WorldWideScience

Sample records for based enrichment protocols

  1. Evaluation of Enrichment Protocols for Bacterial Endosymbionts of Ciliates by Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Michele; Lanzoni, Olivia; Rossi, Leonardo; Potekhin, Alexey; Schrallhammer, Martina; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale studies on obligate bacterial endosymbionts may frequently require preliminary purification and enrichment protocols, which are often elaborate to set up and to evaluate, especially if the host organism is a protist. The purpose of this study was to develop a real-time PCR-based strategy and employ it for assessing two of such enrichment protocols for Holospora caryophila, hosted by the ciliate Paramecium. Four SSU rRNA gene-targeted real-time PCR assays were designed, which allowed to compare the amount of H. caryophila to other organisms, namely the host, its food bacterium (Raoultella planticola), and free-living bacteria present in the culture medium. By the use of the real-time PCR assays in combination, it was possible to conclude that the "cell fractionation" protocol was quite successful in the enrichment of the symbiont, while the "Percoll gradient" protocol will need further refinements to be fully repeatable. The proposed approach has the potential to facilitate and encourage future studies on the yet underexplored field of bacterial endosymbionts of ciliates and other protists. It can also find valuable applications for experimental questions other than those tested, such as fast and precise assessment of symbiont abundance in natural populations and comparison among multiple coexisting symbionts. PMID:26894821

  2. Iran to sign additional protocol and suspend uranium enrichment and reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Iran's representative to the IAEA, Ambassador Ali Akbar Salehi, today delivered a letter to IAEA Director General, Mohamed ElBaradei conveying his Government's acceptance of the Additional Protocol. Mr. Salehi also informed the Director General that Iran had decided, as of today, to suspend all uranium enrichment-related and reprocessing activities in Iran - specifically, to suspend all activities on the site of Natanz, not to produce feed material for enrichment processes and not to import enrichment-related items. 'This is a welcome and positive development,' IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei said. The IAEA intends to verify, in the context of the Safeguards Agreement and the Additional Protocol, the implementation by Iran of these decisions. At its meeting on 12 September, the IAEA Board of Governors adopted a resolution calling on Iran to sign, ratify and fully implement the Additional Protocol promptly and unconditionally, and as a confidence building measure to act henceforth in accordance with the Additional Protocol. The Board also called on Iran to suspend all further uranium enrichment and reprocessing activities, pending provision by the Director General of the assurances required by Member States and pending satisfactory application of the provisions of the Additional Protocol. Also today, Mr. ElBaradei has released his report to IAEA Member States on the 'Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran' for consideration at the 20 November Board of Governors' meeting. Unless the IAEA Board decides otherwise, the document's circulation is restricted and it cannot be released to the press. (IAEA)

  3. An Identity- Based Key- Exchange Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ya-juan; ZHU Yue-fei; HUANG Qiu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    An identity-based key-exchange protocol using a bilinear map is proposed and it is proved SK-secure(session key secure) in the AM (authenticated links adversarial model)provided the BDDH (bilinear Diffie-Hellmen) assumption is correct. Then we apply the signature-based authenticator to our protocol and obtain an identity-Based key-exchange protocol that is SK-secure in the UM (unauthenticated links adversarial model) provided the BDDH assumption is correct.

  4. Rewriting-Based Verification of Authentication Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Ogata, Kazuhiro; Futatsugi, Kokichi

    2004-01-01

    We propose a method of formally analysing security protocols based on rewriting. The method is roughly as follows. A security protocol is modeled as an observational transition system, which is described in CafeOBJ. Proof scores showing that the protocol has safety (security) properties are then written in CafeOBJ and the proof scores are executed (rewritten) by the CafeOBJ system.

  5. Recommendations based on semantically enriched museum collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Stash, N.; Aroyo, L.; Gorgels, P.; Rutledge, L.; Schreiber, G.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the CHIP demonstrator1 for providing personalized access to digital museum collections. It consists of three main components: Art Recommender, Tour Wizard, and Mobile Tour Guide. Based on the semantically enriched Rijksmuseum Amsterdam2 collection, we show how Semantic Web tech

  6. Improvement In MAODV Protocol Using Location Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Sharnjeet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is difficult in wireless sensor network (WSN due to limited resources. Each node in WSN is constrained by their limited battery power for their energy. The energy is reduced as the time goes off due to the packet transmission and reception. Energy management techniques are necessary to minimize the total power consumption of all the nodes in the network in order to maximize its life span. Our proposed protocol Location based routing (LBR aimed to find a path which utilizes the minimum energy to transmit the packets between the source and the destination. The required energy for the transmission and reception of data is evaluated in MATLAB. LBR is implemented on Multicast Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (MAODV to manage the energy consumption in the transmission and reception of data. Simulation results of LBR show the energy consumption has been reduced.

  7. Analysis of Enhanced Associativity Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said A. Shaar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces an analysis to the performance of the Enhanced Associativity Based Routing protocol (EABR based on two factors; Operation complexity (OC and Communication Complexity (CC. OC can be defined as the number of steps required in performing a protocol operation, while CC can be defined as the number of messages exchanged in performing a protocol operation[1]. The values represent the worst-case analysis. The EABR has been analyzed based on CC and OC and the results have been compared with another routing technique called ABR. The results have shown that EABR can perform better than ABR in many circumstances during the route reconstruction.

  8. Solution-based targeted genomic enrichment for precious DNA samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shearer Aiden

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solution-based targeted genomic enrichment (TGE protocols permit selective sequencing of genomic regions of interest on a massively parallel scale. These protocols could be improved by: 1 modifying or eliminating time consuming steps; 2 increasing yield to reduce input DNA and excessive PCR cycling; and 3 enhancing reproducible. Results We developed a solution-based TGE method for downstream Illumina sequencing in a non-automated workflow, adding standard Illumina barcode indexes during the post-hybridization amplification to allow for sample pooling prior to sequencing. The method utilizes Agilent SureSelect baits, primers and hybridization reagents for the capture, off-the-shelf reagents for the library preparation steps, and adaptor oligonucleotides for Illumina paired-end sequencing purchased directly from an oligonucleotide manufacturing company. Conclusions This solution-based TGE method for Illumina sequencing is optimized for small- or medium-sized laboratories and addresses the weaknesses of standard protocols by reducing the amount of input DNA required, increasing capture yield, optimizing efficiency, and improving reproducibility.

  9. Identity-based authentication protocol for grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hon; Sun Shixin; Yang Homiao

    2008-01-01

    Current grid authentication frameworks are achieved by applying the standard SSL authentication protocol(SAP).The authentication process is very complicated,and therefore,the grid user is in a heavily loaded point both in computation and in communication.Based on identity-based architecture for grid(IBAG)and corre-sponding encryption and signature schemes,an identity-based authentication protocol for grid is proposed.Being certificate-free,the authentication protocol aligns well with the demands of grid computing.Through simulation testing,it is seen that the authentication protocol is more lightweight and efficient than SAP,especially the more lightweight user side.This contributes to the larger grid scalability.

  10. Chain-Chain Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia A Ali

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN is an emerging technology for monitoring physical world. WSNs consist of large numbers of sensor nodes operated by battery mostly in harsh environment. Thus energy conservation is a primary issue for organization of these sensor nodes. Another crucial issue is the data delivery time by sensor nodes to the sink node, especially in Military, medical fields, and security monitoring systems where minimum delay is desirable. Number of protocols has been proposed in the literature for routing. One of such protocols is the cluster based routing protocol LEACH (low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy. LEACH protocol organizes WSN into a set of clusters and a periodic voting for cluster head is performed in order to be evenly distributed among all the sensors of the WSN. This periodical cluster head voting in LEACH, however, consumes an amount of non-negligible energy and other resources. For energy conservation, PEGASIS (power efficient gathering in sensor information systems a near optimal chain-based protocol has been proposed, however, it is faced with the challenge of long delay for the transmitted data. Another routing protocol called CCM (Chain-Cluster based Mixed routing, which is mainly a hybrid of LEACH and PEGASIS is proposed, the consumed energy increases as network size increases. In this paper, we propose an efficient routing protocol called CCBRP (Chain-Chain based routing protocol, it achieves both minimum energy consumption and minimum delay. The CCBRP protocol mainly divides a WSN into a number of chains (Greedy algorithm is used to form each chain as in PEGSIS protocol and runs in two phases. In the first phase, sensor nodes in each chain transmit data to their chain leader nodes in parallel. In the second phase, all chain leader nodes form a chain (also, using Greedy algorithm and choose randomly a leader node then all chain leader nodes send their data to this chosen leader node. This chosen leader node

  11. GOMA: functional enrichment analysis tool based on GO modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Huang; Ling-Yun Wu; Yong Wang; Xiang-Sun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing the function of gene sets is a critical step in interpreting the results of high-throughput experiments in systems biology.A variety of enrichment analysis tools have been developed in recent years,but most output a long list of significantly enriched terms that are often redundant,making it difficult to extract the most meaningful functions.In this paper,we present GOMA,a novel enrichment analysis method based on the new concept of enriched functional Gene Ontology (GO) modules.With this method,we systematically revealed functional GO modules,i.e.,groups of functionally similar GO terms,via an optimization model and then ranked them by enrichment scores.Our new method simplifies enrichment analysis results by reducing redundancy,thereby preventing inconsistent enrichment results among functionally similar terms and providing more biologically meaningful results.

  12. 77 FR 13367 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Preparation, 75 FR 1819 (January 13, 2010). Documents related to this notice are available on the NRC's GE... COMMISSION General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...- Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC (GLE) Uranium Enrichment Facility. On June 26, 2009, GLE submitted...

  13. Co-enriching microflora associated with culture based methods to detect Salmonella from tomato phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottesen, Andrea R; Gonzalez, Antonio; Bell, Rebecca; Arce, Caroline; Rideout, Steven; Allard, Marc; Evans, Peter; Strain, Errol; Musser, Steven; Knight, Rob; Brown, Eric; Pettengill, James B

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect a specific organism from a complex environment is vitally important to many fields of public health, including food safety. For example, tomatoes have been implicated numerous times as vehicles of foodborne outbreaks due to strains of Salmonella but few studies have ever recovered Salmonella from a tomato phyllosphere environment. Precision of culturing techniques that target agents associated with outbreaks depend on numerous factors. One important factor to better understand is which species co-enrich during enrichment procedures and how microbial dynamics may impede or enhance detection of target pathogens. We used a shotgun sequence approach to describe taxa associated with samples pre-enrichment and throughout the enrichment steps of the Bacteriological Analytical Manual's (BAM) protocol for detection of Salmonella from environmental tomato samples. Recent work has shown that during efforts to enrich Salmonella (Proteobacteria) from tomato field samples, Firmicute genera are also co-enriched and at least one co-enriching Firmicute genus (Paenibacillus sp.) can inhibit and even kills strains of Salmonella. Here we provide a baseline description of microflora that co-culture during detection efforts and the utility of a bioinformatic approach to detect specific taxa from metagenomic sequence data. We observed that uncultured samples clustered together with distinct taxonomic profiles relative to the three cultured treatments (Universal Pre-enrichment broth (UPB), Tetrathionate (TT), and Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV)). There was little consistency among samples exposed to the same culturing medias, suggesting significant microbial differences in starting matrices or stochasticity associated with enrichment processes. Interestingly, Paenibacillus sp. (Salmonella inhibitor) was significantly enriched from uncultured to cultured (UPB) samples. Also of interest was the sequence based identification of a number of sequences as Salmonella despite

  14. Comparison of CSMA based MAC protocols of wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    singh, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    Energy conservation has been an important area of interest in Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs). Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols play an important role in energy conservation. In this paper, we describe CSMA based MAC protocols for WSN and analyze the simulation results of these protocols. We implemented S-MAC, T-MAC, B-MAC, B-MAC+, X-MAC, DMAC and Wise-MAC in TOSSIM, a simulator which unlike other simulators simulates the same code running on real hardware. Previous surveys mainly focused on the classification of MAC protocols according to the techniques being used or problem dealt with and presented a theoretical evaluation of protocols. This paper presents the comparative study of CSMA based protocols for WSNs, showing which MAC protocol is suitable in a particular environment and supports the arguments with the simulation results. The comparative study can be used to find the best suited MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks in different environments.

  15. Protocol-Based Verification of Message-Passing Parallel Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Acosta, Hugo-Andrés; Eduardo R. B. Marques, Eduardo R. B.; Martins, Francisco;

    2015-01-01

    a protocol language based on a dependent type system for message-passing parallel programs, which includes various communication operators, such as point-to-point messages, broadcast, reduce, array scatter and gather. For the verification of a program against a given protocol, the protocol is first...

  16. Fast and Efficient IMAC Protocol for Phosphopeptide enrichment for phosphoproteomic Studies via LC-MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    McKennan, C.; Spruce, L.; Seeholzer, S; Ding, H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in first dimension High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) separation of complex peptide mixtures, followed by a subsequent immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) for phosphopeptide enrichment have shown great promise in both selectivity and quantification of phosphopeptides via LC-MS/MS analysis. The first dimension HPLC, such as hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) or high pH Reverse Phase chromatography, was employed for its being orthogona...

  17. SPP: A data base processor data communications protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and implementation of a data communications protocol for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. The protocol is termed SPP (Service Port Protocol) since it enables data transfer between the host computer and the DBP service port. The protocol implementation is extensible in that it is explicitly layered and the protocol functionality is hierarchically organized. Extensive trace and performance capabilities have been supplied with the protocol software to permit optional efficient monitoring of the data transfer between the host and the Intel data base processor. Machine independence was considered to be an important attribute during the design and implementation of SPP. The protocol source is fully commented and is included in Appendix A of this report.

  18. Protocol Independent Multicast Based States Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Hemalatha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM protocol is being used. The PIM protocol avoids the packet drop and diverting problem. The PIM protocol is not dependent on any specific unicast routing protocol. It is IP routing independent protocol. The PIM uses the unicast and multicast information to create a distribution tree along the reverse path from the receivers towards the source. The PIM protocol consists of three modes such as sparse mode, dense mode and bidirectional mode. The sparse mode is used to sends the file from router to a receiver. The dense mode is used to sends the file from router to multiple receivers. The bidirectional mode is used to sends the message from router to sender and then continue the other process depending on the sender requirements. The client sends the file from sender to destination via the router. First the sender selects the file name and receiver name for transmission. Then the state is assigned automatically depend upon the user selection. The state can be defined by the number of destination selected to transmit the file from the source. If the sender selects single destination, it will assign “Without forwarding state router” for transmission. Otherwise it will assign “Forwarding state router” for transmission. If the receiver is not available, the router sends a message to sender such that “the requested receiver is not available”. Then the client will decide the file is transfer or not, it will reply with transfer the file, then the file will be transferred until the file will be discarded at client side. If the sender tries the same process after two times, the router will display the warning message as “the requested receiver is not available, this file will be discarded at client side”. Then it continues the other process.

  19. Q-ESP: a QoS-compliant Security Protocol to enrich IPSec Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Mostafa, Mahmoud; Fraboul, Christian

    2009-01-01

    IPSec is a protocol that allows to make secure connections between branch offices and allows secure VPN accesses. However, the efforts to improve IPSec are still under way; one aspect of this improvement is to take Quality of Service (QoS) requirements into account. QoS is the ability of the network to provide a service at an assured service level while optimizing the global usage of network resources. The QoS level that a flow receives depends on a six-bit identifier in the IP header; the so-called Differentiated Services code point (DSCP). Basically, Multi-Field classifiers classify a packet by inspecting IP/TCP headers, to decide how the packet should be processed. The current IPSec standard does hardly offer any guidance to do this, because the existing IPSec ESP security protocol hides much of this information in its encrypted payloads, preventing network control devices such as routers and switches from utilizing this information in performing classification appropriately. To solve this problem, we prop...

  20. Atomic Electronic Contract Protocol Based on Convertible Signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-chun; WANG Li-na; ZHANG Huan-guo

    2005-01-01

    A new class of atomicity, namely contract atomicity is presented. A new technical strategy based on convertible signature and two-phase commitment is proposed for implementing atomicity of electronic contract protocol. A new atomic contract signing protocol is given out by using ElGamal-like convertible undeniable signature and commitment of conversion key, and another new atomic contract signing protocol is brought forward by using RSA-based convertible undeniable signature scheme and commitment of conversion key.These two new protocols are proved to be of atomicity, fairness, privacy, non-repudiation.

  1. Distance based (DBCP) Cluster Protocol for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Surender; Prateek, Manish; Bhushan, Bharat

    2014-01-01

    Clustering is an important concept to reduce the energy consumption and prolonging the life of a wireless sensor network. In heterogeneous wireless sensor network some of the nodes are equipped with more energy than the other nodes. Many routing algorithms are proposed for heterogeneous wireless sensor network. Stable Election Protocol (SEP) is one of the important protocol in this category. In this research paper a novel energy efficient distance based cluster protocol (DBCP) is proposed for...

  2. Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on Bell Entangled States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文; 王永滨; 崔巍

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,a quantum private comparison protocol is proposed based on bell entangled states.In our protocol,two parties can compare the equality of their information with the help of a semi-honest third party.The correctness and security of our protocol are discussed.One party cannot learn the other's private information and the third party also cannot learn any information about the private information.

  3. DSR-Based Selective Repeat ARQ Protocol in MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全新; 宋瀚涛

    2003-01-01

    The efficient route algorithms involved in mobile ad hoc network(MANET) are studied. An arrangement of a combination of the traditional dynamic source routing(DSR) protocol is put forward and the selective repeat ARQ protocol is put forward by analyzing and studying them in detail and providing the scheme. In networks, especially in wireless networks, the nodes are capable to process data much faster than transmission, the DSR-based selective repeat ARQ protocol has real meanings in MANET.

  4. Model Checking Electronic Commerce Security Protocols Based on CTL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO De-qin; ZHANG Huan-guo

    2005-01-01

    We present a model based on Computational Temporal Logic (CTL) methods for verifying security requirements of electronic commerce protocols. The model describes formally the authentication, confidentiality integrity,non-repudiation, denial of service and access control of the electronic commerce protocols. We illustrate as case study a variant of the Lu-Smolka protocol proposed by Lu-Smolka.Moreover, we have discovered two attacks that allow a dishonest user to purchase a good debiting the amount to another user. And also, we compared our work with relative research works and found that the formal way of this paper is more general to specify security protocols for E-Commerce.

  5. CCPA: Component-based communication protocol architecture for embedded systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Hong-jun; CHEN Tian-zhou; CHEN Chun

    2005-01-01

    For increased and various communication requirements of modem applications on embedded systems, general purpose protocol stacks and protocol models are not efficient because they are fixed to execute in the static mode. We present the Component-Based Communication Protocol Architecture (CCPA) to make communication dynamic and configurable. It can develop, test and store the customized components for flexible reuse. The protocols are implemented by component assembly and support by configurable environments. This leads to smaller memory, more flexibility, more reconfiguration ability, better concurrency, and multiple data channel support.

  6. An Internet Key Exchange Protocol Based on Public Key Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建明; 马建峰

    2004-01-01

    Internet key exchange (IKE) is an automated key exchange mechanism that is used to facilitate the transfer of IPSec security associations (SAs). Public key infrastructure (PKI) is considered as a key element for providing security to new distributed communication networks and services. In this paper, we concentrate on the properties of the protocol of Phase 1 IKE. After investigating IKE protocol and PKI technology, we combine IKE protocol and PKI and present an implementation scheme of the IKE based on PKI. Then, we give a logic analysis of the proposed protocol with the BAN-logic and discuss the security of the protocol. The result indicates that the protocol is correct and satisfies the security requirements of Internet key exchange.

  7. Cryptanalysis of Song's advanced smart card based password authentication protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Tapiador, Juan E; Peris-Lopez, P; Clark, John A

    2011-01-01

    Song \\cite{Song10} proposed very recently a password-based authentication and key establishment protocol using smart cards which attempts to solve some weaknesses found in a previous scheme suggested by Xu, Zhu, and Feng \\cite{XZF09}. In this paper, we present attacks on the improved protocol, showing that it fails to achieve the claimed security goals.

  8. Network Management Temporal Database System Based on XTACACS Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper first analyzes the basic concepts of Cisco router user certification, XTACACS certification protocol and describes the data architecture of user data protocol, then defines a kind of doubly temporal databases and log-in transaction processing based on network management property, at last, introduces implementation technology and method.

  9. Cryptographic protocol security analysis based on bounded constructing algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An efficient approach to analyzing cryptographic protocols is to develop automatic analysis tools based on formal methods. However, the approach has encountered the high computational complexity problem due to reasons that participants of protocols are arbitrary, their message structures are complex and their executions are concurrent. We propose an efficient automatic verifying algorithm for analyzing cryptographic protocols based on the Cryptographic Protocol Algebra (CPA) model proposed recently, in which algebraic techniques are used to simplify the description of cryptographic protocols and their executions. Redundant states generated in the analysis processes are much reduced by introducing a new algebraic technique called Universal Polynomial Equation and the algorithm can be used to verify the correctness of protocols in the infinite states space. We have implemented an efficient automatic analysis tool for cryptographic protocols, called ACT-SPA, based on this algorithm, and used the tool to check more than 20 cryptographic protocols. The analysis results show that this tool is more efficient, and an attack instance not offered previously is checked by using this tool.

  10. Cooperative MIMO Transmissions in WSN Using Threshold Based MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vidhya

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks require robust and efficient communication protocols to maximise the network lifetime.Radio irregularity, channel fading and interference results in larger energy consumption and latency forpacket transmission over wireless channel. Cooperative multi-input multi-output (MIMO schemes whenincorporated in wireless senor network (WSN can significantly improve the communicationperformance. An inefficiently designed medium access control (MAC protocol however, may diminishthe performance gains of MIMO operation. Hence, this paper proposes a distributed threshold basedMAC protocol for cooperative MIMO transmissions using space time block codes (STBC. The protocoluses a thresholding scheme that is updated dynamically based on the queue length at the sending node toachieve lesser energy consumption and minimise latency ensuring the stability of transmission queues atthe nodes. STBC and code combining techniques are applied to utilise the inherent spatial diversity inwireless cooperative MIMO systems. Simulation results are provided to evaluate the performance of theproposed protocol and are compared with fixed group size cooperative MIMO MAC protocols with andwithout STBC coding. Results show that the proposed protocol outperforms point to point communicationas well as cooperative MIMO MAC protocols that use fixed group sizes. STBC technique for the proposedMAC protocol provides significant energy savings and minimises the packet delay by leveraging MIMOdiversity gains.

  11. Quantum multi-signature protocol based on teleportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Xiao-jun; Liu Yun; Sun Yu [Beijing Jiaotong Univ., Beijing (China). School of Electronic Information Engineering

    2007-03-15

    In this paper, a protocol which can be used in multi-user quantum signature is proposed. The scheme of signature and verification is based on the correlation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and the controlled quantum teleportation. Different from the digital signatures, which are based on computational complexity, the proposed protocol has perfect security in the noiseless quantum channels. Compared to previous quantum signature schemes, this protocol can verify the signature independent of an arbitrator as well as realize multi-user signature together. (orig.)

  12. Ad Hoc Protocols Via Multi Agent Based Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Bazghandi; Mehdi Bazghandi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is investigating behaviors of Ad Hoc protocols in Agent-based simulation environments. First we bring brief introduction about agents and Ad Hoc networks. We introduce some agent-based simulation tools like NS-2. Then we focus on two protocols, which are Ad Hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (AODV) and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV). At the end, we bring simulation results and discuss about their reasons.

  13. Internet voting protocol based on implicit data security

    CERN Document Server

    Parakh, Abhishek

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new protocol for Internet voting based on implicit data security. This protocol allows recasting of votes, which permits a change of mind by voters either during the time window over which polling is open or during a shorter period over which recasting is permitted. The security of votes depends on multiple servers such that each vote is divided into partitions and these partitions are distributed among the servers, all of which need to be brought together to reconstruct the votes. Such a protocol has potential applications in bargaining and electronic commerce.

  14. Updatable Queue Protocol Based On TCP For Virtual Reality Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Howaide, Ala'a Z; Salhieh, Ayad M

    2011-01-01

    The variance in number and types of tasks required to be implemented within Distributed Virtual Environments (DVE) highlights the needs for communication protocols can achieve consistency. In addition, these applications have to handle an increasing number of participants and deal with the difficult problem of scalability. Moreover, the real-time requirements of these applications make the scalability problem more difficult to solve. In this paper, we have implemented Updatable Queue Abstraction protocol (UQA) on TCP (TCP-UQA) and compared it with original TCP, UDP, and Updatable Queue Abstraction based on UDP (UDP-UQA) protocols. Results showed that TCP-UQA was the best in queue management.

  15. A Secure Elliptic Curve-Based RFID Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santi Martínez; Magda Valls; Concepcó Roig; Josep M. Miret; Francesc Giné

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems in industry and stores has increased.Nevertheless, some of these systems present privacy problems that may discourage potential users. Hence, high confidence and efficient privacy protocols are urgently needed. Previous studies in the literature proposed schemes that are proven to be secure, but they have scalability problems. A feasible and scalable protocol to guarantee privacy is presented in this paper.The proposed protocol uses elliptic curve cryptography combined with a zero knowledge-based authentication scheme. An analysis to prove the system secure, and even forward secure is also provided.

  16. Protect the Secrecy in Password-Based Key Exchange Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LILi; SUNHaibo; XUERui; ZHANGHuanguo

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model called term-node graph, which is a formal method based on Dolev-Yao model[15], to analyze this problem. In this framework, each node is a term of message exchang ingin the protocol and each edge denotes a relation between terms. Essentially, properties of security protocols are all relative to secrets. Based on this thought, term-node graph model emphasizes the relation between terms and then secrecy can come down to the problem of reachability of terms through some reachable paths. We conclude a generic form of three party password-only key exchange protocols. Applying this model to analyze the secrecy of the generic protoco4 a general necessary condition is deduced on the security of the three party password-only key exchange protocols: To resist the guessing attack on pass-words, the number of message-exchange steps among the three parties should be more than five.

  17. Electronic Voting Protocol Using Identity-Based Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Garcia, Gina; Tapia-Recillas, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    Electronic voting protocols proposed to date meet their properties based on Public Key Cryptography (PKC), which offers high flexibility through key agreement protocols and authentication mechanisms. However, when PKC is used, it is necessary to implement Certification Authority (CA) to provide certificates which bind public keys to entities and enable verification of such public key bindings. Consequently, the components of the protocol increase notably. An alternative is to use Identity-Based Encryption (IBE). With this kind of cryptography, it is possible to have all the benefits offered by PKC, without neither the need of certificates nor all the core components of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Considering the aforementioned, in this paper we propose an electronic voting protocol, which meets the privacy and robustness properties by using bilinear maps. PMID:26090515

  18. Electronic Voting Protocol Using Identity-Based Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Garcia, Gina; Tapia-Recillas, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    Electronic voting protocols proposed to date meet their properties based on Public Key Cryptography (PKC), which offers high flexibility through key agreement protocols and authentication mechanisms. However, when PKC is used, it is necessary to implement Certification Authority (CA) to provide certificates which bind public keys to entities and enable verification of such public key bindings. Consequently, the components of the protocol increase notably. An alternative is to use Identity-Based Encryption (IBE). With this kind of cryptography, it is possible to have all the benefits offered by PKC, without neither the need of certificates nor all the core components of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Considering the aforementioned, in this paper we propose an electronic voting protocol, which meets the privacy and robustness properties by using bilinear maps.

  19. Revocable Attribute-based Key Agreement Protocol without Random Oracles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a two-party attribute-based key agreement protocol, which is secure in the standard model (without random oracles, under the truncated decision q-ABDHE assumption. Then we give a modified version of this scheme, in which the users can be revoked efficiently. The attribute-based key agreement protocol is based on the attribute-based encryption scheme, which is a generalization of identity-based cryptosystems, incorporates attributes as inputs to its cryptographic primitives. These kinds of schemes not only preserve the advantages of traditional identity-based key agreement protocol, but also provide some new properties, such as hiding the identity information of the individual, increasing the flexibility of key management, and providing efficient means to revoke users from the system.

  20. An Improved Directed Diffusion Protocol based on Opportunistic Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Xu; Yixian Yang; Yang Xin; Hongliang Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are paying more and more attention to the application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), where routing is one of the vital techniques. An advanced Directed Diffusion protocol, named DDOR, is presented in this paper based on Opportunistic Routing to improve the disadvantage of mono-forwarder of traditional routing protocol. Packet head has been modified in order to implement a forwarder list in DDOR. Instead of fixed next-hop forwarding in transmission, DDOR selects the optimal no...

  1. Research and Implementation of Collision Detection Based on Modbus Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Yinglan Fang; Xianfeng Han; Bing Han

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the communication errors resulted by traditional working condition multi-platform device communication using the custom protocol communication and link congestion malpractice brought by retransmission, it ensures network communication using time-sharing communication conflict detection based on mature Modbus protocol. Thereby it enhances the stability of the entire system during operation process, and provides simple, efficient, stable business specification inte...

  2. A simplified and cost-effective enrichment protocol for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat without microaerobic incubation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zhou, Ping

    2011-08-03

    Abstract Background To simplify the methodology for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat, we evaluated 108 samples (breasts and thighs) using an unpaired sample design. The enrichment broths were incubated under aerobic conditions (subsamples A) and for comparison under microaerobic conditions (subsamples M) as recommended by current reference protocols. Sensors were used to measure the dissolved oxygen (DO) in the broth and the percentage of oxygen (O2) in the head space of the bags used for enrichment. Campylobacter isolates were identified with multiplex PCR assays and typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ribosomal intergenic spacer analyses (RISA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to study the bacterial communities of subsamples M and A after 48 h enrichment. Results The number of Campylobacter positive subsamples were similar for A and M when all samples were combined (P = 0.81) and when samples were analyzed by product (breast: P = 0.75; thigh: P = 1.00). Oxygen sensors showed that DO values in the broth were around 6 ppm and O2 values in the head space were 14-16% throughout incubation. PFGE demonstrated high genomic similarity of isolates in the majority of the samples in which isolates were obtained from subsamples A and M. RISA and DGGE results showed a large variability in the bacterial populations that could be attributed to sample-to-sample variations and not enrichment conditions (aerobic or microaerobic). These data also suggested that current sampling protocols are not optimized to determine the true number of Campylobacter positive samples in retail boiler meat. Conclusions Decreased DO in enrichment broths is naturally achieved. This simplified, cost-effective enrichment protocol with aerobic incubation could be incorporated into reference methods for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat.

  3. Mercury release from deforested soils triggered by base cation enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farella, N; Lucotte, M; Davidson, R; Daigle, S

    2006-09-01

    The Brazilian Amazon has experienced considerable colonization in the last few decades. Family agriculture based on slash-and-burn enables millions of people to live in that region. However, the poor nutrient content of most Amazonian soils requires cation-rich ashes from the burning of the vegetation biomass for cultivation to be successful, which leads to forest ecosystem degradation, soil erosion and mercury contamination. While recent studies have suggested that mercury present in soils was transferred towards rivers upon deforestation, little is known about the dynamics between agricultural land-use and mercury leaching. In this context, the present study proposes an explanation that illustrates how agricultural land-use triggers mercury loss from soils. This explanation lies in the competition between base cations and mercury in soils which are characterized by a low adsorption capacity. Since these soils are naturally very poor in base cations, the burning of the forest biomass suddenly brings high quantities of base cations to soils, destabilizing the previous equilibrium amongst cations. Base cation enrichment triggers mobility in soil cations, rapidly dislocating mercury atoms. This conclusion comes from principal component analyses illustrating that agricultural land-use was associated with base cation enrichment and mercury depletion. The overall conclusions highlight a pernicious cycle: while soil nutrient enrichment actually occurs through biomass burning, although on a temporary basis, there is a loss in Hg content, which is leached to rivers, entering the aquatic chain, and posing a potential health threat to local populations. Data presented here reflects three decades of deforestation activities, but little is known about the long-term impact of such a disequilibrium. These findings may have repercussions on our understanding of the complex dynamics of deforestation and agriculture worldwide. PMID:16781764

  4. A Voting Protocol Based on the Controlled Quantum Operation Teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Juan-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Li, Yan-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Based on the controlled quantum operation teleportation, a secure voting protocol is proposed in this paper. Genuine four-qubit entangled state functions as the quantum channel. The eligible voter's quantum operation which represents his vote information can be transmitted to the tallyman Bob with the help of the scrutineer Charlie. Voter's quantum identity authentication provides the anonymity of voters'ID, which is ensured by a zero-knowledge proof of the notary organization CA. Charlie's supervision in the whole voting process can make the protocol satisfy verifiability and non-reusability so as to avoid Bob's dishonest behaviour. The security analysis shows that the voting protocol satisfies unforgeability, and has great advantages over some relevant researches. Additionally, the quantum operation can be transmitted successfully with the probability 1, which can make the protocol reliable and practical.

  5. Analysis and design of a smart card based authentication protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuo-Hui YEH; Kuo-Yu TSAI; Jia-Li HOU

    2013-01-01

    Numerous smart card based authentication protocols have been proposed to provide strong system security and robust individual privacy for communication between parties these days. Nevertheless, most of them do not provide formal analysis proof, and the security robustness is doubtful. Chang and Cheng (2011) proposed an efficient remote authentication protocol with smart cards and claimed that their proposed protocol could support secure communication in a multi-server environment. Unfortunately, there are opportunities for security enhancement in current schemes. In this paper, we identify the major weakness, i.e., session key disclosure, of a recently published protocol. We consequently propose a novel authentication scheme for a multi-server envi-ronment and give formal analysis proofs for security guarantees.

  6. Traffic Flow Analysis Model based Routing Protocol For Multi-Protocol Label Switching Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Naganathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS is a mechanism which is used in high-performance telecommunications networks that directs and carries data from one network node to the next with the help of labels. Traffic management is still an issue in MPLS network as it involves high speed internet. Approach: This study proposed a traffic flow analysis of the real time MPLS traffic and segregates the MPLS traffic as three major class based on the outcome of traffic flow analysis. Using the traffic class. This study proposed a reliable transmission methodology which provides traffic free routing in the MPLS networks. Results: The proposed traffic flow analysis based reliable routing model overcomes the network traffic and provides effective routing by offering traffic free path. Conclusion: The proposed traffic flow analysis model outperforms existing routing protocol and offers comparatively negligible packet loss.

  7. Survey of Performance based Transmission Control Protocol in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Bagde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is a connection-oriented transport service that ensures the reliability of message delivery. It verifies that messages and data were received. TCP provides reliable, ordered delivery of a stream of bytes from a program on one computer to another program on another computer. TCP provides a communication service at an intermediate level between an application programs. TCP is the protocol used by major Internet applications such as the World Wide Web, email, remote administration and file transfer. TCP is a reliable transport protocol that is well tuned to perform well in traditional networks. However, several experiments and analysis have shown that this protocol is not suitable for bulk data transfer in high bandwidth, large round trip time networks because of its slow start and conservative congestion control mechanism. In this paper we discussed a survey of Performance Based Transmission Control Protocol in Mobile Ad-hoc Network environment. The performance based techniques are categorized based upon different approaches like throughput, end-to-end delay, congestion control etc. We also analysis the major improvement in recent methods for performance based TCP in MANET.

  8. Internet protocol-based emergency services

    CERN Document Server

    Schulzrinne, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Written by international experts in the field, this book covers the standards, architecture and deployment issues related to IP-based emergency services This book brings together contributions from experts on technical and operational aspects within the international standardisation and regulatory processes relating to routing and handling of IP-based emergency calls.  Readers will learn how these standards work, how various standardization organizations contributed to them and about pilot projects, early deployment and current regulatory situation. Key Featur

  9. Sonication-based isolation and enrichment of Chlorella protothecoides chloroplasts for illumina genome sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelova, Angelina [University of Arizona; Park, Sang-Hycuk [University of Arizona; Kyndt, John [Bellevue University; Fitzsimmons, Kevin [University of Arizona; Brown, Judith K [University of Arizona

    2013-09-01

    With the increasing world demand for biofuel, a number of oleaginous algal species are being considered as renewable sources of oil. Chlorella protothecoides Krüger synthesizes triacylglycerols (TAGs) as storage compounds that can be converted into renewable fuel utilizing an anabolic pathway that is poorly understood. The paucity of algal chloroplast genome sequences has been an important constraint to chloroplast transformation and for studying gene expression in TAGs pathways. In this study, the intact chloroplasts were released from algal cells using sonication followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation, resulting in a 2.36-fold enrichment of chloroplasts from C. protothecoides, based on qPCR analysis. The C. protothecoides chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform and found to be 84,576 Kb in size (8.57 Kb) in size, with a GC content of 30.8 %. This is the first report of an optimized protocol that uses a sonication step, followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation, to release and enrich intact chloroplasts from a microalga (C. prototheocoides) of sufficient quality to permit chloroplast genome sequencing with high coverage, while minimizing nuclear genome contamination. The approach is expected to guide chloroplast isolation from other oleaginous algal species for a variety of uses that benefit from enrichment of chloroplasts, ranging from biochemical analysis to genomics studies.

  10. Some Attacks On Quantum-based Cryptographic Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Lo, H K; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Ko, Tsz-Mei

    2003-01-01

    Quantum-based cryptographic protocols are often said to enjoy security guaranteed by the fundamental laws of physics. However, subtle attacks that are outside the original design of the protocols may allow eavesdroppers to break those protocols. As an example, we will give a peeking attack against a quantum key distribution scheme based on quantum memory. Moreover, if technological assumptions are made in the design of a quantum-based cryptographic protocol, then the actual security of the protocol may fall short of expectations. This is because it is often hard to quantify those technological assumptions in a precise manner. Here, we give an attack against a recently proposed ``secure communication using coherent state scheme''. Our attack requires only beamsplitters and the replacement of a lossy channel by a lossless one. It is successful provided that the original loss in the channel is so big that Eve can obtain 2^k copies of what Bob receives, where k is the length of the seed key pre-shared by Alice an...

  11. A Lock—Based Cache Coherence Protocol for Scope Consistency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟武; 施巍松; 等

    1998-01-01

    Directory protocols are widely adopted to maintain cache coherence of distributed shared memory multiprocessors.Although scalable to a certain extent,directory protocols are complex enough to prevent it from being used in very large scale multiprocessors with tens of thousands of nodes.his paper proposes a lock-based cache coherence protocol for scope consistency.In does not rely on directory information to maintain cache coherence.Instead,cache coherence is maintained through requiring the releasing processor of a lock to stroe all write-notices generated in the associated critical section to the lock and the acquiring processor invalidates or updates its locally cached data copies according to the write notices of the lock.To evaluate the performance of the lock-based cache coherence protocol,a software SDM system named JIAJIA is built on network of workstations.Besides the lock-based cache coherence protocol,JIAJIA also characterizes itself with its shared memory organization scheme which combines the physical memories of multiple workstations to form a large shared space.Performance measurements with SPLASH2 program suite and NAS benchmarks indicate that,compared to recent SVM systems such as CVM,higher speedup is achieved by JIAJIA.Besides,JIAJIA can solve large scale problems that cannot be solved by other SVM systems due to memory size limitation.

  12. A Survey on Location Based Authentication Protocols For Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smruti. P. Patil

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As per the recent studies, the volatile growth has been seen inthe use of mobile devices as the supporting technology foraccessing Internet based services, as well as for personalcommunication needs in networking. Various studies indicatethat it is impossible to utilize strong cryptographic functions forimplementing security protocols on mobile devices. Ourresearch negates this. Explicitly, a performance analysis focusedon the most commonly used cryptographic protocols based onthe location address (latitude & longitude of the user for mobileapplications and anticipated provably secure authenticationprotocol that is more efficient than any of the existingauthentication protocol is being discussed in this paper.Understanding the use of public key cryptography which makespotential use of discrete logarithms problem. The security ofECC depends on the difficulty of Elliptic Curve DiscreteLogarithm. To provide secure communication for mobiledevices, authenticated protocol is an important primitive forestablishing trusted connection. In this paper, it has beenstudied that the location based system provides a better securityand acquires much less energy consumption than the existingauthentication protocols.

  13. A Knowledge—Based Specification Technique for Protocol Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张尧学; 史美林; 等

    1993-01-01

    is paper proposes a knowledge-based specification technique(KST)for protocol development.This technique semi-automatically translates a protocol described in an informal description(natural languages or graphs)into one described in forml specifications(Estells and SDL).The translation processes are suported by knowledge stored in the knowledge base.This paper discusses the concept,the specification control mechanism of KST and the rules and algorithms for production of FSM's which is the basis of Estelle and SDL.

  14. An Enhanced Security Protocol for VANET-Based Entertainment Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Yoon; Choi, Hyoung-Kee

    Multimedia transactions between vehicles are expected to become a promising application in VANETs but security is a fundamental issue that must be resolved before such transactions can become practical and trusted. Existing certificate-based digital signature schemes are ineffective for ensuring the security of multimedia transactions in VANETs. This ineffectiveness exists because there is no guarantee that (1) vehicles can download the latest certificate revocation lists or that (2) vehicles can complete a multimedia transaction before leaving their communication range. These two problems result, respectively, from a lack of infrastructure and from the inconsistent connectivity inherent in VANETs. In this paper, we propose a digital signature approach that combines a certificateless signature scheme and short-lived public keys to alleviate these problems. We then propose a security protocol that uses the proposed signature approach for multimedia transactions between vehicles. The proposed protocol enables vehicles to trade in multimedia resources without an online trust authority. We provide an analytical approach to optimizing the security of the proposed protocol. The security and performance of our protocol are evaluated via simulation and theoretical analysis. Based on these evaluations, we contend that the proposed protocol is practical for multimedia transactions in VANETs in terms of security and performance.

  15. A comparative study of protocols for secure quantum communication under noisy environment: single-qubit-based protocols versus entangled-state-based protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vishal; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban; Banerjee, Subhashish

    2016-07-01

    The effect of noise on various protocols of secure quantum communication has been studied. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping, Pauli type as well as various collective noise models on the protocols of quantum key distribution, quantum key agreement, quantum secure direct quantum communication and quantum dialogue. From each type of protocol of secure quantum communication, we have chosen two protocols for our comparative study: one based on single-qubit states and the other one on entangled states. The comparative study reported here has revealed that single-qubit-based schemes are generally found to perform better in the presence of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping noises, while entanglement-based protocols turn out to be preferable in the presence of collective noises. It is also observed that the effect of noise depends upon the number of rounds of quantum communication involved in a scheme of quantum communication. Further, it is observed that squeezing, a completely quantum mechanical resource present in the squeezed generalized amplitude channel, can be used in a beneficial way as it may yield higher fidelity compared to the corresponding zero squeezing case.

  16. MULTIPLE ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNITS CALIBRATION SYSTEM BASED ON EXPLICIT CALIBRATION PROTOCOL AND J1939 PROTOCOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shiwei; ZHU Keqing; XU Quankui; YANG Lin; ZHUO Bin

    2008-01-01

    The rising number of electronic control units (ECUs) in vehicles and the decreasing time to market have led to the need for advanced methods of calibration. A multi-ECU calibration system was developed based on the explicit calibration protocol (XCP) and J1939 communication protocol to satisfy the need of calibrating multiple ECUs simultaneously. The messages in the controller area network (CAN) are defined in the J1939 protocol. Each CAN node can get its own calibration messages and information from other ECUs, and block other messages by qualifying the CAN messages with priority, source or destination address. The data field of the calibration message is designed with the XCP , with CAN acting as the transport layer. The calibration sessions are setup with the event-triggered XCP driver in the master node and the responding XCP driver in the slave nodes. Mirroring calibration variables from ROM to RAM enables the user to calibrate ECUs online. The application example shows that the multi-ECU calibration system can calibrate multiple ECUs simultaneously, and the main program can also accomplish its calculation and send commands to the actuators in time. By the multi-ECU calibration system, the calibration effort and time can be reduced and the variables in ECU can get a better match with the variables of other ECUs.

  17. Quantum Encryption Protocol Based on Continuous Variable EPR Correlations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Guang-Qiang; ZENG Gui-Hua

    2006-01-01

    A quantum encryption protocol based on Gaussian-modulated continuous variable EPR correlations is proposed. The security is guaranteed by continuous variable EPR entanglement correlations produced by nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA). For general beam splitter eavesdropping strategy, the mutual information Ⅰ(α, ε)between Alice and Eve is calculated by employing Shannon information theory. Finally the security analysis is presented.

  18. Code Combining Based Cooperative LEACH Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaduzzaman; Kong, Hyung-Yun

    This letter proposes a simple modification of LEACH protocol to exploit its multi-hop scenario for user cooperation. Instead of a single cluster-head we propose M cluster-heads in each cluster to obtain the diversity of order M. All cluster-heads gather data from all sensor nodes within the cluster using the same technique as LEACH. Cluster-heads transmit gathered data cooperatively towards the destination or higher order cluster-head. We propose a code combining based cooperative protocol. We also develop the upper bounds on frame error rate (FER) for our proposal. Simulation and analysis show that our proposal can significantly prolong the system lifetime.

  19. FFT-DMAC:a tone based DMAC protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Li Minglu; Shu Wei; Wu Minyou

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the flip-flop tone (FFT) DMAC protocol, a tone based MAC protocol using directional antennas to solve the deafness problem, hidden terminal and exposed terminal problems simultaneously. It uses two pairs of flip-flop tones. The first pair of tone is to send omni-directionally to reach every neighboring node to announce the start and the end of communication, and therefore to alleviate the deafness problem. The second pair of tone is to send directionally towards the sender. It is used to solve the hidden terminal problem as well as the exposed terminal problem. Evaluation shows that FFT-DMAC can achieve better performance compared to the 802.11 and ToneDMAC protocol.

  20. Reformative multicast routing protocol based on Ad Hoc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨喜旺; 王华; 焦国太

    2008-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc networks has been widely applied to military field, emergency management, public service and so on. Because it is uncertain on network and communication, a great deal of energy will be consumed with nodes increasing and creating routing each other. The reformative on-demand multicast routing protocol was putted forward by researching the energy consuming of multicast routing protocol in Ad Hoc. It will decrease consumption in a big multicast flooding through studying the relaying group net structure based on map or wormhole. The energy consumption is reduced 30% by creating the two kinds of routing principles: minimization of energy consumption and minimization of maximum nodes energy consumption. The simulation result indicates that the reformative RODMRP is effective to reduce the energy consuming while routing protocol built.

  1. Traffic Flow Analysis Model based Routing Protocol For Multi-Protocol Label Switching Network

    OpenAIRE

    E.R. Naganathan; Rajagopalan, S.; P. H. Raj

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism which is used in high-performance telecommunications networks that directs and carries data from one network node to the next with the help of labels. Traffic management is still an issue in MPLS network as it involves high speed internet. Approach: This study proposed a traffic flow analysis of the real time MPLS traffic and segregates the MPLS traffic as three major class based on the outcome of traffic flow analysis. U...

  2. Full-Length gene enrichment by using an optimized RNA isolation protocol in Bixa orellana recalcitrant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Avila, N L; Narváez-Zapata, J A; Aguilar-Espinosa, M L; Rivera-Madrid, R

    2009-05-01

    A reliable protocol is described for isolation of large full-length cDNA from Bixa orellana mature tissues containing large quantities of pigments, phenols, and polysaccharides. This protocol involves the optimization of a commercial RNA extraction protocol in combination with a long distance reverse transcript PCR protocol. The principal advantages of this protocol are its high RNA yield and quality. The resulting RNA is suitable for RNA expression evaluation and production of large, full-length cDNA. This is the first time RNA has been isolated from all mature tissues in the tropical perennial plant B. orellana and has been proved viable for downstream applications, especially important for molecular biology studies on this economically important pigment-producing plant. PMID:19107604

  3. Explicit window-based transport control protocols in lossy environments

    OpenAIRE

    de Vleeschouwer, C.; Frossard, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses efficient packet loss recovery by retransmission in window-based congestion control protocols. It builds on explicit congestion control mechanisms to decouple the packet loss detection from the congestion feedback signals. Implicit algorithms alternatively infer congestion from losses (which yields to window size reduction), and therefore do not allow to evaluate the performance of window-based transmission algorithms in lossy environments. We first propose a simple modif...

  4. ID-based Key-insulated Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yuan; CHENG Xiao-ming; CHAI Zhen-chuan

    2007-01-01

    The basic idea behind an ID-based cryptosystem is that end user's public key can be determined by his identity information. Comparing with the traditional certificate-based cryptography, identity-based cryptography can eliminate much of the overhead associated with the deployment and management of certificate. However, exposure of private keys can be the most devastating attack on a public key based cryptosystem since such that all security guarantees are lost. In this paper, an ID-based authenticated key agreement protocol was presented. For solving the problem of key exposure of the basic scheme, the technique of key insulation was applied and a key insulated version is developed.

  5. A Clustering-Based Approach to Enriching Code Foraging Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Nan; Jin, Xiaoyu; Niu, Zhendong; Cheng, Jing-Ru C; Li, Ling; Kataev, Mikhail Yu

    2016-09-01

    Developers often spend valuable time navigating and seeking relevant code in software maintenance. Currently, there is a lack of theoretical foundations to guide tool design and evaluation to best shape the code base to developers. This paper contributes a unified code navigation theory in light of the optimal food-foraging principles. We further develop a novel framework for automatically assessing the foraging mechanisms in the context of program investigation. We use the framework to examine to what extent the clustering of software entities affects code foraging. Our quantitative analysis of long-lived open-source projects suggests that clustering enriches the software environment and improves foraging efficiency. Our qualitative inquiry reveals concrete insights into real developer's behavior. Our research opens the avenue toward building a new set of ecologically valid code navigation tools. PMID:25910273

  6. A Secure Cloud-Based NFC Mobile Payment Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis Pourghomi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Near Field Communication (NFC is one the most recent technologies in the area of application development and service delivery via mobile phone. NFC enables the mobile phone to act as identification and a credit card for customers. Dynamic relationships of NFC ecosystem players in an NFC transaction process make them partners in a way that sometimes they should share their access permissions on the applications that are running in the service environment. One of the technologies that can be used to ensure secure NFC transactions is cloud computing which offers wide range advantages compare to the use of a Secure Element (SE as a single entity in an NFC enabled mobile phone. In this paper, we propose a protocol based on the concept of NFC mobile payments. Accordingly, we present an extended version of the NFC cloud Wallet model [14], in which, the Secure Element in the mobile device is used for customer authentication whereas the customer's banking credentials are stored in a cloud under the control of the Mobile Network Operator (MNO. In this circumstance, Mobile Network Operator plays the role of network carrier which is responsible for controlling all the credentials transferred to the end user. The proposed protocol eliminates the requirement of a shared secret between the Point-of-Sale (POS and the Mobile Network Operator before execution of the protocol, a mandatory requirement in the earlier version of this protocol [16]. This makes it more practicable and user friendly. At the end, we provide a detailed analysis of the protocol where we discuss multiple attack scenarios.

  7. Transputer-based architecture for ATM LAN protocol testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Concetto, M.; Crocetti, P.; Marino, G.; Merli, E.; Pavesi, M.; Zizza, F.

    1993-10-01

    Local Area Networks (LANs) have completed two generations of development (Ethernet and Token Ring the first, and FDDI and DQDB the second); the large volumes of traffic involved in the emerging multimedia applications, however, lead towards a third generation of LANs. This generation must provide real-time capabilities needed by new services and solve the problems of interworking with ATM-based B-ISDN. Moreover the possibility to vary the subscribed bandwidth with the B-ISDN will be given to the LAN interfaces. This paper focuses on an architecture for protocol testing of a Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Protocol inserted in a LAN environment based on ATM technology. In fact, the technology of the third LAN generation will be the Asynchronous Transfer Mode solving every interface problem with the public B-ISDN. A testing and debugging environment which checks the implementation of the Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Protocol at the interface host/LAN- ATM is discussed. The main concepts of the overall system architecture are analyzed, evidencing both software and hardware issues.

  8. Streetlight Control System Based on Wireless Communication over DALI Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido-Outeiriño, Francisco José; Quiles-Latorre, Francisco Javier; Moreno-Moreno, Carlos Diego; Flores-Arias, José María; Moreno-García, Isabel; Ortiz-López, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Public lighting represents a large part of the energy consumption of towns and cities. Efficient management of public lighting can entail significant energy savings. This work presents a smart system for managing public lighting networks based on wireless communication and the DALI protocol. Wireless communication entails significant economic savings, as there is no need to install new wiring and visual impacts and damage to the facades of historical buildings in city centers are avoided. The DALI protocol uses bidirectional communication with the ballast, which allows its status to be controlled and monitored at all times. The novelty of this work is that it tackles all aspects related to the management of public lighting: a standard protocol, DALI, was selected to control the ballast, a wireless node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard with a DALI interface was designed, a network layer that considers the topology of the lighting network has been developed, and lastly, some user-friendly applications for the control and maintenance of the system by the technical crews of the different towns and cities have been developed. PMID:27128923

  9. An Improved Directed Diffusion Protocol based on Opportunistic Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are paying more and more attention to the application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs, where routing is one of the vital techniques. An advanced Directed Diffusion protocol, named DDOR, is presented in this paper based on Opportunistic Routing to improve the disadvantage of mono-forwarder of traditional routing protocol. Packet head has been modified in order to implement a forwarder list in DDOR. Instead of fixed next-hop forwarding in transmission, DDOR selects the optimal node to forward. DDOR mechanism can effectively save energy of WSNs by decreasing the hops from sources to sinks, thereby extends the life of WSNs. A large number of simulations prove that DDOR is feasible. Compared with Directed Diffusion, DDOR does decrease the energy consumption on packets forwarding

  10. Research and Implementation of Collision Detection Based on Modbus Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinglan Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the communication errors resulted by traditional working condition multi-platform device communication using the custom protocol communication and link congestion malpractice brought by retransmission, it ensures network communication using time-sharing communication conflict detection based on mature Modbus protocol. Thereby it enhances the stability of the entire system during operation process, and provides simple, efficient, stable business specification interface for the future expansion of the system. After a comprehensive evaluation and analysis of system communication messages before and after improvement, system comprehensive evaluation target has improved. While the system is more flexible to modular design, develop transparent, structure open side and has a broad application prospects.

  11. Weaknesses of a dynamic identity based authentication protocol for multi-server architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Weiwei

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Li et al. proposed a dynamic identity based authentication protocol for multi-server architecture. They claimed their protocol is secure and can withstand various attacks. But we found some security loopholes in the protocol. Accordingly, the current paper demonstrates that Li et al.'s protocol is vulnerable to the replay attack, the password guessing attack and the masquerade attack.

  12. Addition of novobiocin in pre-enrichment step can improve Salmonella culture protocol of modified semisolid Rappaport-Vassiliadis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Sørensen, Gitte; Baggesen, Dorte Lau;

    2003-01-01

    -enrichment of 32 presumably naturally contaminated swine fecal samples were assessed for BPW with and without addition of Novobiocin (22 mug/ml). In another experiment, a total of 400 swine fecal samples were screened for the presence of Salmonella spp., in order to compare the performance of the nonselective pre...... be caused by a reduction in the number of competitive microorganisms....

  13. Research of Video Steganalysis Algorithm Based on H265 Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Kaicheng

    2015-01-01

    This paper researches LSB matching VSA based on H265 protocol with the research background of 26 original Video sequences, it firstly extracts classification features out from training samples as input of SVM, and trains in SVM to obtain high-quality category classification model, and then tests whether there is suspicious information in the video sample. The experimental results show that VSA algorithm based on LSB matching can be more practical to obtain all frame embedded secret information and carrier and video of local frame embedded. In addition, VSA adopts the method of frame by frame with a strong robustness in resisting attack in the corresponding time domain.

  14. Modular approach to the design and analysis of password-based security protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG DengGuo; CHEN WeiDong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a general framework for designing and analyzing password-based security protocols is presented, First we introduce the concept of "weak computational indistinguishability" based on current progress of password-based security protocols. Then, we focus on cryptographic foundations for password-based security protocols, i.e., the theory of "weak pseudorandomness". Furthermore, based on the theory of weak pseudorandomness, we present a modular approach to design and analysis of password-based security protocols. Finally, applying the modular approach, we design two kinds of password-based security protocols, i.e.,password-based session key distribution (PSKD) protocol and protected password change (PPC) protocol. In addition to having forward secrecy and improved efficiency, new protocols are proved secure.

  15. A Secure Cluster-Based Multipath Routing Protocol for WMSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal N. Al-Karaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption.

  16. A Tree Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Sensor Networks (MSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrityunjay Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs has foreseen big changes in data gathering, processing and disseminating for monitoring specific applications such as emergency services, disaster management, and military applications etc. Wireless sensor networks (WSN's are application dependent. Wireless sensor network can be classified into Static Sensor Network (SSN & Mobile Sensor Network (MSN. In Static Sensor Network, the sensor nodes localize only first time during deployment. In case of Mobile Sensor Network, nodes collect the data by moving from one place to another place hence localization is needed. Mobile sensor networks are more energy efficient, better targeting and provide more data fidelity than Static Sensor Network (SSN. Mobile Sensor networks have gained great attention in recent years due to their ability to offer economical and effective solutions in a variety of fields. There are many routing protocols present for the static sensor network. In this paper we have present a Tree based Routing Protocols (TBRP for mobile sensor network. TBRP was compared with LEACH and TEEN Protocol. Simulation results show that TBRP outperforms LEACH and TEEN in terms of mobility, energy efficiency & network life time.

  17. Energy Band Based Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is one of the widely used techniques to prolong the lifetime of wireless sensor networks in environments where battery replacement of individual sensor nodes is not an option after their deployment. However, clustering overheads such as cluster formation, its size, cluster head selection rotation, directly affects the lifetime of WSN. This paper introduces and analyzes a new Single Hop Energy Band Based clustering protocol (EBBCP which tries to minimize the above said overheads resulting in a prolonged life for the WSN. EBBCP works on static clusters formed on the basis of energy band in the setup phase. The protocol reduces per round overhead of cluster formation which has been proved by the simulation result in MATLAB. The paper contains an in-depth analysis of the results obtained during simulation and compares EBBCP with LEACH. Unlike LEACH, EBBCP achieves evenly distributed Cluster Head throughout the target area. This protocol also produces evenly distributed dead nodes. EEBCP beats LEACH in total data packet received and produces better network life time. EBBCP uses the concept of grid node to eliminate the need of position finding system like GPS to estimating the transmission signal strength.

  18. On the Linearization of Human Identification Protocols: Attacks based on Linear Algebra, Coding Theory and Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Asghar, HJ; Steinfeld, R.; Li, S.; Kaafar, MA; Pieprzyk, J

    2015-01-01

    Human identification protocols are challenge-response protocols that rely on human computational ability to reply to random challenges from the server based on a public function of a shared secret and the challenge to authenticate the human user. One security criterion for a human identification protocol is the number of challenge-response pairs the adversary needs to observe before it can deduce the secret. In order to increase this number, protocol designers have tried to construct protocol...

  19. Epeerdemics: a peer-to-peer simulator targeting epidemic-based protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Dazzi, Patrizio; Carlini, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, several P2P simulators have been proposed. Essentially, they differ in the level of abstraction provided, the programming language used and flexibility in developing protocols. To ease the evaluation and comparison of protocols, these simulators are often bundled with several well-known protocols. Unfortunately, only a few P2P simulators are specific to unstructured protocols and only a subset of them provide a bundle of epidemic-based protocols as baselines for testing. W...

  20. Low Cost ZigBee Protocol Based Laboratory Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Romero-Acero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost wireless communication platform, based on the ZigBee protocol. It is designed with the purpose to strengthen the use of information technology in the classroom. Guides laboratory practices are focused on developing undergraduate engineering students to the area of telecommunications. The platform structure is composed of: Labs custom designed, web tools embedded wireless communication system for data acquisition in real time, and the Human Machine Interface (HMI, which records analog data and digital. 

  1. Evaluation of Methyl-Binding Domain Based Enrichment Approaches Revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina A Aberg

    Full Text Available Methyl-binding domain (MBD enrichment followed by deep sequencing (MBD-seq, is a robust and cost efficient approach for methylome-wide association studies (MWAS. MBD-seq has been demonstrated to be capable of identifying differentially methylated regions, detecting previously reported robust associations and producing findings that replicate with other technologies such as targeted pyrosequencing of bisulfite converted DNA. There are several kits commercially available that can be used for MBD enrichment. Our previous work has involved MethylMiner (Life Technologies, Foster City, CA, USA that we chose after careful investigation of its properties. However, in a recent evaluation of five commercially available MBD-enrichment kits the performance of the MethylMiner was deemed poor. Given our positive experience with MethylMiner, we were surprised by this report. In an attempt to reproduce these findings we here have performed a direct comparison of MethylMiner with MethylCap (Diagenode Inc, Denville, NJ, USA, the best performing kit in that study. We find that both MethylMiner and MethylCap are two well performing MBD-enrichment kits. However, MethylMiner shows somewhat better enrichment efficiency and lower levels of background "noise". In addition, for the purpose of MWAS where we want to investigate the majority of CpGs, we find MethylMiner to be superior as it allows tailoring the enrichment to the regions where most CpGs are located. Using targeted bisulfite sequencing we confirmed that sites where methylation was detected by either MethylMiner or by MethylCap indeed were methylated.

  2. Two RFID standard-based security protocols for healthcare environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazo-Sanchez, Pablo; Bagheri, Nasour; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, Juan E

    2013-10-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems are widely used in access control, transportation, real-time inventory and asset management, automated payment systems, etc. Nevertheless, the use of this technology is almost unexplored in healthcare environments, where potential applications include patient monitoring, asset traceability and drug administration systems, to mention just a few. RFID technology can offer more intelligent systems and applications, but privacy and security issues have to be addressed before its adoption. This is even more dramatical in healthcare applications where very sensitive information is at stake and patient safety is paramount. In Wu et al. (J. Med. Syst. 37:19, 43) recently proposed a new RFID authentication protocol for healthcare environments. In this paper we show that this protocol puts location privacy of tag holders at risk, which is a matter of gravest concern and ruins the security of this proposal. To facilitate the implementation of secure RFID-based solutions in the medical sector, we suggest two new applications (authentication and secure messaging) and propose solutions that, in contrast to previous proposals in this field, are fully based on ISO Standards and NIST Security Recommendations.

  3. A Comparison of Routing Protocol for WSNs: Redundancy Based Approach A Comparison of Routing Protocol for WSNs: Redundancy Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Prakash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs with their dynamic applications gained a tremendous attention of researchers. Constant monitoring of critical situations attracted researchers to utilize WSNs at vast platforms. The main focus in WSNs is to enhance network localization as much as one could, for efficient and optimal utilization of resources. Different approaches based upon redundancy are proposed for optimum functionality. Localization is always related with redundancy of sensor nodes deployed at remote areas for constant and fault tolerant monitoring. In this work, we propose a comparison of classic flooding and the gossip protocol for homogenous networks which enhances stability and throughput quiet significantly.  

  4. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Recent advances in standards-based WSN protocols for industrial control applications have come a long way to solving many of the challenges facing practical WSN deployments. In this paper, we will overview two of the more promising candidates - WirelessHART from the HART Communication Foundation and ISA100.11a from the International Society of Automation - and present the architecture for a new standards-based sensor node for networking and applications research.

  5. Reputation-based Incentive Protocols in Crowdsourcing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Crowdsourcing websites (e.g. Yahoo! Answers, Amazon Mechanical Turk, and etc.) emerged in recent years that allow requesters from all around the world to post tasks and seek help from an equally global pool of workers. However, intrinsic incentive problems reside in crowdsourcing applications as workers and requester are selfish and aim to strategically maximize their own benefit. In this paper, we propose to provide incentives for workers to exert effort using a novel game-theoretic model based on repeated games. As there is always a gap in the social welfare between the non-cooperative equilibria emerging when workers pursue their self-interests and the desirable Pareto efficient outcome, we propose a novel class of incentive protocols based on social norms which integrates reputation mechanisms into the existing pricing schemes currently implemented on crowdsourcing websites, in order to improve the performance of the non-cooperative equilibria emerging in such applications. We first formulate the exchange...

  6. A Quantitative Evaluation Method of Satellite Network Control Protocol based on Multi-attribute Utility Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite network control protocol plays an important part in satellite communication system. Different design schemes of protocol have very different protocol attribute values. It is difficult to select a proper protocol solution from many solution alternatives with quite different protocol attributes, especially some mutual conflicted protocol attributes. Thereupon, this paper provides a multi-attribute utility theory based quantitative method to evaluate these protocol design schemes, in order to make a wise decision on how to select protocol solution. This method introduces several critical protocol attributes by utilizing a Petri net model, and aggregates them into a decision making matrix. On the basis of multi-attribute utility theory, quantitative evaluation values are achieved with the support of user attribute preference weight vectors. In the end, the paper presents experiments and discussions.

  7. Data acquisition and meter unit based in wifi communication protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Cázarez Ayala

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Without doubt, the competitive fast rhythm of the industries is one of the main causes helped bring to the accelerated growth of the electronic technology and the communication. The need to develop new products with a best quality, cheaper and faster as assure and increase the quality of the products in the international markets, requires of new technologies to the metering, monitoring and control of their production processes, of which finality is to improve the processes to guaranteed their products in the market in the less time possible, the best quality and low cost for the final consumer. This work is based in the design and implementation of a Wireless Data Acquisition Unit based in WiFi protocol, which is oriented to meter, monitoring and the control of processes in the industry, commercial and the home automation applications, using one of the wirelessprotocols with the biggest acceptance in the market, with the main objective of to take advantage of the installed physical infrastructure in the place of the application, like industry, company or house. The Unit is based in the RN-131G, a Roving Network company module, which is able to work in stand-alone mode with ultralow power consummation and supporting the IEEE 802.11b/g protocols, in which is possible to achieve transfer rates of up to 11 Mbps and 54 Mbps in /b & /g specifications respectively. Whit this unit is possible to meter up to 5 analogs signals with 14 bits precision and has include a temperature and relative humidity sensors. This unit can meter two digital signals and act mean two digitals outputs, and gas include an USB port for communication and programming tasks.

  8. Development of IT-based Data Communication Protocol for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The communication protocol, which provide overall communication rules and methods and give ways how to exchange information, is the most important part and it can affect the overall performance of communication network. Therefore, the first step of development of the communication network of an NPP is its own communication protocol design, which conforms to the requirements and characteristics of an NPP I and C. To manage the protocol development process, we establish development procedure and define detail substantive based on the procedure and we examine the adaptability of existing commercial communication protocols to the communication protocol of an NPP I and C. Existing commercial communication protocols based on Information Technology(IT) can be categorized into 3 groups: general commercial communication protocols, industrial communication protocols, military communication protocols. We analyze the design criteria and performance requirements of popular protocols in each group. And also, we examine the adaptability to the communication protocol of an NPP. Based on these results, we developed our own protocol for NPP I and C, which meet the required specifications through design overall protocol architecture and data frame format, definition of functional requirements and specifications

  9. A Data-origin Authentication Protocol Based on ONOS Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Hua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aim to propose a data-origin authentication protocol based on ONOS cluster. ONOS is a SDN controller which can work under a distributed environment. However, the security of an ONOS cluster is seldom considered, and the communication in an ONOS cluster may suffer from lots of security threats. In this paper, we used a two-tier self-renewable hash chain for identity authentication and data-origin authentication. We analyse the security and overhead of our proposal and made a comparison with current security measure. It showed that with the help of our proposal, communication in an ONOS cluster could be protected from identity forging, replay attacks, data tampering, MITM attacks and repudiation, also the computational overhead would decrease apparently.

  10. TCP-Rab:a receiver advertisement based TCP protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤旭红; 刘正蓝; 朱淼良

    2004-01-01

    With the evolution of network technologies,the deficiencies of TCP protocol are becoming more and more distinct. The new TCP implementation,called Receiver Advertisement Based TCP(TCP-Rab)proposed here to eliminate these deficiencies,adopts two basic mechanisms:(1)Bandwidth Estimation and(2)Immediate Recovery. Bandwidth estimation is carried out at the receiver,and the result is sent back to the sender via the acknowledgments. Immediate Recovery guarantees high performance even in lossy link. Rab can distinguish the reason for packet loss,and thus adopt appropriate recovery strategy. For loss by network congestion,it will back off its congestion window,and for loss by link errors,it will recover the congestion window immediately. Simulations indicated that Rah has superiority over other TCP implementations.

  11. TCP-Rab: a receiver advertisement based TCP protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤旭红; 刘正蓝; 朱淼良

    2004-01-01

    With the evolution of network technologies, the deficiencies of TCP protocol are becoming more and more distinct. The new TCP implementation, called Receiver Advertisement Based TCP (TCP-Rab) proposed here to eliminate these deficiencies, adopts two basic mechanisms: (1) Bandwidth Estimation and (2) Immediate Recovery. Bandwidth estimation is carried out at the receiver, and the result is sent back to the sender via the acknowledgments. Immediate Recovery guarantees high performance even in lossy link. Rab can distinguish the reason for packet loss, and thus adopt appropriate recovery strategy. For loss by network congestion, it will back off its congestion window, and for loss by link errors, it will recover the congestion window immediately. Simulations indicated that Rab has superiority over other TCP implementations.

  12. VANET Clustering Based Routing Protocol Suitable for Deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Mohammed Mohsen Mohammed; Abdelgader, Abdeldime Mohamed Salih; Wang, Zhi-Gong; Shen, Lian-Feng

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has emerged applications of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) towards security, safety, rescue, exploration, military and communication redundancy systems in non-populated areas, besides its ordinary use in urban environments as an essential part of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). This paper proposes a novel algorithm for the process of organizing a cluster structure and cluster head election (CHE) suitable for VANETs. Moreover, it presents a robust clustering-based routing protocol, which is appropriate for deserts and can achieve high communication efficiency, ensuring reliable information delivery and optimal exploitation of the equipment on each vehicle. A comprehensive simulation is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed CHE and routing algorithms. PMID:27058539

  13. Analysis of security protocols based on challenge-response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO JunZhou; YANG Ming

    2007-01-01

    Security protocol is specified as the procedure of challenge-response, which uses applied cryptography to confirm the existence of other principals and fulfill some data negotiation such as session keys. Most of the existing analysis methods,which either adopt theorem proving techniques such as state exploration or logic reasoning techniques such as authentication logic, face the conflicts between analysis power and operability. To solve the problem, a new efficient method is proposed that provides SSM semantics-based definition of secrecy and authentication goals and applies authentication logic as fundamental analysis techniques,in which secrecy analysis is split into two parts: Explicit-Information-Leakage and Implicit-Information-Leakage, and correspondence analysis is concluded as the analysis of the existence relationship of Strands and the agreement of Strand parameters. This new method owns both the power of the Strand Space Model and concision of authentication logic.

  14. Development of pig welfare assessment protocol integrating animal-, environment-, and management-based measures

    OpenAIRE

    Renggaman, Anriansyah; Choi, Hong L.; Sudiarto, Sartika IA; Alasaarela, Laura; Nam, Ok S

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Due to increased interest in animal welfare, there is now a need for a comprehensive assessment protocol to be used in intensive pig farming systems. There are two current welfare assessment protocols for pigs: Welfare Quality® Assessment Protocols (applicable in the Europe Union), that mostly focuses on animal-based measures, and the Swine Welfare Assura...

  15. Modified Quantum Three Pass Protocol Based on Hybrid Cryptosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Alharith Abdulkareem

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we propose an enhancement to the Quantum Three-Pass Protocol (QTPP) by adding quantum authentication. After detailed analysis of all possible classical as well as quantum attack methods of the original Quantum Three-Pass Protocol, we identified, that the original Quantum Three-Pass Protocol is only vulnerable against the man-in-the-middle attack. By adding authentication and an agent called the Quantum Distribution Centre, the man-in-the-middle attack is eliminated. All communi...

  16. A Provable Secure ID-Based Explicit Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol Without Random Oracles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bo Tian; Willy Susilo; Yang Ming; Yu-Min Wang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an identity-based explicit authenticated key agreement protocol that is provably secure without random oracles. The protocol employs a new method to isolate a session key from key confirmation keys so that there is no direct usage of hash functions in the protocol. The protocol is proved secure without random oracles in a variant of Bellare and Rogaway style model, an exception to current proof method in this style model in the ID-based setting. We believe that this key isolation method is novel and can be further studied for constructing more efficient protocols.

  17. Design and Implementation of Embedded Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Network Based on System-on-programmable Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yong; HAN Xiao-jun

    2008-01-01

    A scheme of transmission control protocol/Internet protocol(TCP/IP) network system based on system-on-programmable chip(SOPC) is proposed for the embedded network communication. In this system, Nios processor, Ethernet controller and other peripheral logic circuits are all integrated on a Stratix Ⅱ field programmable gate array(FPGA) chip by using SOPC builder design software. And the network communication is realized by transplanting MicroC/OS Ⅱ(μC/OS Ⅱ) operation system and light weight Internet protocol(LwIP). The design idea, key points and the structures of both software and hardware of the system are presented and ran with a telecommunication example. The experiment shows that the embedded TCP/IP network system has high reliability and real-time performance.

  18. An improved network layer protocol based on mobile IPv6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mobile [Pv6 proposed by the IETF aims at providing mobility support on the next generation Internet. First, the authors described the basic principle of mobile lPv6 in brief and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of it, presented a new idea of allocating a specific address space for mobile node ( MN ) and developed a new extension header and two ICMP message types for mobile IPv6. Lastly the authors proposed an optimization strategy, for mobile IPv6 based on these extensions of protocol, which has the following advantages:1 ) It is more convenient to manage the MNs because MN can be judged from its IP address; 2) When the correspondent node (CN) is not actively communicating with a MN, the MN and its home agent (HA) need not send Binding Update to tire CN, and the CN need not send Binding Request to the MN. Only when the CN really wants to send a packet to the MN, will the CN voluntarily send a MN Discover Request message to acquire the MN's care-of address. In this way, the transmission of Binding Update and Binding Request is greatly reduced, consequently the network overhead is also decreased; 3) While sending packets, the CN simply uses a MN Home Address Extension Header without using IPinlP encapsulation and routing header, which can reduce the redundant information in the packet and the message delay; 4) All the packets sent by the CN can be directly routed to the MN and the triangle routing can be completely avoided. By using these protocol extensions, the overhead of the network is greatly reduced and the network quality of services (QoS) is improved.

  19. Whole-Exome Enrichment with the Illumina TruSeq Exome Enrichment Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Rui; Im, Hogune; Snyder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Multiple platforms are available for whole-exome enrichment and sequencing (WES). This protocol is based on the Illumina TruSeq Exome Enrichment platform, which captures ~62 Mb of the human exonic regions using 95-base DNA probes. In addition to covering the RefSeq and Ensembl coding sequences, the enriched sequences also include ~28 Mb of RefSeq untranslated regions (UTR). The protocol can be performed at the benchside without the need for automation, and the resulting library can be used fo...

  20. Validation of Context Based Service Discovery Protocol for Ubiquitous Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandi Giridharan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Service Discovery Protocol (SDP is important in ubiquitous applications, where a large number of devicesand software components collaborate unobtrusively and provide numerous services without userintervention. Existing service discovery schemes use a service matching process in order to offer services ofinterest to the users. Potentially, the context information of the users and surrounding environment can beused to improve the quality of service matching. We propose a C-IOB (Context- Information, Observationand Belief based service discovery model, which deals with the above challenges by processing the contextinformation and by formulating the beliefs based on the basis of observations. With these formulated beliefsthe required services will be provided to the users. In this work, we present an approach for automatedvalidation of C-IOB based service discovery model in a typical ubiquitous museum environment, where theexternal behavior of the system can be predicted and compared to a model of expected behavior from theoriginal requirements. Formal specification using SDL (Specification and Description Language basedsystem has been used to conduct verification and validation of the system. The purpose of this framework isto provide a formal basis for their performance evaluation and behavioral study of the SDP.

  1. FUZZY LOGIC BASED ENERGY EFFICIENT PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Wei Siew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been vastly developed due to the advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS using WSN to study and monitor the environments towards climates changes. In environmental monitoring, sensors are randomly deployed over the interest area to periodically sense the physical environments for a few months or even a year. Therefore, to prolong the network lifetime with limited battery capacity becomes a challenging issue. Low energy adaptive cluster hierarchical (LEACH is the common clustering protocol that aim to reduce the energy consumption by rotating the heavy workload cluster heads (CHs. The CHs election in LEACH is based on probability model which will lead to inefficient in energy consumption due to least desired CHs location in the network. In WSNs, the CHs location can directly influence the network energy consumption and further affect the network lifetime. In this paper, factors which will affect the network lifetime will be presented and the demonstration of fuzzy logic based CH selection conducted in base station (BS will also be carried out. To select suitable CHs that will prolong the network first node dies (FND round and consistent throughput to the BS, energy level and distance to the BS are selected as fuzzy inputs.

  2. Cooperative MIMO Transmissions in WSN Using Threshold Based MAC Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Vidhya, J.; Dananjayan, P.

    2010-01-01

    Sensor networks require robust and efficient communication protocols to maximise the network lifetime.Radio irregularity, channel fading and interference results in larger energy consumption and latency forpacket transmission over wireless channel. Cooperative multi-input multi-output (MIMO) schemes whenincorporated in wireless senor network (WSN) can significantly improve the communicationperformance. An inefficiently designed medium access control (MAC) protocol however, may diminishthe per...

  3. PS-LTL for constraint-based security protocol analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, Ricardo; Saptawijaya, Ari; Etalle, Sandro

    2005-01-01

    Several formal approaches have been proposed to analyse security protocols, e.g. [2,7,11,1,6,12]. Recently, a great interest has been growing on the use of constraint solving approach. Initially proposed by Millen and Shmatikov [9], this approach allows analysis of a finite number of protocol sessio

  4. An Efficient Agent-Based AODV Routing Protocol in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bhati,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A MANET (Mobile Adhoc Network consists of a collection of mobile nodes communicating with each other without any fixed infrastructure such as access points or base stations. MANETS are self organizing or self restoring. Network topology in MANETS is subject to continuous and precipitous (unpredictable change. The limited bandwidth availability, energy constraints and highly dynamic topology make the routing process as exigent. The routing process in MANET relies (based on the cooperation of individual nodes which constitute the network. In this paper, we have tried to remove the existence of misbehaving nodes that may paralyze or slows down the routing operation in MANET. This increases the efficiency of a network. Efficiency can be calculated by the parameters or factors such astransmission capacity, battery power and scalability. Here we are considering the most crucial factor named as transmission capacity of a node. In MANET, as the network size increases complexity of anetwork also increases. To overcome this we make network as modular. So the network becomes task specific which refer to a particular work only. This is the reason of infusing the concept of agents in anefficient network. This proposed protocol provides the most efficient and reliable route which may or may not be minimum hop count.

  5. Management of the infertile couple: an evidence-based protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Remah M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility is defined as inability of a couple to conceive naturally after one year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. It remains a major clinical and social problem, affecting perhaps one couple in six. Evaluation usually starts after 12 months; however it may be indicated earlier. The most common causes of infertility are: male factor such as sperm abnormalities, female factor such as ovulation dysfunction and tubal pathology, combined male and female factors and unexplained infertility. Objectives The aim of this study is to provide the healthcare professionals an evidence-based management protocol for infertile couples away from medical information overload. Methods A comprehensive review where the literature was searched for "Management of infertility and/or infertile couples" at library website of University of Bristol (MetaLib by using a cross-search of different medical databases besides the relevant printed medical journals and periodicals. Guidelines and recommendations were retrieved from the best evidence reviews such as that from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (ACOG, American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM, Canadian Fertility and Andrology Society (CFAS, and Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG. Results A simple guide for the clinicians to manage the infertile couples. Conclusions The study deploys a new strategy to translate the research findings and evidence-base recommendations into a simplified focused guide to be applied on routine daily practice. It is an approach to disseminate the recommended medical care for infertile couple to the practicing clinicians.

  6. Data distribution architecture based on standard real time protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda. Complutense No. 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: rodrigo.castro@ciemat.es; Vega, J.; Pereira, A.; Portas, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda. Complutense No. 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Data distribution architecture (DDAR) has been designed conforming to new requirements, taking into account the type of data that is going to be generated from experiments in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The main goal of this architecture is to implement a system that is able to manage on line all data that is being generated by an experiment, supporting its distribution for: processing, storing, analysing or visualizing. The first objective is to have a distribution architecture that supports long pulse experiments (even hours). The described system is able to distribute, using real time protocol (RTP), stored data or live data generated while the experiment is running. It enables researchers to access data on line instead of waiting for the end of the experiment. Other important objective is scalability, so the presented architecture can easily grow based on actual necessities, simplifying estimation and design tasks. A third important objective is security. In this sense, the architecture is based on standards, so complete security mechanisms can be applied, from secure transmission solutions until elaborated access control policies, and it is full compatible with multi-organization federation systems as PAPI or Shibboleth.

  7. Data distribution architecture based on standard real time protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data distribution architecture (DDAR) has been designed conforming to new requirements, taking into account the type of data that is going to be generated from experiments in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The main goal of this architecture is to implement a system that is able to manage on line all data that is being generated by an experiment, supporting its distribution for: processing, storing, analysing or visualizing. The first objective is to have a distribution architecture that supports long pulse experiments (even hours). The described system is able to distribute, using real time protocol (RTP), stored data or live data generated while the experiment is running. It enables researchers to access data on line instead of waiting for the end of the experiment. Other important objective is scalability, so the presented architecture can easily grow based on actual necessities, simplifying estimation and design tasks. A third important objective is security. In this sense, the architecture is based on standards, so complete security mechanisms can be applied, from secure transmission solutions until elaborated access control policies, and it is full compatible with multi-organization federation systems as PAPI or Shibboleth.

  8. Identity-based authenticated key exchange protocols from the Tate pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Jin, Hong; Yang, Zhiyong; Cui, Xiang

    2011-12-01

    Key agreement protocols are designed to establish a session keys between two or multiple entities oven an insecure network and the session key is used to assure confidentiality thought encryption. With the advantages of identity-based (ID-based) cryptography, there have been many ID-based key agreement protocols proposed. However, most of them are based on Weil pairing, which is more cost of computation compared with Tate paring. In this paper, we propose a newly ID-based key agreement protocol from the Tate pairing. Compared with previous protocols, the new protocol minimizes the cost of computation with no extra message exchange time. In addition, the proposed protocol provides known key security, no key control, no key-compromise impersonation and perfect forward secrecy.

  9. The Project Based Mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol. Credible Instruments or Challenges to the Integrity of the Kyoto Protocol?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi Waldegren, Linn

    2006-03-15

    The project based mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol are innovative instruments which allow projects to earn credits for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The credits can in turn be used by countries to reach their emissions targets according to the Kyoto Protocol. The Project based mechanisms are known as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Joint Implementation (JI). If the project based mechanisms are to be effective policy instruments they must ensure the integrity of the Kyoto Protocol, and their ability to promote and prove real emission reductions is critical. The environmental credibility of the project based mechanisms will also ensure their ability to promote cost effectiveness. Key concepts in this context are environmental and project additionality, and their role and value for the project based mechanisms are analyzed. Environmental additionality is established by comparing a project's emissions to a baseline. The baseline's credibility is thus vital. The concept of project additionality is somewhat controversial, but is nonetheless of equal importance. The case studies of CDM approved methodologies (AMs) and proposed projects suggest that there are credibility issues that need to be addressed if the project based mechanisms are to promote real emissions reductions.

  10. The Improvement of RFID Authentication Protocols Based on R-RAPSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QingLing Cai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous RFID authentication protocols proposed often have some security vulnerabilities, since they lack systematic theory support. We had proposed a series of rules called R-RAPSE (RFID Authentication Protocol Security Enhanced Rules for RFID authentication protocol design and verification. By three examples, this paper justifies why the protocols do not offer sufficient security and privacy protection, and thereafter, proposes relevant solutions to fix the security holes based on R-RAPSE, which demonstrates how R-RAPSE can be used to verify and improve RFID authentication protocols.

  11. OLSR Protocol Behavior Based on H.264 Multiservice Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Amnai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes in communication without using any fixed infrastructure. As the multiservice traffic compressors used today's grows, we need to verify if the available protocols support their applications. Therefore, in this paper we have studied the impact of multiservice traffic (MPEG-4, H.264 on the performances of Optimized Link State Protocol (OLSR protocol. The analysis has been done according to End-to-End Delay, Throughput and Packet Delivery ratio performance metrics. We discovered that the traffic type has huge impact on the OLSR performances

  12. Hemangiopericytoma - The need for a protocol-based treatment plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma is a vascular tumor which comprises only 1% of all vascular tumors. The frequency of occurrence in the head and neck accounts for about 16-33% of all hemangiopericytomas. In this paper we discuss the surgical management, the difficulties in decision-making and treatment-planning in a case of a maxillary tumor in a five-year-old boy with a two-year follow-up. A five-year-old boy presented with a large unilateral maxillary tumor with nasal obstruction. Computed tomography revealed a heterogeneous mass completely occupying the right maxillary sinus and displacing the lateral wall of the nose and nasal septum. The lesion was diagnosed as hemangiopericytoma after histopathological confirmation. The option of surgical resection (total maxillectomy was carried out after evaluating the available literature. Various treatment modalities like surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy were taken into consideration as the tumor has an aggressive nature. Due to the inadequate literature on definitive treatment options for these types of tumors, there was difficulty in arriving at a protocol-based treatment plan.

  13. Zone Based Routing Protocol for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Taruna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks, are made of low-cost, low -power, small in size, and multifunctional sensor nodes. The efficient energy utilization is one of t he important performance factors for wireless senso r networks survivability be-cause nodes operate with limited battery power. In this paper we propose and analyze a new approach of zone based clustering hea d selection algorithm for wireless sensor network o f homogeneous nodes. Nodes in the network are uniform ly distributed. In this clustering algorithm, netwo rk performance is improved by selecting cluster heads on the basis of the residual energy of existing clu ster heads, and nearest hop distance of the node. In thi s paper we evaluate various performance metrics lik e energy consumption, network life time, number of ch annel heads metrics in each round and compare these with respect to random algorithm i.e. LEACH. We con clude that proposed protocol effectively extends th e network lifetime without degrading the other critic al overheads and perform-ance metrics.

  14. Public Key Protocol Based on Amalgamated Free Product

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhyay, Sumit Kumar; Kumar, Shiv Datt; Lal, Ramji

    2011-01-01

    In the spirit of Diffie Hellman the concept of a protocol algebra is introduced using certain amalgamated free product of Braid group B and Thompson group T together with a nilpotent subgroup H of index 2.

  15. Petri Net-based Analysis of the Safety Communication Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hongjie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a few research in area of safety-critical system, therefore the study of performance analyzing method of the protocol has important practical significance for transportation engineering. This paper first briefly introduces the execution procedure of safety communication protocol, then explores the application of Petri net to establish the model of the protocol, including the process of state transition and corresponding timer which record the time, then obtains related performance data such as maintainability and failure probability, which users usually pay most attention to, with different probability of time delay and no fault in channel by simulation. Finally this paper finds that how the probability of time delay and no fault in channel could influent the maintainability and failure probability through data process with theory of probability and mathematical statistic, this could provide a certain reference for development of safety communication protocol.    

  16. Discrete micropayment protocol based on master-slave payword chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Li-min; LIAO Jian-xin

    2007-01-01

    Using the idea of Payword, the new concept of master-slave payword chain (MSPC) is proposed in this article.MSPC consists of one master payword chain and one slave payword chain. On the basis of MSPC, a new micropaymentprotocol called discrete micropayment protocol (DMP), is presented in this article. DMP consists of three sub-protocols:registration, payment, and settlement. Both part fairness and non-unit-wise payment can be provided by DMP.

  17. Stop_times based Routing Protocol for VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Moawad, Hafez; Shaaban, Eman; Fayed, Zaki Taha

    2013-01-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a special class of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) where vehicles are considered as MANET nodes with wireless links. The key difference of VANET and MANET is the special mobility pattern and rapidly changeable topology. There has been significant interest in improving safety and traffic efficiency using VANET. The design of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary issue for support the smart ITS. Existing routing protocols of MANET are not suitab...

  18. Implementing the WebSocket Protocol Based on Formal Modelling and Automated Code Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen, Kent,; Kristensen, Lars,

    2014-01-01

    Model-based software engineering offers several attractive benefits for the implementation of protocols, including automated code generation for different platforms from design-level models. In earlier work, we have proposed a template-based approach using Coloured Petri Net formal models with pragmatic annotations for automated code generation of protocol software. The contribution of this paper is an application of the approach as implemented in the PetriCode tool to obtain protocol softwar...

  19. Interaction Protocols in Multi-Agent Systems based on Agent Petri Nets Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Barkaoui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modeling of interaction between agents in Multi Agents System (MAS based on Agent Petri Nets (APN. Our models are created based on communicating agents. Indeed, an agent initiating a conversation with other can specify the interaction protocol wishes to follow. The combination of APN and FIPA Protocols schemes leads to a set of deployment formal rules for points where model interaction can be successfully implemented. We introduce some models FIPA standard protocols.

  20. A Novel Password based Multi Party Key Agreement Protocol on Elliptic Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyal M. Alghazzawi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Key agreement protocol a number of parties involved and communicate over a open public network to generate a common secret key called session key. This paper proposes an efficient password based multiparty Key Agreement Protocol. Security of the protocol is based difficulty of breaking Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem and one way hash function. This is resistant against different attack. The security analysis have been discuss and proved in this aticle.

  1. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.'s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.'s protocol and existing similar protocols.

  2. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavalapati Goutham Reddy

    Full Text Available Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.'s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.'s protocol and existing similar protocols.

  3. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.’s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.’s protocol and existing similar protocols. PMID:27163786

  4. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.'s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.'s protocol and existing similar protocols. PMID:27163786

  5. Coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX systems based on PS-request protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwoo; Park, Suwon; Rhee, Seung Hyong; Choi, Yong-Hoon; Chung, Young-uk; Hwang, Ho Young

    2011-01-01

    We introduce both the coexistence zone within the WiMAX frame structure and a PS-Request protocol for the coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX systems sharing a frequency band. Because we know that the PS-Request protocol has drawbacks, we propose a revised PS-Request protocol to improve the performance. Two PS-Request protocols are based on the time division operation (TDO) of WiFi system and WiMAX system to avoid the mutual interference, and use the vestigial power management (PwrMgt) bit within the Frame Control field of the frames transmitted by a WiFi AP. The performance of the revised PS-Request protocol is evaluated by computer simulation, and compared to those of the cases without a coexistence protocol and to the original PS-Request protocol. PMID:22163721

  6. Coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX systems based on PS-request protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwoo; Park, Suwon; Rhee, Seung Hyong; Choi, Yong-Hoon; Chung, Young-uk; Hwang, Ho Young

    2011-01-01

    We introduce both the coexistence zone within the WiMAX frame structure and a PS-Request protocol for the coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX systems sharing a frequency band. Because we know that the PS-Request protocol has drawbacks, we propose a revised PS-Request protocol to improve the performance. Two PS-Request protocols are based on the time division operation (TDO) of WiFi system and WiMAX system to avoid the mutual interference, and use the vestigial power management (PwrMgt) bit within the Frame Control field of the frames transmitted by a WiFi AP. The performance of the revised PS-Request protocol is evaluated by computer simulation, and compared to those of the cases without a coexistence protocol and to the original PS-Request protocol.

  7. A novel mutual authentication and key agreement protocol based on NTRU cryptography for wireless communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jun; HE Chen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present a novel mutual authentication and key agreement protocol based on the Number Theory Research Unit (NTRU) public key cryptography. The symmetric encryption, hash and "challenge-response" techniques were adopted to build their protocol. To implement the mutual authentication and session key agreement, the proposed protocol contains two stages: namely initial procedure and real execution stage. Since the lightweight NTRU public key cryptography is employed, their protocol can not only overcome the security flaws of secret-key based authentication protocols such as those used in Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), but also provide greater security and lower computational complexity in comparison with currently well-known public key based wireless authentication schemes such as Beller-Yacobi and M.Aydos protocols.

  8. A Low Cost Key Agreement Protocol Based on Binary Tree for EPCglobal Class 1 Generation 2 RFID Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Albert; Chang, Li-Chung; Chen, Sheng-Hui

    There are many protocols proposed for protecting Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system privacy and security. A number of these protocols are designed for protecting long-term security of RFID system using symmetric key or public key cryptosystem. Others are designed for protecting user anonymity and privacy. In practice, the use of RFID technology often has a short lifespan, such as commodity check out, supply chain management and so on. Furthermore, we know that designing a long-term security architecture to protect the security and privacy of RFID tags information requires a thorough consideration from many different aspects. However, any security enhancement on RFID technology will jack up its cost which may be detrimental to its widespread deployment. Due to the severe constraints of RFID tag resources (e. g., power source, computing power, communication bandwidth) and open air communication nature of RFID usage, it is a great challenge to secure a typical RFID system. For example, computational heavy public key and symmetric key cryptography algorithms (e. g., RSA and AES) may not be suitable or over-killed to protect RFID security or privacy. These factors motivate us to research an efficient and cost effective solution for RFID security and privacy protection. In this paper, we propose a new effective generic binary tree based key agreement protocol (called BKAP) and its variations, and show how it can be applied to secure the low cost and resource constraint RFID system. This BKAP is not a general purpose key agreement protocol rather it is a special purpose protocol to protect privacy, un-traceability and anonymity in a single RFID closed system domain.

  9. An Improved RSA Based User Authentication and Session Key Agreement Protocol Usable in TMIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ruhul; Biswas, G P

    2015-08-01

    Recently, Giri et al.'s proposed a RSA cryptosystem based remote user authentication scheme for telecare medical information system and claimed that the protocol is secure against all the relevant security attacks. However, we have scrutinized the Giri et al.'s protocol and pointed out that the protocol is not secure against off-line password guessing attack, privileged insider attack and also suffers from anonymity problem. Moreover, the extension of password guessing attack leads to more security weaknesses. Therefore, this protocol needs improvement in terms of security before implementing in real-life application. To fix the mentioned security pitfalls, this paper proposes an improved scheme over Giri et al.'s scheme, which preserves user anonymity property. We have then simulated the proposed protocol using widely-accepted AVISPA tool which ensures that the protocol is SAFE under OFMC and CL-AtSe models, that means the same protocol is secure against active and passive attacks including replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. The informal cryptanalysis has been also presented, which confirmed that the proposed protocol provides well security protection on the relevant security attacks. The performance analysis section compares the proposed protocol with other existing protocols in terms of security and it has been observed that the protocol provides more security and achieves additional functionalities such as user anonymity and session key verification. PMID:26123833

  10. Development of Research-Based Protocol Aligned to Predict High Levels of Teaching Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Gary; Grigsby, Bettye; Vesey, Winona

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a research-based teacher selection protocol. The protocol is intended to offer school district hiring authorities a tool to identify teacher candidates with the behaviors expected to predict effective teaching. It is hypothesized that a particular series of research-based interview questions focusing on teaching behaviors in…

  11. LMEEC: Layered Multi-Hop Energy Efficient Cluster-based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khelifi, Manel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose LMEEC, a cluster-based routing protocol with low energy consumption for wireless sensor networks. Our protocol is based on a strategy which aims to provide a more reasonable exploitation of the selected nodes (cluster-heads) energy. Simulation results show the effectiveness of LMEEC in decreasing the energy consumption, and in prolonging the network lifetime, compared to LEACH.

  12. Perfect forward secure identity-based authenticated key agreement protocol in the escrow mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ShengBao; CAO ZhenFu; CHENG ZhaoHui; CHOO Kim-KwangRaymond

    2009-01-01

    The majority of existing escrowable identity-based key agreement protocols only provide partial forward secrecy. Such protocols are, arguably, not suitable for many real-word applications, as the latter tends to require a stronger sense of forward secrecy-perfect forward secrecy. In this paper, we propose an efficient perfect forward-secure identity-based key agreement protocol in the escrow mode. We prove the security of our protocol in the random oracle model, assuming the intractability of the Gap Bilinear Diffie-Hellman (GBDH) problem.

  13. Review on the Design of Web Based SCADA Systems Based on OPC DA Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosny Ahmed Abbas, Ahmed M. Mohamed

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most familiar SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisitionapplication protocols now is OPC protocol. This interface is supported by almostall SCADA, visualization, and process control systems. There are many researchefforts tried to design and implement an approach to access an OPC DA serverthrough the Internet. To achieve this goal they used diverse of modern ITtechnologies like XML, Webservices, Java and AJAX. In this paper, we present acomplete classification of the different approaches introduced in the litrature. Acomparative study is also introduced. Finally we study the feasibilty of therealization of these approaches based on the real time constraints imposed bythe nature of the problem.

  14. Validation of internal dosimetry protocols based on stochastic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Bruno M.; Fonseca, Telma C.F., E-mail: bmm@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Almeida, Iassudara G.; Trindade, Bruno M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: tprcampos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Computational phantoms adapted to Monte Carlo codes have been applied successfully in radiation dosimetry fields. NRI research group has been developing Internal Dosimetry Protocols - IDPs, addressing distinct methodologies, software and computational human-simulators, to perform internal dosimetry, especially for new radiopharmaceuticals. Validation of the IDPs is critical to ensure the reliability of the simulations results. Inter comparisons of data from literature with those produced by our IDPs is a suitable method for validation. The aim of this study was to validate the IDPs following such inter comparison procedure. The Golem phantom has been reconfigured to run on MCNP5. The specific absorbed fractions (SAF) for photon at 30, 100 and 1000 keV energies were simulated based on the IDPs and compared with reference values (RV) published by Zankl and Petoussi-Henss, 1998. The SAF average differences from RV and those obtained in IDP simulations was 2.3 %. The SAF largest differences were found in situations involving low energy photons at 30 keV. The Adrenals and thyroid, i.e. the lowest mass organs, had the highest SAF discrepancies towards RV as 7.2 % and 3.8 %, respectively. The statistic differences of SAF applying our IDPs from reference values were considered acceptable at the 30, 100 and 1000 keV spectra. We believe that the main reason for the discrepancies in IDPs run, found in lower masses organs, was due to our source definition methodology. Improvements of source spatial distribution in the voxels may provide outputs more consistent with reference values for lower masses organs. (author)

  15. Wi-Fi Protocol Vulnerability Discovery Based on Fuzzy Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunhua Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To detect the wireless network equipment whether there is protocol vulnerability, using the method of modular design and implementation of a new suitable for Wi-Fi protocol vulnerability discovery fuzzy test framework. It can be independent of its transmission medium, produce deformity packet and implementation of the attack on the target system. The author firstly describes the wireless network protocol vulnerability discovery and fuzzy test in this paper,then focused on the test frame technical scheme, detailed technical realization and so on, and its application are analyzed. In the experimental stage the fuzzy test is applied to a wireless networks gateway, the test results show that the fuzzy test framework can be well applied to the wireless network equipment agreement loophole mining work.  

  16. An Authentication Protocol Based on Combined RFID-Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Benmohammed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID and biometric technologies saw fast evolutions during the last years and which are used in several applications, such as access control. Among important characteristics in the RFID tags, we mention the limitation of resources (memory, energy, …. Our work focuses on the design of a RFID authentication protocol which uses biometric data and which confirms the secrecy, the authentication and the privacy. Our protocol requires a PRNG (Pseud-Random Number Generator, a robust hash function and Biometric hash function. The Biometric hash function is used to optimize and to protect biometric data. For Security analysis of protocol proposed, we will use AVISPA and SPAN tools to verify the authentication and the secrecy.

  17. An Efficient Multi-Carrier Position-Based Packet Forwarding Protocol For Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    Beaconless position-based forwarding protocols have recently evolved as a promising solution for packet forwarding in wireless sensor networks. However, as the node density grows, the overhead incurred in the process of relay selection grows significantly. As such, end-to-end performance in terms of energy and latency is adversely impacted. With the motivation of developing a packet forwarding mechanism that is tolerant to node density, an alternative position-based protocol is proposed in this paper. In contrast to existing beaconless protocols, the proposed protocol is designed such that it eliminates the need for potential relays to undergo a relay selection process. Rather, any eligible relay may decide to forward the packet ahead, thus significantly reducing the underlying overhead. The operation of the proposed protocol is empowered by exploiting favorable features of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) at the physical layer. The end-to-end performance of the proposed protocol is evaluated...

  18. Designing a Clustering and Prediction-based Protocol for Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Hosseini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Target tracking is one of the applications of wireless sensor network which is set up in the areas of field surveillance, habitat monitoring, and intruder tracking. Energy saving is one of the main challenges in target tracking sensor networks. In this paper, we present a Clustering and Prediction-Based Protocol (CPBP for Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. Also, the Base Station (BS was exploited as a cluster formation manager and target movement predictor. Our protocol uses two parameters, distance and energy, for clustering algorithm. For evaluation, the proposed protocol was compared to a number of protocols in terms of network lifetime, number of transmitted packets and number of target miss during network lifetime. Performance of the proposed protocol was compared with cluster size 5 and 7. The simulation results represented desirable performance of the presented protocol.

  19. Oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched mayonnaise-based salads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched mayonnaise-based salads and the influence of different vegetables in shrimp and tuna salads were evaluated. Moreover, the lipid oxidation in the presence of 1% oregano, rosemary, or thyme in fish oil-enriched tuna salad was assessed. The results obtained...... showed that the mayonnaise itself was more oxidatively stable without vegetables and tuna or shrimp, in spite of the higher oil content in mayonnaise (63 and 6.3% fish oil, respectively) compared to salads (∼24 and 2.4% fish oil, respectively). Surprisingly, the fish oil-enriched mayonnaise was only...... significantly different from the standard mayonnaise in the volatile concentration during the end of storage. In fish oil-enriched shrimp salad, asparagus had an anti-oxidative effect and shrimp a pro-oxidative effect, where the anti-oxidative effect of asparagus was strong enough to prevent the pro...

  20. Enhancements to prepare-and-measure based QKD protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Peter; Christianson, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    We propose some simple changes to a class of Quantum Key Distribution protocols. The first enhancement ensures early detection of any attempted Man-in-the-Middle attack and results in less leakage of key material to any eavesdropping attacker. We argue that this version is at least as secure as the original BB'84 scheme, but ensures a closer binding of the key establishment and authentication components of the protocol. Further proposed enhancements lead to a doubling of the key rate, but the...

  1. TBEE: Tier Based Energy Efficient Protocol Providing Sink and Source Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Siddhartha Chauhan; Lalit Awasthi

    2011-01-01

    In resource constrained wireless sensor networks (WSNs) it is important to utilize energy efficiently. Data dissemination is mainly responsible for the consumption of energy in sensor nodes (SNs). The data dissemination protocols for WSNs should reduce the energy consumption of the SNs. Sink and source mobility is the major challenge for data dissemination protocols. In this paper, a Tier based Energy Efficient protocol (TBEE) providing sink and source mobility in WSNs has been proposed. TBEE...

  2. Trail-Using Ant Behavior Based Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Soon-gyo Jung; Byungseok Kang; Sanggil Yeoum; Hyunseung Choo

    2016-01-01

    Swarm Intelligence (SI) observes the collective behavior of social insects and other animal societies. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm is one of the popular algorithms in SI. In the last decade, several routing protocols based on ACO algorithm have been developed for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Such routing protocols are very flexible in distributed system but generate a lot of additional traffic and thus increase communication overhead. This paper proposes a new routing protocol...

  3. Research of RFID Certification Security Protocol based on Hash Function and DES Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    bin Xu; Zhang, Li-hui; Xiao-pin TAN

    2013-01-01

    RFID has been more and more attention and application by people, but the existence of security and privacy problems worthy of attention is concern. The certification process analysis of several typical security protocols is based on existing RFID authentication protocol. It proposed an improved bidirectional authentication algorithm. The use of one-way HASH function can solve the security problem of RFID. The protocol has anti-replay, impedance analysis, forgery, and tracking performance, and...

  4. Cryptanalysis of an inter-bank E-payment protocol based on quantum proxy blind signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-Qiu; Wei, Chun-Yan

    2013-04-01

    We analyze the security of an inter-bank E-payment protocol based on quantum proxy blind signature, and find that there is a security leak in the quantum channels of this protocol, which gives a chance for an outside opponent to launch a special denial-of-service attack. Furthermore, we show that the dishonest merchant can succeed to change the purchase information of the customer in this protocol.

  5. Pedagogical Quality Enrichment in OER-Based Courseware: Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This is a critical phase for Open Educational Resources (OER) movement: on one side the number of OER is increasing rapidly, and on other side debates about quality of OER-based courseware are heating up. These debates emanate from the fact that OER-based courseware are supposed to help users to follow a logical learning path and get an engaging,…

  6. Pedagogical quality enrichment in OER based courseware: Guiding principles

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Kumar Misra

    2013-01-01

    This is a critical phase for Open Educational Resources (OER) movement: on one side the number of OER is increasing rapidly, and on other side debates about quality of OER-based courseware are heating up. These debates emanate from the fact that OER-based courseware are supposed to help users to follow a logical learning path and get an engaging, interactive, and enjoyable learning experience. There are two aspects of quality assurance in OER-based courseware: content and pedagogy. The conten...

  7. An efficient multi-carrier position-based packet forwarding protocol for wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Beaconless position-based forwarding protocols have recently evolved as a promising solution for packet forwarding in wireless sensor networks. However, as the node density grows, the overhead incurred in the process of relay selection grows significantly. As such, end-to-end performance in terms of energy and latency is adversely impacted. With the motivation of developing a packet forwarding mechanism that is tolerant to variation in node density, an alternative position-based protocol is proposed in this paper. In contrast to existing beaconless protocols, the proposed protocol is designed such that it eliminates the need for potential relays to undergo a relay selection process. Rather, any eligible relay may decide to forward the packet ahead, thus significantly reducing the underlying overhead. The operation of the proposed protocol is empowered by exploiting favorable features of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) at the physical layer. The end-to-end performance of the proposed protocol is evaluated against existing beaconless position-based protocols analytically and as well by means of simulations. The proposed protocol is demonstrated in this paper to be more efficient. In particular, it is shown that for the same amount of energy the proposed protocol transports one bit from source to destination much quicker. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Stop_times based Routing Protocol for VANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moawad, Hafez; Shaaban, Eman; Taha Fayed, Zaki

    2013-11-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a special class of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) where vehicles are considered as MANET nodes with wireless links. The key difference of VANET and MANET is the special mobility pattern and rapidly changeable topology. There has been significant interest in improving safety and traffic efficiency using VANET. The design of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary issue for support the smart ITS. Existing routing protocols of MANET are not suitable for VANET. AOMDV is the most important on demand multipath routing protocol. This paper proposes SSD-AOMDV as VANET routing protocol. SSD-AOMDV improves AOMDV to suit VANET characteristics. SSD-AOMDV adds the mobility parameters: Stop_times, Speed and Direction to hop count as new AOMDV routing metric to select next hop during the route discovery phase. Stop_times metric is added to simulate buses mobility pattern and traffic lights at intersections. Simulation results show that SSD-AOMDV achieves better performance compared to AOMDV.

  9. Analysis of Trusted Identity Based Encryption (IBE-Trust Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusnani Mohd Yussoff

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarity of Wireless Sensor Networks demands extra consideration during the design of the security protocol. One of the most challenging yet important security features in Wireless Sensor Network is in establishing trusted communication between sensor node and base station. While the term trusted has been widely used referring to valid nodes in the group, this paper discuss the term trusted based on the specifications of Trusted Computing Group (TCG and presents an IBE-Trust security protocol utilizing well-known identity based encryption scheme. The protocol incorporates ideas from Trusted Computing Group and Identity-based cryptosystem by Boneh Franklin in ensuring trusted and secured communications between sender and receiver. The proposed protocols were then modeled using the high-level formal language HLPSL and verified using the model checking tool AVISPA. Analysis on the proposed protocols is presented at the end of this paper.

  10. Assessment of lectin and HILIC based enrichment protocols for characterization of serum glycoproteins by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvano, Cosima D; Zambonin, Carlo G; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2008-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is a common post-translational modification that is involved in many biological processes, including cell adhesion, protein-protein and receptor-ligand interactions. The glycoproteome constitutes a source for identification of disease biomarkers since altered protein...... of 63 glycosylation sites in 38 proteins were identified by both methods, demonstrating distinct differences and complementarity. Serial application of custom-made microcolumns of mixed, immobilized lectins proved efficient for recovery and analysis of glycopeptides from serum samples of breast cancer...

  11. An arbitrated quantum signature protocol based on the chained CNOT operations encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Guang; Shi, Jian-Hong

    2015-06-01

    At present, the encryption scheme used by most arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) protocols is quantum one-time pad (QOTP) which encrypts data qubit by qubit. Though QOTP can achieve high security for data encryption, it is not suitable for AQS. There are many attacks on AQS using QOTP. In this paper, we propose an AQS protocol based on another encryption scheme called the chained CNOT operations, which encrypts quantum message ensemble. Our protocol preserves all merits in the similar AQS schemes and has better security. Security analysis shows that our protocol cannot be forged and disavowed under the existing attacks.

  12. Taking the Politics Out of Satellite and Space-Based Communications Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2006-01-01

    After many years of studies, experimentation, and deployment, large amounts of misinformation and misconceptions remain regarding applicability of various communications protocols for use in satellite and space-based networks. This paper attempts to remove much of the politics, misconceptions, and misinformation that have plagued spacebased communications protocol development and deployment. This paper provides a common vocabulary for communications; a general discussion of the requirements for various communication environments; an evaluation of tradeoffs between circuit and packet-switching technologies, and the pros and cons of various link, network, transport, application, and security protocols. Included is the applicability of protocol enhancing proxies to NASA, Department of Defense (DOD), and commercial space communication systems.

  13. Two new Controlled not Gate Based Quantum Secret Sharing Protocols without Entanglement Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-Chao; Hu, Ai-Qun; Fu, An-Min

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose two new controlled not gate based quantum secret sharing protocols. In these two protocols, each photon only travels once, which guarantees the agents located in long distance can be able to derive the dealer's secret without suffering entanglement attenuation problem. The protocols are secure against trojan horse attack, intercept-resend attack, entangle-measure attack and entanglement-swapping attack. The theoretical efficiency for qubits of these two protocols can approach 100 %, except those used for eavesdropping checking, all entangled states can be used for final secret sharing.

  14. A Study on the Distributed Antenna Based Heterogeneous Cognitive Wireless Network Synchronous MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Fen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces distributed antennas into a cognitive radio network and presents a heterogeneous network. The best contribution of this paper is that it designs a synchronous cognitive MAC protocol (DAHCWNS-MAC protocol: distributed antenna based heterogeneous cognitive wireless network synchronous MAC protocol. The novel protocol aims at combining the advantages of cognitive radio and distributed antennas to fully utilize the licensed spectrum, broaden the communication range, and improve throughput. This paper carries out the mathematical modeling and performance simulation to demonstrate its superiority in improving the network throughput at the cost of increasing antenna hardware costs.

  15. Improved Quantum " Ping-Pong" Protocol Based on Extended Three-Particle GHZ State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jian; Guo Xiaojing; Song Danjie; Xie Feng; Peng Yong

    2012-01-01

    In order to transmit secure messages, a quantum secure direct communication protocol based on extended three-particle GHZ state was presented, in which the extended three-particle GHZ state was used to detect eavesdroppers. In the security analysis, the method of the entropy theory is introduced, and three detection strategies are compared quantitatively by using the constraint between the information eavesdroppers can obtain and the interference introduced. If the eavesdroppers intend to obtain all inforrmtion, the detection rate of the original "Ping-pong" protocol is 50% ; the second protocol used two particles of EPR pair as detection particles is also 50%; while the presented protocol is 58%. At last, the security of the proposed protocol is discussed. The analysis results indicate that the protocol in this paper is more secure than the other two.

  16. Enriching location-based games with navigational game activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadarajah, Stephanie Githa; Overgaard, Benjamin Nicholas; Pedersen, Peder Walz;

    2016-01-01

    Mobile location-based games are experiences that entertain its players by requiring interactions mainly at points of interest (POIs). Navigation between POIs often involve the use of either a physical or digital map, not taking advantage of the opportunity available to engage users in activities...

  17. Ultratrace DNA Detection Based on the Condensing-Enrichment Effect of Superwettable Microchips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Ping; Chen, Yanxia; Yang, Gao; Shi, Wanxin; Dai, Bing; Li, Guannan; Cao, Yanhua; Wen, Yongqiang; Zhang, Xueji; Wang, Shutao

    2015-11-18

    A sensitive nucleic acid detection platform based on superhydrophilic microwells spotted on a superhydrophobic substrate is fabricated. Due to the wettability differences, ultratrace DNA molecules are enriched and the fluorescent signals are amplified to allow more sensitive detection. The biosensing interface based on superwettable materials provides a simple and cost-effective way for ultratrace DNA sensing.

  18. Communication protocol in chassis detecting wireless transmission system based on WiFi

    Science.gov (United States)

    In chassis detecting wireless transmission system, the wireless network communication protocol plays a key role in the information exchange and synchronization between the host and chassis PDA. This paper presents a wireless network transmission protocol based on TCP/IP which makes the rules of info...

  19. A Modified Protocol of Quantum Key Distribution Based on Entanglement Swapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xin; LI Shu-Min; WANG An-Min

    2007-01-01

    By comparing Cabello's addendum to his quantum key distribution protocol [Phys. Rev. A 64 (2001) 024301],we propose a more convenient modified protocol based on the entanglement swapping which is secure against the eavesdropping strategy addressed by Zhang et al. [Phys. Rev. A 63 (2001)036301] and other existing types of attack.

  20. Quantum secure direct communication protocol with blind polarization bases and Particles' transmitting order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Jie; Zhu Ai-Dong; Zhang Shou

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a modified secure direct communication protocol by using the blind polarization bases and particles'random transmitting order.In our protocol.a sender (Alice) encodes secret messages by rotating a random polarization angle of particle and then the receiver (Bob) sends back these particles as a random sequence.This ensures the security of communication.

  1. Fair e-payment protocol based on blind signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-hui; LIU Jing-wei; LI Xiao-hui; KOU Wei-dong

    2009-01-01

    Electronic transaction through e-payment protocol will grow tremendous in the coming years. In this article, by conversely using blind signature, the authors propose a fair electronic payment scheme for electronic commerce, which can ensure two participants' right simultaneously in electronic transaction process. This scheme is different from other existing schemes and it does not require strong trust relation between customer and merchant. In the scheme, a semi-trusted third party (S-TTP) is involved to provide a fair commerce environment. The S-TTP takes part in the protocol on-line and no secure information about the business is leaked. Moreover, the participants do not need to register to S-TTP. This scheme does not require intervention of a third party in case of dispute, if one user cheats or simply crashes.

  2. Smart Traffic Management Protocol Based on VANET architecture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays one of the hottest theme in wireless environments research is the application of the newest technologies to road safety problems and traffic management exploiting the (VANET) architecture. In this work, a novel protocol that aims to achieve a better traffic management is proposed. The overal system is able to reduce traffic level inside the city exploiting inter-communication among vehicles and support infrastructures also known as (V2V) and (V2I) communications. We design a network ...

  3. Smart Traffic Management Protocol Based on VANET architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcare Francesco Santamaria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays one of the hottest theme in wireless environments research is the application of the newest technologies to road safety problems and traffic management exploiting the (VANET architecture. In this work, a novel protocol that aims to achieve a better traffic management is proposed. The overal system is able to reduce traffic level inside the city exploiting inter-communication among vehicles and support infrastructures also known as (V2V and (V2I communications. We design a network protocol called (STMP that takes advantages of IEEE 802.11p standard. On each road several sensors system are placed and they are responsible of monitoring. Gathered data are spread in the network exploiting ad-hoc protocol messages. The increasing knowledge about environment conditions make possible to take preventive actions. Moreover, having a realtime monitoring of the lanes it is possible to reveal roads and city blocks congestions in a shorter time. An external entity to the (VANET is responsible to manage traffic and rearrange traffic along the lanes of the city avoiding huge traffic levels.

  4. A semantically enriched web usage based recommendation model

    CERN Document Server

    Ramesh, C; Govardhan, A

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid growth of internet technologies, Web has become a huge repository of information and keeps growing exponentially under no editorial control. However the human capability to read, access and understand Web content remains constant. This motivated researchers to provide Web personalized online services such as Web recommendations to alleviate the information overload problem and provide tailored Web experiences to the Web users. Recent studies show that Web usage mining has emerged as a popular approach in providing Web personalization. However conventional Web usage based recommender systems are limited in their ability to use the domain knowledge of the Web application. The focus is only on Web usage data. As a consequence the quality of the discovered patterns is low. In this paper, we propose a novel framework integrating semantic information in the Web usage mining process. Sequential Pattern Mining technique is applied over the semantic space to discover the frequent sequential patterns. Th...

  5. A mathematical analysis of the selective enrichment of NECEEM-based non-SELEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinliang; Yu, Yixiong

    2014-08-01

    Non-Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX)selection of aptamers, a novel technology for aptamer selection from libraries of random DNA (or RNA) sequences, involves repetitive steps of partitioning without polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification between them. This selection is based on non-equilibrium capillary electrophoresis of equilibrium mixtures (NECEEM) and has exceptionally high efficiency. In this paper, a mathematical analysis was carried out to predict the levels of enrichment of non-SELEX selection under different conditions such as different protein concentrations and different efficiencies of partitioning. Investigated results suggest that the magnitude of the bulk affinity (k d) being 10(4) or 10(5) μM for the initial pool has no obvious effect on selective enrichment and that the first, second, and third rounds of non-SELEX selection have different optimum protein concentration values [T f] that give maximum enrichment levels when [T f] ranges from 0.0005 to 0.5 μM. The significance of analyzing selective enrichment of NECEEM-based non-SELEX with the efficiency of partitioning target-bound ligands from free ligands has been demonstrated.

  6. Self-Adaptive and Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol Based on Event-Driven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with WSN MAC layer protocol characteristics and design requirements, according to the characteristic of WSN monitoring application requirements, this paper puts forward a method based on event driven MAC protocol. The agreement algorithm is to solve the problem of network congestion and node energy unnecessary consumption cause by a large number of redundant monitoring data transceiver. It is a kind of adaptive low power consumption of the MAC layer protocol, which is pointed out based on theoretical foundation of S_MAC protocol, made use of the event driven mechanism system theory, combined with event driven mechanism and the characteristics of the WSN. It has the periodic dormancy mechanism of S_MAC protocol, in the premise of the reliability data, to reduce data redundancy and communication delay time, improve the overall network throughput, to ensure the safety and reliability of the network, which can greatly extends  the node of working time.

  7. Optimistic fair exchange E-commerce protocol based on secret sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Changshe; Lei Feiyu; Chen Kefei

    2006-01-01

    A key problem of electronic commerce (for short e-commerce) is fair exchange which guarantees that at the end of the transaction, either both parties involved in the transaction receive each other's items or none do. A non-interactive optimistic fair exchange e-commerce protocol model based on the publicly verifiable secret sharing is presented. The main idea of our exchange protocol is to interchange verifiable and recoverable keys of the symmetric encryption for participants' items. So it is especially suitable for exchange of large-size items. Furthermore, our protocol is efficient and simple as it does not need interactive proof system which has been adopted by a large quantity of previously proposed fair exchange protocols. Based on a modified (2,2) secret sharing scheme, a concrete non-interactive fair exchange e-commerce protocol is designed.

  8. A RSVP-TE reservation protocol based on priority in multi-domain optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Yang, Kai; Wu, Qiwu; Pan, Chaoping

    2009-11-01

    ASON (Automatic Switch Optical Network), which provides fast and dynamic connection from point to point, is the typical representation of the next generation intelligent optical network. There are two main kinds of resource reservation protocols in RSVP-TE (Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering), the most widely applied signaling in ASON, which are FRP (forward reservation protocol) and BRP (backward reservation protocol). Both of them are used to apply in single-domain optical network, however, when they are used in multi-domain optical network, there are apparent drawbacks. On base of FRP and BRP, we propose a reservation protocol-IDRPBP, which is based on priority in multi-domain optical network with wavelength converter at border nodes. Through analysis and simulation, we find it can achieve the trade-off between blocking probability and connection setup time.

  9. A two-hop based adaptive routing protocol for real-time wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachamalla, Sandhya; Kancherla, Anitha Sheela

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important and challenging issues in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is to optimally manage the limited energy of nodes without degrading the routing efficiency. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient adaptive routing mechanism for WSNs, which saves energy of nodes by removing the much delayed packets without degrading the real-time performance of the used routing protocol. It uses the adaptive transmission power algorithm which is based on the attenuation of the wireless link to improve the energy efficiency. The proposed routing mechanism can be associated with any geographic routing protocol and its performance is evaluated by integrating with the well known two-hop based real-time routing protocol, PATH and the resulting protocol is energy-efficient adaptive routing protocol (EE-ARP). The EE-ARP performs well in terms of energy consumption, deadline miss ratio, packet drop and end-to-end delay. PMID:27478727

  10. HLAODV - A Cross Layer Routing Protocol for Pervasive Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks Based On Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Norman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A pervasive network consists of heterogeneous devices with different computing, storage, mobility and connectivity properties working together to solve real-world problems. The emergence of wireless sensor networks has enabled new classes of applications in pervasive world that benefit a large number of fields. Routing in wireless sensor networks is a demanding task. This demand has led to a number of routing protocols which efficiently utilize the limited resources available at the sensor nodes. Most of these protocols either support stationary sensor networks or mobile networks. This paper proposes an energy efficient routing protocol for heterogeneous sensor networks with the goal of finding the nearest base station or sink node. Hence the problem of routing is reduced to finding the nearest base station problem in heterogeneous networks. The protocol HLAODV when compared with popular routing protocols AODV and DSR is energy efficient. Also the mathematical model of the proposed system and its properties are studied.

  11. Property Enrichment of Aged Nickel Base Superalloy Supercast 247A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavakumar Avala

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The commercial nickel-base superalloy Supercast 247A can be used for applications in which is required high mechanical strength and corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures, such as turbine blades and automotive turbocharger rotors. The mechanical properties are totally connected to the morphology, size and distribution of γ' phase and carbides. In order to improve the mechanical properties, the material is subjected to solution and aging heat treatment, to raise the volume fraction of γ' phase in the matrix and to form carbides at grain boundaries. In the present study the Supercast 247A superalloy was remelted and cast to obtain the desired polycrystalline test bars by controlling casting parameters, followed by the investigation of precipitation morphology and mechanical properties with respect to solution treatment and aging treatment. The experimental results show that by well controlled casting parameters the Supercast 247A owns excellent castability to form a superalloy with fine grain structure, resistance to indentation as well as superior strength.

  12. ATTACKS AND IMPROVEMENTS ON THE RFID AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOLS BASED ON MATRIX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shaohui; Liu Sujuan

    2013-01-01

    Most of the Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) authentication protocols,proposed to preserve security and privacy,are analysed to show that they can not provide security against some passive or active attacks.In this paper,the security of two matrix-based protocols,proposed by Karthikeyan and Nesterenko (KN protocol) and Ramachandra et al.(RRS protocol) that conform to Electronic Product Code Class-1 Generation-2 (EPC Class-1 Gen-2) standard,are investigated.Using the linear relationship of multiplication of matrix and vector,we point out that both protocols can not provide scalability,and they are vulnerable to passive impersonation attack.In addition,both protocols are totally insecure if the adversary can compromise one tag to extract the secrets.A modified lightweight matrix-based authentication protocol is presented,which can resist mainly common attacks on an RFID authentication system including eavesdropping,relay attack,desynchronization attack,impersonation attack and tag tracking attack.The new protocol also has the desirable scalability property and can keep secure under compromising attack.

  13. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at…

  14. Temperature-dependent surface-enrichment effects of imidazolium-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbeck, Claudia; Deyko, Alexey; Matsuda, Takashi; Kohler, Florian T U; Wasserscheid, Peter; Maier, Florian; Steinrück, Hans-Peter

    2013-11-11

    We present the first systematic study of the influence of temperature on the degree of surface enrichment of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs). Using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the degree of surface enrichment strongly decreases with increasing temperature for all the studied ILs. For ILs with the same cation, but different anions, [C8 C1 Im]Br, [C8 C1 Im][TfO] and [C8 C1 Im][Tf2 N], no significant differences of the temperature-induced partial loss of surface enrichment are found. Measurements for [C4 C1 Im][TfO], [C8 C1 Im][TfO] and [C18 C1 Im][TfO] indicate a small effect of the chain length. For [C18 C1 Im][TfO], a continuous decrease of alkyl surface enrichment is found with increasing temperature, with no abrupt changes at the phase-transition temperature from the smectic A to the isotropic phase, indicating that the surface enrichment is not affected by this phase transition. PMID:24123477

  15. A Survey on the Taxonomy of Cluster-Based Routing Protocols for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Soroush; Ghafghazi, Hamidreza; Chow, Chee-Onn; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided. PMID:22969350

  16. Enriching semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining in big data applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichselbraun, A; Gindl, S; Scharl, A

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a novel method for contextualizing and enriching large semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining with a focus on Web intelligence platforms and other high-throughput big data applications. The method is not only applicable to traditional sentiment lexicons, but also to more comprehensive, multi-dimensional affective resources such as SenticNet. It comprises the following steps: (i) identify ambiguous sentiment terms, (ii) provide context information extracted from a domain-specific training corpus, and (iii) ground this contextual information to structured background knowledge sources such as ConceptNet and WordNet. A quantitative evaluation shows a significant improvement when using an enriched version of SenticNet for polarity classification. Crowdsourced gold standard data in conjunction with a qualitative evaluation sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of the concept grounding, and on the quality of the enrichment process.

  17. Enriching semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining in big data applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichselbraun, A; Gindl, S; Scharl, A

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a novel method for contextualizing and enriching large semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining with a focus on Web intelligence platforms and other high-throughput big data applications. The method is not only applicable to traditional sentiment lexicons, but also to more comprehensive, multi-dimensional affective resources such as SenticNet. It comprises the following steps: (i) identify ambiguous sentiment terms, (ii) provide context information extracted from a domain-specific training corpus, and (iii) ground this contextual information to structured background knowledge sources such as ConceptNet and WordNet. A quantitative evaluation shows a significant improvement when using an enriched version of SenticNet for polarity classification. Crowdsourced gold standard data in conjunction with a qualitative evaluation sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of the concept grounding, and on the quality of the enrichment process. PMID:25431524

  18. SMS- based Recharge Protocol for Prepaid Energy Billing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Omijeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A prepaid energy metering system enables power utilities to collect energy bills from the consumers’ prior to the usage of power by delivering only as much as what has been paid for. In Nigeria, the current prepaid meters use the keypad technology or smart card for their energy re-loading or recharging. This poses some challenges because the consumers have to travel a long distance to the utility company, waste a lot of time and energy before getting his/her energy meter activated when out of energy credit. In this paper, an SMS-recharge system for prepaid meter is proposed whereby consumers at the comfort of their homes, without stress or waste of energy or time, can recharge/activate their meters via SMS without the use of keypad by sending a 12-digit Pin number via SMS to the utility company. The aim of this paper is to model an intelligent billing system and develop an SMS protocol for the recharge scheme. This work contains the methodology and developed SMS protocol-link between the GSM modem (M20 and the Microcontroller (PIC 18F2550 for this process .The entire billing process is designed and simulated in Matlab/Simulink environments. Results obtained are very satisfactory. When fully implemented in Nigeria, revenue generation in the power sector will greatly increase as more sales of energy vouchers will be made.

  19. STRESS TESTS FOR VIDEOSTREAMING SERVICES BASED ON RTSP PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Elías Chanchí Golondrino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Video-streaming is a technology with major implications these days in such diverse contexts as education, health and the business sector; all of this regarding the ease it provides for remote access to live or recorded media content, allowing communication regardless of geographic location. One standard protocol that enables implementation of this technology is real time streaming protocol, or RTSP. However, since most application servers and Internet services are supported on HTTP requests, very little research has been done on generating tools for carrying out stress tests on streaming servers. This paper presents a stress measuring tool called Hermes, developed in Python, which allows calculation of response times for establishing RTSP connections to streaming servers, as well as obtaining RAM memory consumption and CPU usage rate data from these servers. Hermes was deployed in a video-streaming environment where stress testing was carried out on the LIVE555 server, using calls in the background to VLC and OpenRTSP open source clients. 

  20. MAC protocol for an ATM-based SuperPON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, John D.; Koulouris, John; Fragoulopoulos, Stratos K.

    1996-11-01

    Developments in optical amplifiers and the tendency towards fewer and larger switching stages made feasible and desirable the concept of SuperPONs with a range of 100km. Up to 15000 residential customers can share the SuperPON on a TDMA basis lowering the cost of access to B-ISDN services. Tree PONs require a MAC protocol to arbitrate the access to upstream slots among the competing customer ATM cells in a dynamic and efficient way. The protocol presented in this work combines different access mechanisms according to service quality requirements. All bursty traffic is manipulated transparently using a reservation approach with closed loop control so as to handle the unpredictability of arrivals. In contrast, voice, N-ISDN and other delay sensitive services are provided with unsolicited access permits. In addition, composite cells offered quasi- synchronous permits are used to support STM legacy traffic without echo-cancellers. So, ABR traffic which is delay tolerant and more cost sensitive, can and should be concentrated with full exploitation of multiplexing gain prospects. The permit distribution algorithm focuses on cell spacing, control of CDV, almost jitter free access for synchronous traffic and efficiency for ABR traffic.

  1. Implementation of Embedded Ethernet Based on Hardware Protocol Stack in Substation Automation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qiang; ZHAO Jianguo; LIU Bingxu

    2008-01-01

    Embedded Ethernet technology has been utilized increasingly widely as the communication mode in the substation automation system (SAS). This paper introduces the current applying situation about embedded Ethernet in SAS First. After analyzing the protocol levels used in SAS based on embedded Ethernet and the differences between the TCP and UDP, UDP/IP is selected as the communication protocol between the station-level and bay-level devices for its real-time characteristic. Then a new kind of implementation of the embedded Ethernet is presented based on hardware protocol stack. The designed scheme can be implemented easily, reduce cost significantly and shorten developing cycle.

  2. A hash based mutual RFID tag authentication protocol in telecare medicine information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Keerti; Awasthi, Amit K; Kaul, Sonam D; Mittal, R C

    2015-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology which has multidimensional applications to reduce the complexity of today life. Everywhere, like access control, transportation, real-time inventory, asset management and automated payment systems etc., RFID has its enormous use. Recently, this technology is opening its wings in healthcare environments, where potential applications include patient monitoring, object traceability and drug administration systems etc. In this paper, we propose a secure RFID-based protocol for the medical sector. This protocol is based on hash operation with synchronized secret. The protocol is safe against active and passive attacks such as forgery, traceability, replay and de-synchronization attack.

  3. Integrating authentic assessment with competency based learning: the Protocol Portfolio Scoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijsmans, Dominique; Straetmans, Gerard; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    Sluijsmans, D. M. A., Straetmans, G., & Van Merriënboer, J. (2008). Integrating authentic assessment with competency based learning: the Protocol Portfolio Scoring. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 60(2), 157-172.

  4. AN EFFICIENT MAC PROTOCOL BASED ON HYBRID SUPERFRAME FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Ma

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Designing low energy consumption, high efficiency Media Access Control (MAC protocols are one ofthe most important directions in wireless sensor networks (WSN. In this paper, we proposed a newcontention reserve MAC protocol, named CRMAC, under the inspiration of IEEE 802.15.4’s superframestructure. CRMAC is a MAC protocol suitable for intra-cluster WSN that combines the advantages ofcontention and schedule-based MAC protocols. We introduce the mechanism and superframe structure ofCRMAC in detail and verified the performance of this protocol through simulations. Our results showthat CRMAC performs better than IEEE 802.15.4 in energy consumption, system delay and networkthroughput. CRMAC is especially suitable for short packet transmission under low load networks, whichis the main situation in WSN.

  5. Distance-Based and Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Abdullah; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Ab Hamid, Siti Hafizah; Akhunzada, Adnan; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2016-01-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) comprises small sensor nodes with limited energy capabilities. The power constraints of WSNs necessitate efficient energy utilization to extend the overall network lifetime of these networks. We propose a distance-based and low-energy adaptive clustering (DISCPLN) protocol to streamline the green issue of efficient energy utilization in WSNs. We also enhance our proposed protocol into the multi-hop-DISCPLN protocol to increase the lifetime of the network in terms of high throughput with minimum delay time and packet loss. We also propose the mobile-DISCPLN protocol to maintain the stability of the network. The modelling and comparison of these protocols with their corresponding benchmarks exhibit promising results. PMID:27658194

  6. Handling Data-Based Concurrency in Context-Aware Service Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Cubo, Javier; Salaün, Gwen; Canal, Carlos; 10.4204/EPTCS.30.5

    2010-01-01

    Dependency analysis is a technique to identify and determine data dependencies between service protocols. Protocols evolving concurrently in the service composition need to impose an order in their execution if there exist data dependencies. In this work, we describe a model to formalise context-aware service protocols. We also present a composition language to handle dynamically the concurrent execution of protocols. This language addresses data dependency issues among several protocols concurrently executed on the same user device, using mechanisms based on data semantic matching. Our approach aims at assisting the user in establishing priorities between these dependencies, avoiding the occurrence of deadlock situations. Nevertheless, this process is error-prone, since it requires human intervention. Therefore, we also propose verification techniques to automatically detect possible inconsistencies specified by the user while building the data dependency set. Our approach is supported by a prototype tool we...

  7. Nonlinear consensus protocols for multi-agent systems based on centre manifold reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yu-Mei; Guan Xin-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear consensus protocols for dynamic directed networks of multi-agent systems with fixed and switching topologies are investigated separately in this paper. Based on the centre manifold reduction technique,nonlinear consensus protocols are presented.We prove that a group of agents can reach a β-consensus,the value of which is the group decision value varying from the minimum and the maximum values of the initial states of the agents.Moreover,we derive the conditions to guarantee that all the agents reach a β-consensus on a desired group decision value.Finally,a simulation study concerning the vertical alignment manoeuvere of a team of unmanned air vehicles is performed.Simulation results show that the nonlinear consensus protocols proposed are more effective than the linear protocols for the formation control of the agents and they are an improvement over existing protocols.

  8. CHIP: Commodity based Hazard Identification Protocol for emerging diseases in plants and animals

    OpenAIRE

    Bremmer, J.; Swanenburg, M.; Galen, van, M.A.; Hoek, Maarten; Rau, M.L.; Hennen, W.H.G.J.; Benninga, J.; Ge, L.; Breukers, M.L.H.

    2012-01-01

    This project comprised the development of a commodity-based hazard identification protocol for biological hazards in plants and animals as a decision support tree programmed in Excel. The content of the decision tree is based on the results of a systematic review of pest and pathogen characteristics, a review of risk assessment schemes and on expert judgement. Application of the protocol results in an indication of the level of likelihood of entry of animal and plant pathogens/pests in the ar...

  9. LMEEC: Layered Multi-Hop Energy Efficient Cluster-based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khelifi, Manel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose LMEEC, a cluster-based rout- ing protocol with low energy consumption for wireless sensor networks. Our protocol is based on a strategy which aims to provide a more equitable exploitation of the selected nodes (cluster-heads) energy. Simulation results show the effective- ness of LMEEC in decreasing the energy consumption, and in prolonging the network lifetime, compared to LEACH.

  10. A Neural Networks-Based Hybrid Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Kojić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The networking infrastructure of wireless mesh networks (WMNs is decentralized and relatively simple, but they can display reliable functioning performance while having good redundancy. WMNs provide Internet access for fixed and mobile wireless devices. Both in urban and rural areas they provide users with high-bandwidth networks over a specific coverage area. The main problems affecting these networks are changes in network topology and link quality. In order to provide regular functioning, the routing protocol has the main influence in WMN implementations. In this paper we suggest a new routing protocol for WMN, based on good results of a proactive and reactive routing protocol, and for that reason it can be classified as a hybrid routing protocol. The proposed solution should avoid flooding and creating the new routing metric. We suggest the use of artificial logic—i.e., neural networks (NNs. This protocol is based on mobile agent technologies controlled by a Hopfield neural network. In addition to this, our new routing metric is based on multicriteria optimization in order to minimize delay and blocking probability (rejected packets or their retransmission. The routing protocol observes real network parameters and real network environments. As a result of artificial logic intelligence, the proposed routing protocol should maximize usage of network resources and optimize network performance.

  11. A neural networks-based hybrid routing protocol for wireless mesh networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojić, Nenad; Reljin, Irini; Reljin, Branimir

    2012-01-01

    The networking infrastructure of wireless mesh networks (WMNs) is decentralized and relatively simple, but they can display reliable functioning performance while having good redundancy. WMNs provide Internet access for fixed and mobile wireless devices. Both in urban and rural areas they provide users with high-bandwidth networks over a specific coverage area. The main problems affecting these networks are changes in network topology and link quality. In order to provide regular functioning, the routing protocol has the main influence in WMN implementations. In this paper we suggest a new routing protocol for WMN, based on good results of a proactive and reactive routing protocol, and for that reason it can be classified as a hybrid routing protocol. The proposed solution should avoid flooding and creating the new routing metric. We suggest the use of artificial logic-i.e., neural networks (NNs). This protocol is based on mobile agent technologies controlled by a Hopfield neural network. In addition to this, our new routing metric is based on multicriteria optimization in order to minimize delay and blocking probability (rejected packets or their retransmission). The routing protocol observes real network parameters and real network environments. As a result of artificial logic intelligence, the proposed routing protocol should maximize usage of network resources and optimize network performance. PMID:22969360

  12. A Centralized Energy Efficient Distance Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit D. Gawade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN typically consists of a large number of low cost wireless sensor nodes which collect and send various messages to a base station (BS. WSN nodes are small battery powered devices having limited energy resources. Replacement of such energy resources is not easy for thousands of nodes as they are inaccessible to users after their deployment. This generates a requirement of energy efficient routing protocol for increasing network lifetime while minimizing energy consumption. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH is a widely used classic clustering algorithm in WSNs. In this paper, we propose a Centralized Energy Efficient Distance (CEED based routing protocol to evenly distribute energy dissipation among all sensor nodes. We calculate optimum number of cluster heads based on LEACH’s energy dissipation model. We propose a distributed cluster head selection algorithm based on dissipated energy of a node and its distance to BS. Moreover, we extend our protocol by multihop routing scheme to reduce energy dissipated by nodes located far away from base station. The performance of CEED is compared with other protocols such as LEACH and LEACH with Distance Based Thresholds (LEACH-DT. Simulation results show that CEED is more energy efficient as compared to other protocols. Also it improves the network lifetime and stability period over the other protocols.

  13. Cryptanalysis of Two MD5-Based Authentication Protocols: APOP and NMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Ohta, Kazuo; Sasaki, Yu; Sakiyama, Kazuo; Kunihiro, Noboru

    Many hash-based authentication protocols have been proposed, and proven secure assuming that underlying hash functions are secure. On the other hand, if a hash function compromises, the security of authentication protocols based on this hash function becomes unclear. Therefore, it is significantly important to verify the security of hash-based protocols when a hash function is broken. In this paper, we will re-evaluate the security of two MD5-based authentication protocols based on a fact that MD5 cannot satisfy a required fundamental property named collision resistance. The target protocols are APOP (Authenticated Post Office Protocol) and NMAC (Nested Message Authentication Code), since they or their variants are widely used in real world. For security evaluation of APOP, we will propose a modified password recovery attack procedure, which is twice as fast as previous attacks. Moreover, our attack is more realistic, as the probability of being detected is lower than that of previous attacks. For security evaluation of MD5-based NMAC, we will propose a new key-recovery attack procedure, which has a complexity lower than that of previous attack. The complexity of our attack is 276, while that of previous attack is 2100.**Moreover, our attack has another interesting point. NMAC has two keys: the inner key and the outer key. Our attack can recover the outer key partially without the knowledge of the inner key.

  14. A lightweight neighbor-info-based routing protocol for no-base-station taxi-call system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene. PMID:24737984

  15. A Trust Based Cross Layer Security Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rajaram, A

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a trust based security protocol based on a cross layer approach which attains confidentiality and authentication of packets in both routing and link layers of MANETs. In the first phase of the protocol, we design a trust based packet forwarding scheme for detecting and isolating the malicious nodes using the routing layer information. It uses trust values to favor packet forwarding by maintaining a trust counter for each node. A node is punished or rewarded by decreasing or increasing the trust counter. If the trust counter value falls below a trust threshold, the corresponding intermediate node is marked as malicious. In the next phase of the protocol, we provide link layer security using the CBCX mode of authentication and encryption. By simulation results, we show that the proposed cross layer security protocol achieves high packet delivery ratio while attaining low delay and overhead.

  16. Exercise and nutrition routine improving cancer health (ENRICH: The protocol for a randomized efficacy trial of a nutrition and physical activity program for adult cancer survivors and carers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyes Allison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Exercise and Nutrition Routine Improving Cancer Health (ENRICH study is investigating a novel lifestyle intervention aimed at improving the health behaviors of adult cancer survivors and their carers. The main purpose of the study is to determine the efficacy of lifestyle education and skill development delivered via group-based sessions on the physical activity and dietary behaviors of participants. This article describes the intervention development, study design, and participant recruitment. Methods/Design ENRICH is a randomized controlled trial, conducted in Australia, with two arms: an intervention group participating in six, two-hour face-to-face sessions held over eight weeks, and a wait-list control group. Intervention sessions are co-facilitated by an exercise physiologist and dietician. Content includes healthy eating education, and a home-based walking (utilizing a pedometer and resistance training program (utilizing elastic tubing resistance devices. The program was developed with reference to social cognitive theory and chronic disease self-management models. The study population consists of cancer survivors (post active-treatment and their carers recruited through community-based advertising and referral from health professionals. The primary outcome is seven-days of sealed pedometry. Secondary outcomes include: self-reported physical activity levels, dietary intake, sedentary behavior, waist circumference, body mass index, quality of life, and perceived social support. The outcomes will be measured at baseline (one week prior to attending the program, eight-weeks (at completion of intervention sessions, and 20-weeks. The intervention group will also be invited to complete 12-month follow-up data collection. Process evaluation data will be obtained from participants by questionnaire and attendance records. Discussion No trials are yet available that have evaluated the efficacy of group-based lifestyle

  17. Development of microsatellite markers for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) based on screening of non-enriched, small-insert genomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Torres, Monica Muñoz; Pedraza, Fabio; Giraldo, Martha C; Buendía, Hector F; Hurtado, Natalia

    2009-09-01

    Microsatellite markers are useful genetic tools for a wide array of genomic analyses although their development is time-consuming and requires the identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from genomic sequences. Screening of non-enriched, small-insert libraries is an effective method of SSR isolation that can give an unbiased picture of motif frequency. Here we adapt high-throughput protocols for the screening of plasmid-based libraries using robotic colony picking and filter preparation. Seven non-enriched genomic libraries from common bean genomic DNA were made by digestion with four frequently cutting restriction enzymes, double digestion with a frequently cutting restriction enzyme and a less frequently cutting restriction enzyme, or sonication. Library quality was compared and three of the small-insert libraries were selected for further analysis. Each library was plated and picked into 384-well plates that were used to create high-density filter arrays of over 18 000 clones each, which were screened with oligonucleotide probes for various SSR motifs. Positive clones were found to have low redundancy. One hundred SSR markers were developed and 80 were tested for polymorphism in a standard parental survey. These microsatellite markers derived from non-SSR-enriched libraries should be useful additions to previous markers developed from enriched libraries. PMID:19935925

  18. Enhancing user privacy in SARG04-based private database query protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; Qiu, Daowen; Situ, Haozhen; Wang, Xiaoming; Long, Shun

    2015-11-01

    The well-known SARG04 protocol can be used in a private query application to generate an oblivious key. By usage of the key, the user can retrieve one out of N items from a database without revealing which one he/she is interested in. However, the existing SARG04-based private query protocols are vulnerable to the attacks of faked data from the database since in its canonical form, the SARG04 protocol lacks means for one party to defend attacks from the other. While such attacks can cause significant loss of user privacy, a variant of the SARG04 protocol is proposed in this paper with new mechanisms designed to help the user protect its privacy in private query applications. In the protocol, it is the user who starts the session with the database, trying to learn from it bits of a raw key in an oblivious way. An honesty test is used to detect a cheating database who had transmitted faked data. The whole private query protocol has O( N) communication complexity for conveying at least N encrypted items. Compared with the existing SARG04-based protocols, it is efficient in communication for per-bit learning.

  19. Formal Analysis of SET and NSL Protocols Using the Interpretation Functions-Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Houmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most applications in the Internet such as e-banking and e-commerce use the SET and the NSL protocols to protect the communication channel between the client and the server. Then, it is crucial to ensure that these protocols respect some security properties such as confidentiality, authentication, and integrity. In this paper, we analyze the SET and the NSL protocols with respect to the confidentiality (secrecy property. To perform this analysis, we use the interpretation functions-based method. The main idea behind the interpretation functions-based technique is to give sufficient conditions that allow to guarantee that a cryptographic protocol respects the secrecy property. The flexibility of the proposed conditions allows the verification of daily-life protocols such as SET and NSL. Also, this method could be used under different assumptions such as a variety of intruder abilities including algebraic properties of cryptographic primitives. The NSL protocol, for instance, is analyzed with and without the homomorphism property. We show also, using the SET protocol, the usefulness of this approach to correct weaknesses and problems discovered during the analysis.

  20. A Multiparty Controlled Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication and Authentication Protocol Based on EPR Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Sheng, Zhi-Wei

    2013-06-01

    A multiparty controlled bidirectional quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol is proposed based on EPR pair and entanglement swapping. The legitimate identities of communicating parties are encoded to Bell states which act as a detection sequence. Secret messages are transmitted by using the classical XOR operation, which serves as a one-time-pad. No photon with secret information transmits in the quantum channel. Compared with the protocols proposed by Wang et al. [Acta Phys. Sin. 56 (2007) 673; Opt. Commun. 266 (2006) 732], the protocol in this study implements bidirectional communication and authentication, which defends most attacks including the ‘man-in-the-middle’ attack efficiently.

  1. A DUAL RESERVATION CDMA-BASED MAC PROTOCOL WITH POWER CONTROL FOR AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Min; Chen Huimin; Yuan Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new multi-channel Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol named as Dual Reservation Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) based MAC protocol with Power Control (DRCPC). The code channel is divided into common channel, broadcast channel and several data channels. And dynamic power control mechanism is implemented to reduce near-far interference. Compared with IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocol, the results show that the proposed mechanism improves the average throughput and limits the transmission delay efficiently.

  2. Efficient Three-Party Quantum Dialogue Protocol Based on the Continuous Variable GHZ States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen-Bo; Gong, Li-Hua; Zhu, Qi-Biao; Cheng, Shan; Zhou, Nan-Run

    2016-07-01

    Based on the continuous variable GHZ entangled states, an efficient three-party quantum dialogue protocol is devised, where each legitimate communication party could simultaneously deduce the secret information of the other two parties with perfect efficiency. The security is guaranteed by the correlation of the continuous variable GHZ entangled states and the randomly selected decoy states. Furthermore, the three-party quantum dialogue protocol is directly generalized to an N-party quantum dialogue protocol by using the n-tuple continuous variable GHZ entangled states.

  3. A Scenario-Based Protocol Checker for Public-Key Authentication Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takamichi

    Security protocol provides communication security for the internet. One of the important features of it is authentication with key exchange. Its correctness is a requirement of the whole of the communication security. In this paper, we introduce three attack models realized as their attack scenarios, and provide an authentication-protocol checker for applying three attack-scenarios based on the models. We also utilize it to check two popular security protocols: Secure SHell (SSH) and Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS).

  4. An Energy- Aware Routing Protocol Based on Effective Transmission in Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Linfeng; YANG Zongkai; CHENG Wenqing; DU Xu

    2006-01-01

    In order to minimize the energy consumption in the discovery of the routing path, this paper introduces a novel concept of effective transmission (ET) that ensures each forwarding node is not only farther from the source node, but also nearer to the destination node with respect to its sender.An energy-aware routing protocol based on ET is proposed.It enables the energy consumption for each hop to be the least for the transmission. The simulation results show the routing protocol is effective in the performance of energy consumption comparing with some other routing protocols.

  5. Knowledge-Based Multiple Access Protocol in Broadband Wireless ATM Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Dittmann, Lars

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a knowledge-based multiple access protocol for the extension of wireline ATM to wireless networks. The objective is to enable effecient transmission of all kinds of ATM traffic in the wireless channel with guaranteed QoS.The proposed protocol utilixes knowledge of the main...... characteristics of the traffic for allocating bandwidth effeciently to CBR, VBR and ABR/UBR connections by a compromise of assignment, contetion, reservation and polling access techniques. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol can achieve a very high channel utilization of 90 % while providing...

  6. Efficient and configurable transmission protocol based on UDP in grid computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jigang WANG; Guochang GU; Chunguang MA; Weidong ZHONG

    2009-01-01

    At present,mainstream data transfer protocols are not always a good match for the diverse demands of grid computing.Considering this situation,this article proposes an efficient and configurable data transfer protocol (ECUDP) for grid computing.The ECUDP is based on the standard user datagram protocol (UDP),but with a collection of optimizations that meet the challenge of providing configurability and reliability while main-taining performance that meets the communication requirements of demanding applications.Experimental results show that the ECUDP performs efficiently in various grid computing scenarios and the performance analysis model can provide a good estimation of its performance.

  7. DYNAMIC RE-CLUSTERING LEACH-BASED (DR-LEACH PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ijjeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN contains a large number of sensor nodes equipped with limited energy supplies. In most applications, sensor nodes are deployed in a random fashion. Therefore, battery replacement or charging is considered not practical. As a result, routing protocols must be energy-efficient to prolong the network’s lifetime. In this paper, we propose a new Dynamic Re-clustering LEACH-Based protocol (DR-LEACH which aims to reduce the energy consumption and extending the network’s lifetime. The idea is to balance energy consumption of Cluster Heads (CHs by generating clusters with almost equal number of nodes during each round of the network life time. To perform this, we first calculate the optimal number of CHs in each round, and based on that we calculate the optimal size of each cluster. Results show that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime and reduces overall energy consumption compared to LEACH and BCDCP protocols.

  8. History-based MAC Protocol for Low Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks: the SLACK-MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affoua Thérèse Aby

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are increasingly used in environmental monitoring applications. They are designed to operate for several months by featuring low activity cycles in order to save energy. In this paper, we propose a Medium Access Control (MAC protocol for suchWSNs with very low duty-cycles of 1% and less. Nodes are activated randomly and use a history of previous successful frame exchanges to decide their next activation time. We study the choice of the history size, and we compare the performance of our protocol with other protocols from the literature. We show by simulations and real experiments that with a limited history size of only six entries, our protocol achieves better performance than other protocols from the literature, while keeping the advantages of fully asynchronous protocols.

  9. AMQ Protocol Based Performance Analysis of Bare Metal Hypervisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Deepak Arora

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is one of the most exciting technology because of its cost-reducing approach, flexibility, and scalability. Hypervisor is the essential part of cloud technology; it is a component of software that provides a virtualized hardware environment to support running multiple operating systems concurrently using one physical server. In this paper we took KVM, XEN, Hyper-V and ESXi as hypervisors. We have compared the performance of Virtual Machines (VMs by RabbitMQ message broker server that uses Advanced Message Queuing Protocol(AMQP for breaking messages. We establish the setup on bare metal hypervisor that is installed directly on the hardware of the system. We took SAN (Shared Storage Network server for maintaining the storage of all VMs. By the evaluation of these hyperviosrs we got a brief idea about their performance on different parameters. These results will be beneficial to small enterprise, social group or any private IT firm which is choosing to build small cloud infrastructure with optimal benefits. Experiment results of checking the performance of VMs for all the hypervisors shows that there is performance variation on different applications and workloads of the hypervisors. None of the hypervisors outperform another at every aspect of our comparison.

  10. Optimal hop position-based minimum energy routing protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    K.S. Geethu; A.V. Babu

    2015-01-01

    Development of energy-efficient routing protocols is a major concern in the design of underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) since UASN nodes are typically powered by batteries, which are difficult to replace or recharge in aquatic environments. This study proposes an optimal hop position-based energy-efficient routing protocol for UASNs. Initially, the authors present an analytical model to compute the total energy consumption in a multi-hop UASN for deep water scenario, taking into acc...

  11. FHC-NCTSR: Node Centric Trust Based secure Hybrid Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Prasuna V G; Dr. S Madhusudahan Verma

    2012-01-01

    To effectively support communication in such a dynamic networking environment as the ad hoc networks, the routing mechanisms should adapt to secure and trusted route discovery and service quality in data transmission. In this context, the paper proposed a routing protocol called Node Centric Trust based Secure Hybrid Routing Protocol [FHC-NCTSR] that opted to fixed hash chaining for data transmission and node centric trust strategy for secure route discovery. The route discovery is reactive i...

  12. Rheology, fatty acid profile and quality characteristics of nutrient enriched pizza base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chaitali Sen; Milind; Jeyarani, T; Rajiv, Jyotsna

    2015-05-01

    Enrichment of thick bread type pizza base (PZB) was done by substituting wheat flour (WF) with 5, 10 and 15 % soya protein isolate (SPI). The rheological characteristics of WF showed that water absorption increased, extensibility and peak viscosity decreased when level of SPI increased from 5 to 15 %. Baking studies showed that spread ratio decreased and hardness values of PZB increased with the increase in amount of SPI from 5 to15 %. Beyond 10 % SPI, the overall quality of PZB was adversely affected. To the optimal blend of 10 % SPI, 5 % psyllium husk (PH) was added and the hydrogenated fat was replaced by canola oil (CAN) in enriched PZB. The enriched PZB treated with combination of additives had 1.7 and 1.6 times more protein and dietary fiber than the control PZB. Fatty acid analysis showed that the enriched PZB had 58.65 % oleic, 6.58 % linolenic acid and 31.28 % polyunsaturated fatty acid and no Trans fat was present.

  13. Rheology, fatty acid profile and quality characteristics of nutrient enriched pizza base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chaitali Sen; Milind; Jeyarani, T; Rajiv, Jyotsna

    2015-05-01

    Enrichment of thick bread type pizza base (PZB) was done by substituting wheat flour (WF) with 5, 10 and 15 % soya protein isolate (SPI). The rheological characteristics of WF showed that water absorption increased, extensibility and peak viscosity decreased when level of SPI increased from 5 to 15 %. Baking studies showed that spread ratio decreased and hardness values of PZB increased with the increase in amount of SPI from 5 to15 %. Beyond 10 % SPI, the overall quality of PZB was adversely affected. To the optimal blend of 10 % SPI, 5 % psyllium husk (PH) was added and the hydrogenated fat was replaced by canola oil (CAN) in enriched PZB. The enriched PZB treated with combination of additives had 1.7 and 1.6 times more protein and dietary fiber than the control PZB. Fatty acid analysis showed that the enriched PZB had 58.65 % oleic, 6.58 % linolenic acid and 31.28 % polyunsaturated fatty acid and no Trans fat was present. PMID:25892792

  14. Intelligent QoS routing algorithm based on improved AODV protocol for Ad Hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibin, Liu; Jun, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks were playing an increasingly important part in disaster reliefs, military battlefields and scientific explorations. However, networks routing difficulties are more and more outstanding due to inherent structures. This paper proposed an improved cuckoo searching-based Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing protocol (CSAODV). It elaborately designs the calculation methods of optimal routing algorithm used by protocol and transmission mechanism of communication-package. In calculation of optimal routing algorithm by CS Algorithm, by increasing QoS constraint, the found optimal routing algorithm can conform to the requirements of specified bandwidth and time delay, and a certain balance can be obtained among computation spending, bandwidth and time delay. Take advantage of NS2 simulation software to take performance test on protocol in three circumstances and validate the feasibility and validity of CSAODV protocol. In results, CSAODV routing protocol is more adapt to the change of network topological structure than AODV protocol, which improves package delivery fraction of protocol effectively, reduce the transmission time delay of network, reduce the extra burden to network brought by controlling information, and improve the routing efficiency of network.

  15. Protocol for emergency dosimetry based on phaners using EPR spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    dependence of properties following hair color was observed. Moreover, the significant influence of the conditions of irradiation and storage on the hair (in particular humidity), may limit the accuracy of the dose assessment. No specific sample preparation is required before measurement. Moreover, sample measurement can be performed within 5 minutes allowing measuring of a large number of samples in a very short delay.Taking into account sample specificities, it was possible to define an operational protocol for phaners specifically for emergency situation. The protocol can be divided in different stages. A first estimation can be done very quickly using averaged value of main characteristics (fading constant, radiation sensitivity, amplitude of background signal). In the next stages, the determination of the main constant values for each sample allows to increase the accuracy of the dose estimation. This study showed that it was possible, starting from EPR measurement of the phaners, to carry out a population triage according to the severity of the exposure, and to consider the dose received for the most irradiated victims, within a time and with uncertainties compatible with the management of accident. (authors)

  16. An Analysis of Energy Consumption on ACK+Rate Packet in Rate Based Transport Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Ganeshkumar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rate based transport protocol determines the rate of data transmission between the sender and receiver and then sends the data according to that rate. To notify the rate to the sender, the receiver sends ACK+Rate packet based on epoch timer expiry. In this paper, through detailed arguments and simulation it is shown that the transmission of ACK+Rate packet based on epoch timer expiry consumes more energy in network with low mobility. To overcome this problem, a new technique called Dynamic Rate Feedback (DRF is proposed. DRF sends ACK+Rate whenever there is a change in rate of ±25% than the previous rate. Based on ns2 simulation DRF is compared with ATP.Keywords- Ad hoc network, Ad hoc transport Protocol, Rate based transport protocols, energy consumption, Intermediate node

  17. Enhancing data exploitation through DTN-based data transmission protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglis, Ioannis A.; Tsaoussidis, Vassilis; Rontogiannis, Athanasios; Balasis, Georgios; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Paronis, Dimitrios; Sykioti, Olga; Tsinganos, Antonios

    2014-05-01

    Data distribution and data access are major issues in space sciences and geosciences as they strongly influence the degree of data exploitation. Processing and analysis of large volumes of Earth observation and space/planetary data face two major impediments: limited access capabilities due to narrow connectivity windows between spacecraft and ground receiving stations and lack of sufficient communication and dissemination mechanisms between space data receiving centres and the end-user community. Real-time data assimilation that would be critical in a number of forecasting capabilities is particularly affected by such limitations. The FP7-Space project "Space-Data Routers" (SDR) has the aim of allowing space agencies, academic institutes and research centres to disseminate/share space data generated by single or multiple missions, in an efficient, secure and automated manner. The approach of SDR relies on space internetworking - and in particular on Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN), which marks the new era in space communications, unifies space and earth communication infrastructures and delivers a set of tools and protocols for space-data exploitation. The project includes the definition of limitations imposed by typical space mission scenarios in which the National Observatory of Athens is currently involved, including space and planetary exploration, as well as satellite-supported geoscience applications. In this paper, we present the mission scenarios, the SDR-application and the evaluation of the associated impact from the space-data router enhancements. The work leading to this paper has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2010-1) under grant agreement no. 263330 for the SDR (Space-Data Routers for Exploiting Space Data) collaborative research project. This paper reflects only the authors' views and the Union is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

  18. A Technology Based Program That Matches Enrichment Resources With Student Strengths

    OpenAIRE

    J.S. Renzulli; S.M. Reis

    2007-01-01

    Remarkable advances in instructionalcommunication technology (ICT) have now made ispossible to provide high levels of enrichment and thekinds of curricular differentiation that facilitateadvanced learning services to students who have accessto a computer and the Internet. But in order tomaximize the potential if ICT it is necessary to constructprograms that are based on learning theory that goesbeyond the didactic and prescriptive models that haveresulted in too much worksheets-on-line and el...

  19. A Novel Trigon based Dual Authentication Protocol for Enhancing Security in Grid Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckmani, V

    2010-01-01

    In recent times, a necessity has been raised in order to distribute computing applications often across grids. These applications are dependent on the services like data transfer or data portal services as well as submission of jobs. Security is of utmost importance in grid computing applications as grid resources are heterogeneous, dynamic, and multidomain. Authentication remains as the significant security challenge in grid environment. In traditional authentication protocol a single server stores the sensitive user credentials, like username and password. When such a server is compromised, a large number of user passwords, will be exposed. Our proposed approach uses a dual authentication protocol in order to improve the authentication service in grid environment. The protocol utilizes the fundamental concepts of trigon and based on the parameters of the trigon the user authentication will be performed. In the proposed protocol, the password is interpreted and alienated into more than one unit and these uni...

  20. An Efficient Password Security of Multi-Party Key Exchange Protocol Based on ECDLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banshidhar Majhi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have proposed an efficient password security of multiparty Key Exchange Protocol based on Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem. Key exchange protocols allow a group of parties communicating over a public network to establish a common secret key called session key.Due to their significance by in building a secure communication channel, a number of key exchange protocols have been suggested over the years for a variety of settings.our Protocol is password authentication model, where group member are assumed to hold an individual password rather than a common password. Here we have taken two one-way hash functions to built the level of security high.

  1. Vehicle density based forwarding protocol for safety message broadcast in VANET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiawei; Huang, Yi; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), the medium access control (MAC) protocol is of great importance to provide time-critical safety applications. Contemporary multihop broadcast protocols in VANETs usually choose the farthest node in broadcast range as the forwarder to reduce the number of forwarding hops. However, in this paper, we demonstrate that the farthest forwarder may experience large contention delay in case of high vehicle density. We propose an IEEE 802.11-based multihop broadcast protocol VDF to address the issue of emergency message dissemination. To achieve the tradeoff between contention delay and forwarding hops, VDF adaptably chooses the forwarder according to the vehicle density. Simulation results show that, due to its ability to decrease the transmission collisions, the proposed protocol can provide significantly lower broadcast delay. PMID:25121125

  2. A decentralized fuzzy C-means-based energy-efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia, Osama Moh'd

    2014-01-01

    Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network's lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols. PMID:25162060

  3. A Decentralized Fuzzy C-Means-Based Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Moh’d Alia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network’s lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols.

  4. FHC-NCTSR: Node Centric Trust Based secure Hybrid Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasuna V G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To effectively support communication in such a dynamic networking environment as the ad hoc networks, the routing mechanisms should adapt to secure and trusted route discovery and service quality in data transmission. In this context, the paper proposed a routing protocol called Node Centric Trust based Secure Hybrid Routing Protocol [FHC-NCTSR] that opted to fixed hash chaining for data transmission and node centric trust strategy for secure route discovery. The route discovery is reactive in nature, in contrast to this, data transmission is proactive, hence the protocol FHC-NCTSR termed as hybrid routing protocol. The performance results obtained from simulation environment concluding that due to the fixed hash chaining technique opted by FHC-NCTSR, it is more than one order of magnitude faster than other hash chain based routing protocols such as SEAD in packet delivery. Due to the node centric strategy of route discovery that opted by FHC-NCTSR, it elevated as trusted one against to Rushing, Routing table modification and Tunneling attacks, in contrast other protocols failed to provide security for one or more attacks listed, example is ARIADNE that fails to protect from tunneling attack.

  5. Implementing an ultrasound-based protocol for diagnosingappendicitis while maintaining diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Atta, Angela J. [University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Baskin, Henry J.; Maves, Connie K.; Dansie, David M. [Primary Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Rollins, Michael D. [University of Utah School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bolte, Robert G. [University of Utah School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mundorff, Michael B.; Andrews, Seth P. [Primary Children' s Hospital, Systems Improvement, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The use of ultrasound to diagnose appendicitis in children is well-documented but not universally employed outside of pediatric academic centers, especially in the United States. Various obstacles make it difficult for institutions and radiologists to abandon a successful and accurate CT-based imaging protocol in favor of a US-based protocol. To describe how we overcame barriers to implementing a US-based appendicitis protocol among a large group of nonacademic private-practice pediatric radiologists while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and decreasing medical costs. A multidisciplinary team of physicians (pediatric surgery, pediatric emergency medicine and pediatric radiology) approved an imaging protocol using US as the primary modality to evaluate suspected appendicitis with CT for equivocal cases. The protocol addressed potential bias against US and accommodated for institutional limitations of radiologist and sonographer experience and availability. Radiologists coded US reports according to the probability of appendicitis. Radiology reports were compared with clinical outcomes to assess diagnostic accuracy. During the study period, physicians from each group were apprised of the interim US protocol accuracy results. Problematic cases were discussed openly. A total of 512 children were enrolled and underwent US for evaluation of appendicitis over a 30-month period. Diagnostic accuracy was comparable to published results for combined US/CT protocols. Comparing the first 12 months to the last 12 months of the study period, the proportion of children achieving an unequivocal US result increased from 30% (51/169) to 53% (149/282) and the proportion of children undergoing surgery based solely on US findings increased from 55% (23/42) to 84% (92/109). Overall, 63% (325/512) of patients in the protocol did not require a CT. Total patient costs were reduced by $30,182 annually. We overcame several barriers to implementing a US protocol. During the study period our

  6. A Novel Multi-Channel MAC Protocol for Cluster Based Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Longmei, Zhang

    An energy efficient, scalable and collision free MAC protocol, DTFMM, is presented in this paper, which combines frequency and time division principles for medium sharing. It is based on clustered network topology, and the protocol employs a distributed local coordinate algorithm for assigning channels among clusters to enable simultaneous non-interfering data collection. Intra-cluster transmissions are scheduled by cluster head (CH) based on time slot. CHs aggregate the gathered data and forward it over inter-CH paths to the base-station based on minimum spanning tree routing. Distinct channels are adopted by the independent branches of the inter-CH routing tree. Data transmission on a branch is further scheduled in depth-first ordering. DTFMM allows nodes to stay in sleeping mode for the longest duration and thus it minimizes energy consumption. Simulation demonstrated superiority of DTFMM in terms of convergent rate, throughput and delay performance when compared with well-known protocol MMSN.

  7. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF POSITION-BASED ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN VEHICLE-TOVEHICLE (V2V COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJOY DAS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs is the new wireless networking concept of the wireless ad hoc networks in the research community. Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V communication plays a significant role in providing a high level of safety and convenience to drivers and passengers. Routing in VANET is a major challenge and research area. Position based routing protocol has been identified to be suitable for VANETs because of frequently changed network topology and highly dynamic nature of vehicular nodes. Many position based routing protocols have been developed for routing messages in greedy orwarding way in VANETs. However, few of them are efficient when the network is highly dynamic. In this paper, we present an overview andqualitative comparison of existing position based routing protocols that are based on the position prediction of neighboring and destination nodes. We evaluate the performance metrics such as end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio using NS-2 simulator.

  8. INTEROPERABILITY, TRUST BASED INFORMATION SHARING PROTOCOL AND SECURITY: DIGITAL GOVERNMENT KEY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Headayetullah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved interoperability between public and private organizations is of key significance to make digitalgovernment newest triumphant. Digital Government interoperability, information sharing protocol andsecurity are measured the key issue for achieving a refined stage of digital government. Flawlessinteroperability is essential to share the information between diverse and merely dispersed organisationsin several network environments by using computer based tools. Digital government must ensure securityfor its information systems, including computers and networks for providing better service to the citizens.Governments around the world are increasingly revolving to information sharing and integration forsolving problems in programs and policy areas. Evils of global worry such as syndrome discovery andmanage, terror campaign, immigration and border control, prohibited drug trafficking, and more demandinformation sharing, harmonization and cooperation amid government agencies within a country andacross national borders. A number of daunting challenges survive to the progress of an efficientinformation sharing protocol. A secure and trusted information-sharing protocol is required to enableusers to interact and share information easily and perfectly across many diverse networks and databasesglobally. This article presents (1 literature review of digital government security and interoperabilityand, (2 key research issue trust based information sharing protocol for seamless interoperability amongdiverse government organizations or agencies around the world. While trust-based information access iswell studied in the literature, presented secure information sharing technologies and protocols cannotoffer enough incentives for government agencies to share information amid them without harming theirown national interest. To overcome the drawbacks of the exiting technology, an innovative and proficienttrust-based security protocol is proposed in this

  9. Gossip Based Routing Protocol Design for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A spontaneously mannered decentralized network with no formal infrastructure and limited in temporal and spatial extent where each node communicate with each other over a wireless channel and is willing to forward data for other nodes is called as Wireless Ad Hoc network. In this research study, we proposed a routing strategy based on gossip based routing approach that follows the proactive routing with some treatment for wireless Ad Hoc network. The analytical verification of our proposed idea shows that it is a better approach based on gossip routing.

  10. What does it cost to deliver information using position-based beaconless forwarding protocols?

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2012-04-01

    Beaconless position-based forwarding protocols have recently evolved as a promising solution for packet forwarding in wireless sensor networks. Quite a few variants of this class of forwarding protocols have been proposed over the years. One common observation is that they have all been evaluated from the perspective of a single node. Although useful, but a solid understanding of the end-to-end performance is still necessary. In this paper, we shed light on the end-to-end performance of beaconless position-based protocols along three distinct dimensions: energy, latency, and back-off probability. The latter is used as a direct indicator of the network\\'s transport capacity. Consequently, we are able to provide an elaborate response to the question: what does it really cost to deliver a packet in a wireless sensor network using position-based beaconless forwarding protocols? In responding to this question, we highlighted the different performance tradeoffs inherent to beaconless position-based protocols. Furthermore, some operational recommendations are also provided. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. A Multiple-Dimensional Tree Routing Protocol for Multisink Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Ant Colony Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Zhou; Dongliang Qing; Xiaomei Zhang; Honglin Yuan; Chen Xu

    2012-01-01

    Routing protocol is an important topic in the wireless sensor networks. For MultiSink wireless sensor networks, the routing protocol designs and implementations are more difficult due to the structure complexity. The paper deals with the problem of a multiple-dimensional tree routing protocol for multisink wireless sensor networks based on ant colony optimization. The proposed protocol is as follows: (1) listening mechanism is used to establish and maintain multidimensional tree routing topol...

  12. A novel approach for ID distribution problem in Tree-based tag anti-collision protocols of RFID systems

    OpenAIRE

    Milad HajMirzaei

    2013-01-01

    Tag collision is one of the most important issues in RFID systems and many tag anti-collision protocolswere proposed in literature. But some kind of these protocols like Tree-based protocols (specifically Querytree) which its performance depends on tag ID length and construction, have some issues like IDdistribution. In this paper we discuss about Query tree protocol which may influenced by ID distribution.Then we propose a novel type of this protocol called Informatics Query tree to solve it...

  13. Pros and cons of methylation-based enrichment methods for ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Gamba, Cristina; Der Sarkissian, Clio;

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery that DNA methylation survives in fossil material provides an opportunity for novel molecular approaches in palaeogenomics. Here, we apply to ancient DNA extracts the probe-independent Methylated Binding Domains (MBD)-based enrichment method, which targets DNA molecules...... containing methylated CpGs. Using remains of a Palaeo-Eskimo Saqqaq individual, woolly mammoths, polar bears and two equine species, we confirm that DNA methylation survives in a variety of tissues, environmental contexts and over a large temporal range (4,000 to over 45,000 years before present). MBD...... enrichment, however, appears principally biased towards the recovery of CpG-rich and long DNA templates and is limited by the fast post-mortem cytosine deamination rates of methylated epialleles. This method, thus, appears only appropriate for the analysis of ancient methylomes from very well preserved...

  14. A Language-Based Approach for Improving the Robustness of Network Application Protocol Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgy, Laurent; Reveillere, Laurent; Lawall, Julia Laetitia;

    2007-01-01

    -specific language, Zebu, for generating robust and efficient message processing layers. A Zebu specification, based on the notation used in RFCs, describes protocol message formats and related processing constraints. Zebu-based applications are efficient, since message fragments can be specified to be processed...

  15. Simulation Based: Study and Analysis of Routing Protocol in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali D. Khairnar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET consists of vehicles which communicate with each other and exchange data via wireless communication links available between the vehicles which are in communication ranges of vehicles to improve the road safety in city. The communication between vehicles is used to provide road safety, comfort and entertainment. The performance of communication depends on how better routing takes place in the network. Routing data between the source and destination vehicle depends on the routing protocols being used in vehicular ad-hoc network. In this simulation based study we investigated about different ad hoc routing protocols for vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET. The main goal of our study was to identify which ad hoc routing protocol has better performance in highly mobile environment of vehicular ad-hoc network. We have measured the performance of routing protocols using 802.11p in vehicular ad-hoc network in which we considered the scenario of city (i.e. Route between Nerul and Vashi where we have take 1200 different types of vehicles and checked their performance. Routing protocols are selected after the literature review. The selected protocols are then evaluated through simulation under 802.11p in terms of performance metrics (i.e PDR & E2E delay

  16. A Novel Trigon-based Dual Authentication Protocol for Enhancing Security in Grid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ruckmani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, a necessity has been raised in order to distribute computing applications often across grids. These applications are dependent on the services like data transfer or data portal services as well as submission of jobs. Security is of utmost importance in grid computing applications as grid resources are heterogeneous, dynamic, and multi-domain. Authentication remains as the significant security challenge in grid environment. In traditional authentication protocol a single server stores the sensitive user credentials, like username and password. When such a server is compromised, a large number of user passwords, will be exposed. Our proposed approach uses a dual authentication protocol in order to improve the authentication service in grid environment. The protocol utilizes the fundamental concepts of trigon and based on the parameters of the trigon the user authentication will be performed. In the proposed protocol, the password is interpreted and alienated into more than one unit and these units are stored in two different servers, namely, Authentication Server and Backend Server. Only when the combined authentication scheme from both the servers authenticates the user, the privilege of accessing the requested resources is obtained by the user. The main advantage of utilizing the dual authentication protocol in grid computing is that an adversary user cannot attain the access privilege by compromising a single consolidated server because of the fact that the split password is stored in different servers.Keywords- Dual authentication; authentication protocol; trigon parameters; authentication code; grid computing; grid security;

  17. Highly Scalable, UDP-Based Network Transport Protocols for Lambda Grids and 10 GE Routed Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PI: Robert Grossman Co-PI: Stephen Eick

    2009-08-04

    Summary of Report In work prior to this grant, NCDM developed a high performance data transport protocol called SABUL. During this grant, we refined SABUL’s functionality, and then extended both the capabilities and functionality and incorporated them into a new protocol called UDP-based Data transport Protocol, or UDT. We also began preliminary work on Composable UDT, a version of UDT that allows the user to choose among different congestion control algorithms and implement the algorithm of his choice at the time he compiles the code. Specifically, we: · Investigated the theoretical foundations of protocols similar to SABUL and UDT. · Performed design and development work of UDT, a protocol that uses UDP in both the data and control channels. · Began design and development work of Composable UDT, a protocol that supports the use of different congestion control algorithms by simply including the appropriate library when compiling the code. · Performed experimental studies using UDT and Composable UDT using real world applications such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) astronomical data sets. · Released several versions of UDT and Composable, the most recent being v3.1.

  18. Improved IKE Protocol Design Based On PKI/ECC

    OpenAIRE

    Song-Ho, Pak; Myong-Suk, Pak; Chung-Hyok, Jang

    2016-01-01

    This Paper proposes an ECDH key exchange method and an ECsig Digital Signature Authentication method based on group with Koblits curve, man-in-the-middle attack prevention method for SA payload and initiator identification payload to design high intensity IKE that can be implemented in portable devices.

  19. A School-Based Suicide Risk Assessment Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccio, Dana E.

    2015-01-01

    Suicide remains the third leading cause of death among young people in the United States. Considering that youth who contemplate suicide generally exhibit warning signs before engaging in lethal self-harm, school-based mental health professionals can play a vital role in identifying students who are at risk for suicidal behavior. Nevertheless, the…

  20. Graph- versus Vector-Based Analysis of a Consensus Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delzanno, Giorgio; Rensink, Arend; Traverso, Riccardo; Bošnački, Dragan; Edelkamp, Stefan; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto; Wijs, Anton

    2014-01-01

    The Paxos distributed consensus algorithm is a challenging case-study for standard, vector-based model checking techniques. Due to asynchronous communication, exhaustive analysis may generate very large state spaces already for small model instances. In this paper, we show the advantages of graph tr

  1. School-Based Methylphenidate Placebo Protocols: Methodological and Practical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Irwin A.; Wojtowicz, Alexandra; Lee, Kee Duk; Haffner, Mary Elizabeth; Fiorello, Catherine A.; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on methodological issues involved in choosing instruments to monitor behavior, once a comprehensive evaluation has suggested trials on Ritalin. Case examples illustrate problems of teacher compliance in filling out measures, supplying adequate placebos, and obtaining physical cooperation. Emerging school-based methodologies are discussed…

  2. Multi-Gateway-Based Energy Holes Avoidance Routing Protocol for WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Sharma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, efficient energy conservation is required to prolong the lifetime of the network. In this work, we have given emphasis on balanced energy consumption and energy holes avoidance. This paper proposes a multi-gateway-based approach to reduce the transmission distance between the sender and the sink node. The area to be monitored is divided into regions and gateway nodes are deployed at optimal positions. We have designed a transmission scheme, in which sensors in the sink region communicate directly to the sink, sensors in the gateway region communicate directly to the gateway, and sensors in the cluster region transmit their data directly to their respective cluster head which transmits data to the gateway in its region. If the distance between a cluster head and the sink is less than the distance between the cluster head and the gateway node, the cluster head transmits data to the sink instead of the gateway node. We have compared the proposed protocol with Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH, Gateway Based Energy Aware Multi-Hop Routing (M-GEAR, and Gateway Based Stable Election Protocol (GSEP protocols. The protocol performs better than other protocols in terms of throughput, stability period, lifetime, residual energy, and the packet transmitted to the sink.

  3. A Unidirectional Split-key Based Signature Protocol with Encrypted Function in Mobile Code Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAOFuyou; YANGShoubao; XIONGYan; HUABei; WANGXingfu

    2005-01-01

    In mobile code environment, signing private keys are liable to be exposed; visited hosts are susceptible to be attacked by all kinds of vicious mobile codes, therefore a signer often sends remote nodes mobile codes containing an encrypted signature function to complete a signature. The paper first presents a unidirectional split-key scheme for private key protection based on RSA, which is more simple and secure than secret sharing; and then proposes a split-key based signature protocol with encrypted function, which is traceable, undeniable and malignance resistant. Security analysis shows that the protocol can effectively protect the signing private key and complete secure signatures in mobile code environment.

  4. Zone Based Routing Protocol for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Taruna, S; Jain Kusum Lata; Purohit G.N

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks, are made of low-cost, low -power, small in size, and multifunctional sensor nodes. The efficient energy utilization is one of t he important performance factors for wireless senso r networks survivability be-cause nodes operate with limited battery power. In this paper we propose and analyze a new approach of zone based clustering hea d selection algorithm for wireless sensor network o f hom...

  5. A statistical frame based TDMA protocol for human body communication

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Zedong; Li, Zhao; Huang, Renwei; Liu, Yuhang; Li, Jingzhen; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background Human body communication (HBC) using the human body as the transmission medium, which has been regarded as one of the most promising short-range communications in wireless body area networks (WBAN). Compared to the traditional wireless networks, two challenges are existed in HBC based WBAN. (1) Its sensor nodes should be energy saving since it is inconvenient to replace or recharge the battery on these sensor nodes; (2) the coordinator should be able to react dynamically and rapidl...

  6. Management of Energy Consumption on Cluster Based Routing Protocol for MANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Seno, Seyed-Amin; Wan, Tat-Chee; Budiarto, Rahmat; Yamada, Masashi

    The usage of light-weight mobile devices is increasing rapidly, leading to demand for more telecommunication services. Consequently, mobile ad hoc networks and their applications have become feasible with the proliferation of light-weight mobile devices. Many protocols have been developed to handle service discovery and routing in ad hoc networks. However, the majority of them did not consider one critical aspect of this type of network, which is the limited of available energy in each node. Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) is a robust/scalable routing protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and superior to existing protocols such as Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) in terms of throughput and overhead. Therefore, based on this strength, methods to increase the efficiency of energy usage are incorporated into CBRP in this work. In order to increase the stability (in term of life-time) of the network and to decrease the energy consumption of inter-cluster gateway nodes, an Enhanced Gateway Cluster Based Routing Protocol (EGCBRP) is proposed. Three methods have been introduced by EGCBRP as enhancements to the CBRP: improving the election of cluster Heads (CHs) in CBRP which is based on the maximum available energy level, implementing load balancing for inter-cluster traffic using multiple gateways, and implementing sleep state for gateway nodes to further save the energy. Furthermore, we propose an Energy Efficient Cluster Based Routing Protocol (EECBRP) which extends the EGCBRP sleep state concept into all idle member nodes, excluding the active nodes in all clusters. The experiment results show that the EGCBRP decreases the overall energy consumption of the gateway nodes up to 10% and the EECBRP reduces the energy consumption of the member nodes up to 60%, both of which in turn contribute to stabilizing the network.

  7. Cooperative Communication Protocol based on Relay Node Grouping in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmyeng Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.11a/b/g standards support multiple data rates. Although the use of multiple data rates increases the capacity of wireless networks, it can lead to a performance anomaly problem. Cooperative communication for wireless networks has attracted considerable interest owing to its ability to mitigate this performance anomaly problem. In cooperative communication, a number of relay nodes support a source node in the forwarding of data packets to a destination node. If the direct transmission of a data packet between a source node and a destination node is not successful, the overheard data packet from the source node is forwarded by relay nodes to the destination node. Several MAC (Medium Access Control protocols have been proposed for cooperative communication in wireless networks. A number of these can result in collisions among the relay nodes in a dense network. Further, cooperative communication can be interrupted by other nodes. To resolve these problems, we propose a new cooperative protocol. In the proposed protocol, relay nodes are divided into several groups based on their data rates. Then, to limit the number of contending relay nodes, only the relay nodes in the highest group are selected. Collisions among the selected relay nodes are resolved based on a backoff mechanism. The proposed protocol ensures that cooperative communication is not interrupted by other nodes by implementing a busy signal and NAV (Network Allocation Vector. The proposed protocol can reduce the collision probability and increase the network performance. Performance evaluation is conducted using simulation, and confirms that the proposed protocol significantly outperforms the previous protocol in terms of throughput, collision probability, and delay.

  8. Huntahan* vocab assessment toward enriching mother tongue-based classroom practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacho Reynald M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This two-phase action research examined the profile and knowledge level of Grade III pupils about their knowledge on the distinct local vocabularies in order to formulate enrichment or intervention, to address any deficiency or lack of, and to assess whether such enrichment programs are effective for authentic, localized implementation of the MTB-MLE. The research instruments used in the first phase included survey and vocabulary assessment test. The researchers initially employed descriptive statistics to interpret the result. Majority of the respondents have established residency in Lopez, Quezon for at least four years. All of the pupils speak Tagalog only at home. The first phase of the research revealed that the pupils of Lopez West Elementary School Bldg. 1 performed satisfactorily in the language test. Most of them found that the most difficult words are generally content words. The initial results of this study serve as baseline information implying that the pupils’ level of understanding of the Lopezeños words needs enhancement and/or reinforcements; hence, there is an urgent need to implement the 2nd cycle of this action research. The second phase once implemented seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention and/or enrichment activities that may guide language teachers in the conduct of classroom-based, culturally sensitive, contextualized language instruction.

  9. Gene Ontology and KEGG Pathway Enrichment Analysis of a Drug Target-Based Classification System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    Full Text Available Drug-target interaction (DTI is a key aspect in pharmaceutical research. With the ever-increasing new drug data resources, computational approaches have emerged as powerful and labor-saving tools in predicting new DTIs. However, so far, most of these predictions have been based on structural similarities rather than biological relevance. In this study, we proposed for the first time a "GO and KEGG enrichment score" method to represent a certain category of drug molecules by further classification and interpretation of the DTI database. A benchmark dataset consisting of 2,015 drugs that are assigned to nine categories ((1 G protein-coupled receptors, (2 cytokine receptors, (3 nuclear receptors, (4 ion channels, (5 transporters, (6 enzymes, (7 protein kinases, (8 cellular antigens and (9 pathogens was constructed by collecting data from KEGG. We analyzed each category and each drug for its contribution in GO terms and KEGG pathways using the popular feature selection "minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR" method, and key GO terms and KEGG pathways were extracted. Our analysis revealed the top enriched GO terms and KEGG pathways of each drug category, which were highly enriched in the literature and clinical trials. Our results provide for the first time the biological relevance among drugs, targets and biological functions, which serves as a new basis for future DTI predictions.

  10. A Protocol for Content-Based Communication in Disconnected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Haillot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In content-based communication, information flows towards interested hosts rather than towards specifically set destinations. This new style of communication perfectly fits the needs of applications dedicated to information sharing, news distribution, service advertisement and discovery, etc. In this paper we address the problem of supporting content-based communication in partially or intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The protocol we designed leverages on the concepts of opportunistic networking and delay-tolerant networking in order to account for the absence of end-to-end connectivity in disconnected MANETs. The paper provides an overview of the protocol, as well as simulation results that show how this protocol can perform in realistic conditions.

  11. Hybrid Weighted-based Clustering Routing Protocol for Railway Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Xie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a hybrid clustering routing strategy is proposed for railway emergency ad hoc network, when GSM-R base stations are destroyed or some terminals (or nodes are far from the signal coverage. In this case, the cluster-head (CH election procedure is invoked on-demand, which takes into consideration the degree difference from the ideal degree, relative clustering stability, the sum of distance between the node and it’s one-hop neighbors, consumed power, node type and node mobility. For the clustering forming, the weights for the CH election parameters are allocated rationally by rough set theory. The hybrid weighted-based clustering routing (HWBCR strategy is designed for railway emergency communication scene, which aims to get a good trade-off between the computation costs and performances. The simulation platform is constructed to evaluate the performance of our strategy in terms of the average end-to-end delay, packet loss ratio, routing overhead and average throughput. The results, by comparing with the railway communication QoS index, reveal that our strategy is suitable for transmitting dispatching voice and data between train and ground, when the train speed is less than 220km/h

  12. A Swarm Intelligent Algorithm Based Route Maintaining Protocol for Mobile Sink Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that mobile sink can be a solution to solve the problem that energy consumption of sensor nodes is not balanced in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Caused by the sink mobility, the paths between the sensor nodes and the sink change frequently and have profound influence on the lifetime of WSN. It is necessary to design a protocol that can find efficient routings between the mobile sink and nodes but does not consume too many network resources. In this paper, we propose a swarm intelligent algorithm based route maintaining protocol to resolve this issue. The protocol utilizes the concentric ring mechanism to guide the route researching direction and adopts the optimal routing selection to maintain the data delivery route in mobile sink WSN. Using the immune based artificial bee colony (IABC algorithm to optimize the forwarding path, the routing maintaining protocol could find an alternative routing path quickly and efficiently when the coordinate of sink is changed in WSN. The results of our extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed route maintaining protocol is able to balance the network traffic load and prolong the network lifetime.

  13. An adaptive OFDMA-based MAC protocol for underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Issa M; Gadallah, Yasser; Hayajneh, Mohammad; Khreishah, Abdallah

    2012-01-01

    Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks (UAWSNs) have many applications across various civilian and military domains. However, they suffer from the limited available bandwidth of acoustic signals and harsh underwater conditions. In this work, we present an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)-based Media Access Control (MAC) protocol that is configurable to suit the operating requirements of the underwater sensor network. The protocol has three modes of operation, namely random, equal opportunity and energy-conscious modes of operation. Our MAC design approach exploits the multi-path characteristics of a fading acoustic channel to convert it into parallel independent acoustic sub-channels that undergo flat fading. Communication between node pairs within the network is done using subsets of these sub-channels, depending on the configurations of the active mode of operation. Thus, the available limited bandwidth gets fully utilized while completely avoiding interference. We derive the mathematical model for optimal power loading and subcarrier selection, which is used as basis for all modes of operation of the protocol. We also conduct many simulation experiments to evaluate and compare our protocol with other Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)-based MAC protocols.

  14. An Adaptive OFDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa M. Khalil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks (UAWSNs have many applications across various civilian and military domains. However, they suffer from the limited available bandwidth of acoustic signals and harsh underwater conditions. In this work, we present an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA-based Media Access Control (MAC protocol that is configurable to suit the operating requirements of the underwater sensor network. The protocol has three modes of operation, namely random, equal opportunity and energy-conscious modes of operation. Our MAC design approach exploits the multi-path characteristics of a fading acoustic channel to convert it into parallel independent acoustic sub-channels that undergo flat fading. Communication between node pairs within the network is done using subsets of these sub-channels, depending on the configurations of the active mode of operation. Thus, the available limited bandwidth gets fully utilized while completely avoiding interference. We derive the mathematical model for optimal power loading and subcarrier selection, which is used as basis for all modes of operation of the protocol. We also conduct many simulation experiments to evaluate and compare our protocol with other Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA-based MAC protocols.

  15. Design of an Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for MANETs based on AODV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna P Patil

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs also called mesh networks are self-configuring networks of mobile devices connected by wireless links. MANETs are deployed in situations where there is no existing infrastructure, such as emergency search and rescue, military, etc. Each application has a different set of requirements. In this paper we concentrate on emergency search and rescue operations which rely heavily on the availability of the network. The availability is a direct cost of the overall network lifetime, i.e., energy of the nodes. The first objective of our work is to select two existing energy efficient routing protocols based on AODV, each of which is based on a different energy cost metric. We then propose the design of a protocol that is a combination of two energy cost metrics in a single protocol. The second objective is to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol against the two protocols chosen for combination and against the traditional AODV. The performance metrics used for evaluation are packet delivery ratio, throughput, network lifetime and average energy consumed. The simulation will be done using NS2 network simulator.

  16. Fully Integrated Passive UHF RFID Tag for Hash-Based Mutual Authentication Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shugo Mikami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive radio-frequency identification (RFID tag has been used in many applications. While the RFID market is expected to grow, concerns about security and privacy of the RFID tag should be overcome for the future use. To overcome these issues, privacy-preserving authentication protocols based on cryptographic algorithms have been designed. However, to the best of our knowledge, evaluation of the whole tag, which includes an antenna, an analog front end, and a digital processing block, that runs authentication protocols has not been studied. In this paper, we present an implementation and evaluation of a fully integrated passive UHF RFID tag that runs a privacy-preserving mutual authentication protocol based on a hash function. We design a single chip including the analog front end and the digital processing block. We select a lightweight hash function supporting 80-bit security strength and a standard hash function supporting 128-bit security strength. We show that when the lightweight hash function is used, the tag completes the protocol with a reader-tag distance of 10 cm. Similarly, when the standard hash function is used, the tag completes the protocol with the distance of 8.5 cm. We discuss the impact of the peak power consumption of the tag on the distance of the tag due to the hash function.

  17. An Adaptive OFDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Issa M.; Gadallah, Yasser; Hayajneh, Mohammad; Khreishah, Abdallah

    2012-01-01

    Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks (UAWSNs) have many applications across various civilian and military domains. However, they suffer from the limited available bandwidth of acoustic signals and harsh underwater conditions. In this work, we present an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)-based Media Access Control (MAC) protocol that is configurable to suit the operating requirements of the underwater sensor network. The protocol has three modes of operation, namely random, equal opportunity and energy-conscious modes of operation. Our MAC design approach exploits the multi-path characteristics of a fading acoustic channel to convert it into parallel independent acoustic sub-channels that undergo flat fading. Communication between node pairs within the network is done using subsets of these sub-channels, depending on the configurations of the active mode of operation. Thus, the available limited bandwidth gets fully utilized while completely avoiding interference. We derive the mathematical model for optimal power loading and subcarrier selection, which is used as basis for all modes of operation of the protocol. We also conduct many simulation experiments to evaluate and compare our protocol with other Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)-based MAC protocols. PMID:23012517

  18. Fuzzy Based Energy Efficient Multiple Cluster Head Selection Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohel Rana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is made up with small batteries powered sensor devices with lim-ited energy resources within it. These sensor nodes are used to monitor physical or environmental conditions and to pass their data through the wireless network to the main location. One of the crucial issues in wireless sensor network is to create a more energy efficient system. Clustering is one kind of mechanism in Wireless Sensor Networks to prolong the network lifetime and to reduce network energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol called Fuzzy Based Energy Effi-cient Multiple Cluster Head Selection Routing Protocol (FEMCHRP for Wireless Sensor Network. The routing process involves the Clustering of nodes and the selection of Cluster Head (CH nodes of these clusters which sends all the information to the Cluster Head Leader (CHL. After that, the cluster head leaders send aggregated data to the Base Station (BS. The selection of cluster heads and cluster head leaders is performed by using fuzzy logic and the data transmission process is performed by shortest energy path which is selected applying Dijkstra Algorithm. The simulation results of this research are compared with other protocols BCDCP, CELRP and ECHERP to evaluate the performance of the proposed routing protocol. The evaluation concludes that the proposed routing protocol is better in prolonging network lifetime and balancing energy consumption.

  19. A Structure-Based Design Protocol for Optimizing Combinatorial Protein Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Mark W; Snow, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Protein variant libraries created via site-directed mutagenesis are a powerful approach to engineer improved proteins for numerous applications such as altering enzyme substrate specificity. Conventional libraries commonly use a brute force approach: saturation mutagenesis via degenerate codons that encode all 20 natural amino acids. In contrast, this chapter describes a protocol for designing "smarter" degenerate codon libraries via direct combinatorial optimization in "library space." Several case studies illustrate how it is possible to design degenerate codon libraries that are highly enriched for favorable, low-energy sequences as assessed using a standard all-atom scoring function. There is much to gain for experimental protein engineering laboratories willing to think beyond site saturation mutagenesis. In the common case that the exact experimental screening budget is not fixed, it is particularly helpful to perform a Pareto analysis to inspect favorable libraries at a range of possible library sizes. PMID:27094288

  20. A Structure-Based Design Protocol for Optimizing Combinatorial Protein Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Mark W; Snow, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Protein variant libraries created via site-directed mutagenesis are a powerful approach to engineer improved proteins for numerous applications such as altering enzyme substrate specificity. Conventional libraries commonly use a brute force approach: saturation mutagenesis via degenerate codons that encode all 20 natural amino acids. In contrast, this chapter describes a protocol for designing "smarter" degenerate codon libraries via direct combinatorial optimization in "library space." Several case studies illustrate how it is possible to design degenerate codon libraries that are highly enriched for favorable, low-energy sequences as assessed using a standard all-atom scoring function. There is much to gain for experimental protein engineering laboratories willing to think beyond site saturation mutagenesis. In the common case that the exact experimental screening budget is not fixed, it is particularly helpful to perform a Pareto analysis to inspect favorable libraries at a range of possible library sizes.

  1. Engineering protein therapeutics: predictive performances of a structure-based virtual affinity maturation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Michael; Kroemer, Romano; Mikol, Vincent; Minoux, Hervé; Tastan, Erdogan; Baurin, Nicolas

    2012-08-27

    The implementation of a structure based virtual affinity maturation protocol and evaluation of its predictivity are presented. The in silico protocol is based on conformational sampling of the interface residues (using the Dead End Elimination/A* algorithm), followed by the estimation of the change of free energy of binding due to a point mutation, applying MM/PBSA calculations. Several implementations of the protocol have been evaluated for 173 mutations in 7 different protein complexes for which experimental data were available: the use of the Boltzamnn averaged predictor based on the free energy of binding (ΔΔG(*)) combined with the one based on its polar component only (ΔΔE(pol*)) led to the proposal of a subset of mutations out of which 45% would have successfully enhanced the binding. When focusing on those mutations that are less likely to be introduced by natural in vivo maturation methods (99 mutations with at least two base changes in the codon), the success rate is increased to 63%. In another evaluation, focusing on 56 alanine scanning mutations, the in silico protocol was able to detect 89% of the hot-spots. PMID:22788756

  2. nPAKE+:A Tree-Based Group Password-Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol Using Different Passwords

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-guo Wan; Robert H. Deng; Feng Bao; Bart Preneel; Ming Gu

    2009-01-01

    Although two-party password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE) protocols have been intensively studied in recent years, group PAKE protocols have received little attention. In this paper, we propose a tree-based group PAKE protocol -- nPAKE+ protocol under the setting where each party shares an independent password with a trusted server. The nPAKE+ protocol is a novel combination of the hierarchical key tree structure and the password-based Diffie-Hellman exchange, and hence it achieves substantial gain in computation efficiency. In particular, the computation cost for each client in our protocol is only O(log n). Additionally, the hierarchical feature of nPAKE+ enables every subgroup to obtain its own subgroup key in the end. We also prove the security of our protocol under the random oracle model and the ideal cipher model.

  3. A novel approach for ID distribution problem in Tree-based tag anti-collision protocols of RFID systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad HajMirzaei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tag collision is one of the most important issues in RFID systems and many tag anti-collision protocolswere proposed in literature. But some kind of these protocols like Tree-based protocols (specifically Querytree which its performance depends on tag ID length and construction, have some issues like IDdistribution. In this paper we discuss about Query tree protocol which may influenced by ID distribution.Then we propose a novel type of this protocol called Informatics Query tree to solve it. Then we evaluatethe performance of presented protocol to approve its benefits.

  4. Transmission Time and Throughput analysis of EEE LEACH, LEACH and Direct Transmission Protocol: A Simulation Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Sharma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief description about some routing protocols like EEE LEACH, LEACH and DirectTransmission protocol (DTx in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN and a comparison study of theseprotocols based on some performance matrices. Addition to this an attempt is done to calculate theirtransmission time and throughput. To calculate these, MATLAB environment is used. Finally, on the basisof the obtained results from the simulation, the above mentioned three protocols are compared. Thecomparison results show that, the EEE LEACH routing protocol has a greater transmission time thanLEACH and DTx protocol and with smaller throughput

  5. Transmission Time and Throughput analysis of EEE LEACH, LEACH and Direct Transmission Protocol: A Simulation Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Sharma

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief description about some routing protocols like EEE LEACH, LEACH and DirectTransmission protocol (DTx in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN and a comparison study of theseprotocols based on some performance matrices. Addition to this an attempt is done to calculate theirtransmission time and throughput. To calculate these, MATLAB environment is used. Finally, on the basisof the obtained results from the simulation, the above mentioned three protocols are compared. Thecomparison results show that, the EEE LEACH routing protocol has a greater transmission time thanLEACH and DTx protocol and with smaller throughput.

  6. Alveolar corticotomy: a new surgical approach based on bone activation: principle and protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitbois, Renaud; Scortecci, Gérard

    2012-12-01

    Alveolar corticotomy has proven effective in shortening orthodontic treatments in adults. A new non-invasive and flapless surgical approach has, however, yielded the same results. This technique, based on prior osteogenic alveoli preparation, entails neither anatomical risk nor post-op pain. The present article describes this new protocol and uses a case report to illustrate it. PMID:23164922

  7. Improving International-Level Chess Players' Performance with an Acceptance-Based Protocol: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Francisco J.; Luciano, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This study compared an individual, 4-hr intervention based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) versus a no-contact control condition in improving the performance of international-level chess players. Five participants received the brief ACT protocol, with each matched to another chess player with similar characteristics in the control…

  8. Synchronization of ovulation in goats using prostaglandin F2α based protocols during the breeding season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    João Simões

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this review was to describe the feasibility of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)based protocols used as a tool for ovulation synchronization in cycling goats. There is a reproductive seasonality in small ruminants. However, from latitudes 45° towards equator, the intensity of anoestrus progressively decreases and tends to disappear in local breeds. Consequently, PGF2α or their synthetic analogues as luteolytic substances can assume a great importance in reproductive management of flocks from these regions. However, a single or double (9–11 days apart)PGF2α administration provokes a good induction but a moderate synchronization of ovulations if timed artificial insemination is considered, and a significant short oestrous cycle can occur with detrimental effects on fertility rate when compared with conventional progesterone-based protocols. In order to minimize this constraint, some gonadotropin-releasing hormone-PGF2α-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Ovsynch)-based protocols and their modifications, manipulating the dominant follicles and corpora lutea, were successfully tested in goats. Similar to cows, thesePGF2α based protocols seem to be a promising and more cost-effective tool for reproductive management in cycling goats.

  9. Synchronization of ovulation in goats using prostaglandin F2α based protocols during the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Simões

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this review was to describe the feasibility of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α based protocols used as a tool for ovulation synchronization in cycling goats. There is a reproductive seasonality in small ruminants. However, from latitudes 45 ° towards equator, the intensity of anoestrus progressively decreases and tends to disappear in local breeds. Consequently, PGF2α or their synthetic analogues as luteolytic substances can assume a great importance in reproductive management of flocks from these regions. However, a single or double (9–11 days apart PGF2α administration provokes a good induction but a moderate synchronization of ovulations if timed artificial insemination is considered, and a significant short oestrous cycle can occur with detrimental effects on fertility rate when compared with conventional progesterone-based protocols. In order to minimize this constraint, some gonadotropinreleasing hormone-PGF2α-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Ovsynch-based protocols and their modifications, manipulating the dominant follicles and corpora lutea, were successfully tested in goats. Similar to cows, these PGF2α based protocols seem to be a promising and more cost-effective tool for reproductive management in cycling goats.

  10. Rheology, fatty acid profile and quality characteristics of nutrient enriched pizza base

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Chaitali Sen; Milind; Jeyarani, T.; Rajiv, Jyotsna

    2014-01-01

    Enrichment of thick bread type pizza base (PZB) was done by substituting wheat flour (WF) with 5, 10 and 15 % soya protein isolate (SPI). The rheological characteristics of WF showed that water absorption increased, extensibility and peak viscosity decreased when level of SPI increased from 5 to 15 %. Baking studies showed that spread ratio decreased and hardness values of PZB increased with the increase in amount of SPI from 5 to15 %. Beyond 10 % SPI, the overall quality of PZB was adversely...

  11. AIF-ω: Set-Based Protocol Abstraction with Countable Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Bruni, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstraction based approaches like ProVerif are very efficient in protocol verification, but have a limitation in dealing with stateful protocols. A number of extensions have been proposed to allow for a limited amount of state information while not destroying the advantages of the abstraction...... this limitation by abstracting state into countable families of sets. We can then formalize a problem with unbounded agents, where each agent maintains its own set of keys. Still, our method does not loose the benefits of the abstraction approach, in particular, it translates a verification problem to a set...

  12. A Cluster-Based Random Key Revocation Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Jiang; Hao-Shan Shi

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, several random key pre distribution schemes have been proposed to bootstrap keys for encryption, but the problem of key and node revocation has received relatively little attention. In this paper, based on a random key pre-distribution scheme using clustering, we present a novel random key revocation protocol, which is suitable for large scale networks greatly and removes compromised information efficiently. The revocation protocol can guarantee network security by using less memory consumption and communication load, and combined by centralized and distributed revocation, having virtues of timeliness and veracity for revocation at the same time.

  13. Multi-Party Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on Entanglement Swapping of Bell Entangled States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tian-Yu

    2016-09-01

    Recently, Liu et al. proposed a two-party quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol using entanglement swapping of Bell entangled state (Commun. Theor. Phys. 57 (2012) 583). Subsequently Liu et al. pointed out that in Liu et al.'s protocol, the TP can extract the two users' secret inputs without being detected by launching the Bell-basis measurement attack, and suggested the corresponding improvement to mend this loophole (Commun. Theor. Phys. 62 (2014) 210). In this paper, we first point out the information leakage problem toward TP existing in both of the above two protocols, and then suggest the corresponding improvement by using the one-way hash function to encrypt the two users' secret inputs. We further put forward the three-party QPC protocol also based on entanglement swapping of Bell entangled state, and then validate its output correctness and its security in detail. Finally, we generalize the three-party QPC protocol into the multi-party case, which can accomplish arbitrary pair's comparison of equality among K users within one execution. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61402407

  14. Hash-area-based data dissemination protocol in wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tian; WANG Guo-jun; GUO Min-yi; JIA Wei-jia

    2008-01-01

    HashQuery, a Hash-area-based data dissemination protocol, was designed in wireless sensor networks. Using a Hash function which uses time as the key, both mobile sinks and sensors can determine the same Hash area. The sensors can send the information about the events that they monitor to the Hash area and the mobile sinks need only to query that area instead of flooding among the whole network, and thus much energy can be saved. In addition, the location of the Hash area changes over time so as to balance the energy consumption in the whole network. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed protocol can be energy-efficient and simulation studies further show that when there are 5 sources and 5 sinks in the network, it can save at least 50% energy compared with the existing two-tier data dissemination(TTDD) protocol, especially in large-scale wireless sensor networks.

  15. Correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis of network traffics with different application protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun-Song; Yuan Jing; Li Qiang; Yuan Rui-Xi

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis approach to analyse the dynamics of network traffics with three different application protocols-HTTP, FTP and SMTP. First, the phase space is reconstructed and the embedding parameters are obtained by the mutual information method. Secondly, the correlation dimensions of three different traffics are calculated and the results of analysis have demonstrated that the dynamics of the three different application protocol traffics is different from each other in nature, i.e. HTTP and FTP traffics are chaotic,furthermore, the former is more complex than the later; on the other hand, SMTP traffic is stochastic. It is shown that correlation dimension approach is an efficient method to understand and to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of HTTP, FTP and SMTP protocol network traffics. This analysis provided insight into and a more accurate understanding of nonlinear dynamics of internet traffics which have a complex mixture of chaotic and stochastic components.

  16. A Language-Based Approach for Improving the Robustness of Network Application Protocol Implementations

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent, Burgy; Lawall, Julia; Muller, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    The secure and robust functioning of a network relies on the defect-free implementation of network applications. As network protocols have become increasingly complex, however, hand-writing network message processing code has become increasingly error-prone. In this paper, we present a domain-specific language, Zebu, for describing protocol message formats and related processing constraints. From a Zebu specification, a compiler automatically generates stubs to be used by an application to parse network messages. Zebu is easy to use, as it builds on notations used in RFCs to describe protocol grammars. Zebu is also efficient, as the memory usage is tailored to application needs and message fragments can be specified to be processed on demand. Finally, Zebu-based applications are robust, as the Zebu compiler automatically checks specification consistency and generates parsing stubs that include validation of the message structure. Using a mutation analysis in the context of SIP and RTSP, we show that Zebu sign...

  17. An Efficient Quality of Service Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Godder

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc network is set up with multiple wireless devices without any infrastructure. Its employment is favored in many environments. Quality of Service (QoS is one of the main issues for any network and due to bandwidth constraint and dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks, supporting Quality of Service (QoS is extremely a challenging task. It is modeled as a multi-layer problem and is considered in both Medium Access Control (MAC and routing layers for ad hoc networks. Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV routing protocol is one of the most used and popular reactive routing protocols in ad-hoc networks. This paper proposed a new protocol QoS based AODV (QAODV which is a modified version of AODV.

  18. A hop count based heuristic routing protocol for mobile delay tolerant networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Lei; Li, Jianbo; Wei, Changjiang; Dai, Chenqu; Xu, Jixing; Hu, Lejuan

    2014-01-01

    Routing in delay tolerant networks (DTNs) is a challenge since it must handle network partitioning, long delays, and dynamic topology. Meanwhile, routing protocols of the traditional mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) cannot work well due to the failure of its assumption that most network connections are available. In this paper, we propose a hop count based heuristic routing protocol by utilizing the information carried by the peripatetic packets in the network. A heuristic function is defined to help in making the routing decision. We formally define a custom operation for square matrices so as to transform the heuristic value calculation into matrix manipulation. Finally, the performance of our proposed algorithm is evaluated by the simulation results, which show the advantage of such self-adaptive routing protocol in the diverse circumstance of DTNs. PMID:25110736

  19. Relay-based routing protocol for space networks with predictable mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Dai, Guanzhong; Li, Lixin; Zhao, Yuting

    2005-11-01

    Future space scientific missions are envisioned to incorporate a large number of satellites and spacecrafts deployed in different orbits to network together into Space Networks. These networks have some unique characteristics such as limited resource of nodes, large latency and intermittent connectivity, which pose challenges to routing. In this paper, we propose a Relay-based Routing Protocol for Space Networks (RRPSN), which exploits the predictability of nodes motion to help deliver packets. Nodes use the link state and trajectory information received from other nodes to construct the routing tables where the next hop node is selected from the current as well as the future neighbors. Three key components of the protocol, including dissemination link information, modified Dijkstra's algorithm and packet processing are described in this paper. The computation complexity and overhead of the protocol is analyzed.

  20. A Hop Count Based Heuristic Routing Protocol for Mobile Delay Tolerant Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Routing in delay tolerant networks (DTNs is a challenge since it must handle network partitioning, long delays, and dynamic topology. Meanwhile, routing protocols of the traditional mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs cannot work well due to the failure of its assumption that most network connections are available. In this paper, we propose a hop count based heuristic routing protocol by utilizing the information carried by the peripatetic packets in the network. A heuristic function is defined to help in making the routing decision. We formally define a custom operation for square matrices so as to transform the heuristic value calculation into matrix manipulation. Finally, the performance of our proposed algorithm is evaluated by the simulation results, which show the advantage of such self-adaptive routing protocol in the diverse circumstance of DTNs.

  1. A unified protocol for the transdiagnostic psychodynamic treatment of anxiety disorders: an evidence-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Falk; Salzer, Simone

    2014-06-01

    Although there is evidence for the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy (PDT) in anxiety disorders, results are not yet satisfactory, for example, if rates of remission and response are considered. To address this problem, a unified psychodynamic protocol for anxiety disorders (UPP-ANXIETY) is proposed that integrates the treatment principles of those methods of PDT that have proven to be efficacious in anxiety disorders. In addition, this protocol is transdiagnostic, implying that it is applicable to various forms of anxiety disorders and related disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorders, avoidant personality disorder). Based on supportive-expressive therapy, the UPP-ANXIETY represents an integrated form of psychodynamic therapy that allows for a flexible use of empirically supported treatment principles. UPP-ANXIETY encompasses the following 9 treatment principles (modules): (1) socializing the patient for psychotherapy, (2) motivating and setting treatment goals, (3) establishing a secure helping alliance, (4) identifying the core conflict underlying anxiety, (5) focusing on the warded-off wish/affect, (6) modifying underlying internalized object relations, (7) changing underlying defenses and avoidance, (8) modifying underlying response of self, and (9) termination and relapse prevention. Some principles are regarded as core components to be used in every treatment (principles 3-8). A unified protocol for the psychodynamic treatment of anxiety disorders has several advantages, that is (1) integrating the most effective treatment principles of empirically supported psychodynamic treatments for anxiety disorders can be expected to further improve the efficacy of PDT; (2) using a unified protocol in efficacy studies has the potential to enhance the evidence-based status of PDT by aggregating the evidence; (3) a unified protocol will facilitate both training in PDT and transfer of research to clinical practice; and (4) thus, a unified

  2. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2016-03-18

    In wireless body area networks (WBANs), various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC) protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS) for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC) protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio.

  3. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2016-01-01

    In wireless body area networks (WBANs), various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC) protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS) for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC) protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio. PMID:26999162

  4. Intervention mapping protocol for developing a theory-based diabetes self-management education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Misoon; Choi, Suyoung; Kim, Se-An; Seo, Kyoungsan; Lee, Soo Jin

    2015-01-01

    Development of behavior theory-based health promotion programs is encouraged with the paradigm shift from contents to behavior outcomes. This article describes the development process of the diabetes self-management program for older Koreans (DSME-OK) using intervention mapping (IM) protocol. The IM protocol includes needs assessment, defining goals and objectives, identifying theory and determinants, developing a matrix to form change objectives, selecting strategies and methods, structuring the program, and planning for evaluation and pilot testing. The DSME-OK adopted seven behavior objectives developed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators as behavioral outcomes. The program applied an information-motivation-behavioral skills model, and interventions were targeted to 3 determinants to change health behaviors. Specific methods were selected to achieve each objective guided by IM protocol. As the final step, program evaluation was planned including a pilot test. The DSME-OK was structured as the 3 determinants of the IMB model were intervened to achieve behavior objectives in each session. The program has 12 weekly 90-min sessions tailored for older adults. Using the IM protocol in developing a theory-based self-management program was beneficial in terms of providing a systematic guide to developing theory-based and behavior outcome-focused health education programs. PMID:26062288

  5. Intervention mapping protocol for developing a theory-based diabetes self-management education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Misoon; Choi, Suyoung; Kim, Se-An; Seo, Kyoungsan; Lee, Soo Jin

    2015-01-01

    Development of behavior theory-based health promotion programs is encouraged with the paradigm shift from contents to behavior outcomes. This article describes the development process of the diabetes self-management program for older Koreans (DSME-OK) using intervention mapping (IM) protocol. The IM protocol includes needs assessment, defining goals and objectives, identifying theory and determinants, developing a matrix to form change objectives, selecting strategies and methods, structuring the program, and planning for evaluation and pilot testing. The DSME-OK adopted seven behavior objectives developed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators as behavioral outcomes. The program applied an information-motivation-behavioral skills model, and interventions were targeted to 3 determinants to change health behaviors. Specific methods were selected to achieve each objective guided by IM protocol. As the final step, program evaluation was planned including a pilot test. The DSME-OK was structured as the 3 determinants of the IMB model were intervened to achieve behavior objectives in each session. The program has 12 weekly 90-min sessions tailored for older adults. Using the IM protocol in developing a theory-based self-management program was beneficial in terms of providing a systematic guide to developing theory-based and behavior outcome-focused health education programs.

  6. Design and Evaluation of a Novel HIP-Based Network Mobility Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Nováczki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of IP-based mobile telecommunication technologies in the past few years has revealed situations where not only a single node but an entire network moves and changes its point of attachment to the Internet. The main goal of any protocol supporting network mobility is to provide continuous, optimal and secure Internet access to all nodes and even recursively nested mobile subnetworks inside a moving network. For this purpose, the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force has developed the NEtwork MObility Basic Support (NEMO BS protocol which extends the operation of Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6. In order to bypass the same problems suffered by MIPv6 and NEMO BS, a novel Host Identity Protocol (HIP extension called HIP-NEMO is introduced, proposed and evaluated in this paper. Our proposal is based on hierarchical topology of mobile RVSs (mRVS, signaling delegation and inter-mRVS communication to enable secure and efficient network mobility support in the HIP layer. The method provides secure connectivity and reachability for every node and nested subnet in the moving network and supports multihomed scenarios as well. Moreover, HIPNEMO reduces signaling and packet overhead during network mobility management by achieving route optimization inside any moving network even in nested scenarios. To evaluate the proposed scheme we present a simulation model implemented in OMNeT++ and discuss the results of our simulation based analysis to show the efficiency of the approach compared to the NEMO BS protocol formulated by the IETF.

  7. gDNA Enrichment by a Transposase-based Technology for NGS Analysis of the Whole Sequence of BRCA1, BRCA2, and 9 Genes Involved in DNA Damage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrier, Sandy; Boidot, Romain

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of Next Generation Sequencing has opened up new avenues for cancer research and diagnosis. NGS will bring huge amounts of new data on cancer, and especially cancer genetics. Current knowledge and future discoveries will make it necessary to study a huge number of genes that could be involved in a genetic predisposition to cancer. In this regard, we developed a Nextera design to study 11 complete genes involved in DNA damage repair. This protocol was developed to safely study 11 genes (ATM, BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, CHEK2, PALB2, RAD50, RAD51C, RAD80, and TP53) from promoter to 3'-UTR in 24 patients simultaneously. This protocol, based on transposase technology and gDNA enrichment, gives a great advantage in terms of time for the genetic diagnosis thanks to sample multiplexing. This protocol can be safely used with blood gDNA. PMID:25350069

  8. An Analysis of Energy Consumption on ACK plus Rate Packet in Rate Based Transport Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeshkumar, P

    2009-01-01

    Rate based transport protocol determines the rate of data transmission between the sender and receiver and then sends the data according to that rate. To notify the rate to the sender, the receiver sends ACKplusRate packet based on epoch timer expiry. In this paper, through detailed arguments and simulation it is shown that the transmission of ACKplusRate packet based on epoch timer expiry consumes more energy in network with low mobility. To overcome this problem, a new technique called Dynamic Rate Feedback (DRF) is proposed. DRF sends ACKplusRate whenever there is a change in rate of (plus or minus) 25 percent than the previous rate. Based on ns2 simulation DRF is compared with a reliable transport protocol for ad hoc network (ATP)

  9. Feasibility of web-based protocol in a 12 weeks home-based IMT program for individuals with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Helle; Sørensen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    of a web-based protocol with feedback function using mechanical threshold loading (MTL) as a home-based IMT in individuals with COPD. Thirty-six individuals with inspiratory muscle weakness were randomly selected from a pulmonary rehabilitation program to perform 12 weeks of MTL with either a web...

  10. Enriched glucose and dextrin mannitol-based media modulates fibroblast behavior on bacterial cellulose membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumpf, Taisa R.; Pértile, Renata A.N. [Integrated Technologies Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Food Engineering (Brazil); Rambo, Carlos R., E-mail: rambo@intelab.ufsc.br [Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-900 (Brazil); Porto, Luismar M. [Integrated Technologies Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Food Engineering (Brazil)

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Gluconacetobacter hansenii is a suitable biopolymer for biomedical applications. In order to modulate the properties of BC and expand its use as substrate for tissue engineering mainly in the form of biomembranes, glucose or dextrin were added into a BC fermentation mannitol-based medium (BCGl and BCDe, respectively) under static culture conditions. SEM images showed effects on fiber density and porosity on both sides of the BC membranes. Both enriched media decreased the BET surface area, water holding capacity, and rehydration rate. Fourier transform infrared (attenuated total reflectance mode) spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) analysis revealed no change in the chemical structure of BC. L929 fibroblast cells were seeded on all BC-based membranes and evaluated in aspects of cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology. BCG1 membranes showed the highest biological performance and hold promise for the use in tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Glucose and dextrin were used to modify culture media for BC production. • Microarchitecture of BC was different depending on the enriching agent. • Fibroblasts adhered on the surface of BC modified microarchitectures. • Fibroblasts adhered on glucose modified BC exhibited healthy cell morphology.

  11. The protocols for the 10/66 dementia research group population-based research programme

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Aquiles; de Rodriguez Juan; McKeigue Paul; Jacob KS; Krishnamoorthy ES; Huang Yueqin; Guerra Mariella; Gavrilova Svetlana I; Dewey Michael; Arizaga Raul; Albanese Emiliano; Acosta Daisy; Ferri Cleusa P; Prince Martin; Sosa Ana

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Latin America, China and India are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic ageing with an increasing number of people with dementia. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group's title refers to the 66% of people with dementia that live in developing countries and the less than one tenth of population-based research carried out in those settings. This paper describes the protocols for the 10/66 population-based and intervention studies that aim to redress this imbalance. Meth...

  12. A Turnover based Adaptive HELLO Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ingelrest, François; Mitton, Nathalie; Simplot-Ryl, David

    2007-01-01

    International audience We present a turnover based adaptive HELLO protocol (TAP), which enables nodes in mobile networks to dynamically adjust their HELLO messages frequency depending on the current speed of nodes. To the best of our knowledge, all existing solutions are based on specific assumptions (\\eg{} slotted networks) and/or require specific hardware (\\eg{} GPS) for speed evaluation. One of the key aspects of our solution is that no additional hardware is required since it does not ...

  13. Advertisement-Based Energy Efficient Medium Access Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Surjya Sarathi

    . Simulations show that the optimized ADV-MAC provides substantial energy gains (50% to 70% less than other MAC protocols for WSNs such as T-MAC and S-MAC for the scenarios investigated) while faring as well as T-MAC in terms of packet delivery ratio and latency. Although ADV-MAC provides substantial energy gains over S-MAC and T-MAC, it is not optimal in terms of energy savings because contention is done twice -- once in the Advertisement Period and once in the Data Period. In the next part of my research, the second contention in the Data Period is eliminated and the advantages of contention-based and TDMA-based protocols are combined to form Advertisement based Time-division Multiple Access (ATMA), a distributed TDMA-based MAC protocol for WSNs. ATMA utilizes the bursty nature of the traffic to prevent energy waste through advertisements and reservations for data slots. Extensive simulations and qualitative analysis show that with bursty traffic, ATMA outperforms contention-based protocols (S-MAC, T-MAC and ADV-MAC), a TDMA based protocol (TRAMA) and hybrid protocols (Z-MAC and IEEE 802.15.4). ATMA provides energy reductions of up to 80%, while providing the best packet delivery ratio (close to 100%) and latency among all the investigated protocols. Simulations alone cannot reflect many of the challenges faced by real implementations of MAC protocols, such as clock-drift, synchronization, imperfect physical layers, and irregular interference from other transmissions. Such issues may cripple a protocol that otherwise performs very well in software simulations. Hence, to validate my research, I conclude with a hardware implementation of the ATMA protocol on SORA (Software Radio), developed by Microsoft Research Asia. SORA is a reprogrammable Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform that satisfies the throughput and timing requirements of modern wireless protocols while utilizing the rich general purpose PC development environment. Experimental results obtained from the hardware

  14. Advertisement-Based Energy Efficient Medium Access Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Surjya Sarathi

    . Simulations show that the optimized ADV-MAC provides substantial energy gains (50% to 70% less than other MAC protocols for WSNs such as T-MAC and S-MAC for the scenarios investigated) while faring as well as T-MAC in terms of packet delivery ratio and latency. Although ADV-MAC provides substantial energy gains over S-MAC and T-MAC, it is not optimal in terms of energy savings because contention is done twice -- once in the Advertisement Period and once in the Data Period. In the next part of my research, the second contention in the Data Period is eliminated and the advantages of contention-based and TDMA-based protocols are combined to form Advertisement based Time-division Multiple Access (ATMA), a distributed TDMA-based MAC protocol for WSNs. ATMA utilizes the bursty nature of the traffic to prevent energy waste through advertisements and reservations for data slots. Extensive simulations and qualitative analysis show that with bursty traffic, ATMA outperforms contention-based protocols (S-MAC, T-MAC and ADV-MAC), a TDMA based protocol (TRAMA) and hybrid protocols (Z-MAC and IEEE 802.15.4). ATMA provides energy reductions of up to 80%, while providing the best packet delivery ratio (close to 100%) and latency among all the investigated protocols. Simulations alone cannot reflect many of the challenges faced by real implementations of MAC protocols, such as clock-drift, synchronization, imperfect physical layers, and irregular interference from other transmissions. Such issues may cripple a protocol that otherwise performs very well in software simulations. Hence, to validate my research, I conclude with a hardware implementation of the ATMA protocol on SORA (Software Radio), developed by Microsoft Research Asia. SORA is a reprogrammable Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform that satisfies the throughput and timing requirements of modern wireless protocols while utilizing the rich general purpose PC development environment. Experimental results obtained from the hardware

  15. An Update based Energy-Efficient Reactive Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirendra Kumar Sharma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Low cost energy-efficient (power based routing protocols of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs increase the lifetime of static networks by using received signal strength (RSS and battery power status (PS. They require GPS service to find the exact location of mobile nodes. The GPS devices themselves consume power because they need excessive updates to find the stationary nodes for efficient routing. To overcome this, RSS is being used as a metric, followed by, residual battery power. The recent protocols, based on these concepts, provide energy efficient routes during the route discovery phase only. Topological changes make these routes weak in due course of time. To update routes, HELLO process can be used, which however creates unnecessary overhead, delay and consumes power. Hence, these protocols do not update the routes. We propose an energy-efficient reactive routing protocol that uses the RSS and PS of mobile nodes. Proposed Link Failure Prediction (LFP algorithm uses the link-layer feedback system to update active routes. We use ns2 for simulation of the proposed algorithm. Comparing the results of proposed scheme and existing scheme, in terms of energy consumption, link failure probability, and retransmission of packets, we observe that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing one.

  16. Energy Efficiency of Cluster-based Routing Protocols used in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meelu, Rajni; Anand, Rohit

    2010-11-01

    WSN faces a challenge in energy consumption. Because the sensor nodes in WSN are provided energy by compact batteries and the data transmission is frequent, the energy could be used up in a short time. Minimizing energy dissipation and maximizing network lifetime are among the central concerns when designing applications and protocols for sensor networks. Clustering has been proven to be energy-efficient in sensor networks since data routing and relaying are only operated by cluster heads. Besides, cluster heads can process, filter and aggregate data sent by cluster members, thus reducing network load and alleviating the bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a cluster-based routing algorithm viz. DCR (Distributed Cluster Routing) protocol and LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) protocol. Sensor's eligibility to be elected cluster head is based on its residual energy and the distance. A simulation shows the comparison of above said algorithms in terms of time to live for nodes and data transmission. The results show that these protocols are almost similar for energy consumption but in terms of data transmission DCR performs better than LEACH.

  17. A quality of service routing protocol based on mobility prediction in mobile ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建新; 邓曙光; 陈松乔; 陈建二

    2003-01-01

    A QoS routing protocol based on mobility prediction is proposed. The protocol selects the steadiest path based on mobility prediction and QoS requirements on bandwidth, delay, and so forth. The main properties of the protocol as follows. (1) Each node just broadcasts its own information, so the packet is very small and can get to the destination in a very short time. (2)When another path is built for the same QoS requirements, the original path has higher priority.(3) The update messages are reduced by using mobility prediction. (4) Data packets carry the information of link change using piggyback, which is helpful for forecasting the link status more accurately. (5) When source node gets Resource-Reserve and reconnect packets at the same time, it selects reconnect packet over Resource-Reserve packet. The results of simulation show that the protocol has good network performance with low control overload, and efficiently supports transmitting multimedia with QoS requirements in mobile ad hoc networks.

  18. TBEE: Tier Based Energy Efficient Protocol Providing Sink and Source Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Chauhan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In resource constrained wireless sensor networks (WSNs it is important to utilize energy efficiently. Data dissemination is mainly responsible for the consumption of energy in sensor nodes (SNs. The data dissemination protocols for WSNs should reduce the energy consumption of the SNs. Sink and source mobility is the major challenge for data dissemination protocols. In this paper, a Tier based Energy Efficient protocol (TBEE providing sink and source mobility in WSNs has been proposed. TBEE protocol has been designed so that fewer SNs located nearer to the dissemination point (DP respond to the sinks message for grid formation thereby reducing message overheads. TBEE exploits an improved approach of communication amongst the SNs so that the collisions are reduced. TBEE efficiently handles the movement of the sinks and sources in the network and reduces the overheads associated with their mobility. TBEEs performance was evaluated in different conditions and scenarios. Simulation results show substantial improvement by TBEE as compared with the other existing grid based approaches for most of the scenarios.

  19. Gene-ontology enrichment analysis in two independent family-based samples highlights biologically plausible processes for autism spectrum disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anney, Richard J L

    2012-02-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated a range of genes from discrete biological pathways in the aetiology of autism. However, despite the strong influence of genetic factors, association studies have yet to identify statistically robust, replicated major effect genes or SNPs. We apply the principle of the SNP ratio test methodology described by O\\'Dushlaine et al to over 2100 families from the Autism Genome Project (AGP). Using a two-stage design we examine association enrichment in 5955 unique gene-ontology classifications across four groupings based on two phenotypic and two ancestral classifications. Based on estimates from simulation we identify excess of association enrichment across all analyses. We observe enrichment in association for sets of genes involved in diverse biological processes, including pyruvate metabolism, transcription factor activation, cell-signalling and cell-cycle regulation. Both genes and processes that show enrichment have previously been examined in autistic disorders and offer biologically plausibility to these findings.

  20. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Laser-Based Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Laser-Based Enrichment Plant... Appendix F to Part 110—Illustrative List of Laser-Based Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—Present systems for enrichment processes using lasers fall into...

  1. In vivo protein quality of selected cereal-based staple foods enriched with soybean proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Acevedo-Pacheco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups. Objective: The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS, and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER, biological values (BV, and net protein utilization (NPU values of regular versus soybean-fortified maize tortillas, yeast-leavened bread, and wheat flour tortillas. Design: To comparatively assess differences in protein quality among maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, EAA compositions and in vivo studies with weanling rats were performed. The experimental diets based on regular or soybean-fortified food products were compared with a casein-based diet. Food intake, weight gains, PER, dry matter and protein digestibility, BV, NPU, and PDCAAS were assessed. The soybean-fortified tortillas contained 6% of defatted soybean flour, whereas the yeast-leavened bread flour contained 4.5% of soybean concentrate. Results: The soybean-fortified tortillas and bread contained higher amounts of lysine and tryptophan, which improved their EAA scores and PDCAAS. Rats fed diets based on soybean-fortified maize or wheat tortillas gained considerably more weight and had better BV and NPU values compared with counterparts fed with respective regular products. As a result, fortified maize tortillas and wheat flour tortillas improved PER from 0.73 to 1.64 and 0.69 to 1.77, respectively. The PER improvement was not as evident in rats fed the enriched yeast-leavened bread because the formulation contained sugar that decreased lysine availability possibly to Maillard reactions. Conclusions: The proposed enrichment of cereal-based foods with soybean proteins greatly

  2. Cooperative Cloud Service Aware Mobile Internet Coverage Connectivity Guarantee Protocol Based on Sensor Opportunistic Coverage Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the Internet coverage ratio and provide connectivity guarantee, based on sensor opportunistic coverage mechanism and cooperative cloud service, we proposed the coverage connectivity guarantee protocol for mobile Internet. In this scheme, based on the opportunistic covering rules, the network coverage algorithm of high reliability and real-time security was achieved by using the opportunity of sensor nodes and the Internet mobile node. Then, the cloud service business support platform is created based on the Internet application service management capabilities and wireless sensor network communication service capabilities, which is the architecture of the cloud support layer. The cooperative cloud service aware model was proposed. Finally, we proposed the mobile Internet coverage connectivity guarantee protocol. The results of experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, in terms of the security of the Internet and the stability, as well as coverage connectivity ability.

  3. GBP-WAHSN: A Group-Based Protocol for Large Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaime Lloret; Miguel Garcia; Jesus Tomás; Fernando Boronat

    2008-01-01

    Grouping nodes gives better performance to the whole network by diminishing the average network delay and avoiding unnecessary message for warding and additional overhead. Many routing protocols for ad-hoc and sensor network shave been designed but none of them are based on groups. In this paper, we will start defining group-based topologies,and then we will show how some wireless ad hoc sensor networks (WAHSN) routing protocols perform when the nodes are arranged in groups. In our proposal connections between groups are established as a function of the proximity of the nodes and the neighbor's available capacity (based on the node's energy). We describe the architecture proposal, the messages that are needed for the proper operation and its mathematical description. We have also simulated how much time is needed to propagate information between groups. Finally, we will show a comparison with other architectures.

  4. Efficient dielectrophoretic cell enrichment using a dielectrophoresis-well based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Razak, Mohd Azhar; Hoettges, Kai F; Fatoyinbo, Henry O; Labeed, Fatima H; Hughes, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Whilst laboratory-on-chip cell separation systems using dielectrophoresis are increasingly reported in the literature, many systems are afflicted by factors which impede "real world" performance, chief among these being cell loss (in dead spaces, attached to glass and tubing surfaces, or sedimentation from flow), and designs with large channel height-to-width ratios (large channel widths, small channel heights) that make the systems difficult to interface with other microfluidic systems. In this paper, we present a scalable structure based on 3D wells with approximately unity height-to-width ratios (based on tubes with electrodes on the sides), which is capable of enriching yeast cell populations whilst ensuring that up to 94.3% of cells processed through the device can be collected in tubes beyond the output.

  5. Enriched glucose and dextrin mannitol-based media modulates fibroblast behavior on bacterial cellulose membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Taisa R; Pértile, Renata A N; Rambo, Carlos R; Porto, Luismar M

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Gluconacetobacter hansenii is a suitable biopolymer for biomedical applications. In order to modulate the properties of BC and expand its use as substrate for tissue engineering mainly in the form of biomembranes, glucose or dextrin were added into a BC fermentation mannitol-based medium (BCGl and BCDe, respectively) under static culture conditions. SEM images showed effects on fiber density and porosity on both sides of the BC membranes. Both enriched media decreased the BET surface area, water holding capacity, and rehydration rate. Fourier transform infrared (attenuated total reflectance mode) spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) analysis revealed no change in the chemical structure of BC. L929 fibroblast cells were seeded on all BC-based membranes and evaluated in aspects of cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology. BCG1 membranes showed the highest biological performance and hold promise for the use in tissue engineering applications.

  6. Validation of Flow Cytometry and Magnetic Bead-Based Methods to Enrich CNS Single Cell Suspensions for Quiescent Microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volden, T A; Reyelts, C D; Hoke, T A; Arikkath, J; Bonasera, S J

    2015-12-01

    Microglia are resident mononuclear phagocytes within the CNS parenchyma that intimately interact with neurons and astrocytes to remodel synapses and extracellular matrix. We briefly review studies elucidating the molecular pathways that underlie microglial surveillance, activation, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis; we additionally place these studies in a clinical context. We describe and validate an inexpensive and simple approach to obtain enriched single cell suspensions of quiescent parenchymal and perivascular microglia from the mouse cerebellum and hypothalamus. Following preparation of regional CNS single cell suspensions, we remove myelin debris, and then perform two serial enrichment steps for cells expressing surface CD11b. Myelin depletion and CD11b enrichment are both accomplished using antigen-specific magnetic beads in an automated cell separation system. Flow cytometry of the resultant suspensions shows a significant enrichment for CD11b(+)/CD45(+) cells (perivascular microglia) and CD11b(+)/CD45(-) cells (parenchymal microglia) compared to starting suspensions. Of note, cells from these enriched suspensions minimally express Aif1 (aka Iba1), suggesting that the enrichment process does not evoke significant microglial activation. However, these cells readily respond to a functional challenge (LPS) with significant changes in the expression of molecules specifically associated with microglia. We conclude that methods employing a combination of magnetic-bead based sorting and flow cytometry produce suspensions highly enriched for microglia that are appropriate for a variety of molecular and cellular assays.

  7. A Technology Based Program That Matches Enrichment Resources With Student Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Renzulli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Remarkable advances in instructionalcommunication technology (ICT have now made ispossible to provide high levels of enrichment and thekinds of curricular differentiation that facilitateadvanced learning services to students who have accessto a computer and the Internet. But in order tomaximize the potential if ICT it is necessary to constructprograms that are based on learning theory that goesbeyond the didactic and prescriptive models that haveresulted in too much worksheets-on-line and electronicencyclopedias. The Renzulli Learning System (RLSuses a strength-based learning theory called theEnrichment Triad Model that is purposefully designedto promote advanced level learning, creativeproductivity, and high levels of student engagement byfocusing on the application of knowledge rather than themere acquisition and storage of information.The Renzulli Learning System is acomprehensive program that begins by providing acomputer-generated profile of each student’s academicstrengths, interests, learning styles, and preferred modesof expression. A search engine then matches Internetresources to the student’s profile from fourteen carefullyscreened data bases that are categorized by subject area,grade level, state curricular standards, and degree ofcomplexity. There are also hundreds of enrichmentactivities that can be down loaded and reproduced forindividual or group learning activities. A managementsystem called the Wizard Project Maker guides studentsin the application of knowledge to teacher or studentselected assignments, independent research studies, orcreative projects that individuals or small groups wouldlike to pursue. Students and teachers can evaluate thequality of students’ products using a rubric called TheStudent Product Assessment Form. Students can rateeach site visited, conduct a self-assessment of what theyhave gained from the site, and place resources in theirown Total talent Portfolio for future use. RLS alsoincludes a

  8. A fast and scalable content transfer protocol (FSCTP) for VANET based architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, A. F.; Scala, F.; Sottile, C.; Tropea, M.; Raimondo, P.

    2016-05-01

    In the modern Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANET) based systems even more applications require lot of data to be exchanged among vehicles and infrastructure entities. Due to mobility issues and unplanned events that may occurs it is important that contents should be transferred as fast as possible by taking into account consistence of the exchanged data and reliability of the connections. In order to face with these issues, in this work we propose a new transfer data protocol called Fast and Scalable Content Transfer Protocol (FSCTP). This protocol allows a data transfer by using a bidirectional channel among content suppliers and receivers exploiting several cooperative sessions. Each session will be based on User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to start and manage data transfer. Often in urban area the VANET scenario is composed of several vehicle and infrastructures points. The main idea is to exploit ad-hoc connections between vehicles to reach content suppliers. Moreover, in order to obtain a faster data transfer, more than one session is exploited to achieve a higher transfer rate. Of course it is important to manage data transfer between suppliers to avoid redundancy and resource wastages. The main goal is to instantiate a cooperative multi-session layer efficiently managed in a VANET environment exploiting the wide coverage area and avoiding common issues known in this kind of scenario. High mobility and unstable connections between nodes are some of the most common issues to address, thus a cooperative work between network, transport and application layers needs to be designed.

  9. Gossip-Based Topology Management Protocol for Self-Organizing Overlays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Nao; Hu Ruimin; Zhu Yongqiong

    2011-01-01

    Gossip-based protocols have attracted more and more attention because of their simplicity and reliability.They can be applied to large-scale overlays for solving problems such as topology management,information dissemination,and aggregation.However,previous works sample nodes by their indegrees,without considering the differences in capability among nodes,and result in losing global load balancing.This paper proposes a load balancing gossip protocol for self-organizing overlays-LBTMP (Load-Balancing Topology Management Protocol),which takes into account the differences in capability among nodes and real loads.The novel protocol takes remainder service ability as the determinant for node selection metric,making light loading nodes from local neighbor view as returned samples preferentially.In the meantime,LBTMP selects light loading nodes preferentially for topology information exchange,which can diffuse light loading nodes over the whole overlay more quickly.Simulations show that returned sample node selection is biased to light loading nodes in a global view,and the overlay tends to load balancing.

  10. DRMR:Dynamic-Ring-Based Multicast Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Zhoux; Guang-Sheng Li; Yong-Zhao Zhan; Qi-Rong Mao; Yi-Bin Hou

    2004-01-01

    Recently a number of multicast routing protocols for ad hoc networks have been proposed, however, most of them do not provide proper tradeoffs between effectiveness, efficiency and scalability. In this paper, a novel multicast routing protocol is presented for ad hoc networks. The protocol, termed as dynamic-ring-based multicast routing protocol (DRMR), uses the concept of dynamic ring whose radius can be adjusted dynamically and DRMR configures this type of ring for all group member nodes. According to the principle of zone routing, two nodes whose rings overlap can create route to each other, thus, when the ring graph composed of all rings is connected, each member node has one or more routes to others. DRMR uses the method of expanding ring search (ERS) to maintain the connected ring graph, and also can decrease the radius of the ring to reduce the overhead. The performances of DRMR were simulated and evaluated with NS2, and results show that DRMR has a high data packet delivery ratio, low control overhead and good scalability.

  11. A Wireless Video Transmission Scheme Based on MAC-independent Opportunistic Routing &Encoding Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a tremendous challenge to transmit real-time video streams over wireless sensor network because of the poor wireless communication conditions and the high requirements of video transmission. The opportunistic routing protocol can take advantage of the broadcast nature of wireless communication and can improve transfer throughput significantly. But the bigger size of transmission unit also increases the end-to-end delay at the same time. In order to overcome this problem and improve the real-time video transmission quality in wireless video sensor network, we propose a source adaptive frame discard algorithm for MAC-independent Opportunistic Routing & Encoding (MORE Protocol in this paper. In our approach, the historical transmission delay is recorded to estimate current network transmission rate. Based on the video deadline, frames predicted to be delayed are discarded adaptively in the source node to get better overall video quality. In some practice application scenarios, there are usually need to deliver multiple video streams over multi-hop wireless network. It can’t work effectively with the originally MORE protocol in such scenarios. Furthermore, we modify the MORE protocol and design an adaptive scheme to support multiple video streams over multi-hop wireless video sensor network in this paper. The simulation results show that our algorithm can reduce frame loss rate and improve video quality significantly.

  12. RLT Code Based Handshake-Free Reliable MAC Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of underwater acoustic channels such as long propagation delay and low bit rate cause the medium access control (MAC protocols designed for radio channels to either be inapplicable or have low efficiency for underwater sensor networks (UWSNs. Meanwhile, due to high bit error, conventional end-to-end reliable transfer solutions bring about too many retransmissions and are inefficient in UWSN. In this paper, we present a recursive LT (RLT code. With small degree distribution and recursive encoding, RLT achieves reliable transmission hop-by-hop while reducing the complexity of encoding and decoding in UWSN. We further propose an RLT code based handshake-free (RCHF reliable MAC protocol. In RCHF protocol, each node maintains a neighbor table including the field of state, and packages are forwarded according to the state of a receiver, which can avoid collisions of sending-receiving and overhearing. The transmission-avoidance time in RCHF decreases data-ACK collision dramatically. Without RTS/CTS handshaking, the RCHF protocol improves channel utilization while achieving reliable transmission. Simulation results show that, compared with the existing reliable data transport approaches for underwater networks, RCHF can improve network throughput while decreasing end-to-end overhead.

  13. A Handoff-based And Limited Flooding (HALF Routing Protocol in Delay Tolerant Network (DTN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Aziz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In a Delay Tolerant Network (DTN, routing protocols are developed to manage the disconnected mobilenodes. We propose a routing protocol named HALF (Handoff-based And Limited Flooding in DTN thatcan work in both infra-structured and infra-structure less networking environment and hence it canimprove the performance of the network significantly. In this paper, it is shown that HALF givessatisfactory delivery ratio and latency under almost all conditions and different network scenarios whencompared to the other existing DTN routing protocols. As the traffic intensity of the network grows fromlow (.2 to high (.75 values, HALF shows about 5% decrease in the delivery ratio compare to muchlarger values showed by the other routing protocols and on the average takes same time to deliver all themessages to their destinations. As the radio range is increased over the range from 10m Bluetooth rangeto 250m WLAN range, due to the increased connectivity, the delivery ratio and the latency are increasedby 4 times and decreased by 5 times respectively.

  14. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  15. Measurement of cooling and warming rates in vitrification-based plant cryopreservation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Aline S; González-Benito, M Elena; Molina-García, Antonio D

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation protocols include the use of additives and pretreatments aimed to reduce the probability of ice nucleation at all temperatures, mainly through micro-viscosity increase. Still, there is a risk of ice formation in the temperature region comprised between the equilibrium freezing (Tf ) and the glass transition (TG ) temperatures. Consequently, fast cooling and warming, especially in this region, is a must to avoid ice-derived damage. Vitrification and droplet-vitrification techniques, frequently used cryopreservation protocols based in fast cooling, were studied, alongside with the corresponding warming procedures. A very fast data acquisition system, able to read very low temperatures, down to that of liquid nitrogen, was employed. Cooling rates, measured between -20°C and -120°C, ranged from ca. 5°C s(-1) to 400°C s(-1) , while warming rates spanned from ca. 2°C s(-1) to 280°C s(-1) , for the different protocols and conditions studied. A wider measuring window (0°C to -150°C) produced lower rates for all cases. The cooling and warming rates were also related to the survival observed after the different procedures. Those protocols with the faster rates yielded the highest survival percentages. PMID:24933257

  16. Ground-Based Network and Supersite Observations to Complement and Enrich EOS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997 NASA has been successfully launching a series of satellites - the Earth Observing System (EOS) - to intensively study, and gain a better understanding of, the Earth as an integrated system. Space-borne remote sensing observations, however, are often plagued by contamination of surface signatures. Thus, ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing measurements, where signals come directly from atmospheric constituents, the sun, and/or the Earth-atmosphere interactions, provide additional information content for comparisons that confirm quantitatively the usefulness of the integrated surface, aircraft, and satellite datasets. Through numerous participations, particularly but not limited to the EOS remote-sensing/retrieval and validation projects over the years, NASA/GSFC has developed and continuously refined ground-based networks and mobile observatories that proved to be vital in providing high temporal measurements, which complement and enrich the satellite observations. These are: the AERO NET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) a federation of ground-based globally distributed network of spectral sun-sky photometers; the MPLNET (Micro-Pulse Lidar NETwork, a similarly organized network of micro-pulse lidar systems measuring aerosol and cloud vertical structure continuously; and the SMART-COMMIT (Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer - Chemical, Optical & Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere, mobile observatories, a suite of spectral radiometers and in-situ probes acquiring supersite measurements. Most MPLNET sites are collocated with those of AERONET, and both networks always support the deployment of SMART-COMMIT worldwide. These data products follow the data structure of EOS conventions: Level-0, instrument archived raw data; Level-1 (or 1.5), real-time data with no (or limited) quality assurance; Level-2, not real high temporal and spectral resolutions. In this talk, we will present NASA/GSFC groundbased facilities, serving

  17. Industrial WSN Based on IR-UWB and a Low-Latency MAC Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Rafael; Underberg, Lisa; Wulf, Armin; Kays, Ruediger

    2016-07-01

    Wireless sensor networks for industrial communication require high reliability and low latency. As current wireless sensor networks do not entirely meet these requirements, novel system approaches need to be developed. Since ultra wideband communication systems seem to be a promising approach, this paper evaluates the performance of the IEEE 802.15.4 impulse-radio ultra-wideband physical layer and the IEEE 802.15.4 Low Latency Deterministic Network (LLDN) MAC for industrial applications. Novel approaches and system adaptions are proposed to meet the application requirements. In this regard, a synchronization approach based on circular average magnitude difference functions (CAMDF) and on a clean template (CT) is presented for the correlation receiver. An adapted MAC protocol titled aggregated low latency (ALL) MAC is proposed to significantly reduce the resulting latency. Based on the system proposals, a hardware prototype has been developed, which proves the feasibility of the system and visualizes the real-time performance of the MAC protocol.

  18. A local energy consumption prediction-based clustering protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiguo; Feng, Li; Jia, Lili; Gu, Xin; Yu, Dongxiao

    2014-01-01

    Clustering is a fundamental and effective technique for utilizing sensor nodes' energy and extending the network lifetime for wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering protocol, LECP-CP (local energy consumption prediction-based clustering protocol), the core of which includes a novel cluster head election algorithm and an inter-cluster communication routing tree construction algorithm, both based on the predicted local energy consumption ratio of nodes. We also provide a more accurate and realistic cluster radius to minimize the energy consumption of the entire network. The global energy consumption can be optimized by the optimization of the local energy consumption, and the energy consumption among nodes can be balanced well. Simulation results validate our theoretical analysis and show that LECP-CP has high efficiency of energy utilization, good scalability and significant improvement in the network lifetime. PMID:25479330

  19. A Local Energy Consumption Prediction-Based Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguo Yu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is a fundamental and effective technique for utilizing sensor nodes’ energy and extending the network lifetime for wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering protocol, LECP-CP (local energy consumption prediction-based clustering protocol, the core of which includes a novel cluster head election algorithm and an inter-cluster communication routing tree construction algorithm, both based on the predicted local energy consumption ratio of nodes. We also provide a more accurate and realistic cluster radius to minimize the energy consumption of the entire network. The global energy consumption can be optimized by the optimization of the local energy consumption, and the energy consumption among nodes can be balanced well. Simulation results validate our theoretical analysis and show that LECP-CP has high efficiency of energy utilization, good scalability and significant improvement in the network lifetime.

  20. A Game Theory-Based Obstacle Avoidance Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Shujun Bi; Huayang Wu; Xin Guan

    2011-01-01

    The obstacle avoidance problem in geographic forwarding is an important issue for location-based routing in wireless sensor networks. The presence of an obstacle leads to several geographic routing problems such as excessive energy consumption and data congestion. Obstacles are hard to avoid in realistic environments. To bypass obstacles, most routing protocols tend to forward packets along the obstacle boundaries. This leads to a situation where the nodes at the boundaries exhaust their ener...

  1. Social-aware Opportunistic Routing Protocol based on User's Interactions and Interests

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Waldir; Mendes, Paulo; Sargento, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, routing proposals must deal with a panoply of heterogeneous devices, intermittent connectivity, and the users' constant need for communication, even in rather challenging networking scenarios. Thus, we propose a Social-aware Content-based Opportunistic Routing Protocol, SCORP, that considers the users' social interaction and their interests to improve data delivery in urban, dense scenarios. Through simulations, using synthetic mobility and human traces scenarios, we compare the per...

  2. Quantum and classical coin-flipping protocols based on bit-commitment and their point games

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Ashwin; Sikora, Jamie; Tunçel, Levent

    2015-01-01

    We focus on a family of quantum coin-flipping protocols based on bit-commitment. We discuss how the semidefinite programming formulations of cheating strategies can be reduced to optimizing a linear combination of fidelity functions over a polytope. These turn out to be much simpler semidefinite programs which can be modelled using second-order cone programming problems. We then use these simplifications to construct their point games as developed by Kitaev. We also study the classical versio...

  3. A novel protocol for assessing aquatic pollution, based on the feeding inhibition of Daphnia magna

    OpenAIRE

    Kovács A.; Abdel-Hameid N.-A.; Ács A.; Á. Ferincz; Kováts N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, sensitivity of a novel acute bioassay based on the feeding activity of Daphnia magna was assessed, using 2 and 4 h of exposure. For calibration purposes, results were compared with those of the standard immobility test as described by the ISO 6341:1996 standard. Using potassium dichromate as the reference chemical, after 4 h of exposure the proposed protocol showed similar sensitivity in comparison with the stan...

  4. Self-Adaptive Trust Based ABR Protocol for MANETs Using Q-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Vijaya Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are a collection of mobile nodes with a dynamic topology. MANETs work under scalable conditions for many applications and pose different security challenges. Due to the nomadic nature of nodes, detecting misbehaviour is a complex problem. Nodes also share routing information among the neighbours in order to find the route to the destination. This requires nodes to trust each other. Thus we can state that trust is a key concept in secure routing mechanisms. A number of cryptographic protection techniques based on trust have been proposed. Q-learning is a recently used technique, to achieve adaptive trust in MANETs. In comparison to other machine learning computational intelligence techniques, Q-learning achieves optimal results. Our work focuses on computing a score using Q-learning to weigh the trust of a particular node over associativity based routing (ABR protocol. Thus secure and stable route is calculated as a weighted average of the trust value of the nodes in the route and associativity ticks ensure the stability of the route. Simulation results show that Q-learning based trust ABR protocol improves packet delivery ratio by 27% and reduces the route selection time by 40% over ABR protocol without trust calculation.

  5. Coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX Systems Based on PS-Request Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Young Hwang; Young-uk Chung; Yong-Hoon Choi; Jongwoo Kim; Suwon Park; Seung Hyong Rhee

    2011-01-01

    We introduce both the coexistence zone within the WiMAX frame structure and a PS-Request protocol for the coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX systems sharing a frequency band. Because we know that the PS-Request protocol has drawbacks, we propose a revised PS-Request protocol to improve the performance. Two PS-Request protocols are based on the time division operation (TDO) of WiFi system and WiMAX system to avoid the mutual interference, and use the vestigial power management (PwrMgt) bit within t...

  6. 一种基于PKI的密钥%An Internet Key Exchange Protocol Based on Public Key Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建明; 马建峰

    2004-01-01

    Internet key exchange (IKE) is an automated key exchange mechanism that is used to facilitate the transfer of IPSec security associations (SAs).Public key infrastructure (PKI) is considered as a key element for providing security to new distributed communication networks and services.In this paper, we concentrate on the properties of the protocol of Phase 1 IKE.After investigating IKE protocol and PKI technology, we combine IKE protocol and PKI and present an implementation scheme of the IKE based on PKI.Then, we give a logic analysis of the proposed protocol with the BAN-logic and discuss the security of the protocol.The result indicates that the protocol is correct and satisfies the security requirements of Internet key exchange.

  7. A Simple Battery Aware Gossip Based Sleep Protocol for Densely Deployed Ad-hoc and Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Conserving power in mobile ad-hoc and sensor networks is a big challenge. Most of the nodes in these networks, in general, are battery powered, therefore, an efficient power saving protocol is required to extend the lifetime of such networks. A lot of work has been done and several protocols have been proposed to address this problem. Gossip based protocols, which are based on the results of percolation theory, significantly reduce power consumption with very little implementation overhead. However, not much work has been done to make gossiping battery aware. In this paper we introduce a simple gossip based battery aware sleep protocol. The protocol allows low battery nodes to sleep more, therefore, improves overall network lifetime.

  8. Missed Cases in the Detection of Child Abuse Based on Parental Characteristics in the Emergency Department (the Hague Protocol)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diderich, H.M.; Verkerk, P.H.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Dechesne, M.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Fekkes, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to assess the number of “missed cases” in the detection of child abuse based on the Hague Protocol. This protocol considers 3 parental characteristics of ED adult patients to identify child abuse: (1) domestic violence, (2) intoxication, and (3) suicide attempt or auto-mutilati

  9. Facilitators and barriers to the successful implementation of a protocol to detect child abuse based on parental characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diderich, H.M.; Dexhesne, M.; Fekkes, M.; Verkerk, P.H.; Pannebakker, F.D.; Klein Velderman, M.; Sorensna, P.J.G.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the critical facilitating and impeding factors underlying successful implementation of a method to detect child abuse based on parental rather than child characteristics known as the Hague Protocol. The original implementation region of the protocol (The Hague) was compared to a new imp

  10. Phosphopeptide enrichment: Development of magnetic solid phase extraction method based on polydopamine coating and Ti(4+)-IMAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesana, Susy; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Ferraris, Francesca; Samperi, Roberto; Ventura, Salvatore; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-02-25

    Protein post translational modifications currently represent one of the main challenges with proteomic analysis, due to the important biological role they play within cells. Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important, with several approaches developed for phosphopeptides enrichment and analysis, essential for comprehensive phosphoproteomic analysis. However, the development of new materials for phosphopeptides enrichment may overcome previous drawbacks and improve enrichment of such peptides. In this regard, new magnetic stationary phases based on polydopamine coating and Ti(4+) immobilization exploit the potential of IMAC enrichment and couple it with the versatility of magnetic solid phase extraction. In this work the use of such stationary phase was extended from the MALDI proof of concept stage with the development of an optimized method for phosphopeptides enrichment compatible with typical shotgun proteomics experimental workflows. Different loading and elution buffers were tested to improve phosphopeptides recovery and enrichment selectivity. Finally, the analysis of isolated peptides pointed out that polydopamine alone is an ideal support matrix for polar post translational modifications because it enables to reduce unspecific binding and preferentially binds hydrophilic peptides. PMID:26851086

  11. A BROADCAST BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR INTER-CLUSTER DATA DISSEMINATION IN VEHICULAR COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auxeeliya Jesudoss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular communication is one of the fast growing and promising technologies for a safe and comfortable driving environment. These technologies do not end up with economic and safety ramifications, but also extended with other informational and entertainment oriented services. Data are being propagated multi-hop between source and destination vehicles for many real-life applications. Clustering is one of the effective and scalable solutions for data dissemination in wireless ad hoc networks. Though many cluster-based methods have been proposed for multi-hop data delivery in vehicular ad hoc networks, most of them do not consider the real-time changes in the network topology or imposes large penalties in routing such as unstable clusters, broken links, updating route tables. In order to address these issues, we propose a broadcast based routing protocol for inter-cluster data dissemination in this study that works on real-time vehicle information. Unlike, most existing routing algorithms, it only uses hello messages to obtain routing information without many other control messages. In addition, it alleviates the storage of routing information in every node, which largely reduces the overheads in routing. We performed extensive simulation to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed routing protocol. Results show that the proposed protocol outperforms other approaches in terms of average delay, average delivery ratio and average number of hops.

  12. A web product data management system based on Simple Object Access Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new web product data management architecture is presented. The three-tier web architecture and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) are combined to build the web-based product data management (PDM) system which includes three tiers: the user services tier, the business services tier, and the data services tier. The client service component uses the serverside technology, and Extensible Markup Language (XML) web service which uses SOAP as the communication protocol is chosen as the business service component. To illustrate how to build a web-based PDM system using the proposed architecture,a case PDM system which included three logical tires was built. To use the security and central management features of the database, a stored procedure was recommended in the data services tier. The business object was implemented as an XML web service so that client could use standard internet protocols to communicate with the business object from any platform. In order to satisfy users using all sorts of browser, the server-side technology and Microsoft ASP.NET was used to create the dynamic user interface.

  13. Optimal hop position-based minimum energy routing protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Geethu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of energy-efficient routing protocols is a major concern in the design of underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs since UASN nodes are typically powered by batteries, which are difficult to replace or recharge in aquatic environments. This study proposes an optimal hop position-based energy-efficient routing protocol for UASNs. Initially, the authors present an analytical model to compute the total energy consumption in a multi-hop UASN for deep water scenario, taking into account dependence of usable bandwidth on transmission distance and propagation characteristics of underwater acoustic channel. They derive analytical solution for the optimal hop distance that minimises total energy consumption in the network. They then propose an energy-efficient routing protocol that relies on the computation of optimal hop distance. In their routing scheme, selection of forwarding nodes are based on their depth, residual energy and closeness to the computed optimal hop position corresponding to source node. Simulation results show that total energy consumption of the network gets reduced drastically, leading to improvement in network lifetime. Moreover, the proposed routing scheme makes use of courier nodes to handle coverage-hole problem. The efficient movement of courier nodes improves packet delivery ratio and network throughput.

  14. Priority Based Congestion Control Dynamic Clustering Protocol in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Beulah Jayakumari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network is widely used to monitor natural phenomena because natural disaster has globally increased which causes significant loss of life, economic setback, and social development. Saving energy in a wireless sensor network (WSN is a critical factor to be considered. The sensor nodes are deployed to sense, compute, and communicate alerts in a WSN which are used to prevent natural hazards. Generally communication consumes more energy than sensing and computing; hence cluster based protocol is preferred. Even with clustering, multiclass traffic creates congested hotspots in the cluster, thereby causing packet loss and delay. In order to conserve energy and to avoid congestion during multiclass traffic a novel Priority Based Congestion Control Dynamic Clustering (PCCDC protocol is developed. PCCDC is designed with mobile nodes which are organized dynamically into clusters to provide complete coverage and connectivity. PCCDC computes congestion at intra- and intercluster level using linear and binary feedback method. Each mobile node within the cluster has an appropriate queue model for scheduling prioritized packet during congestion without drop or delay. Simulation results have proven that packet drop, control overhead, and end-to-end delay are much lower in PCCDC which in turn significantly increases packet delivery ratio, network lifetime, and residual energy when compared with PASCC protocol.

  15. Optimal Relay Selection using Efficient Beaconless Geographic Contention-Based Routing Protocol in Wireless Adhoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Srimathy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Ad hoc network, cooperation of nodes can be achieved by more interactions at higher protocol layers, particularly the MAC (Medium Access Control and network layers play vital role. MAC facilitates a routing protocol based on position location of nodes at network layer specially known as Beacon-less geographic routing (BLGR using Contention-based selection process. This paper proposes two levels of cross-layer framework -a MAC network cross-layer design for forwarder selection (or routing and a MAC-PHY for relay selection. CoopGeo; the proposed cross-layer protocol provides an efficient, distributed approach to select next hops and optimal relays to form a communication path. Wireless networks suffers huge number of communication at the same time leads to increase in collision and energy consumption; hence focused on new Contention access method that uses a dynamical change of channel access probability which can reduce the number of contention times and collisions. Simulation result demonstrates the best Relay selection and the comparative of direct mode with the cooperative networks. And Performance evaluation of contention probability with Collision avoidance.

  16. Cryptanalysis on Identity-based Authenticated Key Agreement Protocols from Pairings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengbo Hou

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Two-party authenticated key agreement protocol is used to authenticate entities and establish session keys in an open network in order to provide secure communications between two parties. Several security attributes are highly desired for such protocols, such as perfect forward secrecy (the corruption of long-term keys of all the entities should not compromise any session key, PKG forward secrecy (the corruption of the PKG's master key in the ID-based system should not compromise the established session keys, and known session-key specific temporary information secrecy (The exposure of private temporary information should not compromise the secrecy of generated session keys. In 2005, Choie et al. proposed three identity-based authenticated key agreement protocols from pairings. Our analysis shows that they all didn't provide protection against known session-key specific temporary information attack and some of them are vulnerable against man-in-the-middle attack, such as the key replicating attack. We analyze some of the attacks under the BR93 security model.

  17. Research of RFID Certification Security Protocol based on Hash Function and DES Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bin Xu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available RFID has been more and more attention and application by people, but the existence of security and privacy problems worthy of attention is concern. The certification process analysis of several typical security protocols is based on existing RFID authentication protocol. It proposed an improved bidirectional authentication algorithm. The use of one-way HASH function can solve the security problem of RFID. The protocol has anti-replay, impedance analysis, forgery, and tracking performance, and is suitable for the distributed system. With the development of computer and Internet is widely used in various industries, interaction of high-speed information transfer process. The problem of information security is concern. The paper produce and use all kinds of algorithms based on hash function firstly. Then as information on a solid safety lock, MD5, SHA-1 file verification, encryption, digital signature, PKI building has security full of all kinds of information. Finally, it can effectively prevent the attack, ensuring the authenticity of the information not to be modified or leaks

  18. Priority Based Congestion Control Dynamic Clustering Protocol in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumari, R Beulah; Senthilkumar, V Jawahar

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor network is widely used to monitor natural phenomena because natural disaster has globally increased which causes significant loss of life, economic setback, and social development. Saving energy in a wireless sensor network (WSN) is a critical factor to be considered. The sensor nodes are deployed to sense, compute, and communicate alerts in a WSN which are used to prevent natural hazards. Generally communication consumes more energy than sensing and computing; hence cluster based protocol is preferred. Even with clustering, multiclass traffic creates congested hotspots in the cluster, thereby causing packet loss and delay. In order to conserve energy and to avoid congestion during multiclass traffic a novel Priority Based Congestion Control Dynamic Clustering (PCCDC) protocol is developed. PCCDC is designed with mobile nodes which are organized dynamically into clusters to provide complete coverage and connectivity. PCCDC computes congestion at intra- and intercluster level using linear and binary feedback method. Each mobile node within the cluster has an appropriate queue model for scheduling prioritized packet during congestion without drop or delay. Simulation results have proven that packet drop, control overhead, and end-to-end delay are much lower in PCCDC which in turn significantly increases packet delivery ratio, network lifetime, and residual energy when compared with PASCC protocol. PMID:26504898

  19. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that in 1990 the Department of Energy began a two-year project to illustrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new uranium enrichment technology-the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. GAO believes that completing the AVLIS demonstration project will provide valuable information about the technical viability and cost of building an AVLIS plant and will keep future plant construction options open. However, Congress should be aware that DOE still needs to adequately demonstrate AVLIS with full-scale equipment and develop convincing cost projects. Program activities, such as the plant-licensing process, that must be completed before a plant is built, could take many years. Further, an updated and expanded uranium enrichment analysis will be needed before any decision is made about building an AVLIS plant. GAO, which has long supported legislation that would restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation, encourages DOE's goal of transferring AVLIS to the corporation. This could reduce the government's financial risk and help ensure that the decision to build an AVLIS plant is based on commercial concerns. DOE, however, has no alternative plans should the government corporation not be formed. Further, by curtailing a planned public access program, which would have given private firms an opportunity to learn about the technology during the demonstration project, DOE may limit its ability to transfer AVLIS to the private sector

  20. A Network Coding Based Hybrid ARQ Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Shilian; Zhang, Eryang; Zou, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) have attracted increasing interest in recent years due to their extensive commercial and military applications. However, the harsh underwater channel causes many challenges for the design of reliable underwater data transport protocol. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient data transport protocol based on network coding and hybrid automatic repeat request (NCHARQ) to ensure reliability, efficiency and availability in UASNs. Moreover, an adaptive window length estimation algorithm is designed to optimize the throughput and energy consumption tradeoff. The algorithm can adaptively change the code rate and can be insensitive to the environment change. Extensive simulations and analysis show that NCHARQ significantly reduces energy consumption with short end-to-end delay. PMID:27618044

  1. Towards a CPN-Based Modelling Approach for Reconciling Verification and Implementation of Protocol Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2013-01-01

    Formal modelling of protocols is often aimed at one specific purpose such as verification or automatically generating an implementation. This leads to models that are useful for one purpose, but not for others. Being able to derive models for verification and implementation from a single model...... is beneficial both in terms of reduced total modelling effort and confidence that the verification results are valid also for the implementation model. In this paper we introduce the concept of a descriptive specification model and an approach based on refining a descriptive model to target both verification...... and implementation. Our approach has been developed in the context of the Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs) modelling language. We illustrate our approach by presenting a descriptive specification model of the Websocket protocol which is currently under development by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), and we show...

  2. A Network Coding Based Hybrid ARQ Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Shilian; Zhang, Eryang; Zou, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) have attracted increasing interest in recent years due to their extensive commercial and military applications. However, the harsh underwater channel causes many challenges for the design of reliable underwater data transport protocol. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient data transport protocol based on network coding and hybrid automatic repeat request (NCHARQ) to ensure reliability, efficiency and availability in UASNs. Moreover, an adaptive window length estimation algorithm is designed to optimize the throughput and energy consumption tradeoff. The algorithm can adaptively change the code rate and can be insensitive to the environment change. Extensive simulations and analysis show that NCHARQ significantly reduces energy consumption with short end-to-end delay.

  3. A Network Coding Based Hybrid ARQ Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs have attracted increasing interest in recent years due to their extensive commercial and military applications. However, the harsh underwater channel causes many challenges for the design of reliable underwater data transport protocol. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient data transport protocol based on network coding and hybrid automatic repeat request (NCHARQ to ensure reliability, efficiency and availability in UASNs. Moreover, an adaptive window length estimation algorithm is designed to optimize the throughput and energy consumption tradeoff. The algorithm can adaptively change the code rate and can be insensitive to the environment change. Extensive simulations and analysis show that NCHARQ significantly reduces energy consumption with short end-to-end delay.

  4. A QoS Routing Protocol based on Available Bandwidth Estimation for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaaniche, Heni; Frikha, Mounir; Kamoun, Farouk

    2011-01-01

    At the same time as the emergence of multimedia in mobile Ad hoc networks, research for the introduction of the quality of service (QoS) has received much attention. However, when designing a QoS solution, the estimation of the available resources still represents one of the main issues. This paper suggests an approach to estimate available resources on a node. This approach is based on the estimation of the busy ratio of the shared canal. We consider in our estimation the several constraints related to the Ad hoc transmission mode such as Interference phenomena. This approach is implemented on the AODV routing protocol. We call AODVwithQOS our new routing protocol. We also performed a performance evaluation by simulations using NS2 simulator. The results confirm that AODVwithQoS provides QoS support in ad hoc wireless networks with good performance and low overhead.

  5. GEAMS: a Greedy Energy-Aware Multipath Stream-based Routing Protocol for WMSNs

    CERN Document Server

    Medjiah, Samir; Krief, Francine; 10.1109/GIIS.2009.5307078

    2012-01-01

    Because sensor nodes operate on power limited batteries, sensor functionalities have to be designed carefully. In particular, designing energy-efficient packet forwarding is important to maximize the lifetime of the network and to minimize the power usage at each node. This paper presents a Geographic Energy-Aware Multipath Stream-based (GEAMS) routing protocol for WMSNs. GEAMS routing decisions are made online, at each forwarding node in such a way that there is no need to global topology knowledge and maintenance. GEAMS routing protocol performs load-balancing to minimize energy consumption among nodes using twofold policy: (1) smart greedy forwarding and (2) walking back forwarding. Performances evaluations of GEAMS show that it can maximize the network lifetime and guarantee quality of service for video stream transmission in WMSNs.

  6. On-demand multicast routing protocol based on node classification in MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xia; SUN Li-min; WANG Jian-xin; LUO Yu-hong; CHEN Jian-er

    2006-01-01

    An improved on-demand multicast routing protocol(ODMRP), node classification on-demand multicast routing protocol(NC-ODMRP), which is based on node classification in mobile ad hoc networks was proposed. NCODMRP classifies nodes into such three categories as ordinary node, forwarding group(FG) node, neighbor node of FG node according to their history forwarding information. The categories are distinguished with different weights by a weight table in the nodes. NC-ODMRP chooses the node with the highest weight as an FG node during the setup of forwarding group, which reduces a lot of redundant FG nodes by sharing more FG nodes between different sender and receiver pairs. The simulation results show that NC-ODMRP can reduce more than 20% FG number of ODMRP, thus enhances nearly 14% data forwarding efficiency and 12% energy consumption efficiency when the number of multicast senders is more than 5.

  7. A Network Coding Based Hybrid ARQ Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Shilian; Zhang, Eryang; Zou, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) have attracted increasing interest in recent years due to their extensive commercial and military applications. However, the harsh underwater channel causes many challenges for the design of reliable underwater data transport protocol. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient data transport protocol based on network coding and hybrid automatic repeat request (NCHARQ) to ensure reliability, efficiency and availability in UASNs. Moreover, an adaptive window length estimation algorithm is designed to optimize the throughput and energy consumption tradeoff. The algorithm can adaptively change the code rate and can be insensitive to the environment change. Extensive simulations and analysis show that NCHARQ significantly reduces energy consumption with short end-to-end delay. PMID:27618044

  8. An Improved Quantum Information Hiding Protocol Based on Entanglement Swapping of χ-type Quantum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu-Jiang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Lian-Hai; Ding, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Shu-Hui

    2016-06-01

    In 2011, Qu et al. proposed a quantum information hiding protocol based on the entanglement swapping of χ-type quantum states. Because a χ-type state can be described by the 4-particle cat states which have good symmetry, the possible output results of the entanglement swapping between a given χ-type state and all of the 16 χ-type states are divided into 8 groups instead of 16 groups of different results when the global phase is not considered. So it is difficult to read out the secret messages since each result occurs twice in each line (column) of the secret messages encoding rule for the original protocol. In fact, a 3-bit instead of a 4-bit secret message can be encoded by performing two unitary transformations on 2 particles of a χ-type quantum state in the original protocol. To overcome this defect, we propose an improved quantum information hiding protocol based on the general term formulas of the entanglement swapping among χ-type states. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61572297, 61303199, 61272514, and 61373131, the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. ZR2013FM025, ZR2013FQ001, ZR2014FM003, and ZY2015YL018, the Shandong Provincial Outstanding Research Award Fund for Young Scientists of China under Grant Nos. BS2015DX006 and BS2014DX007, the National Development Foundation for Cryptological Research, China under Grant No. MMJJ201401012, the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions and Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center on Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology Funds, and the Shandong Academy of Sciences Youth Fund Project, China under Grant Nos. 2015QN003 and 2013QN007

  9. BIM-based Modeling and Data Enrichment of Classical Architectural Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ivan Apollonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available EnIn this paper we presented a BIM-based approach for the documentation of Architectural Heritage. Knowledge of classical architecture is first extracted from the treatises for parametric modeling in object level. Then we established a profile library based on semantic studies to sweep out different objects. Variants grow out from the parametric models by editing or regrouping parameters based on grammars. Multiple data including material, structure and real-life state are enriched with respect to different research motivations. The BIM models are expected to ease the modeling process and provide comprehensive data shared among different platforms for further simulations.ItIn questo articolo è presentata una procedura definita nell'ambito dei sistemi BIM con l'obiettivo di documentare il Patrimonio Architettonico. I dati conoscitivi relativi all'architettura classica sono, in una prima fase, ottenuti dai trattati al fine di modellare in maniera parametrica a livello di oggetti. Successivamente è stata definita una libreria di profili, basata su principi semantici, dalla quale è possibile ottenere oggetti differenti. Dati di natura differente, relativi ad esempio ai materiali, alle strutture, allo stato di fatto, sono implementati in funzione delle differenti esigenze. I modelli BIM hanno la potenzialità di facilitare le procedure di modellazione e di fornire informazioni e dati completi che possono essere condivisi tra piattaforme differenti per ulteriori simulazioni ed analisi.

  10. Performance Analysis of AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network based Smart Metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today no one can deny the need for Smart Grid and it is being considered as of utmost importance to upgrade outdated electric infrastructure to cope with the ever increasing electric load demand. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is considered a promising candidate for internetworking of smart meters with the gateway using mesh topology. This paper investigates the performance of AODV routing protocol for WSN based smart metering deployment. Three case studies are presented to analyze its performance based on four metrics of (i) Packet Delivery Ratio, (ii) Average Energy Consumption of Nodes (iii) Average End-End Delay and (iv) Normalized Routing Load.

  11. Performance Analysis of AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network based Smart Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    >Hasan Farooq, Low Tang Jung,

    2013-06-01

    Today no one can deny the need for Smart Grid and it is being considered as of utmost importance to upgrade outdated electric infrastructure to cope with the ever increasing electric load demand. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is considered a promising candidate for internetworking of smart meters with the gateway using mesh topology. This paper investigates the performance of AODV routing protocol for WSN based smart metering deployment. Three case studies are presented to analyze its performance based on four metrics of (i) Packet Delivery Ratio, (ii) Average Energy Consumption of Nodes (iii) Average End-End Delay and (iv) Normalized Routing Load.

  12. A Stream Control Transmission Protocol Based OAM System of 3G Cellular Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    OAM (Operations, Administration and Maintenance) system is a very important component of 3G cellular network. In order to acquire overall management, fast response and steady operation, an SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) based OAM, i. e. , SOAM system was proposed. SOAM implements new characters of SCTP such as multi-stream, enforced SACK and heartbeat mechanism on its transport layer. These characters help SOAM decrease the message transmission delay and accelerate the link failure detection. Besides, a new component named SOAM agent was introduced to improve the operation efficiency of SOAM. The experimental results prove the proposed SOAM system achieves better performance on signaling transmission compared with conventional TCP based OAM system.

  13. A Unique Approach to Dissemination of Evidence-Based Protocols: A Successful CAUTI Reduction Pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dols, Jean Dowling; White, Sondra K; Timmons, Amy L; Bush, Michelle; Tripp, Joanne; Childers, Amanda Kay; Mathers, Nicholas; Tobias, Maria M

    2016-01-01

    A unique approach to disseminate an evidence-based protocol for urinary catheter management was led by a staff-driven catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) reduction team in one hospital. The nurseeducators, faculty from a local university, and the facility's clinical nurse leader mentored the team. As an approachto reduce CAUTIs in the transplant care and intensive care units, the team developed an interdisciplinary CAUTIEducation Fair, which provided a safe, nonthreateningenvironment to unlearn prior behaviors and showcompetency in new evidence-based ones. PMID:26797307

  14. Gene-based analysis of regionally enriched cortical genes in GWAS data sets of cognitive traits and psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari M Ersland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its estimated high heritability, the genetic architecture leading to differences in cognitive performance remains poorly understood. Different cortical regions play important roles in normal cognitive functioning and impairment. Recently, we reported on sets of regionally enriched genes in three different cortical areas (frontomedial, temporal and occipital cortices of the adult rat brain. It has been suggested that genes preferentially, or specifically, expressed in one region or organ reflect functional specialisation. Employing a gene-based approach to the analysis, we used the regionally enriched cortical genes to mine a genome-wide association study (GWAS of the Norwegian Cognitive NeuroGenetics (NCNG sample of healthy adults for association to nine psychometric tests measures. In addition, we explored GWAS data sets for the serious psychiatric disorders schizophrenia (SCZ (n = 3 samples and bipolar affective disorder (BP (n = 3 samples, to which cognitive impairment is linked. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At the single gene level, the temporal cortex enriched gene RAR-related orphan receptor B (RORB showed the strongest overall association, namely to a test of verbal intelligence (Vocabulary, P = 7.7E-04. We also applied gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA to test the candidate genes, as gene sets, for enrichment of association signal in the NCNG GWAS and in GWASs of BP and of SCZ. We found that genes differentially expressed in the temporal cortex showed a significant enrichment of association signal in a test measure of non-verbal intelligence (Reasoning in the NCNG sample. CONCLUSION: Our gene-based approach suggests that RORB could be involved in verbal intelligence differences, while the genes enriched in the temporal cortex might be important to intellectual functions as measured by a test of reasoning in the healthy population. These findings warrant further replication in independent samples on cognitive traits.

  15. A Zigbee and Bluetooth Protocol Converter Based on Multi-sinks Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhong Guo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A Zigbee and Bluetooth converter is designed in this paper. A multi-sinks wireless sensor network is used to solve the notable problems appeared in the single node wireless sensor network. These problems are solved in converter system such as data transmission reliability and node energy consumption imbalance and so on. The converter system can be better adapted to the large-scale, high-density development trend of network layout. Zigbee technology has low power consumption, low cost. And Bluetooth technology shows outstanding advantages in terms of terminal access. This paper attempts to combine the advantages of two wireless technology, and design a point-to-many method of Zigbee and Bluetooth protocol converter. Then apply the Zigbee and Bluetooth protocol of converter to the multi-sinks wireless sensor networks. At the sensor nodes, it forms a network based on the Zigbee protocol. At the converter nodes, it communicates with Bluetooth devices through point-to-many method. The experiment results show that the point-to-many method of Zigbee and Bluetooth system can convert data effectively, and improve the data transmission reliably of the wireless sensor network. It has important values in the application of wireless sensor networks.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Mesh based Multicast Reactive Routing Protocol under Black Hole Attack

    CERN Document Server

    Anita, E A Mary

    2009-01-01

    A mobile ad-hoc network is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links in which nodes cooperate by forwarding packets for each other thereby enabling communication beyond direct wireless transmission range. The wireless and dynamic nature of ad-hoc networks makes them vulnerable to attacks especially in routing protocols. Providing security in mobile ad-hoc networks has been a major issue over the recent years. One of the prominent mesh base reactive multicast routing protocols used in ad-hoc networks is On Demand Multicast Routing protocol (ODMRP). The security of ODMRP is compromised by a primary routing attack called black hole attack. In this attack a malicious node advertises itself as having the shortest path to the node whose packets it wants to intercept. This paper discusses the impact of black hole attack on ODMRP under various scenarios. The performance is evaluated using metrics such as packet delivery ratio and end to end delay for various numbers of senders and receivers via...

  17. Security Analysis of DTN Architecture and Bundle Protocol Specification for Space-Based Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2009-01-01

    A Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) Architecture (Request for Comment, RFC-4838) and Bundle Protocol Specification, RFC-5050, have been proposed for space and terrestrial networks. Additional security specifications have been provided via the Bundle Security Specification (currently a work in progress as an Internet Research Task Force internet-draft) and, for link-layer protocols applicable to Space networks, the Licklider Transport Protocol Security Extensions. This document provides a security analysis of the current DTN RFCs and proposed security related internet drafts with a focus on space-based communication networks, which is a rather restricted subset of DTN networks. Note, the original focus and motivation of DTN work was for the Interplanetary Internet . This document does not address general store-and-forward network overlays, just the current work being done by the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Space Internetworking Services Area (SIS) - DTN working group under the DTN and Bundle umbrellas. However, much of the analysis is relevant to general store-and-forward overlays.

  18. A TDMA-BASED MAC PROTOCOL SUPPORTING COOPERATIVE COMMUNICATIONS IN WIRELESS MESH NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Jiao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a TDMA-based medium access control protocol which enables cooperative communications in multi-hop wireless mesh networks. According to the proposed scheme, each router at the two-hop neighbourhood of each other is allocated to a specific time slot for accommodating either direct or cooperative transmissions in a coordinated manner, controlled by mini-slots which are part of the time slot. Benefiting from the elaborate mini-slot design, channel resources are fairly and efficiently allocated to each router so that no handshake is needed prior to each packet transmission. By providing access priority to cooperative transmission through an optimal relay which is determined by combined instantaneous relay channel conditions, higher system throughput can be achieved. To analyze the performance of the proposed cooperative protocol a Markov chain is introduced to model the behavior ofthe protocol. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed MAC scheme can improve not only the one-hop transmission throughput but also the end-to-end throughput significantly. Moreover, the throughput performance of the proposed scheme is robust as packet size varies.

  19. PLEDGE: A POLICY-BASED SECURITY PROTOCOL FOR PROTECTING CONTENT ADDRESSABLE STORAGE ARCHITECTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim Itani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present PLEDGE, an efficient and scalable security ProtocoL for protecting fixedcontent objects in contEnt aDdressable storaGe (CAS architEctures. PLEDGE follows an end-to-endpolicy-driven security approach to secure the confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of fixed-content entities over the enterprise network links and in the nodes of the CAS device. It utilizes a customizable and configurable extensible mark-up language (XML security policy to provide flexible, multi-level, andfine-grained encryption and hashing methodologies to fixed content CAS entities. PLEDGE secures data objects based on their content and sensitivity and highly overcomes the performance of bulk and rawencryption protocols such as the Secure Socket Layer (SSL and the Transport Layer Security (TLS protocols. Moreover, PLEDGE transparently stores sensitive objects encrypted (partially or totally in the CAS storage nodes without affecting the CAS storage system operation or performance and takes into consideration the processing load, computing power, and memory capabilities of the client devices which may be constrained by limited processing power, memory resources, or network connectivity. PLEDGE complies with regulations such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAArequirements and the SEC Rule 17a-4 financial standards. The protocol is implemented in a real CASnetwork using an EMC Centera backend storage device. The application secured by PLEDGE in the sample implementation is an X-Ray radiography scanning system in a healthcare network environment.The experimental test bed implementation conducted shows a speedup factor of three over raw encryption security mechanisms.

  20. A sensory- and consumer-based approach to optimize cheese enrichment with grape skin powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, L; Piochi, M; Marchiani, R; Zeppa, G; Dinnella, C; Monteleone, E

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to present a sensory- and consumer-based approach to optimize cheese enrichment with grape skin powders (GSP). The combined sensory evaluation approach, involving a descriptive and an affective test, respectively, was applied to evaluate the effect of the addition of grape skin powders from 2 grape varieties (Barbera and Chardonnay) at different levels [0.8, 1.6, and 2.4%; weight (wt) powder/wt curd] on the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of innovative soft cow milk cheeses. The experimental plan envisaged 7 products, 6 fortified prototypes (at rates of Barbera and Chardonnay of 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4%) and a control sample, with 1 wk of ripening. By means of a free choice profile, 21 cheese experts described the sensory properties of prototypes. A central location test with 90 consumers was subsequently conducted to assess the acceptability of samples. The GSP enrichment strongly affected the sensory properties of innovative products, mainly in terms of appearance and texture. Fortified samples were typically described with a marbling aspect (violet or brown as function of the grape variety) and with an increased granularity, sourness, saltiness, and astringency. The fortification also contributed certain vegetable sensations perceived at low intensity (grassy, cereal, nuts), and some potential negative sensations (earthy, animal, winy, varnish). The white color, the homogeneous dough, the compact and elastic texture, and the presence of lactic flavors resulted the positive drivers of preference. On the contrary, the marbling aspect, granularity, sandiness, sourness, saltiness, and astringency negatively affected the cheese acceptability for amounts of powder, exceeding 0.8 and 1.6% for the Barbera and Chardonnay prototypes, respectively. Therefore, the amount of powder resulted a critical parameter for liking of fortified cheeses and a discriminant between the 2 varieties. Reducing the GSP particle size and improving the GSP

  1. Leader-Following Consensus Stability of Discrete-Time Linear Multiagent Systems with Observer-Based Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the leader-following consensus problem of discrete-time multiagent systems on a directed communication topology. Two types of distributed observer-based consensus protocols are considered to solve such a problem. The observers involved in the proposed protocols include full-order observer and reduced-order observer, which are used to reconstruct the state variables. Two algorithms are provided to construct the consensus protocols, which are based on the modified discrete-time algebraic Riccati equation and Sylvester equation. In light of graph and matrix theory, some consensus conditions are established. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the obtained result.

  2. Impact of the Mobility Models, Route and Link connectivity on the performance of Position based routing protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam MACINTOSH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigate the fundamental factors “mobility models, route and link connectivity” in Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANET which have a major impact on the performance of position based routing protocols. In addition, a new measurement method called probability of communication process is proposed. The method is used to measure the success rate of established path by a MANET routing protocol, which allow to stress test and inspect the stability, scalability and adaptability of MANET routing protocols. We analysed the effect of “route and link connectivity” on the performance of protocols under two different mobility models. Results show the evaluation and performance of the proposed protocol under a unified simulation environment for different scenarios.

  3. Integrating human impacts and ecological integrity into a risk-based protocol for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, K.M.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation planning aims to protect biodiversity by sustainng the natural physical, chemical, and biological processes within representative ecosystems. Often data to measure these components are inadequate or unavailable. The impact of human activities on ecosystem processes complicates integrity assessments and might alter ecosystem organization at multiple spatial scales. Freshwater conservation targets, such as populations and communities, are influenced by both intrinsic aquatic properties and the surrounding landscape, and locally collected data might not accurately reflect potential impacts. We suggest that changes in five major biotic drivers-energy sources, physical habitat, flow regime, water quality, and biotic interactions-might be used as surrogates to inform conservation planners of the ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems. Threats to freshwater systems might be evaluated based on their impact to these drivers to provide an overview of potential risk to conservation targets. We developed a risk-based protocol, the Ecological Risk Index (ERI), to identify watersheds with least/most risk to conservation targets. Our protocol combines risk-based components, specifically the frequency and severity of human-induced stressors, with biotic drivers and mappable land- and water-use data to provide a summary of relative risk to watersheds. We illustrate application of our protocol with a case study of the upper Tennessee River basin, USA. Differences in risk patterns among the major drainages in the basin reflect dominant land uses, such as mining and agriculture. A principal components analysis showed that localized, moderately severe threats accounted for most of the threat composition differences among our watersheds. We also found that the relative importance of threats is sensitive to the spatial grain of the analysis. Our case study demonstrates that the ERI is useful for evaluating the frequency and severity of ecosystemwide risk, which can

  4. Lightweight ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Debiao; Kumar, Neeraj; Chilamkurti, Naveen; Lee, Jong-Hyouk

    2014-10-01

    The radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely adopted and being deployed as a dominant identification technology in a health care domain such as medical information authentication, patient tracking, blood transfusion medicine, etc. With more and more stringent security and privacy requirements to RFID based authentication schemes, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) based RFID authentication schemes have been proposed to meet the requirements. However, many recently published ECC based RFID authentication schemes have serious security weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a new ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol that overcomes the weaknesses of the existing schemes. A comprehensive security analysis has been conducted to show strong security properties that are provided from the proposed authentication scheme. Moreover, the performance of the proposed authentication scheme is analyzed in terms of computational cost, communicational cost, and storage requirement.

  5. An ICT-Based Platform to Monitor Protocols in the Healthcare Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorís, Víctor M Alonso; Gago, Juan M Santos; Sabucedo, Luis Álvarez; Merino, Mateo Ramos; Valero, Javier Sanz

    2016-10-01

    Procedures from the healthcare domain involve highly critical actions as they may pose a risk for patients' life. Therefore, a large effort is devoted to the standardization in clinical praxis and to the control of quality for these protocols in order to minimize hazards. In this line, this work is compelled to provide an ICT-based support to carry out these controls in a simple and effective manner. Using a methodology based on HACCP and taking advantage of Semantic tools, a holistic platform of services for traceability and control of processes has been designed and implemented. The applied paradigm is based on the use of Control Points as singular points to generate traces using observations and measures relevant for the processes considered. Based on those, it is possible to offer services for advanced querying and knowledge inference. The local deployment just requires regular mobile phones or tablets making this solution cost-effective and easily replicable. PMID:27624494

  6. Research on an E-mail Encryption Protocol Based on Quantum Teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufen, Xiao; Yumin, Dong; Hongyang, Ma; Libo, Chen

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of information technology (IT), E-mail has become an important communication tool between human beings. Meanwhile, E-mail safety becomes increasingly important because of its universal applications. In order to overcome shortages of classical E-mail encryption, an E-mail encryption protocol based on quantum teleportation was proposed. It makes quantum encryption of E-mails during sending and receiving processes by taking advantages of entanglement and nonclonability of quantum, thus ensuring safety and reliability of E-mail transmission.

  7. Design and Simulation of Routing-switching Protocol Based on Optical Switch Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Wei; MAO You-ju; LIU Jiang

    2004-01-01

    An optical routing- switching technology based on optical switch array is proposed. The characteristics of the blocking and nonblocking networks are analyzed and compared, odd- even sorting network is used to realize optical routing- switching, relative routing- switching protocol is designed.Simulation test under load shows that it can reduce a blocking effectively and enhance an efficiency of switching. Further, it can transfer the processing and switching within parallel computer from electric domain to optical domain. It can make parallel computer coordinating computing and processing at much more higher speed, storing and transmitting even more efficiently.

  8. A Hybrid Path-Oriented Code Assignment CDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifang Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the characteristics of underwater acoustic channel, media access control (MAC protocols designed for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs are quite different from those for terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Moreover, in a sink-oriented network with event information generation in a sensor field and message forwarding to the sink hop-by-hop, the sensors near the sink have to transmit more packets than those far from the sink, and then a funneling effect occurs, which leads to packet congestion, collisions and losses, especially in UWASNs with long propagation delays. An improved CDMA-based MAC protocol, named path-oriented code assignment (POCA CDMA MAC (POCA-CDMA-MAC, is proposed for UWASNs in this paper. In the proposed MAC protocol, both the round-robin method and CDMA technology are adopted to make the sink receive packets from multiple paths simultaneously. Since the number of paths for information gathering is much less than that of nodes, the length of the spreading code used in the POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol is shorter greatly than that used in the CDMA-based protocols with transmitter-oriented code assignment (TOCA or receiver-oriented code assignment (ROCA. Simulation results show that the proposed POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol achieves a higher network throughput and a lower end-to-end delay compared to other CDMA-based MAC protocols.

  9. A hybrid path-oriented code assignment CDMA-based MAC protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huifang; Fan, Guangyu; Xie, Lei; Cui, Jun-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Due to the characteristics of underwater acoustic channel, media access control (MAC) protocols designed for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs) are quite different from those for terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Moreover, in a sink-oriented network with event information generation in a sensor field and message forwarding to the sink hop-by-hop, the sensors near the sink have to transmit more packets than those far from the sink, and then a funneling effect occurs, which leads to packet congestion, collisions and losses, especially in UWASNs with long propagation delays. An improved CDMA-based MAC protocol, named path-oriented code assignment (POCA) CDMA MAC (POCA-CDMA-MAC), is proposed for UWASNs in this paper. In the proposed MAC protocol, both the round-robin method and CDMA technology are adopted to make the sink receive packets from multiple paths simultaneously. Since the number of paths for information gathering is much less than that of nodes, the length of the spreading code used in the POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol is shorter greatly than that used in the CDMA-based protocols with transmitter-oriented code assignment (TOCA) or receiver-oriented code assignment (ROCA). Simulation results show that the proposed POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol achieves a higher network throughput and a lower end-to-end delay compared to other CDMA-based MAC protocols.

  10. Modeling and Simulation of a Novel Relay Node Based Secure Routing Protocol Using Multiple Mobile Sink for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Madhumathy; Dhandapani, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Data gathering and optimal path selection for wireless sensor networks (WSN) using existing protocols result in collision. Increase in collision further increases the possibility of packet drop. Thus there is a necessity to eliminate collision during data aggregation. Increasing the efficiency is the need of the hour with maximum security. This paper is an effort to come up with a reliable and energy efficient WSN routing and secure protocol with minimum delay. This technique is named as relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS). This protocol finds the rendezvous point for optimal transmission of data using a "splitting tree" technique in tree-shaped network topology and then to determine all the subsequent positions of a sink the "Biased Random Walk" model is used. In case of an event, the sink gathers the data from all sources, when they are in the sensing range of rendezvous point. Otherwise relay node is selected from its neighbor to transfer packets from rendezvous point to sink. A symmetric key cryptography is used for secure transmission. The proposed relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS) is experimented and simulation results are compared with Intelligent Agent-Based Routing (IAR) protocol to prove that there is increase in the network lifetime compared with other routing protocols. PMID:26495426

  11. Zein based oil-in-glycerol emulgels enriched with β-carotene as margarine alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Fu, Shi-Yao; Hou, Jun-Jie; Guo, Jian; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-11-15

    Structuring edible oils into solid lipids without saturated and trans fats has attracted increasing interest due to the benefits for human health and promises potential as novel delivery systems for lipophilic bioactive ingredients. The study shows that a zein stabilized high (ϕ=0.6) oil-in-glycerol (O/G) emulgels enriched with β-carotene was performed, by a facile one-step homogenization. Rheological measurements and morphologies observations indicated that increasing β-carotene resulted in a progressive strengthening of gel-like network and improving their spreadability in the O/G emulgels stabilized by zein, which was closely related to the hydrophobic interaction of zein and β-carotene. The formation of emulgels significantly enhanced the UV photo-stability of β-carotene, and more than 88% of β-carotene was retained in 64h storage under UV exposure, and consequently retarded oil oxidation while storage. Further, cakes prepared using zein-based O/G emulgels as a margarine alternative showed comparable functionalities (texture and sensory attributes) to the standard cake. PMID:27283703

  12. Starch-based extruded cereals enriched in fibers: a behavior of composite solid foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanvrier, Hélène; Desbois, Fabrice; Perotti, Fabienne; Salzmann, Claire; Chassagne, Sophie; Gumy, Jean-Claude; Blank, Imre

    2013-10-15

    Extruded cereals mainly composed of starch and enriched in fibers were produced with two types of base recipes: (i) one recipe mainly composed of wheat flour and (ii) one recipe mainly composed of corn and soya flours. The addition of fibers was performed through the use of oat bran concentrate or wheat bran, up to 32% of the recipe. The structure of the extrudates, assessed by X-ray tomography, pointed out the decrease of porosity and of mean cells size with the increase of the total dietary fibers content of the recipe. The hardness of the products, i.e. the maximum stress determined by a compression test, was linked to their porosity. The Gibson-Ashby relationship could be applied and the fit was even improved when considering the walls of the solid foam as composite materials. Fibers and proteins can be indeed considered as particles dispersed in the starchy phase. This work thus shows the impact of the structure of the extrudates on their mechanical properties. The structure is taken into account at different length scales; at the level of the porous structure and at the level of the phase of the main biopolymers present in the recipe (starch, proteins and fibers). The mechanical behavior of these products is then discussed according to their characteristics of composite solid foams. PMID:23987420

  13. A game theory-based obstacle avoidance routing protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xin; Wu, Huayang; Bi, Shujun

    2011-01-01

    The obstacle avoidance problem in geographic forwarding is an important issue for location-based routing in wireless sensor networks. The presence of an obstacle leads to several geographic routing problems such as excessive energy consumption and data congestion. Obstacles are hard to avoid in realistic environments. To bypass obstacles, most routing protocols tend to forward packets along the obstacle boundaries. This leads to a situation where the nodes at the boundaries exhaust their energy rapidly and the obstacle area is diffused. In this paper, we introduce a novel routing algorithm to solve the obstacle problem in wireless sensor networks based on a game-theory model. Our algorithm forms a concave region that cannot forward packets to achieve the aim of improving the transmission success rate and decreasing packet transmission delays. We consider the residual energy, out-degree and forwarding angle to determine the forwarding probability and payoff function of forwarding candidates. This achieves the aim of load balance and reduces network energy consumption. Simulation results show that based on the average delivery delay, energy consumption and packet delivery ratio performances our protocol is superior to other traditional schemes. PMID:22163698

  14. Optimization of the scan protocols for CT-based material extraction in small animal PET/CT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ching-Ching [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Tzu Chi College of Technology, 880, Sec 2, Chien-Kuo Rd., Hualien, Taiwan (China); Yu, Jhih-An [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Bang-Hung [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Tung-Hsin, E-mail: tung@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-11

    We investigated the effects of scan protocols on CT-based material extraction to minimize radiation dose while maintaining sufficient image information in small animal studies. The phantom simulation experiments were performed with the high dose (HD), medium dose (MD) and low dose (LD) protocols at 50, 70 and 80 kV{sub p} with varying mA s. The reconstructed CT images were segmented based on Hounsfield unit (HU)-physical density (ρ) calibration curves and the dual-energy CT-based (DECT) method. Compared to the (HU;ρ) method performed on CT images acquired with the 80 kV{sub p} HD protocol, a 2-fold improvement in segmentation accuracy and a 7.5-fold reduction in radiation dose were observed when the DECT method was performed on CT images acquired with the 50/80 kV{sub p} LD protocol, showing the possibility to reduce radiation dose while achieving high segmentation accuracy.

  15. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, Olli [Senior Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  16. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  17. Analysis and Proposal of Position-Based Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hiraku; Takano, Akira; Mase, Kenichi

    One of the most promising applications of a mobile ad hoc network is a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). Each vehicle is aware of its position information by GPS or other methods, so position-based routing is a useful approach in VANET. The position-based routing protocol can be classified roughly into a next-hop forwarding method and a directed flooding method. We evaluate performance of both methods by analytic approach and compare them in this paper. From the evaluation results, we conclude that it is effective for the position-based routing to choose either the next-hop forwarding method or the directed flooding method according to the environment. Then we propose the hybrid transmission method which can select one of them according to the environment, and clarify that the proposed method can keep the packet delivery ratio at a high level and reduce the delay time.

  18. Power Management Based Grid Routing Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Based MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; ZHENG Bao-yu; YANG Zhen

    2004-01-01

    MANET ( Mobile Ad Hoc Network ) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes forming a temporary communication network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration. The lifetime of a MANET depends on the battery resources of the mobile nodes. So energy consumption may one of important design criterions for MANET. With changing the idle model to sleep model in the grid environment, this paper proposes a new energy-aware routing protocol. Performance simulation results show that the proposed strategy can dynamic balance the traffic load inside the whole network, extend the lifetime of a MANET, and without decreasing the throughput ratio.

  19. A Cluster Based Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network for Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Shanthi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN is a new and fast advancing technology, which is opening up many opportunities in the field of remote sensing and data monitoring. Even though the advances in embedded systems, the energy consumption is still open issue in WSNs. Recently there has been growing interest in the applications of sensor networks. The radio transmission and reception consumes a lot of energy, one of the important issues in wireless sensor network is the inherent limited battery power within network sensor nodes. Since sensors are generally constrained in on-board energy supply, efficient management of the network is crucial in extending the life of the sensor. In addition to maximizing the lifespan of sensor nodes, it is preferable to distribute the energy dissipated throughout the wireless sensor network in order to maximize overall network performance. In this paper, the focus is mainly driven over the survey of the hierarchical cluster-based available routings in Wireless Sensor Network for energy consumption. Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH protocol is one of the best hierarchical protocols utilizing the probabilistic model to manage the energy consumption of WSN. Simulation results, shows the energy consumption over time of three nodes with distance to the Base Station.

  20. ERROR COUNTER-BASED NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT MODE IN CCSDS FILE DELIVERY PROTOCOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Shijie; Yang Mingchuan; Guo Qing

    2011-01-01

    Deep space communication has its own features such as long propagation delays,heavy noise,asymmetric link rates,and intermittent connectivity in space,therefore TCP/IP protocol cannot perform as well as it does in terrestrial communications.Accordingly,the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) developed CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP),which sets standards of efficient file delivery service capable of transferring files to and from mass memory located in the space segment.In CFDP,four optional acknowledge modes are supported to make the communication more reliable.In this paper,we gave a general introduction of typical communication process in CFDP and analysis of its four Negative Acknowledgement (NAK) modes on the respect of file delivery delay and times of retransmission.We found out that despite the shortest file delivery delay,immediate NAK mode suffers from the problem that frequent retransmission may probably lead to network congestion.Thus,we proposed a new mode,the error counter-based NAK mode.By simulation of the case focused on the link between a deep space probe on Mars and a terrestrial station on Earth,we concluded that error counter-based NAK mode has successfully reduced the retransmission times at negligible cost of certain amount of file delivery delay.

  1. Assessment of High and Low Rate Protocol-based Attacks on Ethernet Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Malekzadeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and Web have significantly transformed the world’s communication system. The capability of the Internet to instantly access information at anytime from anywhere has brought benefit for a wide variety of areas including business, government, education, institutions, medical, and entertainment services. However, the Internet has also opened up the possibilities for hackers to exploit flaws and limitations in the target networks to attack and break in without gaining physical access to the target systems. The OSI layer protocol-based attacks are among them. In this work we investigate feasibility as well as severity of the attacks against three common layering protocols including TCP, UDP, and ICMP on Ethernet-based networks in the real world through a testbed. Then a simulation environment is designed to implement the exact same attacks under similar conditions using NS2 network simulator. The testbed results and simulation results are compared with each other to explore the accuracy of the findings and measure the damages the attacks caused to the network.

  2. Individualized music for dementia: Evolution and application of evidence-based protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdner, Linda A

    2012-01-01

    The theory-based intervention of individualized music has been evaluated clinically and empirically leading to advancement and refinement of an evidence-based protocol, currently in its 5th edition. An expanded version of the protocol was written for professional health care providers with a consumer version tailored for family caregivers. The underlying mid-range theory is presented along with a seminal study that was followed by further research in the United States, Canada, Great Britain, France, Sweden, Norway, Japan and Taiwan. Key studies are summarized. Given its efficacy when implemented by research staff, studies have advanced to testing the intervention under real-life conditions when implemented and evaluated by trained nursing assistants in long-term care facilities and visiting family members. In addition, one study evaluated the implementation of music by family members in the home setting. Initial research focused on agitation as the dependent variable with subsequent research indicating a more holistic response such as positive affect, expressed satisfaction, and meaningful interaction with others. The article advances by describing on-line programs designed to train health care professionals in the assessment, implementation and evaluation of individualized music. In addition, Gerdner has written a story for a picture book intended for children and their families (in press). The story models principles of individualized music to elicit positive memories, reduce anxiety and agitation, and promote communication. The article concludes with implications for future research. PMID:24175165

  3. A Semantics-Based Approachfor Achieving Self Fault-Tolerance of Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李腊元; 李春林

    2000-01-01

    The cooperation of different processes may be lost by mistake when a protocol is executed. The protocol cannot be normally operated under this condition. In this paper, the self fault-tolerance of protocols is discussed, and a semanticsbased approach for achieving self fault-tolerance of protocols is presented. Some main characteristics of self fault-tolerance of protocols concerning liveness, nontermination and infinity are also presented. Meanwhile, the sufficient and necessary conditions for achieving self fault-tolerance of protocols are given. Finally, a typical protocol that does not satisfy the self fault-tolerance is investigated, and a new redesign version of this existing protocol using the proposed approach is given.

  4. A high-speed multi-protocol quantum key distribution transmitter based on a dual-drive modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Korzh, Boris; Houlmann, Raphael; Zbinden, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel source based on a dual-drive modulator that is adaptable and allows Alice to choose between various practical quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols depending on what receiver she is communicating with. Experimental results show that the proposed transmitter is suitable for implementation of the Bennett and Brassard 1984 (BB84), coherent one-way (COW) and differential phase shift (DPS) protocols with stable and low quantum bit error rate. This could become a useful component in network QKD, where multi-protocol capability is highly desirable.

  5. A Survey of RFID Authentication Protocols Based on Hash-Chain Method

    CERN Document Server

    Syamsuddin, Irfan; Chang, Elizabeth; Han, Song; 10.1109/ICCIT.2008.314

    2010-01-01

    Security and privacy are the inherent problems in RFID communications. There are several protocols have been proposed to overcome those problems. Hash chain is commonly employed by the protocols to improve security and privacy for RFID authentication. Although the protocols able to provide specific solution for RFID security and privacy problems, they fail to provide integrated solution. This article is a survey to closely observe those protocols in terms of its focus and limitations.

  6. An Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Query-Based Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Ahvar; Shohreh Ahvar; Gyu Myoung Lee; Noel Crespi

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) typically has energy consumption restriction. Designing energy-aware routing protocol can significantly reduce energy consumption in WSNs. Energy-aware routing protocols can be classified into two categories, energy savers and energy balancers. Energy saving protocols are used to minimize the overall energy consumed by a WSN, while energy balancing protocols attempt to efficiently distribute the consumption of energy throughout the network. In general terms, e...

  7. Design and Evaluation of a New Fair Exchange Protocol Based on an Online TTP

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah AlOtaibi; Hamza Aldabbas

    2012-01-01

    Security protocols in e-commerce are required to manage the transactions between buyers and sellers. In order to engage customers in e-commerce, these protocols should be well formulated and secured; they should protect both parties from fraudulent users and subsequently promote the growth of e-commerce. There are some protocols, known as fair exchange protocols, in e-commerce that are designed to guarantee fairness between the customer and the merchant so that neither party gains any advanta...

  8. 一种基于RSL的协议形式化描述技术的研究%Research on Formal Description Techniques of Protocols Based on RSL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 屈玉贵; 赵保华

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a formal technique of protocols based on RSL,which can efficiently connect the formaldescription ,validation,implementation and testing of protocols. It mainly discusses the formal description of protocolsbased on RSL,and also provides an algorithm about this. Finally,taking the protocol AB as an example,a formal de-scription based on RSL is given.

  9. Protein expression and isotopic enrichment based on induction of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refaeli, Bosmat [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Tel Aviv (Israel); Goldbourt, Amir, E-mail: amirgo@post.tau.ac.il [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Entner-Doudoroff pathway is induced during protein expression in E. coli. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1-{sup 13}C-gluconate and {sup 15}NH{sub 4}Cl provide a carbonyl-amide protein backbone labeling scheme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enrichment pattern is determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. -- Abstract: The Entner-Doudoroff pathway is known to exist in many organisms including bacteria, archea and eukarya. Although the common route for carbon catabolism in Escherichia coli is the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, it was shown that gluconate catabolism in E. coli occurs via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. We demonstrate here that by supplying BL21(DE3) competent E.coli cells with gluconate in a minimal growth medium, protein expression can be induced. Nuclear magnetic resonance data of over-expressed ubiquitin show that by using [1-{sup 13}C]-gluconate as the only carbon source, and {sup 15}N-enriched ammonium chloride, sparse isotopic enrichment in the form of a spin-pair carbonyl-amide backbone enrichment is obtained. The specific amino acid labeling pattern is analyzed and is shown to be compatible with Entner-Doudoroff metabolism. Isotopic enrichment serves as a key factor in the biophysical characterization of proteins by various methods including nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy and more. Therefore, the method presented here can be applied to study proteins by obtaining sparse enrichment schemes that are not based on the regular glycolytic pathway, or to study the Entner-Doudoroff metabolism during protein expression.

  10. Implementing the WebSocket Protocol Based on Formal Modelling and Automated Code Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2014-01-01

    with pragmatic annotations for automated code generation of protocol software. The contribution of this paper is an application of the approach as implemented in the PetriCode tool to obtain protocol software implementing the IETF WebSocket protocol. This demonstrates the scalability of our approach to real...

  11. Impact of the Mobility Models, Route and Link connectivity on the performance of Position based routing protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Adam MACINTOSH; Ming FEISIYAU; Mohammed GHAVAMI

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigate the fundamental factors “mobility models, route and link connectivity” in Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANET) which have a major impact on the performance of position based routing protocols. In addition, a new measurement method called probability of communication process is proposed. The method is used to measure the success rate of established path by a MANET routing protocol, which allow to stress test and inspect the stability, scalability and adaptability of MANET rout...

  12. Development and Testing of a Literature Search Protocol for Evidence Based Nursing: An Applied Student Learning Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Hickner; Friese, Christopher R.; Margaret Irwin

    2011-01-01

    Objective – The study aimed to develop a search protocol and evaluate reviewers' satisfaction with an evidence-based practice (EBP) review by embedding a library science student in the process.Methods – The student was embedded in one of four review teams overseen by a professional organization for oncology nurses (ONS). A literature search protocol was developed by the student following discussion and feedback from the review team. Organization staff provided process feedback. Reviewers from...

  13. Time-Based CSMA Protocol for Alleviating Collision Problem in RFID System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima.R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID System admits rapid identification of entities by itself in the discipline of pervasive computing. RFID system comprises readers and tags. Readers arecommunicating with the tag by broadcasting RF signals. In existing RFID system channel assignment, tag identification and collision is a vital issue. Henceforth efforts are requisite to minimize these issues. This work evaluating the throughput of the RFID system by incorporating time into Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA protocol. Time based CSMA (TCSMA depends on CSMA below low contention and TDMA below high contention in RFID system. The performance can be measured by Mat lab simulator. Time Based CSMA improves the tag read rate and also reduces the collision problem when compared to the conventional algorithm.

  14. Quantum Chemical-Based Protocol for the Rational Design of Covalent Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmeister, Tanja; Kesselring, Jochen; Jung, Sascha; Schneider, Thomas H; Weickert, Anastasia; Becker, Johannes; Lee, Wook; Bamberger, Denise; Wich, Peter R; Distler, Ute; Tenzer, Stefan; Johé, Patrick; Hellmich, Ute A; Engels, Bernd

    2016-07-13

    We propose a structure-based protocol for the development of customized covalent inhibitors. Starting from a known inhibitor, in the first and second steps appropriate substituents of the warhead are selected on the basis of quantum mechanical (QM) computations and hybrid approaches combining QM with molecular mechanics (QM/MM). In the third step the recognition unit is optimized using docking approaches for the noncovalent complex. These predictions are finally verified by QM/MM or molecular dynamic simulations. The applicability of our approach is successfully demonstrated by the design of reversible covalent vinylsulfone-based inhibitors for rhodesain. The examples show that our approach is sufficiently accurate to identify compounds with the desired properties but also to exclude nonpromising ones.

  15. A Laser-Based Method for On-Site Analysis of UF6 at Enrichment Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Martinez, Alonzo; Barrett, Christopher A.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Smith, Leon E.

    2014-11-23

    The International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA’s) long-term research and development plan calls for more cost-effective and efficient safeguard methods to detect and deter misuse of gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The IAEA’s current safeguards approaches at GCEPs are based on a combination of routine and random inspections that include environmental sampling and destructive assay (DA) sample collection from UF6 in-process material and selected cylinders. Samples are then shipped offsite for subsequent laboratory analysis. In this paper, a new DA sample collection and onsite analysis approach that could help to meet challenges in transportation and chain of custody for UF6 DA samples is introduced. This approach uses a handheld sampler concept and a Laser Ablation, Laser Absorbance Spectrometry (LAARS) analysis instrument, both currently under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A LAARS analysis instrument could be temporarily or permanently deployed in the IAEA control room of the facility, in the IAEA data acquisition cabinet, for example. The handheld PNNL DA sampler design collects and stabilizes a much smaller DA sample mass compared to current sampling methods. The significantly lower uranium mass reduces the sample radioactivity and the stabilization approach diminishes the risk of uranium and hydrogen fluoride release. These attributes enable safe sample handling needed during onsite LAARS assay and may help ease shipping challenges for samples to be processed at the IAEA’s offsite laboratory. The LAARS and DA sampler implementation concepts will be described and preliminary technical viability results presented.

  16. Improving the efficiency of single and multiple teleportation protocols based on the direct use of partially entangled states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Raphael; Rigolin, Gustavo, E-mail: rigolin@ifi.unicamp.br

    2013-09-15

    We push the limits of the direct use of partially pure entangled states to perform quantum teleportation by presenting several protocols in many different scenarios that achieve the optimal efficiency possible. We review and put in a single formalism the three major strategies known to date that allow one to use partially entangled states for direct quantum teleportation (no distillation strategies permitted) and compare their efficiencies in real world implementations. We show how one can improve the efficiency of many direct teleportation protocols by combining these techniques. We then develop new teleportation protocols employing multipartite partially entangled states. The three techniques are also used here in order to achieve the highest efficiency possible. Finally, we prove the upper bound for the optimal success rate for protocols based on partially entangled Bell states and show that some of the protocols here developed achieve such a bound. -- Highlights: •Optimal direct teleportation protocols using directly partially entangled states. •We put in a single formalism all strategies of direct teleportation. •We extend these techniques for multipartite partially entangle states. •We give upper bounds for the optimal efficiency of these protocols.

  17. Improving the efficiency of single and multiple teleportation protocols based on the direct use of partially entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We push the limits of the direct use of partially pure entangled states to perform quantum teleportation by presenting several protocols in many different scenarios that achieve the optimal efficiency possible. We review and put in a single formalism the three major strategies known to date that allow one to use partially entangled states for direct quantum teleportation (no distillation strategies permitted) and compare their efficiencies in real world implementations. We show how one can improve the efficiency of many direct teleportation protocols by combining these techniques. We then develop new teleportation protocols employing multipartite partially entangled states. The three techniques are also used here in order to achieve the highest efficiency possible. Finally, we prove the upper bound for the optimal success rate for protocols based on partially entangled Bell states and show that some of the protocols here developed achieve such a bound. -- Highlights: •Optimal direct teleportation protocols using directly partially entangled states. •We put in a single formalism all strategies of direct teleportation. •We extend these techniques for multipartite partially entangle states. •We give upper bounds for the optimal efficiency of these protocols

  18. A quantum secure direct communication protocol based on a five-particle cluster state and classical XOR operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian; SONG Dan-Jie; GUO Xiao-Jing; JING Bo

    2012-01-01

    In order to transmit secure messages,a quantum secure direct communication protocol based on a five-particle cluster state and classical XOR operation is presented.The five-particle cluster state is used to detect eavesdroppers,and the classical XOR operation serving as a one-time-pad is used to ensure the security of the protocol.In the security analysis,the entropy theory method is introduced,and three detection strategies are compared quantitatively by using the constraint between the information that the eavesdroppers can obtain and the interference introduced.If the eavesdroppers intend to obtain all the information,the detection rate of the original ping-pong protocol is 50%; the second protocol,using two particles of the Einstein-PodolskyRosen pair as detection particles,is also 50%; while the presented protocol is 89%.Finally,the security of the proposed protocol is discussed,and the analysis results indicate that the protocol in this paper is more secure than the other two.

  19. A Composed Protocol of Quantum Identity Authentication Plus Quantum Key Distribution Based on Squeezed States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is established that a single quantum cryptography protocol usually cooperates with other cryptographic systems, such as an authentication system, in the real world. However, few protocols have been proposed on how to combine two or more quantum protocols. To fill this gap, we propose a composed quantum protocol, containing both quantum identity authentication and quantum key distribution, using squeezed states. Hence, not only the identity can be verified, but also a new private key can be generated by our new protocol. We also analyze the security under an optimal attack, and the efficiency, which is defined by the threshold of the tolerant error rate, using Gaussian error function. (general)

  20. Sleeping Cluster based Medium Access Control Layer Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Rangaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks play a vital role in remote area applications, where human intervention is not possible. In a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN each and every node is strictly an energy as well as bandwidth constrained one. Problem statement: In a standard WSN, most of the routing techniques, move data from multiple sources to a single fixed base station. Because of the greater number of computational tasks, the existing routing protocol did not address the energy efficient problem properly. In order to overcome the problem of energy consumption due to more number of computational tasks, a new method is developed. Approach: The proposed algorithm divides the sensing field into three active clusters and one sleeping cluster. The cluster head selection is based on the distance between the base station and the normal nodes. The Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA mechanism is used to make the cluster remain in the active state as well as the sleeping state. In an active cluster 50% of nodes will be made active and the remaining 50% be in sleep state. A sleeping cluster will be made active after a period of time and periodically changes its functionality. Results: Due to this periodic change of state, energy consumption is minimized. The performance of the Low Energy Adaptive and Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH algorithm is also analyzed, using a network simulator NS2 based on the number of Cluster Heads (CH, Energy consumption, Lifetime and the number of nodes alive. Conclusion: The simulation studies were carried out using a network simulation tool NS2, for the proposed method and this is compared with the performance of the existing protocol. The superiority of the proposed method is highlighted.

  1. IDMA: improving the defense against malicious attack for mobile ad hoc networks based on ARIP protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2008-04-01

    Malicious nodes are mounting increasingly sophisticated attacking operations on the Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). This is mainly because the IP-based MANETs are vulnerable to attacks by various malicious nodes. However, the defense against malicious attack can be improved when a new layer of network architecture can be developed to separate true IP address from disclosing to the malicious nodes. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to improve the defense against malicious attack (IDMA) that is based on a recently developed Assignment Router Identify Protocol (ARIP) for the clustering-based MANET management. In the ARIP protocol, we design the ARIP architecture based on the new Identity instead of the vulnerable IP addresses to provide the required security that is embedded seamlessly into the overall network architecture. We make full use of ARIP's special property to monitor gateway forward packets by Reply Request Route Packets (RREP) without additional intrusion detection layer. We name this new algorithm IDMA because of its inherent capability to improve the defense against malicious attacks. Through IDMA, a watching algorithm can be established so as to counterattack the malicious node in the routing path when it unusually drops up packets. We provide analysis examples for IDMA for the defense against a malicious node that disrupts the route discovery by impersonating the destination, or by responding with state of corrupted routing information, or by disseminating forged control traffic. The IDMA algorithm is able to counterattack the malicious node in the cases when the node lunch DoS attack by broadcast a large number of route requests, or make Target traffic congestion by delivering huge mount of data; or spoof the IP addresses and send forge packets with a fake ID to the same Target causing traffic congestion at that destination. We have implemented IDMA algorism using the GloMoSim simulator and have demonstrated its performance under a variety of

  2. Chaotic maps and biometrics-based anonymous three-party authenticated key exchange protocol without using passwords

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢琪; 胡斌; 陈克非; 刘文浩; 谭肖

    2015-01-01

    In three-party password authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol, since two users use their passwords to establish a secure session key over an insecure communication channel with the help of the trusted server, such a protocol may suffer the password guessing attacks and the server has to maintain the password table. To eliminate the shortages of password-based AKE protocol, very recently, according to chaotic maps, Lee et al. [2015 Nonlinear Dyn. 79 2485] proposed a first three-party-authenticated key exchange scheme without using passwords, and claimed its security by providing a well-organized BAN logic test. Unfortunately, their protocol cannot resist impersonation attack, which is demonstrated in the present paper. To overcome their security weakness, by using chaotic maps, we propose a biometrics-based anonymous three-party AKE protocol with the same advantages. Further, we use the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our AKE protocol achieves authentication, security and anonymity, and an acceptable efficiency.

  3. Chaotic maps and biometrics-based anonymous three-party authenticated key exchange protocol without using passwords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Hu, Bin; Chen, Ke-Fei; Liu, Wen-Hao; Tan, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    In three-party password authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol, since two users use their passwords to establish a secure session key over an insecure communication channel with the help of the trusted server, such a protocol may suffer the password guessing attacks and the server has to maintain the password table. To eliminate the shortages of password-based AKE protocol, very recently, according to chaotic maps, Lee et al. [2015 Nonlinear Dyn. 79 2485] proposed a first three-party-authenticated key exchange scheme without using passwords, and claimed its security by providing a well-organized BAN logic test. Unfortunately, their protocol cannot resist impersonation attack, which is demonstrated in the present paper. To overcome their security weakness, by using chaotic maps, we propose a biometrics-based anonymous three-party AKE protocol with the same advantages. Further, we use the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our AKE protocol achieves authentication, security and anonymity, and an acceptable efficiency. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LZ12F02005), the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB834205), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61070153).

  4. A routing protocol based on energy and link quality for Internet of Things applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Kássio; Rosário, Denis; Cerqueira, Eduardo; Loureiro, Antonio A F; Neto, Augusto; Souza, José Neuman de

    2013-02-04

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL) for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols.

  5. A Routing Protocol Based on Energy and Link Quality for Internet of Things Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. F. Loureiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols.

  6. A routing protocol based on energy and link quality for Internet of Things applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Kássio; Rosário, Denis; Cerqueira, Eduardo; Loureiro, Antonio A F; Neto, Augusto; Souza, José Neuman de

    2013-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL) for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols. PMID:23385410

  7. Performance analysis of distributed cluster-based MAC protocol for multiuser MIMO wireless networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettefagh Azadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is known that multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO communication can enhance the performance of wireless networks. It can substantially increase the spectral efficiency of wireless networks by utilising multiuser interference rather than avoiding it. This paradigm shift has most impact on the medium access control (MAC protocol because most existing MAC protocols are designed to reduce the interference. In this article, we propose a novel cluster-based carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CB-CSMA/CA scheme. The proposed scheme enables multiuser MIMO transmissions in wireless local area networks (WLANs by utilising the multiuser interference cancellation capability of the physical layer. In this article we focus on the performance analysis of CB-CSMA/CA. We investigate saturation throughput applying optimum backoff parameters and in the presence of synchronisation errors. Furthermore, we study the impact of different clustering methods on non-saturation throughput. We show that CB-CSMA/CA improves throughput significantly compared to the CSMA/CA scheme used in the IEEE 802.11 system. It is a promising approach for a variety of network configurations including typical infrastructure WLANs as well as many other wireless cooperative networks.

  8. Simulation Based Performance Comparison Of Various Routing Protocols In MANET Using Network Simulation Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.K.Thangadurai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile nodes forming a network temporarily without any centralized administration of the mobile networks. Each node in MANET moves arbitrarily making the multi-hop network topology to change randomly at unpredictable times. Two nodes in such a network can communicate in a bidirectional manner if and only if the distance between them is at most the minimum of their transmission ranges. When a node wants to communicate with a node outside its transmission range, a multi-hop routing strategy is used which involves some intermediate nodes? Because of the movements of nodes, there is a constant possibility of topology change in MANET. There are several familiar routing protocols like DSDV, AODV, DSR, etc., Which have been proposed for providing communication among all the nodes in the network? This paper presents a performance comparison of proactive and reactive protocols AODV, DSDV and DSR based on metrics such as throughput, packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay by using the NS-2 simulator.

  9. Design and Evaluation of a New Fair Exchange Protocol Based on an Online TTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah AlOtaibi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Security protocols in e-commerce are required to manage the transactions between buyers and sellers. In order to engage customers in e-commerce, these protocols should be well formulated and secured; they should protect both parties from fraudulent users and subsequently promote the growth of e-commerce. There are some protocols, known as fair exchange protocols, in e-commerce that are designed to guarantee fairness between the customer and the merchant so that neither party gains any advantage over the other. Therefore, in this paper, we introduce a new fair exchange protocol for trading products online between a buyer and a seller. The items to be exchanged in this protocol are a digital product and a payment. The following are the characteristics of this new protocol: (1 Dependency on a trusted third party is greatly reduced; further, the protocol also overcomes increased communication overheads and risks, hence leading to substantial improvement in the efficiency and practicality of the protocol. (2 The protocol ensures fairness for all parties and provides an internal dispute resolution mechanism, thereby guaranteeing that none of the parties involved in the transaction suffer unfairly in case one of the entities disappears before the transaction is formalized. (3 The protocol consists of three messages exchanged between the buyer (customer and the seller (merchant.

  10. A combined enrichment/polymerase chain reaction based method for the routine screening of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Munari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is the most common cause of life-threatening infection in neonates. Guidelines from CDC recommend universal screening of pregnant women for rectovaginal GBS colonization. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a combined enrichment/PCR based method targeting the atr gene in relation to culture using enrichment with selective broth medium (standard method to identify the presence of GBS in pregnant women. Rectovaginal GBS samples from women at ≥36 weeks of pregnancy were obtained with a swab and analyzed by the two methods. A total of 89 samples were evaluated. The prevalence of positive results for GBS detection was considerable higher when assessed by the combined enrichment/PCR method than with the standard method (35.9% versus 22.5%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the use of selective enrichment broth followed by PCR targeting the atr gene is a highly sensitive, specific and accurate test for GBS screening in pregnant women, allowing the detection of the bacteria even in lightly colonized patients. This PCR methodology may provide a useful diagnostic tool for GBS detection and contributes for a more accurate and effective intrapartum antibiotic and lower newborn mortality and morbidity.

  11. Towards a Hybrid Energy Efficient Multi-Tree-Based Optimized Routing Protocol for Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stojmenovic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of designing power efficient routing with guaranteed delivery for sensor networks with unknown geographic locations. We propose HECTOR, a hybrid energy efficient tree-based optimized routing protocol, based on two sets of virtual coordinates. One set is based on rooted tree coordinates, and the other is based on hop distances toward several landmarks. In HECTOR, the node currently holding the packet forwards it to its neighbor that optimizes ratio of power cost over distance progress with landmark coordinates, among nodes that reduce landmark coordinates and do not increase distance in tree coordinates. If such a node does not exist, then forwarding is made to the neighbor that reduces tree-based distance only and optimizes power cost over tree distance progress ratio. We theoretically prove the packet delivery and propose an extension based on the use of multiple trees. Our simulations show the superiority of our algorithm over existing alternatives while guaranteeing delivery, and only up to 30% additional power compared to centralized shortest weighted path algorithm.

  12. Direction based Hazard Routing Protocol (DHRP) for disseminating road hazard information using road side infrastructures in VANETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, M A; Anand, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents Direction based Hazard Routing Protocol (DHRP) for disseminating information about fixed road hazards such as road blocks, tree fall, boulders on road, snow pile up, landslide, road maintenance work and other obstacles to the vehicles approaching the hazardous location. The proposed work focuses on dissemination of hazard messages on highways with sparse traffic. The vehicle coming across the hazard would report the presence of the hazard. It is proposed to use Road Side fixed infrastructure Units for reliable and timely delivery of hazard messages to vehicles. The vehicles can then take appropriate safety action to avoid the hazardous location. The proposed protocol has been implemented and tested using SUMO simulator to generate road traffic and NS 2.33 network simulator to analyze the performance of DHRP. The performance of the proposed protocol was also compared with simple flooding protocol and the results are presented.

  13. A design pattern for event-based processing of security-enriched SOAP messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko; Lo Iacono, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    For Web Services in Cloud Computing contexts, the efficient processing of XML documents is a major topic of interest. Especially for WS-Security-enriched messages, processing performance nowadays tends to become a major issue. Streaming XML processing approaches lead to valuable optimization due ...

  14. twzPEA: A Topology and Working Zone Based Pathway Enrichment Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensitive detection of involvement and adaptation of key signaling, regulatory, and metabolic pathways holds the key to deciphering molecular mechanisms such as those in the biomass-to-biofuel conversion process in yeast. Typical gene set enrichment analyses often do not use topology information in...

  15. Base station MAC with APRMA protocol for broadband multimedia ATM in micro/pico-cellular mobile networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Khanh Hoang; Nielsen, Søren Nørskov; Dittmann, Lars;

    1998-01-01

    The concept for a wireless ATM access system that enables seamless mobile connectivity to the B-ISDN is presented. It is based on small, low cost and intelligent base stations running a medium access control (MAC) protocol using adaptive packet reservation multiple access (APRMA). Both the princi......The concept for a wireless ATM access system that enables seamless mobile connectivity to the B-ISDN is presented. It is based on small, low cost and intelligent base stations running a medium access control (MAC) protocol using adaptive packet reservation multiple access (APRMA). Both...... the mobile terminals use buffer lengths of only 200-300 cells. The different components of this access system are currently under implementation and the MAC unit has been successfully implemented for a 32 Mbit/s wireless channel supporting 25 Mbit/s ATM introducing only 22% of protocol overhead...

  16. Deterministic Secure Quantum Communication and Authentication Protocol based on Extended GHZ-W State and Quantum One-time Pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Li, Jian; Li, Lei-Lei; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Tao

    2016-04-01

    A deterministic secure quantum communication and authentication protocol based on extended GHZ-W state and quantum one-time pad is proposed. In the protocol, state |φ -> is used as the carrier. One photon of |φ -> state is sent to Alice, and Alice obtains a random key by measuring photons with bases determined by ID. The information of bases is secret to others except Alice and Bob. Extended GHZ-W states are used as decoy photons, the positions of which in information sequence are encoded with identity string ID of the legal user, and the eavesdropping detection rate reaches 81%. The eavesdropping detection based on extended GHZ-W state combines with authentication and the secret ID ensures the security of the protocol.

  17. Deterministic Secure Quantum Communication and Authentication Protocol based on Extended GHZ-W State and Quantum One-time Pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Li, Jian; Li, Lei-Lei; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Tao

    2016-08-01

    A deterministic secure quantum communication and authentication protocol based on extended GHZ-W state and quantum one-time pad is proposed. In the protocol, state | φ -> is used as the carrier. One photon of | φ -> state is sent to Alice, and Alice obtains a random key by measuring photons with bases determined by ID. The information of bases is secret to others except Alice and Bob. Extended GHZ-W states are used as decoy photons, the positions of which in information sequence are encoded with identity string ID of the legal user, and the eavesdropping detection rate reaches 81%. The eavesdropping detection based on extended GHZ-W state combines with authentication and the secret ID ensures the security of the protocol.

  18. 基于Spi演算的安全协议验证%VERIFYING SECURITY PROTOCOLS BASED ON SPI CALCULUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑清雄

    2011-01-01

    在安全协议的各种验证方法中,进程代数方法依托完善的进程演算理论得到了很好的应用.Spi演算在PI演算的基础上扩充了密码操作原语来刻画安全协议,并使用测试等价验证安全属性.讨论了利用Spi演算进行验证的过程,并对经典NSSK协议进行分析.%Among several authentication methods for security protocols, process algebra approach which relies on a sound theory of concurrent process calculus has been well applied.The Spi calculus depicts security protocols as an extension of the pi calculus by enriching its cryptographic primitives, and uses testing equivalence to verify security properties.The process of authentication with Spi calculus is discussed in the paper, the analysis on classical NSSK protocol is carried out using this approach as well.

  19. A Secure Time-Stamp Based Concurrency Control Protocol For Distributed Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Bhushan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In distributed database systems the global database is partitioned into a collection of local databases stored at different sites. In this era of growing technology and fast communication media, security has an important role to play. In this paper we presented a secure concurrency control protocol (SCCP based on the timestamp ordering, which provides concurrency control and maintains security. We also implemented SCCP and a comparison of SCCP is presented in three cases (High, Medium and Low security levels. In this experiment, It is observed that throughput of the system decreases as the security level of the transaction increases, i.e., there is tradeoff between the security level and the throughput of the system.

  20. Interoperability, Trust Based Information Sharing Protocol and Security: Digital Government Key Issues

    CERN Document Server

    Headayetullah, Md

    2010-01-01

    Improved interoperability between public and private organizations is of key significance to make digital government newest triumphant. Digital Government interoperability, information sharing protocol and security are measured the key issue for achieving a refined stage of digital government. Flawless interoperability is essential to share the information between diverse and merely dispersed organisations in several network environments by using computer based tools. Digital government must ensure security for its information systems, including computers and networks for providing better service to the citizens. Governments around the world are increasingly revolving to information sharing and integration for solving problems in programs and policy areas. Evils of global worry such as syndrome discovery and manage, terror campaign, immigration and border control, prohibited drug trafficking, and more demand information sharing, harmonization and cooperation amid government agencies within a country and acros...

  1. Evaluation of imaging protocol for ECT based on CS image reconstruction algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Cao, Xuexiang; Liu, Shuangquan; Wang, Lu; Huang, Xianchao; Wei, Long

    2013-01-01

    SPECT (Single-photon Emission Computerized Tomography) and PET (Positron Emission Tomography) are essential medical imaging tools, for which the sampling angle number, scan time should be chosen carefully to compromise between image quality and the radiopharmaceutical dose. In this study, the image quality of different acquisition protocol was evaluated via varied angle number and count number per angle with Monte Carlo simulation data. It was shown that when similar imaging counts were used, the factor of acquisition counts was more important than that of the sampling number in ECT (Emission Computerized Tomography). To further reduce the activity requirement and the scan duration, an iterative image reconstruction algorithm for limited-view and low-dose tomography based on compressed sensing theory has been developed. The total variation regulation was added in the reconstruction process to improve SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) and reduce the artifacts caused by the limited angle sampling. Maximization of max...

  2. Virtual Environment: assistance in nursing care for the deaf based on the protocol of Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Martini Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Presenting a Virtual Environment (VE based on the Protocol of Treatment of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus type 2, used in Primary Care for evaluation of dietary habits in nursing consultations. Method: An experimental study applied by two nurses and a nurse manager, in a sample of 30 deaf patients aged between 30 and 60 years. The environment was built in Visual Basic NET and offered eight screens about feeding containing food pictures, videos in Libras (Brazilian sign language and audio. The analysis of the VE was done through questionnaires applied to patients and professionals by the Poisson statistical test. Results: The VE shows the possible diagnostics in red, yellow, green and blue colors, depending on the degree of patients’ need. Conclusion: The environment obtained excellent acceptance by patients and nurses, allowing great interaction between them, even without an interpreter. The time in consultation was reduced to 15 minutes, with the preservation of patient privacy.

  3. A SECURE KEY COMPUTATION PROTOCOL FOR SECURE GROUP COMMUNICATION WITH PASSWORD BASED AUTHENTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velumadhava Rao R

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Providing security in group communication is more essential in this new network environment. Authentication and Confidentiality are the major concerns in secure group communication. Our proposed approach uses an authenticated group key transfer protocol that relies on trusted key generation center (KGC. KGC computes group pair for each individual and transport the pair of values to all group members in a secured manner. Password based authentication mechanism is used to avoid the illegal member access in a group Also, the proposed approach facilitates efficient key computation technique such that only authorized group members will be able to computer and retrieve the secret key and unauthorized members cannot retrieve the key. The proposed algorithm is more efficient and relies on NP class. In addition, the distribution of key is also safe and secure. Moreover, the pair generated for the computation of key is also very strong since the cryptographic techniques are used which provides efficient computation.

  4. The first protocol of stable isotope ratio assessment in tumor tissues based on original research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, Katarzyna; Frączek, Toma; Kamiński, Rafal; Sitkiewicz, Anna; Kobos, Jozef; Paneth, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Thanks to proteomics and metabolomics, for the past several years there has been a real explosion of information on the biology of cancer, which has been achieved by spectroscopic methods, including mass spectrometry. These modern techniques can provide answers to key questions about tissue structure and mechanisms of its pathological changes. However, despite the thousands of spectroscopic studies in medicine, there is no consensus on issues ranging from the choice of research tools, acquisition and preparation of test material to the interpretation and validation of the results, which greatly reduces the possibility of transforming the achieved knowledge to progress in the treatment of individual patients. The aim of this study was to verify the utility of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in the evaluation of tumor tissues. Based on experimentation on animal tissues and human neoplasms, the first protocol of stable isotope ratio assessment of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in tumor tissues was established. PMID:26619108

  5. Strong Password Based EAP-TLS Authentication Protocol for WiMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjani K.Rai,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Security becomes more important in wireless network due to lack of physical boundary. Worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX is a wireless communications technology, also known as IEEE802.16 that is intended for wireless “metropolitan area network”. IEEE802.16e (WiMAX amendment is a standard for mobile application in WiMAX. IEEE 802.16e supports EAP (Extensible authentication protocolfor authentication. EAP-TLS which is a recommendation of IEEE802.16e provides strongest security but is inefficient and costly due to use of PKI to handle the certificate. This paper proposed a strong password based EAP-TLS authentication protocol which uses simple common password for mutual authentication in place of certificate and hence reduces the problem associated with EAP-TLS and satisfy the entire requirement for IEEE 802.16e authentication.

  6. Protocol for the prevention and management of complications related to ADM implant-based breast reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, Isabelle; Dower, Rory; Ho-Asjoe, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) implant-based reconstructions have transformed direct-to-implant breast reconstruction (DTI). But like all surgery, it is not deplete of complications such as seroma, infections and wound healing problems. These are cited with varying frequencies in the literature. With increased experience and through a series of measures instituted to minimize complications, we have been able to improve outcomes for our patients. We report our technical refinements for prevention of ADM reconstruction associated complications including patient selection, implant selection, drains, dressing and our post operative antibiotic regime. We also outline our protocol for the management of ADM associated complications including seroma, simple and complex infection and red breast syndrome, such that the sequelae of complications are minimized and patients achieve a better long-term outcome. PMID:26816672

  7. Protocol for the prevention and management of complications related to ADM implant-based breast reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citron, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acellular dermal matrix (ADM implant-based reconstructions have transformed direct-to-implant breast reconstruction (DTI. But like all surgery, it is not deplete of complications such as seroma, infections and wound healing problems. These are cited with varying frequencies in the literature. With increased experience and through a series of measures instituted to minimize complications, we have been able to improve outcomes for our patients. We report our technical refinements for prevention of ADM reconstruction associated complications including patient selection, implant selection, drains, dressing and our post operative antibiotic regime. We also outline our protocol for the management of ADM associated complications including seroma, simple and complex infection and red breast syndrome, such that the sequelae of complications are minimized and patients achieve a better long-term outcome.

  8. Architecture Design and Experimental Platform Demonstration of Optical Network based on OpenFlow Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangyuan; Wang, Honghuan; Yin, Hongxi; Li, Ming; Luo, Shenzi; Wu, Chenguang

    2016-02-01

    With the extensive application of cloud computing and data centres, as well as the constantly emerging services, the big data with the burst characteristic has brought huge challenges to optical networks. Consequently, the software defined optical network (SDON) that combines optical networks with software defined network (SDN), has attracted much attention. In this paper, an OpenFlow-enabled optical node employed in optical cross-connect (OXC) and reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM), is proposed. An open source OpenFlow controller is extended on routing strategies. In addition, the experiment platform based on OpenFlow protocol for software defined optical network, is designed. The feasibility and availability of the OpenFlow-enabled optical nodes and the extended OpenFlow controller are validated by the connectivity test, protection switching and load balancing experiments in this test platform.

  9. VANET Broadcast Protocol Based on Fuzzy Logic and Lightweight Retransmission Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Celimuge; Ohzahata, Satoshi; Kato, Toshihiko

    Vehicular ad hoc networks have been attracting the interest of both academic and industrial communities on account of their potential role in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). However, due to vehicle movement and fading in wireless communications, providing a reliable and efficient multi-hop broadcast service in vehicular ad hoc networks is still an open research topic. In this paper, we propose FUZZBR (FUZZy BRoadcast), a fuzzy logic based multi-hop broadcast protocol for information dissemination in vehicular ad hoc networks. FUZZBR has low message overhead since it uses only a subset of neighbor nodes to relay data messages. In the relay node selection, FUZZBR jointly considers multiple metrics of inter-vehicle distance, node mobility and signal strength by employing the fuzzy logic. FUZZBR also uses a lightweight retransmission mechanism to retransmit a packet when a relay fails. We use computer simulations to evaluate the performance of FUZZBR.

  10. Reliable beacon transmission based MAC protocol for LR-WPANs over WLAN interferences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Hoon PARK; Byung-Seo KIM

    2014-01-01

    The use of IEEE 802.15.4 standard based application systems has been rapidly increasing, for example, in medical services, sensor networks, public safety systems, and home automation systems. However, issues arise from the fact that IEEE 802.15.4 standard based low rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs) use the same frequency bands as wireless local area networks (WLANs), and they interfere with each other. Based on past research on this issue, the interference has a more serious impact on LR-WPANs’ performance than on WLANs’ performance. In this paper we propose a method to improve LR-WPANs’ performance while coexisting with WLANs, which is called the reliable beacon transmission based medium access control (MAC) protocol. Since the reliability of a beacon frame is important, in this method, only the beacon frame is transmitted in interference-free channels, and the data packets are transmitted in interfered channels instead of abandoning the channels altogether. This method increases the reliability of beacon frames as well as overall channel utilizations. The effectiveness of the proposed method was evaluated through extensive simulations, and this paper proves that this method improves the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) over WLANs’ interferences.

  11. Weighted Feature Significance: A Simple, Interpretable Model of Compound Toxicity Based on the Statistical Enrichment of Structural Features

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ruili; Southall, Noel; Xia, Menghang; Cho, Ming-Hsuang; Jadhav, Ajit; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Inglese, James; Tice, Raymond R.; Austin, Christopher P.

    2009-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Tox21 program, we have developed a simple and chemically intuitive model we call weighted feature significance (WFS) to predict the toxicological activity of compounds, based on the statistical enrichment of structural features in toxic compounds. We trained and tested the model on the following: (1) data from quantitative high–throughput screening cytotoxicity and caspase activation assays conducted at the National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomics Center, (2) dat...

  12. AR-RBFS: Aware-Routing Protocol Based on Recursive Best-First Search Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Kiani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy issue is one of the most important problems in wireless sensor networks. They consist of low-power sensor nodes and a few base station nodes. They must be adaptive and efficient in data transmission to sink in various areas. This paper proposes an aware-routing protocol based on clustering and recursive search approaches. The paper focuses on the energy efficiency issue with various measures such as prolonging network lifetime along with reducing energy consumption in the sensor nodes and increasing the system reliability. Our proposed protocol consists of two phases. In the first phase (network development phase, the sensors are placed into virtual layers. The second phase (data transmission is related to routes discovery and data transferring so it is based on virtual-based Classic-RBFS algorithm in the lake of energy problem environments but, in the nonchargeable environments, all nodes in each layer can be modeled as a random graph and then begin to be managed by the duty cycle method. Additionally, the protocol uses new topology control, data aggregation, and sleep/wake-up schemas for energy saving in the network. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol is optimal in the network lifetime and packet delivery parameters according to the present protocols.

  13. A Reliable Data Collection Protocol Based on Erasure-Resilient Code in Asymmetric Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Jun Lei; Taehyun Park; Gu-In Kwon

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents RECPE, a reliable collection protocol for aggregating data packets from all the sensor nodes to the sink in a large-scale WSN (wireless sensor network). Unlike some well-known reliable data collection protocols such as CTP (Collection Tree Protocol) that uses ETX (expected transmission count) as the routing metric, RECPE exploits ETF (expected transmission count over forward links) to construct a one-way collection tree, which avoids missing some good routes and reduces th...

  14. Is Job Enrichment Really Enriching?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Mohr; Cindy Zoghi

    2006-01-01

    This study uses a survey of Canadian workers with rich, matched data on job characteristics to examine whether “enriched” job design, with features like quality circles, feedback, suggestion programs, and task teams, affects job satisfaction. We identify two competing hypotheses on the relationship between enriched jobs and job satisfaction. The “motivation hypothesis,” implies that enrichment will generally increase satisfaction and the “intensification hypothesis,” implies that enrichment m...

  15. A Novel Quantum Covert Channel Protocol Based on Any Quantum Secure Direct Communication Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shu-Jiang; CHEN Xiu-Bo; NIU Xin-Xin; YANG Yi-Xian

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing the basic properties of unitary transformations used in a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol,we show the main idea why a covert channel can be established within any QSDC channel which employs unitary transformations to encode information.On the basis of the fact that the unitary transformations used in a QSDC protocol are secret and independent,a novel quantum covert channel protocol is proposed to transfer secret messages with unconditional security.The performance,including the imperceptibility,capacity and security of the proposed protocol are analyzed in detail.

  16. Comparison of protocols for walking and running kinematics based on skin surface markers and rigid clusters of markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miana, A N; Prudêncio, M V; Barros, R M L

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the two main types of marker sets for human body representation based on rigid clusters of markers and skin surface markers for measuring kinematics during walking and running. Velocity, body segment, and joint angle were considered in the comparison of both protocols. Six male athletes were studied during treadmill gait at 1.4 and 5.5 m/s and recorded with 8 high speed video cameras. The subjects used simultaneously both protocols in the same walking and running cycles, in order to compare the variability in the determination of the joint centers' positions and the joint angles calculated from each protocol. The three-way ANOVA results showed that the variability of the inter-markers distance in the skin surface protocol was higher than that in the rigid clusters of markers, as reported in the literature. However, no statistical differences between the protocols were found in the variability of the determination of the joint centers' positions. Therefore no advantage was verified to rigid cluster protocols even for the upper body segments. Another conclusion is that increases in velocity produced increases in variability of the joint centers' distances and increases in the maximum differences between the joint angles.

  17. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GAO was asked to address several questions concerning a number of proposed uranium enrichment bills introduced during the 100th Congress. The bill would have restructured the Department of Energy's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation to allow it to compete more effectively in the domestic and international markets. Some of GAO's findings discussed are: uranium market experts believe and existing market models show that the proposed DOE purchase of a $750 million of uranium from domestic producers may not significantly increase production because of large producer-held inventories; excess uranium enrichment production capacity exists throughout the world; therefore, foreign producers are expected to compete heavily in the United States throughout the 1990s as utilities' contracts with DOE expire; and according to a 1988 agreement between DOE's Offices of Nuclear Energy and Defense Programs, enrichment decommissioning costs, estimated to total $3.6 billion for planning purposes, will be shared by the commercial enrichment program and the government

  18. Recent developments of nanoparticle-based enrichment methods for mass spectrometric analysis in proteomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In proteome research, rapid and effective separation strategies are essential for successful protein identification due to the broad dynamic range of proteins in biological samples. Some important proteins are often expressed in ultra low abundance, thus making the pre-concentration procedure before mass spectrometric analysis prerequisite. The main purpose of enrichment is to isolate target molecules from complex mixtures to reduce sample complexity and facilitate the subsequent analyzing steps. The introduction of nanoparticles into this field has accelerated the development of enrichment methods. In this review, we mainly focus on recent developments of using different nanomaterials for pre-concentration of low-abundance peptides/ proteins, including those containing post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and glycosylation, prior to mass spectrometric analysis.

  19. Kernel-Based Semantic Relation Detection and Classification via Enriched Parse Tree Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Dong Zhou; Qiao-Ming Zhu

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a tree kernel method of semantic relation detection and classification (RDC) between named entities. It resolves two critical problems in previous tree kernel methods of RDC. First, a new tree kernel is presented to better capture the inherent structural information in a parse tree by enabling the standard convolution tree kernel with context-sensitiveness and approximate matching of sub-trees. Second, an enriched parse tree structure is proposed to well derive necessary structural information, e.g., proper latent annotations, from a parse tree. Evaluation on the ACE RDC corpora shows that both the new tree kernel and the enriched parse tree structure contribute significantly to RDC and our tree kernel method much outperforms the state-of-the-art ones.

  20. Dynamic Subchannel Assignment-Based Cross-Layer MAC and Network Protocol for Multihop Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Nguyen Quang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a dynamic subchannel assignment algorithm based on orthogonal frequency division multiple access technology operating in the time division duplexing and a new cross-layer design based on a proposed routing protocol jointed with the MAC protocol. The proposed dynamic sub-channel assignment algorithm provides a new interference avoidance mechanism which solves several drawbacks of existing radio resource allocation techniques in wireless networks using OFDMA/TDD, such as the hidden node and exposed node problems, mobility, and cochannels interference in frequency (CCI. Besides, in wireless networks, when a route is established, the radio resource allocation problems may decrease the end to end performance proportionally with the length of each route. The contention at MAC layer may cause the routing protocol at network layer to respond by finding new routes and routing table updates. The proposed routing protocol is jointed with the MAC protocol based on dynamic sub-channel assignment to ensure that the quality of service in multihop ad hoc networks is significantly improved.

  1. An Improved Location aided Cluster Based Routing Protocol with Intrusion Detection System in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mangai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Routing and security are the main challenges for ad hoc networks due to dynamic topology as well as resource constraints. A designed protocol must provide scalable routing with better security. Lack of any central coordination and shared wireless medium makes them more vulnerable to attacks than wired networks. And also resource constraints such as limited energy and size also play an important role in the protocols designed for security. Approach: In this study, Improved Location aided Cluster based Routing Protocol (ILCRP for GPS enabled MANETs was analysed in MANETs with malicious nodes and an Intrusion Detection System was used to increase the packet delivery ratio. ILCRP makes use of location aided routing in the presence of cluster based routing Protocol. Results: Use of location information with security against attacks results in high packet delivery ratio for the cluster based routing protocol. Simulations are performed using NS2 by varying the number of nodes. Conclusion: The results illustrate ILCRP provides higher delivery ratio with IDS.

  2. Utilization of Internet Protocol-Based Voice Systems in Remote Payload Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, jim; Bradford, Bob; Best, Susan; Nichols, Kelvin

    2002-01-01

    Due to limited crew availability to support science and the large number of experiments to be operated simultaneously, telescience is key to a successful International Space Station (ISS) science program. Crew, operations personnel at NASA centers, and researchers at universities and companies around the world must work closely together to per orm scientific experiments on-board ISS. The deployment of reliable high-speed Internet Protocol (IP)-based networks promises to greatly enhance telescience capabilities. These networks are now being used to cost-effectively extend the reach of remote mission support systems. They reduce the need for dedicated leased lines and travel while improving distributed workgroup collaboration capabilities. NASA has initiated use of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) to supplement the existing mission voice communications system used by researchers at their remote sites. The Internet Voice Distribution System (IVoDS) connects remote researchers to mission support "loopsll or conferences via NASA networks and Internet 2. Researchers use NODS software on personal computers to talk with operations personnel at NASA centers. IVoDS also has the ;capability, if authorized, to allow researchers to communicate with the ISS crew during experiment operations. NODS was developed by Marshall Space Flight Center with contractors & Technology, First Virtual Communications, Lockheed-Martin, and VoIP Group. NODS is currently undergoing field-testing with full deployment for up to 50 simultaneous users expected in 2002. Research is being performed in parallel with IVoDS deployment for a next-generation system to qualitatively enhance communications among ISS operations personnel. In addition to the current voice capability, video and data/application-sharing capabilities are being investigated. IVoDS technology is also being considered for mission support systems for programs such as Space Launch Initiative and Homeland Defense.

  3. Finite element solution of multi-scale transport problems using the least squares based bubble function enrichment

    CERN Document Server

    Yazdani, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an optimum technique based on the least squares method for the derivation of the bubble functions to enrich the standard linear finite elements employed in the formulation of Galerkin weighted-residual statements. The element-level linear shape functions are enhanced with supplementary polynomial bubble functions with undetermined coefficients. The best least squares minimization of the residual functional obtained from the insertion of these trial functions into model equations results in an algebraic system of equations whose solution provides the unknown coefficients in terms of element-level nodal values. The normal finite element procedures for the construction of stiffness matrices may then be followed with no extra degree of freedom incurred as a result of such enrichment. The performance of the proposed method has been tested on a number of benchmark linear transport equations with the results compared against the exact and standard linear element solutions. It has been observed th...

  4. E-APSAR:Enhanced Anonymous Position Based Security Aware Routing Protocol For Manets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Malgi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, we have seen a rapid expansion in the field of mobile computing due to the pro- liferation of inexpensive, widely available wireless devices or networks.However, all these networks are conventional wireless networks as they require a fixed network infrastructure with cen- tralised administration for their operation, potentially consuming a lot of time and money for set-up and maintenance.Drawbacks of conventional wireless networks are driving a new alternative way for mobile communication, in which mobile devices form a selfcreating, self-organising and self-administering wireless network, called a mobile ad hoc network.In mobile ad-hoc networking (MANETs, nodes communicate to each other based on public identities. In this paper,for a position based routing[22] an innovative packet forwarding mechanism is proposed in which source node generates route request packet and broadcast packet to other neighbor nodes to locate destination by implementing black hole attack[8]. Proposed E-APSAR (Enhanced Anonymous Position Based security aware routing protocol is implemented on NS-2 and results shown significant improvement over original DSR in terms of various performance metrics. It has been found that on dense network certain numbers of malicious nodes are supportive to reducing communication overhead and because of density negative effect of malicious attacks which is proposed E-APSAR that is able to reduce. Hence result shows proposed E-APSAR will be helpful to decrease communication overhead.

  5. L-Lactate-selective microbial sensor based on flavocytochrome b2-enriched yeast cells using recombinant and nanotechnology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkovska, Maria; Smutok, Oleh; Stasyuk, Nataliya; Gonchar, Mykhailo

    2015-11-01

    In the recent years, nanotechnology is the most developing branch due to a wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, biotechnological and agriculture fields. The binding nanoparticles with various biological molecules makes them attractive candidates for using in sensor technologies. The particularly actual is obtaining the bionanomembranes based on biocatalytic elements with improved sensing characteristics. The aim of this investigation is to study the properties of microbial L-lactate-selective sensor based on using the recombinant Hansenula polymorpha yeast cells overproducing flavocytochrome b2 (FC b2), as well as additionally enriched by the enzyme bound with gold nanoparticles (FC b2-nAu). Although, the high permeability of the living cells to nanoparticles is being intensively studied (mostly for delivery of drugs), the idea of using both recombinant technology and nanotechnology to increase the amount of the target enzyme in the biosensing layer is really novel. The FC b2-nAu-enriched living and permeabilized yeast cells were used for construction of a bioselective membrane of microbial L-lactate-selective amperometric biosensor. Phenazine methosulphate was served as a free defusing electron transfer mediator which provides effective electron transfer from the reduced enzyme to the electrode surface. It was shown that the output to L-lactate of FC b2-nAu-enriched permeabilized yeast cells is 2.5-fold higher when compared to the control cells. The obtained results confirm that additional enrichment of the recombinant yeast cell by the enzyme bound with nanoparticles improves the analytical parameters of microbial sensor.

  6. Validation of a novel cognitive bias task based on difference in quantity of reinforcement for assessing environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Heidi A; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Evans, Marc; Shepherdson, David J; Newberry, Ruth C

    2014-05-01

    Cognitive bias tasks purport to assess affective states via responses to ambiguous stimuli. We hypothesized that a novel cognitive bias task based on positive reinforcement using quantity differences would detect changes in affect in captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). We trained bears (n = 8) to respond differently (nose or paw touch) to two stimuli (light or dark gray cue cards), with responses counterbalanced across bears. The two cues signaled a small or large food reward, respectively. Responses to ambiguous probe stimuli (i.e., shades of gray) intermediate to the trained stimuli were classified as either 'optimistic,' appropriate for the larger reward, or 'pessimistic,' appropriate for the smaller reward. In Experiment 1, we explored the contrast in reward size necessary to detect a change in response across probe stimuli (large reward, 3 or 6 apple slices: small reward, 1 slice). We observed a change in response across probe stimuli, with no difference in response between reward-value groups, indicating that a contrast of 3:1 apple slices was sufficient to affect responses. In Experiment 2, we investigated cognitive bias after 2.1 h of exposure to enrichment items varying in attractiveness. Results were unaffected by enrichment type or time spent interacting with enrichments, indicating that the task failed to demonstrate criterion validity for comparing mood following exposure to different enrichment items. However, greater time spent pacing prior to testing was associated with 'optimistic' judgments. The data provide some support for use of cognitive bias tasks based on quantity differences in animal welfare assessments involving captive wildlife. PMID:24045850

  7. Validation of a novel cognitive bias task based on difference in quantity of reinforcement for assessing environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Heidi A; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Evans, Marc; Shepherdson, David J; Newberry, Ruth C

    2014-05-01

    Cognitive bias tasks purport to assess affective states via responses to ambiguous stimuli. We hypothesized that a novel cognitive bias task based on positive reinforcement using quantity differences would detect changes in affect in captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). We trained bears (n = 8) to respond differently (nose or paw touch) to two stimuli (light or dark gray cue cards), with responses counterbalanced across bears. The two cues signaled a small or large food reward, respectively. Responses to ambiguous probe stimuli (i.e., shades of gray) intermediate to the trained stimuli were classified as either 'optimistic,' appropriate for the larger reward, or 'pessimistic,' appropriate for the smaller reward. In Experiment 1, we explored the contrast in reward size necessary to detect a change in response across probe stimuli (large reward, 3 or 6 apple slices: small reward, 1 slice). We observed a change in response across probe stimuli, with no difference in response between reward-value groups, indicating that a contrast of 3:1 apple slices was sufficient to affect responses. In Experiment 2, we investigated cognitive bias after 2.1 h of exposure to enrichment items varying in attractiveness. Results were unaffected by enrichment type or time spent interacting with enrichments, indicating that the task failed to demonstrate criterion validity for comparing mood following exposure to different enrichment items. However, greater time spent pacing prior to testing was associated with 'optimistic' judgments. The data provide some support for use of cognitive bias tasks based on quantity differences in animal welfare assessments involving captive wildlife.

  8. Validating Knowledge-Based Framework through Mission-Oriented Sensors Array and Smart Sensor Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Douglas; Pires, Rayner M.; Branco, Kalinka R. L. J. C.

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of using Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) in critical embedded systems, mainly in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). We present the use of a SOA approach to provide the integration of the payload in the UAV. The integration is provided by a plug and play protocol named Smart Sensor Protocol (SSP) that validates the SOA approach.

  9. Type-Based Automated Verification of Authenticity in Asymmetric Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Kobayashi, Naoki; Sun, Yunde;

    2011-01-01

    Gordon and Jeffrey developed a type system for verification of asymmetric and symmetric cryptographic protocols. We propose a modified version of Gordon and Jeffrey's type system and develop a type inference algorithm for it, so that protocols can be verified automatically as they are, without an...

  10. Modified calibration protocol evaluated in a model-based testing of SBR flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corominas, Lluís; Sin, Gürkan; Puig, Sebastià;

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to refine the BIOMATH calibration protocol for SBR systems, in particular to develop a pragmatic calibration protocol that takes advantage of SBR information-rich data, defines a simulation strategy to obtain proper initial conditions for model calibration and provide...

  11. An RSA-Based Leakage-Resilient Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol Secure against Replacement Attacks, and Its Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    Secure channels can be realized by an authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol that generates authenticated session keys between the involving parties. In [32], Shin et al., proposed a new kind of AKE (RSA-AKE) protocol whose goal is to provide high efficiency and security against leakage of stored secrets as much as possible. Let us consider more powerful attacks where an adversary completely controls the communications and the stored secrets (the latter is denoted by “replacement” attacks). In this paper, we first show that the RSA-AKE protocol [32] is no longer secure against such an adversary. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: (1) we propose an RSA-based leakage-resilient AKE (RSA-AKE2) protocol that is secure against active attacks as well as replacement attacks; (2) we prove that the RSA-AKE2 protocol is secure against replacement attacks based on the number theory results; (3) we show that it is provably secure in the random oracle model, by showing the reduction to the RSA one-wayness, under an extended model that covers active attacks and replacement attacks; (4) in terms of efficiency, the RSA-AKE2 protocol is comparable to [32] in the sense that the client needs to compute only one modular multiplication with pre-computation; and (5) we also discuss about extensions of the RSA-AKE2 protocol for several security properties (i.e., synchronization of stored secrets, privacy of client and solution to server compromise-impersonation attacks).

  12. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada is the world's largest producer and exporter of uranium, most of which is enriched elsewhere for use as fuel in LWRs. The feasibility of a Canadian uranium-enrichment enterprise is therefore a perennial question. Recent developments in uranium-enrichment technology, and their likely impacts on separative work supply and demand, suggest an opportunity window for Canadian entry into this international market. The Canadian opportunity results from three particular impacts of the new technologies: 1) the bulk of the world's uranium-enrichment capacity is in gaseous diffusion plants which, because of their large requirements for electricity (more than 2000 kW·h per SWU), are vulnerable to competition from the new processes; 2) the decline in enrichment costs increases the economic incentive for the use of slightly-enriched uranium (SEU) fuel in CANDU reactors, thus creating a potential Canadian market; and 3) the new processes allow economic operation on a much smaller scale, which drastically reduces the investment required for market entry and is comparable with the potential Canadian SEU requirement. The opportunity is not open-ended. By the end of the century the enrichment supply industry will have adapted to the new processes and long-term customer/supplier relationships will have been established. In order to seize the opportunity, Canada must become a credible supplier during this century

  13. HybridDock: A Hybrid Protein-Ligand Docking Protocol Integrating Protein- and Ligand-Based Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-You; Li, Min; Wang, Jianxin; Pan, Yi

    2016-06-27

    Structure-based molecular docking and ligand-based similarity search are two commonly used computational methods in computer-aided drug design. Structure-based docking tries to utilize the structural information on a drug target like protein, and ligand-based screening takes advantage of the information on known ligands for a target. Given their different advantages, it would be desirable to use both protein- and ligand-based approaches in drug discovery when information for both the protein and known ligands is available. Here, we have presented a general hybrid docking protocol, referred to as HybridDock, to utilize both the protein structures and known ligands by combining the molecular docking program MDock and the ligand-based similarity search method SHAFTS, and evaluated our hybrid docking protocol on the CSAR 2013 and 2014 exercises. The results showed that overall our hybrid docking protocol significantly improved the performance in both binding affinity and binding mode predictions, compared to the sole MDock program. The efficacy of the hybrid docking protocol was further confirmed using the combination of DOCK and SHAFTS, suggesting an alternative docking approach for modern drug design/discovery. PMID:26317502

  14. Energy efficient TDMA-based MAC protocol associated with GAF for wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Xiao; ZHENG Bao-yu; YAN Zhen-ya; CHEN Chao

    2007-01-01

    The design of media access control (MAC) protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with the idea of cross layer attracts more and more attention. People can improve the MAC protocol by obtaining certain information regarding the network layer and physical layer. This article synthesizes and optimizes certain cross-layer protocols which have existed. On the basis of the routing, topology information in the network layer, and transmission power information in the physical layer, the time slot assignment algorithm has been improved in the MAC layer.By using geographical adaptive fidelity algorithm (GAF) to divide the grids, controlling of transmission power and scheduling the work/sleep duty cycle for sensor nodes, a new MAC protocol has been proposed to decrease energy consumption and enlarge the lifetime of WSNs. Simulation results show that the MAC protocol functions well.

  15. Implementing the WebSocket Protocol Based on Formal Modelling and Automated Code Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2014-01-01

    protocols. Furthermore, we perform formal verification of the CPN model prior to code generation, and test the implementation for interoperability against the Autobahn WebSocket test-suite resulting in 97% and 99% success rate for the client and server implementation, respectively. The tests show that the...... pragmatic annotations for automated code generation of protocol software. The contribution of this paper is an application of the approach as implemented in the PetriCode tool to obtain protocol software implementing the IETF WebSocket protocol. This demonstrates the scalability of our approach to real...... cause of test failures were mostly due to local and trivial errors in newly written code-generation templates, and not related to the overall logical operation of the protocol as specified by the CPN model....

  16. Development and Verification of Simulation Model Based on Real MANET Experiments for Transport Layer Protocols (UDP and TCP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joarder Mohammad Mustafa Kamal; Mohammad Shahidul Hasan; Alison L.Griffiths; Hongnian Yu

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of appropriate guidelines for realistic user traces,mobility models,routing protocols,considerations of real-life challenges,etc.for general-purpose mobile ad hoc networks (MANET).In this paper,four laptops are used in an open field environment in four scenarios to evaluate the performances of Internet control message protocol (ICMP) based ping and transmission control protocol (TCP) based streaming video applications using optimised link state routing (OLSR) implementation in an IEEE 802.11g wireless network.Corresponding simulations are developed in Network Simulator ns-2 by setting simulation parameters according to the real experiments.Difficulties faced to regenerate real-life scenarios have been discussed and the gaps between reality and simulation are identified.A setup guideline to produce realistic simulation results has been established.

  17. Cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammu, Aboobeker Sidhik Koyamparambil; Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; Sainz, Nekane; de la Iglesia, Idoia

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in electronics and wireless communications have enabled the improvement of low-power and low-cost wireless sensors networks (WSNs). One of the most important challenges in WSNs is to increase the network lifetime due to the limited energy capacity of the network nodes. Another major challenge in WSNs is the hot spots that emerge as locations under heavy traffic load. Nodes in such areas quickly drain energy resources, leading to disconnection in network services. In such an environment, cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient algorithms (CCBE) can prolong the network lifetime and energy efficiency. CCBE is based on clustering the nodes to different hexagonal structures. A hexagonal cluster consists of cluster members (CMs) and a cluster head (CH). The CHs are selected from the CMs based on nodes near the optimal CH distance and the residual energy of the nodes. Additionally, the optimal CH distance that links to optimal energy consumption is derived. To balance the energy consumption and the traffic load in the network, the CHs are rotated among all CMs. In WSNs, energy is mostly consumed during transmission and reception. Transmission collisions can further decrease the energy efficiency. These collisions can be avoided by using a contention-free protocol during the transmission period. Additionally, the CH allocates slots to the CMs based on their residual energy to increase sleep time. Furthermore, the energy consumption of CH can be further reduced by data aggregation. In this paper, we propose a data aggregation level based on the residual energy of CH and a cost-aware decision scheme for the fusion of data. Performance results show that the CCBE scheme performs better in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption and throughput compared to low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) and hybrid energy-efficient distributed clustering (HEED).

  18. Formal Security-Proved Mobile Anonymous Authentication Protocols with Credit-Based Chargeability and Controllable Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-I Fan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart mobile phones are widely popularized and advanced mobile communication services are provided increasingly often, such that ubiquitous computing environments will soon be a reality. However, there are many security threats to mobile networks and their impact on security is more serious than that in wireline networks owing to the features of wireless transmissions and the ubiquity property. The secret information which mobile users carry may be stolen by malicious entities. To guarantee the quality of advanced services, security and privacy would be important issues when users roam within various mobile networks. In this manuscript, an anonymous authentication scheme will be proposed to protect the security of the network system and the privacy of users. Not only does the proposed scheme provide mutual authentication between each user and the system, but also each user’s identity is kept secret against anyone else, including the system. Although the system anonymously authenticates the users, it can still generate correct bills to charge these anonymous users via a credit-based solution instead of debit-based ones. Furthermore, our protocols also achieve fair privacy which allows the judge to revoke the anonymity and trace the illegal users when they have misused the anonymity property, for example, if they have committed crimes. Finally, in this paper, we also carry out complete theoretical proofs on each claimed security property.

  19. A CROSS-LAYERED PATH STABILITY BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR WiMAX NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Deva Priya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In IEEE 802.16, a Subscriber Station (SS is battery powered with limited capacity. A SS can be made to operate for longer durations by deploying power saving features or by using relay stations. Multi-hop communication conserves power, but finding an optimal path to the destination is monotonous. Path stability indicates how stable a path is and how long it can support communication. Identifying stable paths helps in reducing the control traffic, number of connection disruptions and also in conserving power. In this study, Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR and Link-St Ability and Energy aware Routing (LAER designed for Mobile Ad hoc NET works (MANETs are implemented for WiMAX networks and their performance is evaluated. Further, a novel Cross-layered Path Stability based Routing protocol (CPSR is proposed to find a stable path based on Residual Energy (RE, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR. The total energy consumed is minimized, thus maximizing the network lifetime.

  20. Potential seaweed-based food ingredients to inhibit lipid oxidation in fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honold, Philipp; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Jónsdóttir, Rósa;

    2016-01-01

    and their partitioning between water and octanol. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated in a fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise. Acetone and ethanol were found to extract the highest amount of phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Water used as extraction solvent, extracted some phenolic compounds...... but also higher amount of metals and chlorophyll derivates. It was proposed that extracts with high phenolic content and low iron content, such as the acetone and ethanol extract, would have the highest potential as antioxidants in foods. This was confirmed in the storage trial, where these extracts showed...

  1. Reverse Query Tree approach to cope with Id distribution problem in Tree-based tag anti-collision protocols of RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad HajMirzaei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tag collision is one of the most important issues in RFID systems and many tag anti-collision protocols were proposed in literature. But some kind of these protocols like Tree-based protocols (specifically Query tree which its performance depends on tag id length and construction, have some issues like id distribution. In this paper we discuss about Query tree protocol which may influenced by id distribution. Then we propose a novel type of this protocol called Reverse Query tree to solve it.

  2. Reverse Query Tree approach to cope with Id distribution problem in Tree-based tag anti-collision protocols of RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Milad HajMirzaei

    2013-01-01

    Tag collision is one of the most important issues in RFID systems and many tag anti-collision protocols were proposed in literature. But some kind of these protocols like Tree-based protocols (specifically Query tree) which its performance depends on tag id length and construction, have some issues like id distribution. In this paper we discuss about Query tree protocol which may influenced by id distribution. Then we propose a novel type of this protocol called Reverse Query tree to solve it.

  3. WIRELESS ADHOC MULTI ACCESS NETWORKS OPTIMIZATION USING OSPF ROUTING PROTOCOL BASED ON CISCO DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Khedr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most attractive field for research for researchers and authors so the Wireless adhoc networks. So, this paper will describe the background and basic features of Open Short Path First (OSPF routing protocol due to multi-access networks. Explaining and practice on the OSPF configuration commands. Describe, modify and calculate the metric (Cost used by OSPF due to adhoc networks. Illustrating the Election parameters made by DR/BDR (Designated and Back Designated Routers used in multi-access wireless networks. This paper will use OSPF routing protocol because of its average administrative distance with all routing protocols.

  4. Enantiomorphous Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica-Based Nanocomposite Hydrogel Scaffolds for Cell Adhesion and Cell Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehr, Nermin Seda

    2016-03-14

    The chemical functionalization of nanomaterials with bioactive molecules has been used as an effective tool to mimic extracellular matrix (ECM) and to study the cell-material interaction in tissue engineering applications. In this respect, this study demonstrates the use of enantiomerically functionalized periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMO) for the generation of new multifunctional 3D nanocomposite (NC) hydrogels to control the affinity of cells to the hydrogel surfaces and so to control the enrichment of cells and simultaneous drug delivery in 3D network. The functionalization of PMO with enantiomers of bioactive molecules, preparation of their nanocomposite hydrogels, and the stereoselective interaction of them with selected cell types are described. The results show that the affinity of cells to the respective NC hydrogel scaffolds is affected by the nature of the biomolecule and its enantiomers, which is more pronounced in serum containing media. The differentiation of enantiomorphous NC hydrogels by cells is used to enrich one cell type from a mixture of two cells. Finally, PMO are utilized as nanocontainers to release two different dye molecules as a proof of principle for multidrug delivery in 3D NC hydrogel scaffolds. PMID:26811946

  5. Prophylactic aortic root surgery in patients with Marfan syndrome : 10 years' experience with a protocol based on body surface area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, Jan J. J.; van Tintelen, J. Peter; Hillege, Hans L.; Boonstra, Piet W.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; Waterbolk, T

    2008-01-01

    Background: Current guidelines recommending prophylactic aortic root replacement in Marfan syndrome are based on absolute diameters of the aortic root. However, aortic root diameter is a function of body surface area (BSA). Here, we report our experience with a protocol for prophylactic aortic root

  6. Detecting child abuse based on parental characteristics: Does The Hague Protocol cause parents to avoid the Emergency Department?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diderich, H.M.; Fekkes, M.; Dechesne, M.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The Hague Protocol is used by professionals at the adult Emergency Departments (ED) in The Netherlands to detect child abuse based on three parental characteristics: (1) domestic violence, (2) substance abuse or (3) suicide attempt or self-harm. After detection, a referral is made to the

  7. PMT Dark Noise Monitoring System for Neutrino Detector Borexino Based on the Devicenet Protocol and WEB-Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of PMT dark noise in a neutrino detector BOREXINO is a procedure that indicates condition of the detector. Based on CAN industrial network, top level DeviceNet protocol and WEB visualization, the dark noise monitoring system having 256 channels for the internal detector and for the external muon veto was created. The system is composed as a set of controllers, converting the PMT signals to frequency and transmitting them over Can network. The software is the stack of the DeviceNet protocols, providing the data collecting and transporting. Server-side scripts build web pages of user interface and graphical visualization of data

  8. NONH:A New Cache—Based Coherence Protocol for Linked List Structure DSM System and Its Performance Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房至一; 鞠九滨

    1996-01-01

    The management of memory coherence is an important problem in distributed shared memory(DSM)system.In a cache-based coherence DSM system using linked list structure,the key to maintaining the coherence and improving system performance is how to manage the owner in the linked list.This paper presents the design of a new management protocol-NONH(New-Owner New-Head)and its performance evaluation.The analysis results show that this protocol can improve the scalability and performence of a coherent DSM system using linked list.It is also suitable for managing the cache coherency in tree-like hierarchical architecture.

  9. 基于分布式网络的SOAP协议%SOAP Protocol Based on the Distributed Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈苗箭; 范剑波; 张森

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses the base concept of SOAP protocol and the way it overcomes the limitation of current technology (CORBA and DCOM). Then it narrates some rules of SOAP protocol and focuses on connecting SOAP to ORPC concept.%讨论了SOAP协议的基础,以及它克服现存技术(如CORBA和DCOM)的许多缺陷的方法。随后讲述一些SOAP编码规则,并把焦点放在SOAP是怎样映射到存在的ORPC概念上的。

  10. On-demand QoS routing protocol based on energy and bandwidth requirement in Ad Hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Weiren; Huang Chao; Lei Luning; Huang Jian

    2008-01-01

    Along with the emergence of real-time muhi-media, interactive service, real-time voice and other services calling for high quality of service, there should be a good network to support those services. Most present route algo-rithms with computational complexity hardly consider the restriction of node energy, so it degrades the whole capabil-ity of network. Bandwidth guarantee is one of the most crucial factors in real-time application, and this paper brings forward a distributed on-demand QoS routing protocol based on energy and bandwidth requirement. This QoS routing protocol makes use of bandwidth calculation algorithm and analyzes its route mechanism. The simulation results veri-fy its validity. The QoS routing protocol improves the packet delivery fraction and average end-to-end delay, prolongs the network lifetime, enhances the network performance and satisfies the route requirement for ad hoc networks.

  11. Registration accuracy for MR images of the prostate using a subvolume based registration protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderström Karin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, there has been a considerable research effort concerning the integration of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI into the external radiotherapy workflow motivated by the superior soft tissue contrast as compared to computed tomography. Image registration is a necessary step in many applications, e.g. in patient positioning and therapy response assessment with repeated imaging. In this study, we investigate the dependence between the registration accuracy and the size of the registration volume for a subvolume based rigid registration protocol for MR images of the prostate. Methods Ten patients were imaged four times each over the course of radiotherapy treatment using a T2 weighted sequence. The images were registered to each other using a mean square distance metric and a step gradient optimizer for registration volumes of different sizes. The precision of the registrations was evaluated using the center of mass distance between the manually defined prostates in the registered images. The optimal size of the registration volume was determined by minimizing the standard deviation of these distances. Results We found that prostate position was most uncertain in the anterior-posterior (AP direction using traditional full volume registration. The improvement in standard deviation of the mean center of mass distance between the prostate volumes using a registration volume optimized to the prostate was 3.9 mm (p Conclusions Repeated MR imaging of the prostate for therapy set-up or therapy assessment will both require high precision tissue registration. With a subvolume based registration the prostate registration uncertainty can be reduced down to the order of 1 mm (1 SD compared to several millimeters for registration based on the whole pelvis.

  12. Blind Collective Signature Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Moldovyan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the digital signature (DS scheme specified by Belarusian DS standard there are designed the collective and blind collective DS protocols. Signature formation is performed simultaneously by all of the assigned signers, therefore the proposed protocols can be used also as protocols for simultaneous signing a contract. The proposed blind collective DS protocol represents a particular implementation of the blind multisignature schemes that is a novel type of the signature schemes. The proposed protocols are the first implementations of the multisignature schemes based on Belarusian signature standard.

  13. MESSAGE AUTHENTICATION CODE BASED SECURE GROUP KEY MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Peer Meera Labbai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network is a group of nodes which are communicating with each other with the use of radio frequencies. When there is high movement of mobile nodes, the nodes find difficult to reach other nodes. If the data are exchanged between nodes when there is high mobility, the data may be lost in transit. Therefore the security of data is needed for the transmission of data. Since the high dense of mobile nodes we cannot give better security, the mobile nodes must be formed as groups. For providing security, there are pre-requirements like key establishment, key agreement and key management and so on. Then these keys are used in the encryption/decryption algorithms such as symmetric key algorithms and asymmetric key algorithms. For this study, we have taken VBOR as the base protocol. VBOR consists of two phases namely, Route discovery and Route maintenance with the use of variable bit rate. In this study, the message authentication code is generated during route discovery phase then these data are exchanged between the nodes. In this proposed work, the performance analysis is done using some performance parameters like energy consumption, packet delivery ratio, overhead and delay.

  14. A multipath routing protocol based on clustering and ant colony optimization for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Xu, Mai; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Baoguo

    2010-01-01

    For monitoring burst events in a kind of reactive wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a multipath routing protocol (MRP) based on dynamic clustering and ant colony optimization (ACO) is proposed. Such an approach can maximize the network lifetime and reduce the energy consumption. An important attribute of WSNs is their limited power supply, and therefore some metrics (such as energy consumption of communication among nodes, residual energy, path length) were considered as very important criteria while designing routing in the MRP. Firstly, a cluster head (CH) is selected among nodes located in the event area according to some parameters, such as residual energy. Secondly, an improved ACO algorithm is applied in the search for multiple paths between the CH and sink node. Finally, the CH dynamically chooses a route to transmit data with a probability that depends on many path metrics, such as energy consumption. The simulation results show that MRP can prolong the network lifetime, as well as balance of energy consumption among nodes and reduce the average energy consumption effectively. PMID:22399890

  15. A Multipath Routing Protocol Based on Clustering and Ant Colony Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available For monitoring burst events in a kind of reactive wireless sensor networks (WSNs, a multipath routing protocol (MRP based on dynamic clustering and ant colony optimization (ACO is proposed.. Such an approach can maximize the network lifetime and reduce the energy consumption. An important attribute of WSNs is their limited power supply, and therefore some metrics (such as energy consumption of communication among nodes, residual energy, path length were considered as very important criteria while designing routing in the MRP. Firstly, a cluster head (CH is selected among nodes located in the event area according to some parameters, such as residual energy. Secondly, an improved ACO algorithm is applied in the search for multiple paths between the CH and sink node. Finally, the CH dynamically chooses a route to transmit data with a probability that depends on many path metrics, such as energy consumption. The simulation results show that MRP can prolong the network lifetime, as well as balance of energy consumption among nodes and reduce the average energy consumption effectively.

  16. Maintaining communication link based on AODV routing protocol in mobile robot networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Jiang, Hong

    2007-12-01

    Wired computer networks are vital in modern life. However, these networks are extremely vulnerable to disaster or attack in emergency situations. Therefore, how to maintain communication link under emergency situations is very important. In this paper, we utilize a series of autonomous mobile slave robots which follow behind the lead robot and automatically stop where needed to maintain an ad hoc network for guaranteeing a link between the lead robot and its remote monitor/control station. To accomplish this target, an efficient communication protocol limitation mobile robots broadcast based on AODV (LMRB-AODV) is proposed for deployment in multi-robot system. After then the lead robot could carry service traffics to the monitor station under emergency situations through the communication link. At any instance, the lead robot has the ability to reclaim the relay robot(s) which are unneeded in the network to rejoin the convoy behind the lead robot and use it to extend the range of wireless communication when the radio frequency (RF) shortcuts are detected by the lead robot. All relay deployment and reclaiming strategy functions occur without the operator's involvement. Finally, we provide a comparative study of their performance in a number of different simulation environments. The results show that the proposed scheme is very efficient in maintaining communication link in wireless network.

  17. Protocol for a population-based Ankylosing Spondylitis (PAS cohort in Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Mark D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop a population-based cohort of people with ankylosing spondylitis (AS in Wales using (1 secondary care clinical datasets, (2 patient-derived questionnaire data and (3 routinely-collected information in order to examine disease history and the health economic cost of AS. Methods This data model will include and link (1 secondary care clinician datasets (i.e. electronic patient notes from the rheumatologist (2 patient completed questionnaires (giving information on disease activity, medication, function, quality of life, work limitations and health service utilisation and (3 a broad range of routinely collected data (including; GP records, in-patient hospital admission data, emergency department data, laboratory/pathology data and social services databases. The protocol involves the use of a unique and powerful data linkage system which allows datasets to be interlinked and to complement each other. Discussion This cohort can integrate patient supplied, primary and secondary care data into a unified data model. This can be used to study a range of issues such as; the true economic costs to the health care system and the patient, factors associated with the development of severe disease, long term adverse events of new and existing medication and to understand the disease history of this condition. It will benefit patients, clinicians and health care managers. This study forms a pilot project for the use of routine data/patient data linked cohorts for other chronic conditions.

  18. A Multipath Routing Protocol Based on Clustering and Ant Colony Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available For monitoring burst events in a kind of reactive wireless sensor networks (WSNs, a multipath routing protocol (MRP based on dynamic clustering and ant colony optimization (ACO is proposed.. Such an approach can maximize the network lifetime and reduce the energy consumption. An important attribute of WSNs is its limited power supply, and therefore in MRP, some metrics (such as energy consumption of communication among nodes, residual energy, path length are considered as very important criteria while designing routing. Firstly, a cluster head (CH is selected among nodes located in the event area according to some parameters, such as residual energy. Secondly, an improved ACO algorithm is applied in search for multiple paths between the CH and sink node. Finally, the CH dynamically chooses a route to transmit data with a probability that depends on many path metrics, such as energy consumption. The simulation results show that MRP can prolong the network lifetime, as well as balance energy consumption among nodes and reduce the average energy consumption effectively.

  19. Protocol for the application of cooperative MIMO based on clustering in sparse wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-hua; QU Yu-gui; LIN Zhi-ting; BAI Rong-gang; ZHAO Bao-hua; PAN Quan-ke

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) using cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication are effective tools to collect data in several environments. However, how to apply cooperative MIMO in WSN remains a critical challenge, especially in sparse WSN. In this article, a novel clustering scheme is proposed for the application of cooperative MIMO in sparse WSN by extending the traditional low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) protocol. This clustering scheme solves the problem that the cluster heads (CH) cannot find enough secondary cluster heads (SCH), which are used to cooperate and inform multiple-antenna transmitters with CHs. On the basis of this protocol, the overall energy consumption of the networks model is developed, and the optimal number of CHs is obtained. The simulation results show that this protocol is feasible for the sparse WSN. The simulation results also illustrate that this protocol provides significant energy efficiencies, even after allowing for additional overheads.

  20. Universally Composable Symbolic Analysis for Two-Party Protocols based on Homomorphic Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    capture protocols for oblivious transfer, coin- ipping, and generation of multiplication-triple. We show how any protocol in our class can be compiled to a symbolic representation expressed as a process in an abstract process calculus, and prove a general computational soundness theorem implying that if...... the protocol realises a given ideal functionality in the symbolic setting, then the original version also realises the ideal functionality in the standard computational UC setting. In other words, the theorem allows us to transfer a proof in the abstract symbolic setting to a proof in the standard UC......We consider a class of two-party function evaluation protocols in which the parties are allowed to use ideal functionalities as well as a set of powerful primitives, namely commitments, homomorphic encryption, and certain zero-knowledge proofs. We illustrate that with these it is possible to...

  1. Modified calibration protocol evaluated in a model-based testing of SBR flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Lluís; Sin, Gürkan; Puig, Sebastià; Balaguer, Maria Dolors; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Colprim, Jesús

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to refine the BIOMATH calibration protocol for SBR systems, in particular to develop a pragmatic calibration protocol that takes advantage of SBR information-rich data, defines a simulation strategy to obtain proper initial conditions for model calibration and provides statistical evaluation of the calibration outcome. The updated calibration protocol is then evaluated on a case study to obtain a thoroughly validated model for testing the flexibility of an N-removing SBR to adapt the operating conditions to the changing influent wastewater load. The performance of reference operation using fixed phase length and dissolved oxygen set points and two real-time control strategies is compared to find optimal operation under dynamic conditions. The results show that a validated model of high quality is obtained using the updated protocol and that the optimization of the system's performance can be achieved in different manners by implementing the proposed control strategies.

  2. SAT-based Distributed Reactive Control Protocol Synthesis for Boolean Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Yunus Emre; Ozay, Necmiye

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the synthesis of distributed reactive control protocols for a Boolean network in a distributed manner. We start with a directed acyclic graph representing a network of Boolean subsystems and a global contract, given as an assumption-guarantee pair. Assumption captures the environment behavior, and guarantee is the requirements to be satisfied by the system. Local assumption-guarantee contracts, together with local control protocols ensuring these local contracts, are comp...

  3. Simulation-Based Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Vaishali D. Khairnar; Kotecha, Dr. Ketan

    2013-01-01

    A Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is a collection of wireless vehicle nodes forming a temporary network without using any centralized Road Side Unit (RSU). VANET protocols have to face high challenges due to dynamically changing topologies and symmetric links of networks. A suitable and effective routing mechanism helps to extend the successful deployment of vehicular ad-hoc networks. An attempt has been made to compare the performance of two On-demand reactive routing protocols namely AODV ...

  4. Towards a model-based development approach for wireless sensor-actuator network protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar S., A. Ajith; Simonsen, Kent Inge

    2014-01-01

    induced due to manual translations. With the use of formal semantics in the modeling approach, we can further ensure the correctness of the source model by means of verification. Also, with the use of network simulators and formal modeling tools, we obtain a verified and validated model to be used...... as a basis for code-generation. The aim is to build protocols with shorter design to implementation time and efforts, along with higher confidence in the protocol designed....

  5. On TCP-based Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Server Overload Control

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Charles; Schulzrinne, Henning

    2010-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) server overload management has attracted interest since SIP is being widely deployed in the Next Generation Networks (NGN) as a core signaling protocol. Yet all existing SIP overload control work is focused on SIP-over-UDP, despite the fact that TCP is increasingly seen as the more viable choice of SIP transport. This paper answers the following questions: is the existing TCP flow control capable of handling the SIP overload problem? If not, why and how c...

  6. Performance Evaluation of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols Based on Network Size for MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ritika

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes where wireless radio interface connectseach device in a MANET to move freely, independently and randomly. Routing protocols inmobile ad hoc network helps to communicate source node with destination node by sending andreceiving packets. Lots of protocols are developed in this field but it is not easier to decide whichone is winner. In this paper, we present investigations on the behavior of five routing protocolsAODV (Ad hoc On demand distance vector, DSR (Dynamic Source Routing, DYMO (DynamicMANET On demand, OLSR (Optimized link state routing and ZRP (Zone routing protocolbased on IEEE 802.11CSMA/CA MAC protocol are analyzed and compared using QualNetsimulator on the basis of performance metrics such as Average Jitter, Total Packets Received,Packet Delivery Ratio, End-to-End Delay, Throughput, Average Queue Length, Average time inQueue, dropped packets due to non availability of routes and Energy consumption in transmit andreceive Mode. To test competence and effectiveness of all five protocols under diverse networkscenarios costing is done by means varying load by varying CBR data traffic load, changingnumber of Nodes and mobility. Finally results are scrutinized in from different scenarios to providequalitative assessment of the applicability of the protocols.

  7. A lightweight dynamic pseudonym identity based authentication and key agreement protocol without verification tables for multi-server architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Kaiping; Ma, Changsha

    2012-01-01

    Traditional password based authentication schemes are mostly considered in single server environments. They are unfitted for the multi-server environments from two aspects. On the one hand, users need to register in each server and to store large sets of data, including identities and passwords. On the other hand, servers are required to store a verification table containing user identities and passwords. Recently, On the base on Sood et al.'s protocol(2011), Li et al. proposed an improved dynamic identity based authentication and key agreement protocol for multi-server architecture(2012). Li et al. claims that the proposed scheme can make up the security weaknesses of Sood et al.'s protocol. Unfortunately, our further research shows that Li et al.'s protocol contains several drawbacks and can not resist some types of known attacks, such as replay attack, Deny-of-Service attack, internal attack, eavesdropping attack, masquerade attack, and so on. In this paper, we further propose a light dynamic pseudonym ide...

  8. Optimized Protocol for Quantitative Multiple Reaction Monitoring-Based Proteomic Analysis of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jacob J; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R; Schoenherr, Regine M; Yan, Ping; Allison, Kimberly; Shipley, Melissa; Lerch, Melissa; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Baird, Geoffrey Stuart; Paulovich, Amanda G

    2016-08-01

    Despite a clinical, economic, and regulatory imperative to develop companion diagnostics, precious few new biomarkers have been successfully translated into clinical use, due in part to inadequate protein assay technologies to support large-scale testing of hundreds of candidate biomarkers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Although the feasibility of using targeted, multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) for quantitative analyses of FFPE tissues has been demonstrated, protocols have not been systematically optimized for robust quantification across a large number of analytes, nor has the performance of peptide immuno-MRM been evaluated. To address this gap, we used a test battery approach coupled to MRM-MS with the addition of stable isotope-labeled standard peptides (targeting 512 analytes) to quantitatively evaluate the performance of three extraction protocols in combination with three trypsin digestion protocols (i.e., nine processes). A process based on RapiGest buffer extraction and urea-based digestion was identified to enable similar quantitation results from FFPE and frozen tissues. Using the optimized protocols for MRM-based analysis of FFPE tissues, median precision was 11.4% (across 249 analytes). There was excellent correlation between measurements made on matched FFPE and frozen tissues, both for direct MRM analysis (R(2) = 0.94) and immuno-MRM (R(2) = 0.89). The optimized process enables highly reproducible, multiplex, standardizable, quantitative MRM in archival tissue specimens.

  9. Optimized Protocol for Quantitative Multiple Reaction Monitoring-Based Proteomic Analysis of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jacob J; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R; Schoenherr, Regine M; Yan, Ping; Allison, Kimberly; Shipley, Melissa; Lerch, Melissa; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Baird, Geoffrey Stuart; Paulovich, Amanda G

    2016-08-01

    Despite a clinical, economic, and regulatory imperative to develop companion diagnostics, precious few new biomarkers have been successfully translated into clinical use, due in part to inadequate protein assay technologies to support large-scale testing of hundreds of candidate biomarkers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Although the feasibility of using targeted, multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) for quantitative analyses of FFPE tissues has been demonstrated, protocols have not been systematically optimized for robust quantification across a large number of analytes, nor has the performance of peptide immuno-MRM been evaluated. To address this gap, we used a test battery approach coupled to MRM-MS with the addition of stable isotope-labeled standard peptides (targeting 512 analytes) to quantitatively evaluate the performance of three extraction protocols in combination with three trypsin digestion protocols (i.e., nine processes). A process based on RapiGest buffer extraction and urea-based digestion was identified to enable similar quantitation results from FFPE and frozen tissues. Using the optimized protocols for MRM-based analysis of FFPE tissues, median precision was 11.4% (across 249 analytes). There was excellent correlation between measurements made on matched FFPE and frozen tissues, both for direct MRM analysis (R(2) = 0.94) and immuno-MRM (R(2) = 0.89). The optimized process enables highly reproducible, multiplex, standardizable, quantitative MRM in archival tissue specimens. PMID:27462933

  10. The protocols for the 10/66 dementia research group population-based research programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Aquiles

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latin America, China and India are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic ageing with an increasing number of people with dementia. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group's title refers to the 66% of people with dementia that live in developing countries and the less than one tenth of population-based research carried out in those settings. This paper describes the protocols for the 10/66 population-based and intervention studies that aim to redress this imbalance. Methods/design Cross-sectional comprehensive one phase surveys have been conducted of all residents aged 65 and over of geographically defined catchment areas in ten low and middle income countries (India, China, Nigeria, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Brazil, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Argentina, with a sample size of between 1000 and 3000 (generally 2000. Each of the studies uses the same core minimum data set with cross-culturally validated assessments (dementia diagnosis and subtypes, mental disorders, physical health, anthropometry, demographics, extensive non communicable disease risk factor questionnaires, disability/functioning, health service utilisation, care arrangements and caregiver strain. Nested within the population based studies is a randomised controlled trial of a caregiver intervention for people with dementia and their families (ISRCTN41039907; ISRCTN41062011; ISRCTN95135433; ISRCTN66355402; ISRCTN93378627; ISRCTN94921815. A follow up of 2.5 to 3.5 years will be conducted in 7 countries (China, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Argentina to assess risk factors for incident dementia, stroke and all cause and cause-specific mortality; verbal autopsy will be used to identify causes of death. Discussion The 10/66 DRG baseline population-based studies are nearly complete. The incidence phase will be completed in 2009. All investigators are committed to establish an anonymised file sharing archive with monitored public access. Our

  11. Population-centered Risk- and Evidence-based Dental Interprofessional Care Team (PREDICT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Milgrom, Peter; Shirtcliff, R. Michael; Bailit, Howard L.; Huebner, Colleen E; Conrad, Douglas; Ludwig, Sharity; Mitchell, Melissa; Dysert, Jeanne; Allen, Gary; Scott, JoAnna; Mancl, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Background To improve the oral health of low-income children, innovations in dental delivery systems are needed, including community-based care, the use of expanded duty auxiliary dental personnel, capitation payments, and global budgets. This paper describes the protocol for PREDICT (Population-centered Risk- and Evidence-based Dental Interprofessional Care Team), an evaluation project to test the effectiveness of new delivery and payment systems for improving dental care and oral health. Me...

  12. Review of recent studies and issues regarding the P300-based complex trial protocol for detection of concealed information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, J Peter; Hu, Xiaoqing; Labkovsky, Elena; Meixner, John; Winograd, Michael R

    2013-11-01

    In this review, the evolution of new P300-based protocols for detection of concealed information is summarized. The P300-based complex trial protocol (CTP) is described as one such countermeasure (CM)-resistant protocol. Recent lapses in diagnostic accuracy (from 90% to 75%) with CTPs applied to mock crime protocols are summarized, as well as recent enhancements to the CTP which have restored accuracy. These enhancements include 1) use of performance feedback during testing, 2) use of other ERP components such as N200 in diagnosis, 3) use of auxiliary tests, including the autobiographical implicit association test, as leading to restored diagnostic accuracy, and 4) a study of the mechanisms underlying CMs. A novel, doubly efficient version of the CTP involving presentation of two probes in one trial is described as a new way to improve accuracy to levels above 90% in mock crime situations. Finally, a thorough analysis of the legal issues surrounding use of the CTP in U.S. is given. PMID:24012907

  13. Development and Testing of a Literature Search Protocol for Evidence Based Nursing: An Applied Student Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Hickner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The study aimed to develop a search protocol and evaluate reviewers' satisfaction with an evidence-based practice (EBP review by embedding a library science student in the process.Methods – The student was embedded in one of four review teams overseen by a professional organization for oncology nurses (ONS. A literature search protocol was developed by the student following discussion and feedback from the review team. Organization staff provided process feedback. Reviewers from both case and control groups completed a questionnaire to assess satisfaction with the literature search phases of the review process. Results – A protocol was developed and refined for use by future review teams. The collaboration and the resulting search protocol were beneficial for both the student and the review team members. The questionnaire results did not yield statistically significant differences regarding satisfaction with the search process between case and control groups. Conclusions – Evidence-based reviewers' satisfaction with the literature searching process depends on multiple factors and it was not clear that embedding an LIS specialist in the review team improved satisfaction with the process. Future research with more respondents may elucidate specific factors that may impact reviewers' assessment.

  14. Two-level Trajectory-Based Routing Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks in Freeway and Manhattan Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriano De Rango

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the routing protocol issue in two important environments for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET: Manhattan and the Freeway. A novel protocol called Two-level Trajectory Based Routing (TTBR protocol is proposed. Deterministic vehicles movement permits advantage to be taken of the map info to build a specific local trajectory to reach the destination node. However, in order to offer network scalability also a high level cell-based trajectory is applied to have a coarse knowledge of the cell where the destination node is moving. Our proposal needs Peer Servers and Grid subdivision of the space. Simulation results were assessed to show the improvements and scalability offered by TTBR in comparison with other Ad Hoc networks protocols such as AODV and GPSR. Performance Evaluation was evaluated in terms of Normalized Control Overhead and Data Packet Delivery Ratio. TTBR is more performing than AODV for a high speed and high density scenario for both the Manhattan and Freeway scenarios.

  15. Securing AODV Routing Protocol in MANET Based on Cryptographic Authentication Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Sachan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc wireless network (MANET, secure communication is morechallenging task due to its fundamental characteristics like infrastructure less, wirelesslink, distributed cooperation, dynamic topology, lack of association, resource constrainedand physical vulnerability of node. In MANET, attacks can be broadly classified in twocategories: routing attacks and data forwarding attacks. Any action not following rules ofrouting protocols belongs to routing attacks. The main objective of routing attacks tomislead or disrupt normal functioning of network by advertising false routing updates. Onthe other hand data forwarding attacks include actions such as modification or droppingof data packet that does not disrupt routing protocol. In this thesis work, we proposed amethod to secure ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV routing protocol. Theproposed method provides security for routing packets and can efficiently prevent theattacks such as black hole, modifying routing information and impersonation. Theproposed method uses hashed message authentication code (HMAC function whichprovides fast message verification and sender as well as intermediate nodesauthentication. We simulate and compare the proposed method with original AODV andsecure AODV (SAODV protocol using network simulator tool (NS2. Simulation resultshows that proposed method minimizes the time delay and network routing load involvedin computation and verification of security fields during route discovery process andperforms better than the original AODV protocol in the presence of malicious nodesperforming black hole attack.

  16. BIOTECHNOLOGY AS A USEFUL TOOL FOR NUTRITIONAL IMPROVEMENT OF CEREAL-BASED MATERIALS ENRICHED WITH POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS AND PIGMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čertík

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals represent a major food supply for humanity. Although these sources are rich in proteins and carbohydrates, many of them are deficient in several essential nutrients, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and carotenoid pigments. One possible approach how to enhance the content of PUFAs or carotenoids in cereal diet is based on biotechnological transformation of cereal materials by solid state fermentations. This technique is powerful tool for effective valorisation of these resources to various types of value-added bioproducts with demanded properties and functions. Selected filamentous Mucorales fungi were applied for conversion of numerous agroindustrial substrates to bioproducts enriched with PUFAs, such as gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, arachidonic acid (AA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. On the other hand, a range of yeast species utilizing agroindustrial substrates were employed for formation of carotenoids, such as β-carotene, torulene, torularhodine and astaxanthin. Such naturally prepared cereal based bioproducts enriched with either PUFAs or carotenoid pigments may be used as an inexpensive food and feed supplement. The work was supported by grant VEGA No. 1/0747/08 from the Grant Agency of Ministry of Education, Slovak Republic.

  17. Patient-based estimation of organ dose for a population of 58 adult patients across 13 protocol categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study aimed to provide a comprehensive patient-specific organ dose estimation across a multiplicity of computed tomography (CT) examination protocols. Methods: A validated Monte Carlo program was employed to model a common CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). The organ and effective doses were estimated from 13 commonly used body and neurological CT examination. The dose estimation was performed on 58 adult computational extended cardiac-torso phantoms (35 male, 23 female, mean age 51.5 years, mean weight 80.2 kg). The organ dose normalized by CTDIvol (h factor) and effective dose normalized by the dose length product (DLP) (k factor) were calculated from the results. A mathematical model was derived for the correlation between the h and k factors with the patient size across the protocols. Based on this mathematical model, a dose estimation iPhone operating system application was designed and developed to be used as a tool to estimate dose to the patients for a variety of routinely used CT examinations. Results: The organ dose results across all the protocols showed an exponential decrease with patient body size. The correlation was generally strong for the organs which were fully or partially located inside the scan coverage (Pearson sample correlation coefficient (r) of 0.49). The correlation was weaker for organs outside the scan coverage for which distance between the organ and the irradiation area was a stronger predictor of dose to the organ. For body protocols, the effective dose before and after normalization by DLP decreased exponentially with increasing patient's body diameter (r > 0.85). The exponential relationship between effective dose and patient's body diameter was significantly weaker for neurological protocols (r < 0.41), where the trunk length was a slightly stronger predictor of effective dose (0.15 < r < 0.46). Conclusions: While the most accurate estimation of a patient dose requires specific modeling of the

  18. Patient-based estimation of organ dose for a population of 58 adult patients across 13 protocol categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahbaee, Pooyan, E-mail: psahbae@ncsu.edu [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (United States); Segars, W. Paul [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Department of Physics, Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: This study aimed to provide a comprehensive patient-specific organ dose estimation across a multiplicity of computed tomography (CT) examination protocols. Methods: A validated Monte Carlo program was employed to model a common CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). The organ and effective doses were estimated from 13 commonly used body and neurological CT examination. The dose estimation was performed on 58 adult computational extended cardiac-torso phantoms (35 male, 23 female, mean age 51.5 years, mean weight 80.2 kg). The organ dose normalized by CTDI{sub vol} (h factor) and effective dose normalized by the dose length product (DLP) (k factor) were calculated from the results. A mathematical model was derived for the correlation between the h and k factors with the patient size across the protocols. Based on this mathematical model, a dose estimation iPhone operating system application was designed and developed to be used as a tool to estimate dose to the patients for a variety of routinely used CT examinations. Results: The organ dose results across all the protocols showed an exponential decrease with patient body size. The correlation was generally strong for the organs which were fully or partially located inside the scan coverage (Pearson sample correlation coefficient (r) of 0.49). The correlation was weaker for organs outside the scan coverage for which distance between the organ and the irradiation area was a stronger predictor of dose to the organ. For body protocols, the effective dose before and after normalization by DLP decreased exponentially with increasing patient's body diameter (r > 0.85). The exponential relationship between effective dose and patient's body diameter was significantly weaker for neurological protocols (r < 0.41), where the trunk length was a slightly stronger predictor of effective dose (0.15 < r < 0.46). Conclusions: While the most accurate estimation of a patient dose requires specific modeling of

  19. Host based internet protocol (IP) packet analysis to enhance network security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data communication in a computer network environment is facing serious security threats from numerous sources such as viruses, worms, Zombies etc. These threats can be broadly characterized as internal or external security threats. Internal threats are mainly attributed to sneaker-nets, utility modems and unauthorized users, which can be minimized by skillful network administration, password management and optimum usage policy definition. The external threats need more serious attention as these attacks are mostly coming from public networks such as Internet. Frequency and complexity of such attacks is much higher as compared to internal attacks. This paper presents a host based network layer screening of external and internal IP packets for logging, analyzing and real-time detection of possible IP spoofing and Denial of Service attacks. This work can also be used in tuning security rules definition for gateway firewalls. Software has been developed which intercepts IP traffic and analyses it with respect to integrity and origin of I P packet. The received IP packets are parsed and analyzed for possible signs of intrusion. The results show that by watching and categorizing composition of various transport protocol such as TCP, UDP, ICMP and others along with verifying the origin of received IP packet can help in devising real-time firewall rule and blocking possible external attack. This is highly desirable for fighting against zero day attacks and can result in a better Mean Time between Failures (MTBF) to increase the survivability of computer network. Used in a right context, packet screening and filtering can be a useful tool for provision of reliable and stable network services. (author)

  20. A novel protocol for assessing aquatic pollution, based on the feeding inhibition of Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sensitivity of a novel acute bioassay based on the feeding activity of Daphnia magna was assessed, using 2 and 4 h of exposure. For calibration purposes, results were compared with those of the standard immobility test as described by the ISO 6341:1996 standard. Using potassium dichromate as the reference chemical, after 4 h of exposure the proposed protocol showed similar sensitivity in comparison with the standard, as the EC50 of the immobility test was 1.093 ± 0.098 mg·L–1, whereas the EC50 of the feeding inhibition bioassay was 1.742 ± 0.133 mg·L–1. In order to test the sensitivity of the bioassay, toxicity of two other contaminants, copper and wastewater, was estimated and the results were compared with those of the standard immobility test. For both cases, the feeding inhibition test showed higher sensitivity, as in the case of copper the EC50s were 0.0952 ± 0.0087 and 0.0753 ± 0.0152 mg·L–1, whilst the EC50 recorded for the 24-h immobility test was 0.2407 ± 0.0159 mg·L–1. In the case of the effluent, EC50 values after 2 and 4 h of exposure were 15.698 ± 2.681 and 12.557 ± 2.358 expressed as % of the wastewater, respectively, whereas the EC50 of the immobility test was calculated to be 36.4688 ± 5.4887.