitaly A. Postoev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular malformations (CVM are one of the most prevalent groups of birth defects. Knowledge about the prevalence, distribution and survival in Russia has been limited. The aim of our study was to assess the perinatal prevalence, structure and risk factors for CVM among newborns in Monchegorsk (Murmansk Oblast, Russia and the mortality among the affected newborns in the period 1973-2008. Design and methods. A register-based study on data from the Kola and Murmansk County Birth Registers. The study included 28,511 births. Results. The registered perinatal prevalence was 3.0 per 1000 newborns, with septal defects as the most prevalent. CVM was twenty times more prevalent among stillborn than live born, and one-third of the live born with a CVM died during the first week of life. The perinatal mortality rate with CVM was 442 per 1000 newborns. This indicator decreased over time. The mothers of newborns with a CVM were ten times more likely to have stillbirth in their anamnesis. The adjusted odds ratio between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CVM was 4.09 [95% confidence interval: 1.75-9.53]. Conclusions. The diagnosed perinatal prevalence was relatively low. A previous stillbirth by the mother was highly associated with being born with a CVM. An adjusted elevated risk was also observed among smoking mothers. Perinatal survival increased over time, but varied to a large extent between the different types of CVM.

  2. Prevalence of fibromyalgia: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, utilizing the Rochester Epidemiology Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Ann; Lahr, Brian D; Wolfe, Frederick; Clauw, Daniel J; Whipple, Mary O; Oh, Terry H; Barton, Debra L; St Sauver, Jennifer

    2013-05-01

    To estimate and compare the prevalence of fibromyalgia by 2 different methods in Olmsted County, Minnesota. The first method was a retrospective review of medical records of potential cases of fibromyalgia in Olmsted County using the Rochester Epidemiology Project (from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2009) to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed fibromyalgia in clinical practice. The second method was a random survey of adults in Olmsted County using the fibromyalgia research survey criteria to estimate the percentage of responders who met the fibromyalgia research survey criteria. Of the 3,410 potential patients identified by the first method, 1,115 had a fibromyalgia diagnosis documented in the medical record by a health care provider. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed fibromyalgia by this method was 1.1%. By the second method, of the 2,994 people who received the survey by mail, 830 (27.6%) responded and 44 (5.3%) met the fibromyalgia research survey criteria. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of fibromyalgia in the general population of Olmsted County by this method was estimated at 6.4%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the rate at which fibromyalgia is being diagnosed in a community. This is also the first report of prevalence as assessed by the fibromyalgia research survey criteria. Our results suggest that patients, particularly men, who meet the fibromyalgia research survey criteria are unlikely to have been given a diagnosis of fibromyalgia. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Prevalence of Fibromyalgia: A Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, Utilizing the Rochester Epidemiology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Ann; Lahr, Brian D; Wolfe, Frederick; Clauw, Daniel J; Whipple, Mary O; Oh, Terry H; Barton, Debra L; St Sauver, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to estimate and compare the prevalence of fibromyalgia by two different methods, in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Methods The first method was a retrospective review of medical records of potential cases of fibromyalgia in Olmsted County using Rochester Epidemiology Project (from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2009) to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed fibromyalgia in clinical practice. The second method was a random survey of adults in Olmsted County using the fibromyalgia research survey criteria to estimate the percentage of responders who met fibromyalgia research survey criteria. Results Of the 3,410 potential patients identified by the first method, 1,115 had a fibromyalgia diagnosis documented in the medical record by a health care provider. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed fibromyalgia by this method was 1.1%. By the second method, of the 2,994 people who received the survey by mail, 830 (27.6%) responded and 44 (5.3%) met fibromyalgia research survey criteria. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of fibromyalgia in the general population of Olmsted County by this method was estimated at 6.4%. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the rate at which fibromyalgia is being diagnosed in a community. This is also the first report of prevalence as assessed by the fibromyalgia research survey criteria. Our results suggest that patients, particularly men, who meet the fibromyalgia research survey criteria are unlikely to have been given a diagnosis of fibromyalgia. PMID:23203795

  4. [Ordinal logistic regression in epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Siqueira, Arminda Lucia; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2009-02-01

    Ordinal logistic regression models have been developed for analysis of epidemiological studies. However, the adequacy of such models for adjustment has so far received little attention. In this article, we reviewed the most important ordinal regression models and common approaches used to verify goodness-of-fit, using R or Stata programs. We performed formal and graphical analyses to compare ordinal models using data sets on health conditions from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II).

  5. Is there an ethnic variation in the epidemiology of gonorrhoea? A retrospective population-based study from northern Israel over 15 years between 2001 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kridin, Khalaf; Grifat, Rami; Khamaisi, Mogher

    2017-06-22

    To investigate the trends in the incidence of gonorrhoea through an extended period of time and to compare the epidemiology of gonorrhoea infection between 2 distinct ethnic groups (Jews and Arabs). A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted on all consecutive patients diagnosed with gonorrhoea through the years 2001-2015. National Department of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Health, Haifa District, Israel. A total of 837 reports on gonorrhoea were received, derived from 779 (93.1%) male and 58 (6.9%) female patients. Approximately 1 million people reside in the Haifa region. We examined the incidence rate of gonorrhoea among residents of Haifa District, northern Israel from 2001 to 2015, by reviewing archives of the Department of Epidemiology, Israeli Ministry of Health. Notified cases were stratified by age, gender and ethnicity. The overall gonorrhoea incidence was 6.4 cases per 100 000 population per year. The annual incidence rate dropped from 20.5 per 100 000 population in 2001 to a period of 2.2 cases per 100 000 population in 2005, showing a >9-fold decline. This was followed by a relatively steady increase of incidence of 2.5-4.5 per 100 000 population from 2006 to 2015. Men were predominantly more affected than women, with a 13.4-fold higher incidence rate. The most affected age group was residents between 25 and 34 years old. The estimated rate among Jews was 2.5-fold higher relative to Arabs. Only 1.3% recurrent episodes of gonorrhoea were reported. The prevalence of HIV positivity among patients with gonorrhoea is significantly higher than that of the general population (500.0 vs 88.1 cases per 100 000 population, respectively, p<0.001). Gonorrhoea incidence rate decreased dramatically until 2005, with no substantial subsequent fluctuations. The infection is much more prevalent among patients of Jewish ethnicity, possibly due to riskier sex practices. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  6. Epidemiology of rheumatic diseases in Mixtec and Chontal indigenous communities in Mexico: a cross-sectional community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-Santiago, Flor; García-García, Conrado; García-Olivera, Imelda; Goycochea-Robles, María Victoria; Pelaez-Ballestas, Ingris

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders and rheumatic diseases in the Chontal and Mixtec indigenous communities in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, using the Community-Oriented Program for the Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) methodology. After cross-culturally validating the COPCORD questionnaire for these communities, we conducted a cross-sectional, analytical, community-based census study using a house-to-house method. Positive cases of MSK disorders were assessed by primary care physicians and rheumatologists. The study population included participants aged ≥18 years from the indigenous communities of San Antonio Huitepec and San Carlos Yautepec. A total of 1061 persons participated in the study. Mean age was 46.9 years (standard deviation 19.9; age range 18-97 years); 642 (60.5 %) were women; 483 participants (45.5; 42.4-48.5 %) had MSK pain in the previous 7 days. Diagnoses were back pain 170 (16.0 %; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 13.8-18.3); osteoarthritis 157 (14.7 %; 95 % CI 12.7-17.0); rheumatic regional pain syndrome 53 (4.9 %; 95 % CI 3.7-6.4); rheumatoid arthritis 4 (0.3 %; 95 % CI 0.1-0.9); dermatomyositis 1 (0.09 %; 95 % CI 0.0-0.5); ankylosing spondylitis 1 (0.09 %; 95 % CI 0.0-0.5); systemic lupus erythematosus 1 (0.09 %; 95 % CI 0.02-0.5); and gout 1 (0.09 %; 95 % CI 0.0-0.5). 53.2 % had not received medical treatment for their disease. The prevalence of MSK disorders in indigenous communities in the Mixtec and Chontal regions is very high. The most common rheumatic diseases found were back pain and osteoarthritis. A high percentage of participants had not received medical care.

  7. Serum PCB profiles in Native Americans from Wisconsin based on region, diet, age, and gender: Implications for epidemiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, David J.; Dellinger, John A.; Needham, Larry L.; Hansen, Larry G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Different PCB congeners and different mixtures of congeners have been demonstrated to have different biological actions. More complete characterization of congener profiles in exposure sources may assist in predicting health outcomes. Methods: Thirty-six (36) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured by gas chromatography isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) in 314 serum samples from Native Americans in Wisconsin, Michigan and Minnesota. Five dietary groups were established based on the quantity and species of fish consumed and the waters from which the fish were caught. Multivariate statistical methods were able to resolve gender and dietary differences in PCB homologue and PCB congener patterns. Results: Females had higher proportions of lower chlorinated homologues, including a consistently higher proportion of pentaCB 118. The relative presence of the very labile and volatile PCB 18, above 1% of the total PCB in females from the minimal fish consumption and 'other' groups, suggests possible exposure to PCBs in the atmosphere. The dietary group consuming predatory fishes from Lakes Michigan and Superior had the highest serum concentrations of total PCB (mean of 3.1 ng/ml) and the most distinct congener profile. The two dietary groups least dependent on fishing or fishing mostly from inland lakes (non-Great Lakes) had the lowest total PCB concentrations, both with means of 1.4 ng/ml. Conclusions: These serum PCB concentrations were less than those found in earlier studies of fish consumers in the Great Lakes region and may reflect the decrease in PCBs in these lakes

  8. An eleven-year retrospective hospital-based study of epidemiological data regarding human strongyloidiasis in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasongdee, Thidarat K; Laoraksawong, Pokkamol; Kanarkard, Wanida; Kraiklang, Ratthaphol; Sathapornworachai, Kraisit; Naonongwai, Sureeporn; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Sanpool, Oranuch; Intapan, Pewpan M; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2017-09-18

    Human strongyloidiasis is a chronic and persistent gastrointestinal disease caused by infection with soil-transmitted helminths of the genus Strongyloides. The aim of this research was to obtain diagnostic prevalence regarding strongyloidiasis in northeast Thailand through a hospital-based study. Patients' demographic data and the results of stool examinations conducted using the formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique were collected from the parasitology laboratory records at Srinagarind Hospital in Khon Kaen, Thailand. The relevant information from years 2004 to 2014 was collected and descriptively analyzed. Of a total of 22,338 patients, 3889 (17.4%) had stool samples that tested positive for Strongyloides larvae. The highest prevalence was 22.8% (95% CI = 19.6-26.2%) in the year 2004. This percentage progressively decreased, reaching 11.2% (95% CI = 10.2-12.4%) in 2013 and remaining stable at 12.9% (95% CI = 11.8-14.1%) in 2014. Males (2741 cases) had double the positivity rate of females (1148 cases). The prevalence of infection was highest (25.9%; 95% CI = 24.5-27.3%) among patients that were 51-60 years of age. Areas endemic for strongyloidiasis should be emphasized under the national helminth control program and health education campaigns. Nationwide assessments should also be performed regarding Strongyloides infection, including risk factors, treatment, and prevention. The diagnostic laboratory data presented here identify the geographical focus of disease to be the northeastern region of the country. Further targeted surveillance using more sensitive methods will almost certainly reveal a higher individual disease burden than found in this report.

  9. ADHD in the Arab World: A Review of Epidemiologic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Lynn G.; Fayyad, John A.; Eapen, Valsamma; Cassir,Youmna; Salamoun, Mariana M.; Tabet, Caroline C.; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Karam, Elie G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological studies on psychiatric disorders are quite rare in the Arab World. This article reviews epidemiological studies on ADHD in all the Arab countries. Method: All epidemiological studies on ADHD conducted from 1966 through th present were reviewed. Samples were drawn from the general community, primary care clinical…

  10. Hospitalisations at the end of life in four European countries: a population-based study via epidemiological surveillance networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pivodic, L.; Pardon, K.; Miccinesi, G.; Vega Alonso, T.; Moreels, S.; Donker, G.; Arrieta, E.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.; Deliens, L.; Block, L. van den

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most people would prefer to be cared for and to die at home. On the other hand, hospital admissions towards the end of life have been related to aggressive care, higher cost than community care, and they may indicate a low quality of dying. Population-based cross-national data on

  11. OntoStudyEdit: a new approach for ontology-based representation and management of metadata in clinical and epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uciteli, Alexandr; Herre, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    The specification of metadata in clinical and epidemiological study projects absorbs significant expense. The validity and quality of the collected data depend heavily on the precise and semantical correct representation of their metadata. In various research organizations, which are planning and coordinating studies, the required metadata are specified differently, depending on many conditions, e.g., on the used study management software. The latter does not always meet the needs of a particular research organization, e.g., with respect to the relevant metadata attributes and structuring possibilities. The objective of the research, set forth in this paper, is the development of a new approach for ontology-based representation and management of metadata. The basic features of this approach are demonstrated by the software tool OntoStudyEdit (OSE). The OSE is designed and developed according to the three ontology method. This method for developing software is based on the interactions of three different kinds of ontologies: a task ontology, a domain ontology and a top-level ontology. The OSE can be easily adapted to different requirements, and it supports an ontologically founded representation and efficient management of metadata. The metadata specifications can by imported from various sources; they can be edited with the OSE, and they can be exported in/to several formats, which are used, e.g., by different study management software. Advantages of this approach are the adaptability of the OSE by integrating suitable domain ontologies, the ontological specification of mappings between the import/export formats and the DO, the specification of the study metadata in a uniform manner and its reuse in different research projects, and an intuitive data entry for non-expert users.

  12. The household contact study design for genetic epidemiological studies of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eStein

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most genetic epidemiological study designs fall into one of two categories: family-based and population-based (case-control. However, recent advances in statistical genetics call for study designs that combine these two approaches. We describe the household contact study design as we have applied it in our several years of study of the epidemiology of tuberculosis. Though we highlight its applicability for genetic epidemiological studies of infectious diseases, there are many facets of this design that are appealing for modern genetic studies, including the simultaneous enrollment of related and unrelated individuals, closely and distantly related individuals, collection of extensive epidemiologic and phenotypic data, and evaluation of effects of shared environment and gene by environment interaction. These study design characteristics are particularly appealing for current sequencing studies.

  13. Epidemiology in a changing world: implications for population-based research on mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B

    2014-06-01

    Introduction and objectives. Population-based research on mental disorders needs to keep pace with trends in general epidemiology. At present, this requirement is complicated by uncertainty within the parent discipline about its future development. The present study examines proposals for new directions in strategy and methods and considers their significance for psychiatric epidemiology. Method. Narrative review, cross-checked by search of English-language journals of epidemiology for new trends and developments reported in the years from 2000 onwards. Results. The proposals reviewed here are divided into three groups: 1. A new research paradigm of 'eco-epidemiology', which includes both individual risk factors and macro-environmental systems that mediate population levels of health and sickness. 2. Improved 'translation' of research findings - i.e. more rapid and effective implementation of epidemiological evidence into health policy and practice. 3. Adaptation of epidemiology to a globalised economy, with firmer regulation of funding and resources. Conclusions. Each of these proposals has implications for psychiatric epidemiology. Workers in this field, however, are still preoccupied by relatively specific problems of definition, measurement and classification, and so far the current debates in general epidemiology are scarcely reflected. The proposals outlined above call for: • a working model of eco-epidemiology as it relates to psychiatric disorders; • implementation strategies to encourage more active participation in epidemiological research by community health services and caregiver organisations; • international collaborative projects that offer practical benefits in training and service facilities for the countries taking part.

  14. Epidemiological studies of Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Taipei and other Asian cities based on MIRU profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-Ren; Dou, Horng-Yun; Lee, Shih-Yi; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi; Lu, Jang-Jih

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of the Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in Taipei and other Asian cities. A total of 323 MTB isolates were analyzed by spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU) typing. The largest cluster of the TB isolates from Taipei was type MT11 (MIRU type 2233-2517-3533). A comparison of the MIRU type data for the Beijing strains from Taipei and previously published MIRU type data for the Beijing strains from Asian cities with major population of Chinese was analyzed. The six major Beijing MIRU types (MT01, MT02, MT08, MT11, MT21, and MT44) were found to be common in four Asian cities including Taipei, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Wuhan. Results of this study indicate that there is geographical difference in the distribution of different Beijing strains of MTB. © 2011 The Authors. APMIS © 2011 APMIS.

  15. A population-based study on epidemiology of intensive care unit treated traumatic brain injury in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, G M; Lund, S H; Snorradottir, B; Karason, S; Olafsson, I H; Reynisson, K; Mogensen, B; Sigvaldason, K

    2017-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a worldwide health issue and a significant cause of preventable deaths and disabilities. We aimed to describe population-based data on intensive care treated traumatic brain injury in Iceland over 15 years period. Retrospective review of all intensive care unit admissions due to traumatic brain injury at The National University Hospital of Iceland 1999-2013. Data were collected on demographics, mechanism of injury, alcohol consumption, glasgow come scale upon admission, Injury Severity Scoring, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score, length of stay, interventions and mortality (defined as glasgow outcome score one). All computerized tomography scans were reviewed for Marshall score classification. Intensive care unit admissions due to traumatic brain injury were 583. The incidence decreased significantly from 14/100.000/year to 12/100.000/year. Males were 72% and the mean age was 41 year. Majority of patients (42%) had severe traumatic brain injury. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall from low heights (36.3%). The mortality was 18.2%. Increasing age, injury severity score, Marshall score and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score are all independent risk factors for death. Glasgow coma scale was not an independent prognostic factor for outcome. Incidence decreased with a shift in injury mechanism from road traffic accidents to falls and an increased rate of traumatic brain injury in older patients following a fall from standing or low heights. Mortality was higher in older patients falling from low heights than in younger patients suffering multiple injuries in road traffic accidents. Age, injury severity score, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score and Marshall score are good prognostic factors for outcome. Traumatic brain injury continues to be a considerable problem and the increase in severe traumatic brain injury in the middle age and older age groups after a seemingly

  16. Adaptation of a web-based, open source electronic medical record system platform to support a large study of tuberculosis epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Hamish SF

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, we were funded by the US National Institutes of Health to implement a study of tuberculosis epidemiology in Peru. The study required a secure information system to manage data from a target goal of 16,000 subjects who needed to be followed for at least one year. With previous experience in the development and deployment of web-based medical record systems for TB treatment in Peru, we chose to use the OpenMRS open source electronic medical record system platform to develop the study information system. Supported by a core technical and management team and a large and growing worldwide community, OpenMRS is now being used in more than 40 developing countries. We adapted the OpenMRS platform to better support foreign languages. We added a new module to support double data entry, linkage to an existing laboratory information system, automatic upload of GPS data from handheld devices, and better security and auditing of data changes. We added new reports for study managers, and developed data extraction tools for research staff and statisticians. Further adaptation to handle direct entry of laboratory data occurred after the study was launched. Results Data collection in the OpenMRS system began in September 2009. By August 2011 a total of 9,256 participants had been enrolled, 102,274 forms and 13,829 laboratory results had been entered, and there were 208 users. The system is now entirely supported by the Peruvian study staff and programmers. Conclusions The information system served the study objectives well despite requiring some significant adaptations mid-stream. OpenMRS has more tools and capabilities than it did in 2008, and requires less adaptations for future projects. OpenMRS can be an effective research data system in resource poor environments, especially for organizations using or considering it for clinical care as well as research.

  17. Adaptation of a web-based, open source electronic medical record system platform to support a large study of tuberculosis epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Hamish S F; Thomas, David; Tomaylla, Juan; Garcia, Nadia; Lecca, Leonid; Murray, Megan; Becerra, Mercedes C

    2012-11-07

    In 2006, we were funded by the US National Institutes of Health to implement a study of tuberculosis epidemiology in Peru. The study required a secure information system to manage data from a target goal of 16,000 subjects who needed to be followed for at least one year. With previous experience in the development and deployment of web-based medical record systems for TB treatment in Peru, we chose to use the OpenMRS open source electronic medical record system platform to develop the study information system. Supported by a core technical and management team and a large and growing worldwide community, OpenMRS is now being used in more than 40 developing countries. We adapted the OpenMRS platform to better support foreign languages. We added a new module to support double data entry, linkage to an existing laboratory information system, automatic upload of GPS data from handheld devices, and better security and auditing of data changes. We added new reports for study managers, and developed data extraction tools for research staff and statisticians. Further adaptation to handle direct entry of laboratory data occurred after the study was launched. Data collection in the OpenMRS system began in September 2009. By August 2011 a total of 9,256 participants had been enrolled, 102,274 forms and 13,829 laboratory results had been entered, and there were 208 users. The system is now entirely supported by the Peruvian study staff and programmers. The information system served the study objectives well despite requiring some significant adaptations mid-stream. OpenMRS has more tools and capabilities than it did in 2008, and requires less adaptations for future projects. OpenMRS can be an effective research data system in resource poor environments, especially for organizations using or considering it for clinical care as well as research.

  18. Heritability and mortality risk of insomnia-related symptoms: a genetic epidemiologic study in a population-based twin cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hublin, Christer; Partinen, Markku; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2011-07-01

    Our aim was to estimate heritability in phenotypic insomnia and the association between insomnia and mortality. Representative follow-up study. 1990 survey of the Finnish Twin Cohort (N = 12502 adults; 1554 monozygotic and 2991 dizygotic twin pairs). Current insomnia-related symptoms (insomnia in general, difficulty in initiating sleep, sleep latency, nocturnal awakening, early morning awakening, and non-restorative sleep assessed in the morning and during the day) were asked. Latent class analysis was used to classify subjects into different sleep quality classes. Quantitative genetic modelling was used to estimate heritability. Mortality data was obtained from national registers until end of April 2009. The heritability estimates of each symptom were similar in both genders varying from 34% (early morning awakening) to 45% (nocturnal awakening). The most parsimonious latent class analysis produced 3 classes: good sleepers (48%), average sleepers (up to weekly symptoms, 40%), and poor sleepers (symptoms daily or almost daily, 12%). The heritability estimate for the cluster was 46% (95% confidence interval 41% to 50%). In a model adjusted for smoking, BMI, and depressive symptoms, the all-cause mortality of poor sleepers was elevated (excess mortality 55% in men and 51% in women). Further adjustment for sleep length, use of sleep promoting medications, and sleep apnea-related symptoms did not change the results. Insomnia-related symptoms were common in both genders. The symptoms and their clusters showed moderate heritability estimates. A significant association was found between poor sleep and risk of mortality, especially in those with somatic disease.

  19. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-nutritional epidemiology (STROBE-nut) : an extension of the STROBE statement

    OpenAIRE

    Lachat, Carl; Hawwash, Dana; Ocké, Marga C; Berg, Christina; Forsum, Elisabet; Hörnell, Agneta; Larsson, Christel I; Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Åkesson, Agneta; Kolsteren, Patrick; Byrnes, Graham; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Camp, John; Cade, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology - Nutrit...

  20. Recommendations for epidemiological studies on COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, P S; Rönmark, E; Eagan, T

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been extensively studied, especially in Western Europe and North America. Few of these data are directly comparable because of differences between the surveys regarding composition of study populations, diagnostic criteria...... of the disease and definitions of the risk factors. Few community studies have examined phenotypes of COPD and included other ways of characterising the disease beyond that of spirometry. The objective of the present Task Force report is to present recommendations for the performance of general population...... studies in COPD in order to facilitate comparable and valid estimates on COPD prevalence by various risk factors. Diagnostic criteria in epidemiological settings, and standardised methods to examine the disease and its potential risk factors are discussed. The paper also offers practical advice...

  1. Urolithiasis in Italy: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Prezioso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Worldwide the urolithiasis is the third most frequent urological disease affecting both males and females. In literature there are not recent Italian epidemiological data about stone disease. The objective of this study is the evaluation of current epidemiology of urolithiasis in Italy using the Health Search/CSD Longitudinal Patient Database (HS database. Material and methods: An observational, descriptive, retrospective trial was conducted. Inclusion criteria were: family physician- assisted Italian living population member of HS database within 31 December 2012, both genders, age over 17 years, at least two years of clinical history recorded from the beginning the trial. Data were collected by HS database and elaborated by its software Millewin®. Results: In Italy prevalence of urolithiasis in 2012 was 4.14%, it was higher in males than in females (4.53% versus 3.78% with a positive relation with increasing age. The highest prevalence rate of urolithiasis was reported in the region Campania (6.08%. The general incidence was 2.23 *1000, with the highest incidence in the region Sicilia (3.15 *1000. Incidence was higher in group age 65-74 years (3.18 *1000. Conclusions: In Italy the incidence and prevalence of urolithiasis is increasing with particular distribution in relation to gender, age and regional position.

  2. Epidemiology and clinical course of Behçet's disease in the Reggio Emilia area of Northern Italy: a seventeen-year population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarani, Carlo; Pipitone, Nicolò; Catanoso, Maria Grazia; Cimino, Luca; Tumiati, Bruno; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Bajocchi, Gianluigi; Olivieri, Ignazio; Boiardi, Luigi

    2007-02-15

    To investigate the epidemiology and clinical course of Behçet's disease (BD) over a 17-year period in a defined area of northern Italy. All patients with incident BD diagnosed over a 17-year period (from January 1, 1988 to December 31, 2004) living in the Reggio Emilia area were identified through the following sources: physicians at Reggio Emilia Hospital, medical practitioners, and community-based specialists. We identified all patients registered in a centralized index and in the Reggio Emilia district database for rare diseases. Patients were followed up from the time of diagnosis until either their death or April 1, 2005. Eighteen patients (9 men and 9 women) had complete BD. Mean +/- SD age at diagnosis was 33 +/- 7 years. The incidence rate of BD was 0.24 per 100,000. The prevalence of BD on January 1, 2005 was 3.8 per 100,000. No patients died during the followup period. Although all patients developed oral ulceration during the disease course, 22.2% had no oral lesions at disease onset. Eye disease occurred in 55.6%. Ocular disease was more common in men and appeared at disease onset or within the first few years of disease onset (median 3 years). Only 1 patient had loss of useful vision in at least 1 eye at the end of followup. In all affected patients, visual acuity improved once treatment was started. This population-based study is the first to report the prevalence and incidence of BD in Italy. In Italian patients, BD is nonfatal and the prognosis of eye disease is good.

  3. Evolution of the "fourth stage" of epidemiologic transition in people aged 80 years and over: population-based cohort study using electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Nisha C; Gulliford, Martin

    2017-05-12

    In the "fourth stage" of epidemiological transition, the distribution of non-communicable diseases is expected to shift to more advanced ages, but age-specific changes beyond 80 years of age have not been reported. This study aimed to evaluate demographic and health transitions in a population aged 80 years and over in the United Kingdom from 1990 to 2014, using primary care electronic health records. Epidemiological analysis of chronic morbidities and age-related impairments included a cohort of 299,495 participants, with stratified sampling by five-year age group up to 100 years and over. Cause-specific proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for incidence rates over time. Between 1990 and 2014, nonagenarians and centenarians increased as a proportion of the over-80 population, as did the male-to-female ratio among individuals aged 80 to 95 years. A lower risk of coronary heart disease (HR 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.58), stroke (0.83, 0.76-0.90) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0.59, 0.54-0.64) was observed among 80-84 year-olds in 2010-2014 compared to 1995-1999. By contrast, the risk of type II diabetes (2.18, 1.96-2.42), cancer (1.52, 1.43-1.61), dementia (2.94, 2.70-3.21), cognitive impairment (5.57, 5.01-6.20), and musculoskeletal pain (1.26, 1.21-1.32) was greater in 2010-2014 compared to 1995-1999. Redistribution of the over-80 population to older ages, and declining age-specific incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in over-80s, are consistent with the "fourth stage" of epidemiologic transition, but increases in diabetes, cancer, and age-related impairment show new emerging epidemiological patterns in the senior elderly.

  4. Gout as a risk factor for osteoporosis: epidemiologic evidence from a population-based longitudinal study involving 108,060 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, V C; Horng, J-T; Wang, M N; Chen, Z-Y; Kuo, J-T; Hung, G-D

    2018-04-01

    Is gout a risk factor for future osteoporosis? This large population-based study comprising two matched groups of individuals with and without gout demonstrates that patients with gout have a 20% increase in the risk of developing osteoporosis in future through an 8-year follow-up. To examine if gout is associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis. We conducted a nationwide population-based retrospective matched-cohort study. Two matched cohorts (n = 36,458 with gout and 71,602 without gout) assembled and recruited from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Dataset containing 1 million subjects. Exclusion criteria were missing data, age < 20 years, short follow-up period, and pre-existing osteoporosis. Both cohorts were followed up until incident osteoporosis, death, or the end of the study. Person-year data and incidence rates were evaluated. A multivariable Cox model was used to derive an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) after controlling for socioeconomic proxy, geographical difference, glucocorticoid and allopurinol exposure, various prespecified medical conditions, and comorbidities. Men comprised 72.8% of the cohorts. With a follow-up of 183,729 and 359,900 person-years for the gout and non-gout cohorts, 517 and 811 incidents of osteoporosis occurred, respectively, after excluding osteoporosis incidents in the first 3 years of follow-up. The cumulative incidence of osteoporosis was statistically higher in the gout cohort than in the non-gout cohort, at 3.3 versus 2.1% (P = 0.0036, log-rank). Our Cox model showed a 1.2-fold increase in the incidence of osteoporosis in the gout cohort, with an aHR of 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.35). This first population-based epidemiologic study supports the hypothesis that compared with individuals without gout; those with gout have a modest increase in the risk of developing osteoporosis in future.

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF OCCUPATIONAL WORKERS IN TANNERY INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    YALAVARTHY PREMILA DEVI; AND DAMYANTI

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health related status or events in specified population and the application of this study is to control health problems. In occupational epidemiology, the emphasis is on studies of population with particulars type of environmental exposure. Epidemiological studies of occupational workers in tannery industries were contucted to estimate the impact of working condition on the health of the workers. Individual characteristics like...

  6. Doses for post-Chernobyl epidemiological studies: are they reliable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Chumak, Vadim; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, André

    2016-09-01

    On 26 April 2016, thirty years will have elapsed since the occurrence of the Chernobyl accident, which has so far been the most severe in the history of the nuclear reactor industry. Numerous epidemiological studies were conducted to evaluate the possible health consequences of the accident. Since the credibility of the association between the radiation exposure and health outcome is highly dependent on the adequacy of the dosimetric quantities used in these studies, this paper makes an effort to overview the methods used to estimate individual doses and the associated uncertainties in the main analytical epidemiological studies (i.e. cohort or case-control) related to the Chernobyl accident. Based on the thorough analysis and comparison with other radiation studies, the authors conclude that individual doses for the Chernobyl analytical epidemiological studies have been calculated with a relatively high degree of reliability and well-characterized uncertainties, and that they compare favorably with many other non-Chernobyl studies. The major strengths of the Chernobyl studies are: (1) they are grounded on a large number of measurements, either performed on humans or made in the environment; and (2) extensive effort has been invested to evaluate the uncertainties associated with the dose estimates. Nevertheless, gaps in the methodology are identified and suggestions for the possible improvement of the current dose estimates are made.

  7. Mendelian randomization: genetic anchors for causal inference in epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey Smith, George; Hemani, Gibran

    2014-01-01

    Observational epidemiological studies are prone to confounding, reverse causation and various biases and have generated findings that have proved to be unreliable indicators of the causal effects of modifiable exposures on disease outcomes. Mendelian randomization (MR) is a method that utilizes genetic variants that are robustly associated with such modifiable exposures to generate more reliable evidence regarding which interventions should produce health benefits. The approach is being widely applied, and various ways to strengthen inference given the known potential limitations of MR are now available. Developments of MR, including two-sample MR, bidirectional MR, network MR, two-step MR, factorial MR and multiphenotype MR, are outlined in this review. The integration of genetic information into population-based epidemiological studies presents translational opportunities, which capitalize on the investment in genomic discovery research. PMID:25064373

  8. Evolving trends in the epidemiology, resource utilization, and outcomes of pregnancy-associated severe sepsis: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi; Watkins, Phillip

    2015-06-01

    Infections are a well-known complication of pregnancy. However, pregnancy-associated severe sepsis (PASS) has not been as well-characterized, with limited population-level data reported to date. We performed a population-based study of the evolving patterns of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, resource utilization, and outcomes of PASS in Texas over the past decade. The Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File was used to identify pregnancy-associated hospitalizations and PASS hospitalizations for the years 2001 - 2010. The Texas Center for Health Statistics reports of live births, abortions and fetal deaths, and a previously reported population-based, age-specific linkage study on miscarriage were used to derive the annual total estimated pregnancies (TEPs). The incidence, demographics, clinical characteristics, resource utilization and outcomes of PASS were examined. Logistic regression modeling was used to explore the predictors of PASS and its associated mortality. There were 4,060,201 pregnancy-associated hospitalizations and 1,007 PASS hospitalizations during study period. The incidence of PASS was increased by 236% over the past decade, rising from 11 to 26 hospitalizations per 100,000 TEPs. The key changes between 2001 - 2002 and 2009 - 2010 within PASS hospitalizations included: admission to ICU 78% vs. 90% (P = 0.002); development of ≥ 3 organ failures 9% vs. 35% (P < 0.0001); and inflation-adjusted median hospital charges (2,010 dollars) $64,034 vs. $89,895 (P = 0.0141). Hospital mortality (11%) remained unchanged during study period. Chronic liver disease (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 41.4) and congestive heart failure (CHF) (aOR 20.5) were associated with the highest risk of PASS, in addition to black race, poverty, drug abuse, and lack of health insurance. The highest risk of death was among women with HIV infection (aOR 45.5), need for mechanical ventilation (aOR 4.5), drug abuse (aOR 3.0), and lacking health insurance (aOR 2.9). The incidence

  9. Methodological issues in epidemiological studies of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    In the the United States about 22% of all deaths are caused by cancer. Around 30% of cancer deaths are attributable to tobacco smoking. In marked contrast less than 3% of all cancer deaths can plausibly be attributed to radiation exposure. Studies of cancer risk following radiation exposure are scientifically valuable largely because of their potential for generating new information about cancer etiology. The most informative epidemiological studies have been based on irradiated populations with individual dosimetry and high levels of cancer risk among the more heavily exposed. But the interpretation of epidemiological data depends strongly upon information gained in experimental studies, not only of radiation carcinogenesis but also of analogous and easily quantified systems like in vitro cell killing, the induction of chromosome abnormalities both in vitro and in vivo, and the induction of pink stamen cell mutations in tradescantia. In epidemiology it is widely recognized that the most difficult problems of study design, data collection, analysis and interpretation are those that involve detecting so-called ''weak associations'' between causes and health effects. The difficulties increase rapidly as the excess risk decreases. Investigators of radiation as a cause of cancer have certain advantages over investigators in other areas. However, whe ground is unsafe and a cautious, skeptical and painstaking approach is advisable

  10. Childhood accidents. Three epidemiological studies on the etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, L H

    1977-01-01

    Three studies on childhood accidents are presented. The aim was to study the importance of different factors regarding the accidents in question. The following factors have then been taken into consideration: the enviromental hazard, the accident proneness, the supervision and the education. Methodologically the investigations were carried out with an epidemiological technique. One is of a descriptive nature and the other two more analytically oriented. The studies are based on two different 1-year-materials consisting of accidents among children recorded in the emergency departments of Ostersund Hospital and the University Hospital in Uppsala. The results indicate that risk factors in the children's physical milieu played an important role in the occurrence of the accidents: clearly identifiable risk factors in the environment could be connected with 52% of the accidents, whereas some deficiency in supervision was noted in 20%. The investigators could identify a number of specific risk factors. Attempts were made to examine how frequency and type of childhood accidents vary with the population structure and social structure in well-defined housing areas, but the results were hard to evaluate because of methodological problems. The results are presented against the background of a detailed discussion on central methodological problems in epidemiological accident research. It is pointed out in particular that epidemiological methods have clear limitations in attempts at studying the low-frequency events that each individual type of accident in fact comprises. It is of great importance that in future research, side by side with the traditional epidemiological methods, other techniques are tested with the aim of obtaining maximal usable information from a detailed study of individual accidents and their backgrounds.

  11. Epidemiological studies of groups with occupational exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The exposure of man to radiation and the resulting risk of carcinogenesis continues to be of concern to the public. In this context, there is often a tendency to carry out epidemiological studies concerning the induction of cancer in radiation workers and members of the public which are not supported by a statistically valid data base or whose results are misinterpreted or misused. To assist national authorities in evaluating radiological risks, the Nuclear Energy Agency has sponsored a critical review of the methodologies for, and the limitations of, these epidemiological studies, and of the precautions to be adopted in interpreting their results. Prepared by a consultant, Dr. Joan M. Davies, the review focuses on the problems encountered when carrying out epidemiological studies on groups of workers occupationally exposed to radiations, and using their results for radiological protection purposes. It is published under the responsibility of the Secretary General of the OECD, and does not necessarily reflect the views of Member Governments. The primary objective is to provide background material to be used by national authorities that have responsibilities in the field of radiological protection as well as by other persons interested in this subject

  12. [Epidemiological studies on the poliomyelitis in Spain before the vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Navarro, J Ferrán

    2013-01-01

    The eradication of polio in Spain is one of the most important health milestones of the twentieth century, not only for public health but also for the effect it had on scientific knowledge in our country, in the medical field. Knowledge of international literature by our epidemiologists and virologists, was important, as reflected in the studies of outbreaks, virological studies and clinical studies. For public health represented, throughout the twentieth century, an effort geared to make decisions based on scientific knowledge. For epidemiology represented the application of new ways of working and, therefore, its modernization.

  13. Event-based internet biosurveillance: relation to epidemiological observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Noele P; Yang, Li; Reilly, Aimee R; Hardin, Jessica E; Hartley, David M

    2012-06-18

    The World Health Organization (WHO) collects and publishes surveillance data and statistics for select diseases, but traditional methods of gathering such data are time and labor intensive. Event-based biosurveillance, which utilizes a variety of Internet sources, complements traditional surveillance. In this study we assess the reliability of Internet biosurveillance and evaluate disease-specific alert criteria against epidemiological data. We reviewed and compared WHO epidemiological data and Argus biosurveillance system data for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (April 2009 - January 2010) from 8 regions and 122 countries to: identify reliable alert criteria among 15 Argus-defined categories; determine the degree of data correlation for disease progression; and assess timeliness of Internet information. Argus generated a total of 1,580 unique alerts; 5 alert categories generated statistically significant (p Internet information. Disease-specific alert criteria provide situational awareness and may serve as proxy indicators to event progression and escalation in lieu of traditional surveillance data; alerts may identify early-warning indicators to another pandemic, preparing the public health community for disease events.

  14. Event-based internet biosurveillance: relation to epidemiological observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Noele P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO collects and publishes surveillance data and statistics for select diseases, but traditional methods of gathering such data are time and labor intensive. Event-based biosurveillance, which utilizes a variety of Internet sources, complements traditional surveillance. In this study we assess the reliability of Internet biosurveillance and evaluate disease-specific alert criteria against epidemiological data. Methods We reviewed and compared WHO epidemiological data and Argus biosurveillance system data for pandemic (H1N1 2009 (April 2009 – January 2010 from 8 regions and 122 countries to: identify reliable alert criteria among 15 Argus-defined categories; determine the degree of data correlation for disease progression; and assess timeliness of Internet information. Results Argus generated a total of 1,580 unique alerts; 5 alert categories generated statistically significant (p  Conclusion Confirmed pandemic (H1N1 2009 cases collected by Argus and WHO methods returned consistent results and confirmed the reliability and timeliness of Internet information. Disease-specific alert criteria provide situational awareness and may serve as proxy indicators to event progression and escalation in lieu of traditional surveillance data; alerts may identify early-warning indicators to another pandemic, preparing the public health community for disease events.

  15. Epidemiologic studies of pilots and aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, J D; Blettner, M; Auvinen, A

    2000-11-01

    During flight, pilots and cabin crew are exposed to increased levels of cosmic radiation which consists primarily of neutrons and gamma rays. Neutron dosimetry is not straightforward, but typical annual effective doses are estimated to range between two and five mSv. Higher dose rates are experienced at the highest altitudes and in the polar regions. Mean doses have been increasing over time as longer flights at higher altitudes have become more frequent. Because there are so few populations exposed to neutrons, studies of airline personnel are of particular interest. However, because the cumulative radiation exposure is so low, statistical power is a major concern. Further, finding an appropriate comparison group is problematic due to selection into these occupations and a number of biases are possible. For example, increased rates of breast cancer among flight attendants have been attributed to reproductive factors such as nulliparity and increased rates of melanoma among pilots have been attributed to excessive sun exposure during leisure time activities. Epidemiologic studies conducted over the last 20 y provide little consistent evidence linking cancer with radiation exposures from air travel.

  16. Naturally Occurring Adrenocortical Insufficiency--An Epidemiological Study Based on a Swedish-Insured Dog Population of 525,028 Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J M; Tengvall, K; Bonnett, B N; Hedhammar, Å

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring adrenocortical insufficiency (NOAI) in dogs is considered an uncommon disease with good prognosis with hormonal replacement treatment. However, there are no epidemiological studies with estimates for the general dog population. To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of NOAI in a large population of insured dogs. Data were derived from 525,028 client-owned dogs insured by a Swedish insurance company representing 2,364,652 dog-years at risk (DYAR) during the period between 1995-2006. Retrospective cohort study. Incidence rates, prevalences, and relative risks for dogs with NOAI (AI with no previous claim for hypercortisolism), were calculated for the whole dog population, and for subgroups divided by breed and sex. Mortality rates were calculated and compared in dogs with NOAI and the remaining dogs overall. In total 534 dogs were identified with NOAI. The overall incidence was 2.3 cases per 10,000 DYAR. The relative risk of disease was significantly higher in the Portuguese Water Dog, Standard Poodle, Bearded Collie, Cairn Terrier, and Cocker Spaniel compared with other breeds combined. Female dogs overall were at higher risk of developing AI than male dogs (RR 1.85; 95% CI, 1.55-2.22; P dogs with NOAI than in dogs overall. The data supports the existence of breed-specific differences in incidence rates of NOAI in dogs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DRUG INTOXICATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cheraghali M. Taymori

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Unintentional drug intoxication is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. In order to study the epidemiological pattern of childhood drug poisoning in Golestan province, all cases diagnosed with poisoning from 1997 to 2002 in the only pediatric hospital in province were recruited. During this period 563 cases of poisoned children were hospitalized in Taleqani hospital, of these 305 cases were due to drug poisoning. Opium was responsible for more than half of the poisoning cases, and 91% of deaths, among drug intoxicated children. Metoclopramide, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsants were among the other frequent causes of poisoning. Neurological symptoms were the most prominent symptoms of poisoning and more than 80% of cases showed some neurological symptoms. Mortality rate among the cases was 3.6% and of total of 11 deaths, 10 were poisoned with opium. About 61% of cases were hospitalized between 24-48 hrs. Most of the poisoning cases in young children were unintentional and in many cases, their parents played a critical role in their intoxication. This role specially is crucial in infants and children under one year of age. Parents in Golestan province use opium widely for symptomatic treatment of routine illnesses in their young children and overdose of opium may cause severe intoxication and even death of the child.

  18. Epidemiology of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Among Persons Older Than 21 Years: A Population-Based Study in South Carolina, 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selassie, Anbesaw; Cao, Yue; Saunders, Lee L

    2015-01-01

    A gap exists in the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) in a statewide population. To describe population-based epidemiology and trend of TSCI in persons 22 years and older in South Carolina over a 15-year period from 1998 through 2012. Data on patients with TSCI were obtained from ongoing statewide TSCI surveillance and follow-up registry. Deaths were ascertained by linking surveillance files and the multiple cause-of-death dataset. Descriptive analyses were completed, and incidence and mortality rates were calculated based on the civilian adult population of the state. Over the 15 years, 3,365 persons with incident TSCI were discharged alive from acute care hospitalization, of whom 555 died during the period of observation. Age-standardized cumulative mortality rate was 14 per million, and the average incidence rate was estimated at 70.8 per million population per year. Age-standardized incidence rate of TSCI increased significantly from 66.9 in 1998 to 111.7 per million in 2012. Standardized incidence rates were significantly higher among non-Whites and males. Motor vehicle crashes and falls were the leading causes, accounting for nearly 70% of TSCI. Standardized incidence and mortality rates of TSCI in South Carolina are higher than reported rates for the US population. Motor vehicle crashes and falls are the leading causes of TSCI. There was a significant increase in the overall trend of the incidence rates over the 15 years. A well-coordinated preventive strategy is needed to reduce incidence and improve survival of persons with TSCI.

  19. Epidemiology of preterm deliveries in Southeast Brazil: a hospital-based study Epidemiologia de nascimentos pretermo no Sudeste do Brasil: um estudo de base hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Costa Nascimento

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the role of some factors in the genesis of preterm deliveries in Southeast Brazil. METHODS: a cohort hospital-based study of 589 mothers who delivered in Taubaté, a middle-size city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between May 1, and October 31, 1999. The statistical approach was Risk Ratio with statistical significance established at alpha: 5%. RESULTS: 70 preterm newborns were identified representing 11,9% of the total birth rate. The variables holding statistical significance were: previous history of stillbirth delivery, smoking during pregnancy, poor weight gain, arterial hypertension, vaginal bleeding, genitourinary tract infection and five or less medical visits for prenatal care. CONCLUSIONS: this study indicates that good quality prenatal care has a great value in preventing preterm births, for poor weight gain, arterial hypertension, vaginal bleeding, genitourinary tract infection and smoking are conditions that can be controlled in the course of pregnancy.OBJETIVOS: estimar o papel de alguns fatores na gênese de recém-nascidos pré-termo no Sudeste do Brasil. MÉTODOS: é um estudo de coorte de base hospitalar com 589 mães que deram à luz em Taubaté, São Paulo, Brasil, entre 1 de maio e 31 de outubro de 1999; a medida de efeito deste estudo foi Risco Relativo e a significância estatística foi alfa = 5%. RESULTADOS: foram encontrados 70 recém-nascidos pré-termo, representando 11,9% da amostra; as variáveis com significância estatística foram história prévia de natimorto, tabagismo na gravidez, ganho de peso insuficiente, hipertensão arterial, sangramento vaginal, infecção do trato geniturinário e cinco ou menos consultas no pré-natal. CONCLUSÕES: um pré-natal bem conduzido e de boa qualidade tem grande importância na prevenção do nascimento prematuro pois variáveis como taba-gismo na gravidez, ganho de peso insuficiente, hipertensão arterial, sangramento vaginal, infecção do

  20. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in humans...

  1. Clinico epidemiological study of pitted keratolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Chandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pitted keratolysis is a common dermatological condition. However, very few studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this disorder from India and abroad. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients from rural area of Kolar at Sri R.L.J.H. and S.N.R. Hospital, presenting with clinically distinctive lesions of pitted keratolysis were included in the study. Cases were interviewed with particular emphasis on triggering factors and findings were recorded. Investigations like Gram′s stain, culture studies, Wood′s ultraviolet light examination, histopathology etc, was done in selected cases to ascertain the clinical diagnosis. Results: Age of the patients varied from 20 to 40 years in 52% with male preponderance in 82% of cases. Duration of the disease varied from 15 days to five years, most of the patients were bare-footed farmers (62% of cases. Hyperhidrosis and pruritus were most frequently observed symptoms in 70% and 60% of patients. Most of the patients presented with the characteristic pits which varied from 1 to 50 in number in 56 % of cases, located predominantly on the pressure bearing areas in 92% of cases and depth of the pits varied from 1 to 2 mm in 60% of cases. Associated skin conditions recorded in present study were fissuring of soles in 38%, psoriasis 10%, dermatophyte infections in 6%, planter warts 6% and Corynebacterial triad and corn in 2% of patients each. Discussion: Affection of bare-footed individuals, male preponderance, presence of hyperhidrosis and occurrence of lesions over pressure bearing areas of soles, observed in the present study were consistent with earlier studies on the subject. However, pruritus as commonest presenting symptom reported by 60% patients in the present study, has not been documented in the previous studies. Conclusion: Pitted keratolysis is fairly common in bare footed male farmers of rural India. The condition is predominantly seen over the

  2. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology - nutritional epidemiology (STROBE-nut): An extension of the STROBE statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, C; Hawwash, D; Ocké, M C; Berg, C; Forsum, E; Hörnell, A; Larsson, C L; Sonestedt, E; Wirfält, E; Åkesson, A; Kolsteren, P; Byrnes, G; De Keyzer, W; Van Camp, J; Cade, J E; Slimani, N; Cevallos, M; Egger, M; Huybrechts, I

    2016-09-01

    Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology - Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut). Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, co-ordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist. When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health.

  3. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut: An Extension of the STROBE Statement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Lachat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut.Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, coordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist.When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health.

  4. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut): An Extension of the STROBE Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, Carl; Hawwash, Dana; Ocké, Marga C; Berg, Christina; Forsum, Elisabet; Hörnell, Agneta; Larsson, Christel; Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Åkesson, Agneta; Kolsteren, Patrick; Byrnes, Graham; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Camp, John; Cade, Janet E; Slimani, Nadia; Cevallos, Myriam; Egger, Matthias; Huybrechts, Inge

    2016-06-01

    Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut). Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, coordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist. When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health.

  5. Implementation epidemiology: The study of the frequency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to consider injury research and practice within one methodological dimension, implementation epidemiology requires first a shift in the public health approach to injury prevention from the traditional proximal risk factor paradigm to a more ecological understanding of injury causation, and then a further shift in the ...

  6. Retrospective study of epidemiological, clinicopathological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Algeria, the CRC wing and become the first digestive cancer in both sexes, outperforming stomach cancer. To enrich the Algerian cancer registries, we analyzed the profiles of patients with these cancers in Jijel Willaya. This was a retrospective and descriptive analysis of epidemiological, clinicopathological and biological ...

  7. A sera-epidemiological cross-sectional study of hepatitis B virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    epidemiological community-based cross- sectional study. Setting. All nine provinces of Zimbabwe. Palticipants. From April 1989 to December 1991 serum samples were collected tram 1 461 males and 1 933 females in the age group 10 - 61 ...

  8. GIS-based environmental analysis of fox and canine lungworm distribution: an epidemiological study of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis in red foxes from Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čabanová, Viktória; Miterpáková, Martina; Druga, Michal; Hurníková, Zuzana; Valentová, Daniela

    2018-02-01

    Over a period of intervening years, the distribution of two canine cardiopulmonary metastrongylid nematodes, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, has been recognised in Central Europe. Here, we report the first epidemiological research conducted in red foxes from Slovakia and the potential influence of selected environmental variables on the parasites' occurrence, quantified by logistic regression. The environmental models revealed that distribution of C. vulpis is not significantly influenced by any environmental variables, and the parasite is present in the whole area under study. Models for A. vasorum revealed some weak influence of environmental variables, as it tends to occur in drier areas with lower proportion of forest. Moreover, A. vasorum shows a typical spatial clustering and occurs in endemic foci identified mainly in the eastern part of Slovakia. A cluster of A. vasorum infection foci was also found in the north-eastern region, where the average winter air temperature regularly falls below - 10 °C.

  9. Epidemiological studies of thyroid cancer in the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the great international interest in Chernobyl and the need for quantitative risk information on the carcinogenic effectiveness of the radio iodines, there has been relatively little epidemiological research on thyroid cancer following the Chernobyl accident. The reasons for this are many, diverse, and difficult to eliminate, although some progress is being made. Among them are the natural priority of public health concerns, a weak infrastructure for conducting studies in chronic disease epidemiology, and the difficulty of assigning thyroid dose estimates to individuals for study. In spite of the difficulties a number of significant studies have been begun or are planned, and several valuable reports have appeared. From the descriptive studies it is now known that the latent period for thyroid cancer in children exposed to radio iodines is not 5 to 10, but probably three years, that the magnitude of the increase in thyroid cancer among children is beyond anything previously experienced or expected, and that there is a strong correlation between thyroid cancer and environmental radiocesium contamination levels in the Gomel region of Belarus, and between thyroid cancer and average regional levels of I 131 dose to the thyroid in Ukraine. However, even today, there is very little hard scientific information on the relation of thyroid cancer in children and their exposure to the radio iodines in the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. This is information that only well-designed scientific epidemiological studies, based on firm dose estimates, could be expected to provide. With that purpose in mind, the US has planned with Belarus and Ukraine long-term cohort studies of many thousands of subjects with thyroid activity measurements

  10. Epidemiological characteristics of the carriers with coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs based on a community cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Z; Li, D; Wang, A; Su, H; Shao, Z; Zhang, J; Ji, Z; Gao, J; Choi, B C K; Yan, Y

    2016-04-01

    The coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs is an atypical serological pattern in HBV infection. There is no epidemiological characteristics of this serological pattern in the community and there is controversy over the molecular mechanisms underlying this pattern. We investigated the epidemiological characteristics of the carriers with HBsAg and anti-HBs in a longitudinal community cohort study. The prevalence of this atypical serological pattern was 2.93% (122/4169) in HBsAg-positive populations. The prevalence progressively increased with age from 40 to 70 years old. The rate of HBeAg positive and detectable HBV DNA were both significantly higher in carriers with this pattern than in carriers who were HBsAg positive but anti-HBs negative (26/122 verse 598/4047, P = 0.046; 86/122 verse 275/529,P coexistence HBsAg and anti-HBs, 14.81% of the carriers lost their anti-HBs. Viral sequencing showed that carriers with coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs had higher numbers of residue changes within the S gene than carriers who were HBsAg positive but anti-HBs negative (2.42 verse 1.33 changes per 100 residues, P coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs is a unique serological pattern which may be associated with an increased risk of adverse clinical outcome and may be related to HBsAg immune variants which have genotypic heterogeneity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Population-based epidemiology and incidence of distal femur fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsoe, Rasmus; Ceccotti, Adriano Axel; Larsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The literature lacks recent epidemiological studies on the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of distal femur fractures. The aim of the present study was to provide up-to-date information concerning the incidence of distal femur fractures in a large and complete population...

  12. HOW TO DESCRIBE THE RESULTS OF OBSERVATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shal'nova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Principles and fundamentals of proper presentation of observational epidemiological study results are focused. Principles of observational study publication developed by expert epidemiologists (STROBE statement are explained in detail.

  13. STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology - Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME): an extension of the STROBE statement

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Valentina; Egger, Matthias; McCormack, Valerie; Farmer, Peter B; Ioannidis, John P A; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Matullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, David H; Schoket, Bernadette; Stromberg, Ulf; Vermeulen, Roel; Wild, Christopher; Porta, Miquel; Vineis, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    This article is being simultaneously published in 2011 in PLoS Medicine, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Preventive Medicine, Mutagenesis, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, European Journal of Epidemiology and European Journal of Clinical Investigation. Reproduced by permission of the authors. The authors jointly hold the copyright of this article. Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of in...

  14. An Epidemiological Study of Mercury Sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Sato

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury sensitization has been historically in question and may be related to recent increases of type I allergic diseases. To clarify the epidemiological factors of mercury sensitization, we investigated factors relating to mercury sensitization in 215 medical students. Their allergic symptoms, family histories and lifestyles were studied by questionnaire. Patch tests were performed with HgCI2 (0.05% aq. and NiS04 (5% aq.. Anti- Dermatophagoides and anti-Crypfomeria pollen IgE antibodies in sera were also measured. Urinary mercury concentrations were measured in 25 mercury sensitized and 44 non-sensitized subjects (controls. Hair mercury concentrations were also measured in 19 sensitized and 22 non-sensitized subjects. While the positive rate of nickel was 6.0% (13/215, that of mercury was high (13.0%; 28/215. The subjects' individual histories of allergic rhinitis, eczema, urticaria and allergic conjunctivitis were significantly associated with family histories of these conditions (P<0.01, P<0.005 and P<0.005, respectively, as reported in the literature. However, no allergen- specific antibody positivity or past history of allergic disease was associated with mercury sensitization. Mercury sensitized subjects had experienced eczema caused by cosmetics, shampoos, soaps and haircreams significantly more frequently (P<0.05. The history of mercurochrome usage was not associated with mercury sensitization. The number of teeth treated with metals in mercury sensitized subjects was significantly higher than that in the control group (6.8±4.3 vs 4.8±1; P<0.05. There were significant differences in urinary mercury concentrations (specific gravity adjusted levels between mercury sensitized subjects and non-sensitized subjects (2.0±0.9 and 1.3±0.6 (xg/L, respectively; P<0.001. There were also significant differences in hair mercury concentrations between mercury sensitized and non-sensitized subjects (2.0±0.9 and 1.2±0.5 μg/g, respectively; P<0

  15. How does airway exposure of aflatoxin B1 affect serum albumin adduct concentrations? Evidence based on epidemiological study and animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xianwei; Lai, Hao; Yang, Yang; Xiao, Jun; He, Ke; Liu, Chao; Chen, Jiansi; Lin, Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) airway inhalation represents an additional route of exposure to this toxin. However, the association between AFB1 inhalation and serum AFB1 albumin adducts remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the association between airway exposure to AFB1 and serum AFB1 albumin adduct concentrations via an epidemiological study, as well as in an AFB1 airway exposure animal model. Our epidemiological study was conducted in a sugar factory in the Guangxi Autonomous Region of China. In order to examine fungal contamination, air samples were obtained in the workshop and areas outside the workshop, such as the office and nearby store. Dust samples were also collected from the bagasse warehouse and presser workshop, and were analyzed using an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additionally, blood samples were collected from a total of 121 workshop workers, and a control group (n = 80) was comprised of workers who undertook administrative tasks or other work outside the workshop. The animal experiment was conducted in the laboratory animal center of Guangxi Medical University, where a total of 60 adult male rabbits were involved in this study. By intubation, AFB1 was administered in three groups of rabbits daily, at dose rates of 0.075, 0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg/day for a period of 7 days. Blood samples were collected on day 1, day 3, day 7 and day 21, and the measurements of the AFB1 albumin adducts in the serum were performed by a double antibody sandwich ELISA. The epidemiological study showed that serum albumin adducts were detected in 67 workshop workers (55.37%), and the values ranged 6.4 pg/mg albumin to 212 pg/mg albumin (mean value: 51 ± 4.62 pg/mg albumin). In contrast, serum albumin adducts were detected in only 7 control group participants, with the values ranging from 9 pg AFB1/mg albumin to 59 pg/mg albumin (mean value: 20 ± 13.72 pg/mg albumin). The animal experiment revealed that the rabbits had detectable

  16. Epidemiological studies of UK test veterans: I. General description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, G M; Muirhead, C R; Darby, S C; Doll, R; Arnold, L; O'Hagan, J A

    2004-01-01

    This review gives a general account of how and why epidemiological studies of UK participants in the nuclear weapons test programme were set up. There is a short description of the circumstances in which the tests were planned and executed and a discussion of the general considerations involved in designing studies to show whether the health of test participants suffered as a result of the tests. The companion review article summarises the results of the epidemiological studies. (review)

  17. Review paper: epidemiology, evidence-based medicine, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jin-Ling; Griffiths, Sian

    2009-07-01

    This article reviews the relation between evidence-based medicine and epidemiology and the recent evolution of the former. The meaning of evidence and the international efforts to collect, summarize, and disseminate findings from scientific research that are relevant for medical decision making are discussed. Evidence, current resources, and people's values, all play a role in making evidence-based medical decisions. This also has important implications for public health practice. However, decision making differs considerably between clinical care of individual patients and public health decision and policies that normally apply to populations. Although more closely related to epidemiology than clinical medicine, public health should also adopt a more systematic approach to evidence-based practice.

  18. Risk Factors for Low Back Disorders in Saskatchewan Farmers: Field-based Exposure Assessment to Build a Foundation for Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Catherine; Bath, Brenna; Johnson, Peter W; Teschke, Kay

    2016-06-10

    Studies of many geographical settings and agricultural commodities show that low back disorders are an important public health issue among farmers, who represent a special rural population. However, few studies have examined the impact of low back disorders on farmers' work or the strategies that they adopt to avoid associated pain and disability. This study protocol will investigate 3 issues related to low back disorders in Saskatchewan farmers: (1) the vibration, heavy lifting, and awkward postures farmers encounter during their work that might contribute to low back disorders; (2) the impact low back disorders have on farmers in terms of their ability to work; and (3) the types of preventative measures and solutions that farmers implement to reduce the occurrence of low back pain. To answer these questions, researchers will travel to 30 farms to make measurements of vibration, lifting, and posture during the farmers' regular work tasks. Farmers will be interviewed about any pain and/or disability using standardized interview questions. Farmers will also be asked about safety measures they have implemented at their farm, such as modified tools or equipment, to reduce the occurrence of low back disorders or pain. Data collection is currently underway for this study, with the intention to complete all data collection and analysis by the end of 2018. Occupational determinants of health such as vibration, heavy lifting, and awkward postures are important in the development and progression of low back disorders, and the results of this study will allow for cost-effective epidemiological studies of these determinants in the future. In identifying prevention strategies, this study will also facilitate future research evaluating the effectiveness of safety measures.

  19. Epidemiologic study of Phenylketonuria disease in Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Zafar Mohtashami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Phenylketonuria (PKU is a metabolic disease with autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance caused by a deficiency or absence of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase in the liver. Phenylketonuria incidence is 1 in 10,000 births. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics of phenylketonuria in Lorestan province. Materials and Methods: All 81 phenylketonuria patients known in Lorestan province up to winter 2014 were considered in this descriptive epidemiologic study. Based on the goals and variables of the study, a complete questionnaire was developed to collect data through interviews with parents and the records and they were analyzed by use of SPSS v.16 software with preparing tables and graphs and using chi-square and t-test. Results: Results showed that phenylketonuria prevalence is 4.3 out of 100,000 people in Lorestan province. Twenty of the patients (24.7% were identified through screening and 61 patients (75.3% through other methods. Forty-six of the samples (56.8% were female and 35 cases (43.2% were male. Nearly 75% of PKU patients had a positive history of consanguinity marriage in their parents. The prevalence of the disease was significantly different from other cities. Conclusion: Neonatal screening for phenylketonuria is necessary and should be done within 3-5 days of birth. In families with children suffering from PKU, prenatal diagnosis is necessary for other pregnancies.

  20. [An Epidemiological Study On Zoonoses In Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hong Ki

    1981-08-01

    Helminthic zoonoses are of significant importance to the public health and to the socioeconomic consequences especially in lost-meat, animal products and animal labor. For past several decades in Korea, it has been recognized that endoparasitic infections among domestic animals are extremely common and many of the helminth parasites of man have been acquired from, or are shared with domestic animals. However, there was no survey of a nationwide scale on the prevalence of animal helminthiasis; and control measures are also not satisfactory. Furthermore, because of the remarkable increase in the demand, number of domestic animals and pets is rapidly increasing in these days. Therefore, an extensive study on zoonotic helminths was carried out from July 1980 throughout August 1981 to understand the present status and parasite-host relationship from the epidemiological viewpoont. A total of 13,685 fecal specimens of cattles, sheeps, pigs, dogs and cats was collected from 26 localities in the country. The specimens were examined by formalin-ether centrifugal sedimentation technique. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Of 13,685 specimens examined, 9,808(71.7 %) were positive for helminth parasites. The positive rates were 99.0 % in cattles, 86.5 % on sheeps, 85.4 % in pigs, 35.4 % in dogs, 15.1 % in cats. 2. Single infection showed the highest rate (60.0 %), and double infection(27.5 %), triple(8.1 %), quadruple(2.8 %), quintuple(1.5 %) and hexad(0.1 %) were in decreasing order. 3. In the present study, 18 species zoonotic helminths were found: 11 nematodes, 6 trematodes and 1 cestode. 4. According to province, Cheju revealed the highest rate 84.8 %, then Kyungnam 77.5 %, Jeonnam 75.6 %, Jeonpuk 75.4 %, Kyonggi 75.2 %, Chungnam 71.7 %, Chungpuk 70.6 % and Kangwon 64.2 % were in decreasing order and Busan and Seoul showed 70.4 % and 58.1 %, respectively. 5. Rural area showed slightly higher rate (74.7 %) than urban area (68.5 %), and rates of mountainous area (70

  1. A molecular epidemiology study based on VP2 gene sequences reveals that a new genotype of infectious bursal disease virus is dominantly prevalent in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupini, Caterina; Giovanardi, Davide; Pesente, Patrizia; Bonci, Michela; Felice, Viviana; Rossi, Giulia; Morandini, Emilio; Cecchinato, Mattia; Catelli, Elena

    2016-08-01

    A distinctive infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus genotype (ITA) was detected in IBD-live vaccinated broilers in Italy without clinical signs of IBD. It was isolated in specific-pathogen-free eggs and molecularly characterized in the hypervariable region of the virus protein (VP) 2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ITA strains clustered separately from other homologous reference sequences of IBDVs, either classical or very virulent, retrieved from GenBank or previously reported in Italy, and from vaccine strains. The new genotype shows peculiar molecular characteristics in key positions of the VP2 hypervariable region, which affect charged or potentially glycosylated amino acids virtually associated with important changes in virus properties. Characterization of 41 IBDV strains detected in Italy between 2013 and 2014 showed that ITA is emergent in densely populated poultry areas of Italy, being 68% of the IBDV detections made during routine diagnostic activity over a two-year period, in spite of the immunity induced by large-scale vaccination. Four very virulent strains (DV86) and one classical strain (HPR2), together with eight vaccine strains, were also detected. The currently available epidemiological and clinical data do not allow the degree of pathogenicity of the ITA genotype to be defined. Only in vivo experimental pathogenicity studies conducted in secure isolation conditions, through the evaluation of clinical signs and macro/microscopic lesions, will clarify conclusively the virulence of the new Italian genotype.

  2. Consensus statement on assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziak, Wasim; Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Jawad, Mohammed; Afifi, Rima; Nakkash, Rima; Akl, Elie A; Ward, Kenneth D; Salloum, Ramzi G; Barnett, Tracey E; Primack, Brian A; Sherman, Scott; Cobb, Caroline O; Sutfin, Erin L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological accounts suggest that waterpipe smoking (aka hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon, especially among youth. The alarming spread of waterpipe and accumulating evidence of its addictive and harmful effects represent a new threat in the global fight to limit tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. In response to waterpipe's alarming trends, major public health and tobacco control organisations have started or are considering systematic collection of data about waterpipe smoking to monitor its trends and assess its harmful effects in different societies. Such plans require coordination and agreement on epidemiological measurement tools that reflect the uniqueness of this tobacco use method, and at the same time allow comparison of waterpipe trends across time and place, and with other tobacco use methods. We started a decade ago our work to develop standardised measures and definitions for the assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies. In this communication, we try to expand and update these assessment tools in light of our increased knowledge and understanding of waterpipe use patterns, its context and marketing, as well as the need for evidence-guided policies and regulations to curb its spread. We have assembled for this purpose a group of leading waterpipe researchers worldwide, and worked through an iterative process to develop the suggested instruments and definitions based on what we know currently about the waterpipe epidemic. While the suggested measures are by no means comprehensive, we hope that they can provide the building blocks for standard and comparable surveillance of waterpipe smoking globally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Contemporary trends of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and resource utilization of necrotizing fasciitis in Texas: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi; Watkins, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. There are limited population-level reports on the contemporary trends of the epidemiology, clinical features, resource utilization, and outcomes of necrotizing fasciitis (NF). Methods. We conducted a cohort study of Texas inpatient population, identifying hospitalizations with a diagnosis of NF during the years 2001-2010. The incidence, clinical features, resource utilization, and outcomes of NF hospitalizations were examined. Results. There were 12,172 NF hospitalizations during study period, with ICU admission in 50.3%. The incidence of NF rose 2.7%/year (P = 0.0001). Key changes between 2001-2002 and 2009-2010 included rising incidence of NF (5.9 versus 7.6 per 100,000 [P < 0.0001]), chronic comorbidities (69.4% versus 76.7% [P < 0.0001]), and development of ≥1 organ failure (28.5% versus 51.7% [P < 0.0001]). Inflation-adjusted hospital charges rose 37% (P < 0.0001). Hospital mortality (9.3%) remained unchanged during study period. Discharges to long-term care facilities rose from 12.2 to 30% (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. The present cohort of NF is the largest reported to date. There has been increasing incidence, chronic illness, and severity of illness of NF over the past decade, with half of NF hospitalizations admitted to ICU. Hospital mortality remained unchanged, while need for long-term care rose nearly 2.5-fold among survivors, suggesting increasing residual morbidity. The sources of the observed findings require further study.

  4. Contemporary Trends of the Epidemiology, Clinical Characteristics, and Resource Utilization of Necrotizing Fasciitis in Texas: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavi Oud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There are limited population-level reports on the contemporary trends of the epidemiology, clinical features, resource utilization, and outcomes of necrotizing fasciitis (NF. Methods. We conducted a cohort study of Texas inpatient population, identifying hospitalizations with a diagnosis of NF during the years 2001–2010. The incidence, clinical features, resource utilization, and outcomes of NF hospitalizations were examined. Results. There were 12,172 NF hospitalizations during study period, with ICU admission in 50.3%. The incidence of NF rose 2.7%/year (P=0.0001. Key changes between 2001-2002 and 2009-2010 included rising incidence of NF (5.9 versus 7.6 per 100,000 [P<0.0001], chronic comorbidities (69.4% versus 76.7% [P<0.0001], and development of ≥1 organ failure (28.5% versus 51.7% [P<0.0001]. Inflation-adjusted hospital charges rose 37% (P<0.0001. Hospital mortality (9.3% remained unchanged during study period. Discharges to long-term care facilities rose from 12.2 to 30% (P<0.0001. Conclusions. The present cohort of NF is the largest reported to date. There has been increasing incidence, chronic illness, and severity of illness of NF over the past decade, with half of NF hospitalizations admitted to ICU. Hospital mortality remained unchanged, while need for long-term care rose nearly 2.5-fold among survivors, suggesting increasing residual morbidity. The sources of the observed findings require further study.

  5. Invited commentary: recruiting for epidemiologic studies using social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsworth, Jenifer E

    2015-05-15

    Social media-based recruitment for epidemiologic studies has the potential to expand the demographic and geographic reach of investigators and identify potential participants more cost-effectively than traditional approaches. In fact, social media are particularly appealing for their ability to engage traditionally "hard-to-reach" populations, including young adults and low-income populations. Despite their great promise as a tool for epidemiologists, social media-based recruitment approaches do not currently compare favorably with gold-standard probability-based sampling approaches. Sparse data on the demographic characteristics of social media users, patterns of social media use, and appropriate sampling frames limit our ability to implement probability-based sampling strategies. In a well-conducted study, Harris et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;181(10):737-746) examined the cost-effectiveness of social media-based recruitment (advertisements and promotion) in the Contraceptive Use, Pregnancy Intention, and Decisions (CUPID) Study, a cohort study of 3,799 young adult Australian women, and the approximate representativeness of the CUPID cohort. Implications for social media-based recruitment strategies for cohort assembly, data accuracy, implementation, and human subjects concerns are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. How to design a (good) epidemiological observational study: epidemiological research protocol at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronteira, Ines

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we propose a general structure for designing a research protocol of an observational epidemiological study. We start by highlighting the importance of the research protocol, namely in accounting for some bias and guaranteeing methodologic rigor and study reproductability. Next, we reflect on some of the essential elements of a research protocol no matter its objective. We further present some specific issues to be included according to the type of study: cross-sectional, case-control and cohort.

  7. TUBERCULOSIS IN TROPICAL AFRICA. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROELSGAARD, E; IVERSEN, E; BLOCHER, C

    1964-01-01

    Up to the end of the nineteenth century the tubercle bacillus apparently had little opportunity of disseminating among the rather isolated tribes of tropical Africa. With the creation of large centres of trade and industry in the wake of European colonization, tuberculosis seems to have spread rapidly over the continent and is today found everywhere.In a number of tuberculosis prevalence surveys conducted by WHO during 1955-60, randomly selected population groups were tuberculin tested, X-rayed and had sputa examined by direct microscopy. The three methods of examination were applied independently of one another.Data collected during the surveys have been analysed with a view to discovering common epidemiological features of tuberculosis in tropical Africa, assessing the reliability of the diagnostic methods employed and discussing their usefulness in future tuberculosis control programmes.

  8. [Religiosity and health in epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozdzon, Paweł

    2012-05-01

    The relationship between religion and health has been the subject of growing interest in epidemiological research. The aim of this paper is to review the data on relationship between health-related behaviors associated with religiosity and reduced mortality and morbidity. In this review beneficial effects of religiosity on specific physical and mental health diseases, focusing on coronary heart disease, cancer, depression, suicide, psychosis, and substance abuse are described. Religious beliefs and practices can represent powerful sources of comfort, hope, and meaning and they are associated with protective dietary habits and reduced risk of substance abuse. Religiosity can be also harmful as it is often entangled with neurotic and psychotic disorders. The current published data suggests that religiosity has a favorable effect on survival, although the methodological controversies including presence of biases typical for observational research indicate that results should be interpreted with caution.

  9. Pesticide poisoning in Chitwan, Nepal: a descriptive epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gyenwali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, there is a growing concern over pesticides use, which has been linked to self-harm and suicide. However, there is paucity of research on the epidemiology of pesticides poisoning in Nepal. This study is aimed at assessing epidemiological features of pesticides poisoning among hospital-admitted cases in selected hospitals of Chitwan District of Nepal. Methods A hospital-based quantitative study was carried out in four major hospitals of Chitwan District. Information on all pesticides poisoning cases between April 1 and December 31, 2015, was recorded by using a Pesticides Exposure Record (PER form. Results A total of 439 acute pesticides poisoning cases from 12 districts including Chitwan and adjoining districts attended the hospitals during the 9-month-long study period. A majority of the poisoned subjects deliberately used pesticides (89.5% for attempted suicide. The total incidence rate was 62.67/100000 population per year. Higher annual incidence rates were found among young adults (111.66/100000 population, women (77.53/100000 population and individuals from Dalit ethnic groups (98.22/100000 population. Pesticides responsible for poisoning were mostly insecticides (58.0% and rodenticides (20.8%. The most used chemicals were organophosphates (37.3% and pyrethroids (36.7%. Of the total cases, 98.6% were hospitalized, with intensive care required for 41.3%. The case fatality rate among admitted cases was 3.8%. Conclusions This study has indicated that young adults, females and socially disadvantaged ethnic groups are at a higher risk of pesticides poisoning. Pesticides are mostly misused intentionally as an easy means for committing suicide. It is recommended that the supply of pesticides be properly regulated to prevent easy accessibility and misuse. A population-based study is warranted to reveal the actual problem of pesticides exposure and intoxication in the community.

  10. Pesticide poisoning in Chitwan, Nepal: a descriptive epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenwali, Deepak; Vaidya, Abhinav; Tiwari, Sundar; Khatiwada, Prakash; Lamsal, Daya Ram; Giri, Shrikrishana

    2017-07-03

    Globally, there is a growing concern over pesticides use, which has been linked to self-harm and suicide. However, there is paucity of research on the epidemiology of pesticides poisoning in Nepal. This study is aimed at assessing epidemiological features of pesticides poisoning among hospital-admitted cases in selected hospitals of Chitwan District of Nepal. A hospital-based quantitative study was carried out in four major hospitals of Chitwan District. Information on all pesticides poisoning cases between April 1 and December 31, 2015, was recorded by using a Pesticides Exposure Record (PER) form. A total of 439 acute pesticides poisoning cases from 12 districts including Chitwan and adjoining districts attended the hospitals during the 9-month-long study period. A majority of the poisoned subjects deliberately used pesticides (89.5%) for attempted suicide. The total incidence rate was 62.67/100000 population per year. Higher annual incidence rates were found among young adults (111.66/100000 population), women (77.53/100000 population) and individuals from Dalit ethnic groups (98.22/100000 population). Pesticides responsible for poisoning were mostly insecticides (58.0%) and rodenticides (20.8%). The most used chemicals were organophosphates (37.3%) and pyrethroids (36.7%). Of the total cases, 98.6% were hospitalized, with intensive care required for 41.3%. The case fatality rate among admitted cases was 3.8%. This study has indicated that young adults, females and socially disadvantaged ethnic groups are at a higher risk of pesticides poisoning. Pesticides are mostly misused intentionally as an easy means for committing suicide. It is recommended that the supply of pesticides be properly regulated to prevent easy accessibility and misuse. A population-based study is warranted to reveal the actual problem of pesticides exposure and intoxication in the community.

  11. A key, based on wing patterns of biting midges (genus Culicoides Latreille - Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in the Iberian Peninsula, for use in epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawlings, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity of vectors of disease are often required speedily in epidemiological studies but with a precision which excludes as many other species as possible. Identification keys usually require the examination of many different parts of the suspected vector to pinpoint the species. This consumes considerable time and resources, so epidemiologists tend to ignore them. Asimplified approach to identification is proposed, using the characteristics of a single part of the body (the wings of biting midges of the genus Culicoides. The level of differentiation was epidemiologically valuable. The monoclave could not differentiate all the species from each other but more than one third (20/58 of identifications were for single species, and a further 12/58 identifications gave only two possibilities, making 55.2% of identifications to an accuracy of at most one of two species. The diagnosis of vector species was reached in a maximum of six decision points. The only notable exception to valuable differentiation was the four species in the Culicoides obsoletus group which had almost identical female wing patterns. The ready availability of simple keys, which can be used by anyone without formal training in taxonomy, for all the species of a group in a region should encourage greater standardisation of identifications in all studies, including those not primarily aimed at systematics. These monoclaves can also serve as the primary tools to build computerised image-recognition systems for genera, families and orders of insects.Con frequencia en los estudios epidemiológicos hace falta conocer con rapidez, pero también con precisión, la identidad de los vectores. Por lo general los procedimientos de identificación y las claves exigen el examen de un elevado número de partes diferentes del vector sospechoso. Este enfoque consume mucho tiempo y recursos por lo que tiende a ser evitado por los epidemiólogos. Se propone un sistema simplificado para la

  12. Evaluation of a Phylogenetic Marker Based on Genomic Segment B of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: Facilitating a Feasible Incorporation of this Segment to the Molecular Epidemiology Studies for this Viral Agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi Alfonso-Morales

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease (IBD is a highly contagious and acute viral disease, which has caused high mortality rates in birds and considerable economic losses in different parts of the world for more than two decades and it still represents a considerable threat to poultry. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the reliability of a phylogenetic marker included into segment B. This marker can facilitate molecular epidemiology studies, incorporating this segment of the viral genome, to better explain the links between emergence, spreading and maintenance of the very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV strains worldwide.Sequences of the segment B gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank Database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. A phylogenetic marker named B-marker was assessed by different phylogenetic principles such as saturation of substitution, phylogenetic noise and high consistency. This last parameter is based on the ability of B-marker to reconstruct the same topology as the complete segment B of the viral genome. From the results obtained from B-marker, demographic history for both main lineages of IBDV regarding segment B was performed by Bayesian skyline plot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis for both segments of IBDV genome was also performed, revealing the presence of a natural reassortant strain with segment A from vvIBDV strains and segment B from non-vvIBDV strains within Cuban IBDV population.This study contributes to a better understanding of the emergence of vvIBDV strains, describing molecular epidemiology of IBDV using the state-of-the-art methodology concerning phylogenetic reconstruction. This study also revealed the presence of a novel natural reassorted strain as possible manifest of change in the genetic structure and stability of the vvIBDV strains. Therefore, it highlights the need to obtain information about both genome segments of IBDV for

  13. SuicEpidemiology of physical activity: a population based study in Yazd cityide attempt and its relation to stressors and supportive systems: a study in Karaj city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motefaker M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Following socioeconomic development, the amount of physical inactivity among a given population has typically increased. Physical inactivity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study is to measure the prevalence of physical inactivity among the urban adult population of Yazd, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on an urban population of 1500 employed persons over the age of 20 years via cluster sampling. We use the IPAQ (International Physical Activity Questionnaire to evaluate physical activity levels. We evaluated the subjects according to their level of fitness, attitude toward physical activity and physical activity levels. Results: According to the fitness information provided by the participants, 2.1% were weak, 10% were moderately fit, 39.9% were fit, and 48% very fit. Regarding the attitudes of the participants toward physical activity, 1% was unfavorable, 32.4% were partly favorable, and 67.7% were favorable. Concerning the intensity of physical activity, 67.3% persons were inactive, 15% were sufficiently active, and 17.7% were highly active. After adjustment for age, 65.8% were inactive, 13.8% were sufficiently active, and 19.8% were highly active. According to gender, 81.6% of men were inactive, as were 54.4% of women. Inactivity according to age was as follows: 57.8% of the 20-24 year old, 66.9% of those aged 30-44 years, 70.4% of the 45-59 year olds, and 68.4% of those over the age of 60. Furthermore, physical inactivity was more prevalent in the higher socioeco-nomic group. Conclusion: The level of physical activity in urban population of Yazd is low. High risk is associated with employment, retirement, high socioecono-mic class and higher levels of education.

  14. [How to write high-quality epidemiological research paper Ⅵ. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, C Y; Cao, Y; Yang, C; Sun, F; Zhan, S Y

    2017-01-10

    Concerns have been raised about the reporting quality in nutritional epidemiology. Therefore, strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology-nutritional epidemiology (STROBE-nut) has been proposed by extending the STROBE statement to include additional recommendations on issues related to nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment, aiming to provide more specific guidelines on how to report observational research in the field. This paper presents a brief introduction to STROBE-nut and also an explanation of the key points in the additional items, with an example illustrating the application of the checklist.

  15. Importance of clinical epidemiology research in studies on respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Takashi; Tohda, Yuji

    2013-12-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has generated great interest since the 1990s and many physicians worldwide have based their clinical practice on this idea. Its underlying concepts include a diverse array of findings from clinical epidemiological research. In western countries, many clinical databases of clinical epidemiology are in circulation. Clinical epidemiological research using these data in western countries constitutes the majority worldwide. However, because race, lifestyle, culture, etc., differ among western countries and Japan, it is difficult to apply the results of clinical epidemiological research obtained in Japan to western countries. Unfortunately, there is no large-scale database for respiratory diseases prevalent in Japan. Many specialists agree with the opinion that it is necessary to collect medical information specific to the Japanese population and analyze the clinical data. KiHAC (Kinki Hokuriku Airway Disease Conference) was established in September 2001 with the aim of generating evidence through clinical epidemiological research for airway diseases by targeting physicians practicing respiratory medicine, pediatrics, and otorhinolaryngology, primarily in the Kinki and Hokuriku regions located in the central to western parts of Japan. As a part of the KiHAC, clinical research societies will attempt to cooperate with each other to make joint research possible and to share and utilize information, in addition to further promoting clinical research in the field of respiratory medicine. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Referral bias in ALS epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logroscino, Giancarlo; Marin, Benoit; Piccininni, Marco; Arcuti, Simona; Chiò, Adriano; Hardiman, Orla; Rooney, James; Zoccolella, Stefano; Couratier, Philippe; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Beghi, Ettore

    2018-01-01

    Despite concerns about the representativeness of patients from ALS tertiary centers as compared to the ALS general population, the extent of referral bias in clinical studies remains largely unknown. Using data from EURALS consortium we aimed to assess nature, extent and impact of referral bias. Four European ALS population-based registries located in Ireland, Piedmont, Puglia, Italy, and Limousin, France, covering 50 million person-years, participated. Demographic and clinic characteristics of ALS patients diagnosed in tertiary referral centers were contrasted with the whole ALS populations enrolled in registries in the same geographical areas. Patients referred to ALS centers were younger (with difference ranging from 1.1 years to 2.4 years), less likely to present a bulbar onset, with a higher proportion of familial antecedents and a longer survival (ranging from 11% to 15%) when compared to the entire ALS population in the same geographic area. A trend for referral bias is present in cohorts drawn from ALS referral centers. The magnitude of the possible referral bias in a particular tertiary center can be estimated through a comparison with ALS patients drawn from registry in the same geographic area. Studies based on clinical cohorts should be cautiously interpreted. The presence of a registry in the same area may improve the complete ascertainment in the referral center.

  17. Epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, D.

    2009-01-01

    Because of the concern of people, a study of mortality has previously been conducted in two Pennsylvania counties located near manufacturing and reprocessing plants of nuclear materials over the period 1950-1995. No excessive mortality has been identified in the population exposed counties in comparison to control counties. The current study is the continuation of the previous study of mortality over a period of eight additional years (up to 2004) and the addition of a study of cancer incidence over the period 1990-2004 and mortality for causes out of cancer from 1996 to 2004. Method: The population of each county of the study was compared to the population of three control counties selected according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, the same way as in the previous study. The demographic, mortality and incidence data for the different counties have been earned at the state of Pennsylvania. Results: over the period 1996-2004, mortality from cancer (10 457 deaths) in the two counties studied was comparable to that of six control counties (relative risk .97 [95% CI .94 -. 99]) and previous results. Similarly, the incidence of cancer was similar in the counties studied (39350 cases of cancer) and the control counties (relative risk .99 [95% CI .97-1.00]). The number of deaths unrelated to cancer was 36 565, very close to the expected number (relative risk .99 [95% CI 1.01-1.01]). Conclusion: Overall, no increase in cancer or non-cancer disease could be attributed to living in counties that had manufacturing and reprocessing plants of nuclear materials. (N.C.)

  18. Magnetic field effects on humans: epidemiological study design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budinger, T.F.; Wong, P.; Yen, C.K.

    1978-10-01

    This report presents details of the study design and methods for a retrospective epidemiological study on the health effects, if any, of stationary and alternating magnetic fields produced by man-made devices such as cyclotrons, controlled thermonuclear reactors (CTR), high voltage-high current transmission lines, magnetohydrodynamic devices (MHD), energy storage systems, and isotope separation facilities. The magnetic fields to which the workers can be exposed are as high as 10,000 gauss and the anticipated increase in magnetic fields associated with the environment and transmission lines near these devices is a few times the natural earth magnetic field. Thus the objectives include acquisition of low exposure data which can be used to evaluate any risks to the population incidentally exposed to environmental increases in magnetic fields, as well as an acquisition of high exposure data to be used in determining allowable exposure standards for the technical personnel working at CTR and MHD facilities. From the present status of knowledge on biological effects of magnetic fields, it is not possible to extrapolate or rationally conclude maximum permissible exposure levels for magnetic device workers and the population at large. There are no known previous studies of the effects of long-term exposure to magnetic fields involving large samples and matched controls. Thus this human epidemiological study was commenced in 1977 in parallel with experimental studies on biological and medical effects of magnetic fields being conducted by Dr. T. Tenforde and co-workers at LBL, by investigators at Battelle Northwest, and smaller projects at a number of laboratories around the world. The data base for the exposed population is comprised of approximately 1,000 cyclotron and bubble chamber workers.

  19. An Epidemiologic Study of Traumatic Brain Injuries in Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Monsef Kasmaei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic brain injuries (TBI are one of the most important causes of death in patients under the age of 25 years and is responsible for one third of total deaths caused by trauma. Therefore, knowing its epidemiologic pattern in different populations seems vital. Therefore, this study aims to examine the epidemiologic pattern of TBI in emergency department. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the profiles of 1000 patients affected by TBI were selected using simple random sampling. The examined variables in this study included demographic, season, mechanism of injury, accompanying injuries, level of consciousness, hospitalization duration, computed tomography (CT scan results, needing surgery, admission to intensive care unit, and outcome of the patient. In the end, independent risk factors for the death of patients were determined. Results: 1000 patients suffering from were studied (81.8% male; mean age 38.5±21.7 years. The frequency of their referral to hospital in spring (31.4% was more (p<0.01. 45.9% of the patients had a level of consciousness less than 9 based on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS. Subdural (45.9% and epidural bleeding (23.7% were the most common findings in CT scans in this study (p<0.001. Finally, 233 (23.3% of the patients were dead. Over 60 years of age, falling and motorcycle accidents, intracranial hemorrhage accompanied by brain contusion, subdural bleeding, a GCS of less than 9, and the need to be admitted to intensive care unit were independent risk factors of death in TBI. Conclusion: Age Over 60 years, falling and motorcycle accidents, intracranial hemorrhage accompanied by brain contusion, subdural bleeding, a GCS of less than 9, and need to be admitted to intensive care unit were independent risk factors for the death in TBI patients.

  20. Landscape Epidemiology Modeling Using an Agent-Based Model and a Geographic Information System

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    S. M. Niaz Arifin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A landscape epidemiology modeling framework is presented which integrates the simulation outputs from an established spatial agent-based model (ABM of malaria with a geographic information system (GIS. For a study area in Kenya, five landscape scenarios are constructed with varying coverage levels of two mosquito-control interventions. For each scenario, maps are presented to show the average distributions of three output indices obtained from the results of 750 simulation runs. Hot spot analysis is performed to detect statistically significant hot spots and cold spots. Additional spatial analysis is conducted using ordinary kriging with circular semivariograms for all scenarios. The integration of epidemiological simulation-based results with spatial analyses techniques within a single modeling framework can be a valuable tool for conducting a variety of disease control activities such as exploring new biological insights, monitoring epidemiological landscape changes, and guiding resource allocation for further investigation.

  1. Measurement of Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure in Epidemiological Studies (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swerdlow, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of radiofrequency (RF) exposure is important to the quality of epidemiological studies of the possible association of RF exposure with disease. The extent and type of exposure measurement in past epidemiological studies of RF, and the features of measurement that would be desirable for better studies in the future are summarised. Measurement characteristics that are discussed include quantification of radiation frequency and of intensity and timing of exposures, measurement (or good estimation) of exposures for individuals rather than only for groups, quality of measurement, and measurement of RF exposures experienced outside the study setting. Integration of exposure measurement into the design of epidemiological studies is needed for better assessments of possible RF effects. (author)

  2. Epidemiological bases and molecular mechanisms linking obesity, diabetes, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Salmerón, María; Chocarro-Calvo, Ana; García-Martínez, José Manuel; de la Vieja, Antonio; García-Jiménez, Custodia

    2017-02-01

    The association between diabetes and cancer was hypothesized almost one century ago. Today, a vast number of epidemiological studies support that obese and diabetic populations are more likely to experience tissue-specific cancers, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Obesity, diabetes, and cancer share many hormonal, immune, and metabolic changes that may account for the relationship between diabetes and cancer. In addition, antidiabetic treatments may have an impact on the occurrence and course of some cancers. Moreover, some anticancer treatments may induce diabetes. These observations aroused a great controversy because of the ethical implications and the associated commercial interests. We report an epidemiological update from a mechanistic perspective that suggests the existence of many common and differential individual mechanisms linking obesity and type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus to certain cancers. The challenge today is to identify the molecular links responsible for this association. Classification of cancers by their molecular signatures may facilitate future mechanistic and epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Consistency of external dosimetry in epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1992-05-01

    Efforts are underway to pool data from epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers to obtain more precise estimates of radiation risk than would be possible from any single study. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is coordinating combined analyses of data from studies in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. In the US, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) to provide investigators an opportunity to analyze data from several DOE laboratories. IARC investigators, in collaboration with those conducting the individual studies, have developed a dosimetry protocol for the international combined analyses

  4. Consistency of external dosimetry in epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Efforts are underway to pool data from epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers to obtain more precise estimates of radiation risk than would be possible from any single study. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is coordinating combined analyses of data from studies in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. In the U.S., the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) to provide investigators an opportunity to analyze data from several DOE laboratories. IARC investigators, in collaboration with those conducting the individual studies, have developed a dosimetry protocol for the international combined analyses. (author)

  5. Construction and validation of a web-based epidemiological database for inflammatory bowel diseases in Europe An EpiCom study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, Johan; Cukovic-Cavka, Silvija; Kaimakliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The EpiCom-study investigates a possible East-West-gradient in Europe in the incidence of IBD and the association with environmental factors. A secured web-based database is used to facilitate and centralize data registration.......The EpiCom-study investigates a possible East-West-gradient in Europe in the incidence of IBD and the association with environmental factors. A secured web-based database is used to facilitate and centralize data registration....

  6. Five-factor model personality traits as predictors of incident coronary heart disease in the community: a 10.5-year cohort study based on the Baltimore epidemiologic catchment area follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Offidani, Emanuela; Ziegelstein, Roy C; Bienvenu, Oscar Joseph; Samuels, Jack; Eaton, William W; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Certain personality and behavioral traits (e.g., type A and type D) have been reported to be associated with development and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD), but few have examined the relationship using a comprehensive assessment of personality along with a structured assessment of psychiatric disorders. Based on participants (age: 47.3 ± 12.8; female: 62.6%) of the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area follow-up study, we examined the relationship between the 5 major domains of personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and incident CHD between Wave III (1993-1996) and Wave IV (2004-2005). Incident CHD developed in 65 participants during the follow-up. Those with incident CHD had lower on openness (44.06 ± 9.29 vs. 47.18 ± 8.80; p = 0.007) and extraversion (45.98 ± 9.25 vs. 49.12 ± 8.92; p = 0.007) scores than those without. Logistic regression models revealed an inverse association (OR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.54-0.98) between openness factor z-scores and incident CHD after adjusting for putative confounding factors, including DSM III-R Major Depressive Disorder. High openness appears to be an independent protective factor for incident CHD in the community. Future studies should examine behavioral and pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this association. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The epidemiologic principles underlying traffic safety study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, June H; Mooney, Stephen J

    2016-10-01

    This article describes the epidemiological principles underlying four observational study designs commonly used to assess traffic safety: the case-control, case-crossover, culpability and quasi-induced exposure designs. We focus in particular on the specific challenges for preventing bias using each design. Whereas recruiting controls representative of the source population poses a special challenge in case-control traffic safety studies, case-crossover designs are prone to recall bias, and culpability and quasi-induced exposure studies can be undermined by difficulties assigning crash responsibility. Using causal diagrams and worked examples, we provide a simple way to teach traffic safety designs to epidemiologists and to encourage proper application of epidemiological principles among researchers designing traffic safety studies. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  8. Epidemiological Study of Greek University Students' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounenou, Kalliope; Koutra, Aikaterini; Katsiadrami, Aristea; Diacogiannis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 805 Greek students participated by filling in self-report questionnaires studying depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), general health status (General Health Questionnaire), general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R), and personal demographic features. Some of the more prevalent findings…

  9. [Epidemiological study and development of dental caries in Madrid students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle Purón, M E; Gil Miguel, A; Lasheras Lozano, M L; Rey Calero, J; Domínguez Rojas, V

    1990-12-01

    It has been done an epidemiologic study about dental caries prevalence in a school population in Madrid. We have studied 3,608 schoolchildren. Total caries prevalence was 53.4%, according other authors. Caries is more frequent between ten years children. We also observed low prevalence in the third year of the study.

  10. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in the Israeli population: a population-based study to estimate the prevalence of fibromyalgia in the Israeli population using the London Fibromyalgia Epidemiology Study Screening Questionnaire (LFESSQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablin, Jacob N; Oren, Anat; Cohen, Sarit; Aloush, Valerie; Buskila, Dan; Elkayam, Ori; Wollman, Yonathan; Berman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia represents the tip of the iceberg of chronic pain in the general population. We have attempted to estimate the prevalence of fibromyalgia in the Israeli population, using the London Fibromyalgia Epidemiology Study Screening Questionnaire (LFESSQ), an instrument previously utilised in several European countries. The LFESSQ-4 screens for widespread pain, and the LFESSQ-6 for widespread pain and chronic fatigue. The LFESSQ was administered via telephone to a sample of 1019 individuals. To estimate the positive predictive value (PPV) of LFESSQ-4 and LFESSQ-6, this questionnaire was submitted to a sample of rheumatology outpatients (n=76), who were examined to confirm or exclude fibromyalgia according to the 1990 criteria. The prevalence of fibromyalgia in the general population was estimated by applying the PPV to community subjects. In the community survey, 5.1% and 3.9% of individuals screened positive for the LFESSQ-4 and LFESSQ-6, respectively. The point prevalence of FMS in the Israeli general population was 2.6% (95%CI 1.7-3.4) when using LFESSQ-4 and 2.0% (95%CI 1.3-2.7) when using the LFESSQ-6 criteria. The prevalence of the fibromyalgia syndrome in the Israeli population is considerable and constitutes a significant health care issue. The prevalence is similar to that observed in other western populations. Based on this tool, over 25% of fibromyalgia cases appear to be among males, a proportion higher than generally appreciated.

  11. Ionizing radiation biomarkers for potential use in epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernot, Eileen; Cardis, Elisabeth; Hall, Janet; Baatout, Sarah; El Saghire, Houssein; Mohammed Abderrafi Benotmane; Roel Quintens; Blanchardon, Eric; Bouffler, Simon; Gomolka, Maria; Guertler, Anne; Kreuzer, Michaela; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats; Jeggo, Penny; Laurier, Dominique; Lindholm, Carita; Mkacher, Radhia; Sabatier, Laure; Tapio, Soile; De Vathaire, Florent

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a known human carcinogen that can induce a variety of biological effects depending on the physical nature, duration, doses and dose-rates of exposure. However, the magnitude of health risks at low doses and dose-rates (below 100 mSv and/or 0.1 mSv min -1 ) remains controversial due to a lack of direct human evidence. It is anticipated that significant insights will emerge from the integration of epidemiological and biological research, made possible by molecular epidemiology studies incorporating biomarkers and bioassays. A number of these have been used to investigate exposure, effects and susceptibility to ionizing radiation, albeit often at higher doses and dose rates, with each reflecting time-limited cellular or physiological alterations. This review summarises the multidisciplinary work undertaken in the framework of the European project DoReMi (Low Dose Research towards Multidisciplinary Integration) to identify the most appropriate biomarkers for use in population studies. In addition to logistical and ethical considerations for conducting large-scale epidemiological studies, we discuss the relevance of their use for assessing the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure at the cellular and physiological level. We also propose a temporal classification of biomarkers that may be relevant for molecular epidemiology studies which need to take into account the time elapsed since exposure. Finally, the integration of biology with epidemiology requires careful planning and enhanced discussions between the epidemiology, biology and dosimetry communities in order to determine the most important questions to be addressed in light of pragmatic considerations including the appropriate population to be investigated (occupationally, environmentally or medically exposed), and study design. The consideration of the logistics of biological sample collection, processing and storing and the choice of biomarker or bioassay, as well as awareness of

  12. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  13. Pontiac fever: an operational definition for epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Laurence

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pontiac fever is usually described in epidemic settings. Detection of Pontiac fever is a marker of an environmental contamination by Legionella and should thereby call for prevention measures in order to prevent outbreak of Legionnaire's disease. The objective of this study is to propose an operational definition of Pontiac fever that is amenable to epidemiological surveillance and investigation in a non epidemic setting. Methods A population of 560 elderly subjects residing in 25 nursing homes was followed during 4 months in order to assess the daily incidence of symptoms associated, in the literature, with Pontiac fever. The water and aerosol of one to 8 showers by nursing home were characterized combining conventional bacterial culture of Legionella and the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH technique that used oligonucleotides probes specific for Legionellaceae. A definition of Pontiac fever was devised based on clinical symptoms described in epidemic investigations and on their timing after the exposure event. The association between incidence of Pontiac fever and shower contamination levels was evaluated to test the relevance of this definition. Results The proposed definition of Pontiac fever associated the following criteria: occurrence of at least one symptom among headache, myalgia, fever and shivers, possibly associated with other 'minor' symptoms, within three days after a shower contaminated by Legionella, during a maximum of 8 days (minimum 2 days. 23 such cases occurred during the study (incidence rate: 0.125 cases per person-year [95% CI: 0.122–0.127]. A concentration of Legionella in water equal to or greater than 104.L-1 (FISH method was associated with a significant increase of incidence of Pontiac fever (p = 0.04. Conclusion Once validated in other settings, the proposed definition of Pontiac fever might be used to develop epidemiological surveillance and help draw attention on sources of

  14. Pontiac fever: an operational definition for epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossa, Paul; Deloge-Abarkan, Magali; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Hartemann, Philippe; Mathieu, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    Background Pontiac fever is usually described in epidemic settings. Detection of Pontiac fever is a marker of an environmental contamination by Legionella and should thereby call for prevention measures in order to prevent outbreak of Legionnaire's disease. The objective of this study is to propose an operational definition of Pontiac fever that is amenable to epidemiological surveillance and investigation in a non epidemic setting. Methods A population of 560 elderly subjects residing in 25 nursing homes was followed during 4 months in order to assess the daily incidence of symptoms associated, in the literature, with Pontiac fever. The water and aerosol of one to 8 showers by nursing home were characterized combining conventional bacterial culture of Legionella and the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technique that used oligonucleotides probes specific for Legionellaceae. A definition of Pontiac fever was devised based on clinical symptoms described in epidemic investigations and on their timing after the exposure event. The association between incidence of Pontiac fever and shower contamination levels was evaluated to test the relevance of this definition. Results The proposed definition of Pontiac fever associated the following criteria: occurrence of at least one symptom among headache, myalgia, fever and shivers, possibly associated with other 'minor' symptoms, within three days after a shower contaminated by Legionella, during a maximum of 8 days (minimum 2 days). 23 such cases occurred during the study (incidence rate: 0.125 cases per person-year [95% CI: 0.122–0.127]). A concentration of Legionella in water equal to or greater than 104.L-1 (FISH method) was associated with a significant increase of incidence of Pontiac fever (p = 0.04). Conclusion Once validated in other settings, the proposed definition of Pontiac fever might be used to develop epidemiological surveillance and help draw attention on sources of Legionella. PMID:16646972

  15. Epidemiological study of risk factors in pediatric asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Epidemiologic, physiologic, and social factors appear to be associated with an increased risk of asthma. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the most frequent risk factors of childhood asthma exacerbation and severity in our community. Methods: This cross sectional study involved 206 asthmatic children, 5 to ...

  16. A descriptive epidemiological study on stroke in Kampala, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Basic stroke features are hardly known in sub-Saharan countries, and no data are available in Uganda. Objective To characterize patients presenting with clinical stroke to Mulago Hospital. Design Descriptive epidemiological study. Setting Mulago National referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Participants ...

  17. Epidemiological study of risk factors in pediatric asthma | Tageldin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood asthma is a major public health problem in Egypt and worldwide. Epidemiologic, physiologic, and social factors appear to be associated with an increased risk of asthma. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the most frequent risk factors of childhood asthma exacerbation and severity in ...

  18. Air Pollution Exposure Modeling for Epidemiology Studies and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution epidemiology studies of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. These surrogates can induce exposure error since they do not account for (1) time spent indoors with ambient PM2.5 levels attenuated from outdoor...

  19. An epidemiological study of physical activity patterns and weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical activity during pregnancy has been investigated for its potential benefits which includes weight control. Physical activity patterns of pregnant women in Tshwane, South Africa, were investigated using the EPIC–Norfolk Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPAQ-2) in an epidemiological cross-sectional study. Differences ...

  20. Epidemiological Studies on Bovine Anaplasmosis | Salm | Bulletin of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological Studies on Bovine Anaplasmosis. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... 350 cattle over 24 weeks were sampled for seroepidemiological survey and assessing endemic stability (100 from sporadic field cases and small holders randomly selected and 250 from intensive system farms).

  1. Epidemiological and biochemical studies on bovine anaplamosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study whose objective was to determine epidemiological, clinical and biochemical characteristics of bovine anaplasmosis was carried out into two phases. The first phase was carried out in November 2005 to October 2006 . The prevalence of bovine anaplasmosis was determined using thin blood film and IFT and the ...

  2. Adiposity and hand osteoarthritis: the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.W. de; Ioan-Facsinay, A.; Mutsert, R. de; Widya, R.L.; Loef, M.; Roos, A. de; Cessie, S. le; Heijer, M. den; Rosendaal, F.R.; Kloppenburg, M.; Smit, J.W.A.; et al.,

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity, usually characterized by the body mass index (BMI), is a risk factor for hand osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated whether adipose tissue and abdominal fat distribution are associated with hand OA. METHODS: The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is a

  3. An epidemiological study of recent outbreaks of Gumboro disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to assess the epidemiological factors responsible for the recent outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in Accra and Kumasi, between October and December 2002 and January to April 2003, was conducted. Case report records at Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories were examined for IBD cases.

  4. A review of methods used for studying the molecular epidemiology of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeh, Friederike; Nathues, Heiko; Frey, Joachim; Muellner, Petra; Fellström, Claes

    2017-08-01

    Brachyspira (B.) spp. are intestinal spirochaetes isolated from pigs, other mammals, birds and humans. In pigs, seven Brachyspira spp. have been described, i.e. B. hyodysenteriae, B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia, B. murdochii, B. innocens, B. suanatina and B. hampsonii. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is especially relevant in pigs as it causes swine dysentery and hence considerable economic losses to the pig industry. Furthermore, reduced susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae to antimicrobials is of increasing concern. The epidemiology of B. hyodysenteriae infections is only partially understood, but different methods for detection, identification and typing have supported recent improvements in knowledge and understanding. In the last years, molecular methods have been increasingly used. Molecular epidemiology links molecular biology with epidemiology, offering unique opportunities to advance the study of diseases. This review is based on papers published in the field of epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of B. hyodysenteriae in pigs. Electronic databases were screened for potentially relevant papers using title and abstract and finally, Barcellos et al. papers were systemically selected and assessed. The review summarises briefly the current knowledge on B. hyodysenteriae epidemiology and elaborates on molecular typing techniques available. Results of the studies are compared and gaps in the knowledge are addressed. Finally, potential areas for future research are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiological features of gastro-esophageal reflux disease in Iran based on general population

    OpenAIRE

    Pourhoseingholi, Asma; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Moghimi-Dehkordi, Bijan; Barzegar, Farnoosh; Safaee, Azadeh; Vahedi, Mohsen; Dulaimi, David Al; Prabhakaran, Sudhakaran

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of GERD base on population study in Tehran providence. Background Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common and chronic problem. Recent reports from developing countries indicate increment in the incidence and prevalence of the disease over the past. Patients and methods This study was a cross-sectional household survey conducted from May 2006 to December 2007 in Tehran province, Iran. Participants completed a valid gastro-e...

  6. Leveraging Epidemiologic and Clinical Collections for Genomic Studies of Complex Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Dana C; Goodloe, Robert; Farber-Eger, Eric; Boston, Jonathan; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Haines, Jonathan L; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Bush, William S

    2015-01-01

    Present-day limited resources demand DNA and phenotyping alternatives to the traditional prospective population-based epidemiologic collections. To accelerate genomic discovery with an emphasis on diverse populations, we--as part of the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study--accessed all non-European American samples (n = 15,863) available in BioVU, the Vanderbilt University biorepository linked to de-identified electronic medical records, for genomic studies as part of the larger Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) I study. Given previous studies have cautioned against the secondary use of clinically collected data compared with epidemiologically collected data, we present here a characterization of EAGLE BioVU, including the billing and diagnostic (ICD-9) code distributions for adult and pediatric patients as well as comparisons made for select health metrics (body mass index, glucose, HbA1c, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides) with the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) linked to DNA samples (NHANES III, n = 7,159; NHANES 1999-2002, n = 7,839). Overall, the distributions of billing and diagnostic codes suggest this clinical sample is a mixture of healthy and sick patients like that expected for a contemporary American population. Little bias is observed among health metrics, suggesting this clinical collection is suitable for genomic studies along with traditional epidemiologic cohorts. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Epidemiological studies on some parasitological and ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water bodies in the study-area were examined for their gastropod fauna using the scooping net and hand-picking techniques. The overall prevalence of S. haematobium in the study-area was 6.6% with Ocholonya having the highest infection rate of 13.8%. The differences in community infection rate were not statistically ...

  8. Epidemiological and clinicopathological study of oral leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Minati

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oral white lesions that cannot be clinically or pathologically characterized by any specific disease are referred to as leukoplakia. Such lesions are well known for their propensity for malignant transformation to the extent of 10-20%.Exfoliative cytology is a simple and useful screening tool for detection of malignant or dysplastic changes in such lesions. AIMS: A clinicoepidemiological and cytological study of oral leukoplakia was undertaken to detect their malignant potential and value of cytology in diagnosis. METHODS: This 2 year duration multicentre study was undertaken on all patients presenting with oral white lesions to the out patient department of the two institutions. Those cases in which a specific cause (infective, systemic disease or specific disease entity for the white lesions were elicited were excluded from the study. The group with idiopathic white lesions was included in the study and was subjected to periodic exfoliative cytological study at three monthly intervals to detect any malignant change. Patients presenting less than two times for follow up were excluded from the final analysis of the study. RESULTS: Out of total 2920 patients studied, 89.53% showed benign, 9.93% showed dysplastic and, 0.72% showed malignant cells on exfoliative cytological study. All the dysplastic and malignant lesions were subjected to histopathological study by incisional biopsy. Among the dysplastic lesions 13.79% proved benign and the rest true dysplastic. Among the cytologically malignant group 4.76% showed dysplasia and the rest true malignant lesions. CONCLUSION: Persistent leukoplakia has a potential for malignant transformation and exfoliative cytology could be a simple method for early detection of dysplastic and malignant changes.

  9. An Epidemiological Study of Psychiatric Disorders in Hamadan Province , 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Mohammadi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The burden of psychiatric disorders in the developed countries has been identified by the screening questionnaires and standard clinical interviews at a high level, but the epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in our country are brief and their numbers are few. Planning for providing essential mental health services to the people requires us to be knowledgeable about the present status of psychiatric disorders in the society. The objective of this research was to carry out the epidemiological study of the psychiatric disorders in the individuals 18 years and above in urban and rural areas of Hamadan province. 664 individuals selected through randomized clustered and systematic sampling methods among the existing families of Hamadan province and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS questionnaires completed by the clinical psychologist. The diagnosis of the disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria.The results of the study showed that the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province was 11.28% (17.2% in women , 5.8% in men. The anxiety and mood disorders with 5.87 and 2.71% respectively had the highest prevalence in the province. The prevalence of psychotic disorders in this study was 0.60% , neuro- cognitive disorders 1.35% and dissociative disorders 0.75%. In the group of mood disorders, major depression with 2.56% and in the group of anxiety disorders, phobia with 2.56% had the higher prevalence. This study showed that 8.13% of studied individuals suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 66 years and above was 13.33%, individuals whose spouses had passed away 18.75%, urban residents of province 9.81%, illiterate individuals 12.80% and housewife individuals 12.31% was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the

  10. Annual effective dose due to residential radon progeny in Sweden: Evaluations based on current risk projections models and on risk estimates from a nation-wide Swedish epidemiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, M.; Lagarde, F.

    1996-12-01

    Effective dose per unit radon progeny exposure to Swedish population in 1992 is estimated by the risk projection model based on the Swedish epidemiological study of radon and lung cancer. The resulting values range from 1.29 - 3.00 mSv/WLM and 2.58 - 5.99 mSv/WLM, respectively. Assuming a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m 3 , an equilibrium factor of 0.4 and an occupancy factor of 0.6 in Swedish houses, the annual effective dose for the Swedish population is estimated to be 0.43 - 1.98 mSv/year, which should be compared to the value of 1.9 mSv/year, according to the UNSCEAR 1993 report. 27 refs, tabs, figs

  11. Annual effective dose due to residential radon progeny in Sweden: Evaluations based on current risk projections models and on risk estimates from a nation-wide Swedish epidemiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, M. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Lagarde, F. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine; Falk, R.; Swedjemark, G.A. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Effective dose per unit radon progeny exposure to Swedish population in 1992 is estimated by the risk projection model based on the Swedish epidemiological study of radon and lung cancer. The resulting values range from 1.29 - 3.00 mSv/WLM and 2.58 - 5.99 mSv/WLM, respectively. Assuming a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m{sup 3}, an equilibrium factor of 0.4 and an occupancy factor of 0.6 in Swedish houses, the annual effective dose for the Swedish population is estimated to be 0.43 - 1.98 mSv/year, which should be compared to the value of 1.9 mSv/year, according to the UNSCEAR 1993 report. 27 refs, tabs, figs.

  12. Epidemiological studies of exercise in diabetes prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Gang; Lakka, Timo A; Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2007-01-01

    for more than 70% of total mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes. The associations of physical activity, physical fitness, and changes in the lifestyle with the risk of type 2 diabetes have been assessed by a number of prospective studies and clinical trials in the past decade. Several studies have...... also evaluated the joint associations of physical activity, body mass index, and glucose levels with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Prospective studies and clinical trials have shown that moderate or high levels of physical activity or physical fitness and changes in the lifestyle (dietary modification...... and increase in physical activity) can prevent type 2 diabetes. Our review of the scientific evidence confirms that 30 min/d of moderate- or high-level physical activity is an effective and safe way to prevent type 2 diabetes in all populations....

  13. Advances in Epidemiological Studies of Herpes Zoster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Xiaoming

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium (Mg commonly causes nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis. Mg is a fastidious bacterium that poses difficulty in time-consuming isolation and culture. Lack of specificity for serological tests also hampers clinical research of Mg. With development of molecular biology, polymerase chain reaction tests, which exhibit high sensitivities and specificities, became primary tools for foundational and clinical studies of Mg.

  14. Advances in Epidemiological Studies of Herpes Zoster

    OpenAIRE

    Gu Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium (Mg) commonly causes nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis. Mg is a fastidious bacterium that poses difficulty in time-consuming isolation and culture. Lack of specificity for serological tests also hampers clinical research of Mg. With development of molecular biology, polymerase chain reaction tests, which exhibit high sensitivities and specificities, became primary tools for foundational and clinical studies of Mg.

  15. Epidemiological Study Of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Among Nursery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bateriuria in preschool children of different age and sex groups and to isolate the organisms responsible for asymptomatic bacteriuria and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. A total of 475 children from 17 nurseries in Ahvaz city, Iran ...

  16. Epidemiological studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dawadimi region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data from the patients included in this retrospective study were collected from the Leishmaniasis Control Center of Ad-Dawadimi District of Saudi Arabia. A total of 370 patients with CL were recorded from ...

  17. Genetic Epidemiological Studies of Multiple Sclerose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. Hoppenbrouwers (Ilse)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of this thesis was to find new risk alleles for MS. This may finally result in a better understanding of the pathogenesis of MS. Knowledge of MS disease pathways can direct strategies for prevention, diagnosis and therapy. In our study, we included MS patients from a

  18. The response rate in postal epidemiological studies in the context of national cultural behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelova, Radostina A.; Naydenov, Kiril; Hägerhed-Engman, Linda

    2012-01-01

    , but the obtained response rate was different: 78.8% in DBH and 34.5% in ALLHOME. The differences in the obtained response rate and the reasons for these differences were analyzed on the basis of the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions’ indexes, which clearly show the distinction in the national cultural behaviour...... of people in Sweden and Bulgaria. It was found that national culture could strongly influence the response behaviour of people in epidemiological studies and Hofstede’s indexes can be useful tool when designing and performing epidemiological studies, and in particular – questionnaire surveys.......The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of national cultural differences on the response rate, obtained in questionnaire based epidemiological studies on allergy and asthma, performed in Sweden (DBH) and Bulgaria (ALLHOME). The two studies used one and the same methodology...

  19. Epidemiology of operative burns at Kijabe Hospital from 2006 to 2010: pilot study of a web-based tool for creation of the Kenya Burn Repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Elizabeth L; Mueller, Melissa A; Wang, Li; Fogerty, Mary D; Guy, Jeffrey S; Nthumba, Peter M

    2013-06-01

    In order to implement effective burn prevention strategies, the WHO has called for improved data collection to better characterize burn injuries in low and middle income countries (LMIC). This study was designed to gather information on burn injury in Kenya and to test a model for such data collection. The study was designed as a retrospective case series study utilizing an electronic data collection tool to assess the scope of burn injuries requiring operation at Kijabe Hospital from January 2006 to May 2010. Data were entered into a web-based tool to test its utility as the potential Kenya Burn Repository (KBR). 174 patients were included. The median age was 10 years. There was a male predominance (59% vs. 41%). Findings included that timing of presentation was associated with burn etiology (p=0.009). Length of stay (LOS) was associated with burn etiology (pBurn injuries in Kenya show similarities with other LMIC in etiology and pediatric predominance. Late presentation for care and prolonged LOS are areas for further investigation. The web-based database is an effective tool for data collection and international collaboration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Epidemiological Study of Smoking Prevalence among Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Fialkovskaia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to clarify the prevalence and status of smoking among today’s teenagers according to the survey. Materials and methods. There was carried out the study of the prevalence of smoking among adolescents in the Dnipro (n = 2299 individuals. Results. According to the results of the survey, there were 20.8 % active smokers among adolescents, among them 89.1 % adolescents smoked every day, including 24.9 % boys and 14.6 % girls. On average, adolescents begin smoking regularly at the age of 14.4 ± 0.1 year. The average length of smoking in adolescents was to 3.4 ± 0.1. The average number of cigarettes adolescents smoked per day made up of 9.1 ± 0.3 units. Studying the type of tobacco products 48.6 % of adolescents were found to smoke light cigarettes. The average index of smoker was 109.1 ± 3.3 and was significantly higher in boys (125.5 ± 4.9 than in girls (91.9 ± 4.0 (p < 0.001. Study of the motivation to quit smoking found that only 20.3 % of teenagers are highly motivated to quit, whereas about 31.7 % of adolescents have no motivation to quit smoking. Conclusions. The study showed that the problem of tobacco use remains highly relevant: in the city every fifth teenager smokes. The findings necessitate widespread introduction of antismoking programs among adolescents, which should be directed first to reduce the intensity of smoking and increase motivation to quit smoking, promote healthy lifestyles, as well as thorough clinical examination of adolescent smokers with the aim of identifying risk groups for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  1. Epidemiologic Studies of Isoflavones & Mammographic Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Tice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density.

  2. Tinnitus: an epidemiologic study in Iranian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalessi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of population, 4% to 30%, suffers from tinnitus that is defined as perception of sound without apparent acoustic stimulus. We conducted the present study to determine the prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population; Tehran province. This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2009, recruiting 3207 individuals (age range, 7-98 who were residing in Tehran province, Iran. Participants were asked to fill two questionnaires; the validated Persian version of Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ and another one that was specifically designed for this study. Prevalence of tinnitus and its association factors were evaluated. 3207 participants enrolled into our study comprising 1429 (44.7% male and 1765 (55.3% female with mean age of 55.01±17.85. Of total of 3207 participants, 146 (4.6% had tinnitus consisting of 80 male (54.8% and 66 (45.2% female participants. It showed a rising trend with increasing age that was especially significant after the sixth decade of life (P=0.001. The analysis showed mean TQ global score of 35.96±25.52 that was significantly different between male and female participants (P=0.051 and had no significant correlation with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.10. The tinnitus intensity was moderate to very severe in 95 (56.1% of the participants. Its severity level was not significantly different between men and women (P=0.09. Tinnitus intensity had no significant association with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.31. Patients with higher TQ global score had higher tinnitus intensities (P=0.001. The annoyance level was significantly different between men and women (P=0.04 and its impact on the participants daily routine functions were significantly higher in men (P=0.003. Given the results of the study, demonstrating that prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population (Tehran province was lower than the other countries and had a direct correlation with increasing age only after the sixth

  3. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Goncalves Arliani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.

  4. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF) model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Runco, Jose Luiz; Cohen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.

  5. Epidemiological studies of radiation workers: preliminary communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, G.B.

    1982-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels Limited has embarked on a study of the mortality data among those of its workforce who were employed prior to 1 January 1976. The study covers a total population of about 41000 current and ex-employees, but is initially concerned with a radiation worker cohort of 7500 at the Sellafield establishment where the highest radiation doses are received. Tracing of the health status of ex-employees has been undertaken using the services provided by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) and the Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) and it is expected that ultimately the level of trace will be better than 97%. Mortality data not specifically related to radiation workers are included and relate to male deaths among serving staff and pensioners during the years 1962-1978. Those observed deaths (O) are compared on an age standardized basis with those expected (E) from the general population, the ratio O/E being about 1 for all cancers and less than 1 for non-cancer deaths. This pattern is consistent with the well known 'healthy worker' effect seen in industry. (author)

  6. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CHILDREN DIAPHYSEAL FEMORAL FRACTURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Cassiano Ricardo; Traldi, Eduardo Franceschini; Posser, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the personal, fracture, treatment and complication characteristics among patients with pediatric femoral shaft fractures attended at the pediatric orthopedic service of the Joana de Gusmão Children's Hospital. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study on a population consisting of patients with femoral shaft fractures, aged between birth and 14 years and 11 months, who were divided into four age groups. Information was obtained from medical records and was transferred to a survey questionnaire to present personal, fracture, treatment and complication variables. The study population consisted of 96 patients. Their mean age was 6.8 years. The cases were predominantly among males, comprising closed fractures on the right side, in the middle third with a single line. Regarding fracture etiology, traffic accidents predominated overall in the sample. Most of the patients (74 to 77.1%) presented femoral fractures as their only injury. Conservative treatment predominated in the group younger than six years of age, and surgical treatment in the group aged 6 to 14 years and 11 months. The complications observed until bone union were: discrepancy, infection and movement limitation. The mean time taken for consolidation was 9.6 ± 2.4 weeks, varying with age. The features of these fractures were similar to those described in the literature and the treatment used showed good results. The Joana de Gusmão Children's Hospital has used the treatment proposed in the literature for pediatric femoral shaft fractures.

  7. Epidemiologic Association of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Urinary Calculi: a Population-based Cross-sectional Study in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan-Ping; Lin, Xing-Gu; He, Rong-Quan; Shen, Juan; Sun, Si-Long; Chen, Gang; Wang, Qiu-Yan; Xu, Jian-Feng; Mo, Zeng-Nan

    2018-03-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported to have effects on kidney diseases; however, a link between NAFLD and urinary calculi remains to be confirmed. This study was conducted on a male population based on our previous Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey in Guangxi, China in order to estimate the frequency of urinary calculi and assess the association between NAFLD and urinary calculi while controlling for possible confounders. This was a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in the Fangchenggang region in Guangxi, China. The diagnoses of NAFLD and urinary calculi were made by ultrasonography. Clinical and laboratory findings were analyzed to investigate whether NAFLD was a risk factor for urinary calculi. A total of 3719 men were enrolled (age range, 17 to 88 years). Slightly more than a quarter (26.5%) of the participants were diagnosed with NAFLD. The percentage of urinary calculi in all participants was 6.9%, and the percentage of NAFLD patients with urinary calculi (8.4%) was significantly higher than that among patients without NAFLD (6.4%, P < .05). Advanced age; high body mass index; elevated levels of blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; low education; lower or higher physical activity; and NAFLD were independent risk factors for urinary calculi (P < .05). Our results showed that NAFLD was associated with a higher incidence of urinary calculi in this cohort and NAFLD might represent a risk factor for urinary calculi.

  8. INJURIES IN QUIDDITCH: A DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Rachel; Cooper, Ashley; Edmond, Evan; Faulkner, Alastair; Reidy, Michael J; Davies, Peter S E

    2017-10-01

    Quidditch is a fast growing, physically intense, mixed-gender full-contact sport. Originally adapted from Harry Potter novels, quidditch was first played in 2005 in the USA but is now played worldwide. It is essential to elucidate patterns of injury for the safety and growth of the sport of quidditch. It also provides a unique opportunity to study injury patterns in mixed-gender full-contact sport, an area of increasing importance with the developing culture of transition from single-gender to mixed-gender sports. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the types of injuries sustained while playing quidditch in terms of their incidence, anatomical distribution and severity, and gender distribution. An anonymous self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to all active quidditch players in the UK. Data collection included player demographics, type of injury, mechanism of injury, player position, experience and treatment required, relating to the previous 12 months. A total of 348 participants of 684 eligible athletes responded to the questionnaire representing a 50.87% response rate. There were 315 injuries reported by 180 athletes in total, with an overall incidence of 4.06 injuries per 1,000 hours. A statistically significantly different rate of concussion was observed with female athletes sustaining more concussion than males (p=0.006). The overall rate of concussion was 0.651/1000hrs in males and 1.163/1000hrs in females (0.877/1000 hours overall). This study provides the first quantitative description of injury rates in quidditch. The overall injury rates are no higher than those reported in other recreational contact sports. Female athletes were found to have a higher rate of concussion, which needs further investigation. These findings are relevant to players concerned about safety in quidditch and to governing bodies regarding governance of the sport. 3b.

  9. Epidemiological study of schizophrenia in the Chernobyl exclusion zone personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loganovsky, K.N.; Nyagu, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    Nakane and Ohta (1986) revealed very high (6 %) prevalence rate of schizophrenia in A-bomb survivors. The goal of this study was the epidemiological investigation of schizophrenia in the Chernobyl exclusion zone personnel on the base of 10-years follow up study and analysis of the psychiatric archives (1986-1996). As a result the register of schizophrenia spectrum disorders has been created, including 65 staff members. According to both ICD-9 and ICD-10 criteria there were 48 patients with schizophrenia. It has been revealed a statistically significant increase of the schizophrenia percentage amongst all psychoses in the Chernobyl exclusion zone personnel in comparison with the general Ukrainian population. It has been established that among 48 cases of schizophrenia there were 39 (81.2 %) of schizophrenia onset occurred in the zone. Since 1990 a significant increase (more than 4 times: 5.4 per 10,000 in the zone and 1.1 per 10,000 in Ukraine) in schizophrenia incidence has been taking place among the irradiated population of the exclusion zone in comparison with the general population. Our data testify to possibility of radiation-induced schizophrenia onset, which seem to be like stochastic effects of ionizing radiation. The mechanisms of these effects realization are the subject of further investigations. (author)

  10. Problem gambling among ethnic minorities: results from an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caler, Kyle R; Vargas Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Nower, Lia

    2017-01-01

    A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341) to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394), Black (n = 261), or Asian/other (n = 177). Overall, the highest proportion of Hispanics were high-risk problem gamblers. Hispanic participants were also significantly more likely than other groups to use and abuse substances and to report mental health problems in the past month, behavioral addictions, and/or suicidal ideation in the past year. Primary predictors of White high risk problem gamblers were being young and male with friends or family who gambled, fair to poor health status, substance use, gambling once a week or more both online and in land-based venues, and engaging in a number of gambling activities. In contrast, gender was not a predictor of minority high risk problem gamblers, who were characterized primarily by having friends or family who gambled, gambling online only, having a behavioral addiction and playing instant scratch-offs and gaming machines. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  11. Problem gambling among ethnic minorities: results from an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R. Caler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341 to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394, Black (n = 261, or Asian/other (n = 177. Overall, the highest proportion of Hispanics were high-risk problem gamblers. Hispanic participants were also significantly more likely than other groups to use and abuse substances and to report mental health problems in the past month, behavioral addictions, and/or suicidal ideation in the past year. Primary predictors of White high risk problem gamblers were being young and male with friends or family who gambled, fair to poor health status, substance use, gambling once a week or more both online and in land-based venues, and engaging in a number of gambling activities. In contrast, gender was not a predictor of minority high risk problem gamblers, who were characterized primarily by having friends or family who gambled, gambling online only, having a behavioral addiction and playing instant scratch-offs and gaming machines. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  12. MIH: epidemiologic clinic study in paediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condò, R; Perugia, C; Maturo, P; Docimo, R

    2012-04-01

    The Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a qualitative and quantitative defect of the enamel structure of the first permanent molars, which may vary from 1 to 4 with involvement of maxillary and jaw permanent incisors. AIM.: Aim of this study is that to evaluate, among 1500 paediatric patients chosen at random aged between 0 and 14 years, afferent by the Paediatric Dentistry of the Azienda Ospedialiera Policlinico Tor Vergata of Rome from 1996 to 2011, the incidents and the prevalence of the MIH distribution, and furthermore to ascertain the possible relationship with the data described in the literature. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.: From the sample of 1500 paediatric patients, the number of those affections from MIH has turned out to be pairs to 110 (7.3%) aged between 4 and 15 years, and an average age equal to 9.7. The incidence of the hypoplastic defects is greater in the elements of the permanents series in which the functional class mainly interested is that of the first molars, with a percentage of 39.8%. Regarding the elements of the deciduous series affections from hypoplasia, they turn out to be in all in number of 20 represented in 80% of the cases from the seconds molars while in the remaining 20% of the cases the items involved are the central incisors. About the percentage of elements involved in the MIH: the molars, involved with a frequency of 56%, turn out to be more hit regarding incisors (44%). As reported in the literature, it can be asserted that the MIH can hit in equal measure both the male sex that feminine one. CONCLUSIONS.: MIH represents a condition quite frequent in the paediatric population. In managing this anomaly takes an essential role in the early diagnosis and in the differential one. The study done underlined the importance of a correct application of the therapeutic protocol which, starting from a careful diagnosis and articulating themselves in the execution of preventive treatments and in severe cases restorative and

  13. MIH: epidemiologic clinic study in paediatric patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONDÒ, R.; PERUGIA, C.; MATURO, P.; DOCIMO, R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a qualitative and quantitative defect of the enamel structure of the first permanent molars, which may vary from 1 to 4 with involvement of maxillary and jaw permanent incisors. Aim. Aim of this study is that to evaluate, among 1500 paediatric patients chosen at random aged between 0 and 14 years, afferent by the Paediatric Dentistry of the Azienda Ospedialiera Policlinico Tor Vergata of Rome from 1996 to 2011, the incidents and the prevalence of the MIH distribution, and furthermore to ascertain the possible relationship with the data described in the literature. Results and discussion. From the sample of 1500 paediatric patients, the number of those affections from MIH has turned out to be pairs to 110 (7.3%) aged between 4 and 15 years, and an average age equal to 9.7. The incidence of the hypoplastic defects is greater in the elements of the permanents series in which the functional class mainly interested is that of the first molars, with a percentage of 39.8%. Regarding the elements of the deciduous series affections from hypoplasia, they turn out to be in all in number of 20 represented in 80% of the cases from the seconds molars while in the remaining 20% of the cases the items involved are the central incisors. About the percentage of elements involved in the MIH: the molars, involved with a frequency of 56%, turn out to be more hit regarding incisors (44%). As reported in the literature, it can be asserted that the MIH can hit in equal measure both the male sex that feminine one. Conclusions. MIH represents a condition quite frequent in the paediatric population. In managing this anomaly takes an essential role in the early diagnosis and in the differential one. The study done underlined the importance of a correct application of the therapeutic protocol which, starting from a careful diagnosis and articulating themselves in the execution of preventive treatments and in severe cases restorative and

  14. Enuresis: Epidemiological study in Moroccan children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourquia, A.; Chihabeddine, K.

    2002-01-01

    Enuresis is a common symptom that leads to significant psychosocialsequalae. In this study we analyzed three surveys in three different urbanand suburban regions in Morocco in order to evaluate the epidemiologicalcharacteristics and profiles of the young patients who had enuresis and theattitudes of their parents towards this problem. There were 1520 children andadolescents in this analysis whose age ranged between 5 and 15 years. Theywere attending various outpatient surgical and medical clinics when theirparents were asked to answer a pre-prepared questionnaire. The prevalence ofenuresis was 35% with preponderance of males (54%). The cause could not bedefined (primary) in 91.5% of the patients with enuresis. There were familialfactors associated with enuresis that included history of enuresis in theparents or siblings in 56% of the cases and coercion attitude of the parentsin 23%. Enuresis was associated with impediment of learning in 23%andchastisement of children in 85.4% of the cases. Twenty-three percent ofpatients also had chronic disorders. The parents were concerned mostly whenthe children approached puberty or when enuresis was secondary to anotherproblem. Spontaneous improvement was the rule by adolescence, hence only 8.7%sought medical advice for enuresis. Treatment was conventional in 67% of thecases and confined to restriction of fluids and food items in 73% of thetreated patients. We conclude that enuresis is apparently higher in Moroccanchildren compared to reports in other countries. However, enuresis was notconsidered a major medical problem of concern to parents who rarely soughtmedical advice for it. (author)

  15. Assessing the reporting of categorised quantitative variables in observational epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabikwa, Onkabetse V; Greenwood, Darren C; Baxter, Paul D; Fleming, Sarah J

    2017-03-14

    One aspect to consider when reporting results of observational studies in epidemiology is how quantitative risk factors are analysed. The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) guidelines recommend that researchers describe how they handle quantitative variables when analysing data. For categorised quantitative variables, the authors are required to provide reasons and justifications informing their practice. We investigated and assessed the practices and reporting of categorised quantitative variables in epidemiology. The assessment was based on five medical journals that publish epidemiological research. Observational studies published between April and June 2015 and investigating the relationships between quantitative exposures (or risk factors) and the outcomes were considered for assessment. A standard form was used to collect the data, and the reporting patterns amongst eligible studies were quantified and described. Out of 61 articles assessed for eligibility, 23 observational studies were included in the assessment. Categorisation of quantitative exposures occurred in 61% of these studies and reasons informing the practice were rarely provided. Only one article explained the choice of categorisation in the analysis. Transformation of quantitative exposures into four or five groups was common and dominant amongst studies using equally spaced categories. Dichotomisation was not popular; the practice featured in one article. Overall, the majority (86%) of the studies preferred ordered or arbitrary group categories. Other criterions used to decide categorical boundaries were based on established guidelines such as consensus statements and WHO standards. Categorisation of continuous variables remains a dominant practice in epidemiological studies. The reasons informing the practice of categorisation within published work are limited and remain unknown in most articles. The existing STROBE guidelines could provide stronger

  16. Optimizing malarial epidemiological studies in areas of low transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Alifrangis, Michael; van der Hoek, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Malaria risk factor studies have traditionally used microscopy readings of blood slides as the measure of malaria infection in humans, although alternatives are available. There is the need for an assessment of how the use of these alternative diagnostic approaches will influence the efficiency...... was not statistically significant when microscopy was used, which can be explained by the lower prevalence of microscopy positivity in comparison to the prevalence of ELISA- and PCR-positivity. This study suggests that in low-transmission areas, such as Sri Lanka, smaller sample sizes can be used for epidemiological...... and PCR but it can also be a useful tool in malaria epidemiological studies. This study indicates that cross-sectional surveys are only efficient if they take place during peak transmission season. Cross sectional surveys currently implemented by the Sri Lankan government in response to local malaria...

  17. STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology: Molecular Epidemiology STROBE-ME. An extension of the STROBE statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Valentina; Egger, Matthias; McCormack, Valerie; Farmer, Peter B; Ioannidis, John P A; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Matullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, David H; Schoket, Bernadette; Stromberg, Ulf; Vermeulen, Roel; Wild, Christopher; Porta, Miquel; Vineis, Paolo

    2012-09-01

    Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of internal dose, early biological change, susceptibility, and clinical outcomes are used as proxies for investigating the interactions between external and/or endogenous agents and the body components or processes. The need for improved reporting of scientific research led to influential statements of recommendations such as STrengthening Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. The STROBE initiative established in 2004 aimed to provide guidance on how to report observational research. Its guidelines provide a user-friendly checklist of 22 items to be reported in epidemiological studies, with items specific to the three main study designs: cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies. The present STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology - Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME) initiative builds on the STROBE Statement implementing 9 existing items of STROBE and providing 17 additional items to the 22 items of STROBE checklist. The additions relate to the use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies, concerning collection, handling and storage of biological samples; laboratory methods, validity and reliability of biomarkers; specificities of study design; and ethical considerations. The STROBE-ME recommendations are intended to complement the STROBE recommendations.

  18. STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology--Molecular Epidemiology STROBE-ME: an extension of the STROBE statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Valentina; Egger, Matthias; McCormack, Valerie; Farmer, Peter B; Ioannidis, John P A; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Matullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, David H; Schoket, Bernadette; Stromberg, Ulf; Vermeulen, Roel; Wild, Christopher; Porta, Miquel; Vineis, Paolo

    2011-12-01

    Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of internal dose, early biological change susceptibility and clinical outcomes are used as proxies for investigating the interactions between external and/or endogenous agents and body components or processes. The need for improved reporting of scientific research led to influential statements of recommendations such as the STrengthening Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. The STROBE initiative established in 2004 aimed to provide guidance on how to report observational research. Its guidelines provide a user-friendly checklist of 22 items to be reported in epidemiological studies, with items specific to the three main study designs: cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies. The present STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology -Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME) initiative builds on the STROBE statement implementing 9 existing items of STROBE and providing 17 additional items to the 22 items of STROBE checklist. The additions relate to the use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies, concerning collection, handling and storage of biological samples; laboratory methods, validity and reliability of biomarkers; specificities of study design; and ethical considerations. The STROBE-ME recommendations are intended to complement the STROBE recommendations. Copyright © 2011 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology - Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME): an extension of the STROBE statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Valentina; Egger, Matthias; McCormack, Valerie; Farmer, Peter B; Ioannidis, John P A; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Matullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, David H; Schoket, Bernadette; Stromberg, Ulf; Vermeulen, Roel; Wild, Christopher; Porta, Miquel; Vineis, Paolo

    2011-12-01

    Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of internal dose, early biological change, susceptibility and clinical outcomes are used as proxies for investigating the interactions between external and/or endogenous agents and the body components or processes. The need for improved reporting of scientific research led to influential statements of recommendations such as the STrenghtening Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. The STROBE initiative established in 2004 aimed to provide guidance on how to report observational research. Its guidelines provide a user-friendly checklist of 22 items to be reported in epidemiological studies, with items specific to the three main study designs: cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies. The present STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology - Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME) initiative builds on the STROBE Statement implementing 9 existing items of STROBE and providing 17 additional items to the 22 items of STROBE checklist. The additions relate to the use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies, concerning collection, handling and storage of biological samples; laboratory methods, validity and reliability of biomarkers; specificities of study design; and ethical considerations. The STROBE-ME recommendations are intended to complement the STROBE recommendations. Copyright © 2011 The American Health Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology--Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME): an extension of the STROBE statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Valentina; Egger, Matthias; McCormack, Valerie; Farmer, Peter B; Ioannidis, John P A; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Matullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, David H; Schoket, Bernadette; Stromberg, Ulf; Vermeulen, Roel; Wild, Christopher; Porta, Miquel; Vineis, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of internal dose, early biological change, susceptibility and clinical outcomes are used as proxies for investigating interactions between external and / or endogenous agents and body components or processes. The need for improved reporting of scientific research led to influential statements of recommendations such as the STrengthening Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. The STROBE initiative established in 2004 aimed to provide guidance on how to report observational research. Its guidelines provide a user-friendly checklist of 22 items to be reported in epidemiological studies, with items specific to the three main study designs: cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies. The present STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology - Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME) initiative builds on the STROBE statement implementing nine existing items of STROBE and providing 17 additional items to the 22 items of STROBE checklist. The additions relate to the use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies, concerning collection, handling and storage of biological samples; laboratory methods, validity and reliability of biomarkers; specificities of study design; and ethical considerations. The STROBE-ME recommendations are intended to complement the STROBE recommendations.

  1. STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology - Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME): an extension of the STROBE statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Valentina; Egger, Matthias; McCormack, Valerie; Farmer, Peter B; Ioannidis, John P A; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Matullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, David H; Schoket, Bernadette; Stromberg, Ulf; Vermeulen, Roel; Wild, Christopher; Porta, Miquel; Vineis, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of internal dose, early biological change, susceptibility and clinical outcomes are used as proxies for investigating interactions between external and/or endogenous agents and body components or processes. The need for improved reporting of scientific research led to influential statements of recommendations such as the STrengthening Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. The STROBE initiative established in 2004 aimed to provide guidance on how to report observational research. Its guidelines provide a user-friendly checklist of 22 items to be reported in epidemiological studies, with items specific to the three main study designs: cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies. The present STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology -Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME) initiative builds on the STROBE statement implementing nine existing items of STROBE and providing 17 additional items to the 22 items of STROBE checklist. The additions relate to the use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies, concerning collection, handling and storage of biological samples; laboratory methods, validity and reliability of biomarkers; specificities of study design; and ethical considerations. The STROBE-ME recommendations are intended to complement the STROBE recommendations. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2011 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  2. Epidemiological studies of some populations exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.L.

    1985-08-01

    During 1984 September 19 and 20, a meeting was held at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba to discuss current epidemiological studies of populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Twelve representatives from three countries attended the meeting and eleven papers were extensively discussed. The majority of these papers described studies of populations occupationally exposed to radiation. The report contains summaries of the papers presented and of the discussions that took place

  3. Head Trauma Patients Presented To Emergency Department; an Epidemiologic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Forouzan; Kambiz Masoumi; Hassan Motamed; Alireza Teimouri; Hassan Barzegari; Behzad Zohrevandi; Fatemeh Rasouli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Traumatic brain injuries are among the most important causes of mortality and disability. Since there is a lot of controversy regarding discharge of head trauma patients, especially those with mild traumatic brain injuries, this study was designed aiming to evaluate traumatic brain injuries from an epidemiologic point of view. Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, patients with isolated head trauma, and all those who underwent computed tomography (CT) were includ...

  4. Epidemiological study of scabies in district Haripur, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Samina Yasmin; Suleman; Hanif Ullah, et al.

    2016-01-01

    Scabies is a contagious disorder of skin caused by a mite called human itch mite, Sarcoptes scabiei. An epidemiological study of scabies was conducted from district Haripur to evaluate the prevalence and the important risk factors responsible for the spread of scabies. The study was conducted in General population from (February - April 2013).Surveys were carried out in general population comprising 200 families of district Haripur. Out of two hundred families in general population, 81 were s...

  5. Epidemiologic Studies of the Prevalence of Arterial Hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiologic study was carried out in the dry season on 250 male commercial motor bike riders from five different parks. 69% of the bike riders were in the (year) 31– 40 and 41–50 age range while 31% were in 21–30, 51– 60 and 61 – 70 age range. Half of the population studied were normotensive. Arterial ...

  6. Software development for statistical handling of dosimetric and epidemiological data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, M.

    1990-01-01

    The dose records from different groups of occupationally exposed workers are available in a computerized data base whose main purpose is the individual dose follow-up. Apart from this objective, such a dosimetric data base can be useful to obtain statistical analysis. The type of statistical n formation that can be extracted from the data base may aim to attain mainly two kinds of objectives: - Individual and collective dose distributions and statistics. -Epidemiological statistics. The report describes the software developed to obtain the statistical reports required by the Regulatory Body, as well as any other type of dose distributions or statistics to be included in epidemiological studies A Users Guide for the operators who handle this software package, and the codes listings, are also included in the report. (Author) 2 refs

  7. Epidemiologic studies of cancer in populations near nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shleien, B.; Ruttenber, A.J.; Sage, M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors reviewed over 40 epidemiologic studies around nuclear power stations, fuel reprocessing plants, and weapons production facilities and testing sites in the United Kingdom, the United States, France, and Canada. They examined these studies for their potential to support a cause and effect relationship between cancer risk and radiation exposure. The extent to which an epidemiologic study supports a causal relation between radiation exposure and increased cancer risk can be evaluated using a set of criteria that have become known as Hill's postulates. In their review, epidemiologic studies yielded results that were biologically plausible and were supported by experimental data, but in almost all of the studies the methodologies were not adequate for evaluating causality. In the majority of cases, the methodologies did not permit examination of dose-response associations, making it impossible to support or refute causal relations. They suggest that investigators consider these issues when designing studies and employ dose reconstruction methodology to estimate radiation doses for specific individuals and population groups.86 references

  8. Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: an epidemiological perspective: the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Rovsing, Hans

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey of 4151 participants of the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study. OBJECTIVE: To identify prevalences and individual risk factors for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study has...... registered health parameters since 1976. In 1993, standardized, lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine were recorded. There were 1533 men and 2618 women. METHODS: Statistical correlations were made between degenerative spondylolisthesis, and physical, occupational, and general epidemiological data. RESULTS......: A total of 254 cases of lumbar slip were found (males 2.7%, females 8.4%). In females, no significant relationship between age at menopause or childbirths and the presence of degenerative spondylolisthesis were found. In women, relationships between body mass index (BMI) in 1976 and L4 olisthesis (P = 0...

  9. STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology - Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME): An extension of the STROBE statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallo, V.; Egger, M.; McCormack, V.; Farmer, P.B.; Ioannidis, J.P.; Kirsch-Volders, M.; Matullo, G.; Phillips, D.H.; Schoket, B.; Stromberg, U.; Vermeulen, R.; Wild, C.; Porta, M.; Vineis, P.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of internal dose, early biological change, susceptibility and clinical outcomes are used as proxies for investigating interactions between external and / or endogenous agents

  10. [Validity of partial systems of periodontal examination in epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, A; Ainamo, J; Noguerol, B; Cobo, J; Lucas, V; Bascones, A

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the representativeness of partial examination in the assessment of the average severity and the prevalence of periodontal disease. 343 subjects aged 7, 12 and 15-19 years were examined for the presence or absence of gingival bleeding after gentle probing, supra or subgingival calculus and pocket depths of 4-5 mm., or 6 mm. and over, of each tooth. Three sets of average severity and prevalence scores were prepared: based on the full mouth examination, on observations made from the index teeth of the P.D.I., and on the six teeth utilized for the C.P.I.T.N. in this age group. Partial indices tended to underestimate the real prevalence of the different signs, and slightly overestimate severity, being these observations statistically significant. Average severity scores were obtained more accurately with the six Ramfjord teeth, while real prevalence rates were better determined with the C.P.I.T.N. teeth. From an epidemiological point of view, the real significance of the differences observed should be further determined.

  11. Reliability of intraocular pressure measurement with the Goldmann applanation tonometer in epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Dielemans (Ida); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); A. Hofman (Albert); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe reproducibility of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement with the Goldmann applanation tonometer was investigated as part of a population-based epidemiological study. Sixty-two subjects were examined in a first measurement session. The IOP was measured three times consecutively in

  12. Epidemiological study of mortality in epilepsy in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Muñoz, María Isabel; García-Martín, Guillermina; Pérez-Errazquin, Francisco; Romero-Acebal, Manuel; García-Rodríguez, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario

    2017-03-01

    Studies concerning mortality in epilepsy have been performed primarily in Northern-Central Europe and US. The aim of this study was to provide information about mortality in people with epilepsy in Southern European countries. We studied a Spanish prevalence and incidence cohort of 2309 patients aged ≥14 years with epilepsy who were treated in an outpatient epilepsy clinic between 2000 and 2013. The deceased were identified through Civil Registries. Causes of death were determined using death certificates, forensic autopsies, hospital reports, family practitioners, and care-givers' records. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. In a total of 15,865 person-years of follow-up, 152 patients died, resulting in an SMR of 2.11 (95% CI 1.79-2.47), which was higher for those aged 14-24. There was also a high rate of death for symptomatic epilepsies, progressive causes (SMR=6.12, CI 3.50-9.94), and remote causes (SMR=2.62, CI 2.12-3.21). High SMRs were found for all kinds of epilepsy and for respiratory and tumoural causes. Patients who died of epilepsy itself were 12.5%. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy incidence was 0.44:1000. Death from status epilepticus incidence was 20:100,000. SMRs for external causes were of no statistical significance. This is the first epidemiological study to examine rate of mortality in epilepsy in a Southern European country. The identified mortality pattern is similar to the one provided by researchers from developed countries. The similarities between our results concerning epilepsy-related deaths and those provided by population-based studies are the result of the scarcely selected character of our study cohort. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Increase in sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis in Norway: a general population-based epidemiologic study of age, gender and regional distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brage Sören

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses from 1994–2000, and the distribution across gender, age groups, diagnostic groups and regions in a general population. Methods The population at risk was defined as all individuals aged 16–66 years who were entitled to sickness benefits in 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000 (n = 2,282,761 in 2000. All individuals with a full-time disability pension were excluded. The study included approximately 77% of the Norwegian population aged 16–66 years. For each year, the study base started on 1 January and ended on 31 December. Individuals that were sick-listed for more than 14/16 consecutive days with a psychiatric diagnosis on their medical certificate were selected as cases. Included in this study were data for Norway, the capital city Oslo and five regions in the southeast of the country. Results Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased in all age groups, in women and men, and in all regions. At the national level, the cumulative incidence increased in women from 1.7% in 1994 to 4.6% in 2000, and in men from 0.8% in 1994 to 2.2% in 2000. The highest cumulative incidence was found in middle-aged women and men (30–59 years. Women had a higher incidence than men in all stratification groups. The cumulative incidences in 2000 varied between 4.6% to 5.6% in women in the different regions, and for men the corresponding figures were 2.1% to 3.2%. Throughout the four years studied, women in Oslo had more than twice as high incidence levels of sickness absence with alcohol and drug diagnoses as the country as a whole. There were some differences between regions in sickness absence with specific psychiatric diagnoses, but they were small and most comparisons were non-significant. Conclusion Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased between 1994 and 2000 in Norway. The increase was highest in the middle-aged, and in women

  14. General statistical data structure for epidemiologic studies of DOE workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frome, E.L.; Hudson, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies to evaluate the occupational risks associated with employment in the nuclear industry are currently being conducted by the Department of Energy. Data that have potential value in evaluating any long-term health effects of occupational exposure to low levels of radiation are obtained for each individual at a given facility. We propose a general data structure for statistical analysis that is used to define transformations from the data management system into the data analysis system. Statistical methods of interest in epidemiologic studies include contingency table analysis and survival analysis procedures that can be used to evaluate potential associations between occupational radiation exposure and mortality. The purposes of this paper are to discuss (1) the adequacy of this data structure for single- and multiple-facility analysis and (2) the statistical computing problems encountered in dealing with large populations over extended periods of time

  15. A molecular epidemiological study of rabies in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Velez, Jafet; Malaga, Carlos; Wandeler, Alexander I

    2008-01-01

    The mongoose is the principal reservoir for rabies on the island of Puerto Rico. This report describes a molecular epidemiological study of representative rabies viruses recovered from the island in 1997. Two closely related but distinct variants circulating in regionally localised parts of the island were identified. The lack of a monophyletic relationship of these viruses suggests that two independent incursions of rabies onto the island have occurred. Both of these Puerto Rican variants were closely related to a variant, known as the north central skunk strain, currently circulating in North American skunk populations and all are members of the cosmopolitan rabies lineage spread during the colonial period. However, the Puerto Rican viruses are clearly distinct from those presently circulating in mongooses in Cuba and which are epidemiologically closely linked to the Mexican dog rabies virus. This study clearly establishes the distinct origins of the rabies viruses now circulating on these two Caribbean islands.

  16. Review of epidemiologic studies at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Acquavella, J.F.; Reyes, M.; McInroy, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies at Los Alamos are directed toward understanding potential health risks associated with activities pertaining to national energy and defense needs. Currently this research focuses on evaluating the effects of plutonium exposure in man. The major programs consist of (1) epidemiologic studies of the incidence of disease and mortality among plutonium and other workers at six Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities (Los Alamos, Rocky Flats, Mound, Savannah River, Hanford, and Oak Ridge), and (2) measurement of plutonium and other radionuclides in human tissues. Currently, investigations of mortality for Pantex workers and the surrounding general population are also being conducted for DOE in support of an Environment Impact Statement. This paper places emphasis on the activities of the national epidemiologic study of plutonium workers. The purpose of the plutonium workers study is to: (1) investigate whether adverse health effects are associated with exposures to plutonium, (2) explore whether adverse health effects are associated with exposure to transuranic elements, other radioisotopes, and hazardous substances that are found in nuclear facilities making routine use of plutonium, and (3) to describe in detail the nature of such health effects should they be discovered

  17. [Risk factors for Parkinson disease: an epidemiologic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Duarte; Garrett, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains in a certain part unknown. Both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors are sometimes considered to be putative contributors to its origin. Recent epidemiologic studies have focused on the possible role of environmental risk factors present during adult life or aging, once pure genetic forms of PD are rare. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible environmental and familial risk factors for PD. We performed a hospital based case-control study using 88 PD patients with neurologist confirmed diagnostic, and 176 sex, age, and residence similar controls. Several possible risk factors were evaluated related to life style, past history, family history, occupational history and other exposures to potential neurotoxin agents. Statistical differences, using a 95% confidence interval, were observed in positive family history of PD (p = 0,002), occupation category (p = 0,001), rural living (p = 0,037), living/working near a industry (p = 0,017), exposure to pesticides, herbicides and in-secticides (p coffee consumption (p = 0,036) and tea consumption (p = 0,001). Sex and age adjusted logistic regression showed as potential risk factors, a positive family history of PD (odds ratio [OR] = 9,996; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2,19-45,597), blue collar occupations (OR = 3,967; 95% CI = 1,670-9,426), exposure to pesticides, herbicides and insecticides (OR = 2,619 ; 95% CI = 1,170-5,862). An inverse relationship was found between tea consumption and the risk of PD (OR = 0,356; 95% CI = 0,174-0,727). The results of the study show that both familial and environmental factors may contribute to the development of PD. Like other studies suggest, PD is of unknown, but presumably multifactorial etiology.

  18. The epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome: Symptom development over a 3-year period in Denmark. A prospective, population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogsgaard, L R; Engsbro, A L; Jones, M P; Bytzer, P

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to explore the natural history of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Denmark over 3 years by studying development of IBS symptoms and associated factors. A cohort study was carried out using a web panel representative of the Danish general population 18-50 years. The survey, including a questionnaire based on the Rome III criteria for IBS, was conducted in January 2010, January 2011, and March 2013. The prevalence of IBS was 15.4% (920/5986). The incidence was 10.3%, and was three times higher for persons with unspecific gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms compared to asymptomatic persons. Of respondents with IBS symptoms in both 2010 and 2011, 69% (131/191) also reported symptoms of IBS in 2013, which was significantly more compared to respondents with IBS symptoms in 2010 reporting to be asymptomatic or having unspecific GI symptoms in 2011 (20% and 39%, respectively, P<.001). Being diagnosed with IBS predicted fulfilling the criteria for IBS 3 years later (OR: 2.59, 95% CI: 1.11-6.10). Fulfilling criteria for IBS after 1 year also led to a high risk of IBS symptoms 3 years later in asymptomatic persons and persons with unspecific symptoms at baseline. The vast majority of persons fulfilling criteria for IBS report GI symptoms after one and 3 years. Fulfilling IBS criteria after 1 year led to a high risk of reporting IBS symptoms after 3 years. In the general population having an IBS diagnosis predicts persistently fulfilling the Rome III criteria for IBS 3 years later. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Gonorrhoea and Syphilis Epidemiology in Flemish General Practice 2009–2013: Results from a Registry-based Retrospective Cohort Study Compared with Mandatory Notification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schweikardt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of newly diagnosed gonorrhoea and syphilis cases has increased in Flanders in recent years. Our aim was to investigate, to which extent these diagnoses were registered by general practitioners (GPs, and to examine opportunities and limits of the Intego database in this regard. Methods: Data from a retrospective cohort study based on the Flemish Intego general practice database was analyzed for the years 2009–2013. Case definitions were applied. Due to small case numbers obtained, cases were pooled and averaged over the observation period. Frequencies were compared with those calculated from figures of mandatory notification. Results: A total of 91 gonorrhoea and 23 syphilis cases were registered. The average Intego annual frequency of gonorrhoea cases obtained was 11.9 (95% Poisson confidence interval (CI 9.6; 14.7 per 100,000 population, and for syphilis 3.0 (CI 1.9; 4.5, respectively, while mandatory notification was calculated at 14.0 (CI: 13.6, 14.4 and 7.0 (CI: 6.7, 7.3, respectively. Conclusion: In spite of limitations such as small numbers and different case definitions, comparison with mandatory notification suggests that the GP was involved in the large majority of gonorrhoea cases, while the majority of new syphilis cases did not come to the knowledge of the GP.

  20. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsai, Candace S. J.; Pelclova, Daniela; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures

  1. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing, E-mail: shliou@nhri.org.tw [National Health Research Institutes, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (China); Tsai, Candace S. J. [Colorado State University, Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Science (United States); Pelclova, Daniela [Charles University in Prague, Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine (Czech Republic); Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures.

  2. Perceptions of molecular epidemiology studies of HIV among stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Schairer, Cynthia; Mehta, Sanjay R.; Vinterbo, Staal A.; Hoenigl, Martin; Kalichman, Michael; Little, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Advances in viral sequence analysis make it possible to track the spread of infectious pathogens, such as HIV, within a population. When used to study HIV, these analyses (i.e., molecular epidemiology) potentially allow inference of the identity of individual research subjects. Current privacy standards are likely insufficient for this type of public health research. To address this challenge, it will be important to understand how stakeholders feel about the benefits and risks of...

  3. Epidemiology of Candidemia in Latin America: A Laboratory-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Marcio; Queiroz-Telles, Flavio; Alvarado-Matute, Tito; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge; Zurita, Jeannete; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Santolaya, Maria Elena; Thompson, Luis; Sifuentes-Osornio, Jose; Echevarria, Juan I.; Colombo, Arnaldo L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of candidemia varies depending on the geographic region. Little is known about the epidemiology of candidemia in Latin America. Methods We conducted a 24-month laboratory-based survey of candidemia in 20 centers of seven Latin American countries. Incidence rates were calculated and the epidemiology of candidemia was characterized. Results Among 672 episodes of candidemia, 297 (44.2%) occurred in children (23.7% younger than 1 year), 36.2% in adults between 19 and 60 years old and 19.6% in elderly patients. The overall incidence was 1.18 cases per 1,000 admissions, and varied across countries, with the highest incidence in Colombia and the lowest in Chile. Candida albicans (37.6%), C. parapsilosis (26.5%) and C. tropicalis (17.6%) were the leading agents, with great variability in species distribution in the different countries. Most isolates were highly susceptible to fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and anidulafungin. Fluconazole was the most frequent agent used as primary treatment (65.8%), and the overall 30-day survival was 59.3%. Conclusions This first large epidemiologic study of candidemia in Latin America showed a high incidence of candidemia, high percentage of children, typical species distribution, with C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis accounting for the majority of episodes, and low resistance rates. PMID:23527176

  4. Epidemiology of candidemia in Latin America: a laboratory-based survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Nucci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of candidemia varies depending on the geographic region. Little is known about the epidemiology of candidemia in Latin America. METHODS: We conducted a 24-month laboratory-based survey of candidemia in 20 centers of seven Latin American countries. Incidence rates were calculated and the epidemiology of candidemia was characterized. RESULTS: Among 672 episodes of candidemia, 297 (44.2% occurred in children (23.7% younger than 1 year, 36.2% in adults between 19 and 60 years old and 19.6% in elderly patients. The overall incidence was 1.18 cases per 1,000 admissions, and varied across countries, with the highest incidence in Colombia and the lowest in Chile. Candida albicans (37.6%, C. parapsilosis (26.5% and C. tropicalis (17.6% were the leading agents, with great variability in species distribution in the different countries. Most isolates were highly susceptible to fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and anidulafungin. Fluconazole was the most frequent agent used as primary treatment (65.8%, and the overall 30-day survival was 59.3%. CONCLUSIONS: This first large epidemiologic study of candidemia in Latin America showed a high incidence of candidemia, high percentage of children, typical species distribution, with C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis accounting for the majority of episodes, and low resistance rates.

  5. Epidemiology of treated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD across the lifespan in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Lung-Cheng Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We used insurance claims of a nationally representative population-based cohort to assess the longitudinal treated prevalence and incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children, adolescents and adults. METHODS: Participants were identified from among National Health Insurance enrollees in Taiwan from 1999 to 2005. We identified study subjects who had at least one service claim during these years with a principal diagnosis of ADHD. A total of 6,173 patients were recorded in the treated ADHD cohort during the 6-year study. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the treated prevalence rate of ADHD during the study period, from 64.65 per 100,000 in 2000 to 145.40 per 100,000 in 2005 (p = .001. An increase in the treated incidence rate of ADHD, from 44.67 per 100,000 in 2000 to 81.20 per 100,000 in 2005, was also observed (p = .013. However, the treated prevalence of ADHD was still lower than that of the community data in Taiwan. The peak treated prevalence of ADHD was at age 7-12 years for both males and females, and the peak treated incidence of ADHD was at age 0-6 for females and age 7-12 for males. Overall, the treated incidence and prevalence rates dropped abruptly after age 13-18 (both p<.001 for males and females (p<.001 for both. Male vs. female ratios of treated prevalence and incidence were both above 1 before age 25-30 years, but below 1 thereafter. CONCLUSION: Although an increasing number of people with ADHD sought treatment during 1999-2005 in Taiwan, the treated prevalence of ADHD was still lower than that of the community data. The treated incidence and prevalence of ADHD fell dramatically after age 13-18. However, more women than men sought treatment in adulthood. There may be under-diagnosis and under-treatment of ADHD, especially among females and adults.

  6. [Epidemiology of overweight and obesity and its determinants in Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil: a cross-sectional population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Pimenta, Adriano M; Kac, Gilberto

    2004-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and to study potential risk factors for these conditions in persons over 18 years of age in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data were obtained from a population-based study conducted in 1996 and 1997 by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, IBGE) with a random sample of 1 105 individuals. Height and weight were measured by trained personnel. Overweight (body mass index [BMI] > or = 25.0 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI > or = 30.0 kg/m2) were the dependent variables. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify potential risk factors for overweight and obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 31.1% (95% confidence interval 195% CI]: 27.3 to 35.2) and 5.7% (95% CI: 4.0 to 8.1), respectively, in men, and 25.9% (95% CI: 22.4 to 29.8) and 14.7% (95% CI: 11.9 to 17.9), respectively, in women. Multivariate analysis revealed that age and marital status were independent risk factors for overweight, whereas age, sex, and education were independent risk factors for obesity. Being female and well-educated showed a protective effect against overweight (odds ratio [OR] = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33 to 0.83), but not against obesity (OR = 3.01; IC 95%: 1.14 to 7.94). Women with low education had a significantly greater risk (OR = 5.95; 95%CI: 2.51 to 14.12) of developing obesity than men having a high educational level. These results suggest that overweight and obesity may be serious public health problems in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. It is important to carry out further studies in order to explore the potential relationship between overweight and obesity on the one hand, and behavioral variables, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, on the other.

  7. Meta-narrative analysis of sports injury reporting practices based on the Injury Definitions Concept Framework (IDCF): A review of consensus statements and epidemiological studies in athletics (track and field).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Finch, Caroline F; Bichenbach, Jerome; Edouard, Pascal; Bargoria, Victor; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Consistency in routines for reporting injury has been a focus of development efforts in sports epidemiology for a long time. To gain an improved understanding of current reporting practices, we applied the Injury Definitions Concept Framework (IDCF) in a review of injury reporting in a subset of the field. Meta-narrative review. An analysis of injury definitions reported in consensus statements for different sports and studies of injury epidemiology in athletics (track and field) published in PubMed between 1980 and 2013 was performed. Separate narratives for each of the three reporting contexts in the IDCF were constructed from the data. Six consensus statements and 14 studies reporting on athletics injury epidemiology fulfilled the selection criteria. The narratives on sports performance, clinical examination, and athlete self-report contexts were evenly represented in the eligible studies. The sports performance and athlete self-report narratives covered both professional and community athletes as well as training and competition settings. In the clinical examination narrative, data collection by health service professionals was linked to studies of professional athletes at international championships. From an application of the IDCF in a review of injury reporting in sports epidemiology we observed a parallel usage of reporting contexts in this field of research. The co-existence of reporting methodologies does not necessarily reflect a problematic situation, but only provided that firm precautions are taken when comparing studies performed in the different contexts. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidemiologic study of road traffic injuries by road user type characteristics and road environment in Iran: a community-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamabadi, Hamidreza; Vafaee, Reza; Hadadi, Mashyaneh; Abdalvand, Ali; Esnaashari, Hamidreza; Soori, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Crash injuries in traffic accidents are affected by a variety of factors. In this study we analyzed road user type information based on different contributing factors. Data from all of the road traffic victims on a road extending from the east of the city of Tehran to Mazandaran province were included prospectively over a one-year period (May 2008 to May 2009). Data collected included the crash time, patient's age and sex, road user category, helmet or seat belt use, anatomical site of injury, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and mortality. Prevalence and cross-tabulations were included in the analysis. There were 433 patients, of whom 345 were hospitalized and 33 died either before or after arriving at the hospital. Sixty-nine percent of injured patients were vehicle occupants. Mean and median of ISS were higher for pedestrians, who accounted for 49 percent of the deaths. Head injury was the most common injury and injury to upper and lower extremities was the most common cause of admission. A significant difference in lower extremity injuries between vehicle occupants and nonoccupants was found. Sex and age group did not have a significant effect on mortality. Mortality was significantly higher in pedestrians (P road user type. Because pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, stricter legislation and law enforcement should be used to protect them. Greater protection can also be reached by holding effective public awareness campaigns on how to use different roads safely. On the other hand, because rear seat passengers are at the same risk for road traffic injuries as front seat passengers, employment of newer laws and preventive measures targeting this group of occupants can prevent many road traffic injuries (RTIs).

  9. Genotyping of Giardia isolates in Scotland: a descriptive epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C; Jones, B; Inverarity, D; Pollock, K G J

    2014-08-01

    Giardiasis, caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis (synonyms: G. lamblia, G. duodenalis), is one of the most frequent parasites to infect the Scottish population. Transmission of the infective cysts in faecal matter is commonly via food and/or water. Giardia is subdivided into assemblages, where clinical and epidemiological differences have been described between assemblages A and B. This snapshot descriptive epidemiological study examines 30 positive cases of Giardia of which 72% (n = 21) were shown to be assemblage A, 14% (n = 4) assemblage B and 10% (n = 3) mixed assemblages (A and B). There was a 2:3 female:male ratio of affected individuals with foreign travel recorded in 22 of these cases. The commonest symptom was diarrhoea which was reported in 80% of cases followed by tiredness. Five cases required hospitalization emphasizing the importance of gaining a greater understanding of how Giardia assemblages influence clinical outcomes to assist in formulating guidelines to manage potential Giardia outbreaks.

  10. The Epidemiology of Delirium: Challenges and Opportunities for Population Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H.J.; Kreisel, Stefan H.; Muniz Terrera, Graciela; Hall, Andrew J.; Morandi, Alessandro; Boustani, Malaz; Neufeld, Karin J.; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Brayne, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Delirium is a serious and common acute neuropsychiatric syndrome that is associated with short- and long-term adverse health outcomes. However, relatively little delirium research has been conducted in unselected populations. Epidemiologic research in such populations has the potential to resolve several questions of clinical significance in delirium. Part 1 of this article explores the importance of population selection, case-ascertainment, attrition, and confounding. Part 2 examines a specific question in delirium epidemiology: What is the relationship between delirium and trajectories of cognitive decline? This section assesses previous work through two systematic reviews and proposes a design for investigating delirium in the context of longitudinal cohort studies. Such a design requires robust links between community and hospital settings. Practical considerations for case-ascertainment in the hospital, as well as the necessary quality control of these programs, are outlined. We argue that attention to these factors is important if delirium research is to benefit fully from a population perspective. PMID:23907068

  11. The selection and use of control groups in epidemiologic studies of radiation and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, G.R.; Friedenreich, C.M.; Howe, P.D.

    1990-09-01

    Current risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer are based on epidemiologic studies of humans exposed to high doses of radiation. A critical feature of such studies is the selection of an appropriate control group. This report presents a detailed examination of the principles underlying the selection and use of control groups in such epidemiologic studies. It is concluded that the cohort study is the preferred design, because of the rarity of exposure to high levels of radiation in the general population and because the cohort design is less susceptible to bias. This report also assesses potential bias in current risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer due to inappropriate choice and use of control groups. Detailed summaries are presented for those epidemiologic studies on which the BEIR IV risk estimates are based. It is concluded that confounding is by far the major potential concern. Bias is probably negligible in risk estimates for breast cancer. For lung cancer, risk estimates may be underestimated by about 30 percent for males and 10 percent for females due to confounding of smoking and radiation exposure. For leukemia and cancers of the thyroid and bone, the absence of established non-radiation risk factors with a high prevalence in the population under study suggests that there is unlikely to be any substantial confounding radiation risk estimates. Finally, lifetime excess mortality risks have been estimated for several of the cancers of interest following exposure to radiation based on Canadian age-, sex- and cause-specific mortality rates. It is concluded that errors in measurement exposure, uncertainty in extrapolating the results of high dose studies to low doses and low dose rates, and sampling variation in the epidemiologic studies contribute far more to uncertainty in current risk estimates than do any biases in the epidemiologic studies introduced by inappropriate selection and use of control groups. (161 refs., 19 tabs.)

  12. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Genotype as a Contributor to Racial/Ethnic Differences in Breast Cancer: A Population-Based, Molecular Epidemiologic Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glaser, Sally L

    2005-01-01

    .... The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) component of the immune system, coded by highly polymorphic genes whose distribution varies by race/ethnicity, may be a biologically based risk factor for breast cancer and thus may explain...

  13. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Genotype as a Contributor to Racial/Ethnic Differences in Breast Cancer: A Population-Based, Molecular Epidemiologic Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glaser, Sally

    2004-01-01

    ... variation. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) component of the immune system, encoded by highly polymorphic genes that vary across racial/ethnic groups, has been suggested to be a biologically based risk factor for breast cancer and thus...

  14. Head Trauma Patients Presented To Emergency Department; an Epidemiologic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Forouzan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic brain injuries are among the most important causes of mortality and disability. Since there is a lot of controversy regarding discharge of head trauma patients, especially those with mild traumatic brain injuries, this study was designed aiming to evaluate traumatic brain injuries from an epidemiologic point of view. Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, patients with isolated head trauma, and all those who underwent computed tomography (CT were included using convenience sampling. Demographic data and final diagnosis of the patients were extracted from their medical profile, and were analyzed using SPSS 21 and appropriate statistical tests. Results: 786 patients with the mean age of 24 ± 16.8 years (range: 0.5 – 75 were evaluated (67.8% male. 42 patients (5.3% had abnormal CT scan and were hospitalized. 7 of them (16.7% of hospitalized, 3.3% of low-risk, and 0.9% of all patients were in the group categorized as low-risk regarding probability of brain injuries. 12 (1.5% participants needed surgery, 2 of which (0.9% were initially categorized as low-risk. Vomiting was significantly more in patients with abnormal CT scan (45.2% compared to those who had normal CT scan (19.6% (p = 0.0001. No significant difference was detected between the 2 groups in other symptoms. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that by making decisions based on clinical findings alone, there is a probability of about 3.3% error in management of head trauma patients. In addition, 0.9% of the patients initially categorized as low-risk, needed surgical intervention in the end.

  15. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602.5 Section 602.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health Studies...

  16. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Genotype as a Contributor to Racial/Ethnic Differences in Breast Cancer: A Population-Based, Molecular Epidemiologic Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glaser, Sally L

    2005-01-01

    ... some of its racial/ethnic variation. Therefore, for a population-based series of post-menopausal white, black and Hispanic breast cancer cases and controls, we are determining HLA class I (A, B) and class II (DR, DO) genotypes...

  17. Characterising exposure to PM aerosols for an epidemiological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Ballester, F.; Llop, S.; Esplugues, A.; Fernández-Patier, R.; García dos Santos, S.; Herce, M. D.

    Recent health studies evidence that epidemiological studies must be combined with accurate analyses of the physico-chemical properties of the particles, and vice versa, in order to determine the effects of atmospheric PM on human health. The present study focuses on the chemical characterisation of PM 10 and PM 2.5 aerosols, with the aim to characterise the exposure to this pollutant of the pregnant women in a cohort study in Valencia, Spain. PM sampling was carried out during five campaigns (1 month by trimester) between 2004 and 2005, when the women in the study were pregnant. Four sites were selected, representing a gradient of urban, metropolitan, suburban and rural environments. The study includes the determination of PM levels, major and trace elements, and 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results evidenced a marked gradient regarding PM levels from urban to rural sites, which was also observed for anthropogenic PM components (OM+EC, NO 3-, Fe, SO 42-, NO 3-, NH 4+) but not for elements of mineral origin (Al 2O 3, Ca, K, Mg). PAH levels were similar or slightly higher that those reported for other Spanish sites but lower than in Europe. Findings show that the relationship between exposure to PM and adverse health effects cannot be determined only by the study of PM levels; other parameters such as chemical and physical properties of the aerosols must also be taken into account. Results also allow evaluating the adequacy of central monitor measurements as proxies for actual exposure to local emissions (e.g., vehicular emissions), which are known to vary considerably with distance to the source. The sampling strategy used in this study, devised jointly by PM monitoring and epidemiology specialists could be considered a guideline for the design of air quality monitoring studies aimed at epidemiological analysis.

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF LOW ENERGY FRACTURES IN REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saakyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Until present no data was available inArmeniain respect of incidence of low energy fractures that are typical of osteoporotic locations which consequently did not allow to evaluate the scope of this problem across the country.Purpose of the study – to identify the incidence of low energy fractures in proximal femur, in distal forearm, in proximal humerus and in distal tibia across population ofArmenia aged 50 years and older.Materials and methods. An observing population study was performed in two regions of Armenia during 2011-2013 where the frequency of selected locations in cases of moderate trauma was identified. During 2011-2012 the information was collected based on traumatology service records adding in 2013 other sources including primary level of healthcare due to observed infrequent applications for medical help in cases of trauma. Results. In 2013 the incidence of proximal femur fractures in men was reported as 136 cases per 100 000 of population aged 50 years and older, in women – 201 cases per 100 000. At the same time only 57.7% of patients with proximal femur fractures were admitted to hospital. Distal forearm fractures incidence in men and women was observed correspondingly 56/100 000 and 176/100 000 cases, proximal humerus fractures – 39/100 000 and 86/100 000 cases and distal tibia fractures – 39/100 000 and 86/100 000 cases. The predicted annual number of proximal femur fracture in Armenia amounts to 2067 cases, distal forearm fractures – 1205, proximal humerus fractures – 640.Conclusion. Epidemiological data that was collected for the first time on low energy fractures incidence confirmed the acute osteoporosis issue inArmenia and revealed the problems in organization of medical care for the group of senior patients with injuries.

  19. A review of epidemiologic studies of childhood leukemia in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This overview of Canadian studies of the epidemiology of childhood leukemia included a historical review of early studies, a summary of recent work done in Ontario, and a description of other Canadian research. The paper is published as an extended summary only. In Ontario, a study was being done to determine whether the occurrence of childhood leukemia was associated with the exposure of fathers to ionizing radiation. A major theme of current Canadian research is the effect of other environmental agents, such as electromagnetic fields

  20. Risk Factors for Low Back Disorders in Saskatchewan Farmers: Field-based Exposure Assessment to Build a Foundation for Epidemiological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Trask, Catherine; Bath, Brenna; Johnson, Peter W; Teschke, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies of many geographical settings and agricultural commodities show that low back disorders are an important public health issue among farmers, who represent a special rural population. However, few studies have examined the impact of low back disorders on farmers? work or the strategies that they adopt to avoid associated pain and disability. Objective This study protocol will investigate 3 issues related to low back disorders in Saskatchewan farmers: (1) the vibration, heavy ...

  1. Studies in using a universal exchange and inference language for evidence based medicine. Semi-automated learning and reasoning for PICO methodology, systematic review, and environmental epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Barry

    2016-12-01

    The Q-UEL language of XML-like tags and the associated software applications are providing a valuable toolkit for Evidence Based Medicine (EBM). In this paper the already existing applications, data bases, and tags are brought together with new ones. The particular Q-UEL embodiment used here is the BioIngine. The main challenge is one of bringing together the methods of symbolic reasoning and calculative probabilistic inference that underlie EBM and medical decision making. Some space is taken to review this background. The unification is greatly facilitated by Q-UEL's roots in the notation and algebra of Dirac, and by extending Q-UEL into the Wolfram programming environment. Further, the overall problem of integration is also a relatively simple one because of the nature of Q-UEL as a language for interoperability in healthcare and biomedicine, while the notion of workflow is facilitated because of the EBM best practice known as PICO. What remains difficult is achieving a high degree of overall automation because of a well-known difficulty in capturing human expertise in computers: the Feigenbaum bottleneck. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 62518 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Collection: Title: Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III). Type of Information Collection Request: New. Need and Use of Information Collection: The objective of the Recipient Epidemiology... Request: Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III) Request for Generic Clearance...

  3. Quality control for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornkessel, C; Blettner, M; Breckenkamp, J

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of an epidemiological study, dosemeters were used for the assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. To check the correct dosemeter's performance in terms of consistency of recorded field values over the entire study period, a quality control strategy...... was developed. In this paper, the concept of quality control and its results is described. From the 20 dosemeters used, 19 were very stable and reproducible, with deviations of a maximum of +/-1 dB compared with their initial state. One device was found to be faulty and its measurement data had to be excluded...

  4. [Epidemiology of the medico-legal risk associated with the practice of ambulatory surgery in France: a study based on insurance data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen, A; Fuz, F; Catineau, J; Sultan, W; Beaussier, M; Carles, M; Raucoules-Aimé, M; Niccolai, P

    2014-03-01

    The medico-legal risk specifically associated with the practice of ambulatory surgery is still not well studied. SHAM insurances are the biggest French provider of medical liability insurances. The study of the insurance claims provided by this insurer is therefore a relevant source of data on the complications related to ambulatory surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the claim rate related to ambulatory surgery with non-ambulatory surgery. We did a retrospective study on insurance claims provided by SHAM insurances between 2007 and 2011 to compare the claim rate related to ambulatory surgery with non-ambulatory surgery. We searched the files in the SHAM database, and then analyzed them. On the study period, out of a total of 29565 registered claims, 467 (1.6%) originated from ambulatory surgery. On the total of 29,098 registered claims for non-ambulatory surgery, 2151 (7.4%) led to a condemnation whereas the rate was 7% (33 out of 467 claims) for ambulatory surgery. The condemnations linked to ambulatory surgery amounted to 1.5% of the total (33 out of 2184), for a cost of 1.7 M€ (versus 400,3 M€ for non-ambulatory surgery). The average cost of a compensation is therefore 50,500 € for ambulatory surgery and 186,000 € for non-ambulatory surgery. The medical specialties concerned are primarily ophthalmology, abdominal and orthopedics surgery. The main identified causes were medical errors (n=16) and nosocomial infections (n=13). The claim rate in ambulatory surgery is proportionally less frequent with compensations three times less and were related to the most frequent type of surgery done in ambulatory settings. These data should help strengthen quality approach in ambulatory surgery. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Inference of epidemiological dynamics based on simulated phylogenies using birth-death and coalescent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskova, Veronika; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Stadler, Tanja

    2014-11-01

    Quantifying epidemiological dynamics is crucial for understanding and forecasting the spread of an epidemic. The coalescent and the birth-death model are used interchangeably to infer epidemiological parameters from the genealogical relationships of the pathogen population under study, which in turn are inferred from the pathogen genetic sequencing data. To compare the performance of these widely applied models, we performed a simulation study. We simulated phylogenetic trees under the constant rate birth-death model and the coalescent model with a deterministic exponentially growing infected population. For each tree, we re-estimated the epidemiological parameters using both a birth-death and a coalescent based method, implemented as an MCMC procedure in BEAST v2.0. In our analyses that estimate the growth rate of an epidemic based on simulated birth-death trees, the point estimates such as the maximum a posteriori/maximum likelihood estimates are not very different. However, the estimates of uncertainty are very different. The birth-death model had a higher coverage than the coalescent model, i.e. contained the true value in the highest posterior density (HPD) interval more often (2-13% vs. 31-75% error). The coverage of the coalescent decreases with decreasing basic reproductive ratio and increasing sampling probability of infecteds. We hypothesize that the biases in the coalescent are due to the assumption of deterministic rather than stochastic population size changes. Both methods performed reasonably well when analyzing trees simulated under the coalescent. The methods can also identify other key epidemiological parameters as long as one of the parameters is fixed to its true value. In summary, when using genetic data to estimate epidemic dynamics, our results suggest that the birth-death method will be less sensitive to population fluctuations of early outbreaks than the coalescent method that assumes a deterministic exponentially growing infected

  6. Inference of epidemiological dynamics based on simulated phylogenies using birth-death and coalescent models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Boskova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying epidemiological dynamics is crucial for understanding and forecasting the spread of an epidemic. The coalescent and the birth-death model are used interchangeably to infer epidemiological parameters from the genealogical relationships of the pathogen population under study, which in turn are inferred from the pathogen genetic sequencing data. To compare the performance of these widely applied models, we performed a simulation study. We simulated phylogenetic trees under the constant rate birth-death model and the coalescent model with a deterministic exponentially growing infected population. For each tree, we re-estimated the epidemiological parameters using both a birth-death and a coalescent based method, implemented as an MCMC procedure in BEAST v2.0. In our analyses that estimate the growth rate of an epidemic based on simulated birth-death trees, the point estimates such as the maximum a posteriori/maximum likelihood estimates are not very different. However, the estimates of uncertainty are very different. The birth-death model had a higher coverage than the coalescent model, i.e. contained the true value in the highest posterior density (HPD interval more often (2-13% vs. 31-75% error. The coverage of the coalescent decreases with decreasing basic reproductive ratio and increasing sampling probability of infecteds. We hypothesize that the biases in the coalescent are due to the assumption of deterministic rather than stochastic population size changes. Both methods performed reasonably well when analyzing trees simulated under the coalescent. The methods can also identify other key epidemiological parameters as long as one of the parameters is fixed to its true value. In summary, when using genetic data to estimate epidemic dynamics, our results suggest that the birth-death method will be less sensitive to population fluctuations of early outbreaks than the coalescent method that assumes a deterministic exponentially growing

  7. GEGEINTOOL: A Computer-Based Tool for Automated Analysis of Gene-Gene Interactions in Large Epidemiological Studies in Cardiovascular Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Coltell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Current methods of data analysis of gene-gene interactions in complex diseases, after taking into account environmental factors using traditional approaches, are inefficient. High-throughput methods of analysis in large scale studies including thousands of subjects and hundreds of SNPs should be implemented. We developed an integrative computer tool, GEGEINTOOL (GEne- GEne INTeraction tOOL, for large-scale analysis of gene-gene interactions, in human studies of complex diseases including a large number of subjects, SNPs, as well as environmental factors. That resource uses standard statistical packages (SPSS, etc. to build and fit the gene-gene interaction models by means of syntax scripts in predicting one or more continuous or dichotomic phenotypes. Codominant, dominant and recessive genetic interaction models including control for covariates are automatically created for each SNP in order to test the best model. From the standard outputs, GEGEINTOOL extracts a selected set of parameters (regression coefficients, p-values, adjusted means, etc., and groups them in a single MS Excel Spreadsheet. The tool allows editing the set of filter parameters, filtering the selected results depending on p-values, as well as plotting the selected gene-gene interactions to check consistency. In conclusion, GEGEINTOOL is a useful and friendly tool for exploring and identifying gene-gene interactions in complex diseases.

  8. Epidemiology, etiology and study of clinical findings of headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffarpoor M

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In a cross-sectional epidemiological study of headache disorders in neurology clinic of Fatemieh hospital of Semnan (August 22-November 20.1996, information on types of headaches, quality, severity, location, duration, frequency, precipitating factors, age of onset, influence of menstruation and pregnancy, positive familial history, use of oral contraceptive pills and other epidemiological factors including socioeconomic and age/sex composition was collected. The presence of any types of headaches was ascertained by a clinical interview and examination using the operational diagnostic criteria of the International Headaches Society. The prevalence of migraine and tension type headache was also analysed in relation to variables of life style (physical activity and sleep pattern and associated signs and symptoms (nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. In this study migraine and tension headache were also compared in variable aspects with each other. 1 Headache was more prevalent in women than men (F/M=3/1. 2 The most common types of headache included: tension type headache (41.4%, migraine (31.2% and unclassified headaches (17.2%. 3 Migraine and T.T.H were more prevalent in early adult life and middle ages. 4 In both migraine and tension type headache the time profiles (duration, frequency, age of onset, quality and location were like that noted in textbook and previous studies. 5 In both migraine and tension type headache the most conspicuous precipitating factor was stress and mental tension and frequent headaches were accompanied with psychiatric problems (e.g depression and or anxiety. 6 Nausea, vomiting, phonophobia and photophobia were the most common associated symptoms in both of them. 7 Positive familial history and aggravation of headache in perimenstual period were more commonly seen in patients with migraine than tension type headache. In conclusion using the operational diagnostic criteria of International Headache Society in

  9. Epidemiology and long-term disease burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Taiwan: a population-based, propensity score-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wan-Hsuan; Lin, Chih-Wan; Wang, Chen-Yu; Chen, Liang-Kung; Hsiao, Fei-Yuan

    2018-03-20

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the burden of herpes zoster, as well as the longitudinal and incremental changes of healthcare service utilization among individuals with herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) compared to those without. Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), we established a herpes zoster cohort of people diagnosed with herpes zoster between 2004 and 2008 as study cases. Another subset of the NHIRD, which was randomly selected from all elderly beneficiaries between 2004 and 2008 served as a non-herpes-zoster elderly control pool. Each case was then assigned one matched control according to age, gender, index date and propensity score. PHN cases were defined as those with persisting pain for more than 90 days after the onset of herpes zoster. Between 2004 and 2008, about 0.6 million patients were newly diagnosed with herpes zoster. The incidence increased with age, and most cases were identified during the summer period. Herpes zoster cases were found to have higher consumption of all types of healthcare services in the first year after the index date. Such increases were particularly obvious for patients with PHN, who showed incremental increases on average of 16.3 outpatient visits, 0.4 emergency room visits and 0.24 inpatient admissions per year. The incidence of herpes zoster increased with age and changed according to the seasons. Patients with herpes zoster were associated with higher healthcare utilization and this increase in healthcare utilization was most obvious for herpes zoster patients with PHN.

  10. Validity of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale in a sample of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R Quiñones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Optimal depression screening necessitates measurement tools that are valid across varied populations and in the presence of comorbidities. Methods: This study assessed the test properties of two versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale against psychiatric diagnoses established by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview among a clinical sample of US Veterans deployed during Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn. Participants (N = 359 recruited from two Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals completed a clinical interview, structured diagnostic interview, and self-reported measures. Results: Based on diagnostic interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition criteria, 29.5% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and 26.5% met diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Both Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 scales performed well and almost identically against the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-major depressive disorder in identifying Veterans with major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve 91%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 area under the ROC curve 90%. Overall, higher cut points for the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales performed better in correctly identifying true positives and true negatives for major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 cut point 18+ sensitivity 92% specificity 72%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 cut point 10+ sensitivity 92% specificity 69%. Conclusions: The specificity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales was poor among Veterans with co-occurring post-traumatic stress disorder (13% and 16%. Veterans with post

  11. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenbroucke, Jan P; von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G

    2014-01-01

    Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalisability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical...... considerations, a group of methodologists, researchers, and editors developed the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) recommendations to improve the quality of reporting of observational studies. The STROBE Statement consists of a checklist of 22 items, which relate...... to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. Eighteen items are common to cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies and four are specific to each of the three study designs. The STROBE Statement provides guidance to authors about how...

  12. An epidemiologic study of flat foot in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamy B

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Among 880 studied feet of 7-14 years old children 6.9% suffered mild and severe flat foot. 53.8% of the affected children were symptomatic. As 40.1% of the general population experiences symptoms, in a small proportion of affected persons, symptoms are due to flat foot. The prevalence of symptoms rises with increasing severity of the disorder. In this article, reviewing general aspects of flat food, prevalence and other epidemiological aspects of flat foot for the first time in Iran have been presented

  13. [The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology [STROBE] statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, E. von; Altman, D.G.; Egger, M.

    2008-01-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed rec...

  14. Sagittal standing posture and its association with spinal pain: a school-based epidemiological study of 1196 Flemish adolescents before age at peak height velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphens, Mieke; Cagnie, Barbara; Coorevits, Pascal; Vanderstraeten, Guy; Cardon, Greet; Dʼhooge, Roseline; Danneels, Lieven

    2012-09-01

    Cross-sectional baseline data set on the sagittal standing posture of 1196 adolescents. To describe and quantify common variations in the sagittal standing alignment in boys and girls who are in the same phase of growth and to explore the association between habitual standing posture and measures for spinal pain. Data on postural characteristics and spinal pain measures in adolescence are sparse, especially when somatic and biological maturity status is to be considered. Our understanding of the relationship between standing posture in the sagittal plane and spinal pain is also deficient. A total of 639 boys (age [mean ± SD], 12.6 ± 0.54 yr) and 557 girls (10.6 ± 0.47 yr), with predicted years from peak height velocity (PHV) being 1.2 ± 0.71 and 1.2 ± 0.59 pre-PHV, respectively, were studied. Postural examination included the assessment of global alignment and local spinopelvic characteristics, using post hoc analyses of digital images and direct body measurements (palpation, digital inclinometry, and wheeled accelerometry). Spinal pain experience was assessed by questionnaire. A wide interindividual variation in sagittal posture characteristics was observed. Logistic regression analyses yielded global alignment parameters to be associated with low back pain (lifetime prevalence), neck pain (lifetime prevalence, 1-mo prevalence, and doctor visit), and thoracic spine pain (doctor visit) outcome measures. None of the included local spinopelvic parameters could be identified as an associated factor with measures of spinal pain. The orientation of gross body segments with respect to the gravity line seems superior to local spinopelvic features in terms of clinical importance, at least in the current pre-PHV cohort. Opportunities may exist for postural subgrouping strategies to begin with global alignment parameters in order to gain further insight into the relationship between sagittal alignment and the relative risk of developing spinal pain/seeking medical

  15. [Administrative Prevalence and Health Care Situation of Dementia Patients in Acute Care Hospitals: An Epidemiological Health Care Study Based on Claims Data of Insured Persons in Saxony].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzek, Tom; Werblow, Andreas; Schmitt, Jochen; Marquardt, Gesine

    2018-02-05

    The increasing number of people with dementia will challenge the health care system, especially acute care. Using health insurance claims data, the study objective was to examine the regional patterns of the administrative prevalence of dementia, the prevalence of dementia in hospitals and the care situation in hospitals. We used 2014 claims data from AOK PLUS, the largest statutory health insurance service in Saxony. If dementia was diagnosed either in an outpatient or inpatient setting in 3 of 4 quarters in a year, a person was categorised as a dementia case (n=61,700). The analysis of health care status included 61,239 patients with dementia and 183,477 control subjects. The control group was matched using the criteria of gender, age and region of residence. For those older than 65 years, the overall administrative prevalence rate of dementia was 9.3%. The estimated prevalence for those in hospitals was 16.7%. In 2014, there were 33% more admissions, 36% more hospital days and 18% higher costs per person-year among people diagnosed with dementia than the control subjects. The longer annual hospital stays and the higher costs were primarily caused by the greater number of admissions of people with dementia. Inpatient service use was, compared to people without dementia, characterized by a need for care and assistance, rather than by a need for medical therapeutic and diagnostic procedures. To improve the health care situation of people with dementia, to adapt to the challenges facing hospitals and to reduce the financial burden caused by dementia, more efforts are needed to improve the health care situation. Measures include, among others, improvements in recognition of dementia and reduction of unnecessary hospital stays. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Is bioelectrical impedance accurate for use in large epidemiological studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merchant Anwar T

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Percentage of body fat is strongly associated with the risk of several chronic diseases but its accurate measurement is difficult. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a relatively simple, quick and non-invasive technique, to measure body composition. It measures body fat accurately in controlled clinical conditions but its performance in the field is inconsistent. In large epidemiologic studies simpler surrogate techniques such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio are frequently used instead of BIA to measure body fatness. We reviewed the rationale, theory, and technique of recently developed systems such as foot (or hand-to-foot BIA measurement, and the elements that could influence its results in large epidemiologic studies. BIA results are influenced by factors such as the environment, ethnicity, phase of menstrual cycle, and underlying medical conditions. We concluded that BIA measurements validated for specific ethnic groups, populations and conditions can accurately measure body fat in those populations, but not others and suggest that for large epdiemiological studies with diverse populations BIA may not be the appropriate choice for body composition measurement unless specific calibration equations are developed for different groups participating in the study.

  17. Is bioelectrical impedance accurate for use in large epidemiological studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mahshid; Merchant, Anwar T

    2008-01-01

    Percentage of body fat is strongly associated with the risk of several chronic diseases but its accurate measurement is difficult. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a relatively simple, quick and non-invasive technique, to measure body composition. It measures body fat accurately in controlled clinical conditions but its performance in the field is inconsistent. In large epidemiologic studies simpler surrogate techniques such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio are frequently used instead of BIA to measure body fatness. We reviewed the rationale, theory, and technique of recently developed systems such as foot (or hand)-to-foot BIA measurement, and the elements that could influence its results in large epidemiologic studies. BIA results are influenced by factors such as the environment, ethnicity, phase of menstrual cycle, and underlying medical conditions. We concluded that BIA measurements validated for specific ethnic groups, populations and conditions can accurately measure body fat in those populations, but not others and suggest that for large epdiemiological studies with diverse populations BIA may not be the appropriate choice for body composition measurement unless specific calibration equations are developed for different groups participating in the study. PMID:18778488

  18. Ergonomics and epidemiology in evidence based health prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2009-01-01

    According to the definitions, ergonomics is a natural part of the health and safety activity but it has its own research methods and causal models. Public health, occupational and clinical medicines are closely related to epidemiology and differ from ergonomics by using a disease model with a wide...... success of health effects from the clinical trials could not be obtained. It is argued that the ergonomics design, Integration and Implementation can be strengthened by adapting the epidemiological methods and causal models. The ergonomics can then contribute to a common development of public health...

  19. Epidemiological study of Enterobacteriaceae resistance to colistin in Sfax (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezghani Maalej, S; Rekik Meziou, M; Mahjoubi, F; Hammami, A

    2012-06-01

    The authors had for aim to monitor Enterobacteriaceae resistance to colistin, during 6 years (2005-2010), and to study the epidemiology of Enterobacteriaceae resistant strains isolated in the Sfax region (Tunisia). This retrospective study was carried out in the microbiology laboratory, at the Habib Bourguiba teaching hospital in Sfax. All strains of colistin resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from patients were studied. One hundred and twenty one strains of colistin resistant Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 93 patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent species (60.2%), followed by Enterobacter cloacae (26.9%), and Escherichia coli (12.9%). Thirteen strains (E. cloacae) were heteroresistant to colistin. Eighty one isolates (87.1%) were resistant to third generation cephalosporins. The rate of resistance to colistin ranged from 0.09% for E. coli to 1.2% for K. pneumoniae, and 1.5% for E. cloacae. A progressively increasing colistin resistance was observed for K. pneumoniae. Most resistant strains were isolated from urine in the urology department. Previous exposure to colistin was reported in 59.2% of patients. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis typing revealed different clones. Colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is a worrying phenomenon in Sfax. It is related to polyclonal diffusion. Continuous epidemiological monitoring and a rational use of colistin are necessary to limit the spreading of these colistin resistant strains and to maintain this antibiotic's effectiveness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Epidemiologic studies of radioactively contaminated environments and cancer clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on epidemiologic studies which address the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. Investigations of the possible adverse effects of living in radioactively contaminated environments are difficult to conduct, however, because human populations tend to be fairly mobile, cumulative exposures to individuals from environmental conditions are difficult to estimate, and the risks associated with such exposures tend to be small relative to background levels of disease. Such studies can be arbitrarily classified as geographic correlation surveys, analytic studies, and cluster evaluations. Geographic correlation studies (ecological surveys) relate disease in populations to area characteristics. Although exposure to individuals is unknown, these exploratory or hypothesis-generating studies can identify areas to target for further in-depth evaluation. Analytic investigations relate individual exposure information to disease occurrence. Unusual occurrences of disease in time and place (clusters) occasionally point to a common environmental factor; cluster evaluations have been most successful in identifying the source of infectious disease outbreaks

  1. The epidemiology of sports-related injuries in older adults: a central European epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerlander, Christian; Braito, Matthias; Kates, Stephen; Jeske, Christian; Roth, Tobias; Blauth, Michael; Dallapozza, Christian

    2012-10-01

    The population is rapidly aging and remaining more active over the age of 65. An increasing number of sports related injuries in individuals 65 and older are thus anticipated. The aim of this study is to analyze the epidemiology of sports injuries in the age group aged 65 and older. Data from the medical records of adults aged 65 years and older who were treated for sports-related injuries at a level one trauma center between December 1994 and February 2008 was collected and statistically analyzed. A total of 2635 patients met our inclusion criteria. There were 1647 men (62.5%) and 988 women (37.5%) with a mean age of 70.9 years. The yearly number of injuries doubled during the study period (1996-2007). The most common mechanism of injury was a simple fall from standing height (69%). Nearly 75% of all injuries occurred during alpine skiing, cycling or mountain climbing. The median Injury Severity Score was 4. Minor injuries and wounds (40%) were recorded most commonly followed by fractures (27%), sprains, ligament injuries (19%) and injuries of muscles and tendons (6%). The most frequent diagnoses were minor injuries to the head and ligament injuries around the knee joint. Injuries to the upper extremities occurred in 33.7%, injuries to the lower extremities in 29.4% and injuries to the head occurred in 20% of the patients. Women sustained substantially more fractures than men. Adults aged 65 and older are remaining active in sports, which results in higher numbers of sports related injuries in this age group. Identification of type, mechanism and distribution of the injuries can help with the recognition of risk factors for injury. This may enable us to develop appropriate preventative measures to reduce the incidence, and morbidity of such injuries.

  2. [Epidemiologic warnings from studies on alcohol use disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limosin, F

    2014-04-01

    The highest consumption levels of alcohol are found in the developed world, mostly the Northern Hemisphere. After a slight decrease at the beginning of the 1990s, alcohol use in the European Region increased with an average adult per capita consumption amounting to 12.5 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009. In France, adult consumption was 12.7 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009, and it is estimated that 1.5 to 2 million of adults are alcohol-dependent (4-5% of the adult population) and 5 million are excessive drinkers. The harmful use of alcohol is one of the world's leading health risks. Alcohol is the direct cause of more than 30 diseases and a causal factor in more than 60 major types of diseases and injuries, resulting in approximately 2.5 million deaths each year. Approximately 4% of all deaths worldwide and 4.5% (7.4% for men and 1.4% for women) of the global burden of disease and injury are attributable to alcohol. In 2004 in the EU, 15.2% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in men and 3.9% of all DALYs in women were lost due to alcohol. While the impact of alcohol consumption and dependence on mortality and disease is substantial, there are also many psychosocial consequences, including violence, family problems, child neglect and abuse, absenteeism and lost productivity in the workplace. This means that alcohol consumption and dependence have sizable impacts on many people other than the drinker. These effects add up to a staggering number of alcohol-attributable social costs, which can be estimated at € 155.8 billion a year in Europe. Despite all these consequences, many individuals with alcohol use disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. From 37 community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for alcohol abuse or dependence, the median rate of untreated cases of these

  3. Three decades of hospital epidemiology and the challenge of integrating Health Surveillance: reflections from a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escosteguy, Claudia Caminha; Pereira, Alessandra Gonçalves Lisbôa; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    2017-10-01

    This study proposes a reflection on the uses and future prospects of hospital-based health surveillance based on the account of a pioneering experience in hospital epidemiology, the epidemiology service at the Hospital Federal dos Servidores do Estado - HFSE, which served as the basis for the creation of epidemiologic surveillance units in municipal and state hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The epidemiology service has combined epidemiological surveillance, continuing education, in-service training, research, and health service evaluation since 1986. The service is part of the national epidemiological surveillance network and was responsible for the notification of 55,747 cases between 1986 and 2016, most of which were the result of active search. The integration of various levels of health surveillance and health care makes classical control activities more agile and provides instruments for measuring. The important role played by the service in human resources training is evident in the training of 1,835 medical interns and 78 residents up to 2016. In addition, this experience has served as the basis for the implantation of several other hospital epidemiological surveillance units. Current challenges include the promotion of effective communication and coordination among the other health surveillance committees.

  4. A clinical registry of dementia based on the principle of epidemiological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turbau Josefina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional epidemiological studies do not allow elucidating the reality of referral and diagnosis patterns of dementia in routine clinical practice within a defined territory. This information is useful and necessary in order to plan and allocate healthcare resources. This paper presents the results from a dementia case registry based on epidemiological surveillance fundamentals. Methods Standardised registry of dementia diagnoses made in 2007 by specialised care centres in the Health Region of Girona (RSG (Spain, which encompasses an area of 5,517 sq. km and a reference population of 690,207 inhabitants. Results 577 cases of dementia were registered, of which 60.7% corresponded to cases of Alzheimer's disease. Presenile dementia accounted for 9.3% of the cases. Mean time between the onset of symptoms and clinical diagnosis was 2.4 years and the severity of the dementia was mild in 60.7% of the cases. High blood pressure, a family history of dementia, dislipidemia, and a past history of depression were the most common conditions prior to the onset of the disease (>20%. Conclusion The ReDeGi is a viable epidemiological surveillance device that provides information about the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients diagnosed with dementia in a defined geographical area.

  5. Progress of epidemiological and molecular epidemiological studies on benzene in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guilan; Yin, Songnian

    2006-09-01

    Benzene is an organic solvent that has been used in industry for about 100 years throughout the world. Since 1973, a series of toxicological and molecular epidemiological studies on benzene were conducted by researchers at the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine (CAPM) (1973-1986) and subsequently by a collaboration between the CAPM and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in the United States that began in 1986, which was joined by investigators from the University of California at Berkeley, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and New York University. The findings demonstrated that the risk of leukemia and lymphoma among benzene-exposed workers was significantly increased, with elevated risks for leukemia present not only at higher exposure but also among workers exposed to under 10 ppm. Therefore, the benzene permissible level was decreased to 1.8 ppm (6 mg/m(3)) and benzene-induced leukemia is treated as an occupational cancer in China. The benzene permissible level is 1.0 in the United States and in several other developed countries and it has been suggested to be decreased to 0.5 ppm (ACGIH). A number of potential biomarkers are related to benzene exposure and poisoning. Some of these are benzene oxide-protein adducts, chromosome aberration of lymphocytes, and GPA mutations in erythrocytes, a decrease in B cell and CD4(-)T cell counts in peripheral blood, and altered expression of CXCL16, ZNF331, JUN, and PF4 in lymphocytes. Variation in multiple benzene metabolizing genes may be associated with risk of benzene hematotoxicity, including CYP2E1, MPO, NQO1, and GSTT1.

  6. Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Annette

    2005-01-01

    The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM 2.5 exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown

  7. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: a retrospective epidemiological study of 168 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Iltekin; Dincer, Umit; Taskaynatan, Mehmet Ali; Cakar, Engin; Tugcu, Ilknur; Dincer, Kemal

    2007-09-01

    This is a retrospective epidemiological study. The objective is to determine the epidemiological characteristics including the patient demographics, etiological factors, duration of symptoms, treatment modalities applied and clinical outcome of the treatment in reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). Medical records of the 168 patients managed in two tertiary hospitals with the diagnosis of RSD that was made according to both IASP criteria and three-phase bone scan were reviewed. The upper limb was affected 1.5 times as commonly as the lower limb. Of the 168 cases, 10.7% were non-traumatic. In 89.3% of the patients, RSD developed after a traumatic inciting event with a predominance of fracture. In 75.6% of the patients, RSD developed due to job-related injuries. The percentage of successful clinical outcome was 72%. The percentage of the patients that did not respond to therapy was 28%. The management period is long and this causes higher therapeutic costs in addition to loss of productive effort. However, response to therapy is good. On the other hand, in approximately one third of the patients, RSD does not improve despite all therapeutic interventions. In addition to compensation costs, this potentially debilitating feature causes RSD to appear as a socioeconomic problem.

  8. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity: epidemiological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Bernardi, Silvia; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship. Aims To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Method Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34 653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ⩾30. Results Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women. Conclusions Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women. PMID:23661765

  9. A Clinico- Epidemiological Study Of Filarial Related Orthopaedic Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patond K.R

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study was undertaken to study the incidence and distribution of orthopaedic manifestations of filariasis in an endemic area. A total of 207 cases were clinically examined and investigated. Patients were divided into three groups , viz., Group A: Orthopaedic manifestations with no history of filariasis . Group B: Orthopaedic manifestations with history of filariasis such as microfilaraemia or filarial fevers etc., Group C: Orthopaedic manifestations with chronic manifestations such as elephantiasis, hydrocele etc. To confirm filarial etiology, all the cases were examined for the presence of filarial antibody by indirect ELISA using wuchereda bancrofti microfilarial excretory- secretary antigen (wd Mf ESAg . A total of 61 of 102 patients of Group A, 14 of 21 patients of group B, and 73 of 84 patients of Group C were positive for filarial antibody. This study showed the prevalence of filarial antibody in about 71.4% of various orthopaedic manifestations.

  10. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity: epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V; Bernardi, Silvia; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship. To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34 653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥30. Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women. Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women.

  11. Epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria: a cross sectional study performed on febrile children in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenti, Tebit Emmanuel; Kwenti, Tayong Dizzle Bita; Latz, Andreas; Njunda, Longdoh Anna; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresa

    2017-07-17

    In the wake of a decline in global malaria, it is imperative to describe the epidemiology of malaria in a country to inform control policies. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon including: the Sudano-sahelian (SS) strata, the High inland plateau (HIP) strata, the South Cameroonian Equatorial forest (SCEF) strata, the High western plateau (HWP) strata, and the Coastal (C) strata. This study involved 1609 febrile children (≤15 years) recruited using reference hospitals in the five epidemiological strata. Baseline characteristics were determined; blood glucose level was measured by a glucometer, malaria parasitaemia was assessed by Giemsa microscopy, and complete blood count was performed using an automated hematology analyser. Severe malaria was assessed and categorized based on WHO criteria. An overall prevalence of 15.0% (95% CI: 13.3-16.9) for malaria was observed in this study. Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in children between 60 and 119 months (p malaria (SM) attack in this study was 29.3%; SM was significantly higher in children below 60 months (p malaria anaemia and impaired consciousness. The majority (73.2%) of SM cases were in group 1 of the WHO classification of severe malaria (i.e. the most severe form). The malaria case-fatality rate was 5.8%; this was higher in Ngaoundere (HIP strata) (p = 0.034). In this study, malaria prevalence decreased steadily northward, from the C strata in the South to the SS strata in the North of Cameroon, meanwhile the mortality rate associated with malaria increased in the same direction. On the contrary, the rate of severe malaria attack was similar across the different epidemiological strata. Immunoepidemiological studies will be required to shed more light on the observed trends.

  12. Taenia saginata asiatica: epidemiology, infection, immunological and molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C

    1998-06-01

    The taeniasis in East Asia has a special epidemiological pattern: people eat meat and/or viscera of pigs and acquire infection of Taenia saginata-like tapeworms. However, cysticercosis is more often found in pigs than cattles. In order to elucidate the taxonomic status of this parasite, we have conducted extensive field surveys, experimental infections, and morphological as well as immunological studies since 1981. After obtaining sufficient information from our studies, we finally came to the conclusion that the T. saginata-like tapeworm in Asia is a new subspecies of T. saginata and was named as T. saginata asiatica. The classical T. saginata was renamed as T. saginata saginata. In this paper, we provide the history of T. s. asiatica in Asia.

  13. Epidemiologic studies of the human microbiome and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogtmann, Emily; Goedert, James J

    2016-02-02

    The human microbiome, which includes the collective genome of all bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists, and viruses found in and on the human body, is altered in many diseases and may substantially affect cancer risk. Previously detected associations of individual bacteria (e.g., Helicobacter pylori), periodontal disease, and inflammation with specific cancers have motivated studies considering the association between the human microbiome and cancer risk. This short review summarises microbiome research, focusing on published epidemiological associations with gastric, oesophageal, hepatobiliary, pancreatic, lung, colorectal, and other cancers. Large, prospective studies of the microbiome that employ multidisciplinary laboratory and analysis methods, as well as rigorous validation of case status, are likely to yield translational opportunities to reduce cancer morbidity and mortality by improving prevention, screening, and treatment.

  14. STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology - Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME): An extension of the STROBE statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallo, V.; Egger, M.; McCormack, V.; Farmer, P.B.; Ioannidis, J.P.; Kirsch-Volders, M.; Matullo, G.; Phillips, D.H.; Schoket, B.; Stromberg, U.; Vermeulen, R.; Wild, C.; Porta, M.; Vineis, P.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of internal dose, early biological change, susceptibility, and clinical outcomes are used as proxies for investigating the interactions between external and/or endogenous

  15. STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology - Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME): An extension of the STROBE statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallo, V.; Egger, M.; McCormack, V.; Farmer, P.B.; Ioannidis, J.P.; Kirsch-Volders, M.; Matullo, G.; Phillips, D.H.; Schoket, B.; Stromberg, U.; Vermeulen, R.; Wild, C.; Porta, M.; Vineis, P.

    2012-01-01

    Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42 (1): 1-16 SUMMARY POINTS: Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of internal dose, early biological change, susceptibility and clinical outcomes are used as proxies for investigating

  16. Epidemiological study of multiple sclerosis in La Rioja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártulos Iglesias, M; Marzo Sola, M E; Estrella Ruiz, L A; Bravo Anguiano, Y

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease that causes severe disability in younger patients. Many epidemiology studies have confirmed a variable prevalence. The objective of this study was to analyse the prevalence of this disease in La Rioja (Spain), using such variables as age and sex; type of progression, initial form of the disease, EDSS and number of relapses; disease-modifying treatment and reasons for treatment withdrawal; personal and family history of cancer; and incidence and mortality. Analysis of patients in La Rioja diagnosed with MS (according to Poser criteria or the 2005 McDonald criteria) during a 10-year period (2001-2011). Data were collected from hospital records, multiple sclerosis associations, and personal records kept by neurologists. The MS prevalence rate in La Rioja is 65 patients/100 000 inhabitants with an incidence rate of 3.5 cases/100 000 residents per year. Relapsing-remitting MS is present in 67.6% of the patient total. Mean age of onset is 20-29 years (range, 12 to 70). Most EDSS scores were mostly ≤ 2. Untreated MS cases account for 47.6% of the total and the most commonly used therapy is interferon. We detected 4 haematological tumours and 7 families with multiple members affected by MS. Prevalence and incidence are similar to those found in other regions Spain. The average age at onset age for primary progressive MS is slightly higher than in other papers (40-49 years). In families with multiple patients, MS may be more aggressive. Disability in these patients remains very severe. We require more epidemiology studies with a variety of data gathering methods to support findings for prevalence obtained in different provinces. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. A descriptive epidemiology study of oral cleft in sergipe, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiza, Andrea; Noronha de Góis, Diego; Santos, Jadson Alípio Santana de Sousa; Brito de Oliveira, Rosany Larissa; Ferreira da Silva, Luiz Carlos

    2013-10-01

    Introduction The nonsyndromic orofacial cleft is the fourth most common birth defect, but in Brazil, data about the cleft epidemiology are not accurate. Objective This study aimed to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of oral cleft cases at Specialized Society Attending Cleft Patient in Sergipe State. Methods Data were obtained from patients' medical records in relation to the following characteristics: age; gender; race; origin; cleft type; additional malformations and/or complications; prenatal accomplishment; treatment applied. For diagnosis analysis, it was noted if mothers had received prenatal care and if they had ultrasonography performed and if the cleft was viewed in it. Results We observed a prevalence of male gender (54%). Age between 0 and 4 years old was most prevalent (53%), and pheoderma race was observed in 47%. Transincisive foramen cleft was found in 52.3% of the individuals. The prevalence of pre- and transincisive foramen cleft was higher in men (66.3 and 55.7%), women accounted for 65.0% of postincisive foramen, and atypical facial cleft (0.3%) occurred in one case. Associated malformations and complications were present in 12% of patients. Prenatal care was reported by 48% of the mothers. Conclusion In this study male gender was the most affected, and 0 to 4 years was the most frequent age group. Transincisive foramen cleft type was most frequently encountered. Prenatal care was reported by most mothers. So, this study found that early treatment is a reality in SEAFESE (Service Specializing in Cleft Care of Sergipe), and consequently the chances of successful integration of the child to society will be better.

  18. Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT3) in Population-based Epidemiology : Normative Values and Criteria for Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdas, Wishal D.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To establish normative values for Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT3) variables and to develop HRT3-based criteria for glaucomatous optic neuropathy for epidemiological research in a white population. Methods: Consecutive participants in the Rotterdam Study were examined with HRT and

  19. Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT3) in population-based epidemiology: normative values and criteria for glaucomatous optic neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdas, Wishal D.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2011-01-01

    To establish normative values for Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT3) variables and to develop HRT3-based criteria for glaucomatous optic neuropathy for epidemiological research in a white population. Consecutive participants in the Rotterdam Study were examined with HRT and simultaneous stereoscopic

  20. An epidemiological study of mental disorders at Pune, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbir S Deswal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The WHO Global Burden of Disease study estimates that mental and addictive disorders are among the most burdensome in the world, and their burden will increase over the next decades. The mental and behavioral disorders account for about 12% of the global burden of disease. However, these estimates and projections are based largely on literature review rather than cross-national epidemiological surveys. In India, little is known about the extent, severity and unmet need of treatment mental disorders. Thus, there was a need to carry out rigorously implemented general population surveys that estimate the prevalence of mental disorders among urban population at Pune, Maharashtra. The study attempted to address unmet need and to form a basis for formulating the mental health need of the community. Objective: The study was undertaken to estimate the lifetime prevalence and 12 month prevalence of specific mental disorders in urban population, socio-demographic correlates of mental disorders and to assess the service utilization in individuals with mental disorders. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken among adults aged 18 years and above living in house hold and in geographical area of Pune , Maharashtra. A minimum sample of 3000 completed interviews was planned using representative probabilities to population size (PPS sampling method which ensured equal probability for every eligible member. Data listing was obtained from Census Office from recent census of 2001 data. The face to face interviews were undertaken in homes using fully structured interview schedule of World Mental Health Survey Initiative duly revised Version of WHO- Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0 by trained investigators. Clinical reappraisal was carried out using Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN among ten percent of diagnosed cases selected randomly. Data were entered into DDE (Blaize Software and analyzed using

  1. An evidence-based analysis of epidemiologic associations between lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers and occupational exposure to gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, J J; Gaffney, S; Gross, S A; Ronk, C J; Paustenbach, D J; Galbraith, D; Kerger, B D

    2013-10-01

    The presence of benzene in motor gasoline has been a health concern for potential increased risk of acute myelogenous leukemia and perhaps other lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers for approximately 40 years. Because of the widespread and increasing use of gasoline by consumers and the high exposure potential of occupational cohorts, a thorough understanding of this issue is important. The current study utilizes an evidence-based approach to examine whether or not the available epidemiologic studies demonstrate a strong and consistent association between occupational exposure to gasoline and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers. Among 67 epidemiologic studies initially identified, 54 were ranked according to specific criteria relating to the relevance and robustness of each study for answering the research question. The 30 highest-ranked studies were sorted into three tiers of evidence and were analyzed for strength, specificity, consistency, temporality, dose-response trends and coherence. Meta statistics were also calculated for each general and specific lymphatic/hematopoietic cancer category with adequate data. The evidence-based analysis did not confirm any strong and consistent association between occupational exposure to gasoline and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers based on the epidemiologic studies available to date. These epidemiologic findings, combined with the evidence showing relatively low occupational benzene vapor exposures associated with gasoline formulations during the last three decades, suggest that current motor gasoline formulations are not associated with increased lymphatic/hematopoietic cancer risks related to benzene.

  2. Acute heat stroke. Epidemiologic, biochemical, renal, and coagulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, T F

    1975-11-24

    Fifteen Marine recruits with acute heat stroke were examined for (1) predisposing factors, (2) blood coagulation disturbances, (3) renal function abnormalities, and (4) blood composition alterations. Epidemiologic data identified the following risk factors; previous residence in a temperate climate, first phase of training, fatigue, and strenuous exercise in hot, humid conditions. Results of blood coagulation studies disclosed an increase in prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times, with a decrease in platelet count, probably indicating a transient, low-grade consumptive process. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and creatinine clearance were normal. Only mild elevations of SGOT, SGPT, and lactic dehydrogenase levels were noted, and in combination with clinical observations, they argued against significant muscle damage. No deaths or instances of renal failure occurred.

  3. Epidemiological health study of a town exposed to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, R M; Ngo, L; Hartney, C; Lloyd, K; Tager, I; Midtling, J; Huel, G

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this survey was to assess the health status of community residents exposed to a 16-day release of Catacarb from a nearby refinery and to document the prevalence rates of symptoms and illnesses of this town. The health status of the exposed residents was compared to that of unexposed residents of a demographically similar control town. An epidemiologic study design was used and questionnaires were mailed to all households in both towns. Response rate was 43%. Household cluster effects, gender, education, and race were controlled in the analysis. Questionnaire health data reveal increased reporting of symptoms in the exposed, specifically headaches, respiratory, visual, gastrointestinal, and dermatologic with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 3. Exposure relationships with increased symptoms and worsening of illnesses was found.

  4. Representativeness in population-based studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drivsholm, Thomas Bo; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Davidsen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Decreasing rates of participation in population-based studies increasingly challenge the interpretation of study results, in both analytic and descriptive epidemiology. Consequently, estimates of possible differences between participants and non-participants are increasingly important for the int...

  5. Bat rabies in France: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

  6. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  7. Assessing phytoestrogen exposure in epidemiologic studies: development of a database (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn-Ross, P L; Barnes, S; Lee, M; Coward, L; Mandel, J E; Koo, J; John, E M; Smith, M

    2000-04-01

    Phytoestrogens (weak estrogens found in plants or derived from plant precursors by human metabolism) have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of a number of cancers. However, epidemiologic studies addressing this issue are hampered by the lack of a comprehensive phytoestrogen database for quantifying exposure. The purpose of this research was to develop such a database for use with food-frequency questionnaires in large epidemiologic studies. The database is based on consumption patterns derived from semistructured interviews with 118 African-American, Latina, and white women residing in California's San Francisco Bay Area. HPLC-mass spectrometry was used to determine the content of seven specific phytoestrogenic compounds (i.e. the isoflavones: genistein, daidzein, biochanin A, and formononetin; the coumestan: coumestrol; and the plant lignans: matairesinol and secoisolariciresinol) in each of 112 food items/groups. Traditional soy-based foods were found to contain high levels of genistein and daidzein, as expected, as well as substantial amounts of coumestrol. A wide variety of "hidden" sources of soy (that is, soy protein isolate, soy concentrate, or soy flour added to foods) was observed. Several other foods (such as various types of sprouts and dried fruits, garbanzo beans, asparagus, garlic, and licorice) were also found to be substantial contributors of one or more of the phytoestrogens analyzed. Databases, such as the one described here, are important in assessing the relationship between phytoestrogen exposure and cancer risk in epidemiologic studies. Agencies, such as the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), that routinely provide data on food composition, on which epidemiologic investigations into dietary health effects are based, should consider instituting programs for the analysis of phytochemicals, including the phytoestrogens.

  8. Epidemiologic studies of underground miners: New information from an old source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.

    1997-01-01

    Over 100 years have passed since Harting and Hesse first described an unusual pattern of thoracic malignancy in the underground metal miners of Schneeberg. It is now known that these miners had primary cancer of the lung, caused by exposure to radon progeny released into the air of the mines from the ore. The early case series of Harting and Hesse, based on the Schneeberg miners, and of Pirchan and Sikl, based on the Joachamisthal mines, have been followed by epidemiologic studies of more formal design of uranium and other underground miners exposed to radon throughout the world. These studies have confirmed the causal association of radon and its progeny with lung cancer and provided quantification of the risk of lung cancer in relation to exposure to radon progeny. These studies have also provided insights concerning the effect of radon progeny on smokers and on nonsmokers. The findings of the epidemiologic studies have provided a clear imperative for reducing exposures of miners to radon progeny. Consequently, exposures of underground uranium miners to radon progeny have been lowered substantially over the last 50 years in countries reporting exposures of underground miners. The epidemiologic studies have also documented the substantial burden of radon-caused lung cancers among miners of uranium and other ores. While the causal link of radon with lung cancer in underground miners is now established and unquestioned, the risk of radon in indoor air remains a highly controversial issue. During the last few decades, there has been increasing recognition that radon is ubiquitous in indoor environments, in some instances at concentrations as high as measured in underground mines. As a foundation for risk management, the epidemiologic evidence from underground miners has been the primary basis for estimating the risk of indoor radon

  9. Trend analysis of mortality rates and causes of death in children under 5 years old in Beijing, China from 1992 to 2015 and forecast of mortality into the future: an entire population-based epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Han; Wang, Jing; Li, Yichen; Li, Dongyang; Guo, Jin; Hu, Yifei; Meng, Kai; He, Dian; Liu, Bin; Liu, Zheng; Qi, Han; Zhang, Ling

    2017-09-18

    To analyse trends in mortality and causes of death among children aged under 5 years in Beijing, China between 1992 and 2015 and to forecast under-5 mortality rates (U5MRs) for the period 2016-2020. An entire population-based epidemiological study was conducted. Data collection was based on the Child Death Reporting Card of the Beijing Under-5 Mortality Rate Surveillance Network. Trends in mortality and leading causes of death were analysed using the χ 2 test and SPSS 19.0 software. An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was fitted to forecast U5MRs between 2016 and 2020 using the EViews 8.0 software. Mortality in neonates, infants and children aged under 5 years decreased by 84.06%, 80.04% and 80.17% from 1992 to 2015, respectively. However, the U5MR increased by 7.20% from 2013 to 2015. Birth asphyxia, congenital heart disease, preterm/low birth weight and other congenital abnormalities comprised the top five causes of death. The greatest, most rapid reduction was that of pneumonia by 92.26%, with an annual average rate of reduction of 10.53%. The distribution of causes of death differed among children of different ages. Accidental asphyxia and sepsis were among the top five causes of death in children aged 28 days to 1 year and accident was among the top five causes in children aged 1-4 years. The U5MRs in Beijing are projected to be 2.88‰, 2.87‰, 2.90‰, 2.97‰ and 3.09‰ for the period 2016-2020, based on the predictive model. Beijing has made considerable progress in reducing U5MRs from 1992 to 2015. However, U5MRs could show a slight upward trend from 2016 to 2020. Future considerations for child healthcare include the management of birth asphyxia, congenital heart disease, preterm/low birth weight and other congenital abnormalities. Specific preventative measures should be implemented for children of various age groups. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of depressive episodes among student population in Wroclaw - epidemiological study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagdańska, Marta; Kiejna, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors and estimate prevalence of depressive episodes among Wroclaw's universities students. Polish adaptation of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was implemented to gather epidemiological data from 370 students of public universities in Wroclaw. Proportional stratified sampling was performed to obtain distinct, independent strata representing sex, year of study and educational profiles. Randomisation was ensured by recruitment procedures. Prevalence of depressive episodes among students in Wroclaw is high - 14.7% throughout life, 9.8% within 12 months prior to the interview. High prevalence of severe and moderate depressive episodes seems to be worrisome (respectively 5.1% and 6.6% throughout life, 3.8% and 3.9% within 12 months prior to the study). Year of study, profile and lack of partner relationship remain risk factor for depression. High prevalence of depressive episodes indicates the need for prevention and therapy based on epidemiological data and tailored to the students' needs. Depression among students requires further epidemiological studies.

  11. Evaluation of a rule-based method for epidemiological document classification towards the automation of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karystianis, George; Thayer, Kristina; Wolfe, Mary; Tsafnat, Guy

    2017-06-01

    Most data extraction efforts in epidemiology are focused on obtaining targeted information from clinical trials. In contrast, limited research has been conducted on the identification of information from observational studies, a major source for human evidence in many fields, including environmental health. The recognition of key epidemiological information (e.g., exposures) through text mining techniques can assist in the automation of systematic reviews and other evidence summaries. We designed and applied a knowledge-driven, rule-based approach to identify targeted information (study design, participant population, exposure, outcome, confounding factors, and the country where the study was conducted) from abstracts of epidemiological studies included in several systematic reviews of environmental health exposures. The rules were based on common syntactical patterns observed in text and are thus not specific to any systematic review. To validate the general applicability of our approach, we compared the data extracted using our approach versus hand curation for 35 epidemiological study abstracts manually selected for inclusion in two systematic reviews. The returned F-score, precision, and recall ranged from 70% to 98%, 81% to 100%, and 54% to 97%, respectively. The highest precision was observed for exposure, outcome and population (100%) while recall was best for exposure and study design with 97% and 89%, respectively. The lowest recall was observed for the population (54%), which also had the lowest F-score (70%). The generated performance of our text-mining approach demonstrated encouraging results for the identification of targeted information from observational epidemiological study abstracts related to environmental exposures. We have demonstrated that rules based on generic syntactic patterns in one corpus can be applied to other observational study design by simple interchanging the dictionaries aiming to identify certain characteristics (i.e., outcomes

  12. Defining the Term "Overuse": An Evidence-Based Review of Sport Epidemiology Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Elizabeth R; Winkelmann, Zachary K; Edler, Jessica R

    2018-02-06

    Reference:  Roos KG, Marshall SW. Definition and usage of the term "overuse injury" in the US high school and collegiate sport epidemiology literature: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2014;44(3):405-421.   What is the current context of the term overuse in the epidemiologic sports injury literature?   The authors performed a database search of PubMed and SPORTDiscus. The Boolean phrases athletics AND injury and overuse OR epidemiology were searched.   Studies were included in the review based on the following criteria: (1) epidemiologic in nature, (2) involved US high school or collegiate athletes, and (3) published in English between 1996 and 2012. In addition, a study was classified as epidemiologic in nature if appropriate exposure data were collected in order to calculate injury incidence rates. One reviewer initially read the titles or abstracts of the studies to determine their relevance for the systematic review. Studies were excluded if they (1) were biomechanical or anatomical in nature, (2) were clinical in nature, or (3) assessed the effectiveness of an intervention.   The reviewer extracted statistics and definitions of the word and phrase overuse and no contact. The reviewer adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines as much as possible.   A total of 5182 titles of articles were initially identified in the databases searched. Then 232 studies were read to determine if they included overuse statistics. A total of 35 articles were included in the final review. Two main surveillance programs were used in these studies, with the authors of 12 articles (n = 12/35, 34.3%) using data from the High School Reporting Information Online (RIO) and the authors of 13 articles (n = 13/35, 37.1%) using data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Injury Surveillance System (ISS). One group (n = 1/35, 2.9%) used both surveillance systems, whereas 9 groups (n = 9/35, 25.7%) used other

  13. Obesity effects on depression: systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantis, E; Baker, M

    2008-06-01

    Obesity is a well-known cause of cardiovascular disease burden and premature death, but effects on psychological morbidity remain uncertain. This article reports findings following a systematic review of epidemiological studies to determine whether obesity causes depression. Multiple databases were searched for English-language studies of etiology of obesity (exposure variable, analyzed as an ordered category) on depression outcomes (dependent variables, continuous or categorical). Studies in children and in women during pregnancy or postpartum were excluded, as were nonrepresentative cross-sectional studies. Searches and identification of studies for inclusion were performed by EA, whereas a descriptive synthesis of important study characteristics was undertaken independently by us. We reviewed 24 out of approximately 4500 potentially relevant studies; 4 were prospective cohort studies and 20 were cross-sectional studies (10 from the United States). Effect measures reported in all prospective cohort studies were consistent and suggested that obesity may increase the odds of future depression outcomes (symptoms or nonclinical diagnosis of depression). Effect measures reported in most cross-sectional studies from the United States supported the hypothesized association between obesity and prevalence of depression outcomes for women but not men, in contrast most cross-sectional studies from populations other than the United States consistently failed to find such associations. Overall, there is a weak level of evidence supporting the hypothesis that obesity increases the incidence of depression outcomes. Few high-quality prospective cohort studies exist, and cross-sectional studies account for the vast body of published evidence, and therefore firm conclusions for causality cannot yet be drawn. Our finding warrants additional high-quality etiological research on this topic.

  14. Software development for statistical handling of dosimetric and epidemiological data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, M.

    1990-01-01

    The dose records from different group of occupationally exposed workers are available in a computerized data base whose main purpose is the individual dose follow-up. Apart from this objective, such a dosimetric data base can be useful to obtain statistical analysis. The type of statistical information that can be extracted from the data base may aim to attain mainly two kinds of obsectives: - Individual and collective dose distributions and statistics. - Epidemiological statistics. The report describes the software developed to obtain the statistical reports required by the Regulatory Body, as well as any other type of dose distributions or statistics to be included in epidsemiological studies. A Users Guide for the operators who handle this sofware package, and the codes listings, are also included in the report. (Author)

  15. An epidemiological study of paediatric pulmonary hypertension in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pektas, Ayhan; Pektas, Bilgehan M; Kula, Serdar

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of paediatric pulmonary hypertension within the entire Turkish population over a period of 5 years using the registry of the National Health Insurance System. All individuals aged pulmonary hypertension and secondary pulmonary hypertension were identified. The overall annual incidence of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension during childhood was 11.7 cases/million, whereas the overall annual incidence of secondary pulmonary hypertension during childhood was 9.5 cases/million. There was a gradual and significant increase in the annual incidence of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension and that of secondary pulmonary hypertension during the 5-year study period (p=0.001 for both). In the years 2012 and 2013, idiopathic pulmonary hypertension was significantly more frequent in children aged pulmonary hypertension, whereas the female to male ratio was 1.1:1 for secondary pulmonary hypertension during childhood. The incidence of paediatric pulmonary hypertension in Turkey is higher than those reported for the Western populations. Moreover, no female dominance could be observed. These discrepancies may be attributed to the differences in the study design, study cohort, timing of the study, and the definitions adopted for pulmonary hypertension classification.

  16. Using epidemiology to regulate food additives: saccharin case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordle, F; Miller, S A

    1984-01-01

    The increasing use of nonnutritive sweeteners and the widely publicized 1969 ban on cyclamate led to additional investigations in rodents of the carcinogenic potential of saccharin. Preliminary results of a long-term feeding study indicated formation of bladder tumors in rodents, and collective experimental evidence has demonstrated that high doses of the synthetic sweetener saccharin can cause bladder cancer in rodents. Based on the results of that and other rodent studies indicating an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with saccharin, the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration announced the agency's intention to propose a ban on saccharin. This intention was made known in April 1977 under the Delaney Clause of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The clause essentially states that no additive shall be deemed safe if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals, or if it is found, after tests appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animals. Also in 1977, a group of epidemiologists began to assess the available epidemiologic information to determine the potential human risk. This report describes the assessment of several human epidemiologic studies available then and the results of more recent epidemiologic studies.

  17. Standard procedures for pooling health physics data for epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, D.J.; Beck, W.L.; Stansbury, P.S.; Tankersley, W.G.; Watson, J.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of the study are: (1) to determine the availability of dosimetry data and supporting documentation at multiple facilities; (2) to develop criteria and methods for optimally retrieving data; (3) to evaluate and document the quality and completeness of data and dosimetry programs; (4) to put dosimetry data (e.g., external, whole body counting, and bioassay data) from various facilities in a single format for epidemiologic analysis; and (5) to document all work for peer review. To achieve these objectives, a ''Dosimetry Records and Radiation Hazards Questionnaire'' was developed to send to the facilities under study. Responses to this questionnaire are used to develop data retrieval criteria and methods, and to retrieve data. Dose data are reformatted into Standard Intermediate Dosimetry Files for editing and characterization. Evaluations of dosimetry programs are performed concurrently. Results of these steps are brought together and analysis files created. Status of this work in the context of the Department of Energy 5-Rem Study is reported. The standard procedures are applicable to single- as well as multiple-facility studies

  18. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans. PMID:21419224

  19. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral–digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made. PMID:24172305

  20. Radon and lung cancer: an epidemiological study in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.; Strand, T.; Magnus, K.; James, A.C.; Green, B.M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives and strategy of an epidemiological study on the effects of exposure to radon in Norwegian dwellings is presented. The study is a cooperation between the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Norwegian Cancer Registry in Norway and the National Radiological Protection Board of the United Kingdom, with funding by the Norwegian Cancer Society. Measurements of radon are being made in 10,000 dwellings representing all Norwegian municipalities. The potential for detecting an effect of radon exposure by such a study in Norway is unique because: (1) Radon concentrations are high and there are large regional variations. (2) Data from the Norwegian Cancer Registry is of high quality: all cancers have been subject to compulsory reporting since 1955. These data can be broken down according to municipality, sex and age. (3) In 1964/1965 a large scale survey of smoking habits was carried out in Norway. These data can also be broken down according to municipality, sex and age, and by types of smoking and smoking rate. It is intended to examine the correlation between lung cancer incidence and geographical variation in radon levels after making allowance for smoking habits. Radon measurements were started in early 1987 and the results of the study are expected to be published in 1989. (author)

  1. Modelers' perception of mathematical modeling in epidemiology: a web-based survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Hejblum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mathematical modeling in epidemiology (MME is being used increasingly. However, there are many uncertainties in terms of definitions, uses and quality features of MME. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To delineate the current status of these models, a 10-item questionnaire on MME was devised. Proposed via an anonymous internet-based survey, the questionnaire was completed by 189 scientists who had published in the domain of MME. A small minority (18% of respondents claimed to have in mind a concise definition of MME. Some techniques were identified by the researchers as characterizing MME (e.g. Markov models, while others-at the same level of sophistication in terms of mathematics-were not (e.g. Cox regression. The researchers' opinions were also contrasted about the potential applications of MME, perceived as highly relevant for providing insight into complex mechanisms and less relevant for identifying causal factors. The quality criteria were those of good science and were not related to the size and the nature of the public health problems addressed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that perceptions on the nature, uses and quality criteria of MME are contrasted, even among the very community of published authors in this domain. Nevertheless, MME is an emerging discipline in epidemiology and this study underlines that it is associated with specific areas of application and methods. The development of this discipline is likely to deserve a framework providing recommendations and guidance at various steps of the studies, from design to report.

  2. Epidemiological studies of general population groups exposed to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.M.; Inskip, H.

    1986-01-01

    The exposure of man to radiation and the resulting risk of carcinogenesis continue to be of concern to the public. In this context, there is often a tendency to carry out epidemiological studies concerning the induction of cancer in radiation workers and members of the public which are not supported by a statistically valid data base or whose result are misinterpreted or misused. To assist national authorities in evaluating radiological risks, the Nuclear Energy Agency has sponsored a critical review of the methodologies for, and the limitations of, these epidemiological studies, and of the precautions to be adopted in interpreting their results. Prepared by two consultants, Dr. Joan M. Davies and Dr. Hazel Inskip, the review focuses on the problems encountered when carrying out epidemiological studies on groups of the general population exposed to radiation, and using their results for radiological protection purposes. The primary objective is to provide background material for national authorities who have responsibilities in the field of radiological protection, as well as to other persons interested in this subject. It is published under the responsibility of the Secretary General of the OECD, and does not necessarily reflect the views of Member Governments

  3. [Clinical-epidemiological study in children with cleft lip palate in a secondary-level hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Bonals, Alicia; Pons-Bonals, Leticia; Hidalgo-Martínez, Sandra Margarita; Sosa-Ferreyra, Carlos Francisco

    One of the most common congenital disorders that affects the facial structures is the cleft lip palate (CLP). The aim of this study was to generate the clinical-epidemiological profile of CLP patients from Hospital de Especialidades del Niño y la Mujer (HENM) Dr. Felipe Nuñez Lara, from the Ministry of Health, Queretaro, Mexico, from 2011 to 2014, who received treatment from the Cleft Lip Palate Clinic in order to provide interdisciplinary treatments for CLP patients based on the information from the pediatric records. Retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study using univariate analysis frequencies for qualitative variables; central statistical and dispersion for quantitative variables and clinical profile. One hundred records were reviewed, from which 15 were discarded for being syndromic cases. Epidemiological, clinical, and socio-demographic variables were studied. The epidemiological profile (variables associated with mother's pregnancy, patient's health at birth, nutritional and psychomotor development; family medical records, addictions, and socioeconomic factors) and clinical profile (disease classification by sex, structure, and side; surgeries classification and order in which they took place) of the treated population were registered. The results showed the need to standardize the data registration on medical records to improve the monitoring and treatment of patients and emphasize actions to maintain low incidence of CLP in Queretaro. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Medical Students' Satisfaction and Academic Performance with Problem-Based Learning in Practice-Based Exercises for Epidemiology and Health Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Mejías, E.; Amezcua-Prieto, C.; Martínez-Ruiz, V.; Olvera-Porcel, M. C.; Jiménez-Moleón, J. J.; Lardelli Claret, P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of problem-based learning (PBL) on university students' satisfaction with and academic performance in a course on epidemiology and social and demographic health. The participants in this interventional study were 529 students (272 in the intervention group and 257 in the control group) enrolled in a…

  5. Epidemiological study of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinskiene, Sigita; Girdzijauskiene, Sigita; Gintiliene, Grazina; Butkiene, Dovile; Puras, Dainius; Goodman, Robert; Heiervang, Einar

    2018-04-24

    From the public health perspective, epidemiological data of child mental health and psychosocial correlates were necessary and very lacking in Lithuanian society that has been undergoing rapid socio-economic change since the past decades. Together with determining the prevalence rates of disorders and assessing the needs for the services, this study has also shifted attention from the highly selective samples of children attending children and adolescent mental health services towards less severe cases of psychopathology as well as different attitudes of parents and teachers. The aim of the first epidemiological study in Lithuania was to identify the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the community sample of children. Child psychiatric disorders were investigated in a representative sample of 3309 children aged 7-16 years (1162 7-10-year-olds and 2147 11-16-year-olds), using a two-phase design with the Lithuanian version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the first screening phase, and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) in the second diagnostic phase. The estimated point prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric disorders was 13.1% for the total sample (14.0% for the child sample and 12.1% for adolescent sample). The most common groups of disorders were Conduct disorders 6.6% (7.1% for child sample and 6.0% for adolescent sample), Anxiety disorders 5.0% (5.9% for child sample and 6.0% for adolescent sample), with Hyperkinesis being less common 2.0% (2.7% for child sample and 1.2% for adolescent sample). Potential risk factors were related to individual characteristics of the child (gender, poor general health, and stressful life experiences), and the family (single parenthood, foster care, unfavourable family climate, disciplining difficulties, worries related to TV or computer use). The overall prevalence of youth psychiatric disorders was relatively high in this representative Lithuanian sample compared to Western European

  6. Epidemiological study of scabies in district Haripur, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Yasmin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is a contagious disorder of skin caused by a mite called human itch mite, Sarcoptes scabiei. An epidemiological study of scabies was conducted from district Haripur to evaluate the prevalence and the important risk factors responsible for the spread of scabies. The study was conducted in General population from (February - April 2013.Surveys were carried out in general population comprising 200 families of district Haripur. Out of two hundred families in general population, 81 were scabetic showing a prevalence rate of 40.5%.Considering an individual as a unit, 109cases were detected, out of these total samples of 1193 individuals, exhibiting a prevalence rate of 9.13%.The disease was significantly more common in females (10.4%than males(7.9%,in lower socio-economic classes (13.8% than the upper and middle classes (5.22%,7.16%, in those living in uncemented houses (23.6% than those living in cemented houses (7.5%,and in those having domestic animals at home(13.4%than those without domestic animals(8.08%. Family size was of no significance but prevalence was positively co-related with the level of crowding (average number of person per room in a house. No clear trend was indicated in the prevalence rate of scabies changing with educational level. The distribution of the number of cases per family followed a Poisson distribution, demonstrating that all the families surveyed were equally exposed to the risk of scabies.

  7. Update of epidemiologic studies of plutonium-workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Acquavella, J.F.; Tietjen, G.L.; Brackbill, R.M.; Reyes, M.; Wiggs, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Retrospective and prospective epidemiologic studies are being conducted as part of a national survey of plutonium workers at four Department of Energy facilities (Los Alamos, NM; Rocky Flats, CO; Mound Laboratory, OH; and Savannah River, SC). A preliminary analysis of mortality was done for all white males who have worked at the Rocky Flats Plant during the period 1952 to 1979. The 452 observed deaths were significantly fewer than the 831 expected for all causes. The 107 deaths due to all malignant neoplasms were also significantly fewer than the 167 expected from these diseases. Expected deaths were derived from age and calendar-specific death rates for US white males. Deaths reported for benign and unspecified neoplasms numbered eight versus an expected two, a significant elevation. These tumors, all intracranial, are the subject of a case-control study to be reported later. Subdividing the cohort on the basis of plutonium exposures and external radiation exposures results in similar overall findings. The benign and unspecified neoplasms, however, were not significantly high in the plutonium-exposed group

  8. Maxillofacial fracture epidemiology and treatment plans in the Northeast of Iran: A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samieirad, Sahand; Aboutorabzade, Mohammad-Reza; Tohidi, Elahe; Shaban, Baratollah; Khalife, Hussein; Salami, Hamid-Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of facial injuries varies based on lifestyle, cultural background and socioeconomic status in different countries and geographic zones. This study evaluated the epidemiology of maxillofacial fractures and treatment plans in hospitalized patients in Northeast of Iran (2015-2016). Material and Methods In this retrospective study, the medical records of 502 hospitalized patients were evaluated in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Kamyab Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. The type and cause of fractures and treatment plans were recorded in a checklist. Data were analyzed with Mann–Whitney test, chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test, using SPSS 21. Results The majority of patients were male (80.3%). Most subjects were in 20-30-year age range (43.2%). The fractures were mostly caused by accidents, particularly motorcycle accidents (MCAs), and the most common site of involvement was the body of the mandible. There was a significant association between the type of treatment and age. In fact, the age range of 16-59 years underwent open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) more than other age ranges (P=0.001). Also, there was a significant association between gender and fractures (P=0.002). Conclusions It was concluded that patient age and gender and trauma significantly affected the prevalence of maxillofacial traumas, fracture types and treatment plans. This information would be useful for making better health policy strategies. Key words:Epidemiology, treatment, facial injuries, maxillofacial fractures, trauma. PMID:28809369

  9. Epidemiological studies on postpartum thyroid dysfunction and thyroid cancer in Southeastern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.P. Kuijpens (Hans)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe studies described in this thesis concentrate OIl epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) and related topics, and on epidemiological and treatment aspects of thyroid cancer. The studies were petfonned in the southeastern part of the

  10. Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series provides an opportunity for our grantees and other interested individuals to share lessons learned and practical information regarding the application of next generation sequencing to cancer epidemiology studies.

  11. Safety of natural radiation exposure. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies on natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.

    2000-01-01

    People have been exposed every time and everywhere to natural radiation and ''intuitively'' know the safety of this radiation exposure. On the other hand the theory of no threshold value on radiological carcinogenesis is known widely, and many people feel danger with even a smallest dose of radiation exposure. The safety of natural radiation exposure can be used for the risk communication with the public. For this communication, the safety of natural radiation exposure should be proved ''scientifically''. Safety is often discussed scientifically as the risks of the mortality from many practices, and the absolute risks of safe practices on the public are 1E-5 to 1E-6. The risks based on the difference of natural radiation exposure on carcinogenesis have been analyzed by epidemiological studies. Much of the epidemiological studies have been focused on the relationship between radiation doses and cancer mortalities, and their results have been described as relative risks or correlation factors. In respect to the safety, however, absolute risks are necessary for the discussion. Cancer mortalities depend not only on radiation exposure, but also on ethnic groups, sexes, ages, social classes, foods, smoking, environmental chemicals, medical radiation, etc. In order to control these confounding factors, the data are collected from restricted groups or/and localities, but any these ecological studies can not perfectly compensate the confounding factors. So positive or negative values of relative risks or the meaningful correlation factors can not be confirmed that their values are derived originally from the difference of their exposure doses. The absolute risks on these epidemiological studies are also affected by many factors containing radiation exposure. The absolute risk or the upper value of the confidence limit obtained from the epidemiological study which is well regulated confounding factors is possible to be a maximum risk on the difference of the exposure doses

  12. Bovine Brucellosis: An Epidemiological Study at Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchandan Sikder*, AKM Anisur Rahman1, Mohammad Rayhan Faruque, Mohammad Abdul Alim2, Shubhagata Das2, Aungshuman Das Gupta3, Bhajan Chandra Das, Mohammad Inkeyas Uddin4 and Mohammad Abdul Matin Prodhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological survey was conducted to identify probable risk factors and prevalence of brucellosis in commercial and backyard dairy cows at Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 500 milk samples were collected (250 commercial and 250 backyards for Milk Ring Test (MRT. The MRT positive cows were subjected to sera collection and Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and indirect ELISA were done for confirmatory diagnosis. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle was 5% (7.6% in commercial and 2.4% in backyard. Significantly higher (P<0.05 prevalence was found in the zero grazing (5.74%, pregnant cows (7.53% and cows with history of retained placenta (7.89% or abortion (5.88% or both (11.76% than non-pregnant (2.68% and without any reproductive disorder (4.44%. A total of 420 farm attendants and owners were interviewed where 93.55 and 99.08% commercial and backyard personnel were found to have no knowledge of brucellosis and 9.67 and 87.77% consumed raw milk and yogurt respectively were highly vulnerable to zoonotic brucellosis. The results showed that brucellosis is widely distributed locally, underscoring the need for further studies including biovar determination.

  13. Comparison of Mycotic Keratitis with Nonmycotic Keratitis: An Epidemiological Study

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    Mohammad M. Khater

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This work aims to study the problems encountered with and the different epidemiological features of patients with fungal keratitis. Patients and Methods. All cases with keratitis attending the Outpatient Clinic of Ophthalmology Department at Tanta University Hospital during three years from the first of January 2011 to the end of December 2013 were selected and carefully examined and cases with mycotic keratitis were further examined and investigated. Results. From 66303 attendants during this period with different complaints, there were 361 cases (0.54% with mycotic keratitis and 473 cases (0.71% of nonmycotic origin. Mycotic keratitis is common between 40 and 60 years, more in farmers (64%, families with large number and large crowding index, rural than urban residence, and patients with outdoor water sources and insanitary sewage disposal. Positive fungal cultures were obtained in 84.5% and were negative in 15.5% of cases in spite of their typical clinical findings for diagnosis and their improvement with antifungal therapy. Conclusion. Mycotic keratitis is more frequent in farmers, rural areas, outdoor water supply, insanitary sewage disposal, and patients preceded with organic trauma. Atypical clinical findings were found in some cases and not all cases improved with specific antifungal therapy.

  14. Development of a typing system for epidemiological studies of porcine toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, V.; Nielsen, Jens; Bisgaard, M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate capsular-typing, plasmid-profiling, phage-typing and ribotyping for epidemiological studies of toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark. The evaluation of methods was based on 68 strains from nasal swabs and 14 strains from...... by HindIII ribotyping, as 85% of isolates from all herds were assigned to one ribotype. In conclusion, HindIII ribotyping seems to represent a useful tool for epidemiological studies of toxigenic P. multocida ssp. multocida....

  15. Biomarkers in molecular epidemiology study of oral squamous cell carcinoma in the era of precision medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Hao Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer, which occurs in the mouth, lips, and tongue, is a multifactorial disease whose etiology involves environment, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption are regarded as the primary risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and betel use, other chemicals, radiation, environmental, and genetics are reported as relevant risk factors for oral carcinogenesis. The human papillomavirus infection is an independent risk factor. Traditional epidemiology studies have revealed that environmental carcinogens are risk factors for OSCC. Molecular epidemiology studies have revealed that the susceptibility to OSCC is influenced by both environmental and genetic risk factors. However, the details and mechanisms of risk factors involved in OSCC are unclear. Advanced methods and techniques used in human genome studies provide great opportunities for researchers to explore and identify (a the details of such risk factors and (b genetic susceptibility involved in OSCC. Human genome epidemiology is a new branch of epidemiology, which leads the epidemiology study from the molecular epidemiology era into the era of genome-wide association study. In the era of precision medicine, molecular epidemiology studies should focus on biomarkers for cancer genomics and their potential utility in clinical practice. Here, we briefly reviewed several molecular epidemiology studies of OSCC, focusing on biomarkers as valuable utility in risk assessment, clinical screening, diagnosis, and prognosis prediction of OSCC in the era of precision medicine.

  16. CAND-LO 2014-15 study: changing epidemiology of candidemia in Lombardy (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigitano, Anna; Cavanna, Caterina; Passera, Marco; Ossi, Cristina; Sala, Eugenio; Lombardi, Gianluigi; Grancini, Anna; De Luca, Concetta; Bramati, Simone; Gelmi, Marina; Tejada, Milvana; Grande, Romualdo; Farina, Claudio; Lallitto, Fabiola; Tortorano, Anna Maria

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor recent changes in the epidemiology of candidemia and in the antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida isolates in one Italian region (Lombardy) in 2014-2015 in comparison with two other studies performed in the same area in 1997-1999 and in 2009. A laboratory-based surveillance was conducted in 11 microbiology laboratories. Identification of Candida isolates from 868 episodes and antifungal susceptibility testing (YeastOne) was performed locally. A progressive increase in the rate of candidemia up to 1.27/1000 admissions and 1.59/10,000 patient days was documented. In all the three surveys, Candida albicans remains the most frequently isolated species, ranging from 52 to 59 % of the etiology of BSIs. The epidemiological shift to the more resistant C. glabrata, observed between 1997-1999 and 2009 surveys, was not confirmed by our more recent data. The pattern of etiology of BSIs occurred in 2014-2015 overlaps that of the 90s. Acquired antifungal resistance is a rare event. No isolate had an amphoterin B minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, mg/L) value higher than the epidemiological cutoff. All the echinocandin MIC distributions are typical for wild-type organisms except for those of two C. glabrata isolates. Fluconazole resistance declined from 24.9 % in the 2009 survey to 5.4 % in the recent one. Data from regional surveys may highlight the influence of therapeutic practices on the epidemiology of Candida BSIs and may optimize empirical therapies.

  17. Injuries in national Olympic level judo athletes: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keun-Suh; Park, Ki Jun; Lee, Jaekoo; Kang, Byung Yong

    2015-09-01

    To present an epidemiological study of injuries found among South Korea's National level Judo athletes as a foundation for future injury prevention and skill enhancement in this group. This study is a prospective study on a 4-year injury assessment held from January 2010 to December 2013 at the training centre in South Korea for National Level athletes. Athlete's weight class, gender, injury location and injury grade (grade I=1-3 treatment days, grade II=4-7 treatment days, and grade III ≥8 treatment days) were analysed. There were a total of 782 injuries recorded during this period, equalling to four injuries per athlete annually. Almost half of these injuries (47%) were grade I injuries. Injury occurrence was the highest in the Lower body (44.2%). This was then followed by injuries in the upper body (29.8%), trunk (20.3%) and head and neck (5.6%). Men and women showed similar, non-significantly different trends in the proportion of body parts injured. Women experienced more grade III injuries than males (p=0.0228). Comparison between women in different weight classes also showed that heavyweights incurred more grade III injuries than lightweights (p=0.0087). Lightweights had a higher rate of injury than heavyweights in males and females, although this was statistically significant only among males (p<0.001). Many body regions are prone to injury in the elite judo population. Women, especially those in the heavyweight classification, were more prone to severe injuries. Lightweights experienced more injuries than heavyweights among male athletes. Specifically, further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to address the impact of rapid weight loss practices on injury risk to implement effective preventive measures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Renal colic at emergency departments. Epidemiologic, diagnostic and etiopathogenic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, José A Hermida; Palmes, M de la Paz Pérez; Ferrer, Juan Francisco Loro; Urdangarain, Otto Ochoa; Nuñez, Abdel Buduen

    2010-04-01

    To investigate epidemiologic, etiopathogenic and clinical factors associated with emergency renal colic (RC). METHODS ANDS RESULTS: We performed a prospective cross-sectional multicenter case-control study of 146 patients treated for RC at emergency departments. Data collected included age, sex, localization/severity of pain, symptoms, personal/family medical history, urine analysis, etiopathogenic factors, chemical composition of the lithiasis, and x-ray studies. Comparative statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.2 software. RC was more frequent in men; maximum incidence was between 31-50 years for both sex, with 36.3% in men and 21.23% in women; 60.27% of patients rated pain as severe; 140 RC patients (95.89%) had urologic antecedents vs. 15 (10.27%) controls without RC (ppain; 23.28% of RC patients had family history for urinary lithiasis vs. 6.16% controls (pLithiasis was observed by KUB x-ray in 42.10% of RC patients vs. 57.89% controls, most frequent calculi composition was calcium oxalate monohydrate and dehydrate (61,2%). The incidence of urinary lithiasis and RC in our health care area shows a male predominance. The characteristic pain of RC is severe and appears suddenly. It starts in the back (lumbar region), below the ribs, radiating towards the groin and external genitals (testicles in man or major lips in woman) on the same side. Nausea and vomiting are frequent. Family history of urinary lithiasis and low water intake are risk factors that need to be investigated. Occupations associated with a sedentary life style or with a hot, dry workplace show a higher incidence of lithiasis. A hot, dry climate favours the formation of urinary lithiasis and the highest incidence of lithiasis is in the summer, during the months of July and August. The most frequent component of urolithiasis in our study, as well as in other studies, was calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate.

  19. Problem gambling and homelessness: results from an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nower, Lia; Eyrich-Garg, Karin M; Pollio, David E; North, Carol S

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of gambling disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders in a homeless population and identify features related to potential subtypes. At baseline, participants were administered a structured interview including socio-demographic sections of the National Comorbidity Study (NCS) interview; seven diagnostic sections of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS); the alcohol and drug abuse sections of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Substance Abuse Module (CIDI-SAM); and the Homeless Supplement to the DIS. At nine months post-baseline assessment, participants were administered additional NCS family history questions and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Participants were an epidemiologic sample of 275 predominately African-American homeless individuals, grouped as lifetime non-gamblers (n = 60), recreational gamblers (n = 152), and problem gamblers (n = 63), recruited on the street and through homeless shelters. Results indicate that lifetime rates of sub-clinical problem (46.2%) and disordered (12.0%) gambling were significantly higher than in the general population. Problem gamblers were more likely than non-problem gamblers to meet diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, and any psychiatric disorder, and more likely than non-gamblers to use illicit drugs or meet criteria for abuse/dependence for nicotine, alcohol, or any substance. This study provides evidence that problem gambling is a significant public health issue among the African-American homeless population. Homeless services should include assessment for problem gambling along with psychiatric disorders and referrals to resources and treatment programs. Future studies should explore the relationship of the onset and course of problem gambling and other psychiatric disorders with homelessness as well as racial differences in gambling patterns and problem severity

  20. Epidemiologic study of breast cancer in a-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kenichi; McGregor, D.H.; Kato, Hiroo; Wakabayashi, Toshiro.

    1978-08-01

    A case-control study was made on female breast cancer cases and their matched controls in the Life Span Study sample. The index cases were detected during 1958-69 among the 251 breast cancer cases ascertained originally by McGregor et al. The purpose of this study was to define the epidemiologic risk factors of breast cancer among Japanese women, to test for radiation effects in the presence of other risk factors, and to search for interactions. The survey was conducted by interview at home visits for those residing in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki areas, and by mail survey for others. The interview was carried out by several trained interviewers. Information concerning suspected risk factors of breast cancer, such as familial history, education, age at menarche and menopause, marital history, reproductive history, history of breast feeding, etc., was collected for both index cases and controls. Out of 183 original pairs, analysis was made on 164 pairs with available information for both the index and control, using the method of matched samples described by Mantel and Haenszel. There was enhancement of risk for those exposed to high radiation dose (100 rad or more). Although most major results were similar to those of previous studies, a significant increase of risk was observed among those under one of the following conditions: actual duration of marriage was less than 10 years; number of pregnancies was two or less; and age at delivery of first live born child was 27 or over. These factors had a mutual interrelationship and cases with two or more of these risk factors showed higher risk than those with one. Additive interrelationship was demonstrated between radiation dose and these marital or reproductive risk factors in elevating the relative risk of breast cancer. (author)

  1. Epidemiology of congenital toxoplasmosis identified by population-based newborn screening in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, M; Hsu, H W; Eaton, R B; Demaria, A

    2001-12-01

    Fourteen years of newborn screening in Massachusetts for congenital toxoplasmosis infection identified subpopulations that appeared to have higher rates of infection. Elaborating an epidemiologic profile and risk correlates might aid implementing targeted prenatal education and newborn screening strategies with the goal of early postnatal treatment to prevent morbidity. To describe the epidemiology of congenital toxoplasmosis in Massachusetts and risk correlates of infection using birth certificate data. A case-control study was conducted based on Massachusetts birth certificate data. Cases were all infants with congenital toxoplasmosis identified by statewide universal newborn screening from 1988 to 1999. Controls were all children born on the same day as those infants in Massachusetts. Factors that strongly predicted congenital toxoplasmosis infection were mother's country of birth outside the US (especially the southeast Asian refugee origin countries of Cambodia and Laos), mother's educational level and higher gravidity. More extensive, culturally and linguistically appropriate, prenatal education is needed for pregnant women, regardless of a mother's educational level, especially for non-US-born mothers, and not focused only on primiparous women. Other states may be able to use their state-specific birth certificate data to compare risk profiles with those of Massachusetts to guide a toxoplasmosis screening policy on the basis of population similarities and differences.

  2. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T.; Felli, Vanda E.; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M. Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S. P.; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R.; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M. M.; Marziale, Maria H.; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V.; Quintana, Leonardo A.; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E. Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J. Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G.; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L.; Hoe, Victor C. W.; Urquhart, Donna M.; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J. Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20–59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait. PMID:27128094

  3. Trauma in Guilan (North of Iran: An Epidemiologic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehnadimoghadam Anoosh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Injuries, especially traffic accidents are so important causes of death, disability, hospital expenses, economic damages to the society which World Health Organization selected them as the main subjects for investigation and research. We have done an epidemiologic study about trauma in Guilan, a province in north of Iran. This is  a descriptive study carried out on patients with traumatic injuries, admitted in Poursina Teaching Hospital, during September 2005 to July 2006. Data were collected prospectively using a data collection form including demographic information, mechanism of trauma, anatomical site of injuries, according to AIS90 and severity of head trauma according to glasgow coma scale (GCS. Data were processed by SPSS 11.5 and are shown in tables and figures. Overall 3598 patients admitted. Mean age was 31.85 ± 17.76 years with male to female ratio  about 3.5:1. Most of patients were 25-44 years old (33.9%. Traffic accidents were the leading  cause of injuries (73.84% and then fall (15.7%. Motorcycle was the most common mode of transport in our patients (47.07% after that car (24.3%. Occurrence of traffic accidents increased through evening. Forty six percent of patients transported to hospital by people or came themselves (46.42%. Head and neck were the most common injured part of body (82.4 %, however about in 81.66% of patients were mild and then limb and pelvis (34.7%. Finally about 2.8% of them died. A trauma especially traffic accidents are an important public health issue in Guilan, we recommend conducting other studies focusing on risk factors in details, and considering injury prevention in local decision making.

  4. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T; Felli, Vanda E; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H; Felknor, Sarah A; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S P; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M M; Marziale, Maria H; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V; Quintana, Leonardo A; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M; Pesatori, Angela C; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L; Hoe, Victor C W; Urquhart, Donna M; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20-59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait.

  5. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Vargas-Prada

    Full Text Available Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20-59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%. The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3, and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six, and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count, although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait.

  6. Epidemiological studies. From experience in Hiroshima and Nagasaki to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Toshiteru

    2011-01-01

    Results of epidemiological studies by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki over 60 years are described as they are conceivably useful for present health risk assessment, future measures and health problems in Fukushima. The studies conducted in the two Cities on total of about 120,000 people of survivors and unexposed control group have given following findings. Incidence of leukemia is increased several years after A-bomb exposure, and of diseases like thyroidal ones, cataract and solid cancers, at 10-20 years later. Individual dose assessment of these morbid people is established (DS02, Dosimetry published in 2003), which reveals the quantitative relationship between dose and incidence. This relationship is used as a reference to make up an international standard for protection of radiation hazard. Mean of excess relative risk (ERR) on linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis of solid cancers is around 0.4/Gy at age of 70 y for people exposed at age 30 y although there is a significant age and sex difference in ERR. As well as survivors, studies are performed on exposed fetuses and second generations from the exposed people, which show the increased incidence of newborn microcephaly from mothers exposed with high dose but overall health abnormality is not seen in offspring from exposed parents. Radiation exposure is mainly instantaneous in the two Cities and is mostly derived from neutron and gamma-ray, which are somehow different from that in Fukushima due to Nuclear Power Plant Accident. The latter involves long term external and internal exposures with alpha-, beta- and gamma-ray hereafter. The difference should be well recognized for risk assessment in Fukushima; exempli gratia (e.g.), at the same dose, instantaneous exposure is mentioned more risky than long term one. (T.T.)

  7. A Review of Study Designs and Statistical Methods for Genomic Epidemiology Studies using Next Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian eWang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Results from numerous linkage and association studies have greatly deepened scientists’ understanding of the genetic basis of many human diseases, yet some important questions remain unanswered. For example, although a large number of disease-associated loci have been identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS in the past 10 years, it is challenging to interpret these results as most disease-associated markers have no clear functional roles in disease etiology, and all the identified genomic factors only explain a small portion of disease heritability. With the help of next-generation sequencing (NGS, diverse types of genomic and epigenetic variations can be detected with high accuracy. More importantly, instead of using linkage disequilibrium to detect association signals based on a set of pre-set probes, NGS allows researchers to directly study all the variants in each individual, therefore promises opportunities for identifying functional variants and a more comprehensive dissection of disease heritability. Although the current scale of NGS studies is still limited due to the high cost, the success of several recent studies suggests the great potential for applying NGS in genomic epidemiology, especially as the cost of sequencing continues to drop. In this review, we discuss several pioneer applications of NGS, summarize scientific discoveries for rare and complex diseases, and compare various study designs including targeted sequencing and whole-genome sequencing using population-based and family-based cohorts. Finally, we highlight recent advancements in statistical methods proposed for sequencing analysis, including group-based association tests, meta-analysis techniques, and annotation tools for variant prioritization.

  8. Vulvar cancer in Tunisia: Epidemiological and clinicopathological features multicentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehila, Mehdi; Harabi, Souad; Mhiri, Raoudha; Touhami, Omar; Abouda, Hassine Saber; Khlifi, Abdeljalil; Hsairi, Mohamed; Chelli, Dalenda; Derbel, Mohamed; Kebaili, Sahbi; Boujelbane, Nadia; Chaabene, Kais; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis

    2017-06-01

    To describe for the first time the epidemiologic and clinico-pathologic characteristics of vulvar cancer in Tunisia. Two parts are distinguished in this study: Part1: Multicentric retrospective study about the characteristics of all cancer cases diagnosed during a 17-years period (January 1998-December 2014) in three departments of Gynecology and Obstetrics: one in south Tunisia and two in the capital. Part 2: To determine the Incidence trend of invasive vulvar cancer in North Tunisia 1994-2009, on the basis of North Cancer Registry of Tunisia. A total of 76 cases of vulvar cancer were recorded. The median age at diagnosis was 65.4years and 86.9% of patients were more than 55years old. The symptomatology was dominated by vulvar pruritus in 48.7%. The average size of the tumor was 3.96cm. Stage III was the most frequent (53.7%) followed by stage II (28.3%). Only 10.4% of tumors were at stage I. The most common histologic type of vulvar malignancy was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (94.7%). Standardized incidence varied from 1.2/100 000 (1994) to 0.5/100 000 (2009). There was significant decrease of Standardized incidence (APC of -8.8% per year, 95% CI: -5.5%, -9.0%-pTunisia is a rare disease, occurs mostly in elderly women, and is diagnosed at advanced stages. Our findings emphasize that a greater effort should be made to facilitate early diagnosis, as treatment in earlier stages is less extensive and potentially curative. Copyright © 2017 National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pediatric Dance Injuries: A Cross-Sectional Epidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Amy X; Sugimoto, Dai; Martin, Daniel J; Stracciolini, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics of dance injuries evaluated by sports medicine physicians. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of a 5% random probability sample of patients presenting for sports medicine evaluation between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2009. Sports medicine clinic of a tertiary-level pediatric medical center. A total of 181 pediatric dancers (171 female and 10 male; 14.8 ± 2.0 years of age) with 222 injuries. Injury diagnoses, location, type, and treatment. Forty-six injury diagnoses were recorded in this random sample of pediatric dancers, with the most common being tendonitis/tendinopathy, patellofemoral pain syndrome, apophysitis, ankle impingement syndrome, and hip labral tear. Most of the injuries occurred in the lower extremities, with knee and ankle injuries being the most common. Injury classification by type revealed that joints were the body structure most likely to be injured, followed by soft tissues, skeletal elements, and growth plates. The most frequent joint injury was patellofemoral pain syndrome. The most frequent soft tissue injury was tendonitis/tendinopathy. The most common skeletal injury was a pars stress reaction/spondylolysis. The most common physeal injury was apophysitis. Dancers were treated mainly with physical therapy, surgery, or physical therapy, in addition to orthotics. Pediatric dancers experienced significant, and occasionally rare, injuries that may have long-term health consequences. Although injuries occurred mostly in the lower extremities and involved mainly joints, the most common specific diagnosis was tendonitis/tendinopathy. There is still much to learn about the management of dancers, and there is a need for further research into injury prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Epidemiologic study of hyperopia in schoolchildren in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebil, Ahmed; Jeddidi, Lina; Chaker, Nibrass; Kort, Fedra; Bouladi, Mejda; Largueche, Leila; Limaiem, Rym; Mghaieth, Fatma; El Matri, Leila

    2014-12-01

    To study the epidemiological profile and the degree of severity of hyperopia in Tunisia primary school and to assess its effect on school performance. A cross-sectional, descriptive survey was conducted among 6-14 aged Tunisian children attending primary urban and rural schools. A total of 6192 children were selected using stratified random cluster sampling. Cycloplegic refractive error was measured among all children with uncorrected visual acuity less than 9/10 or signs of astheniopia. Hyperopia was defined as spherical equivalent (SE) 2.0 diopters (D). We have also searched a possible relation between degree of severity of hyperopia and school performance. The prevalence of hyperopia was 2.61%. The spherical equivalent mean was + 3.73 ± 0.94 D. The mean age was 9.67 ± 0.44 years. This prevalence was 2.77% in boys and 2.47% in girls. 3.13% of students were living in urban areas and 1.42% in rural areas. The hyperopia rate decreased significantly with age (p = 0.021), but it was not significantly related to gender (p=0.54). The difference in the prevalence of hyperopia between urban and rural areas was not statistically significant (p = 0.067). There was no significant association between the degree of severity of hyperopia and school performance (p=0.41). In our study, the prevalence of hyperopia among schoolage children in Tunisia was 2.61%.The identification of this refractive error and its correction as soon as possible would ensure these children better visual comfort and a better education.

  11. How can bio dosimetry measurements be used to improve radiation epidemiologic studies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Kleinerman, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Bio dosimetry measurements can be used potentially to improve radiation epidemiologic studies by providing a means to corroborate analytical or model-based dose estimates, to assess bias in models and their dose estimates, and reduce uncertainty in individual or group-average doses. Radiation epidemiologic studies typically rely on accurate estimation of doses to the whole body or to specific organs for numerous individuals in order to derive reliable estimates of risk of cancer or other medical conditions. However, dose estimates whether based on analytical dose reconstruction (i.e., models) or personnel monitoring measurements, e.g., film-badges, are associated with considerable and varying degrees of uncertainty. Uncertainty is a product of many factors; persons were exposed many years or decades earlier and usually only inadequate data or measurements are available. While bio dosimetry has begun to play a more significant role in long-term health risk studies, its use is still limited in that context, primarily due sometimes to inadequate limits of detection, inter-individual variability of the signal measured, and high per-sample cost. Presently, the most suitable bio dosimetry methods for epidemiologic studies are chromosome aberration frequencies from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of peripheral blood lymphocytes and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements made on tooth enamel, with detection limits of approximately 0.3 to 0.5 Gy, and as low as 0.03 Gy for FISH and EPR, respectively. Presently, both methods are invasive and require obtaining either blood or teeth. Though both FISH and EPR have been used in a variety of large long-term health risk studies including those of a-bomb survivors and various occupational and environmental exposures, only recently has considerable thought been given to how these data can be used in epidemiologic studies in any but rudimentary ways. Key issues to consider are the representativeness of

  12. Design of a protocol for large-scale epidemiological studies in individual sports: the Swedish Athletics injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Ekberg, Joakim; Kowalski, Jan; Nilsson, Sverker; Renström, Per

    2010-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have mainly been performed on team sports. The authors set out to develop a protocol for large-scale epidemiological studies of injuries among elite athletics athletes. An argument-based method for investigation of complex design problems was used to structure the collection and analysis of data. Specification of the protocol was preceded by an examination of requirements on injury surveillance in individual sports and iterated drafting of protocol specifications, and followed by formative evaluations. The requirements analysis shows that the central demand on the protocol is to allow for detailed epidemiological analyses of overuse injuries, which subsequently requires regular collection of self-reported data from athletes. The resulting study protocol is centred on a web-based weekly athlete e-diary enabling continual collection of individual-level data on exposure and injuries. To be able to interpret the self-reported data on injury events, collection of a wide range of personal baseline data from the athlete, including a psychological profile, is included in the protocol. The resulting protocol can be employed in intervention programmes that can prevent suffering among both adult elite and youth talent athletes who have made considerable life investments in their sport.

  13. Mendelian randomization in nutritional epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Lu

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional epidemiology aims to identify dietary and lifestyle causes for human diseases. Causality inference in nutritional epidemiology is largely based on evidence from studies of observational design, and may be distorted by unmeasured or residual confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization is a recently developed methodology that combines genetic and classical epidemiological analysis to infer causality for environmental exposures, based on the principle of Mendel’s law o...

  14. Review of results from epidemiological studies of miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurier, Dominique; Vacquier, Blandine; Leuraud, Klervi; Tirmarche, Margot

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Studies of miners played a major role in the classification of radon gas and its decay products as a certain lung carcinogen for humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 1987. A comprehensive review of epidemiological results from miners' studies was published in the BEIR VI report in 1999. Since then, many results have been published. The present paper reviews the results related to cancer risks associated to alpha emitters obtained from miners' studies since 1999. More than 40 articles or reports are reviewed. Data from eleven cohorts were considered in the BEIR VI report. Since 1999, six of these cohorts have been enlarged or extended. Additional data, not available at the time of the BEIR VI report, have also been collected, such as additional data about mines exposures (gamma rays, inhalation of uranium ore dust), smoking behaviour, information about morbidity or histology of the cancers. Some revision of dosimetric estimates also occurred. New cohorts have developed in Germany, in the Czech Republic and in China. Also, some collaborative research programs were launched, especially in Europe and are presently supported in the frame of the Alpha-risk project. This involvement of the available data provided the basis for many research works. Most of the studies aimed at a better quantification of the relation between radon exposure and lung cancer risk. Globally, the results confirm the existence of a significant association, compatible with a linear relationship. A decrease of the magnitude of the association is consistently found with time since exposure. A modifying effect of age at exposure is also repeatedly observed. The existence of an inverse exposure-rate effect, suggested by some studies, is not confirmed at low levels of exposure. It was also confirmed that a radon associated lung cancer risk persists after taking into account smoking. Some studies provided results on diseases other than lung cancer. Especially, several

  15. Empirical evidence of bias in treatment effect estimates in controlled trials with different interventions and outcomes: meta-epidemiological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, L.; Egger, M.; Gluud, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the association of inadequate or unclear allocation concealment and lack of blinding with biased estimates of intervention effects varies with the nature of the intervention or outcome. DESIGN: Combined analysis of data from three meta-epidemiological studies based o...

  16. Epidemiological studies on Brassica vegetables and cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Verhagen, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the epidemiological data concerning the cancer-preventive effect of brassica vegetables, including cabbage, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. The protective effect of brassicas against cancer may be due to their relatively high content of

  17. Studies on the Epidemiology of Dracunculiasis in Ikwo Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between April 1999 and March 2000 an epidemiological survey was conducted for prevalence and distribution of dracunculiasis in fifteen communities in Ikwo Local government area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A total of 4568 persons were examined out of which 640 (14.0%), had active cases of guinea worm. The disease ...

  18. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  19. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy

  20. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-01-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain, for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy

  1. Air pollution and health in Sri Lanka: a review of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandasena, Yatagama Lokuge S; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2010-06-02

    Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health in most developing countries. Evaluation of current air quality levels, regulatory standards and scientific literature on outdoor and indoor air pollution, and health effects are important to identify the burden, develop and implement interventions and to fill knowledge gaps in Sri Lanka. PUBMED and Medline databases, local journals and conference proceedings were searched for epidemiologic studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects in Sri Lanka. All the studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects were considered. Sixteen studies investigated the association between exposure to ambient or indoor air pollution (IAP) and various health outcomes ranging from respiratory symptoms, low birth weight and lung cancers. Of the sixteen, three used a case control design. Half of the studies collected exposure data only through questionnaires. There were positive associations between air pollution and adverse health effects in all studies. Methodological limitations in most of the studies resulted in poor quantification of risk estimates. A limited number of epidemiological studies in Sri Lanka have investigated the health effects of air pollution. Based on findings of studies and reported air quality levels, air pollution may be considered a neglected public health problem in Sri Lanka.

  2. Biologically-based mechanistic models of radiation-related carcinogenesis applied to epidemiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühm, Werner; Eidemüller, Markus; Kaiser, Jan Christian

    2017-10-01

    Biologically-based mechanistic models that are used in combining current understanding of human carcinogenesis with epidemiological studies were reviewed. Assessment was made of how well they fit the data, whether they account for non-linear radiobiological low-dose effects, and whether they suggest any implications for the dose response at low doses and dose rates. However, the present paper does not make an attempt to provide a complete review of the existing literature on biologically-based models and their application to epidemiological data. In most studies the two-stage clonal expansion (TSCE) model of carcinogenesis was used. The model provided robust estimates of identifiable parameters and radiation risk. While relatively simple, it is flexible, so that more stages can easily be added, and tests made of various types of radiation action. In general, the model performed similarly or better than descriptive excess absolute and excess relative risk models, in terms of quality of fit and number of parameters. Only very rarely the shape of dose-response predicted by the models was investigated. For some tumors, when more detailed biological information was known, additional pathways were included in the model. The future development of these models will benefit from growing knowledge on carcinogenesis processes, and in particular from use of biobank tissue samples and advances in omics technologies. Their use appears a promising approach to investigate the radiation risk at low doses and low dose rates. However, the uncertainties involved are still considerable, and the models provide only a simplified description of the underlying complexity of carcinogenesis. Current assumptions in radiation protection including the linear-non-threshold (LNT) model are not in contradiction to what is presently known on the process of cancer development.

  3. Ramadan Perspective Epidemiology and Education in Diabetes (RAPEED) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, N I; Kamrul-Hasan, M; Hossain, M A; Chanda, P K; Bakar, M A; Rahman, M; Kader, M A

    2017-04-01

    Ramadan fasting is one of the five pillars of Islam and is obligatory for all healthy adult and adolescent Muslims. A significant number of patients with diabetes observe fasting during Ramadan. The objectives of this Ramadan Perspective Epidemiology and Education in Diabetes (RAPEED) study were to find out the current knowledge, attitude, and practices about Ramadan fasting among people with diabetes in Bangladesh. This retrospective cross-sectional study recruited 648 subjects with diabetes mellitus attending the Endocrinology outpatient department of a tertiary level hospital of Bangladesh within two months of the end of Ramadan in 2016. Socio-demographic data, data related to diabetes treatment, complications and co-morbidities; changes in lifestyle and diabetes treatment during Ramadan and frequency of hypoglycemia were collected from all. The mean age of the study population was 50.32±12.1 years and the majority (98.6%) had type 2 diabetes and 63.9% were overweight or obese. The majority (89.35%) of the patients fasted in Ramadan and among them, more than half of the fasters received physicians' advice for Ramadan fasting (60.6%) and changed diabetes medication (69.90%) during Ramadan. Although the amount of total food consumption was unchanged in more than one half (60.6%) of the fasters, majority of them reduced sugar-sweet intake (75.5%), increased fluid drinking (75.8%) and decreased physical activity (75.8%) during the month. A large portion (37.48%) of them did not check blood glucose and more than half (54.06%) of fasters failed to visit their physicians during Ramadan. Among them 14.85% experienced mild to moderate episodes of hypoglycemia and none had severe hypoglycemia and the most (61.6%) episodes of hypoglycemia occurred in the late evening. Hypoglycemic episodes were more frequent among insulin users, patients who had received fasting advice from physicians and in those who had adjusted diabetes drugs before Ramadan fasting. Safe Ramadan

  4. Diagnostic Methods of Helicobacter pylori Infection for Epidemiological Studies: Critical Importance of Indirect Test Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Among the methods developed to detect H. pylori infection, determining the gold standard remains debatable, especially for epidemiological studies. Due to the decreasing sensitivity of direct diagnostic tests (histopathology and/or immunohistochemistry [IHC], rapid urease test [RUT], and culture), several indirect tests, including antibody-based tests (serology and urine test), urea breath test (UBT), and stool antigen test (SAT) have been developed to diagnose H. pylori infection. Among the indirect tests, UBT and SAT became the best methods to determine active infection. While antibody-based tests, especially serology, are widely available and relatively sensitive, their specificity is low. Guidelines indicated that no single test can be considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and that one should consider the method's advantages and disadvantages. Based on four epidemiological studies, culture and RUT present a sensitivity of 74.2-90.8% and 83.3-86.9% and a specificity of 97.7-98.8% and 95.1-97.2%, respectively, when using IHC as a gold standard. The sensitivity of serology is quite high, but that of the urine test was lower compared with that of the other methods. Thus, indirect test validation is important although some commercial kits propose universal cut-off values.

  5. Low quality evidence of epidemiological observational studies on leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentini, Bruno; Steindel, Mário; Marlow, Mariel A

    2014-01-01

    Brazil has implemented systematic control methods for leishmaniasis for the past 30 years, despite an increase in cases and continued spread of the disease to new regions. A lack high quality evidence from epidemiological observational studies impedes the development of novel control methods to prevent disease transmission among the population. Here, we have evaluated the quality of observational studies on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil to highlight this issue. For this systematic review, all publications on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2012 were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist to select observational studies involving human subjects. The 283 included studies, representing only 14.1% of articles screened, were then further evaluated for quality of epidemiological methods and study design based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) checklists. Over half of these studies were descriptive or case reports (53.4%, 151), followed by cross-sectional (20.8%, n = 59), case-control (8.5%, n = 24), and cohort (6.0%, n = 17). Study design was not stated in 46.6% (n = 181) and incorrectly stated in 17.5% (n = 24). Comparison groups were utilized in just 39.6% (n = 112) of the publications, and only 13.4% (n = 38) employed healthy controls. Majority of studies were performed at the city-level (62.9%, n = 178), in contrast with two (0.7%) studies performed at the national-level. Coauthorship networks showed the number of author collaborations rapidly decreased after three collaborations, with 70.9% (n = 659/929) of coauthors publishing only one article during the study period. A review of epidemiological research in Brazil revealed a major lack of quality and evidence. While certain indicators suggested research methods may have improved in the last two years, an emphasis on observational research which employs

  6. Low quality evidence of epidemiological observational studies on leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Trentini

    Full Text Available Brazil has implemented systematic control methods for leishmaniasis for the past 30 years, despite an increase in cases and continued spread of the disease to new regions. A lack high quality evidence from epidemiological observational studies impedes the development of novel control methods to prevent disease transmission among the population. Here, we have evaluated the quality of observational studies on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil to highlight this issue.For this systematic review, all publications on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2012 were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA checklist to select observational studies involving human subjects. The 283 included studies, representing only 14.1% of articles screened, were then further evaluated for quality of epidemiological methods and study design based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology checklists. Over half of these studies were descriptive or case reports (53.4%, 151, followed by cross-sectional (20.8%, n = 59, case-control (8.5%, n = 24, and cohort (6.0%, n = 17. Study design was not stated in 46.6% (n = 181 and incorrectly stated in 17.5% (n = 24. Comparison groups were utilized in just 39.6% (n = 112 of the publications, and only 13.4% (n = 38 employed healthy controls. Majority of studies were performed at the city-level (62.9%, n = 178, in contrast with two (0.7% studies performed at the national-level. Coauthorship networks showed the number of author collaborations rapidly decreased after three collaborations, with 70.9% (n = 659/929 of coauthors publishing only one article during the study period.A review of epidemiological research in Brazil revealed a major lack of quality and evidence. While certain indicators suggested research methods may have improved in the last two years, an emphasis on observational research which employs

  7. The evolving epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include assessments of disease burden and evolving patterns of disease presentation. Although it is hoped that sound epidemiologic studies provide aetiological clues, traditional risk factor-based epidemiology has provided limited insights into either Crohn\\'s disease or ulcerative colitis etiopathogenesis. In this update, we will summarize how the changing epidemiology of IBD associated with modernization can be reconciled with current concepts of disease mechanisms and will discuss studies of clinically significant comorbidity in IBD.

  8. The Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument for Assessing Study Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental epidemiology studies can be an effective means to assess impacts on human health from exposure to environmental stressors. Exposure scenarios are often extremely complex and proper assessment is critical for interpreting epidemiological study results. Biomarkers are...

  9. Epidemiological and Experimental Studies: The Role of Metformin on Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih D. Yudhani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available GLOBOCAN data in 2012 showed colorectal cancer was the third leading cancer worldwide. In Indonesia, based on WHO data in 2014, colorectal cancer was the second common cancer ini men and third cancer in women. Epidemiological studies showed that diabetes mellitus have a correlation with the incidence of cancer and increase colorectal cancer risk by 30%. Some of epidemiological study showed that metformin therapy in diabetes patient reduce the risk of cancer incidence. It supported by experimental study which showed that metformin inhibit the growth and proliferation of cancer cells by influence the AMPK/mTOR pathway as a main role. The method was literature review based on publication at Pubmed, Scopus, and Google Scholar with keywords “metformin, colorectal cancer”, “metformin, colon cancer”, without index factor limitation in free journal and paid journal. The aim of this review is to give a new insight of metformin activity as anti-cancer and its potential for both preventif and adjuvant cancer therapy, especially for colorectal cancer.

  10. Wastewater-based epidemiology to assess pan-European pesticide exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rousis, N.I.; Gracia-Lor, E.; Zuccato, E.; Bade, R.; Baz-Lomba, J.A.; Castrignanò, E.; Causanilles, A.; Covaci, A.; de Voogt, P.; Hernàndez, F.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B.; Kinyua, J.; McCall, A.-K.; Plósz, B.G.; Ramin, P.; Ryu, Y.; Thomas, K.V.; van Nuijs, A.; Yang, Z.; Castiglioni, S.

    2017-01-01

    Human biomonitoring, i.e. the determination of chemicals and/or their metabolites in human specimens, is the most common and potent tool for assessing human exposure to pesticides, but it suffers from limitations such as high costs and biases in sampling. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an

  11. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: Guidelines for reporting observational studies

    OpenAIRE

    von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2014-01-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study’s generalizability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-contro...

  12. Rare variant APOC3 R19X is associated with cardio-protective profiles in a diverse population-based survey as part of the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Dana C; Dumitrescu, Logan; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Boston, Jonathan; McClellan, Bob; Sutcliffe, Cara; Wiseman, Rachel; Baker, Paxton; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Scott, William K; Allen, Melissa; Mayo, Ping; Schnetz-Boutaud, Nathalie; Dilks, Holli H; Haines, Jonathan L; Pollin, Toni I

    2014-12-01

    A founder mutation was recently discovered and described as conferring favorable lipid profiles and reduced subclinical atherosclerotic disease in a Pennsylvania Amish population. Preliminary data have suggested that this null mutation APOC3 R19X (rs76353203) is rare in the general population. To better describe the frequency and lipid profile in the general population, we as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology I Study and the Epidemiological Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment Study genotyped rs76353203 in 1113 Amish participants from Ohio and Indiana and 19 613 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES III, 1999 to 2002, and 2007 to 2008). We found no carriers among the Ohio and Indiana Amish. Of the 19 613 NHANES participants, we identified 31 participants carrying the 19X allele, for an overall allele frequency of 0.08%. Among fasting adults, the 19X allele was associated with lower triglycerides (n=7603; β=-71.20; P=0.007) and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (n=8891; β=15.65; P=0.0002) and, although not significant, lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (n=6502; β= -4.85; P=0.68) after adjustment for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. On average, 19X allele participants had approximately half the triglyceride levels (geometric means, 51.3 to 69.7 versus 134.6 to 141.3 mg/dL), >20% higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (geometric means, 56.8 to 74.4 versus 50.38 to 53.36 mg/dL), and lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (geometric means, 104.5 to 128.6 versus 116.1 to 125.7 mg/dL) compared with noncarrier participants. These data demonstrate that APOC3 19X exists in the general US population in multiple racial/ethnic groups and is associated with cardio-protective lipid profiles. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Rare Variant APOC3 R19X Is Associated with Cardio-Protective Profiles in a Diverse Population-Based Survey as Part of the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Dana C.; Dumitrescu, Logan; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Boston, Jonathan; McClellan, Bob; Sutcliffe, Cara; Wiseman, Rachel; Baker, Paxton; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Scott, William K.; Allen, Melissa; Mayo, Ping; Schnetz-Boutaud, Nathalie; Dilks, Holli H.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Pollin, Toni I.

    2014-01-01

    Background A founder mutation was recently discovered and described as conferring favorable lipid profiles and reduced subclinical atherosclerotic disease in a Pennsylvania Amish population. Preliminary data have suggested that this null mutation APOC3 R19X (rs76353203) is rare in the general population. Methods and Results To better describe the frequency and lipid profile in the general population, we as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) I study and the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study genotyped rs76353203 in 1,113 Amish participants from Ohio and Indiana and 19,613 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES III, 1999–2002, and 2007–2008). We found no carriers among the Ohio and Indiana Amish. Out of the 19,613 NHANES participants, we identified 31 participants carrying the 19X allele, for an overall allele frequency of 0.08%. Among fasting adults, the 19X allele was associated with lower TG (n=7,603; β= −71.20; p = 0.007) and higher HDL-C (n=8,891; β = 15.65; p = 0.0002) and, although not significant, lower LDL-C (n=6,502; β= −4.85; p = 0.68) after adjustment for age, sex and race/ethnicity. On average, 19X allele participants had approximately half the TG levels (geometric means 51.3–69.7 vs. 134.6–141.3 mg/dl), >20% higher HDL-C levels (geometric means 56.8–74.4 vs. 50.38–53.36 mg/dl), and lower LDL-C levels (geometric means 104.5–128.6 vs. 116.1–125.7 mg/dl) compared with non-carrier participants. Conclusions These data demonstrate that APOC3 19X exists in the general US population in multiple racial/ethnic groups and is associated with cardio-protective lipid profiles. PMID:25363704

  14. Analysis of those national analytic epidemiological studies that by obtention the exposure-response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, E.; Meneses, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Impact Pathway methodology, developed in the frame of Extern E project for estimating of the external costs or externalities of the energy use, has as one of their main steps the health impact evaluation. This evaluation is carried out through exposure-response functions. In previous estimates of the external costs of power generation in Cuba, functions obtained in international studies were used. The main objective of this work was to carry out a summarized critical analysis of those national analytic epidemiological studies that, according the exposed methodology, consider the main aspects specialized with views to the possible preliminary proposal of functions exposure-response (FER) based own in epidemiologic evidences. In agreement with the analysis, the results show that the great majority of the studies are not useful for the FER establishment, at least in their present form. A minority studies exists that contributes limited evidence and their reanalysis could increase their contribution to the propose purpose. Finally the main problems found in the studies are enumerated revision object

  15. Traumatic dental injuries in Serbian children: Epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Comprehensive epidemiological data regarding factors associated with traumatic dental injuries are scarce. Objective. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency and analyze the factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Serbian children. Methods. Research included children and adolescents with traumatic dental injury aged 0-19 year during the period from 2003 to 2010, in four University Dental Centres in Serbia: Belgrade, Nis, Novi Sad and Kragujevac. Patient history, demographic, clinical and radiographic data were obtained from dental trauma forms. Results. Total of 2,194 patients (748 girls, 1,446 boys (χ2=222.1; p<0.01 with 3,077 injured teeth in permanent and 953 in primary dentition were observed. Most of patients were aged 7 to 12 years (n=1,191. The most frequent injuries in primary and permanent dentition were dislocations (87.4% and teeth fractures (50.8%, respectively (χ2=706.1; p<0.01. The most frequent mechanism of injury was fall in children aged 0 to 12 years, while the collisions were most frequent in adolescents (53.9%. The most frequent injuries in adolescents were inflicted outdoor (66.8%, while the injuries in children aged 0 to 3 years occurred at home (68.2%, (χ2=360.8; p<0.01. The most frequent injuries in girls were accidental (48.3%, and in boys these were sport injuries (20.4% and violence (10.4% (χ2=79.9; p<0.01. The most frequent cause of injury in children aged 0 to 3 years was accidental (75.6%, while in adolescents it was sport (34.1% (χ2=1102.7; p<0.01. Conclusion. Dental injuries in preschool children most frequently resulted from fall at home. Schoolchildren most frequently injured teeth outdoor during play. Violence and sport injuries were most frequent cause of injury in adolescents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

  16. Epidemiological studies of leukaemia in children and young adults around nuclear facilities: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurier, D.; Jacob, S.; Bernier, M. O.; Leuraud, K.; Metz, C.; Samson, E.; Laloi, P.

    2008-01-01

    The existence of an increased risk of childhood leukaemia near nuclear installations is a recurrent issue. A review of the related epidemiological literature is presented here. Results for 198 nuclear sites throughout 10 countries were included in the review. In addition to local studies, 25 multi-site studies have been published for eight countries. A large variability was noticed in the quality of the data as well as in the definition of the study population and in the methods of analysis. Many studies present important limits that make the results difficult to interpret. The review confirms that some clusters of childhood leukaemia cases exist locally. However, results based on multi-site studies around nuclear installations do not indicate an increased risk globally. Many studies were launched to investigate possible origins of the observed clusters around specific sites, but up to now, none of the proposed hypotheses have explained them. (authors)

  17. Epidemiological study of Paget's disease of bone in a zone of the Province of Salamanca (spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironon-Canelo, J.A.; Del Pino-Montes, J.; Vicente-Arroyo, M.; Saenz-Gonzalez, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Bone Paget's disease is heterogeneously distributed and several foci of high prevalence have been reported in Spain. The aim of the present work was to determine the prevalence of the disease in a zone situated in the northwestern sector of the Province of Salamanca (Spain) using a cross sectional epidemiological study. Sample choice was based on a stratified sampling according to the residence, age and sex of the inhabitants of the zone. A sampling error of 5% and a confidence level of 95% were considered; these afforded a sample of 378 units. Final choice of the subjects was based on a random pathway method. Data collection was accomplished with a personal interview using a 31-item questionnaire and analytical screening (AP and GGT). The field work was carried out over a one-year period. The data were input onto a calculation sheet for analysis and epidemiological interpretation. Finally, clinico-radiological confirmation of the cases deemed positive in the screening was accomplished. The prevalence of PBD in the zone studied is 5.7% (95% CI: 4.5-6.9). The highest percentage of patients lies within the age group between 70-79 years; most of these patients were women. The mean residence time in the zone was 66 years. According to the findings, this geographic zone has a high prevalence of PBD

  18. Identification of dietary patterns using factor analysis in an epidemiological study in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Maria Lobo Marchioni

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Diet and nutrition are environmental factors in health/disease relationships. From the epidemiological viewpoint, diet represents a complex set of highly correlated exposures. Our objective was to identify patterns of food intake in a group of individuals living in São Paulo, and to develop objective dietary measurements for epidemiological purposes. DESIGN AND LOCAL: Exploratory factor analysis of data in a case-control study in seven teaching hospitals in São Paulo. METHODS: The participants were 517 patients (260 oral cancer cases and 257 controls admitted to the study hospitals between November 1998 and March 2001. The weekly intake frequencies for dairy products, cereals, meat, processed meat, vegetables, pulses, fruits and sweets were assessed by means of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis, based on the intake of the eight food groups, using principal component analysis as an extraction method followed by varimax rotation. RESULTS: Factor analysis identified three patterns that accounted for 55% of the total variability within the sample. The first pattern ("prudent" was characterized by vegetable, fruit and meat intake; the second ("traditional" by cereals (mainly rice and pulses (mainly beans; and the third ("snacks" by dairy products and processed meat. CONCLUSION: This study identified food intake patterns through an a posteriori approach. Such analysis may be useful for nutritional intervention programs and, after computing scores for each individual according to the patterns identified, for establishing a relationship between diet and other epidemiological measurements of interest.

  19. What is desirable and feasible in dose reconstruction for application in epidemiological studies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouville, A.; Beebe, G.W.; Anspaugh, L.

    1996-02-01

    Epidemiological studies of populations are of two general forms, monitoring or formal, and serve several possible purposes. Monitoring studies inform members of potentially affected population groups of the nature and magnitude of the risks that might have been imposed on them. Formal epidemiological studies can increase scientific knowledge about the quantitative risk that attends exposure. Risks of human health due to radiation exposure are most appropriately estimated by means of formal epidemiological studies. Dosimetric data are essential for any epidemiological study, but the detail and accuracy needed depend on the purposes to be served. If the need is for a monitoring study, then general information about doses will suffice. However, a formal study that is expected to contribute to scientific information about quantitative radiation risk requires careful individual dose estimation. This paper is devoted to the discussion of dosimetric data needed for formal epidemiological studies of populations exposed as a result of nuclear power operations. The recommendations made by the National Research Council have largely been followed. The examples used in this paper are relevant to the Chernobyl accident, which caused a large number of people to be exposed at relatively high doses and provided an opportunity for formal epidemiological studies to be initiated. The studies that are singled out are those of thyroid cancer among children who resided in Belarus and in Ukraine at the time of the accident, and those of leukemia among workers involved in the mitigation of the accident and in clean-up operations

  20. An Epidemiologic Study of Pediatric Poisoning; a Six-month Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Manouchehrifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intentional and unintentional poisoning are among the most common reasons for referrals to emergency department (ED. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate epidemiologic features and effective risk factors of intentional and unintentional poisoning in children. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in ED of Loghman Hakim Hospital, greatest referral poison center of Iran, Tehran during March to August 2014. Demographic data, medical history, history of psychiatric disease in child, the cause of poisoning, parents’ educational level, household monthly income, location of residence, history of addiction or divorce in family, and the poisoning intentionality were gathered. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 and appropriate statistical tests based on the purpose of study. Results: 414 participants with the mean age of 4.2 ± 3.43 years were included (57.5% male. Children in the 0-4 year(s age range had the most frequency with 281 (67.9% cases. 29 (7% cases were intentional (62% female, 76% in the 10-14 years old group. Methadone with 123 (29.7% cases was the most frequent toxic agent in general and in unintentional cases. 10-14 years of age (p = 0.001, and the history of psychiatric disease in children (p <0.001, had a direct correlation with probability of intentional poisoning. While, history of addiction in the family showed an indirect correlation with this probability (p = 0.045. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, most cases of poisoning in the children were unintentional methadone intoxication in boys in the 0-4 age range with a history of a psychiatric disease, and those who had a history of addiction in the family. In addition, the most powerful risk factor for the children’s intentional poisoning was their history of psychiatric disease. The history of addiction in the child’s family had indirect correlation with intentional intoxications.

  1. The genetic study of three population microisolates in South Tyrol (MICROS: study design and epidemiological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinggera Gerd K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence of the important role that small, isolated populations could play in finding genes involved in the etiology of diseases. For historical and political reasons, South Tyrol, the northern most Italian region, includes several villages of small dimensions which remained isolated over the centuries. Methods The MICROS study is a population-based survey on three small, isolated villages, characterized by: old settlement; small number of founders; high endogamy rates; slow/null population expansion. During the stage-1 (2002/03 genealogical data, screening questionnaires, clinical measurements, blood and urine samples, and DNA were collected for 1175 adult volunteers. Stage-2, concerning trait diagnoses, linkage analysis and association studies, is ongoing. The selection of the traits is being driven by expert clinicians. Preliminary, descriptive statistics were obtained. Power simulations for finding linkage on a quantitative trait locus (QTL were undertaken. Results Starting from participants, genealogies were reconstructed for 50,037 subjects, going back to the early 1600s. Within the last five generations, subjects were clustered in one pedigree of 7049 subjects plus 178 smaller pedigrees (3 to 85 subjects each. A significant probability of familial clustering was assessed for many traits, especially among the cardiovascular, neurological and respiratory traits. Simulations showed that the MICROS pedigree has a substantial power to detect a LOD score ≥ 3 when the QTL specific heritability is ≥ 20%. Conclusion The MICROS study is an extensive, ongoing, two-stage survey aimed at characterizing the genetic epidemiology of Mendelian and complex diseases. Our approach, involving different scientific disciplines, is an advantageous strategy to define and to study population isolates. The isolation of the Alpine populations, together with the extensive data collected so far, make the MICROS study a

  2. Malignant Melanoma in African-Americans: A Population-Based Clinical Outcomes Study Involving 1106 African-American Patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) Database (1988-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendraraj, Krishnaraj; Sidhu, Komal; Lau, Christine S M; McRoy, Georgia J; Chamberlain, Ronald S; Smith, Franz O

    2017-04-01

    Malignant melanoma accounts for 75% of all skin cancer deaths and is potentially curable if identified early. Although melanoma is rare in African-Americans (AA), it is associated with a worse prognosis than in Caucasians. This study examines the demographic, pathologic, and clinical factors impacting AA melanoma outcomes.Data for 1106 AA and 212,721 Caucasian cutaneous melanoma patients were abstracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database (1988-2011). Data were grouped on the basis of histological subtypes: "Superficial Spreading" (SS), "Nodular" (NM), "Lentigo Maligna" (LM), "Acral Lentiginous" (AL), and "Not otherwise specified" (NOS).Cutaneous malignant melanoma occurs most commonly in the sixth and seventh decade of life. Caucasian patients presented most commonly with trunk melanomas (34.5%), while lower extremity melanomas were more common in AAs (56.1%), P melanoma on the lower extremities, and with deeper and more advanced stage lesions. AAs have higher cancer-specific mortality for NM and LM than Caucasians. Melanoma education for AA patients and health care providers is needed to increase disease awareness, facilitate early detection, and promote access to effective treatment.

  3. Webinar Presentation: Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.

  4. Computerized micrographics in processing hard-copy records for an epidemiologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robie, D.M.; Fry, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    The availability of computers with increasing capabilities has made feasibile epidemiologic studies involving large populations such as those utilized to evaluate the health effects of occupational exposure to radiation. However, the storage and retrieval of data from the large numbers of hard-copy personnel, health physics, employment medical, historical or anecdotal documents that are the bases of such studies pose major logistics problems to investigators. The potential value of such records to epidemiologic studies depends, not only on their accuracy and completeness, but also on ease of accessibility. To address the latter problem, we are using a stand-alone user-oriented electronic filing system that records, stores, and secures hard-copy documents micrographically. This system is controlled by a computer that provides retrieval of a document image and printed copy (if desired) in less than 30 seconds from a maximum of eight fields. One thousand documents are randomly filmed and indexed on computer storage diskettes in two hours. Manual sorting and filing of the same number of documents takes over a day. At present two thousand documents can be recorded on each microfilm roll and 85,000 documents indexed on each diskette. Simultaneous searching for documents can be done using up to ten terminals while indexing is being done at the main terminal. The micrographics system provides the space-saving and security advantages of microfilm with the speed of computerized data retrieval

  5. Comparison of methods of extracting information for meta-analysis of observational studies in nutritional epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Myon Bae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A common method for conducting a quantitative systematic review (QSR for observational studies related to nutritional epidemiology is the “highest versus lowest intake” method (HLM, in which only the information concerning the effect size (ES of the highest category of a food item is collected on the basis of its lowest category. However, in the interval collapsing method (ICM, a method suggested to enable a maximum utilization of all available information, the ES information is collected by collapsing all categories into a single category. This study aimed to compare the ES and summary effect size (SES between the HLM and ICM. METHODS: A QSR for evaluating the citrus fruit intake and risk of pancreatic cancer and calculating the SES by using the HLM was selected. The ES and SES were estimated by performing a meta-analysis using the fixed-effect model. The directionality and statistical significance of the ES and SES were used as criteria for determining the concordance between the HLM and ICM outcomes. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the directionality of SES extracted by using the HLM or ICM. The application of the ICM, which uses a broader information base, yielded more-consistent ES and SES, and narrower confidence intervals than the HLM. CONCLUSIONS: The ICM is advantageous over the HLM owing to its higher statistical accuracy in extracting information for QSR on nutritional epidemiology. The application of the ICM should hence be recommended for future studies.

  6. Wastewater-based epidemiology to assess pan-European pesticide exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Rousis, Nikolaos I.; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Zuccato, Ettore; Bade, Richard; Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio; Castrignanò, Erika; Causanilles, Ana; Covaci, Adrian; de Voogt, Pim; Hernàndez, Félix; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Kinyua, Juliet; McCall, Ann-Kathrin; Plósz, Benedek Gy.; Ramin, Pedram

    2017-01-01

    Human biomonitoring, i.e. the determination of chemicals and/or their metabolites in human specimens, is the most common and potent tool for assessing human exposure to pesticides, but it suffers from limitations such as high costs and biases in sampling. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an innovative approach based on the chemical analysis of specific human metabolic excretion products (biomarkers) in wastewater, and provides objective and real-time information on xenobiotics directly ...

  7. Significance of epidemiological studies for estimating the genetic radiation hazards of man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, G.

    1982-01-01

    Following a brief presentation of the fundamentals of epidemiological studies, the problems associated with such studies are discussed. Epidemiological investigations on survivors of the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and also on the population of Kerala, a state in south west India with a high natural radiation load, are then discussed. Consideration was given to the question whether the Down-Syndrom is a valid indicator for proving a causal relationship between radiation dose and genetic effects. (MG) [de

  8. Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer Study-A Methodological Approach in Cancer Epidemiology Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, N. L.; Maurer, E.; Largent, J.; Kent, E.; Sender, E.; Culver, H. A.; Morris, R. A.; Sender, E.

    2009-01-01

    Advances have been made in treatment and outcomes for pediatric cancer. However adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer have not experienced similar relative improvements. We undertook a study to develop the methodology necessary for epidemiologic cancer research in these age groups. Our goal was to create the Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer (KAYAC) project to create a resource to address research questions relevant to this population. We used a combination of clinic and population-based ascertainment to enroll 111 cases aged 0-39 for this methodology development study. The largest groups of cancer types enrolled include: breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and melanoma. The overall participation rate is 69.8% and varies by age and tumor type. The study included patients, mothers, and fathers. The methods used to establish this resource are described, and the values of the resource in studies of childhood and young adult cancer are outlined.

  9. Epidemiological study of the Danish Acute Intermittent Porphyriapopulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brusgaard, Klaus

    of the study period. PBGD mutations were detected by standard exon and splice site sequencing procedures.The biochemical diagnosis of an acute porphyria attack was based on a PBG/creatinine ratio of ≥5.0 mmol/mol (reference interval 0.0–0.8 mmol/mol). Demographic distribution and prevalence: Region of Denmark...

  10. Ventriculostomy-related infections--an epidemiological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Gerner-Smidt, P; Kock-Jensen, C

    1986-01-01

    In a prospective study involving a total of 87 ventriculostomies, ventriculostomy-related infections (based upon a bacteriological definition) developed in 15 patients (17.2 per cent). Intraventricular haemorrhage was related to a higher infection rate. Infection was most frequent within the first...

  11. [Multicentric lymphoma in 411 dogs - an epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Theresa; Kessler, Martin; Lautscham, Esther; Willimzig, Lisanne; Neiger, Reto

    2016-08-17

    To provide an overview of the epidemiology of canine multicentric lymphoma in Germany. A total of 411 dogs with multicentric malignant lymphoma were retrospectively analysed regarding breed, age, sex, weight and the number of animals dogs with hypercalcaemic lymphoma and B-/T-immunophenotype, and compared to two reference populations (total own clinic population, n   =   52  142; dogs with health insurance in Germany, n   =   123  423). In total, 298 (72.5%) of the 411 dogs belonged to 86 different breeds, while 113 (27.5%) dogs were mixed breed. In comparison to both reference populations, a breed predisposition for the American Pitbull Terrier (odds ratio [OR] 5.2 and 18.5), American Staffordshire Terrier (OR 3.3 and 4.6), Briard (OR 5.6 and 9.5), Bullmastiff (OR 7.8 and 5.0), Irish Setter (OR 3.3 and 4.1) and Rottweiler (OR 2.8 and 3.6) was found. Golden Retrievers (n = 22, OR 1.3 and 0.9) and Bernese Mountain Dogs (n = 22, OR 2.4 and 2.0) were frequently affected in absolute numbers, but when compared to the reference populations an OR < 3 was detected. Mean body weight was 30.2 ± 13.7 kg; only 75 (18%) dogs weighed < 15 kg. Amongst the small dogs (< 15 kg), there was a large number of West Highland White Terriers (n = 12). Mean age of the dogs with lymphoma was 7.9 ± 2.7 years. Dogs weighing ≥ 15 kg were significantly (p < 0.001) younger (7.6 ± 2.4 years) compared to dogs weighing < 15 kg (9.3 ± 3.2 years). Dogs with a B-cell immunophenotype (8.5 ± 2.6 years) were significantly older compared to dogs with a T-cell immunophenotype (6.4 ± 1.8 years) (p < 0.001). There was no gender predisposition (54% male, 46% female). Hypercalcaemia as an indicator of T-cell lymphoma was present in 44 (11.4%) of the dogs. A T-cell and B-cell immunophenotype was found in 20.6% and 79.4% of the dogs, respectively. This study confirms previous data about breed predispositions for canine malignant multicentric

  12. A nationwide study of the epidemiology of relapsing polychondritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anna Horváth,1 Nóra Páll,2 Katalin Molnár,1 Tamás Kováts,3 György Surján,3 Tamás Vicsek,4,5 Péter Pollner2,4 13rd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University, 2Regional Science Center, Faculty of Science, Eötvös Loránd University, 3National Healthcare Service Center, 4MTA-ELTE Statistical and Biological Physics Research Group, 5Department of Biological Physics, Eötvös Loránd University Budapest, HungaryObjective: Relapsing polychondritis (RP is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disease that attacks mainly cartilaginous structures or causes serious damage in proteoglycan-rich structures (the eyes, heart, blood vessels, inner ear. This study shows results regarding the epidemiology, progression, and associations of this highly variable disease by collecting all cases from a 124-million-person-year Central European nationwide cohort.Methods: We used the Hungarian Health Care Database to identify all persons with possible RP infection. We followed patients who had International Classification of Diseases 10th edition code M94.1 at least once in their inpatient or outpatient records between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013 in Hungary. We classified these patients into disease severity groups by their drug consumption patterns between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. We analyzed the regional distribution of RP incidences as well. Overall maps of comorbidity are presented with network layouts.Results: We identified 256 patients with RP among cumulatively 11.5 million registered inhabitants. We classified these patients into four severity classes as "extremely mild" (n=144, "mild" (n=22, "moderate" (n=41, and "severe" (n=4. Two additional groups were defined for patients without available drug data as "suspected only" (n=23 and "confirmed but unknown treatment" (n=22. The age and sex distributions of patients were similar to worldwide statistics. Indeed, the overall survival was good (95% confidence interval for 5

  13. A Study on the Epidemiology of Bovine Brucellosis in Punjab (India Using Milk-ELISA

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    H. K. Aulakh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis, caused by Brucella abortus, is a serious zoonotic disease manifested by reproductive disorders resulting in huge economic losses to dairy farmers. A random survey was conducted to study the epidemiology of brucellosis in Punjab (India using sampling software Survey toolbox. Two-stage sampling procedure was adopted; in the first step, villages were selected randomly from sampling frame of all the villages of Punjab followed by selection of owners, and animals in individual farms were identified using random sampling. In all, 32 villages were selected and then 345 animals (approximately 5% were sampled from these villages. The milk samples collected were screened for brucella antibodies employing ELISA test. The overall apparent prevalence of brucellosis was found to be 18.26% (true prevalence - 17.68%. The prevalence in the central zone of the state was significantly higher, viz. 23.2% (chi square = 11.34, p p = 0.310 in cattle (20.67% compared to buffaloes (16.41% and increased with age (chi square = 8.572, p p 6 month of gestation (95.7%. The disease was significantly associated with the retention of placenta (chi square = 8.477, p p = 0.834. The results of the study suggested that the accurate epidemiological scenario of the disease may be obtained by employing multistage sampling procedures using milk-based ELISA.

  14. Epidemiological Study of Mortality Rate from Alcohol and Illicit Drug Abuse in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Seyed Mohammad Sadegh; Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Mirtorabi, Seyed Davood; Ghadirzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hashemi Nazari, Seyed Saeed

    2017-10-14

    The estimate of mortality associated with illicit opiate use provides useful information to those directing and monitoring local, national and international policies and programs. This study investigated the epidemiology of mortality due to the illegal consumption of narcotics and psychotropic substances in the Iran to provide evidence-based public health data for useful programs and actions aimed at preventing drug-related mortality. A cross-sectional study. The information regarding all cases of psychotropic positive was collected from Legal Medicine Organization, occurred on Mar 2015 to Feb 2016. Demographic and epidemiological data were extracted from recorded documents. Data were then analyzed in Stata software. Overall, 2306 died cases from opioid or psychotropic abuse were evaluated. The mean age of the subjects was 36.07±12.61 yr, they were mostly single male, and 88.64% of them had Iranian nationality. The mortality rate from opiate and psychotropic abuse in the whole country was 38.22 per 1000000 population. The most common location of death was at home or in another private residence. History of overdose, suicide, hospitalization in psychiatric hospital, staying in prison and substance abuse in the family observed in some people who died from drug abuse. Mortality rate from substance abuse is more among unmarried young men aged 30-39 yr with low education level also in self-employed. We suggest policies to prevent this person accessing and using drug.

  15. Wastewater-Based Epidemiology To Monitor Synthetic Cathinones Use in Different European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mariño, Iria; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Rousis, Nikolaos I; Castrignanò, Erika; Thomas, Kevin V; Quintana, José Benito; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Zuccato, Ettore; Castiglioni, Sara

    2016-09-20

    Synthetic cathinones are among the most consumed new psychoactive substances (NPS), but their increasing number and interchangeable market make it difficult to estimate the real size of their consumption. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) through the analysis of metabolic residues of these substances in urban wastewater can provide this information. This study applied WBE for the first time to investigate the presence of 17 synthetic cathinones in four European countries. A method based on solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was developed, validated, and used to quantify the target analytes. Seven substances were found, with mephedrone and methcathinone being the most frequently detected and none of the analytes being found in Norway. Population-normalized loads were used to evaluate the pattern of use, which indicated a higher consumption in the U.K., followed by Spain and Italy, in line with the European prevalence data from population surveys. In the U.K., where an entire week was investigated, an increase of the loads was found during the weekend, indicating a preferential use in recreational contexts. This study demonstrated that WBE can be a useful additional tool to monitor the use of NPS in a population.

  16. Epidemiology of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, James W

    2014-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the archetypal allergic disease otolaryngologists encounter. Epidemiologic studies inform providers of the association of rhinitis symptoms and allergy test results in the broader population. Understanding the epidemiological characteristics of AR is important for interpreting both rhinitis symptoms and allergy tests. Articles were selected based on literature review through PubMed and personal knowledge of the author. The largest and highest-quality studies were included. The search selection was not standardized. Epidemiological studies demonstrate marked variability globally in the prevalence of both rhinitis symptoms and allergy tests. Self-reported seasonal or perennial rhinitis symptoms significantly overestimate the prevalence of AR defined by a positive history and positive allergy tests. Positive allergy tests are also common in those without self-reported rhinitis symptoms. Interpreting rhinitis symptoms and allergy testing is enhanced by an understanding of the epidemiology of AR. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  17. A population approach to renal replacement therapy epidemiology: lessons from the EVEREST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Fergus J; Jager, Kitty J

    2014-08-01

    The marked variation that exists in renal replacement therapy (RRT) epidemiology between countries and within countries requires careful systematic examination if the root causes are to be understood. While individual patient-level studies are undoubtedly important, there is a complementary role for more population-level, area-based studies--an aetiological approach. The EVEREST Study adopted such an approach, bringing RRT incidence rates, survival and modality mix together with macroeconomic factors, general population factors and renal service organizational factors for up to 46 countries. This review considers the background to EVEREST, its key results and then the main methodological lessons and their potential application to ongoing work. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  18. Hand, foot, and mouth disease in China, 2008-12: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Weijia; Liao, Qiaohong; Viboud, Cécile; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Junling; Wu, Joseph T; Chang, Zhaorui; Liu, Fengfeng; Fang, Vicky J; Zheng, Yingdong; Cowling, Benjamin J; Varma, Jay K; Farrar, Jeremy J; Leung, Gabriel M; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-04-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a common childhood illness caused by enteroviruses. Increasingly, the disease has a substantial burden throughout east and southeast Asia. To better inform vaccine and other interventions, we characterised the epidemiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease in China on the basis of enhanced surveillance. We extracted epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data from cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease reported to the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention between Jan 1, 2008, and Dec 31, 2012. We then compiled climatic, geographical, and demographic information. All analyses were stratified by age, disease severity, laboratory confirmation status, and enterovirus serotype. The surveillance registry included 7,200,092 probable cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease (annual incidence, 1·2 per 1000 person-years from 2010-12), of which 267,942 (3·7%) were laboratory confirmed and 2457 (0·03%) were fatal. Incidence and mortality were highest in children aged 12-23 months (38·2 cases per 1000 person-years and 1·5 deaths per 100,000 person-years in 2012). Median duration from onset to diagnosis was 1·5 days (IQR 0·5-2·5) and median duration from onset to death was 3·5 days (2·5-4·5). The absolute number of patients with cardiopulmonary or neurological complications was 82,486 (case-severity rate 1·1%), and 2457 of 82486 patients with severe disease died (fatality rate 3·0%); 1617 of 1737 laboratory confirmed deaths (93%) were associated with enterovirus 71. Every year in June, hand, foot, and mouth disease peaked in north China, whereas southern China had semiannual outbreaks in May and September-October. Geographical differences in seasonal patterns were weakly associated with climate and demographic factors (variance explained 8-23% and 3-19%, respectively). This is the largest population-based study up to now of the epidemiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease. Future mitigation policies should take into

  19. Diagnosis of Dementia by Machine learning methods in Epidemiological studies: a pilot exploratory study from south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagyashree, Sheshadri Iyengar Raghavan; Nagaraj, Kiran; Prince, Martin; Fall, Caroline H D; Krishna, Murali

    2018-01-01

    There are limited data on the use of artificial intelligence methods for the diagnosis of dementia in epidemiological studies in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. A culture and education fair battery of cognitive tests was developed and validated for population based studies in low- and middle-income countries including India by the 10/66 Dementia Research Group. We explored the machine learning methods based on the 10/66 battery of cognitive tests for the diagnosis of dementia based in a birth cohort study in South India. The data sets for 466 men and women for this study were obtained from the on-going Mysore Studies of Natal effect of Health and Ageing (MYNAH), in south India. The data sets included: demographics, performance on the 10/66 cognitive function tests, the 10/66 diagnosis of mental disorders and population based normative data for the 10/66 battery of cognitive function tests. Diagnosis of dementia from the rule based approach was compared against the 10/66 diagnosis of dementia. We have applied machine learning techniques to identify minimal number of the 10/66 cognitive function tests required for diagnosing dementia and derived an algorithm to improve the accuracy of dementia diagnosis. Of 466 subjects, 27 had 10/66 diagnosis of dementia, 19 of whom were correctly identified as having dementia by Jrip classification with 100% accuracy. This pilot exploratory study indicates that machine learning methods can help identify community dwelling older adults with 10/66 criterion diagnosis of dementia with good accuracy in a LMIC setting such as India. This should reduce the duration of the diagnostic assessment and make the process easier and quicker for clinicians, patients and will be useful for 'case' ascertainment in population based epidemiological studies.

  20. The need for the "new health geography" in epidemiologic studies of environment and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutchin, Malcolm P

    2007-09-01

    Growth during the past decade in what can be broadly referred to as social and environmental epidemiologic research has been an important contributor to an emerging understanding of environment and health relationships. While the incorporation of geographic information systems as well as concepts such as "neighborhoods" might be viewed as evidence of social epidemiology moving closer to health geography, I argue that the two fields are not well aligned. Health geography has much more to contribute to studies of environment and health, and attention by social epidemiologists to those potential contributions could help rectify this misalignment. This paper suggests a number of geographic perspectives on health and environment that could create useful connections between geography and public health, via social epidemiology. To illustrate this potential, I use an ongoing study of a Texas community exposed to a large petrochemical complex-an inquiry constructed in the mode of social epidemiology - as a case in point. I apply several perspectives and concepts from geography to the case study. Cultural ecology, discourse materialized, political ecology, and territoriality are used to assess the Texas City situation and suggest important types of understandings that can enhance the social epidemiology approach to environment and health. I conclude with a discussion of the prospects for a social epidemiology infused with this type of geographic thought and analysis.

  1. High-resolution minisatellite-based typing as a portable approach to global analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis molecular epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazars, Edith; Lesjean, Sarah; Banuls, Anne-Laure; Gilbert, Michèle; Vincent, Véronique; Gicquel, Brigitte; Tibayrenc, Michel; Locht, Camille; Supply, Philip

    2001-01-01

    The worldwide threat of tuberculosis to human health emphasizes the need to develop novel approaches to a global epidemiological surveillance. The current standard for Mycobacterium tuberculosis typing based on IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) suffers from the difficulty of comparing data between independent laboratories. Here, we propose a high-resolution typing method based on variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) of genetic elements named mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs) in 12 human minisatellite-like regions of the M. tuberculosis genome. MIRU-VNTR profiles of 72 different M. tuberculosis isolates were established by PCR analysis of all 12 loci. From 2 to 8 MIRU-VNTR alleles were identified in the 12 regions in these strains, which corresponds to a potential of over 16 million different combinations, yielding a resolution power close to that of IS6110-RFLP. All epidemiologically related isolates tested were perfectly clustered by MIRU-VNTR typing, indicating that the stability of these MIRU-VNTRs is adequate to track outbreak episodes. The correlation between genetic relationships inferred from MIRU-VNTR and IS6110-RFLP typing was highly significant. Compared with IS6110-RFLP, high-resolution MIRU-VNTR typing has the considerable advantages of being fast, appropriate for all M. tuberculosis isolates, including strains that have a few IS6110 copies, and permitting easy and rapid comparison of results from independent laboratories. This typing method opens the way to the construction of digital global databases for molecular epidemiology studies of M. tuberculosis. PMID:11172048

  2. Epidemiology of malignant cutaneous granular cell tumors: A US population-based cohort analysis using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Fatima N; Tuggle, Charles T; Zogg, Cheryl K; Mirza, Humza N; Narayan, Deepak

    2018-03-01

    Malignant cutaneous granular cell tumors (mcGCTs) are rare and associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The literature includes single-institution studies. To examine the incidence, secondary malignancies, treatment, overall survival, and disease-specific survival (DSS) of patients with mcGCT. A population-based cohort analysis was conducted in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 1973 to 2013 for patients with a diagnosis of mcGCT. Risk-adjusted associations between overall survival/DSS and patient characteristics and treatment modalities were assessed by Cox proportional hazard regression. Quantile regression was used to determine median survival times. The 5-year DSS rate was 62.8%. Patients demonstrated an increased risk for renal and pancreatic cancers. In risk-adjusted models, male sex (hazard ratio [HR], 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.82; P = .02), advanced cancer stage (HR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.40-3.72; P < .01), and surgical resection (HR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01-0.59; P = .02) predicted DSS. Median survival time in years increased for males (1.39), earlier stage (0.60), and surgical intervention (5.34). Absent or incorrect reporting in retrospective Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data is possible. The database is more likely to include academic centers. Some subanalyses may be underpowered because of the limited sample size for a rare cancer. Our study presents an in-depth assessment of factors that identify high-risk patients. Residency in a nonmetro area, black race, female sex, and no surgical resection were each associated with poorer DSS. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Toxicological and epidemiological studies on effects of airborne fibers: coherence and public [corrected] health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Morton

    2014-09-01

    Airborne fibers, when sufficiently biopersistent, can cause chronic pleural diseases, as well as excess pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancers. Mesothelioma and pleural plaques are caused by biopersistent fibers thinner than ∼0.1 μm and longer than ∼5 μm. Excess lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis are caused by biopersistent fibers that are longer than ∼20 μm. While biopersistence varies with fiber type, all amphibole and erionite fibers are sufficiently biopersistent to cause pathogenic effects, while the greater in vivo solubility of chrysotile fibers makes them somewhat less causal for the lung diseases, and much less causal for the pleural diseases. Most synthetic vitreous fibers are more soluble in vivo than chrysotile, and pose little, if any, health pulmonary or pleural health risk, but some specialty SVFs were sufficiently biopersistent to cause pathogenic effects in animal studies. My conclusions are based on the following: 1) epidemiologic studies that specified the origin of the fibers by type, and especially those that identified their fiber length and diameter distributions; 2) laboratory-based toxicologic studies involving fiber size characterization and/or dissolution rates and long-term observation of biological responses; and 3) the largely coherent findings of the epidemiology and the toxicology. The strong dependence of effects on fiber diameter, length, and biopersistence makes reliable routine quantitative exposure and risk assessment impractical in some cases, since it would require transmission electronic microscopic examination, of representative membrane filter samples, for determining statistically sufficient numbers of fibers longer than 5 and 20 μm, and those thinner than 0.1 μm, based on the fiber types.

  4. The epidemiology of silent brain infarction: a systematic review of population-based cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Jonathon P; Wong, Andrew A; Fraser, John F

    2014-07-09

    Cerebral infarction is a commonly observed radiological finding in the absence of corresponding, clinical symptomatology, the so-called silent brain infarction (SBI). SBIs are a relatively new consideration as improved imaging has facilitated recognition of their occurrence. However, the true incidence, prevalence and risk factors associated with SBI remain controversial. Systematic searches of the Medline and EMBASE databases from 1946 to December 2013 were performed to identify original studies of population-based adult cohorts derived from community surveys and routine health screening that reported the incidence and prevalence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-determined SBI. The prevalence of SBI ranges from 5% to 62% with most studies reported in the 10% to 20% range. Longitudinal studies suggest an annual incidence of between 2% and 4%. A strong association was seen to exist between epidemiological estimates of SBI and age of the population assessed. Hypertension, carotid stenosis, chronic kidney disease and metabolic syndrome all showed a strong association with SBI. Heart failure, coronary artery disease, hyperhomocysteinemia and obstructive sleep apnea are also likely of significance. However, any association between SBI and gender, ethnicity, tobacco or alcohol consumption, obesity, dyslipidemia, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus remains unclear. SBI is a remarkably common phenomenon and endemic among older people. This systematic review supports the association of a number of traditional vascular risk factors, but also highlights disparities between clinically apparent and silent strokes, potentially suggesting important differences in pathophysiology and warranting further investigation.

  5. Headache and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Daniela A G; Bigal, Marcelo E; Jales, Luciana C F; Camparis, Cinara M; Speciali, José G

    2010-02-01

    A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of migraine, episodic tension-type headaches (ETTH), and chronic daily headaches (CDH), as well as the presence of symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in the adult population. The potential comorbidity of headache syndromes and TMD has been established mostly based on clinic-based studies. A representative sample of 1230 inhabitants (51.5% women) was interviewed by a validated phone survey. TMD symptoms were assessed through 5 questions, as recommended by the American Academy of Orofacial Pain, in an attempt to classify possible TMD. Primary headaches were diagnosed based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders. When at least 1 TMD symptom was reported, any headache happened in 56.5% vs 31.9% (P headache as the reference, the prevalence of at least 1 TMD symptom was increased in ETTH (prevalence ratio = 1.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.20-1.79), migraine (2.10, 1.80-2.47) and CDH (2.41, 1.84-3.17). At least 2 TMD symptoms also happened more frequently in migraine (4.4, 3.0-6.3), CDH (3.4; 1.5-7.6), and ETTH (2.1; 1.3-3.2), relative to individuals with no headaches. Finally, 3 or more TMD symptoms were also more common in migraine (6.2; 3.8-10.2) than in no headaches. Differences were significant for ETTH (2.7 1.5-4.8), and were numerically but not significant for CDH (2.3; 0.66-8.04). Temporomandibular disorder symptoms are more common in migraine, ETTH, and CDH relative to individuals without headache. Magnitude of association is higher for migraine. Future studies should clarify the nature of the relationship.

  6. Reporting of Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE association studies: An empirical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinn Marta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several thousand human genome epidemiology association studies are published every year investigating the relationship between common genetic variants and diverse phenotypes. Transparent reporting of study methods and results allows readers to better assess the validity of study findings. Here, we document reporting practices of human genome epidemiology studies. Methods Articles were randomly selected from a continuously updated database of human genome epidemiology association studies to be representative of genetic epidemiology literature. The main analysis evaluated 315 articles published in 2001–2003. For a comparative update, we evaluated 28 more recent articles published in 2006, focusing on issues that were poorly reported in 2001–2003. Results During both time periods, most studies comprised relatively small study populations and examined one or more genetic variants within a single gene. Articles were inconsistent in reporting the data needed to assess selection bias and the methods used to minimize misclassification (of the genotype, outcome, and environmental exposure or to identify population stratification. Statistical power, the use of unrelated study participants, and the use of replicate samples were reported more often in articles published during 2006 when compared with the earlier sample. Conclusion We conclude that many items needed to assess error and bias in human genome epidemiology association studies are not consistently reported. Although some improvements were seen over time, reporting guidelines and online supplemental material may help enhance the transparency of this literature.

  7. Learning from older peoples’ reasons for participating in demanding, intensive epidemiological studies: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja M. Baczynska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruitment rates of older people in epidemiological studies, although relatively higher than in clinical trials, have declined in recent years. This study aimed to explore motivating factors and concerns among older participants in an intensive epidemiological study (Hertfordshire Sarcopenia Study - HSS and identify those that could aid future recruitment to epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Methods Participants of the HSS fasted overnight and travelled several hours each way to the research facility at an English hospital for extensive diet/lifestyle questionnaires and investigations to assess muscle including blood tests and a muscle biopsy. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 participants (ten women at the research facility in May–October 2015. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, coded and analysed thematically by three researchers. Results We identified personal motives for participation (potential health benefit for self and family; curiosity; comparing own fitness to others; socialising. Altruistic motives (benefit for other people; belief in importance of research were also important. Participants voiced a number of external motives related to the study uniqueness, organisation and safety record; family support; and just ‘being asked’. Anxiety about the biopsy and travel distance were the only concerns and were alleviated by smooth and efficient running of the study. Conclusions Personal and altruistic reasons were important motivators for these older people to participate in demanding, intensive research. They valued belonging to a birth cohort with previous research experience, but personal contact with the research team before and after consent provided reassurance, aided recruitment to HSS and could be readily replicated by other researchers. Any fears or concerns related to certain aspects of a demanding, intensive study should ideally be explored at an early visit

  8. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology—Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut): An Extension of the STROBE Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawwash, Dana; Ocké, Marga C.; Berg, Christina; Forsum, Elisabet; Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Åkesson, Agneta; Kolsteren, Patrick; Byrnes, Graham; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Camp, John; Slimani, Nadia; Cevallos, Myriam; Egger, Matthias; Huybrechts, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology—Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut). Methods and Findings Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, coordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist. Conclusion When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health. PMID:27270749

  9. The changing epidemiology of group B streptococcus bloodstream infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballard, Mark S; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-based studies conducted in single regions or countries have identified significant changes in the epidemiology of invasive group B streptococcus (GBS) infection. However, no studies have concurrently compared the epidemiology of GBS infections among multiple different regions...

  10. Soccer Injuries in Players Aged 7 to 12 Years: A Descriptive Epidemiological Study Over 2 Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Roland; Junge, Astrid; Chomiak, Jiri; Dvorak, Jiri; Faude, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    As part of a risk-management approach, sound epidemiological data are needed to develop prevention programs. A recent review on soccer injuries of players younger than 19 years concluded that prospective data concerning children are lacking. To analyze the incidence and characteristics of soccer injuries in children aged 7 to 12 years. Descriptive epidemiological study. The present survey was a prospective descriptive epidemiological study on soccer injuries over 2 seasons in the Czech Republic and Switzerland. Exposure of players during training and match play (in hours) and injury data were reported by coaches via an Internet-based registration system. Location, type, and severity of injuries were classified according to an established consensus. Injury characteristics are presented as absolute numbers and injury incidence rates (injuries per 1000 hours of soccer exposure). An injury was defined as any physical complaint sustained during a scheduled training session or match play resulting in at least 1 of the following: (1) inability to complete the current match or training session, (2) absence from subsequent training sessions or matches, and (3) injury requiring medical attention. In total, 6038 player-seasons with 395,295 hours of soccer exposure were recorded. The mean (±SD) age of the players was 9.5 ± 2.0 years, and 3.9% of the participants were girls. A total of 417 injuries were reported. Most (76.3%) injuries were located in the lower limbs, with 15.6% located in the upper limbs. Joint and ligament injuries comprised 30.5%, contusions 22.5%, muscle and tendon injuries 18.5%, and fractures and bone injuries 15.4% of all injuries; 23.7% of injuries led to more than 28 days of absence from sport participation. The overall injury incidence was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.53-0.69) injuries per 1000 hours of soccer exposure during training sessions and 4.57 (95% CI, 4.00-5.23) during match play. Injury incidence rates increased with increasing age. The observed injury

  11. A review of epidemiological studies concerning leukaemia and lymphoma among young people and the genetic effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1994-01-01

    The review seeks to identify consistent patterns of results between 30 epidemiological studies of low dose parental exposure to radiation and leukaemia etc. in their offspring. Eight of the studies show significant increases in leukaemia but most are unreliable because they have flawed methodologies and several analyse the same basic data. Two studies free from major criticism do show an association with parental irradiation but both contain data from Seascale and are not independent. Two well conducted studies based on other areas (Canada and Scotland) are claimed by their authors to have sufficient statistical power to test the Seascale findings and do not confirm an association with paternal irradiation. It is concluded that there is little reliable evidence from epidemiological studies for a causal association between pre-conception, paternal or maternal, irradiation and an increase in the frequency of leukaemia or malignancies among offspring. (author)

  12. Indicadores epidemiológicos aplicáveis a estudos sobre a associação entre saneamento e saúde de base municipal Epidemiological indicators applied to studies about association between water supply and sanitation and health based on data at municipal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Silvério da Costa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available É relativamente recente no país a prática da vigilância ambiental em saúde, sendo que a vigilância da qualidade da água para consumo humano, parte integrante da vigilância ambiental em saúde, ressente-se de estudos e pesquisas que forneçam suporte científico à formulação de instrumentos para a prática de tal vigilância. Nesse campo, a formulação e seleção de indicadores epidemiológicos constituem atividade essencial para representar os efeitos da insuficiência das ações de saneamento sobre a saúde humana e, portanto, como ferramenta para a vigilância e orientação de programas e planos de alocação de recursos em saneamento. O presente artigo é parte de um trabalho mais abrangente, elaborado para selecionar indicadores sanitários como sentinelas na prevenção e controle de doenças e agravos relacionados ao saneamento. Neste artigo são enfocados os indicadores epidemiológicos utilizados naquele estudo, apresentando a revisão bibliográfica, resultados da estatística descritiva desses indicadores, a discussão e conclusões sobre os indicadores epidemiológicos mais apropriados para serem utilizados emestudos dessa natureza. Destacam-se, como indicadores convenientes, a mortalidade infantil, a mortalidade até cinco anos por doenças diarréicas e a morbidade até cinco anos por doenças diarréicas com base na MDDA - monitorização de doenças diarréicas agudas.Environmental health surveillance has been recently implemented in Brazil. Drinking water quality surveillance, a fundamental aspect of the environmental health surveillance, lacks specific studies and research to provide scientific background for its practice. In this field, the identification and selection of epidemiological indicators are essential to provide means to evaluate the impact of deficiencies of water supply and sanitation on human health. So, these indicators are powerful tools for the establishment of drinking water surveillance

  13. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  14. Measurement of Active and Sedentary Behavior in Context of Large Epidemiologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Charles E; Kozey Keadle, Sarah; Moore, Steven C; Schoeller, Dale S; Carroll, Raymond J; Troiano, Richard P; Sampson, Joshua N

    2018-02-01

    To assess the utility of measurement methods that may be more accurate and precise than traditional questionnaire-based estimates of habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior we compared the measurement properties of a past year questionnaire (AARP) and more comprehensive measures: an internet-based 24-h recall (ACT24), and a variety of estimates from an accelerometer (ActiGraph). Participants were 932 adults (50-74 yr) in a 12-month study that included reference measures of energy expenditure from doubly labeled water (DLW) and active and sedentary time via activPAL. Accuracy at the group level (mean differences) was generally better for both ACT24 and ActiGraph than the AARP questionnaire. The AARP accuracy for energy expenditure ranged from -4% to -13% lower than DLW, but its accuracy was poorer for physical activity duration (-48%) and sedentary time (-18%) versus activPAL. In contrast, ACT24 accuracy was within 3% to 10% of DLW expenditure measures and within 1% to 3% of active and sedentary time from activPAL. For ActiGraph, accuracy for energy expenditure was best for the Crouter 2-regression method (-2% to -7%), and for active and sedentary time the 100 counts per minute cutpoint was most accurate (-1% to 2%) at the group level. One administration of the AARP questionnaire was significantly correlated with long-term average from the reference measures (ρTX = 0.16-0.34) overall, but four ACT24 recalls had higher correlations (ρTX = 0.48-0.60), as did 4 d of ActiGraph assessment (ρTX = 0.54-0.87). New exposure assessments suitable for use in large epidemiologic studies (ACT24, ActiGraph) were more accurate and had higher correlations than a traditional questionnaire. Use of better more comprehensive measures in future epidemiologic studies could yield new etiologic discoveries and possibly new opportunities for prevention.

  15. Epidemiology of breast cancer: retrospective study in the Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Balekouzou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is recognised as a major public health problem in developing countries; however, there is very limited evidence about its epidemiology in the Central African Republic. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological and histopathological characteristics of breast cancer in Bangui. Methods This is a retrospective study based on the data collected from pathological anatomy records from 2003 to 2015 in Bangui. A questionnaire was designed to collect information and data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results The mean age was 45.83 (SD = 13.5 years. The age group of 45–54 years represented the majority of the study population (29.3%. Over 69.5% of the women were housewives with a moderate economic status (56.9%. Less than 14% of the study population had a level of academic degree and 85.6% lived in cities. The breast cancer prevalence was 15.27%. The age-standardized incidence and death by world population (ASW were 11.19/100,000 and 9.97/100,000 respectively. 50–54 years were most affected. Left breast cancer is mainly common and the time between first symptoms and consultation is more than 48 months. Most (69% of the samples analysed were lumpectomy. The most common morphology of breast cancer was invasive ductal carcinoma (64.9%. Scarff Bloom Richardson III was the main grade in both common pathological types, but their proportion showed no significant increase along with time (χ2 = 7.06, p = 0.54. Invasion of regional lymph node differed significantly among the pathological type of breast cancer (χ2 = 24.6, p = 0.02. Surgery and chemotherapy were appropriate treatment yet 84.5% of the cases died. Conclusion The findings of this study showed that breast cancer is common and mostly affected women. Epidemiological trends are more or less common to those of developing countries with a predominance of invasive ductal carcinoma. However

  16. [The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2008-01-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September, 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed explanation and elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the websites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.

  17. [The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology [STROBE] statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2008-01-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September, 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a che-cklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed explanation and elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the websites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.

  18. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2014-12-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik von Elm

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.

  20. Epidemiological study of soft-tissue sarcomas in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Nikita; Deady, Sandra; Gillis, Amy; Bertuzzi, Alexia; Fabre, Aurelie; Heffernan, Eric; Gillham, Charles; O'Toole, Gary; Ridgway, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) account for 1% of adult and 7% of pediatric malignancies. Histopathology and classification of these rare tumors requires further refinements. The aim of this paper is to describe the current incidence and survival of STS from 1994 to 2012 in Ireland and compare these with comparably coded international published reports. This is a retrospective, population study based on the data from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (NCRI). Incidence and relative survival rates for STS in Ireland were generated. Incidence of STS based on gender, age and anatomical location was examined. Annual mean incidence rate (European Age Standardized) in Ireland between 1994 and 2012 was 4.48 ± 0.15 per 100,000 person-years. The overall relative 5-year survival rate of STS for the period 1994-2011 in Ireland was 56%, which was similar to that reported in the U.K. but lower than in most of Europe and U.S.A. Survival rate fluctuated over the period examined, declining slightly in females but showing an increase in males. STS incidence trends in Ireland were comparable to international reports. Survival trends of STS were significantly different between Ireland and other European countries, requiring further study to understand causation. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Epidemiological study of soft-tissue sarcomas in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhatt, Nikita

    2015-11-21

    Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) account for 1% of adult and 7% of pediatric malignancies. Histopathology and classification of these rare tumors requires further refinements. The aim of this paper is to describe the current incidence and survival of STS from 1994 to 2012 in Ireland and compare these with comparably coded international published reports. This is a retrospective, population study based on the data from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (NCRI). Incidence and relative survival rates for STS in Ireland were generated. Incidence of STS based on gender, age and anatomical location was examined. Annual mean incidence rate (European Age Standardized) in Ireland between 1994 and 2012 was 4.48 ± 0.15 per 100,000 person-years. The overall relative 5-year survival rate of STS for the period 1994-2011 in Ireland was 56%, which was similar to that reported in the U.K. but lower than in most of Europe and U.S.A. Survival rate fluctuated over the period examined, declining slightly in females but showing an increase in males. STS incidence trends in Ireland were comparable to international reports. Survival trends of STS were significantly different between Ireland and other European countries, requiring further study to understand causation.

  2. [Epidemiologic study of Helicobacter pylori infection in Perú].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Ramos, Alberto; Gilman, Robert H; Watanabe-Yamamoto, José; Rosas-Aguirre, Angel

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of our investigations in the epidemiology of H. pylori infection in Peru during the last two decades. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Lima is decreasing in people of middle and high socioeconomic status and continues stationary in people of low socioeconomic status. This decrease is similar in Peruvian and Japanese population in this city, and is associated to the decrease of the gastrointestinal diseases related to this bacterium: peptic ulcer and stomach adenocarcinoma. The infection is slightly greater in males and is acquired in early ages of life. Via oro-fecal and water contamination are probably the most important transmission ways. In our country, so far, there is no evidence to assure that some races have higher pre-disposition to acquire the infection. There are no differences in the infection by H. pylori among coast, mountain or jungle populations; and people who live in high altitudes have more atrophic chronic gastritis secondary to H. pylori infection than people who live at sea level.

  3. Computerized approach to verifying study population data in occupational epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, G M

    1982-08-01

    IN a previous paper a method was presented for verifying the completeness of occupational study populations independently of company-held records. The basis for the verification scheme was the Employers Quarterly Report on Earnings (Internal Revenue Service Form 941) that is submitted to the IRS each quarter of every year for all employees on a company payroll. In employing the verification scheme two approaches can be taken in determining how many and which quarterly reports are selected: (1) If the work force is large and/or many years are surveyed, a probability sample of years and quarters within years can be selected, allowing inferences to be made with respect to the entire study population. (2) If the number of survey years and/or the size of the work force is sufficiently small, copies of all quarterly returns for each survey year can be requested thus allowing a comprehensive check for completeness to be conducted. Te verification method described in the previous paper concentrated primarily on the first-mentioned approach. The second approach is herein being dealt with as well as a computerized method for verifying the completeness of study populations. In addition a new computerized method is described that utilizes the quarterly reports as an unbiased data base for checking the accuracy of certain work history data as developed from company records. An application of the computerized methods is given using data from a recent historical-prospective study of chemical production workers.

  4. [Bibliometric analysis of scientific articles on epidemiological study of burns in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W F; Shen, Z A; Zhao, D X; Li, D W; Shang, Y R

    2017-04-20

    Objective: To analyze the current status of epidemiological study of burns in China, and to explore the related strategies. Methods: Retrospective or cross-sectional scientific articles in Chinese or English on epidemiological study of burns in China published from January 2005 to December 2015 were systemically retrieved from 4 databases. The databases include PubMed, Embase, China Biology Medicine disc, and Chinese Journals Full - text Database . From the results retrieved, data with regard to publication year, journal distribution, number of institutions participated in the study, affiliation of the first author and its location, and admission time span and age of patients in all the scientific articles were collected. Furthermore, the definition of age range and the grouping method of age of pediatric patients in English articles on epidemiological study of pediatric burns of China were recorded. Data were processed with descriptive statistical analysis. Results: A total of 256 scientific articles conforming to the study criteria were retrieved, among which 214 (83.59%) articles were in Chinese, and 42 (16.41%) articles were in English; 242 (94.53%) articles were retrospective studies, and 14 (5.47%) articles were cross-sectional studies. During the 11 years, the number of the relevant articles was fluctuant on the whole. The scientific articles were published in 130 journals, with 42 English articles in source journals for SCIENCE CITATION INDEX EXPANDED - JOURNAL LIST, accounting for 16.41%, and 116 Chinese articles in Source Journal for Chinese Scientific and Technical Papers, accounting for 45.31%. Totally 215 (83.98%) articles were single-center studies, and 29 (11.33%) articles were multicenter studies which were conducted by three or more centers. The number of affiliations of the first author of articles was 161 in total. The top 10 institutions regarding the article publishing number published 58 articles, accounting for 22.66%. Scientific articles on

  5. A population-based case-referent study of myocardial infarction and occupational exposure to motor exhaust, other combustion products, organic solvents, lead, and dynamite. Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP) Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, P; Plato, N; Hallqvist, J; Hogstedt, C; Lewné, M; Reuterwall, C; Schéele, P

    2001-03-01

    This case-referent study investigated the risk of myocardial infarction from occupational exposure to motor exhaust, other combustion products, organic solvents, lead, and dynamite. We identified first-time, nonfatal myocardial infarctions among men and women 45-70 years of age in Stockholm County from 1992 through 1994. We selected referent subjects from the population to match the demographic characteristics of the cases. A lifetime history of occupations was obtained by questionnaire. The response rate was 81% for the cases and 74% for the referents, with 1,335 cases and 1,658 referents included in the study. An occupational hygienist assessed occupational exposures, coding the intensity and probability of exposure for each subject. We adjusted relative risk estimates for tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, overweight, and physical inactivity at leisure time. The relative risk of myocardial infarction was 2.11 (95% confidence interval = 1.23-3.60) among those who were highly exposed and 1.42 (95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.92) among those who were intermediately exposed to combustion products from organic material. We observed an exposure-response pattern, in terms of both maximum exposure intensity and cumulative dose. Exposure to dynamite and organic solvents was possibly associated with an increased risk. The other exposures were not consistently associated with myocardial infarction.

  6. A retrospective study on epidemiology of hypoglycemia in Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvva Gowtham Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoglycemia is one among the leading causes for Emergency Department (ED visits and is the most common and easily preventable endocrine emergency. This study is aimed at assessing the incidence and elucidating the underlying causes of hypoglycemia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational study which included patients registering in ED with a finger prick blood glucose ≤60 mg/dl at the time of arrival. All patients aged above 15 years with the above inclusion criteria during the period of August 2010 to July 2013 were selected. The study group was categorized based on diabetic status into diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Results: A total of 1196 hypoglycemic episodes encountered at the ED during the study period were included, and of which 772 with complete data were analyzed. Underlying causes for hypoglycemia in the diabetic group (535 mainly included medication related 320 (59.81%, infections 108 (20.19%, and chronic kidney disease 61 (11.40%. Common underlying causes of hypoglycemia in nondiabetic group (237, 30.69% included infections 107 (45.15%, acute/chronic liver disease 42 (17.72%, and malignancies 22 (9.28%. Among diabetic subjects on antidiabetic medications (n = 320, distribution over 24 h duration clearly reported two peaks at 8th and 21st h. The incidence of hypoglycemia and death per 1000 ED visits were 16.41 and 0.73 in 2011, 16.19 and 0.78 in 2012, 17.20 and 1.22 in 2013 with an average of 16.51 and 0.91, respectively. Conclusion: Bimodal distribution with peaks in incidences of hypoglycemic attacks at 8th and 21st h based on hourly distribution in a day can be correlated with the times just before next meal. None of the patients should leave ED without proper evaluation of the etiology of hypoglycemia and the problem should be addressed at each individual level. Increasing incidence of death over the years is alarming, and further studies are needed to conclude the root cause.

  7. Epidemiology of Nocardiosis -A six years study from Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetika Dawar, Ruchi Girotra, Seema Quadri, Firdaus Imdadi, Leena Mendiratta, Hena Rani, Avdesh Bansal, Raman Sardana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate and speciate Nocardia species from clinical samples and to study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern to different antimicrobials. Various risk factors associated with nocardiosis were also studied. Methods: 32 clinical specimens with clinical history of pneumonia, abscesses, or disseminated infections were collected over a period of 6 years (2009-2014 from Inpatient and Outpatient departments and processed for Nocardia cultures and sensitivity. Results: Twelve cases of nocardiosis were reported out of 32 clinically suspected cases. The mean age of presentation in our study was 57.9 years. Pneumonia was the most common clinical presentation followed by primary cutaneous disease and one case of disseminated disease. 8/ 10 patients with nocardiosis were immunocompromised with history of organ transplantation, use of immunosuppressive agents or steroids. Based on biochemical reactions 5 of the isolates were identified as N. asteroides, 3 N. brasiliensis, 2 N. farcinica and 1 each were N. transvalensis, & N. nova. All were sensitive to linezolid followed by cotrimoxazole (91.6% Conclusions: With increasing number of immunocompromised patients and an increased incidence of nocardiosis, diagnosis of Nocardia infections should always be kept in mind as it can present with nonspecific symptoms and can mimic confused with other diseases. Linezolid, Cotrimoxazole, imipenem and minocycline were found to be very effective, in vitro, against most Nocardia species. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(2: 60-64

  8. [An epidemiological study of food intolerance in 2434 children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Juan; Zhu, Ting-Ting; Zeng, Rong; Chang, Li; Li, Feng-Yi; Li, Wen-Sheng; Jiang, Yong-Mei

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of intolerance to 14 foods in children and the relationship between food intolerance and disease of various systems. Serum samples of 2434 children with diseases were collected for food intolerance testing between January 2009 and October 2012. Allergen-specific IgG antibodies to 14 foods were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The children's intolerance to different foods and its relationship with age, sex and disease of various systems were analyzed. Among these children, positive rates of intolerance to milk and eggs were as high as 74.16% and 66.47% respectively, while positive rates of intolerance to chicken and pork were relatively low (0.29% and 0.21% respectively). The overall positive rates of food intolerance were 12.579% and 12.470% in males and females respectively. For infants, the highest intolerance rate was to milk; for preschool and school-age children, the highest intolerance rates were to milk and eggs respectively; for children in adolescence, the highest intolerance rate was to eggs. Among children with food intolerance involving single system, those with developmental abnormality or immune system disease had the highest overall positive rate of food intolerance. Children with double-system diseases had an overall positive rate of food intolerance as high as 13.393%. Among the children involving various systems, the positive rate of intolerance to milk and eggs were higher than other food. Factors influencing food intolerance in children include food categories and age. There may be a relationship between food intolerance and disease of various systems, and this is significant to the growth and development of children.

  9. [EpiChange. Epidemiological study on the health status of residents in Manfredonia (Italy). Phase 2. Scenarios and implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggeri, Annibale; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Mangia, Cristina; Cervino, Marco; Bruni, Antonella; De Marchi, Bruna; Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca; Riccardi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    This is the second paper on the Project Manfredonia Environment and Health launched on February 2015 and based on a participatory approach. After a serious industrial accident on 1976 with release of several tons of arsenic, the management of environmental issues produced distrust and suspicion towards institutions and these feelings are still alive in the civil society. The Project is therefore based on a strong public engagement on each phase of the epidemiological investigation. In this article we report the second phase in which all the stakeholders consider all possible analysis results and the implications in terms of public health action plans. This step is relevant in order to acknowledge the limitation of the epidemiologic study due to uncertainties and assure transparency to the decision processes.

  10. Danish Rural Eye Study: Epidemiology of Adult Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena; La Cour, Morten; Klemp, Kristian; Kvetny, Jan; Erngaard, Ditte; Moldow, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    To examine the frequency and causes of visual impairment (VI) in a select population of Danish adults. A total of 3843 adults aged 20-94 years from the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) were included in the population-based, cross-sectional ophthalmological study, Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where indicated. Overall, 3826 of 3843 participants (99.6%) had bilateral visual acuity measurements. The overall frequency of VI (BCVA 50 years and 3.7% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%; n = 11) in participants >80 years. The primary causes of VI in the better-seeing eye were age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 46.7% (7/15) and cataract in 26.7% (4/15). A total of 43.3% (n = 115) of participants >80 years were pseudophakic in one or both eyes. The frequency of diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol/mol or self-reported diagnosis) was 5.9% (n = 227), including 1.3% (n = 51) newly diagnosed in the GESUS. Of participants determined to have VI due to exudative AMD, 50% had received anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment. We report a relatively low frequency of VI among Danish adults over 59 years of age compared with that observed 10-15 years ago, which is both consistent with other recent Scandinavian studies and reflective of our relatively healthy and mobile population sample.

  11. The justification of studies in genetic epidemiology - political scaling in China Medical City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    Genetic epidemiology examines the role of genetic factors in determining health and disease in families and in populations to help addressing health problems in a responsible manner. This paper uses a case study of genetic epidemiology in Taizhou, China, to explore ways in which anthropology can contribute to the validation of studies in genetic epidemiology. It does so, first, by identifying potential overgeneralizations of data, often due to mismatching scale and, second, by examining it's embedding in political, historical and local contexts. The example of the longitudinal cohort study in Taizhou illustrates dimensions of such 'political scaling'. Political scaling is a notion used here to refer to the effects of scaling biases in relation to the justification of research in terms of relevance, reach and research ethics. The justification of a project on genetic epidemiology involves presenting a maximum of benefits and a minimum of burden for the population. To facilitate the delineation of political scaling, an analytical distinction between donating and benefiting communities was made using the notions of 'scaling of relevance', 'scaling of reach' and 'scaling of ethics'. Political scaling results at least partly from factors external to research. By situating political scaling in the context of historical, political and local discourses, anthropologists can play a complementary role in genetic epidemiology.

  12. Trends in incidence, survival, and management of uveal melanoma: a population-based study of 7,516 patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendraraj K

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Krishnaraj Mahendraraj,1 Christine SM Lau,1,2 Injoon Lee,2 Ronald S Chamberlain1–3 1Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2St George’s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies; 3Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA Introduction: Uveal melanoma (UM is the most common primary intraocular malignancy, despite comprising <5% of all melanomas. To date, relatively few case series of UM have been published. Moreover, the factors influencing survival remain largely unknown. This study sought to analyze the impact of demographics, histology, clinical presentation, and treatments on the clinical outcomes of UM in a large modern nationwide patient cohort.Methods: Demographics and clinical data were abstracted on 277,120 histologically confirmed melanoma patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database between 1973 and 2012.Results: A total of 7,516 cases of UM represented 3.2% of all recorded cases of melanoma. The mean age-adjusted incidence was 5.1 per million (95% CI 4.2–6.1 and was higher in males (5.9, CI =4.4–7.6 compared to females (4.5, CI =3.3–5.8, P<0.001. UM occurred most commonly in the sixth decade of life (61.4±15 and among Caucasians (94.7%. A total of 52.3% of cases were reported in the Western US (35.7% in California. The initial diagnoses in 65.2% of cases were by histopathology, followed by clinical diagnosis (18.8% and radiographic imaging (16.0%. The percentage of UM cases managed by surgery alone decreased by 69.4% between the 1973–1977 and 2006–2012 time periods, concomitant with a 62% increase in primary radiotherapy, P<0.001. The UM mean overall and cancer-specific 5-year relative survival rates were 79.8%±5.8% and 76%±5.3%, respectively. The mean 5-year cancer-specific survival rate (76% remained stable during the study period between 1973 and 2012. The mean survival for patients treated with

  13. Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delcourt, Cécile; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S

    2016-01-01

    The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000 Euro......The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170......,000 European participants. The aim of the consortium is to promote and sustain collaboration and sharing of data and knowledge in the field of ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe, with particular focus on the harmonization of methods for future research, estimation and projection of frequency and impact...

  14. Perils and potentials of self-selected entry to epidemiological studies and surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels; Louis, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    that maps results to an intended population. In contrast, recent analytical epidemiology has shifted the focus away from survey-type representativity to internal validity in the sample. Against this background, it is a good time for statisticians to take stock of our role and position regarding surveys......, observational research in epidemiology and clinical studies. The central issue is whether conditional effects in the sample (the study population) may be transported to desired target populations. Success depends on compatibility of causal structures in study and target populations, and will require subject...

  15. A multimodal biosensor-based system with compatibility for telemonitoring and epidemiological services

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chen

    2016-01-01

    How to integrate the current existing wireless body sensor network systems with similar architectures into one flexible platform which can be used for both telemonitoring and epidemiological studies? A model called SensCoAP is generically designed by utilizing state-of-the-art which reserves the capabilities of acquiring, storing, forwarding, analyzing datasets from the biosensors as well as interacting with the users by an application user interface on the smartphone when necessary. It match...

  16. Epidemiological study of insect bite reactions from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The physical effects of the arthropod bites on human skin receive less attention, especially in the rural areas where the per capita income is less. Ours is a rural-based hospital, the vicinity having more of plants, trees, and forests; we undertook the study to find out the relation of insect bite dermatitis in a rural area. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Dermatology outpatient department of our institute on 100 subjects of insect bite dermatitis who were questioned retrospectively about the sequence of events besides their environmental and living conditions. They were examined thoroughly and the relevant clinical findings were noted, also taking into account the prior treatment taken by them, if any. Results and Conclusions: It was found that insect bite dermatitis has no age or gender preponderance, and the protective factors for the same are use of full sleeve clothes and keeping the doors and windows closed at night. On the contrary, the risk factors are residence in areas of heavy insect infestation, use of perfumes and colognes, warm weather in spring and summer and the lack of protective measures. However, there was no direct association of atopy with increased risk of developing insect bite dermatitis.

  17. Orbital fractures due to domestic violence: an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Stuart H.; McRill, Connie M.; Bruno, Christopher R.; Ten Have, Tom; Lehman, Erik

    2000-09-01

    Domestic violence is an important cause of orbital fractures in women. Physicians who treat patients with orbital fractures may not suspect this mechanism of injury. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between domestic violence and orbital fractures. A medical center-based case-control study with matching on age and site of admission was done. Medical center databases were searched using ICD-9 codes to identify all cases of orbital fractures encountered during a three-year period. Medical records of female patients age 13 and older were reviewed along with those of age, gender and site of admission matched controls. A stratified exact test was employed to test the association between domestic violence and orbital fracture. Among 41 adult female cases with orbital fractures treated at our medical center, three (7.3%) reported domestic violence compared to zero among the matched controls (p = 0.037). We believe that domestic violence may be under-reported in both orbital fracture cases and controls. This may result in an underestimate of the orbital fracture versus domestic violence association. Domestic violence is a serious women's health and societal problem. Domestic violence may have a variety of presentations, including illnesses and injuries. Orbital fracture is an identifiable manifestation of domestic violence. Domestic violence is more likely to be detected in adult female hospital patients with orbital fracture than in matched controls with any other diagnosis. Physicians who treat patients with orbital fractures should be familiar with this mechanism of injury.

  18. Wastewater-based epidemiology to assess pan-European pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousis, Nikolaos I; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Zuccato, Ettore; Bade, Richard; Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio; Castrignanò, Erika; Causanilles, Ana; Covaci, Adrian; de Voogt, Pim; Hernàndez, Félix; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Kinyua, Juliet; McCall, Ann-Kathrin; Plósz, Benedek Gy; Ramin, Pedram;