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Sample records for based enrichment protocols

  1. Assessment of lectin and HILIC based enrichment protocols for characterization of serum glycoproteins by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvano, Cosima D; Zambonin, Carlo G; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2008-01-01

    identified using a mixture of three immobilized lectins for consecutive glycoprotein enrichment and glycopeptide enrichment. The combination of lectin affinity enrichment of glycoproteins and subsequent HILIC enrichment of tryptic glycopeptides identified 81 N-glycosylation sites in 44 proteins. A total...... of 63 glycosylation sites in 38 proteins were identified by both methods, demonstrating distinct differences and complementarity. Serial application of custom-made microcolumns of mixed, immobilized lectins proved efficient for recovery and analysis of glycopeptides from serum samples of breast cancer...... patients and healthy individuals to assess glycosylation site frequencies....

  2. Spore Preparation Protocol for Enrichment of Clostridia from Murine Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Eric M; Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2017-05-20

    In recent years, many spore-forming commensal Clostridia found in the gut have been discovered to promote host physiology, immune development, and protection against infections. We provide a detailed protocol for rapid enrichment of spore-forming bacteria from murine intestine. Briefly, contents from the intestinal cecum are collected aerobically, diluted and finally treated with chloroform to enrich for Clostridia spores.

  3. Power Tools for Talking: Custom Protocols Enrich Coaching Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Francesca; Ippolito, Jacy

    2015-01-01

    Discussion-based protocols--an "agreed upon set of discussion or observation rules that guide coach/teacher/student work, discussion, and interactions" (Ippolito & Lieberman, 2012, p. 79)--can help focus and structure productive professional learning discussions. However, while protocols are slowly growing into essential elements of…

  4. A Protocol for Isolation and Enriched Monolayer Cultivation of Neural Precursor Cells from Mouse Dentate Gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, Harish; Claasen, Jan-Hendrik; Kannan, Suresh; Rünker, Annette E.; Palmer, Theo; Kempermann, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    In vitro assays are valuable tools to study the characteristics of adult neural precursor cells under controlled conditions with a defined set of parameters. We here present a detailed protocol based on our previous original publication (Babu et al., 2007) to isolate neural precursor cells from the hippocampus of adult mice and maintain and propagate them as adherent monolayer cultures. The strategy is based on the use of Percoll density gradient centrifugation to enrich precursor cells from ...

  5. A protocol for isolation and enriched monolayer cultivation of neural precursor cells from mouse dentate gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Harish eBabu; Jan-Hendrik eClaasen; Jan-Hendrik eClaasen; Jan-Hendrik eClaasen; Suresh eKannan; Annette E. Rünker; Theo ePalmer; Gerd eKempermann; Gerd eKempermann

    2011-01-01

    In vitro assays are valuable tools to study the characteristics of adult neural precursor cells under controlled conditions with a defined set of parameters. We here present a detailed protocol based on our previous original publication (Babu et al., Enriched monolayer precursor cell cultures from micro-dissected adult mouse dentate gyrus yield functional granule cell-like neurons, PLoS One 2007, 2:e388) to isolate neural precursor cells from the hippocampus of adult mice and maintain and pro...

  6. Network-based functional enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirel Christopher L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many methods have been developed to infer and reason about molecular interaction networks. These approaches often yield networks with hundreds or thousands of nodes and up to an order of magnitude more edges. It is often desirable to summarize the biological information in such networks. A very common approach is to use gene function enrichment analysis for this task. A major drawback of this method is that it ignores information about the edges in the network being analyzed, i.e., it treats the network simply as a set of genes. In this paper, we introduce a novel method for functional enrichment that explicitly takes network interactions into account. Results Our approach naturally generalizes Fisher’s exact test, a gene set-based technique. Given a function of interest, we compute the subgraph of the network induced by genes annotated to this function. We use the sequence of sizes of the connected components of this sub-network to estimate its connectivity. We estimate the statistical significance of the connectivity empirically by a permutation test. We present three applications of our method: i determine which functions are enriched in a given network, ii given a network and an interesting sub-network of genes within that network, determine which functions are enriched in the sub-network, and iii given two networks, determine the functions for which the connectivity improves when we merge the second network into the first. Through these applications, we show that our approach is a natural alternative to network clustering algorithms. Conclusions We presented a novel approach to functional enrichment that takes into account the pairwise relationships among genes annotated by a particular function. Each of the three applications discovers highly relevant functions. We used our methods to study biological data from three different organisms. Our results demonstrate the wide applicability of our methods. Our algorithms are

  7. A protocol for isolation and enriched monolayer cultivation of neural precursor cells from mouse dentate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish eBabu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In vitro assays are valuable tools to study the characteristics of adult neural precursor cells under controlled conditions with a defined set of parameters. We here present a detailed protocol based on our previous original publication (Babu et al., Enriched monolayer precursor cell cultures from micro-dissected adult mouse dentate gyrus yield functional granule cell-like neurons, PLoS One 2007, 2:e388 to isolate neural precursor cells from the hippocampus of adult mice and maintain and propagate them as adherent monolayer cultures. The strategy is based on the use of Percoll density gradient centrifugation to enrich precursor cells from the micro-dissected dentate gyrus. Based on the expression of Nestin and Sox2, a culture-purity of more than 98% can be achieved. The cultures are expanded under serum-free conditions in Neurobasal A medium with addition of the mitogens EGF and FGF2 as well as the supplements Glutamax-1 and B27. Under differentiation conditions, the precursor cells reliably generate approximately 30% neurons with appropriate morphological, molecular and electrophysiological characteristics that might reflect granule cell properties as their in vivo counterpart. We also highlight potential modifications to the protocol.

  8. A protocol for isolation and enriched monolayer cultivation of neural precursor cells from mouse dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Harish; Claasen, Jan-Hendrik; Kannan, Suresh; Rünker, Annette E; Palmer, Theo; Kempermann, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    In vitro assays are valuable tools to study the characteristics of adult neural precursor cells under controlled conditions with a defined set of parameters. We here present a detailed protocol based on our previous original publication (Babu et al., 2007) to isolate neural precursor cells from the hippocampus of adult mice and maintain and propagate them as adherent monolayer cultures. The strategy is based on the use of Percoll density gradient centrifugation to enrich precursor cells from the micro-dissected dentate gyrus. Based on the expression of Nestin and Sox2, a culture-purity of more than 98% can be achieved. The cultures are expanded under serum-free conditions in Neurobasal A medium with addition of the mitogens Epidermal growth factor and Fibroblast growth factor 2 as well as the supplements Glutamax-1 and B27. Under differentiation conditions, the precursor cells reliably generate approximately 30% neurons with appropriate morphological, molecular, and electrophysiological characteristics that might reflect granule cell properties as their in vivo counterpart. We also highlight potential modifications to the protocol.

  9. Recommendations based on semantically enriched museum collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Wang (Yanjing); N. Stash; L. Aroyo (Lora); P. Gorgels; L. Rutledge (Lloyd); G. Schreiber (Guus)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractThis article presents the CHIP demonstrator1 for providing personalized access to digital museum collections. It consists of three main components: Art Recommender, Tour Wizard, and Mobile Tour Guide. Based on the semantically enriched Rijksmuseum Amsterdam2 collection, we show how

  10. Bioconductor's EnrichmentBrowser: seamless navigation through combined results of set- & network-based enrichment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geistlinger, Ludwig; Csaba, Gergely; Zimmer, Ralf

    2016-01-20

    Enrichment analysis of gene expression data is essential to find functional groups of genes whose interplay can explain experimental observations. Numerous methods have been published that either ignore (set-based) or incorporate (network-based) known interactions between genes. However, the often subtle benefits and disadvantages of the individual methods are confusing for most biological end users and there is currently no convenient way to combine methods for an enhanced result interpretation. We present the EnrichmentBrowser package as an easily applicable software that enables (1) the application of the most frequently used set-based and network-based enrichment methods, (2) their straightforward combination, and (3) a detailed and interactive visualization and exploration of the results. The package is available from the Bioconductor repository and implements additional support for standardized expression data preprocessing, differential expression analysis, and definition of suitable input gene sets and networks. The EnrichmentBrowser package implements essential functionality for the enrichment analysis of gene expression data. It combines the advantages of set-based and network-based enrichment analysis in order to derive high-confidence gene sets and biological pathways that are differentially regulated in the expression data under investigation. Besides, the package facilitates the visualization and exploration of such sets and pathways.

  11. Improvement In MAODV Protocol Using Location Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Sharnjeet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is difficult in wireless sensor network (WSN due to limited resources. Each node in WSN is constrained by their limited battery power for their energy. The energy is reduced as the time goes off due to the packet transmission and reception. Energy management techniques are necessary to minimize the total power consumption of all the nodes in the network in order to maximize its life span. Our proposed protocol Location based routing (LBR aimed to find a path which utilizes the minimum energy to transmit the packets between the source and the destination. The required energy for the transmission and reception of data is evaluated in MATLAB. LBR is implemented on Multicast Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (MAODV to manage the energy consumption in the transmission and reception of data. Simulation results of LBR show the energy consumption has been reduced.

  12. Recovery of the Decorin-Enriched Fraction, Extract (D, From Human Skin: An Accelerated Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys N. Wheatley

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The original extraction procedure of Engel and Catchpole [1] has often been used to recover decorin-enriched material from the skin. This material has a strong inhibitory effect on fibroblast proliferation, and clearly suppresses it in skin except after the first 5–6 days of wounding when new scaffold material is required. The aim of our present study has been to find and evaluate the product of a faster recovery method, and to check its consistency as a more reliable means of regularly obtaining sufficient material for topical application in wounds that might become hypertrophic. Modifications of the original Toole and Lowther [2] extraction procedure have been carefully evaluated in an attempt to cut preparation time without compromising biological activity of the inhibitory extract. We have devised a faster recovery procedure without compromising biological activity, even if initial recovery has been somewhat reduced. The latter problem could be offset by repeated cycles of the final extraction step. The main inhibitory activity is shown to be within the decorin-enriched “extract D,” as the core protein and DSPG II. Adjustment of the extract towards neutrality after dialysis against water keeps most of the extracted protein in solution and yielded a decorin-enriched preparation that had a specific activity equivalent to that of the old method. It also yielded a fraction that was readily lyophilised to give a small amount of material that could be stored indefinitely without loss of activity and readily redissolved in aqueous solution. A reliable and relatively quick method is presented for the production, from human skin, of a decorin-enriched preparation that has strong fibroblast inhibitory action. The value of the procedure is that it is inexpensive and can produce the quantities that might be used topically in reducing hypertrophic scarring of wounds.

  13. GAME (Goals - Activity - Motor Enrichment): protocol of a single blind randomised controlled trial of motor training, parent education and environmental enrichment for infants at high risk of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Catherine; Novak, Iona; Dale, Russell C; Guzzetta, Andrea; Badawi, Nadia

    2014-10-07

    Cerebral palsy is the most common physical disability of childhood and early detection is possible using evidence based assessments. Systematic reviews indicate early intervention trials rarely demonstrate efficacy for improving motor outcomes but environmental enrichment interventions appear promising. This study is built on a previous pilot study and has been designed to assess the effectiveness of a goal - oriented motor training and enrichment intervention programme, "GAME", on the motor outcomes of infants at very high risk of cerebral palsy (CP) compared with standard community based care. A two group, single blind randomised controlled trial (n = 30) will be conducted. Eligible infants are those diagnosed with CP or designated "at high risk of CP" on the basis of the General Movements Assessment and/or abnormal neuroimaging. A physiotherapist and occupational therapist will deliver home-based GAME intervention at least fortnightly until the infant's first birthday. The intervention aims to optimize motor function and engage parents in developmental activities aimed at enriching the home learning environment. Primary endpoint measures will be taken 16 weeks after intervention commences with the secondary endpoint at 12 months and 24 months corrected age. The primary outcome measure will be the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale second edition. Secondary outcomes measures include the Gross Motor Function Measure, Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development - Infant Scale, and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Parent well-being will be monitored using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. This paper presents the background, design and intervention protocol of a randomised trial of a goal driven, motor learning approach with customised environmental interventions and parental education for young infants at high risk of cerebral palsy. This trial is registered on the Australian

  14. Validation of low-volume enrichment protocols for detection of Escherichia coli O157 in raw ground beef components, using commercial kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Imtiaz; Hughes, Denise; Jenson, Ian; Karalis, Tass

    2009-03-01

    Testing of beef destined for use in ground beef products for the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 has become an important cornerstone of control and verification activities within many meat supply chains. Validation of the ability of methods to detect low levels of E. coli O157:H7 is critical to confidence in test systems. Many rapid methods have been validated against standard cultural methods for 25-g samples. In this study, a number of previously validated enrichment broths and commercially available test kits were validated for the detection of low numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in 375-g samples of raw ground beef component matrices using 1 liter of enrichment broth (large-sample:low-volume enrichment protocol). Standard AOAC International methods for 25-g samples in 225 ml of enrichment broth, using the same media, incubation conditions, and test kits, were used as reference methods. No significant differences were detected in the ability of any of the tests to detect low levels of E. coli O157:H7 in samples of raw ground beef components when enriched according to standard or large-sample:low-volume enrichment protocols. The use of large-sample:low-volume enrichment protocols provides cost savings for media and logistical benefits when handling and incubating large numbers of samples.

  15. Mercury release from deforested soils triggered by base cation enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farella, N.; Lucotte, M.; Davidson, R.; Daigle, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon has experienced considerable colonization in the last few decades. Family agriculture based on slash-and-burn enables millions of people to live in that region. However, the poor nutrient content of most Amazonian soils requires cation-rich ashes from the burning of the vegetation biomass for cultivation to be successful, which leads to forest ecosystem degradation, soil erosion and mercury contamination. While recent studies have suggested that mercury present in soils was transferred towards rivers upon deforestation, little is known about the dynamics between agricultural land-use and mercury leaching. In this context, the present study proposes an explanation that illustrates how agricultural land-use triggers mercury loss from soils. This explanation lies in the competition between base cations and mercury in soils which are characterized by a low adsorption capacity. Since these soils are naturally very poor in base cations, the burning of the forest biomass suddenly brings high quantities of base cations to soils, destabilizing the previous equilibrium amongst cations. Base cation enrichment triggers mobility in soil cations, rapidly dislocating mercury atoms. This conclusion comes from principal component analyses illustrating that agricultural land-use was associated with base cation enrichment and mercury depletion. The overall conclusions highlight a pernicious cycle: while soil nutrient enrichment actually occurs through biomass burning, although on a temporary basis, there is a loss in Hg content, which is leached to rivers, entering the aquatic chain, and posing a potential health threat to local populations. Data presented here reflects three decades of deforestation activities, but little is known about the long-term impact of such a disequilibrium. These findings may have repercussions on our understanding of the complex dynamics of deforestation and agriculture worldwide

  16. Cryptographic Protocols Based on Root Extracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koprowski, Maciej

    In this thesis we design new cryptographic protocols, whose security is based on the hardness of root extracting or more speci cally the RSA problem. First we study the problem of root extraction in nite Abelian groups, where the group order is unknown. This is a natural generalization of the...... complexity of root extraction, even if the algorithm can choose the "public exponent'' itself. In other words, both the standard and the strong RSA assumption are provably true w.r.t. generic algorithms. The results hold for arbitrary groups, so security w.r.t. generic attacks follows for any cryptographic...... construction based on root extracting. As an example of this, we modify Cramer-Shoup signature scheme such that it becomes a genericm algorithm. We discuss then implementing it in RSA groups without the original restriction that the modulus must be a product of safe primes. It can also be implemented in class...

  17. Sonication-based isolation and enrichment of Chlorella protothecoides chloroplasts for illumina genome sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelova, Angelina [University of Arizona; Park, Sang-Hycuk [University of Arizona; Kyndt, John [Bellevue University; Fitzsimmons, Kevin [University of Arizona; Brown, Judith K [University of Arizona

    2013-09-01

    With the increasing world demand for biofuel, a number of oleaginous algal species are being considered as renewable sources of oil. Chlorella protothecoides Krüger synthesizes triacylglycerols (TAGs) as storage compounds that can be converted into renewable fuel utilizing an anabolic pathway that is poorly understood. The paucity of algal chloroplast genome sequences has been an important constraint to chloroplast transformation and for studying gene expression in TAGs pathways. In this study, the intact chloroplasts were released from algal cells using sonication followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation, resulting in a 2.36-fold enrichment of chloroplasts from C. protothecoides, based on qPCR analysis. The C. protothecoides chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform and found to be 84,576 Kb in size (8.57 Kb) in size, with a GC content of 30.8 %. This is the first report of an optimized protocol that uses a sonication step, followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation, to release and enrich intact chloroplasts from a microalga (C. prototheocoides) of sufficient quality to permit chloroplast genome sequencing with high coverage, while minimizing nuclear genome contamination. The approach is expected to guide chloroplast isolation from other oleaginous algal species for a variety of uses that benefit from enrichment of chloroplasts, ranging from biochemical analysis to genomics studies.

  18. An improved AODV routing protocol based on tower structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yong Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposed a new routing protocol(IAODV based on tower structure in the Ad Hoc network for the problem which Location Routing Protocol need hardware and Complex algorithm. By the simulation, The complexity of the new routing protocol is reduced without reducing the performance of the network.

  19. A Model Based Security Testing Method for Protocol Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Long Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The security of protocol implementation is important and hard to be verified. Since the penetration testing is usually based on the experience of the security tester and the specific protocol specifications, a formal and automatic verification method is always required. In this paper, we propose an extended model of IOLTS to describe the legal roles and intruders of security protocol implementations, and then combine them together to generate the suitable test cases to verify the security of protocol implementation.

  20. Use of blood-free enrichment broth in the development of a rapid protocol to detect Campylobacter in twenty-five grams of chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masahiro; Kubota-Hayashi, Sayoko; Natori, Tatsuya; Mizuno, Takuya; Miyata, Machiko; Yoshida, Shigeru; Zhang, Jiwei; Kawamoto, Keiko; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Makino, Souichi; Ezaki, Takayuki

    2013-04-15

    A Food Pathogen Enrichment (FPE) broth, which supports the growth of Campylobacter without lysed blood and CO2, was developed. The FPE broth supports the growth of Campylobacter to the same degree as Bolton and Preston broths. Using the FPE broth, we developed a novel rapid protocol to detect small numbers of Campylobacter in 25g of food. The sensitivity of FPE enrichment and PCR to detect Campylobacter spp. from spiked chicken meat was determined. The detection sensitivities for non-stressed C. jejuni and C. coli from fresh meat ranged from 5.8 to 1.1×10(1)CFU per 25g of chicken meat, and those for freeze-stressed C. jejuni and C. coli from frozen meat ranged from 9.9×10(1) to 2.0×10(2)CFU. The FPE broth enrichment culture (24h) of chicken meat, followed by PCR, resulted in a significantly higher detection score (80% positive) than conventional Bolton enrichment and subsequent colony isolation using mCCDA agar plates (18% positive). Differences between our new protocol and the Bolton enrichment method were due to the overgrowth of many resistant bacteria, especially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in the Bolton enrichment broth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A secure key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Luan Da-Peng

    2013-01-01

    To guarantee the security of communication in the public channel, many key agreement protocols have been proposed. Recently, Gong et al. proposed a key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps with password sharing. In this paper, Gong et al.'s protocol is analyzed, and we find that this protocol exhibits key management issues and potential security problems. Furthermore, the paper presents a new key agreement protocol based on enhanced Chebyshev polynomials to overcome these problems. Through our analysis, our key agreement protocol not only provides mutual authentication and the ability to resist a variety of common attacks, but also solve the problems of key management and security issues existing in Gong et al.'s protocol

  2. SPP: A data base processor data communications protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and implementation of a data communications protocol for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. The protocol is termed SPP (Service Port Protocol) since it enables data transfer between the host computer and the DBP service port. The protocol implementation is extensible in that it is explicitly layered and the protocol functionality is hierarchically organized. Extensive trace and performance capabilities have been supplied with the protocol software to permit optional efficient monitoring of the data transfer between the host and the Intel data base processor. Machine independence was considered to be an important attribute during the design and implementation of SPP. The protocol source is fully commented and is included in Appendix A of this report.

  3. A New Protocol to Detect Multiple Foodborne Pathogens with PCR Dipstick DNA Chromatography after a Six-Hour Enrichment Culture in a Broad-Range Food Pathogen Enrichment Broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Hayashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A quick foodborne pathogen screening method after six-hour enrichment culture with a broad-range food pathogen enrichment broth is described. Pathogenic factors of Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli are amplified with a cocktail primer and rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR, which finishes amplification in 30 min. The PCR amplicon was differentiated with a dipstick DNA chromatography assay in 5–10 min. Starting from a four- to six-hour enrichment culture, this assay was finished within 45 min. Detection sensitivity of this protocol was less than 2.5 CFU/25 g for S. enterica and 3.3 CFU/25 g for enterohemorrhagic E. coli in spiked ground meat experiments.

  4. A simplified and cost-effective enrichment protocol for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat without microaerobic incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To simplify the methodology for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat, we evaluated 108 samples (breasts and thighs) using an unpaired sample design. The enrichment broths were incubated under aerobic conditions (subsamples A) and for comparison under microaerobic conditions (subsamples M) as recommended by current reference protocols. Sensors were used to measure the dissolved oxygen (DO) in the broth and the percentage of oxygen (O2) in the head space of the bags used for enrichment. Campylobacter isolates were identified with multiplex PCR assays and typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ribosomal intergenic spacer analyses (RISA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to study the bacterial communities of subsamples M and A after 48 h enrichment. Results The number of Campylobacter positive subsamples were similar for A and M when all samples were combined (P = 0.81) and when samples were analyzed by product (breast: P = 0.75; thigh: P = 1.00). Oxygen sensors showed that DO values in the broth were around 6 ppm and O2 values in the head space were 14-16% throughout incubation. PFGE demonstrated high genomic similarity of isolates in the majority of the samples in which isolates were obtained from subsamples A and M. RISA and DGGE results showed a large variability in the bacterial populations that could be attributed to sample-to-sample variations and not enrichment conditions (aerobic or microaerobic). These data also suggested that current sampling protocols are not optimized to determine the true number of Campylobacter positive samples in retail boiler meat. Conclusions Decreased DO in enrichment broths is naturally achieved. This simplified, cost-effective enrichment protocol with aerobic incubation could be incorporated into reference methods for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat. PMID:21812946

  5. A simplified and cost-effective enrichment protocol for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat without microaerobic incubation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zhou, Ping

    2011-08-03

    Abstract Background To simplify the methodology for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat, we evaluated 108 samples (breasts and thighs) using an unpaired sample design. The enrichment broths were incubated under aerobic conditions (subsamples A) and for comparison under microaerobic conditions (subsamples M) as recommended by current reference protocols. Sensors were used to measure the dissolved oxygen (DO) in the broth and the percentage of oxygen (O2) in the head space of the bags used for enrichment. Campylobacter isolates were identified with multiplex PCR assays and typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ribosomal intergenic spacer analyses (RISA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to study the bacterial communities of subsamples M and A after 48 h enrichment. Results The number of Campylobacter positive subsamples were similar for A and M when all samples were combined (P = 0.81) and when samples were analyzed by product (breast: P = 0.75; thigh: P = 1.00). Oxygen sensors showed that DO values in the broth were around 6 ppm and O2 values in the head space were 14-16% throughout incubation. PFGE demonstrated high genomic similarity of isolates in the majority of the samples in which isolates were obtained from subsamples A and M. RISA and DGGE results showed a large variability in the bacterial populations that could be attributed to sample-to-sample variations and not enrichment conditions (aerobic or microaerobic). These data also suggested that current sampling protocols are not optimized to determine the true number of Campylobacter positive samples in retail boiler meat. Conclusions Decreased DO in enrichment broths is naturally achieved. This simplified, cost-effective enrichment protocol with aerobic incubation could be incorporated into reference methods for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat.

  6. Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on Bell Entangled States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wen; Wang Yongbin; Cui Wei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a quantum private comparison protocol is proposed based on bell entangled states. In our protocol, two parties can compare the equality of their information with the help of a semi-honest third party. The correctness and security of our protocol are discussed. One party cannot learn the other's private information and the third party also cannot learn any information about the private information. (general)

  7. Retrospective Validation of a Structure-Based Virtual Screening Protocol to Identify Ligands for Estrogen Receptor Alpha and Its Application to Identify the Alpha-Mangostin Binding Pose

    OpenAIRE

    Agustina Setiawati; Florentinus Dika Octa Riswanto; Sri Hartati Yuliani; Enade Perdana Istyastono

    2014-01-01

    The publicly available enhanced data of ligands and decoys for estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) which were recently published has made the retrospective validation of a structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) protocol to identify ligands for ERα possible. In this article, we present the retrospective validation of an SBVS protocol using PLANTS molecular docking software version 1.2 (PLANTS1.2) as the backbone software. The protocol shows better enrichment factor at 1% false positives (EF1%) val...

  8. An evidence based blunt trauma protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, R. van; Kool, D.R.; Lubeek, S.F.K.; Dekker, H.M.; Brink, M.; Deunk, J.; Edwards, M.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Currently CT is rapidly implemented in the evaluation of trauma patients. In anticipation of a large international multicentre trial, this study's aim was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of a new diagnostic protocol, used for the primary radiological evaluation in adult blunt

  9. A Weak Value Based QKD Protocol Robust Against Detector Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupe, James

    2015-03-01

    We propose a variation of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol that utilizes the properties of weak values to insure the validity of the quantum bit error rate estimates used to detect an eavesdropper. The protocol is shown theoretically to be secure against recently demonstrated attacks utilizing detector blinding and control and should also be robust against all detector based hacking. Importantly, the new protocol promises to achieve this additional security without negatively impacting the secure key generation rate as compared to that originally promised by the standard BB84 scheme. Implementation of the weak measurements needed by the protocol should be very feasible using standard quantum optical techniques.

  10. Whole-system nutrient enrichment increases secondary production in a detritus-based ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.F. Cross; J.B. Wallace; A.D. Rosemond; S.L. Eggert

    2006-01-01

    Although the effects of nutrient enrichment on consumer-resource dynamics are relatively well studied in ecosystems based on living plants, little is known about the manner in which enrichment influences the dynamics and productivity of consumers and resources in detritus-based ecosystems. Because nutrients can stimulate loss of carbon at the base of detrital food webs...

  11. How robust are gossip-based communication protocols?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kermarrec, A.-M.; Alvisi, L.; van Steen, M.; van Steen, Martinus Richardus; Doumen, J.M.; Guerraoui, R.; Koldehofe, B.; Li, H.; van Renesse, R.; Tredan, G.

    2007-01-01

    Gossip-based communication protocols are often touted as being robust. Not surprisingly, such a claim relies on assumptions under which gossip protocols are supposed to operate. In this paper, we discuss and in some cases expose some of these assumptions and discuss how sensitive the robustness of

  12. Advanced flooding-based routing protocols for underwater sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isufi, E.; Dol, H.; Leus, G.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding-based protocols are a reliable solution to deliver packets in underwater sensor networks. However, these protocols potentially involve all the nodes in the forwarding process. Thus, the performance and energy efficiency are not optimal. In this work, we propose some advances of a

  13. Developing a yeast-based assay protocol to monitor total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A yeast-based assay protocol developed for detecting oestrogenic activity in activated sludge (AS) supernatant is described. The protocol used Saccharomyces cerevisiae construct RMY/ER-ERE with human oestrogen receptor (ERα) and lacZ reporter genes, and was developed by modifying existing assays for use with AS ...

  14. Enriching step-based product information models to support product life-cycle activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigecili, Mehmet Ilteris

    The representation and management of product information in its life-cycle requires standardized data exchange protocols. Standard for Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP) is such a standard that has been used widely by the industries. Even though STEP-based product models are well defined and syntactically correct, populating product data according to these models is not easy because they are too big and disorganized. Data exchange specifications (DEXs) and templates provide re-organized information models required in data exchange of specific activities for various businesses. DEXs show us it would be possible to organize STEP-based product models in order to support different engineering activities at various stages of product life-cycle. In this study, STEP-based models are enriched and organized to support two engineering activities: materials information declaration and tolerance analysis. Due to new environmental regulations, the substance and materials information in products have to be screened closely by manufacturing industries. This requires a fast, unambiguous and complete product information exchange between the members of a supply chain. Tolerance analysis activity, on the other hand, is used to verify the functional requirements of an assembly considering the worst case (i.e., maximum and minimum) conditions for the part/assembly dimensions. Another issue with STEP-based product models is that the semantics of product data are represented implicitly. Hence, it is difficult to interpret the semantics of data for different product life-cycle phases for various application domains. OntoSTEP, developed at NIST, provides semantically enriched product models in OWL. In this thesis, we would like to present how to interpret the GD & T specifications in STEP for tolerance analysis by utilizing OntoSTEP.

  15. Resin-assisted enrichment of thiols as a general strategy for proteomic profiling of cysteine-based reversible modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jia [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gaffrey, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Su, Dian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Liu, Tao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Camp, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Richard D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qian, Weijun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-12

    Reversible modifications on cysteine thiols play a significant role in redox signaling and regulation. A number of reversible redox modifications, including disulfide formation, S-nitrosylation, and S-glutathionylation, have been recognized for their significance in various physiological and pathological processes. Here we describe in detail a resin-assisted thiol-affinity enrichment protocol for both biochemical and proteomics applications. This protocol serves as a general approach for specific isolation of thiol-containing proteins or peptides derived from reversible redox-modified proteins. This approach utilizes thiol-affinity resins to directly capture thiol-containing proteins or peptides through a disulfide exchange reaction followed by on-resin protein digestion and on-resin multiplexed isobaric labeling to facilitate LC-MS/MS based quantitative site-specific analysis of redox modifications. The overall approach requires a much simpler workflow with increased specificity compared to the commonly used biotin switch technique. By coupling different selective reduction strategies, the resin-assisted approach provides the researcher with a useful tool capable of enriching different types of reversible modifications on protein thiols. Procedures for selective enrichment and analyses of S-nitrosylation and total reversible cysteine oxidation are presented to demonstrate the utility of this general strategy.

  16. Evaluation of Methyl-Binding Domain Based Enrichment Approaches Revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina A Aberg

    Full Text Available Methyl-binding domain (MBD enrichment followed by deep sequencing (MBD-seq, is a robust and cost efficient approach for methylome-wide association studies (MWAS. MBD-seq has been demonstrated to be capable of identifying differentially methylated regions, detecting previously reported robust associations and producing findings that replicate with other technologies such as targeted pyrosequencing of bisulfite converted DNA. There are several kits commercially available that can be used for MBD enrichment. Our previous work has involved MethylMiner (Life Technologies, Foster City, CA, USA that we chose after careful investigation of its properties. However, in a recent evaluation of five commercially available MBD-enrichment kits the performance of the MethylMiner was deemed poor. Given our positive experience with MethylMiner, we were surprised by this report. In an attempt to reproduce these findings we here have performed a direct comparison of MethylMiner with MethylCap (Diagenode Inc, Denville, NJ, USA, the best performing kit in that study. We find that both MethylMiner and MethylCap are two well performing MBD-enrichment kits. However, MethylMiner shows somewhat better enrichment efficiency and lower levels of background "noise". In addition, for the purpose of MWAS where we want to investigate the majority of CpGs, we find MethylMiner to be superior as it allows tailoring the enrichment to the regions where most CpGs are located. Using targeted bisulfite sequencing we confirmed that sites where methylation was detected by either MethylMiner or by MethylCap indeed were methylated.

  17. Nuclear material enrichment identification method based on cross-correlation and high order spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Fan; Wei Biao; Feng Peng; Mi Deling; Ren Yong

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance the sensitivity of nuclear material identification system (NMIS) against the change of nuclear material enrichment, the principle of high order statistic feature is introduced and applied to traditional NMIS. We present a new enrichment identification method based on cross-correlation and high order spectrum algorithm. By applying the identification method to NMIS, the 3D graphs with nuclear material character are presented and can be used as new signatures to identify the enrichment of nuclear materials. The simulation result shows that the identification method could suppress the background noises, electronic system noises, and improve the sensitivity against enrichment change to exponential order with no system structure modification. (authors)

  18. Growth differences and competition between Listeria monocytogenes strains determine their predominance on ham slices and lead to bias during selective enrichment with the ISO protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilelidou, Evangelia; Manthou, Evanthia; Skandamis, Panagiotis

    2016-10-17

    Listeria monocytogenes strains are widespread in the environment where they live well mixed, often resulting in multiple strains contaminating a single food sample. The occurrence of different strains in the same food might trigger strain competition, contributing to uneven growth of strains in food and to bias during selective procedures. We tested the growth of seven L. monocytogenes strains (C5, 6179, ScottA, PL24, PL25, PL26, PL27) on ham slices and on nutrient-rich agar at 10°C, singly and in combinations. Strains were made resistant to different antibiotics for their selective enumeration. In addition, growth of single strains (axenic culture) and competition between strains in xenic cultures of two strains was evaluated in enrichment broth and on selective agar. According to ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd 1:2004 standard protocol for detection of L. monocytogenes, two enrichment steps both followed by streaking on ALOA were performed. Strain cultures were directly added in the enrichment broth or used to inoculate minced beef and sliced hams which were then mixed with enrichment broth. 180-360 colonies were used to determine the relative percentage of each strain recovered on plates per enrichment step. The data showed a significant impact of co-cultivation on the growth of six out of seven strains on ham and a bias towards certain strains during selective enrichment. Competition was manifested by: (i) cessation of growth for the outcompeted strain when the dominant strain reached stationary phase, (ii) reduction of growth rates or (iii) total suppression of growth (both on ham and in enrichment broth or ALOA). Outgrowth of strains by their competitors on ALOA resulted in limited to no recovery, with the outcompeting strain accounting for up to 100% of the total recovered colonies. The observed bias was associated with the enrichment conditions (i.e. food type added to the enrichment broth) and the strain-combination. The outcome of growth competition on food or

  19. Protocol-Based Verification of Message-Passing Parallel Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Acosta, Hugo-Andrés; Eduardo R. B. Marques, Eduardo R. B.; Martins, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    a protocol language based on a dependent type system for message-passing parallel programs, which includes various communication operators, such as point-to-point messages, broadcast, reduce, array scatter and gather. For the verification of a program against a given protocol, the protocol is first......, that suffer from the state-explosion problem or that otherwise depend on parameters to the program itself. We experimentally evaluated our approach against state-of-the-art tools for MPI to conclude that our approach offers a scalable solution....

  20. Electronic Voting Protocol Using Identity-Based Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Garcia, Gina; Tapia-Recillas, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    Electronic voting protocols proposed to date meet their properties based on Public Key Cryptography (PKC), which offers high flexibility through key agreement protocols and authentication mechanisms. However, when PKC is used, it is necessary to implement Certification Authority (CA) to provide certificates which bind public keys to entities and enable verification of such public key bindings. Consequently, the components of the protocol increase notably. An alternative is to use Identity-Based Encryption (IBE). With this kind of cryptography, it is possible to have all the benefits offered by PKC, without neither the need of certificates nor all the core components of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Considering the aforementioned, in this paper we propose an electronic voting protocol, which meets the privacy and robustness properties by using bilinear maps.

  1. A native Bayesian classifier based routing protocol for VANETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhenshan; Zhou, Keqin; Zhang, Wenbo; Gong, Xiaolei

    2016-12-01

    Geographic routing protocols are one of the most hot research areas in VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network). However, there are few routing protocols can take both the transmission efficient and the usage of ratio into account. As we have noticed, different messages in VANET may ask different quality of service. So we raised a Native Bayesian Classifier based routing protocol (Naive Bayesian Classifier-Greedy, NBC-Greedy), which can classify and transmit different messages by its emergency degree. As a result, we can balance the transmission efficient and the usage of ratio with this protocol. Based on Matlab simulation, we can draw a conclusion that NBC-Greedy is more efficient and stable than LR-Greedy and GPSR.

  2. Protocol-based care: impact on roles and service delivery*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Fontenla, Marina; Bick, Debra; Seers, Kate

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of protocol-based care on nursing roles, practice and service delivery. Case study evaluation informed by realistic evaluation methodology. Qualitative data collection methods were used including non-participant observation, post-observation interviews with nurses and patients, key informant interviews, tracking patient journeys and document review. 141 participants took part including 73 nurses, midwives and health visitors, 4 allied health professionals, 20 doctors, 5 support staff and 39 patients. Five sites were purposively sampled and included acute and primary care service provision. As a mechanism for standardization, the use of protocol-based care approaches such as guidelines, care pathways, protocols and algorithms was patchy and dependent on contextual, professional and individual factors. Protocol-based care approaches were commonly used as checklists and for reference; nurses and doctors expressed concern that such use could lead to a 'tick box mentality' and restricted judgement. By using standardized care approaches nurses were taking on new tasks and developing skills beyond the traditional scope of practice including prescribing, diagnosing, ordering tests and sometimes deciding on treatments. The ability to perform these roles meant that they were able to run clinics or services independently. The extension of roles to incorporate prescribing, for example, meant that nurses were able to provide a more streamlined service for patients because they did not have to refer to doctors. In turn, it was reported that this reduced doctors' workload. Protocol-based care was viewed as a 'nurses' thing'; however, some General Practitioners and junior doctors were using available standardized care approaches. The potential of standardization was mediated by the patchy use of protocol-based care approaches and negative perceptions about standardization. Use of protocol-based care has the potential to impact on nurses' roles, increasing

  3. Internet protocol-based emergency services

    CERN Document Server

    Schulzrinne, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Written by international experts in the field, this book covers the standards, architecture and deployment issues related to IP-based emergency services This book brings together contributions from experts on technical and operational aspects within the international standardisation and regulatory processes relating to routing and handling of IP-based emergency calls.  Readers will learn how these standards work, how various standardization organizations contributed to them and about pilot projects, early deployment and current regulatory situation. Key Featur

  4. Comparative study on gene set and pathway topology-based enrichment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayerlová, Michaela; Jung, Klaus; Kramer, Frank; Klemm, Florian; Bleckmann, Annalen; Beißbarth, Tim

    2015-10-22

    Enrichment analysis is a popular approach to identify pathways or sets of genes which are significantly enriched in the context of differentially expressed genes. The traditional gene set enrichment approach considers a pathway as a simple gene list disregarding any knowledge of gene or protein interactions. In contrast, the new group of so called pathway topology-based methods integrates the topological structure of a pathway into the analysis. We comparatively investigated gene set and pathway topology-based enrichment approaches, considering three gene set and four topological methods. These methods were compared in two extensive simulation studies and on a benchmark of 36 real datasets, providing the same pathway input data for all methods. In the benchmark data analysis both types of methods showed a comparable ability to detect enriched pathways. The first simulation study was conducted with KEGG pathways, which showed considerable gene overlaps between each other. In this study with original KEGG pathways, none of the topology-based methods outperformed the gene set approach. Therefore, a second simulation study was performed on non-overlapping pathways created by unique gene IDs. Here, methods accounting for pathway topology reached higher accuracy than the gene set methods, however their sensitivity was lower. We conducted one of the first comprehensive comparative works on evaluating gene set against pathway topology-based enrichment methods. The topological methods showed better performance in the simulation scenarios with non-overlapping pathways, however, they were not conclusively better in the other scenarios. This suggests that simple gene set approach might be sufficient to detect an enriched pathway under realistic circumstances. Nevertheless, more extensive studies and further benchmark data are needed to systematically evaluate these methods and to assess what gain and cost pathway topology information introduces into enrichment analysis. Both

  5. Assessment of phosphopeptide enrichment/precipitation method for LC-MS/MS based phosphoproteomic analysis of plant tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Juanying; Rudashevskaya, Elena; Hansen, Thomas Aarup

    selectivity. The overlap between the 3 enrichment experiments was quite small. We are currently investigating further combination of enrichment methods: SIMAC enrichment and the combination of CPP and IMAC enrichment. Samples will be analyzed by LTQ-Orbitrap-ETD MS, and the behavior of phosphopeptides on CID...... is necessary. At present, numerous phosphopeptide enrichment approaches have been established and applied to complex biological samples. We and others have reported that multi-step phosphopeptide purification methods enable better recovery of phosphopeptide and achieve higher selectivity and sensitivity than...... stardand sample preparation protocols. Here, we combine 3 phosphpeptide enrichment methods (IMAC, TiO2 and Calcium Phosphate Precipitation (CPP)), and apply them to phosphoproteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane preparation. Method Plant plasma membranes were isolated from Arabidopsis...

  6. An XML-Based Protocol for Distributed Event Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the application of an XML (extensible mark-up language)-based protocol to the developing field of distributed processing by way of a computational grid which resembles an electric power grid. XML tags would be used to transmit events between the participants of a transaction, namely, the consumer and the producer of the grid scheme.

  7. Epoxy based oxygen enriched porous carbons for CO2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Deepak; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K.

    2017-08-01

    Oxygen enriched carbon adsorbents were successfully synthesized for the first time from template zeolite and epoxy resin as precursor using a nanocasting technique. Carbonization and CO2 activation were performed at various temperatures (500-800 °C) to prepare different carbon structure adsorbents. Several characterization techniques were used to characterize the textural structure, oxygen content and surface functional groups of the adsorbents. The carbon adsorbents show high oxygen content (47.51%), highest surface area (SBET = 686.37 m2 g-1) and pore volume (0.60 cm3 g-1), respectively. The materials were evaluated thermogravimetrically at different adsorption temperatures (30-100 °C) and CO2 concentrations (6-100%). Adsorbent prepared at 700 °C exhibited highest CO2 uptake of 0.91 mmol g-1 due to high surface basicity. Further, regeneration studies of adsorbent exhibited easy regenerability and stability over four multiple adsorptions-desorption cycles. Kinetic models for CO2 adsorption at various CO2 concentrations and temperatures were studied and it was found that the fractional order provided best fitting for the adsorption behavior with an error of less than 3%. The experimental data for CO2 adsorption were analyzed using different isothermal models and found that the Freundlich isothermal model presented perfect fit among all isotherm models depicting heterogeneous adsorbent surface. The isosteric heat of adsorption was estimated to be 11.75 kJ mol-1, indicating physiosorption process. Overall, the above results suggested that the synthesized adsorbent using nanocasting technique provides a feasible way for CO2 capture from point source due to their environmentally benign nature, low cost and stable adsorption capacity.

  8. Real-time PCR detection of Listeria monocytogenes in infant formula and lettuce following macrophage-based isolation and enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J B; Basavanna, U

    2015-01-01

    To develop a rapid detection procedure for Listeria monocytogenes in infant formula and lettuce using a macrophage-based enrichment protocol and real-time PCR. A macrophage cell culture system was employed for the isolation and enrichment of L. monocytogenes from infant formula and lettuce for subsequent identification using real-time PCR. Macrophage monolayers were exposed to infant formula and lettuce contaminated with a serial dilution series of L. monocytogenes. As few as approx. 10 CFU ml(-1) or g(-1) of L. monocytogenes were detected in infant formula and lettuce after 16 h postinfection by real-time PCR. Internal positive PCR controls were utilized to eliminate the possibility of false-negative results. Co-inoculation with Listeria innocua did not reduce the L. monocytogenes detection sensitivity. Intracellular L. monocytogenes could also be isolated on Listeria selective media from infected macrophage lysates for subsequent confirmation. The detection method is highly sensitive and specific for L. monocytogenes in infant formula and lettuce and establishes a rapid identification time of 20 and 48 h for presumptive and confirmatory identification, respectively. The method is a promising alternative to many currently used q-PCR detection methods which employ traditional selective media for enrichment of contaminated food samples. Macrophage enrichment of L. monocytogenes eliminates PCR inhibitory food elements and contaminating food microflora which produce cleaner samples that increase the rapidity and sensitivity of detection. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched mayonnaise-based salads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched mayonnaise-based salads and the influence of different vegetables in shrimp and tuna salads were evaluated. Moreover, the lipid oxidation in the presence of 1% oregano, rosemary, or thyme in fish oil-enriched tuna salad was assessed. The results obtained...... showed that the mayonnaise itself was more oxidatively stable without vegetables and tuna or shrimp, in spite of the higher oil content in mayonnaise (63 and 6.3% fish oil, respectively) compared to salads (∼24 and 2.4% fish oil, respectively). Surprisingly, the fish oil-enriched mayonnaise was only...... significantly different from the standard mayonnaise in the volatile concentration during the end of storage. In fish oil-enriched shrimp salad, asparagus had an anti-oxidative effect and shrimp a pro-oxidative effect, where the anti-oxidative effect of asparagus was strong enough to prevent the pro...

  10. Nutrient enrichment differentially affects body sizes of primary consumers and predators in a detritus-based stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Davis; Amy D. Rosemond; Sue L. Eggert; Wyatt F. Cross; J. Bruce. Wallace

    2010-01-01

    We assessed how a 5-yr nutrient enrichment affected the responses of different size classes of primary consumers and predators in a detritus-based headwater stream. We hypothesized that alterations in detritus availability because of enrichment would decrease the abundance and biomass of large-bodied consumers. In contrast, we found that 2 yr of enrichment increased...

  11. Mung bean nuclease treatment increases capture specificity of microdroplet-PCR based targeted DNA enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Yu

    Full Text Available Targeted DNA enrichment coupled with next generation sequencing has been increasingly used for interrogation of select sub-genomic regions at high depth of coverage in a cost effective manner. Specificity measured by on-target efficiency is a key performance metric for target enrichment. Non-specific capture leads to off-target reads, resulting in waste of sequencing throughput on irrelevant regions. Microdroplet-PCR allows simultaneous amplification of up to thousands of regions in the genome and is among the most commonly used strategies for target enrichment. Here we show that carryover of single-stranded template genomic DNA from microdroplet-PCR constitutes a major contributing factor for off-target reads in the resultant libraries. Moreover, treatment of microdroplet-PCR enrichment products with a nuclease specific to single-stranded DNA alleviates off-target load and improves enrichment specificity. We propose that nuclease treatment of enrichment products should be incorporated in the workflow of targeted sequencing using microdroplet-PCR for target capture. These findings may have a broad impact on other PCR based applications for which removal of template DNA is beneficial.

  12. Web-based resources for clinical protocol management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookman, M A; McLaughlin, L; Burgess, S; Wolfenden, A S

    1998-11-01

    The data monitoring regulatory procedures, and administrative tasks associated with protocol management have become increasingly complex. Relational database technology and Internet-based connectivity offer resources to improve the quality and efficiency of protocol operations. At Fox Chase Cancer Center, we have developed a suite of database applications for protocol management and tracking of patient accrual. All data transactions and reporting occur through a graphical web browser interface using standard Internet technology. Security and confidentiality have been addressed through encryption, user authentication, address restriction, and database authority. Database management has been tightly integrated with protocol operations to avoid duplication of resources and effort. Data query functions also extend to other institutional resources, such as tumor registry and the hospital clinical laboratory, to further reduce the need for redundant data storage. Newer components, such as chemotherapy orders and toxicity reporting, have been incorporated in a modular fashion. Although custom software development can be expensive and time-consuming, it offers the best opportunity for successful integration with existing resources, staff, and procedures, as well as collaboration with other institutions.

  13. Enriching location-based games with navigational game activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadarajah, Stephanie Githa; Overgaard, Benjamin Nicholas; Pedersen, Peder Walz

    2016-01-01

    Mobile location-based games are experiences that entertain its players by requiring interactions mainly at points of interest (POIs). Navigation between POIs often involve the use of either a physical or digital map, not taking advantage of the opportunity available to engage users in activities...

  14. Instance-Based Ontology Matching by Instance Enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schopman, B.; Wang, S.; Isaac, A.H.J.C.A.; Schlobach, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    The ontology matching (OM) problem is an important barrier to achieve true Semantic Interoperability. Instance-based ontology matching (IBOM) uses the extension of concepts, the instances directly associated with a concept, to determine whether a pair of concepts is related or not. While IBOM has

  15. A network coding based routing protocol for underwater sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huayang; Chen, Min; Guan, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the particularities of the underwater environment, some negative factors will seriously interfere with data transmission rates, reliability of data communication, communication range, and network throughput and energy consumption of underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). Thus, full consideration of node energy savings, while maintaining a quick, correct and effective data transmission, extending the network life cycle are essential when routing protocols for underwater sensor networks are studied. In this paper, we have proposed a novel routing algorithm for UWSNs. To increase energy consumption efficiency and extend network lifetime, we propose a time-slot based routing algorithm (TSR).We designed a probability balanced mechanism and applied it to TSR. The theory of network coding is introduced to TSBR to meet the requirement of further reducing node energy consumption and extending network lifetime. Hence, time-slot based balanced network coding (TSBNC) comes into being. We evaluated the proposed time-slot based balancing routing algorithm and compared it with other classical underwater routing protocols. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol can reduce the probability of node conflicts, shorten the process of routing construction, balance energy consumption of each node and effectively prolong the network lifetime.

  16. Studying protocol-based pain management in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkamahadevi Patil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Majority of the patients presenting to emergency department (ED have pain. ED oligoanalgesia remains a challenge. Aims: This study aims to study the effect of implementing a protocol-based pain management in the ED on (1 time to analgesia and (2 adequacy of analgesia obtained. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study in the ED. Methods: Patients aged 18–65 years of age with pain of numeric rating scale (NRS ≥4 were included. A series of 100 patients presenting before introduction of the protocol-based pain management were grouped “pre-protocol,” and managed as per existing practice. Following this, a protocol for management of all patients presenting to ED with pain was implemented. Another series of 100 were grouped as “post-protocol” and managed as per the new pain management protocol. The data of patients from both the groups were collected and analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical tests such as percentage, mean and standard deviation and inferential statistical tests such as Pearson coefficient, Student's t-test were applied. Differences were interpreted as significant when P < 0.05. Results: Mean time to administer analgesic was significantly lesser in the postprotocol group (preprotocol 20.30 min vs. postprotocol 13.05 min; P < 0.001. There was significant difference in the pain relief achieved (change in NRS between the two groups, with greater pain relief achieved in the postprotocol group (preprotocol group 4.6800 vs. postprotocol group 5.3600; P < 0.001. Patients' rating of pain relief (assessed on E5 scale was significantly higher in the postprotocol group (preprotocol 3.91 vs. postprotocol 4.27; P = 0.001. Patients' satisfaction (North American Spine Society scale with the overall treatment was also compared and found to be significantly higher in postprotocol group (mean: preprotocol 1.59 vs. postprotocol 1.39; P = 0.008. Conclusion: Protocol-based pain management provided timely and

  17. Enriched Boron-Doped Amorphous Selenium Based Position-Sensitive Solid-State Thermal Neutron Detector for MPACT Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Krishna [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2017-09-29

    High-efficiency thermal neutron detectors with compact size, low power-rating and high spatial, temporal and energy resolution are essential to execute non-proliferation and safeguard protocols. The demands of such detector are not fully covered by the current detection system such as gas proportional counters or scintillator-photomultiplier tube combinations, which are limited by their detection efficiency, stability of response, speed of operation, and physical size. Furthermore, world-wide shortage of 3He gas, required for widely used gas detection method, has further prompted to design an alternative system. Therefore, a solid-state neutron detection system without the requirement of 3He will be very desirable. To address the above technology gap, we had proposed to develop new room temperature solidstate thermal neutron detectors based on enriched boron (10B) and enriched lithium (6Li) doped amorphous Se (As- 0.52%, Cl 5 ppm) semiconductor for MPACT applications. The proposed alloy materials have been identified for its many favorable characteristics - a wide bandgap (~2.2 eV at 300 K) for room temperature operation, high glass transition temperature (tg ~ 85°C), a high thermal neutron cross-section (for boron ~ 3840 barns, for lithium ~ 940 barns, 1 barn = 10-24 cm2), low effective atomic number of Se for small gamma ray sensitivity, and high radiation tolerance due to its amorphous structure.

  18. Streetlight Control System Based on Wireless Communication over DALI Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido-Outeiriño, Francisco José; Quiles-Latorre, Francisco Javier; Moreno-Moreno, Carlos Diego; Flores-Arias, José María; Moreno-García, Isabel; Ortiz-López, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Public lighting represents a large part of the energy consumption of towns and cities. Efficient management of public lighting can entail significant energy savings. This work presents a smart system for managing public lighting networks based on wireless communication and the DALI protocol. Wireless communication entails significant economic savings, as there is no need to install new wiring and visual impacts and damage to the facades of historical buildings in city centers are avoided. The DALI protocol uses bidirectional communication with the ballast, which allows its status to be controlled and monitored at all times. The novelty of this work is that it tackles all aspects related to the management of public lighting: a standard protocol, DALI, was selected to control the ballast, a wireless node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard with a DALI interface was designed, a network layer that considers the topology of the lighting network has been developed, and lastly, some user-friendly applications for the control and maintenance of the system by the technical crews of the different towns and cities have been developed. PMID:27128923

  19. Streetlight Control System Based on Wireless Communication over DALI Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Bellido-Outeiriño

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Public lighting represents a large part of the energy consumption of towns and cities. Efficient management of public lighting can entail significant energy savings. This work presents a smart system for managing public lighting networks based on wireless communication and the DALI protocol. Wireless communication entails significant economic savings, as there is no need to install new wiring and visual impacts and damage to the facades of historical buildings in city centers are avoided. The DALI protocol uses bidirectional communication with the ballast, which allows its status to be controlled and monitored at all times. The novelty of this work is that it tackles all aspects related to the management of public lighting: a standard protocol, DALI, was selected to control the ballast, a wireless node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard with a DALI interface was designed, a network layer that considers the topology of the lighting network has been developed, and lastly, some user-friendly applications for the control and maintenance of the system by the technical crews of the different towns and cities have been developed.

  20. Streetlight Control System Based on Wireless Communication over DALI Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido-Outeiriño, Francisco José; Quiles-Latorre, Francisco Javier; Moreno-Moreno, Carlos Diego; Flores-Arias, José María; Moreno-García, Isabel; Ortiz-López, Manuel

    2016-04-27

    Public lighting represents a large part of the energy consumption of towns and cities. Efficient management of public lighting can entail significant energy savings. This work presents a smart system for managing public lighting networks based on wireless communication and the DALI protocol. Wireless communication entails significant economic savings, as there is no need to install new wiring and visual impacts and damage to the facades of historical buildings in city centers are avoided. The DALI protocol uses bidirectional communication with the ballast, which allows its status to be controlled and monitored at all times. The novelty of this work is that it tackles all aspects related to the management of public lighting: a standard protocol, DALI, was selected to control the ballast, a wireless node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard with a DALI interface was designed, a network layer that considers the topology of the lighting network has been developed, and lastly, some user-friendly applications for the control and maintenance of the system by the technical crews of the different towns and cities have been developed.

  1. A statistical frame based TDMA protocol for human body communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zedong; Li, Zhao; Huang, Renwei; Liu, Yuhang; Li, Jingzhen; Wang, Lei

    2015-07-09

    Human body communication (HBC) using the human body as the transmission medium, which has been regarded as one of the most promising short-range communications in wireless body area networks (WBAN). Compared to the traditional wireless networks, two challenges are existed in HBC based WBAN. (1) Its sensor nodes should be energy saving since it is inconvenient to replace or recharge the battery on these sensor nodes; (2) the coordinator should be able to react dynamically and rapidly to the burst traffic triggered by sensing events. Those burst traffic conditions include vital physical signal (electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram etc.) monitoring, human motion detection (fall detection, activity monitoring, gesture recognition, motion sensing etc.) and so on. To cope with aforementioned challenges, a statistical frame based TDMA (S-TDMA) protocol with multi-constrained (energy, delay, transmission efficiency and emergency management) service is proposed in this paper. The scenarios where burst traffic is often triggered rapidly with low power consumption and low delay is handled in our proposed S-TDMA. A beacon frame with the contained synchronous and poll information is designed to reduce the possibility of collisions of request frames. A statistical frame which broadcasts the unified scheduling information is adopted to avoid packet collisions, idle listening and overhearing. Dynamic time slot allocation mechanism is presented to manage the burst traffic and reduce the active period in each beacon period. An emergency mechanism is proposed for vital signals to be transmitted. The theory analysis is proceed and the result is evaluated in the hardware platform. To verify its feasibility, S-TDMA was fully implemented on our independently-developed HBC platform where four sensor nodes and a coordinator are fastened on a human body. Experiment results show that S-TDMA costs 89.397 mJ every 20 s when the payload size is 122 bytes, 9.51% lower than Lightweight MAC

  2. Research of Video Steganalysis Algorithm Based on H265 Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Kaicheng

    2015-01-01

    This paper researches LSB matching VSA based on H265 protocol with the research background of 26 original Video sequences, it firstly extracts classification features out from training samples as input of SVM, and trains in SVM to obtain high-quality category classification model, and then tests whether there is suspicious information in the video sample. The experimental results show that VSA algorithm based on LSB matching can be more practical to obtain all frame embedded secret information and carrier and video of local frame embedded. In addition, VSA adopts the method of frame by frame with a strong robustness in resisting attack in the corresponding time domain.

  3. Pros and cons of methylation-based enrichment methods for ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Gamba, Cristina; Der Sarkissian, Clio

    2015-01-01

    enrichment, however, appears principally biased towards the recovery of CpG-rich and long DNA templates and is limited by the fast post-mortem cytosine deamination rates of methylated epialleles. This method, thus, appears only appropriate for the analysis of ancient methylomes from very well preserved......The recent discovery that DNA methylation survives in fossil material provides an opportunity for novel molecular approaches in palaeogenomics. Here, we apply to ancient DNA extracts the probe-independent Methylated Binding Domains (MBD)-based enrichment method, which targets DNA molecules...

  4. Robust phosphoproteome enrichment using monodisperse microsphere-based immobilized titanium (IV) ion affinity chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, H.; Ye, M.; Dong, J.; Corradini, E.; Cristobal, A.; Heck, A.J.R.; zou, H.; Mohammed, S.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has become the preferred tool for the analysis of protein phosphorylation. To be successful at such an endeavor, there is a requirement for an efficient enrichment of phosphopeptides. This is necessary because of the substoichiometric nature of phosphorylation

  5. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at…

  6. Specific Affinity Enrichment of Electrochemically Cleaved Peptides Based on Cu(II)-Mediated Spirolactone Tagging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Tao; de Vries, Marcel P.; Permentier, Hjalmar P.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Specific digestion of proteins is an essential step for mass spectrometry-based proteomics, and the chemical labeling of the resulting peptides is often used for peptide enrichment or the introduction of desirable tags. Electrochemical oxidation yielding specific cleavage C-terminal to tyrosine

  7. Enriching semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining in big data applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichselbraun, A; Gindl, S; Scharl, A

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a novel method for contextualizing and enriching large semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining with a focus on Web intelligence platforms and other high-throughput big data applications. The method is not only applicable to traditional sentiment lexicons, but also to more comprehensive, multi-dimensional affective resources such as SenticNet. It comprises the following steps: (i) identify ambiguous sentiment terms, (ii) provide context information extracted from a domain-specific training corpus, and (iii) ground this contextual information to structured background knowledge sources such as ConceptNet and WordNet. A quantitative evaluation shows a significant improvement when using an enriched version of SenticNet for polarity classification. Crowdsourced gold standard data in conjunction with a qualitative evaluation sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of the concept grounding, and on the quality of the enrichment process.

  8. Enriching semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining in big data applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichselbraun, A.; Gindl, S.; Scharl, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for contextualizing and enriching large semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining with a focus on Web intelligence platforms and other high-throughput big data applications. The method is not only applicable to traditional sentiment lexicons, but also to more comprehensive, multi-dimensional affective resources such as SenticNet. It comprises the following steps: (i) identify ambiguous sentiment terms, (ii) provide context information extracted from a domain-specific training corpus, and (iii) ground this contextual information to structured background knowledge sources such as ConceptNet and WordNet. A quantitative evaluation shows a significant improvement when using an enriched version of SenticNet for polarity classification. Crowdsourced gold standard data in conjunction with a qualitative evaluation sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of the concept grounding, and on the quality of the enrichment process. PMID:25431524

  9. A Secure Cluster-Based Multipath Routing Protocol for WMSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal N. Al-Karaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption.

  10. An XML-based communication protocol for accelerator distributed controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catani, L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the development of XMLvRPC, an RPC-like communication protocol based, for this particular application, on the TCP/IP and XML (eXtensible Markup Language) tools built-in in LabVIEW. XML is used to format commands and data passed between client and server while socket interface for communication uses either TCP or UDP transmission protocols. This implementation extends the features of these general purpose libraries and incorporates solutions that might provide, with limited modifications, full compatibility with well established and more general communication protocol, i.e. XML-RPC, while preserving portability to different platforms supported by LabVIEW. The XMLvRPC suite of software has been equipped with specific tools for its deployment in distributed control systems as, for instance, a quasi-automatic configuration and registration of the distributed components and a simple plug-and-play approach to the installation of new services. Key feature is the management of large binary arrays that allow coding of large binary data set, e.g. raw images, more efficiently with respect to the standard XML coding

  11. A secure cluster-based multipath routing protocol for WMSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalkawi, Islam T; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N

    2011-01-01

    The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images) as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature) in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption.

  12. An improved arbitrated quantum signature protocol based on the key-controlled chained CNOT encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Sun, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Ke-Jia; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a new quantum encryption based on the key-controlled chained CNOT operations, which is named KCCC encryption, is proposed. With the KCCC encryption, an improved arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) protocol is presented. Compared with the existing protocols, our protocol can effectively prevent forgery attacks and disavowal attacks. Moreover, only single state is required in the protocol. We hope it is helpful to further research in the design of AQS protocols in future.

  13. Low Cost ZigBee Protocol Based Laboratory Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Romero-Acero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost wireless communication platform, based on the ZigBee protocol. It is designed with the purpose to strengthen the use of information technology in the classroom. Guides laboratory practices are focused on developing undergraduate engineering students to the area of telecommunications. The platform structure is composed of: Labs custom designed, web tools embedded wireless communication system for data acquisition in real time, and the Human Machine Interface (HMI, which records analog data and digital. 

  14. A realistic evaluation: the case of protocol-based care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background 'Protocol based care' was envisioned by policy makers as a mechanism for delivering on the service improvement agenda in England. Realistic evaluation is an increasingly popular approach, but few published examples exist, particularly in implementation research. To fill this gap, within this paper we describe the application of a realistic evaluation approach to the study of protocol-based care, whilst sharing findings of relevance about standardising care through the use of protocols, guidelines, and pathways. Methods Situated between positivism and relativism, realistic evaluation is concerned with the identification of underlying causal mechanisms, how they work, and under what conditions. Fundamentally it focuses attention on finding out what works, for whom, how, and in what circumstances. Results In this research, we were interested in understanding the relationships between the type and nature of particular approaches to protocol-based care (mechanisms), within different clinical settings (context), and what impacts this resulted in (outcomes). An evidence review using the principles of realist synthesis resulted in a number of propositions, i.e., context, mechanism, and outcome threads (CMOs). These propositions were then 'tested' through multiple case studies, using multiple methods including non-participant observation, interviews, and document analysis through an iterative analysis process. The initial propositions (conjectured CMOs) only partially corresponded to the findings that emerged during analysis. From the iterative analysis process of scrutinising mechanisms, context, and outcomes we were able to draw out some theoretically generalisable features about what works, for whom, how, and what circumstances in relation to the use of standardised care approaches (refined CMOs). Conclusions As one of the first studies to apply realistic evaluation in implementation research, it was a good fit, particularly given the growing emphasis on

  15. An approach to enrich online medical Problem-Based Learning with tacit healthcare knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yu-N; Rashid, Faridah Abdul; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2003-01-01

    Existing Problem-Based Learning (PBL) problems, though suitable in their own right for teaching purposes, are limited in their potential to evolve by themselves and to create new knowledge. Presently, they are based on textbook examples of past cases and/or cases that have been transcribed by a clinician. In this paper, we present (a) a tacit healthcare knowledge representation formalism called Healthcare Scenarios, (b) the relevance of healthcare scenarios in PBL in healthcare and medicine, (c) a novel PBL-Scenario-based tacit knowledge explication strategy and (d) an online PBL Problem Composer and Presenter (PBL-Online) to facilitate the acquisition and utilisation of expert-quality tacit healthcare knowledge to enrich online PBL. We employ a confluence of healthcare knowledge management tools and Internet technologies to bring tacit healthcare knowledge-enriched PBL to a global and yet more accessible level.

  16. Two RFID standard-based security protocols for healthcare environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazo-Sanchez, Pablo; Bagheri, Nasour; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, Juan E

    2013-10-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems are widely used in access control, transportation, real-time inventory and asset management, automated payment systems, etc. Nevertheless, the use of this technology is almost unexplored in healthcare environments, where potential applications include patient monitoring, asset traceability and drug administration systems, to mention just a few. RFID technology can offer more intelligent systems and applications, but privacy and security issues have to be addressed before its adoption. This is even more dramatical in healthcare applications where very sensitive information is at stake and patient safety is paramount. In Wu et al. (J. Med. Syst. 37:19, 43) recently proposed a new RFID authentication protocol for healthcare environments. In this paper we show that this protocol puts location privacy of tag holders at risk, which is a matter of gravest concern and ruins the security of this proposal. To facilitate the implementation of secure RFID-based solutions in the medical sector, we suggest two new applications (authentication and secure messaging) and propose solutions that, in contrast to previous proposals in this field, are fully based on ISO Standards and NIST Security Recommendations.

  17. Cluster chain based energy efficient routing protocol for moblie WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Ziyu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the ubiquitous smart devices acting as mobile sensor nodes in the wireless sensor networks(WSNs to sense and transmit physical information,routing protocols should be designed to accommodate the mobility issues,in addition to conventional considerations on energy efficiency.However,due to frequent topology change,traditional routing schemes cannot perform well.Moreover,existence of mobile nodes poses new challenges on energy dissipation and packet loss.In this paper,a novel routing scheme called cluster chain based routing protocol(CCBRP is proposed,which employs a combination of cluster and chain structure to accomplish data collection and transmission and thereafter selects qualified cluster heads as chain leaders to transmit data to the sink.Furthermore,node mobility is handled based on periodical membership update of mobile nodes.Simulation results demonstrate that CCBRP has a good performance in terms of network lifetime and packet delivery,also strikes a better balance between successful packet reception and energy consumption.

  18. Self-testing protocols based on the chained Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šupić, I; Augusiak, R; Salavrakos, A; Acín, A

    2016-01-01

    Self-testing is a device-independent technique based on non-local correlations whose aim is to certify the effective uniqueness of the quantum state and measurements needed to produce these correlations. It is known that the maximal violation of some Bell inequalities suffices for this purpose. However, most of the existing self-testing protocols for two devices exploit the well-known Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt Bell inequality or modifications of it, and always with two measurements per party. Here, we generalize the previous results by demonstrating that one can construct self-testing protocols based on the chained Bell inequalities, defined for two devices implementing an arbitrary number of two-output measurements. On the one hand, this proves that the quantum state and measurements leading to the maximal violation of the chained Bell inequality are unique. On the other hand, in the limit of a large number of measurements, our approach allows one to self-test the entire plane of measurements spanned by the Pauli matrices X and Z. Our results also imply that the chained Bell inequalities can be used to certify two bits of perfect randomness. (paper)

  19. Kyoto Protocol, constraint or opportunity for coal based electricity producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasoiu, Constantin; Alecu, Sorin

    2006-01-01

    Coming into force of Kyoto Protocol (KP) in February 2005, as a result of its signing by Russian Federation, created the lawfulness of its provisions and mechanisms in order to reduce the average emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) at a global level down to 5.2 %. Passing this environment problem from a constrained area (regulations, directives) to an opportunity area (business) created the possibility that the achievement of KP objectives to be not an exclusive financial task of 'polluting actors', but opened the opportunity of bringing on stage all the necessary elements of a modern business environment: banks, investments from founds companies, consultants, buyers, sellers, stocks exchange. Until now, the investments and emissions transactions based by KP mechanisms at the worldwide level was focused on renewable energy area. Because for the most of countries, including Romania, the production of electricity based on fossil fuels (special coal) is one of the main option, bringing the KP mechanisms in operation in this area is difficult for at least two reasons: - the investments are huge; - the emissions reduction is not spectacular. In these circumstances, this paper gives an overview of the present GHG emission market, transaction mechanisms on this market and of the ways through which coal based electricity producers from Romania can access this market. We consider that the filtration of the information in this area from electricity producer point of view makes the content of this paper a good start for a new approach of environment management and its conversion from constraint (financial resources consumer) to opportunity ( financial resources producer). The paper contains are as follows: 1. Kyoto Protocol at a glance; 2. Emission trading mechanisms; 2.1. Transaction mechanisms under KP; 2.1.1. Joint Implementation (JI); 2.1.2 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); 2.1.3. Emissions Trading (ET); 2.2. Other transactions mechanisms; 2.2.1. European Union Emissions

  20. Impact of mobility models on clustering based routing protocols in mobile WSNs

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Atta ur Rehman; Ali, Shahzad; Mustafa, Saad; Othman, Mazliza

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents comparison of different hierarchical (position and non-position based) protocols with respect to different mobility models. Previous work mainly focuses on static networks or at most a single mobility model. Using only one mobility model may not predict the behavior of routing protocol accurately. Simulation results show that mobility has large impact on the behavior of WSN routing protocols. Also, position based routing protocols performs better in terms of packet deliver...

  1. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Recent advances in standards-based WSN protocols for industrial control applications have come a long way to solving many of the challenges facing practical WSN deployments. In this paper, we will overview two of the more promising candidates - WirelessHART from the HART Communication Foundation and ISA100.11a from the International Society of Automation - and present the architecture for a new standards-based sensor node for networking and applications research.

  2. In vivo protein quality of selected cereal-based staple foods enriched with soybean proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Acevedo-Pacheco; Sergio O. Serna-Saldívar

    2016-01-01

    Background: One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups.Objective: The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA) scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER), biological valu...

  3. Connectivity-Based Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Yong Choi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the efficient reliable multicast MAC protocol based on the connectivity information among the recipients. Enhancing the BMMM (Batch Mode Multicast MAC protocol, the reliable multicast MAC protocol significantly reduces the RAK (Request for ACK frame transmissions in a reasonable computational time and enhances the MAC performance. By the analytical performance analysis, the throughputs of the BMMM protocol and our proposed MAC protocol are derived. Numerical examples show that our proposed MAC protocol increases the reliable multicast MAC performance for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs.

  4. Development of IT-based Data Communication Protocol for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, K. I.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, J. C.

    2009-07-01

    The communication protocol, which provide overall communication rules and methods and give ways how to exchange information, is the most important part and it can affect the overall performance of communication network. Therefore, the first step of development of the communication network of an NPP is its own communication protocol design, which conforms to the requirements and characteristics of an NPP I and C. To manage the protocol development process, we establish development procedure and define detail substantive based on the procedure and we examine the adaptability of existing commercial communication protocols to the communication protocol of an NPP I and C. Existing commercial communication protocols based on Information Technology(IT) can be categorized into 3 groups: general commercial communication protocols, industrial communication protocols, military communication protocols. We analyze the design criteria and performance requirements of popular protocols in each group. And also, we examine the adaptability to the communication protocol of an NPP. Based on these results, we developed our own protocol for NPP I and C, which meet the required specifications through design overall protocol architecture and data frame format, definition of functional requirements and specifications

  5. Data acquisition and meter unit based in wifi communication protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Cázarez Ayala

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Without doubt, the competitive fast rhythm of the industries is one of the main causes helped bring to the accelerated growth of the electronic technology and the communication. The need to develop new products with a best quality, cheaper and faster as assure and increase the quality of the products in the international markets, requires of new technologies to the metering, monitoring and control of their production processes, of which finality is to improve the processes to guaranteed their products in the market in the less time possible, the best quality and low cost for the final consumer. This work is based in the design and implementation of a Wireless Data Acquisition Unit based in WiFi protocol, which is oriented to meter, monitoring and the control of processes in the industry, commercial and the home automation applications, using one of the wirelessprotocols with the biggest acceptance in the market, with the main objective of to take advantage of the installed physical infrastructure in the place of the application, like industry, company or house. The Unit is based in the RN-131G, a Roving Network company module, which is able to work in stand-alone mode with ultralow power consummation and supporting the IEEE 802.11b/g protocols, in which is possible to achieve transfer rates of up to 11 Mbps and 54 Mbps in /b & /g specifications respectively. Whit this unit is possible to meter up to 5 analogs signals with 14 bits precision and has include a temperature and relative humidity sensors. This unit can meter two digital signals and act mean two digitals outputs, and gas include an USB port for communication and programming tasks.

  6. Nutrient enrichment reduces constraints on material flows in a detritus-based food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Wyatt F; Wallace, J Bruce; Rosemond, Amy D

    2007-10-01

    Most aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are experiencing increased nutrient availability, which is affecting their structure and function. By altering community composition and productivity of consumers, enrichment can indirectly cause changes in the pathways and magnitude of material flows in food webs. These changes, in turn, have major consequences for material storage and cycling in the ecosystem. Understanding mechanisms and predicting consequences of nutrient-induced changes in material flows requires a quantitative food web approach that combines information on consumer energetics and consumer-resource stoichiometry. We examined effects of a whole-system experimental nutrient enrichment on the trophic basis of production and the magnitude and pathways of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) flows in a detritus-based stream food web. We compared the response of the treated stream to an adjacent reference stream throughout the study. Dietary composition and elemental flows varied considerably among invertebrate functional feeding groups. During nutrient enrichment, increased flows of leaf litter and amorphous detritus to shredders and gatherers accounted for most of the altered flows of C from basal resources to consumers. Nutrient enrichment had little effect on patterns of material flows but had large positive effects on the magnitude of C, N, and P flows to consumers (mean increase of 97% for all elements). Nutrient-specific food webs revealed similar flows of N and P to multiple functional groups despite an order of magnitude difference among groups in consumption of C. Secondary production was more strongly related to consumption of nutrients than C, and increased material flows were positively related to the degree of consumer-resource C:P and C:N imbalances. Nutrient enrichment resulted in an increased proportion of detrital C inputs consumed by primary consumers (from -15% to 35%) and a decreased proportion of invertebrate prey consumed by

  7. VANET Clustering Based Routing Protocol Suitable for Deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Nasr, Mohammed Mohsen; Abdelgader, Abdeldime Mohamed Salih; Wang, Zhi-Gong; Shen, Lian-Feng

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has emerged applications of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) towards security, safety, rescue, exploration, military and communication redundancy systems in non-populated areas, besides its ordinary use in urban environments as an essential part of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). This paper proposes a novel algorithm for the process of organizing a cluster structure and cluster head election (CHE) suitable for VANETs. Moreover, it presents a robust clustering-based routing protocol, which is appropriate for deserts and can achieve high communication efficiency, ensuring reliable information delivery and optimal exploitation of the equipment on each vehicle. A comprehensive simulation is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed CHE and routing algorithms. PMID:27058539

  8. A Pharmacology-Based Enrichment Program for Undergraduates Promotes Interest in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Elizabeth A.; Wormington, Stephanie V.; Perez, Tony; Barger, Michael M.; Snyder, Kate E.; Richman, Laura Smart; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong need to increase the number of undergraduate students who pursue careers in science to provide the “fuel” that will power a science and technology–driven U.S. economy. Prior research suggests that both evidence-based teaching methods and early undergraduate research experiences may help to increase retention rates in the sciences. In this study, we examined the effect of a program that included 1) a Summer enrichment 2-wk minicourse and 2) an authentic Fall research course, both of which were designed specifically to support students' science motivation. Undergraduates who participated in the pharmacology-based enrichment program significantly improved their knowledge of basic biology and chemistry concepts; reported high levels of science motivation; and were likely to major in a biological, chemical, or biomedical field. Additionally, program participants who decided to major in biology or chemistry were significantly more likely to choose a pharmacology concentration than those majoring in biology or chemistry who did not participate in the enrichment program. Thus, by supporting students' science motivation, we can increase the number of students who are interested in science and science careers. PMID:26538389

  9. Protocol-driven costs in trial-based pharmacoeconomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjour, Afschin

    2011-12-01

    Many authors and guidelines have proposed to exclude protocol-driven costs from cost-effectiveness analyses alongside clinical trials because they do not occur in clinical practice. This article, however, argues that only costs to improve patient adherence can be excluded, as the underlying protocol-driven activities have a clearly distinguishable cost and utility impact (most of the time). All other protocol-driven costs need to be included because the cost and utility impact of the underlying protocol-driven activities cannot be easily separated.

  10. FUZZY LOGIC BASED ENERGY EFFICIENT PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Wei Siew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been vastly developed due to the advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS using WSN to study and monitor the environments towards climates changes. In environmental monitoring, sensors are randomly deployed over the interest area to periodically sense the physical environments for a few months or even a year. Therefore, to prolong the network lifetime with limited battery capacity becomes a challenging issue. Low energy adaptive cluster hierarchical (LEACH is the common clustering protocol that aim to reduce the energy consumption by rotating the heavy workload cluster heads (CHs. The CHs election in LEACH is based on probability model which will lead to inefficient in energy consumption due to least desired CHs location in the network. In WSNs, the CHs location can directly influence the network energy consumption and further affect the network lifetime. In this paper, factors which will affect the network lifetime will be presented and the demonstration of fuzzy logic based CH selection conducted in base station (BS will also be carried out. To select suitable CHs that will prolong the network first node dies (FND round and consistent throughput to the BS, energy level and distance to the BS are selected as fuzzy inputs.

  11. Huntahan* vocab assessment toward enriching mother tongue-based classroom practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacho Reynald M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This two-phase action research examined the profile and knowledge level of Grade III pupils about their knowledge on the distinct local vocabularies in order to formulate enrichment or intervention, to address any deficiency or lack of, and to assess whether such enrichment programs are effective for authentic, localized implementation of the MTB-MLE. The research instruments used in the first phase included survey and vocabulary assessment test. The researchers initially employed descriptive statistics to interpret the result. Majority of the respondents have established residency in Lopez, Quezon for at least four years. All of the pupils speak Tagalog only at home. The first phase of the research revealed that the pupils of Lopez West Elementary School Bldg. 1 performed satisfactorily in the language test. Most of them found that the most difficult words are generally content words. The initial results of this study serve as baseline information implying that the pupils’ level of understanding of the Lopezeños words needs enhancement and/or reinforcements; hence, there is an urgent need to implement the 2nd cycle of this action research. The second phase once implemented seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention and/or enrichment activities that may guide language teachers in the conduct of classroom-based, culturally sensitive, contextualized language instruction.

  12. Erythrocyte enrichment in hematopoietic progenitor cell cultures based on magnetic susceptibility of the hemoglobin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Jin

    Full Text Available Using novel media formulations, it has been demonstrated that human placenta and umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells can be expanded and differentiated into erythroid cells with high efficiency. However, obtaining mature and functional erythrocytes from the immature cell cultures with high purity and in an efficient manner remains a significant challenge. A distinguishing feature of a reticulocyte and maturing erythrocyte is the increasing concentration of hemoglobin and decreasing cell volume that results in increased cell magnetophoretic mobility (MM when exposed to high magnetic fields and gradients, under anoxic conditions. Taking advantage of these initial observations, we studied a noninvasive (label-free magnetic separation and analysis process to enrich and identify cultured functional erythrocytes. In addition to the magnetic cell separation and cell motion analysis in the magnetic field, the cell cultures were characterized for cell sedimentation rate, cell volume distributions using differential interference microscopy, immunophenotyping (glycophorin A, hemoglobin concentration and shear-induced deformability (elongation index, EI, by ektacytometry to test for mature erythrocyte attributes. A commercial, packed column high-gradient magnetic separator (HGMS was used for magnetic separation. The magnetically enriched fraction comprised 80% of the maturing cells (predominantly reticulocytes that showed near 70% overlap of EI with the reference cord blood-derived RBC and over 50% overlap with the adult donor RBCs. The results demonstrate feasibility of label-free magnetic enrichment of erythrocyte fraction of CD34+ progenitor-derived cultures based on the presence of paramagnetic hemoglobin in the maturing erythrocytes.

  13. Exercise and nutrition routine improving cancer health (ENRICH): the protocol for a randomized efficacy trial of a nutrition and physical activity program for adult cancer survivors and carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Erica L; Stacey, Fiona; Chapman, Kathy; Lubans, David R; Asprey, Gabrielle; Sundquist, Kendra; Boyes, Allison; Girgis, Afaf

    2011-04-15

    The Exercise and Nutrition Routine Improving Cancer Health (ENRICH) study is investigating a novel lifestyle intervention aimed at improving the health behaviors of adult cancer survivors and their carers. The main purpose of the study is to determine the efficacy of lifestyle education and skill development delivered via group-based sessions on the physical activity and dietary behaviors of participants. This article describes the intervention development, study design, and participant recruitment. ENRICH is a randomized controlled trial, conducted in Australia, with two arms: an intervention group participating in six, two-hour face-to-face sessions held over eight weeks, and a wait-list control group. Intervention sessions are co-facilitated by an exercise physiologist and dietician. Content includes healthy eating education, and a home-based walking (utilizing a pedometer) and resistance training program (utilizing elastic tubing resistance devices). The program was developed with reference to social cognitive theory and chronic disease self-management models. The study population consists of cancer survivors (post active-treatment) and their carers recruited through community-based advertising and referral from health professionals. The primary outcome is seven-days of sealed pedometry. Secondary outcomes include: self-reported physical activity levels, dietary intake, sedentary behavior, waist circumference, body mass index, quality of life, and perceived social support. The outcomes will be measured at baseline (one week prior to attending the program), eight-weeks (at completion of intervention sessions), and 20-weeks. The intervention group will also be invited to complete 12-month follow-up data collection. Process evaluation data will be obtained from participants by questionnaire and attendance records. No trials are yet available that have evaluated the efficacy of group-based lifestyle education and skill development amongst mixed groups of cancer

  14. Quantum-key-distribution protocol with pseudorandom bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushechkin, A. S.; Tregubov, P. A.; Kiktenko, E. O.; Kurochkin, Y. V.; Fedorov, A. K.

    2018-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) offers a way for establishing information-theoretical secure communications. An important part of QKD technology is a high-quality random number generator for the quantum-state preparation and for post-processing procedures. In this work, we consider a class of prepare-and-measure QKD protocols, utilizing additional pseudorandomness in the preparation of quantum states. We study one of such protocols and analyze its security against the intercept-resend attack. We demonstrate that, for single-photon sources, the considered protocol gives better secret key rates than the BB84 and the asymmetric BB84 protocols. However, the protocol strongly requires single-photon sources.

  15. Data distribution architecture based on standard real time protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.; Vega, J.; Pereira, A.; Portas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Data distribution architecture (DDAR) has been designed conforming to new requirements, taking into account the type of data that is going to be generated from experiments in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The main goal of this architecture is to implement a system that is able to manage on line all data that is being generated by an experiment, supporting its distribution for: processing, storing, analysing or visualizing. The first objective is to have a distribution architecture that supports long pulse experiments (even hours). The described system is able to distribute, using real time protocol (RTP), stored data or live data generated while the experiment is running. It enables researchers to access data on line instead of waiting for the end of the experiment. Other important objective is scalability, so the presented architecture can easily grow based on actual necessities, simplifying estimation and design tasks. A third important objective is security. In this sense, the architecture is based on standards, so complete security mechanisms can be applied, from secure transmission solutions until elaborated access control policies, and it is full compatible with multi-organization federation systems as PAPI or Shibboleth.

  16. Management of the infertile couple: an evidence-based protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Remah M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility is defined as inability of a couple to conceive naturally after one year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. It remains a major clinical and social problem, affecting perhaps one couple in six. Evaluation usually starts after 12 months; however it may be indicated earlier. The most common causes of infertility are: male factor such as sperm abnormalities, female factor such as ovulation dysfunction and tubal pathology, combined male and female factors and unexplained infertility. Objectives The aim of this study is to provide the healthcare professionals an evidence-based management protocol for infertile couples away from medical information overload. Methods A comprehensive review where the literature was searched for "Management of infertility and/or infertile couples" at library website of University of Bristol (MetaLib by using a cross-search of different medical databases besides the relevant printed medical journals and periodicals. Guidelines and recommendations were retrieved from the best evidence reviews such as that from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (ACOG, American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM, Canadian Fertility and Andrology Society (CFAS, and Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG. Results A simple guide for the clinicians to manage the infertile couples. Conclusions The study deploys a new strategy to translate the research findings and evidence-base recommendations into a simplified focused guide to be applied on routine daily practice. It is an approach to disseminate the recommended medical care for infertile couple to the practicing clinicians.

  17. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.’s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.’s protocol and existing similar protocols. PMID:27163786

  18. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.'s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.'s protocol and existing similar protocols.

  19. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavalapati Goutham Reddy

    Full Text Available Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.'s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.'s protocol and existing similar protocols.

  20. A standard protocol for describing individual-based and agent-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Volker; Berger, Uta; Bastiansen, Finn; Eliassen, Sigrunn; Ginot, Vincent; Giske, Jarl; Goss-Custard, John; Grand, Tamara; Heinz, Simone K.; Huse, Geir; Huth, Andreas; Jepsen, Jane U.; Jorgensen, Christian; Mooij, Wolf M.; Muller, Birgit; Pe'er, Guy; Piou, Cyril; Railsback, Steven F.; Robbins, Andrew M.; Robbins, Martha M.; Rossmanith, Eva; Ruger, Nadja; Strand, Espen; Souissi, Sami; Stillman, Richard A.; Vabo, Rune; Visser, Ute; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    Simulation models that describe autonomous individual organisms (individual based models, IBM) or agents (agent-based models, ABM) have become a widely used tool, not only in ecology, but also in many other disciplines dealing with complex systems made up of autonomous entities. However, there is no standard protocol for describing such simulation models, which can make them difficult to understand and to duplicate. This paper presents a proposed standard protocol, ODD, for describing IBMs and ABMs, developed and tested by 28 modellers who cover a wide range of fields within ecology. This protocol consists of three blocks (Overview, Design concepts, and Details), which are subdivided into seven elements: Purpose, State variables and scales, Process overview and scheduling, Design concepts, Initialization, Input, and Submodels. We explain which aspects of a model should be described in each element, and we present an example to illustrate the protocol in use. In addition, 19 examples are available in an Online Appendix. We consider ODD as a first step for establishing a more detailed common format of the description of IBMs and ABMs. Once initiated, the protocol will hopefully evolve as it becomes used by a sufficiently large proportion of modellers.

  1. Retrospective Validation of a Structure-Based Virtual Screening Protocol to Identify Ligands for Estrogen Receptor Alpha and Its Application to Identify the Alpha-Mangostin Binding Pose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Setiawati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The publicly available enhanced data of ligands and decoys for estrogen receptor alpha (ERα which were recently published has made the retrospective validation of a structure-based virtual screening (SBVS protocol to identify ligands for ERα possible. In this article, we present the retrospective validation of an SBVS protocol using PLANTS molecular docking software version 1.2 (PLANTS1.2 as the backbone software. The protocol shows better enrichment factor at 1% false positives (EF1% value and the Area Under Curve (AUC value of the Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC compared to the original published protocol. Moreover, in all 1000 iterative attempts the protocol could reproduce the co-crystal pose of 4-hydroxitamoxifen in ERα binding pocket. It shows that the protocol is not only able to identify potent ligands for ERα but also able to be employed in examining binding pose of known ligand. Thence, the protocol was successfully employed to examine the binding poses of α-mangostin, an ERα ligand found in the Garcinia mangostana, L. pericarp.

  2. The Project Based Mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol. Credible Instruments or Challenges to the Integrity of the Kyoto Protocol?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi Waldegren, Linn

    2006-03-15

    The project based mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol are innovative instruments which allow projects to earn credits for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The credits can in turn be used by countries to reach their emissions targets according to the Kyoto Protocol. The Project based mechanisms are known as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Joint Implementation (JI). If the project based mechanisms are to be effective policy instruments they must ensure the integrity of the Kyoto Protocol, and their ability to promote and prove real emission reductions is critical. The environmental credibility of the project based mechanisms will also ensure their ability to promote cost effectiveness. Key concepts in this context are environmental and project additionality, and their role and value for the project based mechanisms are analyzed. Environmental additionality is established by comparing a project's emissions to a baseline. The baseline's credibility is thus vital. The concept of project additionality is somewhat controversial, but is nonetheless of equal importance. The case studies of CDM approved methodologies (AMs) and proposed projects suggest that there are credibility issues that need to be addressed if the project based mechanisms are to promote real emissions reductions.

  3. Precision Time Protocol-Based Trilateration for Planetary Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Progeny Systems Corporation has developed a high-fidelity, field-scalable, non-Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation system that offers precision localization over communications channels. The system is bidirectional, providing position information to both base and mobile units. It is the first-ever wireless use of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Precision Time Protocol (PTP) in a bidirectional trilateration navigation system. The innovation provides a precise and reliable navigation capability to support traverse-path planning systems and other mapping applications, and it establishes a core infrastructure for long-term lunar and planetary occupation. Mature technologies are integrated to provide navigation capability and to support data and voice communications on the same network. On Earth, the innovation is particularly well suited for use in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), as it offers a non-GPS precision navigation and location service for use in GPS-denied environments. Its bidirectional capability provides real-time location data to the UAV operator and to the UAV. This approach optimizes assisted GPS techniques and can be used to determine the presence of GPS degradation, spoofing, or jamming.

  4. Fingerprinting protocol for images based on additive homomorphic property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Minoru; Tanaka, Hatsukazu

    2005-12-01

    Homomorphic property of public-key cryptosystems is applied for several cryptographic protocols, such as electronic cash, voting system, bidding protocols, etc. Several fingerprinting protocols also exploit the property to achieve an asymmetric system. However, their enciphering rate is extremely low and the implementation of watermarking technique is difficult. In this paper, we propose a new fingerprinting protocol applying additive homomorphic property of Okamoto-Uchiyama encryption scheme. Exploiting the property ingenuously, the enciphering rate of our fingerprinting scheme can be close to the corresponding cryptosystem. We study the problem of implementation of watermarking technique and propose a successful method to embed an encrypted information without knowing the plain value. The security can also be protected for both a buyer and a merchant in our scheme.

  5. COSR: A Reputation-Based Secure Route Protocol in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang LaurenceT

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Now, the route protocols defined in the Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET are constructed in a common assumption which all nodes contained in such networks are trustworthy and cooperative. Once malicious or selfish nodes exist, all route paths built by these protocols must be broken immediately. According to the secure problems within MANET, this paper proposes Cooperative On-demand Secure Route (COSR, a novel secure source route protocol, against malicious and selfish behaviors. COSR measures node reputation (NR and route reputation (RR by contribution, Capability of Forwarding (CoF and recommendation upon Dynamic Source Route (DSR and uses RR to balance load to avoid hotpoint. Furthermore, COSR defines path collection algorithm by NR to enhance efficiency of protocol. At last, we verify COSR through GloMoSim. Results show that COSR is secure and stable.

  6. Uranium enrichment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.C.; Gagne, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are covered: the status of the Government's existing uranium enrichment services contracts, natural uranium requirements based on the latest contract information, uncertainty in predicting natural uranium requirements based on uranium enrichment contracts, and domestic and foreign demand assumed in enrichment planning

  7. An energy-aware routing protocol for query-based applications in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahvar, Ehsan; Ahvar, Shohreh; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Crespi, Noel

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) typically has energy consumption restriction. Designing energy-aware routing protocol can significantly reduce energy consumption in WSNs. Energy-aware routing protocols can be classified into two categories, energy savers and energy balancers. Energy saving protocols are used to minimize the overall energy consumed by a WSN, while energy balancing protocols attempt to efficiently distribute the consumption of energy throughout the network. In general terms, energy saving protocols are not necessarily good at balancing energy consumption and energy balancing protocols are not always good at reducing energy consumption. In this paper, we propose an energy-aware routing protocol (ERP) for query-based applications in WSNs, which offers a good trade-off between traditional energy balancing and energy saving objectives and supports a soft real time packet delivery. This is achieved by means of fuzzy sets and learning automata techniques along with zonal broadcasting to decrease total energy consumption.

  8. Coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX systems based on PS-request protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwoo; Park, Suwon; Rhee, Seung Hyong; Choi, Yong-Hoon; Chung, Young-uk; Hwang, Ho Young

    2011-01-01

    We introduce both the coexistence zone within the WiMAX frame structure and a PS-Request protocol for the coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX systems sharing a frequency band. Because we know that the PS-Request protocol has drawbacks, we propose a revised PS-Request protocol to improve the performance. Two PS-Request protocols are based on the time division operation (TDO) of WiFi system and WiMAX system to avoid the mutual interference, and use the vestigial power management (PwrMgt) bit within the Frame Control field of the frames transmitted by a WiFi AP. The performance of the revised PS-Request protocol is evaluated by computer simulation, and compared to those of the cases without a coexistence protocol and to the original PS-Request protocol.

  9. Authentication Test-Based the RFID Authentication Protocol with Security Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To the problem of many recently proposed RFID authentication protocol was soon find security holes, we analyzed the main reason, which is that protocol design is not rigorous, and the correctness of the protocol cannot be guaranteed. To this end, authentication test method was adopted in the process of the formal analysis and strict proof to the proposed RFID protocol in this paper. Authentication Test is a new type of analysis and design method of security protocols based on Strand space model, and it can be used for most types of the security protocols. After analysis the security, the proposed protocol can meet the RFID security demand: information confidentiality, data integrity and identity authentication.

  10. Enriched glucose and dextrin mannitol-based media modulates fibroblast behavior on bacterial cellulose membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumpf, Taisa R.; Pértile, Renata A.N. [Integrated Technologies Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Food Engineering (Brazil); Rambo, Carlos R., E-mail: rambo@intelab.ufsc.br [Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-900 (Brazil); Porto, Luismar M. [Integrated Technologies Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Food Engineering (Brazil)

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Gluconacetobacter hansenii is a suitable biopolymer for biomedical applications. In order to modulate the properties of BC and expand its use as substrate for tissue engineering mainly in the form of biomembranes, glucose or dextrin were added into a BC fermentation mannitol-based medium (BCGl and BCDe, respectively) under static culture conditions. SEM images showed effects on fiber density and porosity on both sides of the BC membranes. Both enriched media decreased the BET surface area, water holding capacity, and rehydration rate. Fourier transform infrared (attenuated total reflectance mode) spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) analysis revealed no change in the chemical structure of BC. L929 fibroblast cells were seeded on all BC-based membranes and evaluated in aspects of cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology. BCG1 membranes showed the highest biological performance and hold promise for the use in tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Glucose and dextrin were used to modify culture media for BC production. • Microarchitecture of BC was different depending on the enriching agent. • Fibroblasts adhered on the surface of BC modified microarchitectures. • Fibroblasts adhered on glucose modified BC exhibited healthy cell morphology.

  11. Cleavable porous silicon based hybrid material for pre-enrichment of trace heavy metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shaoyuan [National Engineering Laboratory for Vacuum Metallurgy, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Faculty of Metallurgical and energy engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Ma Wenhui, E-mail: mwhsilicon@163.com [National Engineering Laboratory for Vacuum Metallurgy, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China) and Faculty of Metallurgical and energy engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Zhou Yang, E-mail: zhouyangnano@163.com [National Engineering Laboratory for Vacuum Metallurgy, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China) and Faculty of Metallurgical and energy engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Wang Yanfeng [Faculty of Metallurgical and energy engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Li Wei [National Engineering Laboratory for Vacuum Metallurgy, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Faculty of Metallurgical and energy engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Chen Xiuhua [Faculty of Physical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)

    2012-05-15

    The paper reports on the preparation of the cleavable porous silicon (PSi) based hybrid material and application in pre-enrichment of trace heavy metal ions. The cleavable groups (benzimidazoledithio) were grafted on the PSi surface by a stepwise covalent process. PSi was first obtained by anodization of bulk silicon wafers and was subsequently silanized by 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPTS) to synthesize MPTS-PSi, the MPTS-PSi was further converted into pyridyldithio-terminated PSi (PDT-PSi), and finally, the PDT-PSi reacted with 2-mercaptobenzimidazole to form the benzimidazoledithio modified PSi (BDT-PSi). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the morphology of freshly prepared and modified PSi. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were performed to confirm the effectiveness of each step graft. According to the UV-vis spectra analysis, the disulfide linkage of BDT-PSi can be dissociated in presence of reduced glutathione (GSH). The pre-enrichment efficiency of BDT-PSi was investigated at the different pH for the different metal species (Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu and Co). The results show that the BDT-PSi possesses a similar preferential adsorption trend (Cd > Cu Much-Greater-Than Hg {approx} Pb {approx} Co) at different pH (from 2.0 to 6.0). At pH 5.0, the best pre-enrichment efficiency for Cd ions is observed, the concentration of Cd is increased more than ten times and the recovery is found to be 95.4%.

  12. Cleavable porous silicon based hybrid material for pre-enrichment of trace heavy metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoyuan; Ma, Wenhui; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Yanfeng; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiuhua

    2012-05-01

    The paper reports on the preparation of the cleavable porous silicon (PSi) based hybrid material and application in pre-enrichment of trace heavy metal ions. The cleavable groups (benzimidazoledithio) were grafted on the PSi surface by a stepwise covalent process. PSi was first obtained by anodization of bulk silicon wafers and was subsequently silanized by 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPTS) to synthesize MPTS-PSi, the MPTS-PSi was further converted into pyridyldithio-terminated PSi (PDT-PSi), and finally, the PDT-PSi reacted with 2-mercaptobenzimidazole to form the benzimidazoledithio modified PSi (BDT-PSi). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the morphology of freshly prepared and modified PSi. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were performed to confirm the effectiveness of each step graft. According to the UV-vis spectra analysis, the disulfide linkage of BDT-PSi can be dissociated in presence of reduced glutathione (GSH). The pre-enrichment efficiency of BDT-PSi was investigated at the different pH for the different metal species (Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu and Co). The results show that the BDT-PSi possesses a similar preferential adsorption trend (Cd > Cu ≫ Hg ˜ Pb ˜ Co) at different pH (from 2.0 to 6.0). At pH 5.0, the best pre-enrichment efficiency for Cd ions is observed, the concentration of Cd is increased more than ten times and the recovery is found to be 95.4%.

  13. An Improved RSA Based User Authentication and Session Key Agreement Protocol Usable in TMIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ruhul; Biswas, G P

    2015-08-01

    Recently, Giri et al.'s proposed a RSA cryptosystem based remote user authentication scheme for telecare medical information system and claimed that the protocol is secure against all the relevant security attacks. However, we have scrutinized the Giri et al.'s protocol and pointed out that the protocol is not secure against off-line password guessing attack, privileged insider attack and also suffers from anonymity problem. Moreover, the extension of password guessing attack leads to more security weaknesses. Therefore, this protocol needs improvement in terms of security before implementing in real-life application. To fix the mentioned security pitfalls, this paper proposes an improved scheme over Giri et al.'s scheme, which preserves user anonymity property. We have then simulated the proposed protocol using widely-accepted AVISPA tool which ensures that the protocol is SAFE under OFMC and CL-AtSe models, that means the same protocol is secure against active and passive attacks including replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. The informal cryptanalysis has been also presented, which confirmed that the proposed protocol provides well security protection on the relevant security attacks. The performance analysis section compares the proposed protocol with other existing protocols in terms of security and it has been observed that the protocol provides more security and achieves additional functionalities such as user anonymity and session key verification.

  14. Exercise and nutrition routine improving cancer health (ENRICH: The protocol for a randomized efficacy trial of a nutrition and physical activity program for adult cancer survivors and carers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyes Allison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Exercise and Nutrition Routine Improving Cancer Health (ENRICH study is investigating a novel lifestyle intervention aimed at improving the health behaviors of adult cancer survivors and their carers. The main purpose of the study is to determine the efficacy of lifestyle education and skill development delivered via group-based sessions on the physical activity and dietary behaviors of participants. This article describes the intervention development, study design, and participant recruitment. Methods/Design ENRICH is a randomized controlled trial, conducted in Australia, with two arms: an intervention group participating in six, two-hour face-to-face sessions held over eight weeks, and a wait-list control group. Intervention sessions are co-facilitated by an exercise physiologist and dietician. Content includes healthy eating education, and a home-based walking (utilizing a pedometer and resistance training program (utilizing elastic tubing resistance devices. The program was developed with reference to social cognitive theory and chronic disease self-management models. The study population consists of cancer survivors (post active-treatment and their carers recruited through community-based advertising and referral from health professionals. The primary outcome is seven-days of sealed pedometry. Secondary outcomes include: self-reported physical activity levels, dietary intake, sedentary behavior, waist circumference, body mass index, quality of life, and perceived social support. The outcomes will be measured at baseline (one week prior to attending the program, eight-weeks (at completion of intervention sessions, and 20-weeks. The intervention group will also be invited to complete 12-month follow-up data collection. Process evaluation data will be obtained from participants by questionnaire and attendance records. Discussion No trials are yet available that have evaluated the efficacy of group-based lifestyle

  15. Development of Research-Based Protocol Aligned to Predict High Levels of Teaching Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Gary; Grigsby, Bettye; Vesey, Winona

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a research-based teacher selection protocol. The protocol is intended to offer school district hiring authorities a tool to identify teacher candidates with the behaviors expected to predict effective teaching. It is hypothesized that a particular series of research-based interview questions focusing on teaching behaviors in…

  16. Gene-ontology enrichment analysis in two independent family-based samples highlights biologically plausible processes for autism spectrum disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anney, Richard J L

    2012-02-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated a range of genes from discrete biological pathways in the aetiology of autism. However, despite the strong influence of genetic factors, association studies have yet to identify statistically robust, replicated major effect genes or SNPs. We apply the principle of the SNP ratio test methodology described by O\\'Dushlaine et al to over 2100 families from the Autism Genome Project (AGP). Using a two-stage design we examine association enrichment in 5955 unique gene-ontology classifications across four groupings based on two phenotypic and two ancestral classifications. Based on estimates from simulation we identify excess of association enrichment across all analyses. We observe enrichment in association for sets of genes involved in diverse biological processes, including pyruvate metabolism, transcription factor activation, cell-signalling and cell-cycle regulation. Both genes and processes that show enrichment have previously been examined in autistic disorders and offer biologically plausibility to these findings.

  17. In vivo protein quality of selected cereal-based staple foods enriched with soybean proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Pacheco, Laura; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2016-01-01

    One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups. The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA) scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER), biological values (BV), and net protein utilization (NPU) values) of regular versus soybean-fortified maize tortillas, yeast-leavened bread, and wheat flour tortillas. To comparatively assess differences in protein quality among maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, EAA compositions and in vivo studies with weanling rats were performed. The experimental diets based on regular or soybean-fortified food products were compared with a casein-based diet. Food intake, weight gains, PER, dry matter and protein digestibility, BV, NPU, and PDCAAS were assessed. The soybean-fortified tortillas contained 6% of defatted soybean flour, whereas the yeast-leavened bread flour contained 4.5% of soybean concentrate. The soybean-fortified tortillas and bread contained higher amounts of lysine and tryptophan, which improved their EAA scores and PDCAAS. Rats fed diets based on soybean-fortified maize or wheat tortillas gained considerably more weight and had better BV and NPU values compared with counterparts fed with respective regular products. As a result, fortified maize tortillas and wheat flour tortillas improved PER from 0.73 to 1.64 and 0.69 to 1.77, respectively. The PER improvement was not as evident in rats fed the enriched yeast-leavened bread because the formulation contained sugar that decreased lysine availability possibly to Maillard reactions. The proposed enrichment of cereal-based foods with soybean proteins greatly improved PDCAAS, animal growth, nitrogen retention, and PER primarily

  18. In vivo protein quality of selected cereal-based staple foods enriched with soybean proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Pacheco, Laura; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O.

    2016-01-01

    Background One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups. Objective The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA) scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER), biological values (BV), and net protein utilization (NPU) values) of regular versus soybean-fortified maize tortillas, yeast-leavened bread, and wheat flour tortillas. Design To comparatively assess differences in protein quality among maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, EAA compositions and in vivo studies with weanling rats were performed. The experimental diets based on regular or soybean-fortified food products were compared with a casein-based diet. Food intake, weight gains, PER, dry matter and protein digestibility, BV, NPU, and PDCAAS were assessed. The soybean-fortified tortillas contained 6% of defatted soybean flour, whereas the yeast-leavened bread flour contained 4.5% of soybean concentrate. Results The soybean-fortified tortillas and bread contained higher amounts of lysine and tryptophan, which improved their EAA scores and PDCAAS. Rats fed diets based on soybean-fortified maize or wheat tortillas gained considerably more weight and had better BV and NPU values compared with counterparts fed with respective regular products. As a result, fortified maize tortillas and wheat flour tortillas improved PER from 0.73 to 1.64 and 0.69 to 1.77, respectively. The PER improvement was not as evident in rats fed the enriched yeast-leavened bread because the formulation contained sugar that decreased lysine availability possibly to Maillard reactions. Conclusions The proposed enrichment of cereal-based foods with soybean proteins greatly improved PDCAAS, animal

  19. In vivo protein quality of selected cereal-based staple foods enriched with soybean proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Acevedo-Pacheco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups. Objective: The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS, and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER, biological values (BV, and net protein utilization (NPU values of regular versus soybean-fortified maize tortillas, yeast-leavened bread, and wheat flour tortillas. Design: To comparatively assess differences in protein quality among maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, EAA compositions and in vivo studies with weanling rats were performed. The experimental diets based on regular or soybean-fortified food products were compared with a casein-based diet. Food intake, weight gains, PER, dry matter and protein digestibility, BV, NPU, and PDCAAS were assessed. The soybean-fortified tortillas contained 6% of defatted soybean flour, whereas the yeast-leavened bread flour contained 4.5% of soybean concentrate. Results: The soybean-fortified tortillas and bread contained higher amounts of lysine and tryptophan, which improved their EAA scores and PDCAAS. Rats fed diets based on soybean-fortified maize or wheat tortillas gained considerably more weight and had better BV and NPU values compared with counterparts fed with respective regular products. As a result, fortified maize tortillas and wheat flour tortillas improved PER from 0.73 to 1.64 and 0.69 to 1.77, respectively. The PER improvement was not as evident in rats fed the enriched yeast-leavened bread because the formulation contained sugar that decreased lysine availability possibly to Maillard reactions. Conclusions: The proposed enrichment of cereal-based foods with soybean proteins greatly

  20. Quorum system and random based asynchronous rendezvous protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Romaszko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a rendezvous protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks, RAC2E-gQS, which utilizes (1 the asynchronous and randomness properties of the RAC2E protocol, and (2 channel mapping protocol, based on a grid Quorum System (gQS, and taking into account channel heterogeneity and asymmetric channel views. We show that the combination of the RAC2E protocol with the grid-quorum based channel mapping can yield a powerful RAC2E-gQS rendezvous protocol for asynchronous operation in a distributed environment assuring a rapid rendezvous between the cognitive radio nodes having available both symmetric and asymmetric channel views. We also propose an enhancement of the protocol, which uses a torus QS for a slot allocation, dealing with the worst case scenario, a large number of channels with opposite ranking lists.

  1. Validation of internal dosimetry protocols based on stochastic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Bruno M.; Fonseca, Telma C.F.; Almeida, Iassudara G.; Trindade, Bruno M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Computational phantoms adapted to Monte Carlo codes have been applied successfully in radiation dosimetry fields. NRI research group has been developing Internal Dosimetry Protocols - IDPs, addressing distinct methodologies, software and computational human-simulators, to perform internal dosimetry, especially for new radiopharmaceuticals. Validation of the IDPs is critical to ensure the reliability of the simulations results. Inter comparisons of data from literature with those produced by our IDPs is a suitable method for validation. The aim of this study was to validate the IDPs following such inter comparison procedure. The Golem phantom has been reconfigured to run on MCNP5. The specific absorbed fractions (SAF) for photon at 30, 100 and 1000 keV energies were simulated based on the IDPs and compared with reference values (RV) published by Zankl and Petoussi-Henss, 1998. The SAF average differences from RV and those obtained in IDP simulations was 2.3 %. The SAF largest differences were found in situations involving low energy photons at 30 keV. The Adrenals and thyroid, i.e. the lowest mass organs, had the highest SAF discrepancies towards RV as 7.2 % and 3.8 %, respectively. The statistic differences of SAF applying our IDPs from reference values were considered acceptable at the 30, 100 and 1000 keV spectra. We believe that the main reason for the discrepancies in IDPs run, found in lower masses organs, was due to our source definition methodology. Improvements of source spatial distribution in the voxels may provide outputs more consistent with reference values for lower masses organs. (author)

  2. Validation of internal dosimetry protocols based on stochastic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Bruno M.; Fonseca, Telma C.F., E-mail: bmm@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Almeida, Iassudara G.; Trindade, Bruno M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: tprcampos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Computational phantoms adapted to Monte Carlo codes have been applied successfully in radiation dosimetry fields. NRI research group has been developing Internal Dosimetry Protocols - IDPs, addressing distinct methodologies, software and computational human-simulators, to perform internal dosimetry, especially for new radiopharmaceuticals. Validation of the IDPs is critical to ensure the reliability of the simulations results. Inter comparisons of data from literature with those produced by our IDPs is a suitable method for validation. The aim of this study was to validate the IDPs following such inter comparison procedure. The Golem phantom has been reconfigured to run on MCNP5. The specific absorbed fractions (SAF) for photon at 30, 100 and 1000 keV energies were simulated based on the IDPs and compared with reference values (RV) published by Zankl and Petoussi-Henss, 1998. The SAF average differences from RV and those obtained in IDP simulations was 2.3 %. The SAF largest differences were found in situations involving low energy photons at 30 keV. The Adrenals and thyroid, i.e. the lowest mass organs, had the highest SAF discrepancies towards RV as 7.2 % and 3.8 %, respectively. The statistic differences of SAF applying our IDPs from reference values were considered acceptable at the 30, 100 and 1000 keV spectra. We believe that the main reason for the discrepancies in IDPs run, found in lower masses organs, was due to our source definition methodology. Improvements of source spatial distribution in the voxels may provide outputs more consistent with reference values for lower masses organs. (author)

  3. Genomics-Based Security Protocols: From Plaintext to Cipherprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Harry; Hussein, Sayed; Helgert, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    The evolving nature of the internet will require continual advances in authentication and confidentiality protocols. Nature provides some clues as to how this can be accomplished in a distributed manner through molecular biology. Cryptography and molecular biology share certain aspects and operations that allow for a set of unified principles to be applied to problems in either venue. A concept for developing security protocols that can be instantiated at the genomics level is presented. A DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) inspired hash code system is presented that utilizes concepts from molecular biology. It is a keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC) capable of being used in secure mobile Ad hoc networks. It is targeted for applications without an available public key infrastructure. Mechanics of creating the HMAC are presented as well as a prototype HMAC protocol architecture. Security concepts related to the implementation differences between electronic domain security and genomics domain security are discussed.

  4. A Low Cost Key Agreement Protocol Based on Binary Tree for EPCglobal Class 1 Generation 2 RFID Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Albert; Chang, Li-Chung; Chen, Sheng-Hui

    There are many protocols proposed for protecting Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system privacy and security. A number of these protocols are designed for protecting long-term security of RFID system using symmetric key or public key cryptosystem. Others are designed for protecting user anonymity and privacy. In practice, the use of RFID technology often has a short lifespan, such as commodity check out, supply chain management and so on. Furthermore, we know that designing a long-term security architecture to protect the security and privacy of RFID tags information requires a thorough consideration from many different aspects. However, any security enhancement on RFID technology will jack up its cost which may be detrimental to its widespread deployment. Due to the severe constraints of RFID tag resources (e. g., power source, computing power, communication bandwidth) and open air communication nature of RFID usage, it is a great challenge to secure a typical RFID system. For example, computational heavy public key and symmetric key cryptography algorithms (e. g., RSA and AES) may not be suitable or over-killed to protect RFID security or privacy. These factors motivate us to research an efficient and cost effective solution for RFID security and privacy protection. In this paper, we propose a new effective generic binary tree based key agreement protocol (called BKAP) and its variations, and show how it can be applied to secure the low cost and resource constraint RFID system. This BKAP is not a general purpose key agreement protocol rather it is a special purpose protocol to protect privacy, un-traceability and anonymity in a single RFID closed system domain.

  5. A disposition strategy for highly enriched, aluminum-based fuel from research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKibben, J.M.; Gould, T.H.; McDonell, W.R.; Bickford, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    The strategy proposed in this paper offers the Department of Energy an approach for disposing of aluminum-based, highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuels from foreign and domestic research reactors. The proposal is technically, socially, and economically sound. If implemented, it would advance US non-proliferation goals while also disposing of the spent fuel's waste by timely and proven methods using existing technologies and facilities at SRS without prolonged and controversial storage of the spent fuel. The fuel would be processed through 221-H. The radioactive fission products (waste) would be treated along with existing SRS high level waste by vitrifying it as borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for disposal in the national geological repository. The HEU would be isotopically diluted, during processing, to low-enriched uranium (LEU) which can not be used to make weapons, thus eliminating proliferation concerns. The LEU can be sold to fabricators of either research reactor fuel or commercial power fuel. This proposed processing-LEU recycle approach has several important advantages over other alternatives, including: Lowest capital investment; lowest net total cost; quickest route to acceptable waste form and final geologic disposal; and likely lowest safety, health, and environmental impacts

  6. A Cognitive CSMA-based Multichannel MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Po-Yao; Chen, Kwang-Cheng; Chiou, Sheng-Lun

    2009-01-01

    Multichannel media access control (MAC) protocols have been widely considered for future mobile ad hoc networks and various wireless data networks. However, ALOHA-based protocols have been extensively studied in current researches for their simplicities both in design and analysis. To cope with co-existing multiple systems under the cognitive radio (CR) paradigm, we introduce the cognition capability and CSMA into multichannel MAC protocol, along with learning functionality of CR and a multic...

  7. Cryptanalysis of an inter-bank E-payment protocol based on quantum proxy blind signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-Qiu; Wei, Chun-Yan

    2013-04-01

    We analyze the security of an inter-bank E-payment protocol based on quantum proxy blind signature, and find that there is a security leak in the quantum channels of this protocol, which gives a chance for an outside opponent to launch a special denial-of-service attack. Furthermore, we show that the dishonest merchant can succeed to change the purchase information of the customer in this protocol.

  8. EON: a component-based approach to automation of protocol-directed therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Musen, M A; Tu, S W; Das, A K; Shahar, Y

    1996-01-01

    Provision of automated support for planning protocol-directed therapy requires a computer program to take as input clinical data stored in an electronic patient-record system and to generate as output recommendations for therapeutic interventions and laboratory testing that are defined by applicable protocols. This paper presents a synthesis of research carried out at Stanford University to model the therapy-planning task and to demonstrate a component-based architecture for building protocol...

  9. A Technology Based Program That Matches Enrichment Resources With Student Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Renzulli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Remarkable advances in instructionalcommunication technology (ICT have now made ispossible to provide high levels of enrichment and thekinds of curricular differentiation that facilitateadvanced learning services to students who have accessto a computer and the Internet. But in order tomaximize the potential if ICT it is necessary to constructprograms that are based on learning theory that goesbeyond the didactic and prescriptive models that haveresulted in too much worksheets-on-line and electronicencyclopedias. The Renzulli Learning System (RLSuses a strength-based learning theory called theEnrichment Triad Model that is purposefully designedto promote advanced level learning, creativeproductivity, and high levels of student engagement byfocusing on the application of knowledge rather than themere acquisition and storage of information.The Renzulli Learning System is acomprehensive program that begins by providing acomputer-generated profile of each student’s academicstrengths, interests, learning styles, and preferred modesof expression. A search engine then matches Internetresources to the student’s profile from fourteen carefullyscreened data bases that are categorized by subject area,grade level, state curricular standards, and degree ofcomplexity. There are also hundreds of enrichmentactivities that can be down loaded and reproduced forindividual or group learning activities. A managementsystem called the Wizard Project Maker guides studentsin the application of knowledge to teacher or studentselected assignments, independent research studies, orcreative projects that individuals or small groups wouldlike to pursue. Students and teachers can evaluate thequality of students’ products using a rubric called TheStudent Product Assessment Form. Students can rateeach site visited, conduct a self-assessment of what theyhave gained from the site, and place resources in theirown Total talent Portfolio for future use. RLS alsoincludes a

  10. BiNChE: a web tool and library for chemical enrichment analysis based on the ChEBI ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Pablo; Beisken, Stephan; Harsha, Bhavana; Muthukrishnan, Venkatesh; Tudose, Ilinca; Dekker, Adriano; Dornfeldt, Stefanie; Taruttis, Franziska; Grosse, Ivo; Hastings, Janna; Neumann, Steffen; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2015-02-21

    Ontology-based enrichment analysis aids in the interpretation and understanding of large-scale biological data. Ontologies are hierarchies of biologically relevant groupings. Using ontology annotations, which link ontology classes to biological entities, enrichment analysis methods assess whether there is a significant over or under representation of entities for ontology classes. While many tools exist that run enrichment analysis for protein sets annotated with the Gene Ontology, there are only a few that can be used for small molecules enrichment analysis. We describe BiNChE, an enrichment analysis tool for small molecules based on the ChEBI Ontology. BiNChE displays an interactive graph that can be exported as a high-resolution image or in network formats. The tool provides plain, weighted and fragment analysis based on either the ChEBI Role Ontology or the ChEBI Structural Ontology. BiNChE aids in the exploration of large sets of small molecules produced within Metabolomics or other Systems Biology research contexts. The open-source tool provides easy and highly interactive web access to enrichment analysis with the ChEBI ontology tool and is additionally available as a standalone library.

  11. An efficient multi-carrier position-based packet forwarding protocol for wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Beaconless position-based forwarding protocols have recently evolved as a promising solution for packet forwarding in wireless sensor networks. However, as the node density grows, the overhead incurred in the process of relay selection grows significantly. As such, end-to-end performance in terms of energy and latency is adversely impacted. With the motivation of developing a packet forwarding mechanism that is tolerant to variation in node density, an alternative position-based protocol is proposed in this paper. In contrast to existing beaconless protocols, the proposed protocol is designed such that it eliminates the need for potential relays to undergo a relay selection process. Rather, any eligible relay may decide to forward the packet ahead, thus significantly reducing the underlying overhead. The operation of the proposed protocol is empowered by exploiting favorable features of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) at the physical layer. The end-to-end performance of the proposed protocol is evaluated against existing beaconless position-based protocols analytically and as well by means of simulations. The proposed protocol is demonstrated in this paper to be more efficient. In particular, it is shown that for the same amount of energy the proposed protocol transports one bit from source to destination much quicker. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. A Study on the Distributed Antenna Based Heterogeneous Cognitive Wireless Network Synchronous MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Fen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces distributed antennas into a cognitive radio network and presents a heterogeneous network. The best contribution of this paper is that it designs a synchronous cognitive MAC protocol (DAHCWNS-MAC protocol: distributed antenna based heterogeneous cognitive wireless network synchronous MAC protocol. The novel protocol aims at combining the advantages of cognitive radio and distributed antennas to fully utilize the licensed spectrum, broaden the communication range, and improve throughput. This paper carries out the mathematical modeling and performance simulation to demonstrate its superiority in improving the network throughput at the cost of increasing antenna hardware costs.

  13. Taking the Politics Out of Satellite and Space-Based Communications Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2006-01-01

    After many years of studies, experimentation, and deployment, large amounts of misinformation and misconceptions remain regarding applicability of various communications protocols for use in satellite and space-based networks. This paper attempts to remove much of the politics, misconceptions, and misinformation that have plagued spacebased communications protocol development and deployment. This paper provides a common vocabulary for communications; a general discussion of the requirements for various communication environments; an evaluation of tradeoffs between circuit and packet-switching technologies, and the pros and cons of various link, network, transport, application, and security protocols. Included is the applicability of protocol enhancing proxies to NASA, Department of Defense (DOD), and commercial space communication systems.

  14. An Optimized Gateway-Oriented Password-Based Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eun-Jun; Yoo, Kee-Young

    This research paper points out that the gateway-oriented password-based authenticated key exchange protocol recently developed by Shim (S-GPAKE) was inefficiently and incorrectly designed to overcome an undetectable on-line password guessing attack. To resolve the computation efficiency and security problems, an optimized GPAKE protocol (O-GPAKE), which was not only secure against various security attacks, but also had considerably lower computational cost and provided mutual authentication unlike previous related protocols including the S-GPAKE protocol was proposed.

  15. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shameng; Meng, Qingkun; Feng, Chao; Tang, Chaojing

    2017-01-01

    Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  16. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameng Wen

    Full Text Available Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  17. Cluster based architecture and network maintenance protocol for medical priority aware cognitive radio based hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mamoon, Ishtiak; Muzahidul Islam, A K M; Baharun, Sabariah; Ahmed, Ashir; Komaki, Shozo

    2016-08-01

    Due to the rapid growth of wireless medical devices in near future, wireless healthcare services may face some inescapable issue such as medical spectrum scarcity, electromagnetic interference (EMI), bandwidth constraint, security and finally medical data communication model. To mitigate these issues, cognitive radio (CR) or opportunistic radio network enabled wireless technology is suitable for the upcoming wireless healthcare system. The up-to-date research on CR based healthcare has exposed some developments on EMI and spectrum problems. However, the investigation recommendation on system design and network model for CR enabled hospital is rare. Thus, this research designs a hierarchy based hybrid network architecture and network maintenance protocols for previously proposed CR hospital system, known as CogMed. In the previous study, the detail architecture of CogMed and its maintenance protocols were not present. The proposed architecture includes clustering concepts for cognitive base stations and non-medical devices. Two cluster head (CH selector equations are formulated based on priority of location, device, mobility rate of devices and number of accessible channels. In order to maintain the integrity of the proposed network model, node joining and node leaving protocols are also proposed. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed network maintenance time is very low for emergency medical devices (average maintenance period 9.5 ms) and the re-clustering effects for different mobility enabled non-medical devices are also balanced.

  18. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program: Green Earth Enhanced with Inquiry and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanna

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a guided inquiry integrated with technology, in terms of female middle-school students' attitudes toward science/scientists and content knowledge regarding selective science concepts (e.g., Greenhouse Effect, Air/Water Quality, Alternative Energy, and Human Health). Thirty-five female students who were entering eighth grade attended an intensive, 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program which used a main theme, "Green Earth Enhanced with Inquiry and Technology." We used pre- and post-attitude surveys, pre- and post-science content knowledge tests, and selective interviews to collect data and measure changes in students' attitudes and content knowledge. The study results indicated that at the post-intervention measures, participants significantly improved their attitudes toward science and science-related careers and increased their content knowledge of selected science concepts ( p < .05).

  19. Model-Checking Driven Design of QoS-Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable routing protocols with Quality of Service (QoS support determine the mission-critical application efficiency in WSNs. This paper proposes a model-checking design driven framework for designing the QoS-based routing protocols of WSNs, which involves the light-weight design process, the timed automata model, and the alternative QoS verification properties. The accurate feedback of continually model checking in the iterative design process effectively stimulates the parameter tuning of the protocols. We demonstrate the straightforward and modular characteristics of the proposed framework in designing a prototype QoS-based routing protocol. The prototype study shows that the model-checking design framework may complement other design methods and ensure the QoS implementation of the QoS-based routing protocol design for WSNs.

  20. An efficient three-party password-based key agreement protocol using extended chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Jian

    2015-01-01

    Three-party password-based key agreement protocols allow two users to authenticate each other via a public channel and establish a session key with the aid of a trusted server. Recently, Farash et al. [Farash M S, Attari M A 2014 “An efficient and provably secure three-party password-based authenticated key exchange protocol based on Chebyshev chaotic maps”, Nonlinear Dynamics 77(7): 399–411] proposed a three-party key agreement protocol by using the extended chaotic maps. They claimed that their protocol could achieve strong security. In the present paper, we analyze Farash et al.’s protocol and point out that this protocol is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attack and suffers communication burden. To handle the issue, we propose an efficient three-party password-based key agreement protocol using extended chaotic maps, which uses neither symmetric cryptosystems nor the server’s public key. Compared with the relevant schemes, our protocol provides better performance in terms of computation and communication. Therefore, it is suitable for practical applications. (paper)

  1. A network identity authentication protocol of bank account system based on fingerprint identification and mixed encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lijuan; Liu, Jingao

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes a network identity authentication protocol of bank account system based on fingerprint identification and mixed encryption. This protocol can provide every bank user a safe and effective way to manage his own bank account, and also can effectively prevent the hacker attacks and bank clerk crime, so that it is absolute to guarantee the legitimate rights and interests of bank users.

  2. Performance Evaluation of a Cluster-Based Service Discovery Protocol for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Raluca; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract—This paper evaluates the performance in terms of resource consumption of a service discovery protocol proposed for heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The protocol is based on a clustering structure, which facilitates the construction of a distributed directory. Nodes with higher

  3. Communication protocol in chassis detecting wireless transmission system based on WiFi

    Science.gov (United States)

    In chassis detecting wireless transmission system, the wireless network communication protocol plays a key role in the information exchange and synchronization between the host and chassis PDA. This paper presents a wireless network transmission protocol based on TCP/IP which makes the rules of info...

  4. SciMiner: web-based literature mining tool for target identification and functional enrichment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Junguk; Schuyler, Adam D; States, David J; Feldman, Eva L

    2009-03-15

    SciMiner is a web-based literature mining and functional analysis tool that identifies genes and proteins using a context specific analysis of MEDLINE abstracts and full texts. SciMiner accepts a free text query (PubMed Entrez search) or a list of PubMed identifiers as input. SciMiner uses both regular expression patterns and dictionaries of gene symbols and names compiled from multiple sources. Ambiguous acronyms are resolved by a scoring scheme based on the co-occurrence of acronyms and corresponding description terms, which incorporates optional user-defined filters. Functional enrichment analyses are used to identify highly relevant targets (genes and proteins), GO (Gene Ontology) terms, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms, pathways and protein-protein interaction networks by comparing identified targets from one search result with those from other searches or to the full HGNC [HUGO (Human Genome Organization) Gene Nomenclature Committee] gene set. The performance of gene/protein name identification was evaluated using the BioCreAtIvE (Critical Assessment of Information Extraction systems in Biology) version 2 (Year 2006) Gene Normalization Task as a gold standard. SciMiner achieved 87.1% recall, 71.3% precision and 75.8% F-measure. SciMiner's literature mining performance coupled with functional enrichment analyses provides an efficient platform for retrieval and summary of rich biological information from corpora of users' interests. http://jdrf.neurology.med.umich.edu/SciMiner/. A server version of the SciMiner is also available for download and enables users to utilize their institution's journal subscriptions. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. Security Enhanced EMV-Based Mobile Payment Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hour Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Near field communication has enabled customers to put their credit cards into a smartphone and use the phone for credit card transaction. But EMV contactless payment allows unauthorized readers to access credit cards. Besides, in offline transaction, a merchant’s reader cannot verify whether a card has been revoked. Therefore, we propose an EMV-compatible payment protocol to mitigate the transaction risk. And our modifications to the EMV standard are transparent to merchants and users. We also encrypt the communications between a card and a reader to prevent eavesdropping on sensitive data. The protocol is able to resist impersonation attacks and to avoid the security threats in EMV. In offline transactions, our scheme requires a user to apply for a temporary offline certificate in advance. With the certificate, banks no longer need to lower customer’s credits for risk control, and users can have online-equivalent credits in offline transactions.

  6. Smart Traffic Management Protocol Based on VANET architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcare Francesco Santamaria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays one of the hottest theme in wireless environments research is the application of the newest technologies to road safety problems and traffic management exploiting the (VANET architecture. In this work, a novel protocol that aims to achieve a better traffic management is proposed. The overal system is able to reduce traffic level inside the city exploiting inter-communication among vehicles and support infrastructures also known as (V2V and (V2I communications. We design a network protocol called (STMP that takes advantages of IEEE 802.11p standard. On each road several sensors system are placed and they are responsible of monitoring. Gathered data are spread in the network exploiting ad-hoc protocol messages. The increasing knowledge about environment conditions make possible to take preventive actions. Moreover, having a realtime monitoring of the lanes it is possible to reveal roads and city blocks congestions in a shorter time. An external entity to the (VANET is responsible to manage traffic and rearrange traffic along the lanes of the city avoiding huge traffic levels.

  7. Validation of IT-based Data Communication Protocol for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, K. I.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The communication network designed to transmit control and processing signals in digital Instrument and Control (I and C) systems in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), should provide a high level of safety and reliability. There are different features between the communication networks of NPPs and other commercial communication networks. Safety and reliability are the most important factors in the communication networks of an NPP rather than efficiency which are important factors of a commercial communication network design. To develop Data Communication Protocol for Nuclear Power Plant, We analyze the design criteria and performance requirements of existing commercial communication protocols based on Information Technology(IT). And also, we examine the adaptability to the communication protocol of an NPP. Based on these results, we developed our own protocol(Nuclear power plant Safety Communication Protocol : NSCP) for NPP I and C, which meet the required specifications through design overall protocol architecture and data frame format, definition of functional requirements and specifications. NSCP is the communication protocol designed for a safety-grade control network in the nuclear power plant. In this report, we had specified NSCP protocol by FDT(Formal Description Technique) and established validation procedures based on the validation methodology. It was confirmed specification error, major function's validity and reachability of NSCP by performing simulation and the validation process using Telelogic Tau tool

  8. A Comprehensive Survey on Hierarchical-Based Routing Protocols for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks: Review, Taxonomy, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Sabor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducing mobility to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs puts new challenges particularly in designing of routing protocols. Mobility can be applied to the sensor nodes and/or the sink node in the network. Many routing protocols have been developed to support the mobility of WSNs. These protocols are divided depending on the routing structure into hierarchical-based, flat-based, and location-based routing protocols. However, the hierarchical-based routing protocols outperform the other routing types in saving energy, scalability, and extending lifetime of Mobile WSNs (MWSNs. Selecting an appropriate hierarchical routing protocol for specific applications is an important and difficult task. Therefore, this paper focuses on reviewing some of the recently hierarchical-based routing protocols that are developed in the last five years for MWSNs. This survey divides the hierarchical-based routing protocols into two broad groups, namely, classical-based and optimized-based routing protocols. Also, we present a detailed classification of the reviewed protocols according to the routing approach, control manner, mobile element, mobility pattern, network architecture, clustering attributes, protocol operation, path establishment, communication paradigm, energy model, protocol objectives, and applications. Moreover, a comparison between the reviewed protocols is investigated in this survey depending on delay, network size, energy-efficiency, and scalability while mentioning the advantages and drawbacks of each protocol. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with future directions.

  9. Implementing the WebSocket Protocol Based on Formal Modelling and Automated Code Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2014-01-01

    Model-based software engineering offers several attractive benefits for the implementation of protocols, including automated code generation for different platforms from design-level models. In earlier work, we have proposed a template-based approach using Coloured Petri Net formal models...... with pragmatic annotations for automated code generation of protocol software. The contribution of this paper is an application of the approach as implemented in the PetriCode tool to obtain protocol software implementing the IETF WebSocket protocol. This demonstrates the scalability of our approach to real...... protocols. Furthermore, we perform formal verification of the CPN model prior to code generation, and test the implementation for interoperability against the Autobahn WebSocket test-suite resulting in 97% and 99% success rate for the client and server implementation, respectively. The tests show...

  10. CD34-based enrichment of genetically engineered human T cells for clinical use results in dramatically enhanced tumor targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norell, Håkan; Zhang, Yi; McCracken, James; Martins da Palma, Telma; Lesher, Aaron; Liu, Yueying; Roszkowski, Jeffrey J; Temple, Anquanette; Callender, Glenda G; Clay, Timothy; Orentas, Rimas; Guevara-Patiño, José; Nishimura, Michael I

    2010-06-01

    Objective clinical responses can be achieved in melanoma patients by infusion of T cell receptor (TCR) gene transduced T cells. Although promising, the therapy is still largely ineffective, as most patients did not benefit from treatment. That only a minority of the infused T cells were genetically modified and that these were extensively expanded ex vivo may have prevented their efficacy. We developed novel and generally applicable retroviral vectors that allow rapid and efficient selection of T cells transduced with human TCRs. These vectors encode two TCR chains and a truncated CD34 molecule (CD34t) in a single mRNA transcript. Transduced T cells were characterized and the effects of CD34-based enrichment of redirected T cells were evaluated. Both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells could be transduced and efficiently co-expressed all introduced transgenes on their surface. Importantly, more than fivefold enrichment of both the frequency of transduced cells and the specific anti-tumor reactivity of the effector population could be achieved by magnetic beads-based enrichment procedures readily available for clinical grade hematopoietic stem cell isolation. This CD34-based enrichment technology will improve the feasibility of adoptive transfer of clinically relevant effectors. In addition to their enhanced tumor recognition, the enriched redirected T cells may also show superior reactivity and persistence in vivo due to the high purity of transduced cells and the shortened ex vivo culture.

  11. Machine learning approaches to supporting the identification of photoreceptor-enriched genes based on expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson David

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal photoreceptors are highly specialised cells, which detect light and are central to mammalian vision. Many retinal diseases occur as a result of inherited dysfunction of the rod and cone photoreceptor cells. Development and maintenance of photoreceptors requires appropriate regulation of the many genes specifically or highly expressed in these cells. Over the last decades, different experimental approaches have been developed to identify photoreceptor enriched genes. Recent progress in RNA analysis technology has generated large amounts of gene expression data relevant to retinal development. This paper assesses a machine learning methodology for supporting the identification of photoreceptor enriched genes based on expression data. Results Based on the analysis of publicly-available gene expression data from the developing mouse retina generated by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE, this paper presents a predictive methodology comprising several in silico models for detecting key complex features and relationships encoded in the data, which may be useful to distinguish genes in terms of their functional roles. In order to understand temporal patterns of photoreceptor gene expression during retinal development, a two-way cluster analysis was firstly performed. By clustering SAGE libraries, a hierarchical tree reflecting relationships between developmental stages was obtained. By clustering SAGE tags, a more comprehensive expression profile for photoreceptor cells was revealed. To demonstrate the usefulness of machine learning-based models in predicting functional associations from the SAGE data, three supervised classification models were compared. The results indicated that a relatively simple instance-based model (KStar model performed significantly better than relatively more complex algorithms, e.g. neural networks. To deal with the problem of functional class imbalance occurring in the dataset, two data re

  12. BIM-based Modeling and Data Enrichment of Classical Architectural Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ivan Apollonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available EnIn this paper we presented a BIM-based approach for the documentation of Architectural Heritage. Knowledge of classical architecture is first extracted from the treatises for parametric modeling in object level. Then we established a profile library based on semantic studies to sweep out different objects. Variants grow out from the parametric models by editing or regrouping parameters based on grammars. Multiple data including material, structure and real-life state are enriched with respect to different research motivations. The BIM models are expected to ease the modeling process and provide comprehensive data shared among different platforms for further simulations.ItIn questo articolo è presentata una procedura definita nell'ambito dei sistemi BIM con l'obiettivo di documentare il Patrimonio Architettonico. I dati conoscitivi relativi all'architettura classica sono, in una prima fase, ottenuti dai trattati al fine di modellare in maniera parametrica a livello di oggetti. Successivamente è stata definita una libreria di profili, basata su principi semantici, dalla quale è possibile ottenere oggetti differenti. Dati di natura differente, relativi ad esempio ai materiali, alle strutture, allo stato di fatto, sono implementati in funzione delle differenti esigenze. I modelli BIM hanno la potenzialità di facilitare le procedure di modellazione e di fornire informazioni e dati completi che possono essere condivisi tra piattaforme differenti per ulteriori simulazioni ed analisi.

  13. SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) enrich for RNA structure signal in SHAPE sequencing-based probing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Line Dahl; Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan; Salama, Sofie R; Krogh, Anders; Vinther, Jeppe

    2015-05-01

    Selective 2' Hydroxyl Acylation analyzed by Primer Extension (SHAPE) is an accurate method for probing of RNA secondary structure. In existing SHAPE methods, the SHAPE probing signal is normalized to a no-reagent control to correct for the background caused by premature termination of the reverse transcriptase. Here, we introduce a SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) reagent, N-propanone isatoic anhydride (NPIA), which retains the ability of SHAPE reagents to accurately probe RNA structure, but also allows covalent coupling between the SHAPES reagent and a biotin molecule. We demonstrate that SHAPES-based selection of cDNA-RNA hybrids on streptavidin beads effectively removes the large majority of background signal present in SHAPE probing data and that sequencing-based SHAPES data contain the same amount of RNA structure data as regular sequencing-based SHAPE data obtained through normalization to a no-reagent control. Moreover, the selection efficiently enriches for probed RNAs, suggesting that the SHAPES strategy will be useful for applications with high-background and low-probing signal such as in vivo RNA structure probing. © 2015 Poulsen et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  14. A survey on the taxonomy of cluster-based routing protocols for homogeneous wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Soroush; Ghafghazi, Hamidreza; Chow, Chee-Onn; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided.

  15. A Survey on the Taxonomy of Cluster-Based Routing Protocols for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ishii

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided.

  16. Development of rolled joint detachment system for low enriched uranium based advanced heavy water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, S., E-mail: subrata@barc.gov.in; Madhusoodanan, K.

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Life limiting mechanism of low enriched uranium based advanced heavy water reactor. • The coolant channels need to be designed as easily replaceable for long life of the reactor. • To meet the above design feature rolled joint detachment system has been developed. • The system works on the principle of shock heating and fast cooling. • The paper describes the design basis and observations from the experimental trials. - Abstract: Advanced heavy water reactor-low enriched uranium (AHWR-LEU) is designed for high discharge burnup and large scale commercial utilization of thorium with LEU as an external feed in a once through fuel cycle. It is a 300 MWe vertical pressure tube type, thorium based reactor, cooled by boiling light water and moderated by heavy water. The reactor incorporates a number of passive safety features and is associated with a fuel cycle having reduced environmental impact and offers more proliferation resistance compared to contemporary light water reactors (LWRs). Some distinguishing features which make AHWR-LEU unique from other conventional nuclear power reactors are core heat removal by natural circulation, negative void coefficient of reactivity under all event scenarios, easily replaceable pressure tubes, long design life, passive safety features, etc. The long design life of the reactor is possible to be met only when the pressure tube which has a limited life of 15–20 full power years (FPYs) due to a life limiting mechanism called irradiation enhanced creep and growth is easily replaceable. Pressure tube is joined at its ends to SS 403 end fittings through rolled joints. A system has been designed and developed for detachment of pressure tubes from the end fitting and its associated hardware without disturbing the surrounding components or coolant channels so that the end fitting can be reused. The system works on the principle of shock heating and fast cooling of the pressure tube in the rolled joint region and

  17. Implementation of an Evidence-Based Protocol for Surgical Infection Prophylaxis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Savino, John A; Smeland, Jane; Flink, Ellen L; Ruperto, Angelo; Hines, Amanda; Sullivan, Thomas; Galvin, Kerri; Risucci, Donald A

    2005-01-01

    An evidence-based surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) protocol was implemented in multiple facilities to determine if compliance led to a decrease in New York State reportable surgical site infections (SSIs...

  18. Corrections to "Connectivity-Based Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Woo-Yong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have found the errors in the throughput formulae presented in our paper "Connectivity-based reliable multicast MAC protocol for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs". We provide the corrected formulae and numerical results.

  19. A hash based mutual RFID tag authentication protocol in telecare medicine information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Keerti; Awasthi, Amit K; Kaul, Sonam D; Mittal, R C

    2015-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology which has multidimensional applications to reduce the complexity of today life. Everywhere, like access control, transportation, real-time inventory, asset management and automated payment systems etc., RFID has its enormous use. Recently, this technology is opening its wings in healthcare environments, where potential applications include patient monitoring, object traceability and drug administration systems etc. In this paper, we propose a secure RFID-based protocol for the medical sector. This protocol is based on hash operation with synchronized secret. The protocol is safe against active and passive attacks such as forgery, traceability, replay and de-synchronization attack.

  20. STRESS TESTS FOR VIDEOSTREAMING SERVICES BASED ON RTSP PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Elías Chanchí Golondrino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Video-streaming is a technology with major implications these days in such diverse contexts as education, health and the business sector; all of this regarding the ease it provides for remote access to live or recorded media content, allowing communication regardless of geographic location. One standard protocol that enables implementation of this technology is real time streaming protocol, or RTSP. However, since most application servers and Internet services are supported on HTTP requests, very little research has been done on generating tools for carrying out stress tests on streaming servers. This paper presents a stress measuring tool called Hermes, developed in Python, which allows calculation of response times for establishing RTSP connections to streaming servers, as well as obtaining RAM memory consumption and CPU usage rate data from these servers. Hermes was deployed in a video-streaming environment where stress testing was carried out on the LIVE555 server, using calls in the background to VLC and OpenRTSP open source clients. 

  1. A Parzen window-based approach for the detection of locally enriched transcription factor binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbon, Alexis; Kumagai, Yutaro; Teraguchi, Shunsuke; Amada, Karlou Mar; Akira, Shizuo; Standley, Daron M

    2013-01-21

    Identification of cis- and trans-acting factors regulating gene expression remains an important problem in biology. Bioinformatics analyses of regulatory regions are hampered by several difficulties. One is that binding sites for regulatory proteins are often not significantly over-represented in the set of DNA sequences of interest, because of high levels of false positive predictions, and because of positional restrictions on functional binding sites with regard to the transcription start site. We have developed a novel method for the detection of regulatory motifs based on their local over-representation in sets of regulatory regions. The method makes use of a Parzen window-based approach for scoring local enrichment, and during evaluation of significance it takes into account GC content of sequences. We show that the accuracy of our method compares favourably to that of other methods, and that our method is capable of detecting not only generally over-represented regulatory motifs, but also locally over-represented motifs that are often missed by standard motif detection approaches. Using a number of examples we illustrate the validity of our approach and suggest applications, such as the analysis of weaker binding sites. Our approach can be used to suggest testable hypotheses for wet-lab experiments. It has potential for future analyses, such as the prediction of weaker binding sites. An online application of our approach, called LocaMo Finder (Local Motif Finder), is available at http://sysimm.ifrec.osaka-u.ac.jp/tfbs/locamo/.

  2. A novel protocol for antibiotic prophylaxis based on preoperative kidney function in patients undergoing open heart surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaka, Mizuho; Minakata, Kenji; Toyokuni, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Kazuhiro; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Sakata, Ryuzo; Matsubara, Kazuo

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to develop and assess the effectiveness of a protocol for antibiotic prophylaxis based on preoperative kidney function in patients undergoing open heart surgery. We established a protocol for antibiotic prophylaxis based on preoperative kidney function in patients undergoing open heart surgery. This novel protocol was assessed by comparing patients undergoing open heart surgery before (control group; n = 30) and after its implementation (protocol group; n = 31) at Kyoto University Hospital between July 2012 and January 2013. Surgical site infections (SSIs) were observed in 4 control group patients (13.3 %), whereas no SSIs were observed in the protocol group patients (P protocol group (P protocol significantly decreased the total antibiotic dose used in the perioperative period (P protocol group patients required this additional change in the antibiotic regimen (P protocol based on preoperative kidney function effectively prevents SSIs in patients undergoing open heart surgery.

  3. A Neural Networks-Based Hybrid Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojić, Nenad; Reljin, Irini; Reljin, Branimir

    2012-01-01

    The networking infrastructure of wireless mesh networks (WMNs) is decentralized and relatively simple, but they can display reliable functioning performance while having good redundancy. WMNs provide Internet access for fixed and mobile wireless devices. Both in urban and rural areas they provide users with high-bandwidth networks over a specific coverage area. The main problems affecting these networks are changes in network topology and link quality. In order to provide regular functioning, the routing protocol has the main influence in WMN implementations. In this paper we suggest a new routing protocol for WMN, based on good results of a proactive and reactive routing protocol, and for that reason it can be classified as a hybrid routing protocol. The proposed solution should avoid flooding and creating the new routing metric. We suggest the use of artificial logic—i.e., neural networks (NNs). This protocol is based on mobile agent technologies controlled by a Hopfield neural network. In addition to this, our new routing metric is based on multicriteria optimization in order to minimize delay and blocking probability (rejected packets or their retransmission). The routing protocol observes real network parameters and real network environments. As a result of artificial logic intelligence, the proposed routing protocol should maximize usage of network resources and optimize network performance. PMID:22969360

  4. A Centralized Energy Efficient Distance Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit D. Gawade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN typically consists of a large number of low cost wireless sensor nodes which collect and send various messages to a base station (BS. WSN nodes are small battery powered devices having limited energy resources. Replacement of such energy resources is not easy for thousands of nodes as they are inaccessible to users after their deployment. This generates a requirement of energy efficient routing protocol for increasing network lifetime while minimizing energy consumption. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH is a widely used classic clustering algorithm in WSNs. In this paper, we propose a Centralized Energy Efficient Distance (CEED based routing protocol to evenly distribute energy dissipation among all sensor nodes. We calculate optimum number of cluster heads based on LEACH’s energy dissipation model. We propose a distributed cluster head selection algorithm based on dissipated energy of a node and its distance to BS. Moreover, we extend our protocol by multihop routing scheme to reduce energy dissipated by nodes located far away from base station. The performance of CEED is compared with other protocols such as LEACH and LEACH with Distance Based Thresholds (LEACH-DT. Simulation results show that CEED is more energy efficient as compared to other protocols. Also it improves the network lifetime and stability period over the other protocols.

  5. A Lightweight RFID Grouping-Proof Protocol Based on Parallel Mode and DHCP Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicai Shi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A Radio Frequency Identification (RFID grouping-proof protocol is to generate an evidence of the simultaneous existence of a group of tags and it has been applied to many different fields. For current grouping-proof protocols, there still exist some flaws such as low grouping-proof efficiency, being vulnerable to trace attack and information leakage. To improve the secure performance and efficiency, we propose a lightweight RFID grouping-proof protocol based on parallel mode and DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol mechanism. Our protocol involves multiple readers and multiple tag groups. During the grouping-proof period, one reader and one tag group are chosen by the verifier by means of DHCP mechanism. When only a part of the tags of the chosen group exist, the protocol can also give the evidence of their co-existence. Our protocol utilizes parallel communication mode between reader and tags so as to ensure its grouping-proof efficiency. It only uses Hash function to complete the mutual authentication among verifier, readers and tags. It can preserve the privacy of the RFID system and resist the attacks such as eavesdropping, replay, trace and impersonation. Therefore the protocol is secure, flexible and efficient. It only uses some lightweight operations such as Hash function and a pseudorandom number generator. Therefore it is very suitable to some low-cost RFID systems.

  6. Feasibility study of an alkaline-based chemical treatment for the purification of polyhydroxybutyrate produced by a mixed enriched culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Y.; Mikova, G.; Kleerebezem, R.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Cuellar Soares, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the feasibility of purifying polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from mixed culture biomass by alkaline-based chemical treatment. The PHB-containing biomass was enriched on acetate under non-sterile conditions. Alkaline treatment (0.2 M NaOH) together with surfactant SDS

  7. The Effects of the Marriage Enrichment Program Based on the Cognitive-Behavioral Approach on the Marital Adjustment of Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Melek; Ersanli, Ercumend

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the marriage enrichment program based on the cognitive-behavioral approach on levels of marital adjustment of individuals. The experimental and control group of this research was totally composed of 30 individuals. A pre-test post-test research model with control group was used in this…

  8. Formal Analysis of SET and NSL Protocols Using the Interpretation Functions-Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Houmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most applications in the Internet such as e-banking and e-commerce use the SET and the NSL protocols to protect the communication channel between the client and the server. Then, it is crucial to ensure that these protocols respect some security properties such as confidentiality, authentication, and integrity. In this paper, we analyze the SET and the NSL protocols with respect to the confidentiality (secrecy property. To perform this analysis, we use the interpretation functions-based method. The main idea behind the interpretation functions-based technique is to give sufficient conditions that allow to guarantee that a cryptographic protocol respects the secrecy property. The flexibility of the proposed conditions allows the verification of daily-life protocols such as SET and NSL. Also, this method could be used under different assumptions such as a variety of intruder abilities including algebraic properties of cryptographic primitives. The NSL protocol, for instance, is analyzed with and without the homomorphism property. We show also, using the SET protocol, the usefulness of this approach to correct weaknesses and problems discovered during the analysis.

  9. Combining auctions and performance-based payments in a forest enrichment field trial in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalumba, Mercelyne; Wünscher, Tobias; Wunder, Sven; Büdenbender, Mirjam; Holm-Müller, Karin

    2014-06-01

    Cost-effectiveness is an important aspect in the assessment of payments for environmental services (PES) initiatives. In participatory field trials with communities in Western Kenya, we combined procurement auctions for forest enrichment contracts with performance-based payments and compared the outcomes with a baseline scenario currently used by the Kenyan Forest Service. Procurement auctions were the most cost-effective. The competitive nature of the auction reduced contracting expenses (provision costs), and the result-oriented payments provided additional incentives to care for the planted seedlings, resulting in their improved survival rates (service quantity). These gains clearly exceeded increases in transaction costs associated with conducting an auction. The number of income-poor auction participants and winners was disproportionately high and local institutional buy-in was remarkably strong. Our participatory approach may, however, require adaptations when conducted at a larger scale. Although the number of contracts we monitored was limited and prohibited the use of statistical tests, our study is one of the first to reveal the benefits of using auctions for PES in developing countries. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Knowledge-Based Multiple Access Protocol in Broadband Wireless ATM Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Dittmann, Lars

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a knowledge-based multiple access protocol for the extension of wireline ATM to wireless networks. The objective is to enable effecient transmission of all kinds of ATM traffic in the wireless channel with guaranteed QoS.The proposed protocol utilixes knowledge of the main...... characteristics of the traffic for allocating bandwidth effeciently to CBR, VBR and ABR/UBR connections by a compromise of assignment, contetion, reservation and polling access techniques. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol can achieve a very high channel utilization of 90 % while providing...

  11. An E-payment Protocol Based on Quantum Multi-proxy Blind Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ai-Xia; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Xie, Shu-Cui

    2017-04-01

    Based on quantum multi-proxy blind signature, a new E-payment protocol is proposed in this paper. Adopting the techniques of quantum key distribution, one-time pad and quantum proxy blind signature, our E-payment protocol could protect user's anonymity as the traditional E-payment systems do, and also have unconditional security which the classical E-payment systems cannot provide. Additionally, the quantum operation can be transmitted successfully with the probability 1, which can make the protocol reliable and practical.

  12. An Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Query-Based Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ahvar

    2014-01-01

    attempt to efficiently distribute the consumption of energy throughout the network. In general terms, energy saving protocols are not necessarily good at balancing energy consumption and energy balancing protocols are not always good at reducing energy consumption. In this paper, we propose an energy-aware routing protocol (ERP for query-based applications in WSNs, which offers a good trade-off between traditional energy balancing and energy saving objectives and supports a soft real time packet delivery. This is achieved by means of fuzzy sets and learning automata techniques along with zonal broadcasting to decrease total energy consumption.

  13. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  14. On the security of a novel key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Tao; Wong, K.-W.; Liao Xiaofeng

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Xiao et al. proposed a novel key agreement protocol based on Chebyshev chaotic map. In this paper, the security of the protocol is analyzed, and two attack methods can be found in different scenarios. The essential principle of Xiao et al.'s scheme is summarized. It is also pointed out with proof that any attempt along this line to improve the security of Chebyshev map is redundant.

  15. Automatic Traffic-Based Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Model Generation for ns-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    more protocols (especially at different layers of the OSI model ), implementing an inference engine to extract inter- and intrapacket dependencies, and...ARL-TR-7543 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Automatic Traffic-Based Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Model ...ICMP) Model Generation for ns-3 by Jaime C Acosta and Felipe Jovel Survivability/Lethality Analysis Directorate, ARL Felipe Sotelo and Caesar

  16. Enchytraeus albidus microarray: enrichment, design, annotation and database (EnchyBASE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Sara C; Arrais, Joel; Lopes, Pedro; Vandenbrouck, Tine; De Coen, Wim; Roelofs, Dick; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Amorim, Mónica J B

    2012-01-01

    Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) is an ecologically relevant species used as standard test organisms for risk assessment. Effects of stressors in this species are commonly determined at the population level using reproduction and survival as endpoints. The assessment of transcriptomic responses can be very useful e.g. to understand underlying mechanisms of toxicity with gene expression fingerprinting. In the present paper the following is being addressed: 1) development of suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries enriched for differentially expressed genes after metal and pesticide exposures; 2) sequencing and characterization of all generated cDNA inserts; 3) development of a publicly available genomic database on E. albidus. A total of 2100 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) were isolated, sequenced and assembled into 1124 clusters (947 singletons and 177 contigs). From these sequences, 41% matched known proteins in GenBank (BLASTX, e-value ≤ 10(-5)) and 37% had at least one Gene Ontology (GO) term assigned. In total, 5.5% of the sequences were assigned to a metabolic pathway, based on KEGG. With this new sequencing information, an Agilent custom oligonucleotide microarray was designed, representing a potential tool for transcriptomic studies. EnchyBASE (http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/enchybase/) was developed as a web freely available database containing genomic information on E. albidus and will be further extended in the near future for other enchytraeid species. The database so far includes all ESTs generated for E. albidus from three cDNA libraries. This information can be downloaded and applied in functional genomics and transcription studies.

  17. Enchytraeus albidus microarray: enrichment, design, annotation and database (EnchyBASE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C Novais

    Full Text Available Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta is an ecologically relevant species used as standard test organisms for risk assessment. Effects of stressors in this species are commonly determined at the population level using reproduction and survival as endpoints. The assessment of transcriptomic responses can be very useful e.g. to understand underlying mechanisms of toxicity with gene expression fingerprinting. In the present paper the following is being addressed: 1 development of suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH libraries enriched for differentially expressed genes after metal and pesticide exposures; 2 sequencing and characterization of all generated cDNA inserts; 3 development of a publicly available genomic database on E. albidus. A total of 2100 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs were isolated, sequenced and assembled into 1124 clusters (947 singletons and 177 contigs. From these sequences, 41% matched known proteins in GenBank (BLASTX, e-value ≤ 10(-5 and 37% had at least one Gene Ontology (GO term assigned. In total, 5.5% of the sequences were assigned to a metabolic pathway, based on KEGG. With this new sequencing information, an Agilent custom oligonucleotide microarray was designed, representing a potential tool for transcriptomic studies. EnchyBASE (http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/enchybase/ was developed as a web freely available database containing genomic information on E. albidus and will be further extended in the near future for other enchytraeid species. The database so far includes all ESTs generated for E. albidus from three cDNA libraries. This information can be downloaded and applied in functional genomics and transcription studies.

  18. Intelligent QoS routing algorithm based on improved AODV protocol for Ad Hoc networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huibin, Liu; Jun, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks were playing an increasingly important part in disaster reliefs, military battlefields and scientific explorations. However, networks routing difficulties are more and more outstanding due to inherent structures. This paper proposed an improved cuckoo searching-based Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing protocol (CSAODV). It elaborately designs the calculation methods of optimal routing algorithm used by protocol and transmission mechanism of communication-package. In calculation of optimal routing algorithm by CS Algorithm, by increasing QoS constraint, the found optimal routing algorithm can conform to the requirements of specified bandwidth and time delay, and a certain balance can be obtained among computation spending, bandwidth and time delay. Take advantage of NS2 simulation software to take performance test on protocol in three circumstances and validate the feasibility and validity of CSAODV protocol. In results, CSAODV routing protocol is more adapt to the change of network topological structure than AODV protocol, which improves package delivery fraction of protocol effectively, reduce the transmission time delay of network, reduce the extra burden to network brought by controlling information, and improve the routing efficiency of network. (paper)

  19. Protein expression and isotopic enrichment based on induction of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refaeli, Bosmat [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Tel Aviv (Israel); Goldbourt, Amir, E-mail: amirgo@post.tau.ac.il [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Entner-Doudoroff pathway is induced during protein expression in E. coli. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1-{sup 13}C-gluconate and {sup 15}NH{sub 4}Cl provide a carbonyl-amide protein backbone labeling scheme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enrichment pattern is determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. -- Abstract: The Entner-Doudoroff pathway is known to exist in many organisms including bacteria, archea and eukarya. Although the common route for carbon catabolism in Escherichia coli is the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, it was shown that gluconate catabolism in E. coli occurs via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. We demonstrate here that by supplying BL21(DE3) competent E.coli cells with gluconate in a minimal growth medium, protein expression can be induced. Nuclear magnetic resonance data of over-expressed ubiquitin show that by using [1-{sup 13}C]-gluconate as the only carbon source, and {sup 15}N-enriched ammonium chloride, sparse isotopic enrichment in the form of a spin-pair carbonyl-amide backbone enrichment is obtained. The specific amino acid labeling pattern is analyzed and is shown to be compatible with Entner-Doudoroff metabolism. Isotopic enrichment serves as a key factor in the biophysical characterization of proteins by various methods including nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy and more. Therefore, the method presented here can be applied to study proteins by obtaining sparse enrichment schemes that are not based on the regular glycolytic pathway, or to study the Entner-Doudoroff metabolism during protein expression.

  20. A unit-based protocol to enhance Jordanian nurses' autonomous decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrayyan, Majd T

    2006-07-01

    To develop a unit-based protocol to enhance Jordanian nurses' autonomous decision making. Many escalating changes are influencing health care organizations, which require the enhancement of nurses' autonomy to manage these frequent changes. Autonomy is addressed in the context of accountability, authority and responsibility. Nurses' involvement in patient care and unit operation decisions is a part of their autonomy. Autonomy will influence nurses' job satisfaction and retention, patients' satisfaction and the quality of nursing care. This protocol was developed based on a personal experience, nurses and senior nursing students' feedback, a review of the literature, and consultation with a group of 26 nurses in a teaching hospital. The nurses were asked on the comprehensiveness and applicability of the protocol to health care settings. Nurses' suggestions regarding the protocol were taken into consideration during the development and revision stages. A unit-based protocol was developed to enhance nurses' autonomous decision making through activities that support the process of autonomy and work environment. This protocol will have positive short, intermediate and long-term outcomes for patients, nurses and organizations.

  1. CD34-Based Enrichment of Genetically-Engineered Human T Cells for Clinical Use Results in Dramatically Enhanced Tumor Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norell, Håkan; Zhang, Yi; McCracken, James; da Palma, Telma Martins; Lesher, Aaron; Liu, Yueying; Roszkowski, Jeffrey J.; Temple, Anquanette; Callender, Glenda G.; Clay, Timothy; Orentas, Rimas; Guevara-Patiño, José; Nishimura, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective clinical responses can be achieved in melanoma patients by infusion of T cell receptor (TCR) gene transduced T cells (1, 2). Although encouraging, the therapy is still largely ineffective as most patients were unable to benefit from treatment. That only a minority of the infused T cells were genetically modified and that these were extensively expanded ex vivo may have prevented their efficacy (3). Here, we developed a novel selection technology that allows rapid and efficient enrichment of genetically engineered cells for clinical use. Both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells transduced with retrovirus encoding two TCR chains and a truncated CD34 (CD34t) molecule efficiently co-expressed all the transgenes on the cell surface. Importantly, over 5-fold enrichment of both the frequency of transduced cells and the specific anti-tumor reactivity of the effector population could be achieved by the magnetic beads-based enrichment procedures readily available for hematopoietic stem cell isolation. This CD34t-based technology will improve the feasibility of adoptive transfer of clinically relevant effectors. The effectiveness of the enriched redirected T cells may further be superior due both to their higher reactivity and the reduced ex vivo culture period necessary, resulting in less exhausted cells better capable of persisting in vivo. PMID:20052466

  2. Vehicle density based forwarding protocol for safety message broadcast in VANET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiawei; Huang, Yi; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), the medium access control (MAC) protocol is of great importance to provide time-critical safety applications. Contemporary multihop broadcast protocols in VANETs usually choose the farthest node in broadcast range as the forwarder to reduce the number of forwarding hops. However, in this paper, we demonstrate that the farthest forwarder may experience large contention delay in case of high vehicle density. We propose an IEEE 802.11-based multihop broadcast protocol VDF to address the issue of emergency message dissemination. To achieve the tradeoff between contention delay and forwarding hops, VDF adaptably chooses the forwarder according to the vehicle density. Simulation results show that, due to its ability to decrease the transmission collisions, the proposed protocol can provide significantly lower broadcast delay.

  3. Selection Based on FOXA2 Expression Is Not Sufficient to Enrich for Dopamine Neurons From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Julio Cesar; Blak, Alexandra; van Arensbergen, Joris; Sousa, Amaia; Vázquez, Nerea; Aduriz, Ariane; Gayosso, Mayela; Lopez Mato, Maria Paz; Lopez de Maturana, Rakel; Hedlund, Eva; Sonntag, Kai-Christian

    2014-01-01

    Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are potential cell sources for regenerative approaches in Parkinson disease. Inductive differentiation protocols can generate midbrain dopamine neurons but result in heterogeneous cell mixtures. Therefore, selection strategies are necessary to obtain uniform dopamine cell populations. Here, we developed a selection approach using lentivirus vectors to express green fluorescent protein under the promoter region of FOXA2, a transcription factor that is expressed in the floor plate domain that gives rise to dopamine neurons during embryogenesis. We first validated the specificity of the vectors in human cell lines against a promoterless construct. We then selected FOXA2-positive neural progenitors from several human pluripotent stem cell lines, which demonstrated a gene expression profile typical for the ventral domain of the midbrain and floor plate, but failed to enrich for dopamine neurons. To investigate whether this was due to the selection approach, we overexpressed FOXA2 in neural progenitors derived from human pluripotent stem cell lines. FOXA2 forced expression resulted in an increased expression of floor plate but not mature neuronal markers. Furthermore, selection of the FOXA2 overexpressing fraction also failed to enrich for dopamine neurons. Collectively, our results suggest that FOXA2 is not sufficient to induce a dopaminergic fate in this system. On the other hand, our study demonstrates that a combined approach of promoter activation and lentivirus vector technology can be used as a versatile tool for the selection of a defined cell population from a variety of human pluripotent stem cell lines. PMID:25024431

  4. Researches on the Security of Cluster-based Communication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with the in-depth application of sensor networks, the security issues have gradually become the bottleneck of wireless sensor applications. To provide a solution for security scheme is a common concern not only of researchers but also of providers, integrators and users of wireless sensor networks. Based on this demand, this paper focuses on the research of strengthening the security of cluster-based wireless sensor networks. Based on the systematic analysis of the clustering protocol and its security enhancement scheme, the paper introduces the broadcast authentication scheme, and proposes an SA-LEACH network security enhancement protocol. The performance analysis and simulation experiments prove that the protocol consumes less energy with the same security requirements, and when the base station is comparatively far from the network deployment area, it is more advantageous in terms of energy consumption and t more suitable for wireless sensor networks.

  5. A Decentralized Fuzzy C-Means-Based Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Moh’d Alia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network’s lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols.

  6. A decentralized fuzzy C-means-based energy-efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia, Osama Moh'd

    2014-01-01

    Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network's lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols.

  7. Implementing an ultrasound-based protocol for diagnosingappendicitis while maintaining diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Atta, Angela J. [University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Baskin, Henry J.; Maves, Connie K.; Dansie, David M. [Primary Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Rollins, Michael D. [University of Utah School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bolte, Robert G. [University of Utah School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mundorff, Michael B.; Andrews, Seth P. [Primary Children' s Hospital, Systems Improvement, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The use of ultrasound to diagnose appendicitis in children is well-documented but not universally employed outside of pediatric academic centers, especially in the United States. Various obstacles make it difficult for institutions and radiologists to abandon a successful and accurate CT-based imaging protocol in favor of a US-based protocol. To describe how we overcame barriers to implementing a US-based appendicitis protocol among a large group of nonacademic private-practice pediatric radiologists while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and decreasing medical costs. A multidisciplinary team of physicians (pediatric surgery, pediatric emergency medicine and pediatric radiology) approved an imaging protocol using US as the primary modality to evaluate suspected appendicitis with CT for equivocal cases. The protocol addressed potential bias against US and accommodated for institutional limitations of radiologist and sonographer experience and availability. Radiologists coded US reports according to the probability of appendicitis. Radiology reports were compared with clinical outcomes to assess diagnostic accuracy. During the study period, physicians from each group were apprised of the interim US protocol accuracy results. Problematic cases were discussed openly. A total of 512 children were enrolled and underwent US for evaluation of appendicitis over a 30-month period. Diagnostic accuracy was comparable to published results for combined US/CT protocols. Comparing the first 12 months to the last 12 months of the study period, the proportion of children achieving an unequivocal US result increased from 30% (51/169) to 53% (149/282) and the proportion of children undergoing surgery based solely on US findings increased from 55% (23/42) to 84% (92/109). Overall, 63% (325/512) of patients in the protocol did not require a CT. Total patient costs were reduced by $30,182 annually. We overcame several barriers to implementing a US protocol. During the study period our

  8. Implementing an ultrasound-based protocol for diagnosingappendicitis while maintaining diagnostic accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Atta, Angela J.; Baskin, Henry J.; Maves, Connie K.; Dansie, David M.; Rollins, Michael D.; Bolte, Robert G.; Mundorff, Michael B.; Andrews, Seth P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of ultrasound to diagnose appendicitis in children is well-documented but not universally employed outside of pediatric academic centers, especially in the United States. Various obstacles make it difficult for institutions and radiologists to abandon a successful and accurate CT-based imaging protocol in favor of a US-based protocol. To describe how we overcame barriers to implementing a US-based appendicitis protocol among a large group of nonacademic private-practice pediatric radiologists while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and decreasing medical costs. A multidisciplinary team of physicians (pediatric surgery, pediatric emergency medicine and pediatric radiology) approved an imaging protocol using US as the primary modality to evaluate suspected appendicitis with CT for equivocal cases. The protocol addressed potential bias against US and accommodated for institutional limitations of radiologist and sonographer experience and availability. Radiologists coded US reports according to the probability of appendicitis. Radiology reports were compared with clinical outcomes to assess diagnostic accuracy. During the study period, physicians from each group were apprised of the interim US protocol accuracy results. Problematic cases were discussed openly. A total of 512 children were enrolled and underwent US for evaluation of appendicitis over a 30-month period. Diagnostic accuracy was comparable to published results for combined US/CT protocols. Comparing the first 12 months to the last 12 months of the study period, the proportion of children achieving an unequivocal US result increased from 30% (51/169) to 53% (149/282) and the proportion of children undergoing surgery based solely on US findings increased from 55% (23/42) to 84% (92/109). Overall, 63% (325/512) of patients in the protocol did not require a CT. Total patient costs were reduced by $30,182 annually. We overcame several barriers to implementing a US protocol. During the study period our

  9. Motor-based intervention protocols in treatment of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Edwin; Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Stoeckel, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews current trends in treatment for childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), with a particular emphasis on motor-based intervention protocols. The paper first briefly discusses how CAS fits into the typology of speech sound disorders, followed by a discussion of the potential relevance of principles derived from the motor learning literature for CAS treatment. Next, different motor-based treatment protocols are reviewed, along with their evidence base. The paper concludes with a summary and discussion of future research needs. PMID:25313348

  10. Development of a community based management protocol for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on a project that employed a systematic approach to involve and mobilise rural communities in water quality control programmes. The aim of the project is to develop methodologies that could be employed in rural areas to control the generation of diffuse pollution. The investigation is based on a pilot ...

  11. Comparison of nutritional qualities and antioxidant properties of ready-to-eat fruit-enriched corn based breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavya, S N; Prakash, J

    2012-12-01

    The study aimed to analyse the nutritional quality, antioxidant components and activity of three varieties of corn based ready-to- eat (RTE) breakfast cereals (BFC) enriched with strawberry, banana and mango. Fruit-enriched corn based breakfast cereals manufactured in India were purchased and ground to obtain homogeneous samples for analysis. The contents of moisture, protein, total fat, dietary fibre, iron, phosphorous, calcium, vitamin C, total carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, in vitro digestible protein, bioaccessible calcium and iron, and digestible starch fractions were determined. The antioxidant components namely, polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity in different extracts were also determined using total antioxidant, free radical scavenging (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and reducing power assays. The protein and dietary fibre contents in all samples ranged between 4.0-4.6 and 6.4-7.6 g/ 100g respectively. Total iron and vitamin C ranged between 10.7-13.3 mg and 33.2-43.6 mg/100g respectively. Cereals with mango had high total carotene in comparison with other samples. In vitro digestible protein of the processed cereals was low, while bioaccessible calcium (50.2-59.5%) and iron (8.5-15.1%) levels were high due to low oxalates and phytic acid contents. The starch profiles of the breakfast cereals showed high rapidly available glucose and starch digestibility index. Fruit-enriched breakfast cereals showed high polyphenol content in methanol extract (48.6-71.3 mg/100g) and high total antioxidant activity in aqueous extracts. Free radical scavenging and reducing power assay showed high activity in 80% methanol extract. Fruit-enriched breakfast cereals have the potential to be a good source of iron, dietary fibre, vitamin C and total carotene. The fruit-enriched cereals also had high bioaccessible iron and antioxidant activity.

  12. A combined enrichment/polymerase chain reaction based method for the routine screening of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Munari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is the most common cause of life-threatening infection in neonates. Guidelines from CDC recommend universal screening of pregnant women for rectovaginal GBS colonization. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a combined enrichment/PCR based method targeting the atr gene in relation to culture using enrichment with selective broth medium (standard method to identify the presence of GBS in pregnant women. Rectovaginal GBS samples from women at ≥36 weeks of pregnancy were obtained with a swab and analyzed by the two methods. A total of 89 samples were evaluated. The prevalence of positive results for GBS detection was considerable higher when assessed by the combined enrichment/PCR method than with the standard method (35.9% versus 22.5%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the use of selective enrichment broth followed by PCR targeting the atr gene is a highly sensitive, specific and accurate test for GBS screening in pregnant women, allowing the detection of the bacteria even in lightly colonized patients. This PCR methodology may provide a useful diagnostic tool for GBS detection and contributes for a more accurate and effective intrapartum antibiotic and lower newborn mortality and morbidity.

  13. What does it cost to deliver information using position-based beaconless forwarding protocols?

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2012-04-01

    Beaconless position-based forwarding protocols have recently evolved as a promising solution for packet forwarding in wireless sensor networks. Quite a few variants of this class of forwarding protocols have been proposed over the years. One common observation is that they have all been evaluated from the perspective of a single node. Although useful, but a solid understanding of the end-to-end performance is still necessary. In this paper, we shed light on the end-to-end performance of beaconless position-based protocols along three distinct dimensions: energy, latency, and back-off probability. The latter is used as a direct indicator of the network\\'s transport capacity. Consequently, we are able to provide an elaborate response to the question: what does it really cost to deliver a packet in a wireless sensor network using position-based beaconless forwarding protocols? In responding to this question, we highlighted the different performance tradeoffs inherent to beaconless position-based protocols. Furthermore, some operational recommendations are also provided. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. A design pattern for event-based processing of security-enriched SOAP messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko; Lo Iacono, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    For Web Services in Cloud Computing contexts, the efficient processing of XML documents is a major topic of interest. Especially for WS-Security-enriched messages, processing performance nowadays tends to become a major issue. Streaming XML processing approaches lead to valuable optimization due...

  15. twzPEA: A Topology and Working Zone Based Pathway Enrichment Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensitive detection of involvement and adaptation of key signaling, regulatory, and metabolic pathways holds the key to deciphering molecular mechanisms such as those in the biomass-to-biofuel conversion process in yeast. Typical gene set enrichment analyses often do not use topology information in...

  16. Nutrient enrichment reduces constraints on material flows in a detritus-based food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt F. Cross; Bruce Wallace; Amy D. Rosemond

    2007-01-01

    Most aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are experiencing increased nutrient availability, which is affecting their structure and function. By altering community composition and productivity of consumers, enrichment can indirectly cause changes in the pathways and magnitude of material flows in food webs. These changes, in turn, have major consequences for material...

  17. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for adults after Heart valve surgery (protocol)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærum Sibilitz, Kristine; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Tang, Lars Hermann

    2013-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the benefits and harms of exercise-based intervention programmes (exercise-based interventions alone or in combination with psycho-educational components), compared to no intervention, or treatment...

  18. Phage receptor binding protein-based magnetic enrichment method as an aid for real time PCR detection of foodborne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poshtiban, Somayyeh; Javed, Muhammad Afzal; Arutyunov, Denis; Singh, Amit; Banting, Graham; Szymanski, Christine M; Evoy, Stephane

    2013-10-07

    We present a novel phage receptor binding protein-based magnetic separation and pre-enrichment method as an alternative to the immunomagnetic separation methods by replacing antibodies with bacteriophage receptor binding proteins (RBPs). We couple the proposed RBP-based magnetic separation with real time PCR for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of Campylobacter jejuni cells in artificially contaminated skim milk, milk with 2% fat and chicken broth. Recovery rates, assessed by real time PCR, were greater than 80% for the samples spiked with as low as 100 cfu mL(-1) of C. jejuni cells. The specificity of capture was confirmed using Salmonella Typhimurium as a negative control where no bacteria were captured on the RBP-derivatized magnetic beads. The combination of RBP-based magnetic separation and real time PCR improved PCR sensitivity and allowed the detection of C. jejuni cells in milk and chicken broth samples without a time consuming pre-enrichment step through culturing. The total sample preparation and analysis time in the proposed RBP-based enrichment method coupled with real time PCR was less than 3 h.

  19. A Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Ali Idarous; Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Due to the lack of dependency for routing initiation and an inadequate allocated sextant on responding messages, the secure geographic routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have attracted considerable attention. However, the existing protocols are more likely to drop packets when legitimate nodes fail to respond to the routing initiation messages while attackers in the allocated sextant manage to respond. Furthermore, these protocols are designed with inefficient collection window and inadequate verification criteria which may lead to a high number of attacker selections. To prevent the failure to find an appropriate relay node and undesirable packet retransmission, this paper presents Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) to increase the probability of selecting the appropriate relay node. By extending the allocated sextant and applying different message contention priorities more legitimate nodes can be admitted in the routing process. Moreover, the paper also proposed the bound collection window for a sufficient collection time and verification cost for both attacker identification and isolation. Extensive simulation experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol in comparison with other existing protocols. The results demonstrate that SRBGR increases network performance in terms of the packet delivery ratio and isolates attacks such as Sybil and Black hole.

  20. Multipath Activity Based Routing Protocol for Mobile ‎Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Omar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio networks improve spectrum utilization by ‎sharing licensed spectrum with cognitive radio devices. In ‎cognitive radio ad hoc networks the routing protocol is one ‎of the most challenging tasks due to the changes in ‎frequency spectrum and the interrupted connectivity ‎caused by the primary user activity. In this paper, a multi‎path activity based routing protocol for cognitive radio ‎network (MACNRP is proposed. The protocol utilizes ‎channel availability and creates multiple node-disjoint ‎routes between the source and destination nodes. The ‎proposed protocol is compared with D2CARP and FTCRP ‎protocols. The performance evaluation is conducted ‎through mathematical analysis and using OPNET ‎simulation. The performance of the proposed protocol ‎achieves an increase in network throughput; besides it ‎decreases the probability of route failure due to node ‎mobility and primary user activity. We have found that the ‎MACNRP scheme results in 50% to 75% reduction in ‎blocking probability and 33% to 78% improvement in ‎network throughput, with a reasonable additional routing ‎overhead and average packet delay. Due to the successful ‎reduction of collision between primary users and ‎cognitive users, the MACNRP scheme results in decreasing ‎the path failure rate by 50% to 87%.‎

  1. Highly Scalable, UDP-Based Network Transport Protocols for Lambda Grids and 10 GE Routed Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PI: Robert Grossman Co-PI: Stephen Eick

    2009-08-04

    Summary of Report In work prior to this grant, NCDM developed a high performance data transport protocol called SABUL. During this grant, we refined SABUL’s functionality, and then extended both the capabilities and functionality and incorporated them into a new protocol called UDP-based Data transport Protocol, or UDT. We also began preliminary work on Composable UDT, a version of UDT that allows the user to choose among different congestion control algorithms and implement the algorithm of his choice at the time he compiles the code. Specifically, we: · Investigated the theoretical foundations of protocols similar to SABUL and UDT. · Performed design and development work of UDT, a protocol that uses UDP in both the data and control channels. · Began design and development work of Composable UDT, a protocol that supports the use of different congestion control algorithms by simply including the appropriate library when compiling the code. · Performed experimental studies using UDT and Composable UDT using real world applications such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) astronomical data sets. · Released several versions of UDT and Composable, the most recent being v3.1.

  2. ABORt: Acknowledgement-Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol for High Data Rate Multichannel WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamadoun Tall

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ease of deployment and the auto-configuration capabilities of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs make them very attractive in different domains like environmental, home automation or heath care applications. The use of multichannel communications in WSNs helps to improve the overall performance of the network. However, in heavy traffic scenarios, routing protocols should be adapted to allow load balancing and to avoid losing data packets due to congestion and queue overflow. In this paper, we present an Acknowledgement-Based Opportunistic Routing (ABORt protocol designed for high data rate multichannel WSNs. It is a low overhead protocol that does not rely on synchronization for control traffic exchange during the operational phase of the network. ABORt is an opportunistic protocol that relies on link layer acknowledgements to disseminate routing metrics, which helps to reduce overhead. The performance of ABORt is evaluated using the Cooja simulator and the obtained results show that ABORt has a high packet delivery ratio with reduced packet end-to-end delay compared to two single channel routing protocols and two multichannel routing protocols that use number of hops and expected transmission count as routing metrics.

  3. Graph- versus Vector-Based Analysis of a Consensus Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Delzanno

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Paxos distributed consensus algorithm is a challenging case-study for standard, vector-based model checking techniques. Due to asynchronous communication, exhaustive analysis may generate very large state spaces already for small model instances. In this paper, we show the advantages of graph transformation as an alternative modelling technique. We model Paxos in a rich declarative transformation language, featuring (among other things nested quantifiers, and we validate our model using the GROOVE model checker, a graph-based tool that exploits isomorphism as a natural way to prune the state space via symmetry reductions. We compare the results with those obtained by the standard model checker Spin on the basis of a vector-based encoding of the algorithm.

  4. Multi-Gateway-Based Energy Holes Avoidance Routing Protocol for WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Sharma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, efficient energy conservation is required to prolong the lifetime of the network. In this work, we have given emphasis on balanced energy consumption and energy holes avoidance. This paper proposes a multi-gateway-based approach to reduce the transmission distance between the sender and the sink node. The area to be monitored is divided into regions and gateway nodes are deployed at optimal positions. We have designed a transmission scheme, in which sensors in the sink region communicate directly to the sink, sensors in the gateway region communicate directly to the gateway, and sensors in the cluster region transmit their data directly to their respective cluster head which transmits data to the gateway in its region. If the distance between a cluster head and the sink is less than the distance between the cluster head and the gateway node, the cluster head transmits data to the sink instead of the gateway node. We have compared the proposed protocol with Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH, Gateway Based Energy Aware Multi-Hop Routing (M-GEAR, and Gateway Based Stable Election Protocol (GSEP protocols. The protocol performs better than other protocols in terms of throughput, stability period, lifetime, residual energy, and the packet transmitted to the sink.

  5. DCBRP: a deterministic chain-based routing protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhoon, Haydar Abdulameer; Mahmuddin, M; Nor, Shahrudin Awang

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are a promising area for both researchers and industry because of their various applications The sensor node expends the majority of its energy on communication with other nodes. Therefore, the routing protocol plays an important role in delivering network data while minimizing energy consumption as much as possible. The chain-based routing approach is superior to other approaches. However, chain-based routing protocols still expend substantial energy in the Chain Head (CH) node. In addition, these protocols also have the bottleneck issues. A novel routing protocol which is Deterministic Chain-Based Routing Protocol (DCBRP). DCBRP consists of three mechanisms: Backbone Construction Mechanism, Chain Head Selection (CHS), and the Next Hop Connection Mechanism. The CHS mechanism is presented in detail, and it is evaluated through comparison with the CCM and TSCP using an ns-3 simulator. It show that DCBRP outperforms both CCM and TSCP in terms of end-to-end delay by 19.3 and 65%, respectively, CH energy consumption by 18.3 and 23.0%, respectively, overall energy consumption by 23.7 and 31.4%, respectively, network lifetime by 22 and 38%, respectively, and the energy*delay metric by 44.85 and 77.54%, respectively. DCBRP can be used in any deterministic node deployment applications, such as smart cities or smart agriculture, to reduce energy depletion and prolong the lifetimes of WSNs.

  6. A School-Based Suicide Risk Assessment Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccio, Dana E.

    2015-01-01

    Suicide remains the third leading cause of death among young people in the United States. Considering that youth who contemplate suicide generally exhibit warning signs before engaging in lethal self-harm, school-based mental health professionals can play a vital role in identifying students who are at risk for suicidal behavior. Nevertheless, the…

  7. Graph- versus Vector-Based Analysis of a Consensus Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delzanno, Giorgio; Rensink, Arend; Traverso, Riccardo; Bošnački, Dragan; Edelkamp, Stefan; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto; Wijs, Anton

    The Paxos distributed consensus algorithm is a challenging case-study for standard, vector-based model checking techniques. Due to asynchronous communication, exhaustive analysis may generate very large state spaces already for small model instances. In this paper, we show the advantages of graph

  8. Magnetic-particle-sensing based diagnostic protocols and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Tsukasa; Ko, Pil Ju; Sharma, Jaiyam; Yukino, Ryoji; Ishizawa, Shunji; Sandhu, Adarsh

    2015-06-04

    Magnetic particle-labeled biomaterial detection has attracted much attention in recent years for a number of reasons; easy manipulation by external magnetic fields, easy functionalization of the surface, and large surface-to-volume ratio, to name but a few. In this review, we report on our recent investigations into the detection of nano-sized magnetic particles. First, the detection by Hall magnetic sensor with lock-in amplifier and alternative magnetic field is summarized. Then, our approach to detect sub-200 nm diameter target magnetic particles via relatively large micoro-sized "columnar particles" by optical microscopy is described. Subsequently, we summarize magnetic particle detection based on optical techniques; one method is based on the scattering of the magnetically-assembled nano-sized magnetic bead chain in rotating magnetic fields and the other one is based on the reflection of magnetic target particles and porous silicon. Finally, we report recent works with reference to more familiar industrial products (such as smartphone-based medical diagnosis systems and magnetic removal of unspecific-binded nano-sized particles, or "magnetic washing").

  9. Calibration of Community-based Coral Reef Monitoring Protocols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coral reef monitoring (CRM) has been recognised as an important management tool and has consequently been incorporated in Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) programmes in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). Community-based coral reef monitoring (CB-CRM), which uses simplified procedures suitable for ...

  10. Residual energy level based clustering routing protocol for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xu; Zhong, Fangming; Chen, Zhikui; Yang, Deli

    2015-12-01

    The wireless sensor networks, which nodes prone to premature death, with unbalanced energy consumption and a short life time, influenced the promotion and application of this technology in internet of things in agriculture. This paper proposes a clustering routing protocol based on the residual energy level (RELCP). RELCP includes three stages: the selection of cluster head, establishment of cluster and data transmission. RELCP considers the remaining energy level and distance to base station, while election of cluster head nodes and data transmitting. Simulation results demonstrate that the protocol can efficiently balance the energy dissipation of all nodes, and prolong the network lifetime.

  11. History and Nature of Science enriched Problem-Based Learning on the origins of biodiversity and of continents and oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The episode of the History of Science (HOS) on the theory of continental drift proposed by Alfred Wegener has been considered an excellent example for teaching students aspects of Nature of Science (NOS) and the relation of Science with social and tecnological contexts. We implemented a NOS and HOS-enriched Problem-Based Learning environment at the middle (year 7 of the Portuguese National Curriculum) and secondary level (year 10) for teaching the origins of biodiversity and of continent...

  12. Management of Energy Consumption on Cluster Based Routing Protocol for MANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Seno, Seyed-Amin; Wan, Tat-Chee; Budiarto, Rahmat; Yamada, Masashi

    The usage of light-weight mobile devices is increasing rapidly, leading to demand for more telecommunication services. Consequently, mobile ad hoc networks and their applications have become feasible with the proliferation of light-weight mobile devices. Many protocols have been developed to handle service discovery and routing in ad hoc networks. However, the majority of them did not consider one critical aspect of this type of network, which is the limited of available energy in each node. Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) is a robust/scalable routing protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and superior to existing protocols such as Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) in terms of throughput and overhead. Therefore, based on this strength, methods to increase the efficiency of energy usage are incorporated into CBRP in this work. In order to increase the stability (in term of life-time) of the network and to decrease the energy consumption of inter-cluster gateway nodes, an Enhanced Gateway Cluster Based Routing Protocol (EGCBRP) is proposed. Three methods have been introduced by EGCBRP as enhancements to the CBRP: improving the election of cluster Heads (CHs) in CBRP which is based on the maximum available energy level, implementing load balancing for inter-cluster traffic using multiple gateways, and implementing sleep state for gateway nodes to further save the energy. Furthermore, we propose an Energy Efficient Cluster Based Routing Protocol (EECBRP) which extends the EGCBRP sleep state concept into all idle member nodes, excluding the active nodes in all clusters. The experiment results show that the EGCBRP decreases the overall energy consumption of the gateway nodes up to 10% and the EECBRP reduces the energy consumption of the member nodes up to 60%, both of which in turn contribute to stabilizing the network.

  13. Development of pig welfare assessment protocol integrating animal-, environment-, and management-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renggaman, Anriansyah; Choi, Hong L; Sudiarto, Sartika Ia; Alasaarela, Laura; Nam, Ok S

    2015-01-01

    Due to increased interest in animal welfare, there is now a need for a comprehensive assessment protocol to be used in intensive pig farming systems. There are two current welfare assessment protocols for pigs: Welfare Quality® Assessment Protocols (applicable in the Europe Union), that mostly focuses on animal-based measures, and the Swine Welfare Assurance Program (applicable in the United States), that mostly focuses on management- and environment-based measures. In certain cases, however, animal-based measures might not be adequate for properly assessing pig welfare status. Similarly, welfare assessment that relies only on environment- and management-based measures might not represent the actual welfare status of pigs. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to develop a new welfare protocol by integrating animal-, environment-, and management-based measures. The background for selection of certain welfare criteria and modification of the scoring systems from existing welfare assessment protocols are described. The developed pig welfare assessment protocol consists of 17 criteria that are related to four main principles of welfare (good feeding, good housing, good health, and appropriate behavior). Good feeding, good housing, and good health were assessed using a 3-point scale: 0 (good welfare), 1 (moderate welfare), and 2 (poor welfare). In certain cases, only a 2-point scale was used: 0 (certain condition is present) or 2 (certain condition is absent). Appropriate behavior was assessed by scan sampling of positive and negative social behaviors based on qualitative behavior assessment and human-animal relationship tests. Modification of the body condition score into a 3-point scale revealed pigs with a moderate body condition (score 1). Moreover, additional criteria such as feed quality confirmed that farms had moderate (score 1) or poor feed quality (score 2), especially those farms located in a high relative humidity region. The developed protocol can be

  14. An Individualized, Perception-Based Protocol to Investigate Human Physiological Responses to Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal L. Coolbaugh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cold exposure, a known stimulant of the thermogenic effects of brown adipose tissue (BAT, is the most widely used method to study BAT physiology in adult humans. Recently, individualized cooling has been recommended to standardize the physiological cold stress applied across participants, but critical experimental details remain unclear. The purpose of this work was to develop a detailed methodology for an individualized, perception-based protocol to investigate human physiological responses to cooling. Participants were wrapped in two water-circulating blankets and fitted with skin temperature probes to estimate BAT activity and peripheral vasoconstriction. We created a thermoesthesia graphical user interface (tGUI to continuously record the subject's perception of cooling and shivering status during the cooling protocol. The protocol began with a 15 min thermoneutral phase followed by a series of 10 min cooling phases and concluded when sustained shivering (>1 min duration occurred. Researchers used perception of cooling feedback (tGUI ratings to manually adjust and personalize the water temperature at each cooling phase. Blanket water temperatures were recorded continuously during the protocol. Twelve volunteers (ages: 26.2 ± 1.4 years; 25% female completed a feasibility study to evaluate the proposed protocol. Water temperature, perception of cooling, and shivering varied considerably across participants in response to cooling. Mean clavicle skin temperature, a surrogate measure of BAT activity, decreased (−0.99°C, 95% CI: −1.7 to −0.25°C, P = 0.16 after the cooling protocol, but an increase in supraclavicular skin temperature was observed in 4 participants. A strong positive correlation was also found between thermoesthesia and peripheral vasoconstriction (ρ = 0.84, P < 0.001. The proposed individualized, perception-based protocol therefore has potential to investigate the physiological responses to cold stress applied across

  15. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    GAO was asked to address several questions concerning a number of proposed uranium enrichment bills introduced during the 100th Congress. The bill would have restructured the Department of Energy's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation to allow it to compete more effectively in the domestic and international markets. Some of GAO's findings discussed are: uranium market experts believe and existing market models show that the proposed DOE purchase of a $750 million of uranium from domestic producers may not significantly increase production because of large producer-held inventories; excess uranium enrichment production capacity exists throughout the world; therefore, foreign producers are expected to compete heavily in the United States throughout the 1990s as utilities' contracts with DOE expire; and according to a 1988 agreement between DOE's Offices of Nuclear Energy and Defense Programs, enrichment decommissioning costs, estimated to total $3.6 billion for planning purposes, will be shared by the commercial enrichment program and the government

  16. Insecurity of position-based quantum-cryptography protocols against entanglement attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2011-01-01

    Recently, position-based quantum cryptography has been claimed to be unconditionally secure. On the contrary, here we show that the existing proposals for position-based quantum cryptography are, in fact, insecure if entanglement is shared among two adversaries. Specifically, we demonstrate how the adversaries can incorporate ideas of quantum teleportation and quantum secret sharing to compromise the security with certainty. The common flaw to all current protocols is that the Pauli operators always map a codeword to a codeword (up to an irrelevant overall phase). We propose a modified scheme lacking this property in which the same cheating strategy used to undermine the previous protocols can succeed with a rate of at most 85%. We prove the modified protocol is secure when the shared quantum resource between the adversaries is a two- or three-level system.

  17. A Protocol for Content-Based Communication in Disconnected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Haillot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In content-based communication, information flows towards interested hosts rather than towards specifically set destinations. This new style of communication perfectly fits the needs of applications dedicated to information sharing, news distribution, service advertisement and discovery, etc. In this paper we address the problem of supporting content-based communication in partially or intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The protocol we designed leverages on the concepts of opportunistic networking and delay-tolerant networking in order to account for the absence of end-to-end connectivity in disconnected MANETs. The paper provides an overview of the protocol, as well as simulation results that show how this protocol can perform in realistic conditions.

  18. Hydrogels Based on Ag+ -Modulated Assembly of 5'-Adenosine Monophosphate for Enriching Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Xie, Dong; Wu, Yang; Lin, Nangui; Song, Aixin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2017-11-07

    Supramolecular hydrogels obtained by combining 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) with Ag + were fabricated in this work. Their gelation capability was enhanced by increasing the concentration of Ag + or decreasing the pH. The gels are very sensitive to light, which endows them with potential applications as visible-light photosensitive materials. Coordination between the nucleobase of AMP and Ag + , as well as π-π stacking of nucleobases, are considered to be the main driving forces for self-assembly. The hydrogels successfully achieved the encapsulation and enrichment of biomolecules. Hydrogen bonding between the amino group of guest molecules and silver nanoparticles along the nanofibers drives the enrichment and is considered to be a crucial interaction. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Highly specific purification of N-glycans using phosphate-based derivatization as an affinity tag in combination with Ti{sup 4+}-SPE enrichment for mass spectrometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying [Shanghai Cancer Center and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Key Laboratory of Glycoconjugates Research Ministry of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Peng, Ye; Bin, Zhichao [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang, Huijie [Shanghai Cancer Center and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Lu, Haojie, E-mail: luhaojie@fudan.edu.cn [Shanghai Cancer Center and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Key Laboratory of Glycoconjugates Research Ministry of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2016-08-31

    N-linked protein glycosylation is involved in regulation of a wide variety of cellular processes and associated with numerous diseases. Highly specific identification of N-glycome remains a challenge while its biological significance is acknowledged. The relatively low abundance of glycan in complex biological mixtures, lack of basic sites for protonation, and suppression by other highly abundant proteins/peptides lead to the particularly poor detection sensitivity of N-glycans in the MS analysis. Therefore, the highly specific purification procedure becomes a crucial step prior to MS analysis of the N-glycome. Herein, a novel N-glycans enrichment approach based on phosphate derivatization combined with Ti{sup 4+}-SPE (solid phase extraction) was developed. Briefly, in this strategy, N-glycans were chemically labeled with a phospho-group at their reducing ends, such that the Ti{sup 4+}-SPE microspheres were able to capture the phospho-containing glycans. The enrichment method was developed and optimized using model oligosaccharides (maltoheptaose DP7 and sialylated glycan A1) and also glycans from a standard glycoprotein (asialofetuin, ASF). This method experimentally showed high derivatization efficiency (almost 100%), excellent selectivity (analyzing DP7 in the digests of bovine serum albumin at a mass ratio of 1:100), high enriching recovery (90%), good reproducibility (CV<15%) as well as high sensitivity (LOD at fmol level). At last, the proposed method was successfully applied in the profiling of N-glycome in human serum, in which a total of 31 N-glycan masses were identified. - Graphical abstract: A selective enrichment method for the N-glycome is reported. N-glycans were chemically labeled with a phosphate derivatization reagent (AMS), then the phospho-containing glycans were enriched using Ti{sup 4+}-microspheres. - Highlights: • A highly specific N-glycans purification method based on phosphate derivatization combined with Ti{sup 4+}-SPE was developed

  20. A Protocol Layer Trust-Based Intrusion Detection Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Jiang, Shuai; Fapojuwo, Abraham O

    2017-05-27

    This article proposes a protocol layer trust-based intrusion detection scheme for wireless sensor networks. Unlike existing work, the trust value of a sensor node is evaluated according to the deviations of key parameters at each protocol layer considering the attacks initiated at different protocol layers will inevitably have impacts on the parameters of the corresponding protocol layers. For simplicity, the paper mainly considers three aspects of trustworthiness, namely physical layer trust, media access control layer trust and network layer trust. The per-layer trust metrics are then combined to determine the overall trust metric of a sensor node. The performance of the proposed intrusion detection mechanism is then analyzed using the t-distribution to derive analytical results of false positive and false negative probabilities. Numerical analytical results, validated by simulation results, are presented in different attack scenarios. It is shown that the proposed protocol layer trust-based intrusion detection scheme outperforms a state-of-the-art scheme in terms of detection probability and false probability, demonstrating its usefulness for detecting cross-layer attacks.

  1. A Protocol Layer Trust-Based Intrusion Detection Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a protocol layer trust-based intrusion detection scheme for wireless sensor networks. Unlike existing work, the trust value of a sensor node is evaluated according to the deviations of key parameters at each protocol layer considering the attacks initiated at different protocol layers will inevitably have impacts on the parameters of the corresponding protocol layers. For simplicity, the paper mainly considers three aspects of trustworthiness, namely physical layer trust, media access control layer trust and network layer trust. The per-layer trust metrics are then combined to determine the overall trust metric of a sensor node. The performance of the proposed intrusion detection mechanism is then analyzed using the t-distribution to derive analytical results of false positive and false negative probabilities. Numerical analytical results, validated by simulation results, are presented in different attack scenarios. It is shown that the proposed protocol layer trust-based intrusion detection scheme outperforms a state-of-the-art scheme in terms of detection probability and false probability, demonstrating its usefulness for detecting cross-layer attacks.

  2. Fully Integrated Passive UHF RFID Tag for Hash-Based Mutual Authentication Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Shugo; Watanabe, Dai; Li, Yang; Sakiyama, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag has been used in many applications. While the RFID market is expected to grow, concerns about security and privacy of the RFID tag should be overcome for the future use. To overcome these issues, privacy-preserving authentication protocols based on cryptographic algorithms have been designed. However, to the best of our knowledge, evaluation of the whole tag, which includes an antenna, an analog front end, and a digital processing block, that runs authentication protocols has not been studied. In this paper, we present an implementation and evaluation of a fully integrated passive UHF RFID tag that runs a privacy-preserving mutual authentication protocol based on a hash function. We design a single chip including the analog front end and the digital processing block. We select a lightweight hash function supporting 80-bit security strength and a standard hash function supporting 128-bit security strength. We show that when the lightweight hash function is used, the tag completes the protocol with a reader-tag distance of 10 cm. Similarly, when the standard hash function is used, the tag completes the protocol with the distance of 8.5 cm. We discuss the impact of the peak power consumption of the tag on the distance of the tag due to the hash function.

  3. Fully Integrated Passive UHF RFID Tag for Hash-Based Mutual Authentication Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shugo Mikami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive radio-frequency identification (RFID tag has been used in many applications. While the RFID market is expected to grow, concerns about security and privacy of the RFID tag should be overcome for the future use. To overcome these issues, privacy-preserving authentication protocols based on cryptographic algorithms have been designed. However, to the best of our knowledge, evaluation of the whole tag, which includes an antenna, an analog front end, and a digital processing block, that runs authentication protocols has not been studied. In this paper, we present an implementation and evaluation of a fully integrated passive UHF RFID tag that runs a privacy-preserving mutual authentication protocol based on a hash function. We design a single chip including the analog front end and the digital processing block. We select a lightweight hash function supporting 80-bit security strength and a standard hash function supporting 128-bit security strength. We show that when the lightweight hash function is used, the tag completes the protocol with a reader-tag distance of 10 cm. Similarly, when the standard hash function is used, the tag completes the protocol with the distance of 8.5 cm. We discuss the impact of the peak power consumption of the tag on the distance of the tag due to the hash function.

  4. An SDN-Based Authentication Mechanism for Securing Neighbor Discovery Protocol in IPv6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqin Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP is one of the main protocols in the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6 suite, and it provides many basic functions for the normal operation of IPv6 in a local area network (LAN, such as address autoconfiguration and address resolution. However, it has many vulnerabilities that can be used by malicious nodes to launch attacks, because the NDP messages are easily spoofed without protection. Surrounding this problem, many solutions have been proposed for securing NDP, but these solutions either proposed new protocols that need to be supported by all nodes or built mechanisms that require the cooperation of all nodes, which is inevitable in the traditional distributed networks. Nevertheless, Software-Defined Networking (SDN provides a new perspective to think about protecting NDP. In this paper, we proposed an SDN-based authentication mechanism to verify the identity of NDP packets transmitted in a LAN. Using the centralized control and programmability of SDN, it can effectively prevent the spoofing attacks and other derived attacks based on spoofing. In addition, this mechanism needs no additional protocol supporting or configuration at hosts and routers and does not introduce any dedicated devices.

  5. Feasibility of web-based protocol in a 12 weeks home-based IMT program for individuals with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Helle; Sørensen, Dorthe

    Body: Although inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been proven effective in inspiratory muscle function, exertional dyspnea, and exercise tolerance and is frequently applied in individuals with COPD; training-adherence remains a challenge. The aim was to investigate the feasibility and adherence...... of a web-based protocol with feedback function using mechanical threshold loading (MTL) as a home-based IMT in individuals with COPD. Thirty-six individuals with inspiratory muscle weakness were randomly selected from a pulmonary rehabilitation program to perform 12 weeks of MTL with either a web......-based protocol (n=17) or a usual protocol with a paper logbook (n=19). All participants performed two daily sessions of 30 breaths. In the intervention group, training was executed with the highest tolerable intensity of maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax), and feedback was web-based on effort scores...

  6. Methylation-based enrichment facilitates low-cost, noninvasive genomic scale sequencing of populations from feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Kenneth L; Bergey, Christina M

    2018-01-31

    Obtaining high-quality samples from wild animals is a major obstacle for genomic studies of many taxa, particularly at the population level, as collection methods for such samples are typically invasive. DNA from feces is easy to obtain noninvasively, but is dominated by bacterial and other non-host DNA. The high proportion of non-host DNA drastically reduces the efficiency of high-throughput sequencing for host animal genomics. To address this issue, we developed an inexpensive capture method for enriching host DNA from noninvasive fecal samples. Our method exploits natural differences in CpG-methylation density between vertebrate and bacterial genomes to preferentially bind and isolate host DNA from majority-bacterial samples. We demonstrate that the enrichment is robust, efficient, and compatible with downstream library preparation methods useful for population studies (e.g., RADseq). Compared to other enrichment strategies, our method is quick and inexpensive, adding only a negligible cost to sample preparation. In combination with downstream methods such as RADseq, our approach allows for cost-effective and customizable genomic-scale genotyping that was previously feasible in practice only with invasive samples. Because feces are widely available and convenient to collect, our method empowers researchers to explore genomic-scale population-level questions in organisms for which invasive sampling is challenging or undesirable.

  7. Differentially expressed genes from RNA-Seq and functional enrichment results are affected by the choice of single-end versus paired-end reads and stranded versus non-stranded protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Susan M; MacKenzie, Karen L; Beverdam, Annemiek; Roddam, Louise F; Wilkins, Marc R

    2017-05-23

    RNA-Seq is now widely used as a research tool. Choices must be made whether to use paired-end (PE) or single-end (SE) sequencing, and whether to use strand-specific or non-specific (NS) library preparation kits. To date there has been no analysis of the effect of these choices on identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between controls and treated samples and on downstream functional analysis. We undertook four mammalian transcriptomics experiments to compare the effect of SE and PE protocols on read mapping, feature counting, identification of DEGs and functional analysis. For three of these experiments we also compared a non-stranded (NS) and a strand-specific approach to mapping the paired-end data. SE mapping resulted in a reduced number of reads mapped to features, in all four experiments, and lower read count per gene. Up to 4.3% of genes in the SE data and up to 12.3% of genes in the NS data had read counts which were significantly different compared to the PE data. Comparison of DEGs showed the presence of false positives (average 5%, using voom) and false negatives (average 5%, using voom) using the SE reads. These increased further, by one or two percentage points, with the NS data. Gene ontology functional enrichment (GO) of the DEGs arising from SE or NS approaches, revealed striking differences in the top 20 GO terms, with as little as 40% concordance with PE results. Caution is therefore advised in the interpretation of such results. By comparison, there was overall consistency in gene set enrichment analysis results. A strand-specific protocol should be used in library preparation to generate the most reliable and accurate profile of expression. Ideally PE reads are also recommended particularly for transcriptome assembly. Whilst SE reads produce a DEG list with around 5% of false positives and false negatives, this method can substantially reduce sequencing cost and this saving could be used to increase the number of biological replicates

  8. A pairing-free identity-based two-party authenticated key agreement protocol for secure and efficient communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Hafizul Islam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many identity-based two-party authenticated key agreement (ID-2PAKA protocols using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC have been proposed, however, these protocols do not provide adequate security and their computation costs are also relatively high due to bilinear pairing and map-to-point function. Moreover, they require many communication rounds for establishing the session key, and thus results in increased communication latency, which makes them unsuitable for real applications. This paper thus aims to propose a pairing-free ID-2PAKA protocol based on ECC that removes the security flaws of previous protocols. The proposed protocol helps two users to establish a common session key between them through an open network. The formal security analysis using BAN logic and the comparisons with other protocols are given, which demonstrated that our protocol is formally secure and thus, suitable for secure and efficient peer-to-peer communications.

  9. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, H.K.; Melvin, J.G.

    1988-06-01

    Canada is the world's largest producer and exporter of uranium, most of which is enriched elsewhere for use as fuel in LWRs. The feasibility of a Canadian uranium-enrichment enterprise is therefore a perennial question. Recent developments in uranium-enrichment technology, and their likely impacts on separative work supply and demand, suggest an opportunity window for Canadian entry into this international market. The Canadian opportunity results from three particular impacts of the new technologies: 1) the bulk of the world's uranium-enrichment capacity is in gaseous diffusion plants which, because of their large requirements for electricity (more than 2000 kW·h per SWU), are vulnerable to competition from the new processes; 2) the decline in enrichment costs increases the economic incentive for the use of slightly-enriched uranium (SEU) fuel in CANDU reactors, thus creating a potential Canadian market; and 3) the new processes allow economic operation on a much smaller scale, which drastically reduces the investment required for market entry and is comparable with the potential Canadian SEU requirement. The opportunity is not open-ended. By the end of the century the enrichment supply industry will have adapted to the new processes and long-term customer/supplier relationships will have been established. In order to seize the opportunity, Canada must become a credible supplier during this century

  10. L-Lactate-selective microbial sensor based on flavocytochrome b2-enriched yeast cells using recombinant and nanotechnology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkovska, Maria; Smutok, Oleh; Stasyuk, Nataliya; Gonchar, Mykhailo

    2015-11-01

    In the recent years, nanotechnology is the most developing branch due to a wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, biotechnological and agriculture fields. The binding nanoparticles with various biological molecules makes them attractive candidates for using in sensor technologies. The particularly actual is obtaining the bionanomembranes based on biocatalytic elements with improved sensing characteristics. The aim of this investigation is to study the properties of microbial L-lactate-selective sensor based on using the recombinant Hansenula polymorpha yeast cells overproducing flavocytochrome b2 (FC b2), as well as additionally enriched by the enzyme bound with gold nanoparticles (FC b2-nAu). Although, the high permeability of the living cells to nanoparticles is being intensively studied (mostly for delivery of drugs), the idea of using both recombinant technology and nanotechnology to increase the amount of the target enzyme in the biosensing layer is really novel. The FC b2-nAu-enriched living and permeabilized yeast cells were used for construction of a bioselective membrane of microbial L-lactate-selective amperometric biosensor. Phenazine methosulphate was served as a free defusing electron transfer mediator which provides effective electron transfer from the reduced enzyme to the electrode surface. It was shown that the output to L-lactate of FC b2-nAu-enriched permeabilized yeast cells is 2.5-fold higher when compared to the control cells. The obtained results confirm that additional enrichment of the recombinant yeast cell by the enzyme bound with nanoparticles improves the analytical parameters of microbial sensor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An Novel Protocol for the Quantum Secure Multi-Party Summation Based on Two-Particle Bell States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Wang, Yong-Bin; Fan, Wen-Qin

    2017-09-01

    A protocol for the quantum secure multi-party summation based on two-particle Bell states is proposed. In this protocol, two-particle Bell states are used as private information carriers. Without using the entangled character of Bell states, we also use Pauli matrices operations to encode information and Hadamard matrix to extract information. The proposed protocol can also resist various attacks and overcomes the problem of information leakage with acceptable efficiency. In theory, our protocol can be used to build complex secure protocols for other multiparty computations and also lots of other important applications in distributed networks.

  12. An Improved Constraint-Based System for the Verification of Security Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Etalle, Sandro

    We propose a constraint-based system for the verification of security protocols that improves upon the one developed by Millen and Shmatikov [30]. Our system features (1) a significantly more efficient implementation, (2) a monotonic behavior, which also allows to detect flaws associated to partial

  13. Synchronization of ovulation in goats using prostaglandin F2α based protocols during the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Simões

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this review was to describe the feasibility of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α based protocols used as a tool for ovulation synchronization in cycling goats. There is a reproductive seasonality in small ruminants. However, from latitudes 45 ° towards equator, the intensity of anoestrus progressively decreases and tends to disappear in local breeds. Consequently, PGF2α or their synthetic analogues as luteolytic substances can assume a great importance in reproductive management of flocks from these regions. However, a single or double (9–11 days apart PGF2α administration provokes a good induction but a moderate synchronization of ovulations if timed artificial insemination is considered, and a significant short oestrous cycle can occur with detrimental effects on fertility rate when compared with conventional progesterone-based protocols. In order to minimize this constraint, some gonadotropinreleasing hormone-PGF2α-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Ovsynch-based protocols and their modifications, manipulating the dominant follicles and corpora lutea, were successfully tested in goats. Similar to cows, these PGF2α based protocols seem to be a promising and more cost-effective tool for reproductive management in cycling goats.

  14. Application of a yeast-based assay protocol developed to monitor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Batch experiments were carried out with activated sludge from laboratory reactors and a full-scale treatment plant spiked with 17β-oestradiol (E2). An oestrogen-sensitive yeast-based assay protocol, described in detail in a related publication, was used to measure reduction of E2-induced total oestrogenic activity from the ...

  15. An Improved Constraint-based system for the verification of security protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Etalle, Sandro; Hermenegildo, Manuel V.; Puebla, German

    We propose a constraint-based system for the verification of security protocols that improves upon the one developed by Millen and Shmatikov. Our system features (1) a significantly more efficient implementation, (2) a monotonic behavior, which also allows to detect aws associated to partial runs

  16. A Third-Party E-Payment Protocol Based on Quantum Group Blind Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Yuan-Yuan; Xie, Shu-Cui

    2017-09-01

    A third-party E-payment protocol based on quantum group blind signature is proposed in this paper. Our E-payment protocol could protect user's anonymity as the traditional E-payment systems do, and also have unconditional security which the classical E-payment systems can not provide. To achieve that, quantum key distribution, one-time pad and quantum group blind signature are adopted in our scheme. Furthermore, if there were a dispute, the manager Trent can identify who tells a lie.

  17. A TDMA based media access control protocol for wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Tang, Biyu

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a novel Time Division Multiplex Access (TDMA) based Media Access Control (MAC) protocol of wireless Ad Hoc network. To achieve collision free transmission, time slots in a MAC frame are cataloged into three types, that is access slot, control slot and traffic slot. Nodes in the network access to the network in the access slot, and an exclusive control is allocated subsequently. Data packets are transmission by dynamic schedule the traffic slots. Throughput and transmission delay are also analyzed by simulation experiment. The proposed protocol is capable of providing collision free transmission and achieves high throughput.

  18. A novel protocol for streamlined IRB review of Practice-based Research Network (PBRN) card studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Michelle D; Cola, Philip A; Terchek, Joshua J; Werner, James J; Stange, Kurt C

    2011-01-01

    The "card study," in which clinicians record brief information about patient visits during usual clinical care, has long been a rapid method for conducting descriptive studies in practice-based research networks. Because an increasingly stringent regulatory environment has made conducting card studies difficult, we developed a streamlined method for obtaining card study institutional review board (IRB) approval. We developed a protocol for a study of the card study method, allowing new card study proposals of specific research questions to be submitted as addenda to the approved Card Study Protocol. Seven card studies were proposed and approved under the Card Study Protocol during the first year after implementation, contrasted with one-card study proposed in the previous year. New card study ideas submitted as addenda to an approved protocol appeared to increase IRB comfort with the card study as a minimal risk method while reducing the hurdles to developing new study ideas. A Card Study Protocol allowing new study questions to be submitted as addenda decreases time between idea generation and IRB approval. Shortened turn-around times may be useful for translating ideas into action while reducing regulatory burden.

  19. Region-Based Collision Avoidance Beaconless Geographic Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JeongCheol; Park, HoSung; Kang, SeokYoon; Kim, Ki-Il

    2015-06-05

    Due to the lack of dependency on beacon messages for location exchange, the beaconless geographic routing protocol has attracted considerable attention from the research community. However, existing beaconless geographic routing protocols are likely to generate duplicated data packets when multiple winners in the greedy area are selected. Furthermore, these protocols are designed for a uniform sensor field, so they cannot be directly applied to practical irregular sensor fields with partial voids. To prevent the failure of finding a forwarding node and to remove unnecessary duplication, in this paper, we propose a region-based collision avoidance beaconless geographic routing protocol to increase forwarding opportunities for randomly-deployed sensor networks. By employing different contention priorities into the mutually-communicable nodes and the rest of the nodes in the greedy area, every neighbor node in the greedy area can be used for data forwarding without any packet duplication. Moreover, simulation results are given to demonstrate the increased packet delivery ratio and shorten end-to-end delay, rather than well-referred comparative protocols.

  20. A novel porcine cell culture based protocol for the propagation of hepatitis E virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Chingwaru

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present a comprehensive protocol for the processing of hepatitis E virus (HEV infected samples and propagation of the virus in primary cell cultures. Methods: Hepatitis E was extracted from porcine liver and faecal samples following standard protocols. The virus was then allowed to attach in the presence of trypsin to primary cells that included porcine and bovine intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages over a period of up to 3 h. The virus was propagated by rotational passaging through the cell cultures. Propagation was confirmed by immunoblotting. Results: We developed a comprehensive protocol to propagate HEV in porcine cell model that includes (i rotational culturing of the virus between porcine cell types, (ii pre-incubation of infected cells for 210 min, (iii use of a semi-complete cell culture medium supplemented with trypsin (0.33 µg/mL and (iv the use of simple immunoblot technique to detect the amplified virus based on the open reading frame 2/3. Conclusions: This protocol opens doors towards systematic analysis of the mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of HEV in vitro. Using our protocol, one can complete the propagation process within 6 to 9 d.

  1. Selection Based on FOXA2 Expression Is Not Sufficient to Enrich for Dopamine Neurons From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Julio Cesar; Blak, Alexandra; van Arensbergen, Joris; Sousa, Amaia; Vázquez, Nerea; Aduriz, Ariane; Gayosso, Mayela; Lopez Mato, Maria Paz; Lopez de Maturana, Rakel; Hedlund, Eva; Sonntag, Kai-Christian; Sanchez-Pernaute, Rosario

    2014-09-01

    Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are potential cell sources for regenerative approaches in Parkinson disease. Inductive differentiation protocols can generate midbrain dopamine neurons but result in heterogeneous cell mixtures. Therefore, selection strategies are necessary to obtain uniform dopamine cell populations. Here, we developed a selection approach using lentivirus vectors to express green fluorescent protein under the promoter region of FOXA2, a transcription factor that is expressed in the floor plate domain that gives rise to dopamine neurons during embryogenesis. We first validated the specificity of the vectors in human cell lines against a promoterless construct. We then selected FOXA2-positive neural progenitors from several human pluripotent stem cell lines, which demonstrated a gene expression profile typical for the ventral domain of the midbrain and floor plate, but failed to enrich for dopamine neurons. To investigate whether this was due to the selection approach, we overexpressed FOXA2 in neural progenitors derived from human pluripotent stem cell lines. FOXA2 forced expression resulted in an increased expression of floor plate but not mature neuronal markers. Furthermore, selection of the FOXA2 overexpressing fraction also failed to enrich for dopamine neurons. Collectively, our results suggest that FOXA2 is not sufficient to induce a dopaminergic fate in this system. On the other hand, our study demonstrates that a combined approach of promoter activation and lentivirus vector technology can be used as a versatile tool for the selection of a defined cell population from a variety of human pluripotent stem cell lines. ©AlphaMed Press.

  2. A hop count based heuristic routing protocol for mobile delay tolerant networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Lei; Li, Jianbo; Wei, Changjiang; Dai, Chenqu; Xu, Jixing; Hu, Lejuan

    2014-01-01

    Routing in delay tolerant networks (DTNs) is a challenge since it must handle network partitioning, long delays, and dynamic topology. Meanwhile, routing protocols of the traditional mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) cannot work well due to the failure of its assumption that most network connections are available. In this paper, we propose a hop count based heuristic routing protocol by utilizing the information carried by the peripatetic packets in the network. A heuristic function is defined to help in making the routing decision. We formally define a custom operation for square matrices so as to transform the heuristic value calculation into matrix manipulation. Finally, the performance of our proposed algorithm is evaluated by the simulation results, which show the advantage of such self-adaptive routing protocol in the diverse circumstance of DTNs.

  3. A unified protocol for the transdiagnostic psychodynamic treatment of anxiety disorders: an evidence-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Falk; Salzer, Simone

    2014-06-01

    Although there is evidence for the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy (PDT) in anxiety disorders, results are not yet satisfactory, for example, if rates of remission and response are considered. To address this problem, a unified psychodynamic protocol for anxiety disorders (UPP-ANXIETY) is proposed that integrates the treatment principles of those methods of PDT that have proven to be efficacious in anxiety disorders. In addition, this protocol is transdiagnostic, implying that it is applicable to various forms of anxiety disorders and related disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorders, avoidant personality disorder). Based on supportive-expressive therapy, the UPP-ANXIETY represents an integrated form of psychodynamic therapy that allows for a flexible use of empirically supported treatment principles. UPP-ANXIETY encompasses the following 9 treatment principles (modules): (1) socializing the patient for psychotherapy, (2) motivating and setting treatment goals, (3) establishing a secure helping alliance, (4) identifying the core conflict underlying anxiety, (5) focusing on the warded-off wish/affect, (6) modifying underlying internalized object relations, (7) changing underlying defenses and avoidance, (8) modifying underlying response of self, and (9) termination and relapse prevention. Some principles are regarded as core components to be used in every treatment (principles 3-8). A unified protocol for the psychodynamic treatment of anxiety disorders has several advantages, that is (1) integrating the most effective treatment principles of empirically supported psychodynamic treatments for anxiety disorders can be expected to further improve the efficacy of PDT; (2) using a unified protocol in efficacy studies has the potential to enhance the evidence-based status of PDT by aggregating the evidence; (3) a unified protocol will facilitate both training in PDT and transfer of research to clinical practice; and (4) thus, a unified

  4. Iron oxide nanoparticle coating of organic polymer-based monolithic columns for phosphopeptide enrichment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenková, Jana; Foret, František

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 34, 16-17 (2011), s. 2106-2112 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA ČR(CZ) GPP206/11/P004 Grant - others:Jihomoravský kraj(CZ) 2SGA2721 Program:2SGA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : iron oxide nanoparticles * monolithic column * phosphopeptide enrichment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2011

  5. A hybrid monolithic column based on boronate-functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets for online specific enrichment of glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chanyuan; Chen, Xiaoman; Du, Zhuo; Li, Gongke; Xiao, Xiaohua; Cai, Zongwei

    2017-05-19

    A hybrid monolithic column based on aminophenylboronic acid (APBA)-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) has been developed and used for selective enrichment of glycoproteins. The APBA/GO composites were homogeneously incorporated into a polymer monolithic column with the help of oligomer matrix and followed by in situ polymerization. The effect of dispersion of APBA/GO composites in the polymerization mixture on the performance of the monolithic column was explored in detail. The presence of graphene oxide not only enlarged the BET surface area from 6.3m 2 /g to 169.4m 2 /g, but also provided abundant boronic acid moieties for glycoprotein extraction, which improved the enrichment selectivity and efficiency for glycoproteins. The APBA/GO hybrid monolithic column was incorporated into a sequential injection system, which facilitated online extraction of proteins. Combining the superior properties of extraordinary surface area of GO and the affinity interaction of APBA to glycoproteins, the APBA/GO hybrid monolithic column showed higher enrichment factors for glycoproteins than other proteins without cis-diol-containing groups. Also, under comparable or even shorter processing time and without the addition of any organic solvent, it showed higher binding capacity toward glycoproteins compared with the conventional boronate affinity monolithic column. The practical applicability of this system was demonstrated by processing of egg white samples for extraction of ovalbumin and ovotransferrin, and satisfactory results were obtained by assay with SDS-PAGE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enrichment of steroid hormones in water with porous and hydrophobic polymer-based SPE followed by HPLC-UV determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinfen; Zhang, Man; Tong, Changlun; Wu, Jianmin; Liu, Weiping

    2013-10-01

    There have been great concerns about the persistence of steroid hormones in surface water. Since the concentrations of these compounds in water samples are usually at a trace level, the efficient enrichment of steroid hormones is vital for further analysis. In this work, a porous and hydrophobic polymer was synthesized and characterized. The composition of solvent used as porogen in the synthetic process was shown to have an effect on the morphology of the polymer, which was successfully used as an SPE sorbent for simultaneously enriching steroid hormones in surface water samples. The recoveries of the steroid hormones on the custom-made polymer ranged from 93.4 to 106.2%, whereas those on commercialized ENVI-18, LC-18, and Oasis HLB ranged from 54.8 to 104.9, 66 to 93.6, and 77.2 to 106%, respectively. Five types of steroid hormones were simultaneously measured using HPLC-UV after they were enriched by the custom-made sorbent. Based on these findings, the SPE-HPLC method was developed. The LODs of this method for estriol, estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, progesterone were 0.07, 0.43, 0.61, 0.27, and 0.42 μg/L, respectively, while precision and reproducibility RSDs were <6.40 and 7.49%, respectively. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. An Enhanced Reservation-Based MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, José A.; Silva, Helder D.; Macedo, Pedro; Rocha, Luis A.

    2011-01-01

    The IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is an enabling standard for wireless sensor networks. In order to support applications requiring dedicated bandwidth or bounded delay, it provides a reservation-based scheme named Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS). However, the GTS scheme presents some drawbacks, such as inefficient bandwidth utilization and support to a maximum of only seven devices. This paper presents eLPRT (enhanced Low Power Real Time), a new reservation-based MAC protocol that introduces several performance enhancing features in comparison to the GTS scheme. This MAC protocol builds on top of LPRT (Low Power Real Time) and includes various mechanisms designed to increase data transmission reliability against channel errors, improve bandwidth utilization and increase the number of supported devices. A motion capture system based on inertial and magnetic sensors has been used to validate the protocol. The effectiveness of the performance enhancements introduced by each of the new features is demonstrated through the provision of both simulation and experimental results. PMID:22163826

  8. Intervention mapping protocol for developing a theory-based diabetes self-management education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Misoon; Choi, Suyoung; Kim, Se-An; Seo, Kyoungsan; Lee, Soo Jin

    2015-01-01

    Development of behavior theory-based health promotion programs is encouraged with the paradigm shift from contents to behavior outcomes. This article describes the development process of the diabetes self-management program for older Koreans (DSME-OK) using intervention mapping (IM) protocol. The IM protocol includes needs assessment, defining goals and objectives, identifying theory and determinants, developing a matrix to form change objectives, selecting strategies and methods, structuring the program, and planning for evaluation and pilot testing. The DSME-OK adopted seven behavior objectives developed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators as behavioral outcomes. The program applied an information-motivation-behavioral skills model, and interventions were targeted to 3 determinants to change health behaviors. Specific methods were selected to achieve each objective guided by IM protocol. As the final step, program evaluation was planned including a pilot test. The DSME-OK was structured as the 3 determinants of the IMB model were intervened to achieve behavior objectives in each session. The program has 12 weekly 90-min sessions tailored for older adults. Using the IM protocol in developing a theory-based self-management program was beneficial in terms of providing a systematic guide to developing theory-based and behavior outcome-focused health education programs.

  9. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabin Bhandari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In wireless body area networks (WBANs, various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio.

  10. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2016-03-18

    In wireless body area networks (WBANs), various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC) protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS) for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC) protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio.

  11. Language pathway tracking: comparing nTMS-based DTI fiber tracking with a cubic ROIs-based protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negwer, Chiara; Sollmann, Nico; Ille, Sebastian; Hauck, Theresa; Maurer, Stefanie; Kirschke, Jan S; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber tracking (FT) has been widely used in glioma surgery in recent years. It can provide helpful information about subcortical structures, especially in patients with eloquent space-occupying lesions. This study compared the newly developed navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS)-based DTI FT of language pathways with the most reproducible protocol for language pathway tractography, using cubic regions of interest (ROIs) for the arcuate fascicle. METHODS Thirty-seven patients with left-sided perisylvian lesions underwent language mapping by repetitive nTMS. DTI FT was performed using the cubic ROIs-based protocol and the authors' nTMS-based DTI FT approach. The same minimal fiber length and fractional anisotropy were chosen (50 mm and 0.2, respectively). Both protocols were performed with standard clinical tractography software. RESULTS Both methods visualized language-related fiber tracts (i.e., corticonuclear tract, arcuate fascicle, uncinate fascicle, superior longitudinal fascicle, inferior longitudinal fascicle, arcuate fibers, commissural fibers, corticothalamic fibers, and frontooccipital fascicle) in all 37 patients. Using the cubic ROIs-based protocol, 39.9% of these language-related fiber tracts were detected in the examined patients, as opposed to 76.0% when performing nTMS-based DTI FT. For specifically tracking the arcuate fascicle, however, the cubic ROIs-based approach showed better results (97.3% vs 75.7% with nTMS-based DTI FT). CONCLUSIONS The cubic ROIs-based protocol was designed for arcuate fascicle tractography, and this study shows that it is still useful for this intention. However, superior results were obtained using the nTMS-based DTI FT for visualization of other language-related fiber tracts.

  12. ExtraPEG: A Polyethylene Glycol-Based Method for Enrichment of Extracellular Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Mark A.; Hurwitz, Stephanie N.; Meckes, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Initially thought to be a means for cells to eliminate waste, secreted extracellular vesicles, known as exosomes, are now understood to mediate numerous healthy and pathological processes. Though abundant in biological fluids, purifying exosomes has been challenging because their biophysical properties overlap with other secreted cell products. Easy-to-use commercial kits for harvesting exosomes are now widely used, but the relative low-purity and high-cost of the preparations restricts their utility. Here we describe a method for purifying exosomes and other extracellular vesicles by adapting methods for isolating viruses using polyethylene glycol. This technique, called ExtraPEG, enriches exosomes from large volumes of media rapidly and inexpensively using low-speed centrifugation, followed by a single small-volume ultracentrifugation purification step. Total protein and RNA harvested from vesicles is sufficient in quantity and quality for proteomics and sequencing analyses, demonstrating the utility of this method for biomarker discovery and diagnostics. Additionally, confocal microscopy studies suggest that the biological activity of vesicles is not impaired. The ExtraPEG method can be easily adapted to enrich for different vesicle populations, or as an efficient precursor to subsequent purification techniques, providing a means to harvest exosomes from many different biological fluids and for a wide variety of purposes. PMID:27068479

  13. Advertisement-Based Energy Efficient Medium Access Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Surjya Sarathi

    . Simulations show that the optimized ADV-MAC provides substantial energy gains (50% to 70% less than other MAC protocols for WSNs such as T-MAC and S-MAC for the scenarios investigated) while faring as well as T-MAC in terms of packet delivery ratio and latency. Although ADV-MAC provides substantial energy gains over S-MAC and T-MAC, it is not optimal in terms of energy savings because contention is done twice -- once in the Advertisement Period and once in the Data Period. In the next part of my research, the second contention in the Data Period is eliminated and the advantages of contention-based and TDMA-based protocols are combined to form Advertisement based Time-division Multiple Access (ATMA), a distributed TDMA-based MAC protocol for WSNs. ATMA utilizes the bursty nature of the traffic to prevent energy waste through advertisements and reservations for data slots. Extensive simulations and qualitative analysis show that with bursty traffic, ATMA outperforms contention-based protocols (S-MAC, T-MAC and ADV-MAC), a TDMA based protocol (TRAMA) and hybrid protocols (Z-MAC and IEEE 802.15.4). ATMA provides energy reductions of up to 80%, while providing the best packet delivery ratio (close to 100%) and latency among all the investigated protocols. Simulations alone cannot reflect many of the challenges faced by real implementations of MAC protocols, such as clock-drift, synchronization, imperfect physical layers, and irregular interference from other transmissions. Such issues may cripple a protocol that otherwise performs very well in software simulations. Hence, to validate my research, I conclude with a hardware implementation of the ATMA protocol on SORA (Software Radio), developed by Microsoft Research Asia. SORA is a reprogrammable Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform that satisfies the throughput and timing requirements of modern wireless protocols while utilizing the rich general purpose PC development environment. Experimental results obtained from the hardware

  14. A Rule-Based Data Transfer Protocol for On-Demand Data Exchange in Vehicular Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Hsien-Chou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of Intelligent Transport System (ITS is mainly to increase the driving safety and efficiency. Data exchange is an important way to achieve the purpose. An on-demand data exchange is especially useful to assist a driver avoiding some emergent events. In order to handle the data exchange under dynamic situations, a rule-based data transfer protocol is proposed in this paper. A set of rules is designed according to the principle of request-forward-reply (RFR. That is, they are used to determine the timing of data broadcasting, forwarding, and replying automatically. Two typical situations are used to demonstrate the operation of rules. One is the front view of a driver occluded by other vehicles. The other is the traffic jam. The proposed protocol is flexible and extensible for unforeseen situations. Three simulation tools were also implemented to demonstrate the feasibility of the protocol and measure the network transmission under high density of vehicles. The simulation results show that the rule-based protocol is efficient on data exchange to increase the driving safety.

  15. Review on the Design of Web Based SCADA Systems Based on OPC DA Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Hosny Ahmed Abbas, Ahmed M. Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    One of the most familiar SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition)application protocols now is OPC protocol. This interface is supported by almostall SCADA, visualization, and process control systems. There are many researchefforts tried to design and implement an approach to access an OPC DA serverthrough the Internet. To achieve this goal they used diverse of modern ITtechnologies like XML, Webservices, Java and AJAX. In this paper, we present acomplete classification of the differen...

  16. SACFIR: SDN-Based Application-Aware Centralized Adaptive Flow Iterative Reconfiguring Routing Protocol for WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smart reconfiguration of a dynamic networking environment is offered by the central control of Software-Defined Networking (SDN. Centralized SDN-based management architectures are capable of retrieving global topology intelligence and decoupling the forwarding plane from the control plane. Routing protocols developed for conventional Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs utilize limited iterative reconfiguration methods to optimize environmental reporting. However, the challenging networking scenarios of WSNs involve a performance overhead due to constant periodic iterative reconfigurations. In this paper, we propose the SDN-based Application-aware Centralized adaptive Flow Iterative Reconfiguring (SACFIR routing protocol with the centralized SDN iterative solver controller to maintain the load-balancing between flow reconfigurations and flow allocation cost. The proposed SACFIR’s routing protocol offers a unique iterative path-selection algorithm, which initially computes suitable clustering based on residual resources at the control layer and then implements application-aware threshold-based multi-hop report transmissions on the forwarding plane. The operation of the SACFIR algorithm is centrally supervised by the SDN controller residing at the Base Station (BS. This paper extends SACFIR to SDN-based Application-aware Main-value Centralized adaptive Flow Iterative Reconfiguring (SAMCFIR to establish both proactive and reactive reporting. The SAMCFIR transmission phase enables sensor nodes to trigger direct transmissions for main-value reports, while in the case of SACFIR, all reports follow computed routes. Our SDN-enabled proposed models adjust the reconfiguration period according to the traffic burden on sensor nodes, which results in heterogeneity awareness, load-balancing and application-specific reconfigurations of WSNs. Extensive experimental simulation-based results show that SACFIR and SAMCFIR yield the maximum scalability, network lifetime

  17. SACFIR: SDN-Based Application-Aware Centralized Adaptive Flow Iterative Reconfiguring Routing Protocol for WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad; Hu, Xiaopeng; Wang, Fan

    2017-12-13

    Smart reconfiguration of a dynamic networking environment is offered by the central control of Software-Defined Networking (SDN). Centralized SDN-based management architectures are capable of retrieving global topology intelligence and decoupling the forwarding plane from the control plane. Routing protocols developed for conventional Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) utilize limited iterative reconfiguration methods to optimize environmental reporting. However, the challenging networking scenarios of WSNs involve a performance overhead due to constant periodic iterative reconfigurations. In this paper, we propose the SDN-based Application-aware Centralized adaptive Flow Iterative Reconfiguring (SACFIR) routing protocol with the centralized SDN iterative solver controller to maintain the load-balancing between flow reconfigurations and flow allocation cost. The proposed SACFIR's routing protocol offers a unique iterative path-selection algorithm, which initially computes suitable clustering based on residual resources at the control layer and then implements application-aware threshold-based multi-hop report transmissions on the forwarding plane. The operation of the SACFIR algorithm is centrally supervised by the SDN controller residing at the Base Station (BS). This paper extends SACFIR to SDN-based Application-aware Main-value Centralized adaptive Flow Iterative Reconfiguring (SAMCFIR) to establish both proactive and reactive reporting. The SAMCFIR transmission phase enables sensor nodes to trigger direct transmissions for main-value reports, while in the case of SACFIR, all reports follow computed routes. Our SDN-enabled proposed models adjust the reconfiguration period according to the traffic burden on sensor nodes, which results in heterogeneity awareness, load-balancing and application-specific reconfigurations of WSNs. Extensive experimental simulation-based results show that SACFIR and SAMCFIR yield the maximum scalability, network lifetime and stability

  18. Effects of citrate-enriched bicarbonate based dialysate on anticoagulation and dialyzer reuse in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Amanda D; Padua, Vanessa C; Oliveira, Esther; Guimaraes, Márcia M; Lugon, Jocemir R; Strogoff de Matos, Jorge P

    2014-04-01

    Systemic anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin is commonly used in maintenance hemodialysis (HD), but it increases the risk of bleeding complications. We investigated whether the use of citrate-enriched bicarbonate based dialysate (CD) would reduce systemic anticoagulation without compromising the efficacy of reprocessed dialyzers. This is a crossover study in which half of a total of 30 patients initially underwent HD with acetate-enriched bicarbonate based dialysate and a standard heparin dose of ∼ 100 IU/kg (Treatment A), whereas the remaining patients were treated with CD and a 30% reduced heparin dose (Treatment B). After 12 consecutive HD sessions in each treatment, the dialysate and heparin doses were reversed, then followed for another period of 12 HD sessions. The two treatment phases were split by a washout period of six HD sessions using acetate-enriched bicarbonate based dialysate and standard heparin dose. Systemic anticoagulation was higher in Treatment A. The activated partial thromboplastin time at the end of HD session was 68 ± 36 seconds in Treatment A and 47 ± 16 seconds in Treatment B (P = 0.005). Sixty-eight percent of the dialyzers remained adequate until the 12th use in Treatment A and 61% did so in Treatment B (P = 0.63). Patients had three and 24 cramps episodes during Treatment A and B, respectively (P < 0.001). Nine and 26 symptomatic intradialytic hypotension episodes were seen in Treatment A and B, respectively, (P = 0.003). In conclusion, the use of CD had a favorable effect on anticoagulation in the extracorporeal circuit in patients on maintenance HD, but it was also associated with more hypotension and cramps. © 2013 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  19. Cooperative Cloud Service Aware Mobile Internet Coverage Connectivity Guarantee Protocol Based on Sensor Opportunistic Coverage Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the Internet coverage ratio and provide connectivity guarantee, based on sensor opportunistic coverage mechanism and cooperative cloud service, we proposed the coverage connectivity guarantee protocol for mobile Internet. In this scheme, based on the opportunistic covering rules, the network coverage algorithm of high reliability and real-time security was achieved by using the opportunity of sensor nodes and the Internet mobile node. Then, the cloud service business support platform is created based on the Internet application service management capabilities and wireless sensor network communication service capabilities, which is the architecture of the cloud support layer. The cooperative cloud service aware model was proposed. Finally, we proposed the mobile Internet coverage connectivity guarantee protocol. The results of experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, in terms of the security of the Internet and the stability, as well as coverage connectivity ability.

  20. Potential seaweed-based food ingredients to inhibit lipid oxidation in fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honold, Philipp; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Jónsdóttir, Rósa

    2016-01-01

    Brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus has a high potential as a source of natural antioxidants due to a high diversity of bioactive compounds in its composition. In this study, four extracts were characterized with respect to composition of bioactive compounds, in vitro antioxidant properties...... and their partitioning between water and octanol. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated in a fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise. Acetone and ethanol were found to extract the highest amount of phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Water used as extraction solvent, extracted some phenolic compounds...... but also higher amount of metals and chlorophyll derivates. It was proposed that extracts with high phenolic content and low iron content, such as the acetone and ethanol extract, would have the highest potential as antioxidants in foods. This was confirmed in the storage trial, where these extracts showed...

  1. Size-exclusion chromatography-based enrichment of extracellular vesicles from urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Ramos, Inés; Bancu, Ioana; Oliveira-Tercero, Anna; Armengol, María Pilar; Menezes-Neto, Armando; Del Portillo, Hernando A; Lauzurica-Valdemoros, Ricardo; Borràs, Francesc E

    2015-01-01

    Renal biopsy is the gold-standard procedure to diagnose most of renal pathologies. However, this invasive method is of limited repeatability and often describes an irreversible renal damage. Urine is an easily accessible fluid and urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) may be ideal to describe new biomarkers associated with renal pathologies. Several methods to enrich EVs have been described. Most of them contain a mixture of proteins, lipoproteins and cell debris that may be masking relevant biomarkers. Here, we evaluated size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) as a suitable method to isolate urinary EVs. Following a conventional centrifugation to eliminate cell debris and apoptotic bodies, urine samples were concentrated using ultrafiltration and loaded on a SEC column. Collected fractions were analysed by protein content and flow cytometry to determine the presence of tetraspanin markers (CD63 and CD9). The highest tetraspanin content was routinely detected in fractions well before the bulk of proteins eluted. These tetraspanin-peak fractions were analysed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis revealing the presence of EVs.When analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tetraspanin-peak fractions from urine concentrated samples contained multiple bands but the main urine proteins (such as Tamm-Horsfall protein) were absent. Furthermore, a preliminary proteomic study of these fractions revealed the presence of EV-related proteins, suggesting their enrichment in concentrated samples. In addition, RNA profiling also showed the presence of vesicular small RNA species.To summarize, our results demonstrated that concentrated urine followed by SEC is a suitable option to isolate EVs with low presence of soluble contaminants. This methodology could permit more accurate analyses of EV-related biomarkers when further characterized by -omics technologies compared with other approaches.

  2. Size-exclusion chromatography-based enrichment of extracellular vesicles from urine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Lozano-Ramos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Renal biopsy is the gold-standard procedure to diagnose most of renal pathologies. However, this invasive method is of limited repeatability and often describes an irreversible renal damage. Urine is an easily accessible fluid and urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs may be ideal to describe new biomarkers associated with renal pathologies. Several methods to enrich EVs have been described. Most of them contain a mixture of proteins, lipoproteins and cell debris that may be masking relevant biomarkers. Here, we evaluated size-exclusion chromatography (SEC as a suitable method to isolate urinary EVs. Following a conventional centrifugation to eliminate cell debris and apoptotic bodies, urine samples were concentrated using ultrafiltration and loaded on a SEC column. Collected fractions were analysed by protein content and flow cytometry to determine the presence of tetraspanin markers (CD63 and CD9. The highest tetraspanin content was routinely detected in fractions well before the bulk of proteins eluted. These tetraspanin-peak fractions were analysed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM and nanoparticle tracking analysis revealing the presence of EVs.When analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tetraspanin-peak fractions from urine concentrated samples contained multiple bands but the main urine proteins (such as Tamm–Horsfall protein were absent. Furthermore, a preliminary proteomic study of these fractions revealed the presence of EV-related proteins, suggesting their enrichment in concentrated samples. In addition, RNA profiling also showed the presence of vesicular small RNA species.To summarize, our results demonstrated that concentrated urine followed by SEC is a suitable option to isolate EVs with low presence of soluble contaminants. This methodology could permit more accurate analyses of EV-related biomarkers when further characterized by -omics technologies compared with other approaches.

  3. Bioremediation of oil sludge contaminated soil using bulking agent mixture enriched consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri Retno, D.L.; Mulyana, N.

    2013-01-01

    Bulking agent mixture enriched consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost was used on bioremediation of microcosm scale contaminated by hydrocarbon soil. Bioremediation composting was carried out for 42 days. Composting was done with a mixture of bulking agent (sawdust, residual sludge biogas and compost) by 30%, mud petroleum (oil sludge) by 20% and 50% of soil. Mixture of 80% soil and 20% oil sludge was used as a control. Irradiated compost was used as a carrier for consortia of microbial inoculants (F + B) which biodegradable hydrocarbons. Treatment variations include A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2, D1 and D2. Process parameters were observed to determine the optimal conditions include: temperature, pH, water content, TPC (Total Plate Count) and degradation of % TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon). Optimal conditions were achieved in the remediation of oil sludge contamination of 20% using the B2 treatment with the addition consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost of sawdust (bulking agentby 30% at concentrations of soil by 50% with TPH degradation optimal efficiency of 81.32%. The result of GC-MS analysis showed that bioremediation for 42 days by using a sawdust as a mixture of bulking agents which enriched consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost is biodegradeable, so initial hydrocarbons with the distribution of the carbon chain C-7 to C-54 into final hydrocarbons with the distribution of carbon chain C-6 to C-8. (author)

  4. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbuny, M.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method for deriving, from a starting material including an element having a plurality of isotopes, derived material enriched in one isotope of the element. The starting material is deposited on a substrate at less than a critical submonatomic surface density, typically less than 10 16 atoms per square centimeter. The deposit is then selectively irradiated by a laser (maser or electronic oscillator) beam with monochromatic coherent radiation resonant with the one isotope causing the material including the one istope to escape from the substrate. The escaping enriched material is then collected. Where the element has two isotopes, one of which is to be collected, the deposit may be irradiated with radiation resonant with the other isotope and the residual material enriched in the one isotope may be evaporated from the substrate and collected

  5. Research and application of ARP protocol vulnerability attack and defense technology based on trusted network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Huixing

    2017-03-01

    With the continuous development of network technology and the rapid spread of the Internet, computer networks have been around the world every corner. However, the network attacks frequently occur. The ARP protocol vulnerability is one of the most common vulnerabilities in the TCP / IP four-layer architecture. The network protocol vulnerabilities can lead to the intrusion and attack of the information system, and disable or disable the normal defense function of the system [1]. At present, ARP spoofing Trojans spread widely in the LAN, the network security to run a huge hidden danger, is the primary threat to LAN security. In this paper, the author summarizes the research status and the key technologies involved in ARP protocol, analyzes the formation mechanism of ARP protocol vulnerability, and analyzes the feasibility of the attack technique. Based on the summary of the common defensive methods, the advantages and disadvantages of each defense method. At the same time, the current defense method is improved, and the advantage of the improved defense algorithm is given. At the end of this paper, the appropriate test method is selected and the test environment is set up. Experiment and test are carried out for each proposed improved defense algorithm.

  6. Loaded hip thrust-based PAP protocol effects on acceleration and sprint performance of handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello Iacono, Antonio; Padulo, Johnny; Seitz, Laurent D

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two barbell hip thrust-based (BHT) post-activation potentiation (PAP) protocols on subsequent sprint performance. Using a crossover design, eighteen handball athletes performed maximal 15-m sprints before and 15s, 4min and 8min after two experimental protocols consisting of BHT loaded with either 50% or 85% 1RM (50PAP and 85PAP, respectively), in order to profile the transient PAP effects. The resulting sprint performances were significantly impaired at 15s only after the 85PAP protocol, which induced likely and very likely greater decreases compared to the 50PAP. At 4min and 8min, significant improvements and very likely beneficial effects were observed in the 10m and 15m performances following both protocols. Significant differences were found when comparing the two PAPs over time; the results suggested very likely greater performance improvements in 10m following the 85PAP after 4min and 8min, and possible greater performance improvements in 15m after 4min. Positive correlations between BHT 1RMs values and the greatest individual PAP responses on sprint performance were found. This investigation showed that both moderate and intensive BHT exercises can induce a PAP response, but the effects may differ according to the recovery following the potentiating stimulus and the individual`s strength level.

  7. A Lightweight RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol Based on Physical Unclonable Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He; Ding, Jie; Li, Peng; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Ruchuan

    2018-03-02

    With the fast development of the Internet of Things, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been widely applied into many areas. Nevertheless, security problems of the RFID technology are also gradually exposed, when it provides life convenience. In particular, the appearance of a large number of fake and counterfeit goods has caused massive loss for both producers and customers, for which the clone tag is a serious security threat. If attackers acquire the complete information of a tag, they can then obtain the unique identifier of the tag by some technological means. In general, because there is no extra identifier of a tag, it is difficult to distinguish an original tag and its clone one. Once the legal tag data is obtained, attackers can be able to clone this tag. Therefore, this paper shows an efficient RFID mutual verification protocol. This protocol is based on the Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) and the lightweight cryptography to achieve efficient verification of a single tag. The protocol includes three process: tag recognition, mutual verification and update. The tag recognition is that the reader recognizes the tag; mutual verification is that the reader and tag mutually verify the authenticity of each other; update is supposed to maintain the latest secret key for the following verification. Analysis results show that this protocol has a good balance between performance and security.

  8. Energy Efficient Clustering Based Network Protocol Stack for 3D Airborne Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Joshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network consists of large number of nodes densely deployed in ad hoc manner. Usually, most of the application areas of WSNs require two-dimensional (2D topology. Various emerging application areas such as airborne networks and underwater wireless sensor networks are usually deployed using three-dimensional (3D network topology. In this paper, a static 3D cluster-based network topology has been proposed for airborne networks. A network protocol stack consisting of various protocols such as TDMA MAC and dynamic routing along with services such as time synchronization, Cluster Head rotation, and power level management has been proposed for this airborne network. The proposed protocol stack has been implemented on the hardware platform consisting of number of TelosB nodes. This 3D airborne network architecture can be used to measure Air Quality Index (AQI in an area. Various parameters of network such as energy consumption, Cluster Head rotation, time synchronization, and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR have been analyzed. Detailed description of the implementation of the protocol stack along with results of implementation has been provided in this paper.

  9. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.

  10. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Al-Nahari

    Full Text Available Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV, which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.

  11. IJS: An Intelligent Junction Selection Based Routing Protocol for VANET to Support ITS Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, Sourav Kumar; Khilar, Pabitra Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Selecting junctions intelligently for data transmission provides better intelligent transportation system (ITS) services. The main problem in vehicular communication is high disturbances of link connectivity due to mobility and less density of vehicles. If link conditions are predicted earlier, then there is a less chance of performance degradation. In this paper, an intelligent junction selection based routing protocol (IJS) is proposed to transmit the data in a quickest path, in which the vehicles are mostly connected and have less link connectivity problem. In this protocol, a helping vehicle is set at every junction to control the communication by predicting link failures or network gaps in a route. Helping vehicle at the junction produces a score for every neighboring junction to forward the data to the destination by considering the current traffic information and selects that junction which has minimum score. IJS protocol is implemented and compared with GyTAR, A-STAR, and GSR routing protocols. Simulation results show that IJS performs better in terms of average end-to-end delay, network gap encounter, and number of hops.

  12. A Novel Cross-Layer Routing Protocol Based on Network Coding for Underwater Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Shilian; Bu, Renfei; Zhang, Eryang

    2017-08-08

    Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) have attracted increasing attention in recent years because of their numerous applications in ocean monitoring, resource discovery and tactical surveillance. However, the design of reliable and efficient transmission and routing protocols is a challenge due to the low acoustic propagation speed and complex channel environment in UWSNs. In this paper, we propose a novel cross-layer routing protocol based on network coding (NCRP) for UWSNs, which utilizes network coding and cross-layer design to greedily forward data packets to sink nodes efficiently. The proposed NCRP takes full advantages of multicast transmission and decode packets jointly with encoded packets received from multiple potential nodes in the entire network. The transmission power is optimized in our design to extend the life cycle of the network. Moreover, we design a real-time routing maintenance protocol to update the route when detecting inefficient relay nodes. Substantial simulations in underwater environment by Network Simulator 3 (NS-3) show that NCRP significantly improves the network performance in terms of energy consumption, end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio compared with other routing protocols for UWSNs.

  13. RLT Code Based Handshake-Free Reliable MAC Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of underwater acoustic channels such as long propagation delay and low bit rate cause the medium access control (MAC protocols designed for radio channels to either be inapplicable or have low efficiency for underwater sensor networks (UWSNs. Meanwhile, due to high bit error, conventional end-to-end reliable transfer solutions bring about too many retransmissions and are inefficient in UWSN. In this paper, we present a recursive LT (RLT code. With small degree distribution and recursive encoding, RLT achieves reliable transmission hop-by-hop while reducing the complexity of encoding and decoding in UWSN. We further propose an RLT code based handshake-free (RCHF reliable MAC protocol. In RCHF protocol, each node maintains a neighbor table including the field of state, and packages are forwarded according to the state of a receiver, which can avoid collisions of sending-receiving and overhearing. The transmission-avoidance time in RCHF decreases data-ACK collision dramatically. Without RTS/CTS handshaking, the RCHF protocol improves channel utilization while achieving reliable transmission. Simulation results show that, compared with the existing reliable data transport approaches for underwater networks, RCHF can improve network throughput while decreasing end-to-end overhead.

  14. Lightweight UDP Pervasive Protocol in Smart Home Environment Based on Labview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Wijaya; Hannats Hanafi Ichsan, Mochammad; Rizqika Akbar, Sabriansyah; Arwani, Issa

    2017-04-01

    TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) technology in a reliable environment was not a problem, but not in an environment where the entire Smart Home network connected locally. Currently employing pervasive protocols using TCP technology, when data transmission is sent, it would be slower because they have to perform handshaking process in advance and could not broadcast the data. On smart home environment, it does not need large size and complex data transmission between monitoring site and monitoring center required in Smart home strain monitoring system. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) technology is quick and simple on data transmission process. UDP can broadcast messages because the UDP did not require handshaking and with more efficient memory usage. LabVIEW is a programming language software for processing and visualization of data in the field of data acquisition. This paper proposes to examine Pervasive UDP protocol implementations in smart home environment based on LabVIEW. UDP coded in LabVIEW and experiments were performed on a PC and can work properly.

  15. IDMA-based MAC protocol for satellite networks with consideration on channel quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gongliang; Fang, Xinrui; Kang, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    In order to overcome the shortcomings of existing medium access control (MAC) protocols based on TDMA or CDMA in satellite networks, interleave division multiple access (IDMA) technique is introduced into satellite communication networks. Therefore, a novel wide-band IDMA MAC protocol based on channel quality is proposed in this paper, consisting of a dynamic power allocation algorithm, a rate adaptation algorithm, and a call admission control (CAC) scheme. Firstly, the power allocation algorithm combining the technique of IDMA SINR-evolution and channel quality prediction is developed to guarantee high power efficiency even in terrible channel conditions. Secondly, the effective rate adaptation algorithm, based on accurate channel information per timeslot and by the means of rate degradation, can be realized. What is more, based on channel quality prediction, the CAC scheme, combining the new power allocation algorithm, rate scheduling, and buffering strategies together, is proposed for the emerging IDMA systems, which can support a variety of traffic types, and offering quality of service (QoS) requirements corresponding to different priority levels. Simulation results show that the new wide-band IDMA MAC protocol can make accurate estimation of available resource considering the effect of multiuser detection (MUD) and QoS requirements of multimedia traffic, leading to low outage probability as well as high overall system throughput.

  16. Towards an international standard for PCR-based detection of foodborne thermotolerant campylobacters: interaction of enrichment media and pre-PCR treatment on carcass rinse samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Hansen, F.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a large EU project for standardisation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a systematic evaluation of the interaction of enrichment media, type of DNA polymerase and pre-PCR sample treatment for a PCR detecting thermotolerant campylobacters was carried out. The growth-supporting capacity...... and PCR compatibility of enrichment in Preston, Mueller-Hinton and Bolton broth (blood-containing and blood-free) were evaluated. The effect of resin-based DNA extraction and DNA extraction by boiling on the final PCR assay was investigated. The time-course studies indicated that a 20-h sample enrichment...... in blood-containing Bolton broth, followed by a simple resin-based extraction of DNA and a PCR amplification using Tth polymerase, resulted in strong and clear PCR amplicons for target (287 bp) and internal amplification control (IAC, 124 bp). The enrichment PCR-based method, tested on 68 presumably...

  17. An agenda-based routing protocol in delay tolerant mobile sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Min; Zhu, Jin-Qi; Liu, Ming; Gong, Hai-Gang

    2010-01-01

    Routing in delay tolerant mobile sensor networks (DTMSNs) is challenging due to the networks' intermittent connectivity. Most existing routing protocols for DTMSNs use simplistic random mobility models for algorithm design and performance evaluation. In the real world, however, due to the unique characteristics of human mobility, currently existing random mobility models may not work well in environments where mobile sensor units are carried (such as DTMSNs). Taking a person's social activities into consideration, in this paper, we seek to improve DTMSN routing in terms of social structure and propose an agenda based routing protocol (ARP). In ARP, humans are classified based on their agendas and data transmission is made according to sensor nodes' transmission rankings. The effectiveness of ARP is demonstrated through comprehensive simulation studies.

  18. A survey on bio inspired meta heuristic based clustering protocols for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, A.; Nandakumar, S.

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that utilizing a mobile sink to harvest and carry data from a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) can improve network operational efficiency as well as maintain uniform energy consumption by the sensor nodes in the network. Due to Sink mobility, the path between two sensor nodes continuously changes and this has a profound effect on the operational longevity of the network and a need arises for a protocol which utilizes minimal resources in maintaining routes between the mobile sink and the sensor nodes. Swarm Intelligence based techniques inspired by the foraging behavior of ants, termites and honey bees can be artificially simulated and utilized to solve real wireless network problems. The author presents a brief survey on various bio inspired swarm intelligence based protocols used in routing data in wireless sensor networks while outlining their general principle and operation.

  19. Prediction based Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing Protocol for Vehicular Self-organizing Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Fan, Quanrun; Chen, Xiaolin; Xu, Wanjin

    2018-03-01

    PGPSR (Prediction based Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing) is based on and extended the GPSR protocol to adapt to the high speed mobility of the vehicle auto organization network (VANET) and the changes in the network topology. GPSR is used in the VANET network environment, the network loss rate and throughput are not ideal, even cannot work. Aiming at the problems of the GPSR, the proposed PGPSR routing protocol, it redefines the hello and query packet structure, in the structure of the new node speed and direction information, which received the next update before you can take advantage of its speed and direction to predict the position of node and new network topology, select the right the next hop routing and path. Secondly, the update of the outdated node information of the neighbor’s table is deleted in time. The simulation experiment shows the performance of PGPSR is better than that of GPSR.

  20. Classification of pregnancies of unknown location according to four different hCG-based protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistouris, J; Bergh, C; Strandell, A

    2016-10-01

    How do four protocols based on serial human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) measurements perform when classifying pregnancies of unknown location (PULs) as low or high risk of being an ectopic pregnancy (EP)? The use of cut-offs in hCG level changes published by NICE, and a logistic regression model, M4, correctly classify more PULs as high risk, compared with two other protocols. A logistic regression model, M4, based on the mean of two consecutive hCG values and the hCG ratio (hCG 48 h/hCG 0 h) that classify PULs into low- and high-risk groups for triage purposes, identifies more EPs than a protocol using the cut-offs between a 13% decline and a 66% rise in hCG levels over 48 h. A retrospective comparative study of four different hCG-based protocols classifying PULs as low or high risk of being an EP was performed at a gynaecological emergency unit over 3 years. We identified 915 women with a PUL. Initial transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) findings categorised 187 of the PULs as probable intrauterine pregnancies (IUPs) and 16 as probable EPs. The rate of change in hCG levels over 48 h was calculated for each patient and subjected to three different hCG threshold intervals and a logistic regression model for outcome prediction. Each PUL was subsequently dichotomised to either low-risk (i.e. failed PUL/IUP) or high-risk (i.e. EP) classification, which allowed us to compare the diagnostic performance. In 'Protocol A', a PUL was classified as low risk if >13% hCG level decline or >66% hCG level rise was achieved; otherwise, the PUL was classified as high risk of being an EP. 'Protocol B' classified a PUL as low or high risk using cut-offs of 35-50% declining hCG levels and of 53% rising hCG levels. Similarly, 'Protocol C' used hCG level cut-offs published by NICE, 50% for declining hCG levels and 63% for rising hCG levels. Finally, if a logistic regression model 'Protocol M4' calculated a ≥5% risk of the PUL being an EP, it was classified as high risk, and otherwise

  1. Annotation-based enrichment of Digital Objects using open-source frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Emmanuel Barnes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The W3C Web Annotation Data Model, Protocol, and Vocabulary unify approaches to annotations across the web, enabling their aggregation, discovery and persistence over time. In addition, new javascript libraries provide the ability for users to annotate multi-format content. In this paper, we describe how we have leveraged these developments to provide annotation features alongside Islandora’s existing preservation, access, and management capabilities. We also discuss our experience developing with the Web Annotation Model as an open web architecture standard, as well as our approach to integrating mature external annotation libraries. The resulting software (the Web Annotation Utility Module for Islandora accommodates annotation across multiple formats. This solution can be used in various digital scholarship contexts.

  2. Total synthesis of Ivorenolide A following a base-induced elimination protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Debendra K; Umamaheshwar, Gonela; Rao, R Nageshwar; Rao, T Srinivasa; R, Sudheer Kumar; Yadav, Jhillu S

    2015-02-20

    A concise and stereocontrolled first total synthesis of Ivorenolide A (1) is reported in 16 longest linear steps with a 13.4% overall yield starting from (+)-diethyl tartrate (DET). Key features are base-induced elimination protocol for the construction of chiral propargyl alcohols in both fragments, Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of terminal acetylenes, and Shiina's 2-methyl-6-nitrobezoic anhydride (MNBA) mediated macrolactonization.

  3. Evaluation of different enrichment methods for pathogenic Yersinia species detection by real time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Yersiniosis is a zoonotic disease reported worldwide. Culture and PCR based protocols are the most common used methods for detection of pathogenic Yersinia species in animal samples. PCR sensitivity could be increased by an initial enrichment step. This step is particularly useful in surveillance programs, where PCR is applied to samples from asymptomatic animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the improvement in pathogenic Yersinia species detection using a suitable enrichment method prior to the real time PCR (rtPCR). Nine different enrichment protocols were evaluated including six different broth mediums (CASO, ITC, PSB, PBS, PBSMSB and PBSSSB). Results The analysis of variance showed significant differences in Yersinia detection by rtPCR according to the enrichment protocol used. These differences were higher for Y. pseudotuberculosis than for Y. enterocolitica. In general, samples incubated at lower temperatures yielded the highest detection rates. The best results were obtained with PBSMSB and PBS2. Application of PBSMSB protocol to free-ranging wild board samples improved the detection of Y. enterocolitica by 21.2% when compared with direct rtPCR. Y. pseudotuberculosis detection was improved by 10.6% when results obtained by direct rtPCR and by PBSMSB enrichment before rtPCR were analyzed in combination. Conclusions The data obtained in the present study indicate a difference in Yersinia detection by rtPCR related to the enrichment protocol used, being PBSMSB enrichment during 15 days at 4°C and PBS during 7 days at 4°C the most efficient. The use of direct rtPCR in combination with PBSMSB enrichment prior to rtPCR resulted in an improvement in the detection rates of pathogenic Yersinia in wild boar and could be useful for application in other animal samples. PMID:25168886

  4. Feasibility study of an alkaline-based chemical treatment for the purification of polyhydroxybutyrate produced by a mixed enriched culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Mikova, Gizela; Kleerebezem, Robbert; van der Wielen, Luuk Am; Cuellar, Maria C

    2015-12-01

    This study focused on investigating the feasibility of purifying polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from mixed culture biomass by alkaline-based chemical treatment. The PHB-containing biomass was enriched on acetate under non-sterile conditions. Alkaline treatment (0.2 M NaOH) together with surfactant SDS (0.2 w/v% SDS) could reach 99% purity, with more than 90% recovery. The lost PHB could be mostly attributed to PHB hydrolysis during the alkaline treatment. PHB hydrolysis could be moderated by increasing the crystallinity of the PHB granules, for example, by biomass pretreatment (e.g. freezing or lyophilization) or by effective cell lysis (e.g. adjusting alkali concentration). The suitability of the purified PHB by alkaline treatment for polymer applications was evaluated by molecular weight and thermal stability. A solvent based purification method was also performed for comparison purposes. As result, PHB produced by mixed enriched cultures was found suitable for thermoplastic applications when purified by the solvent method. While the alkaline method resulted in purity, recovery yield and molecular weight comparable to values reported in literature for PHB produced by pure cultures, it was found unsuitable for thermoplastic applications. Given the potential low cost and favorable environmental impact of this method, it is expected that PHB purified by alkaline method may be suitable for other non-thermal polymer applications, and as a platform chemical.

  5. An Eccentricity Based Data Routing Protocol with Uniform Node Distribution in 3D WSN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosen, A S M Sanwar; Cho, Gi Hwan; Ra, In-Ho

    2017-09-16

    Due to nonuniform node distribution, the energy consumption of nodes are imbalanced in clustering-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs). It might have more impact when nodes are deployed in a three-dimensional (3D) environment. In this regard, we propose the eccentricity based data routing (EDR) protocol in a 3D WSN with uniform node distribution. It includes network partitions called 3D subspaces/clusters of equal member nodes, an energy-efficient routing centroid (RC) nodes election and data routing algorithm. The RC nodes election conducts in a quasi-static nature until a certain period unlike the periodic cluster heads election of typical clustering-based routing. It not only reduces the energy consumption of nodes during the election phase, but also in intra-communication. At the same time, the routing algorithm selects a forwarding node in such a way that balances the energy consumption among RC nodes and reduces the number of hops towards the sink. The simulation results validate and ensure the performance supremacy of the EDR protocol compared to existing protocols in terms of various metrics such as steady state and network lifetime in particular. Meanwhile, the results show the EDR is more robust in uniform node distribution compared to nonuniform.

  6. Optimizing the MAC Protocol in Localization Systems Based on IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Pérez-Solano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency signals are commonly used in the development of indoor localization systems. The infrastructure of these systems includes some beacons placed at known positions that exchange radio packets with users to be located. When the system is implemented using wireless sensor networks, the wireless transceivers integrated in the network motes are usually based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. But, the CSMA-CA, which is the basis for the medium access protocols in this category of communication systems, is not suitable when several users want to exchange bursts of radio packets with the same beacon to acquire the radio signal strength indicator (RSSI values needed in the location process. Therefore, new protocols are necessary to avoid the packet collisions that appear when multiple users try to communicate with the same beacons. On the other hand, the RSSI sampling process should be carried out very quickly because some systems cannot tolerate a large delay in the location process. This is even more important when the RSSI sampling process includes measures with different signal power levels or frequency channels. The principal objective of this work is to speed up the RSSI sampling process in indoor localization systems. To achieve this objective, the main contribution is the proposal of a new MAC protocol that eliminates the medium access contention periods and decreases the number of packet collisions to accelerate the RSSI collection process. Moreover, the protocol increases the overall network throughput taking advantage of the frequency channel diversity. The presented results show the suitability of this protocol for reducing the RSSI gathering delay and increasing the network throughput in simulated and real environments.

  7. Optimizing the MAC Protocol in Localization Systems Based on IEEE 802.15.4 Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Solano, Juan J; Claver, Jose M; Ezpeleta, Santiago

    2017-07-06

    Radio frequency signals are commonly used in the development of indoor localization systems. The infrastructure of these systems includes some beacons placed at known positions that exchange radio packets with users to be located. When the system is implemented using wireless sensor networks, the wireless transceivers integrated in the network motes are usually based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. But, the CSMA-CA, which is the basis for the medium access protocols in this category of communication systems, is not suitable when several users want to exchange bursts of radio packets with the same beacon to acquire the radio signal strength indicator (RSSI) values needed in the location process. Therefore, new protocols are necessary to avoid the packet collisions that appear when multiple users try to communicate with the same beacons. On the other hand, the RSSI sampling process should be carried out very quickly because some systems cannot tolerate a large delay in the location process. This is even more important when the RSSI sampling process includes measures with different signal power levels or frequency channels. The principal objective of this work is to speed up the RSSI sampling process in indoor localization systems. To achieve this objective, the main contribution is the proposal of a new MAC protocol that eliminates the medium access contention periods and decreases the number of packet collisions to accelerate the RSSI collection process. Moreover, the protocol increases the overall network throughput taking advantage of the frequency channel diversity. The presented results show the suitability of this protocol for reducing the RSSI gathering delay and increasing the network throughput in simulated and real environments.

  8. A Secure Network Coding-based Data Gathering Model and Its Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To provide security for data gathering based on network coding in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, a secure network coding-based data gathering model is proposed, and a data-privacy preserving and pollution preventing (DPPaamp;PP protocol using network coding is designed. DPPaamp;PP makes use of a new proposed pollution symbol selection and pollution (PSSP scheme based on a new obfuscation idea to pollute existing symbols. Analyses of DPPaamp;PP show that it not only requires low overhead on computation and communication, but also provides high security on resisting brute-force attacks.

  9. Where Words Fail, Music Speaks: A Mixed Method Study of an Evidence-Based Music Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Ruby A; Torres, David; Reeser, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous studies documenting the benefits of music, hospice social workers are often unfamiliar with evidence-based music practices that may improve end of life care. This mixed method study tested an intervention to teach hospice social workers and chaplains (N = 10) an evidence-based music protocol. Participants used the evidence-based practice (EBP) for 30 days, recording 226 journal entries that described observations of 84 patients and their families. There was a significant increase in EBP knowledge (35%). Prompting behavioral and emotional responses, music was described frequently as a catalyst that facilitated deeper dialogue between patients, families, social workers, and chaplains.

  10. Epigenomic annotation-based interpretation of genomic data: from enrichment analysis to machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozmorov, Mikhail G

    2017-10-15

    One of the goals of functional genomics is to understand the regulatory implications of experimentally obtained genomic regions of interest (ROIs). Most sequencing technologies now generate ROIs distributed across the whole genome. The interpretation of these genome-wide ROIs represents a challenge as the majority of them lie outside of functionally well-defined protein coding regions. Recent efforts by the members of the International Human Epigenome Consortium have generated volumes of functional/regulatory data (reference epigenomic datasets), effectively annotating the genome with epigenomic properties. Consequently, a wide variety of computational tools has been developed utilizing these epigenomic datasets for the interpretation of genomic data. The purpose of this review is to provide a structured overview of practical solutions for the interpretation of ROIs with the help of epigenomic data. Starting with epigenomic enrichment analysis, we discuss leading tools and machine learning methods utilizing epigenomic and 3D genome structure data. The hierarchy of tools and methods reviewed here presents a practical guide for the interpretation of genome-wide ROIs within an epigenomic context. mikhail.dozmorov@vcuhealth.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Highly-Bioreactive Silica-Based Mesoporous Bioactive Glasses Enriched with Gallium(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Salcedo, Sandra; Malavasi, Gianluca; Salinas, Antonio J; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Rigamonti, Luca; Menabue, Ledi; Vallet-Regi, Maria

    2018-03-02

    Beneficial effects in bone cell growth and antibacterial action are currently attributed to Ga 3+ ions. Thus, they can be used to upgrade mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs), investigated for tissue engineering, whenever they released therapeutic amounts of gallium ions to the surrounding medium. Three gallium-enriched MBGs with composition (in mol %) x SiO₂- y CaO- z P₂O₅-5Ga₂O₃, being x = 70, y = 15, z = 10 for Ga_1 ; x = 80, y = 12, z = 3 for Ga_2 ; and x = 80, y = 15, z = 0 for Ga_3 , were investigated and compared with the gallium-free 80SiO₂-15CaO-5P₂O₅ MBG ( B ). 29 Si and 31 P MAS NMR analyses indicated that Ga 3+ acts as network modifier in the glass regions with higher polymerization degree and as network former in the zones with high concentration of classical modifiers (Ca 2+ ions). Ga_1 and Ga_2 exhibited a quick in vitro bioactive response because they were coated by an apatite-like layer after 1 and 3 days in simulated body fluid. Although we have not conducted biological tests in this paper (cells or bacteria), Ga_1 released high but non-cytotoxic amounts of Ga 3+ ions in Todd Hewitt Broth culture medium that were 140 times higher than the IC90 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria, demonstrating its potential for tissue engineering applications.

  12. Quality improvement of gluten-free bread based on soybean and enriched with sugar beet molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimurina Olivera D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to improve the quality of gluten-free bread made with high content of soy flour and enriched with sugar beet molasses by incorporating ingredients with a potential to simultaneously enhance the nutritional quality of the breads. The following ingredients were used: pea protein isolate, pea fibre and chia seeds. The chosen ingredients exerted positive effects on bread quality. They promoted volume increase and crumb softening. In this respect, the most effective ingredients were pea protein isolate (at 1% supplementation level, pea fibre (at up to 2% supplementation level and chia seeds (at 1% supplementation level. The sensory analysis revealed that pea fibre and chia addition at 1 and 2% supplementation level provided bread with higher scores regarding overall acceptance, crumb texture and taste. At 1% supplementation level, there was not found statistically significant difference in sensory attributes of bread supplemented with pea protein isolate in comparison to the control. However, pea protein isolate was found to strongly diminish bread taste at 4% supplementation level due to presence of beany taste.

  13. Development of functional milk desserts enriched with resistant starch based on consumers' perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Florencia; Arrarte, Eloísa; De León, Tania; Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2012-10-01

    Sensory characteristics play a key role in determining consumers' acceptance of functional foods. In this context, the aim of the present work was to apply a combination of sensory and consumer methodologies to the development of chocolate milk desserts enriched with resistant starch. Chocolate milk desserts containing modified waxy maize starch were formulated with six different concentrations of two types of resistant starch (which are part of insoluble dietary fiber). The desserts were evaluated by trained assessors using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. Moreover, consumers scored their overall liking and willingness to purchase and answered an open-ended question. Resistant starch caused significant changes in the sensory characteristics of the desserts and a significant decrease in consumers' overall liking and willingness to purchase. Consumer data was analyzed applying survival analysis on overall liking scores, considering the risk on consumers liking and willing to purchase the functional products less than their regular counterparts. The proposed methodologies proved to be useful to develop functional foods taking into account consumers' perception, which could increase their success in the market.

  14. Edge-enriched, porous carbon-based, high energy density supercapacitors for hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Jung; Yang, Cheol-Min; Park, Ki Chul; Kaneko, Katsumi; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Noguchi, Minoru; Fujino, Takeshi; Oyama, Shigeki; Endo, Morinobu

    2012-03-12

    Supercapacitors can store and deliver energy by a simple charge separation, and thus they could be an attractive option to meet transient high energy density in operating fuel cells and in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve such requirements, intensive studies have been carried out to improve the volumetric capacitance in supercapacitors using various types and forms of carbons including carbon nanotubes and graphenes. However, conventional porous carbons are not suitable for use as electrode material in supercapacitors for such high energy density applications. Here, we show that edge-enriched porous carbons are the best electrode material for high energy density supercapacitors to be used in vehicles as an auxiliary powertrain. Molten potassium hydroxide penetrates well-aligned graphene layers vertically and consequently generates both suitable pores that are easily accessible to the electrolyte and a large fraction of electrochemically active edge sites. We expect that our findings will motivate further research related to energy storage devices and also environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Highly-Bioreactive Silica-Based Mesoporous Bioactive Glasses Enriched with Gallium(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sanchez-Salcedo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects in bone cell growth and antibacterial action are currently attributed to Ga3+ ions. Thus, they can be used to upgrade mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs, investigated for tissue engineering, whenever they released therapeutic amounts of gallium ions to the surrounding medium. Three gallium-enriched MBGs with composition (in mol % xSiO2–yCaO–zP2O5–5Ga2O3, being x = 70, y = 15, z = 10 for Ga_1; x = 80, y = 12, z = 3 for Ga_2; and x = 80, y = 15, z = 0 for Ga_3, were investigated and compared with the gallium-free 80SiO2–15CaO–5P2O5 MBG (B. 29Si and 31P MAS NMR analyses indicated that Ga3+ acts as network modifier in the glass regions with higher polymerization degree and as network former in the zones with high concentration of classical modifiers (Ca2+ ions. Ga_1 and Ga_2 exhibited a quick in vitro bioactive response because they were coated by an apatite-like layer after 1 and 3 days in simulated body fluid. Although we have not conducted biological tests in this paper (cells or bacteria, Ga_1 released high but non-cytotoxic amounts of Ga3+ ions in Todd Hewitt Broth culture medium that were 140 times higher than the IC90 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria, demonstrating its potential for tissue engineering applications.

  16. Event-Based Media Enrichment Using an Adaptive Probabilistic Hypergraph Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueliang; Wang, Meng; Yin, Bao-Cai; Huet, Benoit; Li, Xuelong

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, with the continual development of digital capture technologies and social media services, a vast number of media documents are captured and shared online to help attendees record their experience during events. In this paper, we present a method combining semantic inference and multimodal analysis for automatically finding media content to illustrate events using an adaptive probabilistic hypergraph model. In this model, media items are taken as vertices in the weighted hypergraph and the task of enriching media to illustrate events is formulated as a ranking problem. In our method, each hyperedge is constructed using the K-nearest neighbors of a given media document. We also employ a probabilistic representation, which assigns each vertex to a hyperedge in a probabilistic way, to further exploit the correlation among media data. Furthermore, we optimize the hypergraph weights in a regularization framework, which is solved as a second-order cone problem. The approach is initiated by seed media and then used to rank the media documents using a transductive inference process. The results obtained from validating the approach on an event dataset collected from EventMedia demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. A MATLAB tool for pathway enrichment using a topology-based pathway regulation score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Maysson; Jassim, Sabah; Cawthorne, Michael Anthony; Langlands, Kenneth

    2014-11-04

    Handling the vast amount of gene expression data generated by genome-wide transcriptional profiling techniques is a challenging task, demanding an informed combination of pre-processing, filtering and analysis methods if meaningful biological conclusions are to be drawn. For example, a range of traditional statistical and computational pathway analysis approaches have been used to identify over-represented processes in microarray data derived from various disease states. However, most of these approaches tend not to exploit the full spectrum of gene expression data, or the various relationships and dependencies. Previously, we described a pathway enrichment analysis tool created in MATLAB that yields a Pathway Regulation Score (PRS) by considering signalling pathway topology, and the overrepresentation and magnitude of differentially-expressed genes (J Comput Biol 19:563-573, 2012). Herein, we extended this approach to include metabolic pathways, and described the use of a graphical user interface (GUI). Using input from a variety of microarray platforms and species, users are able to calculate PRS scores, along with a corresponding z-score for comparison. Further pathway significance assessment may be performed to increase confidence in the pathways obtained, and users can view Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway diagrams marked-up to highlight impacted genes. The PRS tool provides a filter in the isolation of biologically-relevant insights from complex transcriptomic data.

  18. Improving Nutrition Outcomes for Infants Grams With a Progressive, Evidenced-Based Enteral Feeding Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoene, Melissa K; Lyden, Elizabeth; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2018-03-30

    Growth is essential for very low birth weight infants. The purpose of this retrospective chart review was to evaluate the impact of a new standardized, evidenced-based feeding protocol for infants born < 1500 g in correlation with growth and clinical outcomes. Growth and nutrition data was reviewed from 2 groups of infants born < 1500 g within a level III newborn intensive care unit (NICU). Epoch 1 infants (N = 32) received care following initial implementation of a standardized enteral feeding protocol. Epoch 2 infants (N = 32) received care following aggressive modification of this initial protocol based on newly available literature that promotes earlier initiation and advancement of enteral feedings. Epoch 2 infants weighed more at 36 weeks (2562 vs 2304 g) with higher discharge weight percentiles (32nd vs 15th percentile). Epoch 2 infants started and achieved full enteral feedings earlier (day of life 1 vs 4; 7 vs 22, P < 0.0001) and required less days of parenteral nutrition (5.5 vs 17.5 days, P < 0.0001), with indwelling central line for parenteral access (6 vs 17.5). There were no differences in retinopathy of prematurity (17% control vs 19% study), oxygen requirement at 36 weeks (22% epoch 1 vs 43%), necrotizing enterocolitis (3% epoch 1 vs 0%), intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3-4, periventricular leukomalacia, or death. In this sample of very low birth weight infants, a progressive standardized, evidence-based feeding protocol was associated with improved growth without increased risk for necrotizing enterocolitis. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  19. Missed Cases in the Detection of Child Abuse Based on Parental Characteristics in the Emergency Department (the Hague Protocol)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diderich, H.M.; Verkerk, P.H.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Dechesne, M.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Fekkes, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to assess the number of “missed cases” in the detection of child abuse based on the Hague Protocol. This protocol considers 3 parental characteristics of ED adult patients to identify child abuse: (1) domestic violence, (2) intoxication, and (3) suicide attempt or

  20. Sticky PCR: A PCR-based protocol for targeted protein engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabhai, Montarop

    2009-04-01

    This article describes a simple but powerful PCR-based protocol for the generation of cohesive ends on linear DNA fragments, permitting the precise engineering of DNA constructs for a variety of applications. These include the introduction of deletion mutations, domain swapping, creating hybrid DNA fusions, or targeted protein engineering. This novel method can also facilitate the cloning of large or complex DNA fragments into a relevant cloning vector independent of the use of internal restriction endonuclease sites. The protocol involves the amplification of the required fragments by polymerase chain reaction through the use of two sets of overlapping desalted oligonucleotide primers. The subsequent mixing, denaturation and re-annealing of these products present correct cohesive terminal ends for ligation. There is no requirement for special vectors, enzymes or bases, suggesting that this protocol provides a unique way of engineering constructs in a rapid and cost-effective way for specific applications, such as precise deletion or swapping of various domains of the epidermal growth factor receptor to determine their role in membrane localization.

  1. Priority Based Congestion Control Dynamic Clustering Protocol in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Beulah Jayakumari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network is widely used to monitor natural phenomena because natural disaster has globally increased which causes significant loss of life, economic setback, and social development. Saving energy in a wireless sensor network (WSN is a critical factor to be considered. The sensor nodes are deployed to sense, compute, and communicate alerts in a WSN which are used to prevent natural hazards. Generally communication consumes more energy than sensing and computing; hence cluster based protocol is preferred. Even with clustering, multiclass traffic creates congested hotspots in the cluster, thereby causing packet loss and delay. In order to conserve energy and to avoid congestion during multiclass traffic a novel Priority Based Congestion Control Dynamic Clustering (PCCDC protocol is developed. PCCDC is designed with mobile nodes which are organized dynamically into clusters to provide complete coverage and connectivity. PCCDC computes congestion at intra- and intercluster level using linear and binary feedback method. Each mobile node within the cluster has an appropriate queue model for scheduling prioritized packet during congestion without drop or delay. Simulation results have proven that packet drop, control overhead, and end-to-end delay are much lower in PCCDC which in turn significantly increases packet delivery ratio, network lifetime, and residual energy when compared with PASCC protocol.

  2. Design and implementation of an intrusion detection system based on IPv6 protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Li, Zhitang; Li, Yao; Li, Zhanchun

    2005-11-01

    Network intrusion detection systems (NIDS) are important parts of network security architecture. Although many NIDS have been proposed, there is little effort to expand the current set of NIDS to support IPv6 protocol. This paper presents the design and implementation of a Network-based Intrusion Detection System that supports both IPv6 protocol and IPv4 protocol. It characters rules based logging to perform content pattern matching and detect a variety of attacks and probes from IPv4 and IPv6.There are four primary subsystems to make it up: packet capture, packet decoder, detection engine, and logging and alerting subsystem. A new approach to packet capture that combined NAPI with MMAP is proposed in this paper. The test results show that the efficiency of packet capture can be improved significantly by this method. Several new attack tools for IPv6 have been developed for intrusion detection evaluation. Test shows that more than 20 kinds of IPv6 attacks can be detected by this system and it also has a good performance under heavy traffic load.

  3. A data base for PHW reactor operating on a once-through, low enriched uranium-thorium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungu, S.

    1984-04-01

    The study of a detailed data base for a new once-through uranium-thorium cycle using low enriched uranium (4 and 5,5% wt. U-235) and distinct UO 2 and ThO 2 fuel channels has been performed. With reference to a standard 638 MWe CANDU-type PHWR with 380 channels, evaluation of economics, fuel behaviour and safety has been performed. The Feinberg-Galanin method (code FEINGAL) has been used for calculation of axial flux distribution. All parameters have been provided by LATREP code following up the irradiation history. Economical assessment has shown that this fuel cycle is competitive with the natural uranium fuel cycle for 1979-based values of the parameters. Fuel behaviour and safety features modelling has shown that core behaviour of the uranium-thorium reactor under abnormal and accident conditions would be at least as good as that of the standard natural uranium reactor

  4. A novel quantum information hiding protocol based on entanglement swapping of high-level Bell states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shu-Jiang; Wang Lian-Hai; Chen Xiu-Bo; Niu Xin-Xin; Yang Yi-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Using entanglement swapping of high-level Bell states, we first derive a covert layer between the secret message and the possible output results of the entanglement swapping between any two generalized Bell states, and then propose a novel high-efficiency quantum information hiding protocol based on the covert layer. In the proposed scheme, a covert channel can be built up under the cover of a high-level quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) channel for securely transmitting secret messages without consuming any auxiliary quantum state or any extra communication resource. It is shown that this protocol not only has a high embedding efficiency but also achieves a good imperceptibility as well as a high security. (paper)

  5. Improvement in QA protocol for TLD based personnel monitoring laboratory in last five year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakesh, R.B.

    2018-01-01

    The Quality Assurance (QA) in Personnel monitoring (PM) is a tool to assess the performance of PM laboratories and reliability of dose estimation with respect to standards laid down by international agencies such as IAEA (ISO trumpet curve), IEC, ANSI etc. Reliable personal dose estimation is a basic requirement for radiation protection planning as well as decision making continuous improvement in radiation protection is inherent in radiation protection practices which is highly dependent on accuracy and reliability of the monitoring data. Experience based evolution of Quality control (QC) measures as well as Quality assurance (QA) protocol are two important aspects towards continuous improvement in accuracy and reliability of personnel monitoring results. The paper describes improvement in QC measures and QA protocols initiated during the last five years which led to improvement in the quality of PM services

  6. An adaptive density-based routing protocol for flying Ad Hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xueli; Qi, Qian; Wang, Qingwen; Li, Yongqiang

    2017-10-01

    An Adaptive Density-based Routing Protocol (ADRP) for Flying Ad Hoc Networks (FANETs) is proposed in this paper. The main objective is to calculate forwarding probability adaptively in order to increase the efficiency of forwarding in FANETs. ADRP dynamically fine-tunes the rebroadcasting probability of a node for routing request packets according to the number of neighbour nodes. Indeed, it is more interesting to privilege the retransmission by nodes with little neighbour nodes. We describe the protocol, implement it and evaluate its performance using NS-2 network simulator. Simulation results reveal that ADRP achieves better performance in terms of the packet delivery fraction, average end-to-end delay, normalized routing load, normalized MAC load and throughput, which is respectively compared with AODV.

  7. Improvement of the SEP protocol based on community structure of node degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donglin; Wei, Suyuan

    2017-05-01

    Analyzing the Stable election protocol (SEP) in wireless sensor networks and aiming at the problem of inhomogeneous cluster-heads distribution and unreasonable cluster-heads selectivity and single hop transmission in the SEP, a SEP Protocol based on community structure of node degree (SEP-CSND) is proposed. In this algorithm, network node deployed by using grid deployment model, and the connection between nodes established by setting up the communication threshold. The community structure constructed by node degree, then cluster head is elected in the community structure. On the basis of SEP, the node's residual energy and node degree is added in cluster-heads election. The information is transmitted with mode of multiple hops between network nodes. The simulation experiments showed that compared to the classical LEACH and SEP, this algorithm balances the energy consumption of the entire network and significantly prolongs network lifetime.

  8. An evaluation of the hemiplegic subject based on the Bobath approach. Part II: The evaluation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corriveau, H; Guarna, F; Dutil, E; Riley, E; Arsenault, A B; Drouin, G

    1988-01-01

    A protocol of evaluation of the hemiplegic patient based on the Bobath approach to treatment is presented. Six parameters are evaluated: sensorium, muscle tone, reflex activity, active movement, postural reactions and pain. The first and last of these are included because of their possible effects on the motor recovery process of the hemiplegic patient. The other four are directly borrowed from the Bobath modality of treatment. For each of these parameters, the procedures are given for its evaluation along with its respective rating scales. These scales are of an ordinal nature ranging from 0 to 3. It is suggested that this new evaluation protocol is fully compatible with the therapeutic modality developed by Bobath and as well is adequate to quantify patient progress in the principle aspects treated by this well used rehabilitation approach.

  9. Acute liver failure in adults: an evidence-based management protocol for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Heather; Misel, Michael; Gish, Robert G

    2012-03-01

    With the goal of providing guidance on the provision of optimal intensive care to adult patients with acute liver failure (ALF), this paper defines ALF and describes a protocol for appropriately diagnosing this relatively rare clinical entity and ascertaining its etiology, where possible. This paper also identifies the few known therapies that may be effective for specific causes of ALF and provides a comprehensive approach for anticipating, identifying, and managing complications. Finally, one of the more important aspects of care for patients with ALF is the determination of prognosis and, specifically, the need for liver transplantation. Prognostic tools are provided to help guide the clinician in this critical decision process. Management of patients with ALF is complex and challenging, even in centers where staff members have high levels of expertise and substantial experience. This evidence-based protocol may, therefore, assist in the delivery of optimal care to this critically ill patient population and may substantially increase the likelihood of positive outcomes.

  10. Strategy for Developing Expert-System-Based Internet Protocols (TCP/IP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1997-01-01

    The Satellite Networks and Architectures Branch of NASA's Lewis Research is addressing the issue of seamless interoperability of satellite networks with terrestrial networks. One of the major issues is improving reliable transmission protocols such as TCP over long latency and error-prone links. Many tuning parameters are available to enhance the performance of TCP including segment size, timers and window sizes. There are also numerous congestion avoidance algorithms such as slow start, selective retransmission and selective acknowledgment that are utilized to improve performance. This paper provides a strategy to characterize the performance of TCP relative to various parameter settings in a variety of network environments (i.e. LAN, WAN, wireless, satellite, and IP over ATM). This information can then be utilized to develop expert-system-based Internet protocols.

  11. Performance Analysis of AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network based Smart Metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, Hasan; Jung, Low Tang

    2013-01-01

    Today no one can deny the need for Smart Grid and it is being considered as of utmost importance to upgrade outdated electric infrastructure to cope with the ever increasing electric load demand. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is considered a promising candidate for internetworking of smart meters with the gateway using mesh topology. This paper investigates the performance of AODV routing protocol for WSN based smart metering deployment. Three case studies are presented to analyze its performance based on four metrics of (i) Packet Delivery Ratio, (ii) Average Energy Consumption of Nodes (iii) Average End-End Delay and (iv) Normalized Routing Load.

  12. Using a new evidence-based trauma protocol to improve detection and reduce costs in patients with blunt cardiac injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genrich, Ilean; OʼMara, Susan K; Sulo, Suela

    2015-01-01

    Management of blunt cardiac injury is often discussed in trauma literature due to the lack of a "gold standard" for early identification and cost-effective care. The effectiveness of an evidence-based trauma protocol was assessed by comparing patients treated with the new protocol to those managed with prior practice. The data of 80 patients prospectively managed using the new trauma protocol were compared with the medical records of 80 former patients treated according to existing practice. Implementing the new protocol improved detection of abnormal troponin I levels and resulted in cost savings. The length of time inpatients required continuous electrocardiographic monitoring decreased by 4.23 days and echocardiography use dropped by 70%. Implementation of the evidence-based trauma protocol at our facility improved the early identification of patients with blunt cardiac injury and reduced the number of laboratory and diagnostic tests.

  13. Comparison of Resistance-Based Walking Cardiorespiratory Test to The Bruce Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Christopher P; Bamman, Marcas; Naidu, Avantika; Brown, David A

    2017-12-11

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is assessed through graded exercise tests that determine the maximum amount of sustained mechanical work that an individual can perform while also providing health and fitness related information. This manuscript describes a novel method to perform graded exercise tests that uses posteriorly directed resistive forces. The purpose of this investigation is to validate a novel resistance based test in comparison to a traditional speed and incline based test in a cohort of non-impaired individuals. Twenty non-impaired individuals, 8 males, 12 females, mean age 28.4± 9.6, range 20-54 years old. Participants performed two maximal exercise tests. The speed and incline based test used the Bruce protocol and increased treadmill incline and speed every three minutes. The resistance based test used a robotic device interfaced with the treadmill that provided specified horizontal resistive forces at the center of mass calculated to match each Bruce Protocol stage while individuals walked at 1.1 m/s. Participants obtained ∼3% higher maximum V˙O2 measure using the speed and incline based method (dependent t-test p=0.08). V˙O2 peaks between tests were strongly correlated (r=0.93, ptests. We found a significant linear relationship between mass-specific work rate and measured V˙O2 stage-by-stage for both tests, but no significant difference between each linear fit (p=0.84). These data suggest horizontal resistive forces while walking on a treadmill, can be used to increase aerobic effort in a way that closely simulates work rates of the Bruce Protocol.

  14. Security Analysis of DTN Architecture and Bundle Protocol Specification for Space-Based Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2009-01-01

    A Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) Architecture (Request for Comment, RFC-4838) and Bundle Protocol Specification, RFC-5050, have been proposed for space and terrestrial networks. Additional security specifications have been provided via the Bundle Security Specification (currently a work in progress as an Internet Research Task Force internet-draft) and, for link-layer protocols applicable to Space networks, the Licklider Transport Protocol Security Extensions. This document provides a security analysis of the current DTN RFCs and proposed security related internet drafts with a focus on space-based communication networks, which is a rather restricted subset of DTN networks. Note, the original focus and motivation of DTN work was for the Interplanetary Internet . This document does not address general store-and-forward network overlays, just the current work being done by the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Space Internetworking Services Area (SIS) - DTN working group under the DTN and Bundle umbrellas. However, much of the analysis is relevant to general store-and-forward overlays.

  15. A new overtraining protocol for mice based on downhill running sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Bruno C; Filho, Luís A L; Alves, Guilherme F; Pauli, José R; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Souza, Claudio T; Cintra, Dennys E; Saad, Mario J A; Silva, Adelino S R

    2012-09-01

    1. The purpose of the present study was to verify whether a downhill running protocol was able to induce non-functional overreaching in > 75% of mice. 2. Mice were divided into control (C), trained (TR) and overtrained (OTR) groups. Bodyweight and food intake were recorded weekly. The incremental load test (ILT) and the exhaustive test (ET) were used to measure performance before and after aerobic training and overtraining protocols. 3. Although the bodyweight of the OTR group was lower than that of the C group at the end of Week 7, the food intake of the OTR group was higher than that of the C and TR groups at the end of Week 8. Evaluation of results from the ILT and ET revealed significant intra- and inter-group differences: whereas the parameters measured by both tests increased significantly in the TR group, they were significantly decreased in the OTR group. 4. In conclusion, this new overtraining protocol based on downhill running sessions induced non-functional overreaching in 100% of mice. © 2012 The Authors Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. An Authentication Protocol for Mobile IPTV Users Based on an RFID-USB Convergence Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yoon-Su; Kim, Yong-Tae

    With the growing trend towards convergence in broadcast and communications media, Internet Protocol television (IPTV) that delivers real-time multimedia content over diverse types of communications networks (e.g., broadband Internet, cable TV, and satellite TV) has become a mainstream technology. Authenticating mobile IPTV subscribers who are continuously on the move is a challenge. A complex authentication process often impairs conditional access security or service quality as increasing illegal users and delaying service. This paper proposes an RFID-USB authentication protocol, for mobile IPTV users, combined with USIM-based personalized authentication and lightweight authentication that utilizes the RFID-USB technology with an implanted agent module (called an "agent tag") which temporarily enhanced user status information. The proposed authentication protocol adopts a plug-and-play security agent module that is placed in both an RFID tag and an RFID-USB. The implanted security agents cooperate in such a way that multiple RFID tags are connected seamlessly to an RFID-USB.

  17. An evidence based protocol for peer review of radiographer musculoskeletal plain film reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, Paul; Hannah, April; Jones, Helen; Edwards, Rosemary; Harrington, Kate; Baker, Sally-Anne; Fitzgerald, Nicole; Belfield, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Medical image interpretation by non-medically trained staff continues to court controversy. This article aims to show that any potential risks associated with radiographer reporting can be monitored and mitigated if a robust peer review system is introduced. A search of the evidence base illustrates a paucity of guidance on how reporting radiographers should be audited or how a peer review process should be implemented. A practical framework for designing a reporting radiographer peer review process is provided. Methods: Following a literature review, key issues faced when designing a peer review protocol were identified. The following questions are answered: How frequent should peer review take place? How many reports should be reviewed? How are reports selected for review? Who should peer review the radiographer reports? How should radiographer's reporting performance be measured? What standard of reporting is acceptable? Results: Details are provided of the process that has been used for over three years at a busy inner-city teaching hospital for auditing musculoskeletal plain film radiographer reporting. The peer review method presented is not intended to produce robust statistical data; it is a practical method of locally assessing the reporting competency. As such, our protocol should be viewed as part of a larger programme for continuing professional development. Conclusion: It is hoped that this practical protocol will encourage radiology departments to engage in a programme of peer review for reporting radiographers.

  18. A Novel Quantum Video Steganography Protocol with Large Payload Based on MCQI Quantum Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhiguo; Chen, Siyi; Ji, Sai

    2017-11-01

    As one of important multimedia forms in quantum network, quantum video attracts more and more attention of experts and scholars in the world. A secure quantum video steganography protocol with large payload based on the video strip encoding method called as MCQI (Multi-Channel Quantum Images) is proposed in this paper. The new protocol randomly embeds the secret information with the form of quantum video into quantum carrier video on the basis of unique features of video frames. It exploits to embed quantum video as secret information for covert communication. As a result, its capacity are greatly expanded compared with the previous quantum steganography achievements. Meanwhile, the new protocol also achieves good security and imperceptibility by virtue of the randomization of embedding positions and efficient use of redundant frames. Furthermore, the receiver enables to extract secret information from stego video without retaining the original carrier video, and restore the original quantum video as a follow. The simulation and experiment results prove that the algorithm not only has good imperceptibility, high security, but also has large payload.

  19. Design and performance evaluation of a distributed OFDMA-based MAC protocol for MANETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaesung; Chung, Jiyoung; Lee, Hyungyu; Lee, Jung-Ryun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed MAC protocol for OFDMA-based wireless mobile ad hoc multihop networks, in which the resource reservation and data transmission procedures are operated in a distributed manner. A frame format is designed considering the characteristics of OFDMA that each node can transmit or receive data to or from multiple nodes simultaneously. Under this frame structure, we propose a distributed resource management method including network state estimation and resource reservation processes. We categorize five types of logical errors according to their root causes and show that two of the logical errors are inevitable while three of them are avoided under the proposed distributed MAC protocol. In addition, we provide a systematic method to determine the advertisement period of each node by presenting a clear relation between the accuracy of estimated network states and the signaling overhead. We evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol in respect of the reservation success rate and the success rate of data transmission. Since our method focuses on avoiding logical errors, it could be easily placed on top of the other resource allocation methods focusing on the physical layer issues of the resource management problem and interworked with them.

  20. Strong Authentication Protocol based on Java Crypto Chip as a Secure Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mumtaz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Smart electronic devices and gadgets and their applications are becoming more and more popular. Most of those devices and their applications handle personal, financial, medical and other sensitive data that require security and privacy protection. In this paper we describe one aspect of such protection – user authentication protocol based on the use of X.509 certificates. The system uses Public Key Infrastructure (PKI, challenge/response protocol, mobile proxy servers, and Java cards with crypto capabilities used as a Secure Element. Innovative design of the protocol, its implementation, and evaluation results are described. In addition to end-user authentication, the described solution also supports the use of X.509 certificates for additional security services – confidentiality, integrity, and non-repudiation of transactions and data in an open network environment. The system uses Application Programming Interfaces (APIs to access Java cards functions and credentials that can be used as add-ons to enhance any mobile application with security features and services.

  1. Fertility response in postpartum anoestrus buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis using modified Ovsynch based timed insemination protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Gupta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Suboestrus constitutes the largest factor responsible for poor reproductive efficiency in buffaloes. Therefore, oestrus synchronization (OS and fixed-time artificial insemination (AI is considered an alternative approach to enhance reproductive efficiency in buffaloes. Thus, the present study was carried out to study the efficacy of modified Ovsynch protocol with fixed time insemination in post-partum anoestrus buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Total 50 post-partum anoestrus dairy buffaloes were selected and randomly divided into 5 Groups, each comprising ten animals (n=10. Animals of Group I received buserelin acetate 10 μg(GnRH at day 0 and 9, and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α at day 7; in Group II similar to Group I except double dose of Gn RH (20 μg at day 0; in Group III, similar to Group I plus additional administration of insulin on day 0, 1 and 2; in Group IV, similar to Group II plus additional administration of insulin on day 0,1 and 2; in Group V similar to Group I except replacement of first Gn RH with insulin on day 0,1 and 2. Animal of all groups were inseminated at fixed time using frozen semen at 60 h and 72 h after PGF2α administration and confirmed for pregnancy at day 60 post-insemination. Results: The results revealed satisfactory and comparable synchronization of oestrus (60-80% and conception rate (20-40% among the various treatment groups in the present study. The better synchronization was observed in modified protocols. However, non-significantly higher conception rate was recorded in modified Ovsynch protocol (40% each in Group II-V as compared to 20% in Group-I (p>0.05. Conclusion: In this study comparatively higher OS and conception following insulin modified Ovsynch based timed AI protocols in post-partum anoestrus buffaloes was found satisfactory and comparable.

  2. Data-Based Energy Efficient Clustered Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensors Networks – Tabuk Flood Monitoring System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Babiker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency has been considered as the most important issue in wireless sensor networks. As in many applications, wireless sensors are scattered in a wide harsh area, where the battery replacement or charging will be quite difficult and it is the most important challenge. Therefore, the design of energy saving mechanism becomes mandatory in most recent research. In this paper, a new energy efficient clustered routing protocol is proposed: the proposed protocol is based on analyzing the data collected from the sensors in a base-station. Based on this analysis the cluster head will be selected as the one with the most useful data. Then, a variable time slot is specified to each sensor to minimize the transmission of repetitive and un-useful data. The proposed protocol Data-Based Energy Efficient Clustered Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensors Networks (DCRP was compared with the famous energy efficient LEACH protocol and also with one of the recent energy efficient routing protocols named Position Responsive Routing Protocol (PRRP. DCRP has been used in monitoring the floods in Tabuk area –Saudi Arabia. It shows comparatively better results.

  3. Enriching Project-Based Learning Environments with Virtual Manipulatives: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakiroglu, Ünal

    2014-01-01

    Problem statement: Although there is agreement on the potential of project based learning (PBL) and virtual manipulatives (VMs), their positive impact depends on how they are used. This study was based on supporting the use of online PBL environments and improving the efficacy of the instructional practices in PBL by combining the potentials of…

  4. Design and Evaluate a Fair Exchange Protocol Based on Online Trusted Third Party (TTP)

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Abdullah S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most crucial factors that e-commerce protocols should address is a fair exchange. In this research, an advanced method of cryptography coupled with the pay per use technique is used. A new electronic commerce protocol for the exchange of commodities is introduced. The proposed new protocol guarantees both features while addressing the main drawbacks associated with other related protocols. The new suggested e-commerce protocol is composed of two stages: pre-exchange and exchange st...

  5. Scoping Report for a Scenario-Based Planning Protocol for Application in the Regions of Army Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rose, Winifred

    2000-01-01

    .... The objective of this work is to describe a regional scenario-based land use planning methodology, and explore how a standardized protocol for comprehensive military land use planning in a regional...

  6. Leader-Following Consensus Stability of Discrete-Time Linear Multiagent Systems with Observer-Based Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the leader-following consensus problem of discrete-time multiagent systems on a directed communication topology. Two types of distributed observer-based consensus protocols are considered to solve such a problem. The observers involved in the proposed protocols include full-order observer and reduced-order observer, which are used to reconstruct the state variables. Two algorithms are provided to construct the consensus protocols, which are based on the modified discrete-time algebraic Riccati equation and Sylvester equation. In light of graph and matrix theory, some consensus conditions are established. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the obtained result.

  7. HPeak: an HMM-based algorithm for defining read-enriched regions in ChIP-Seq data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Christopher A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-DNA interaction constitutes a basic mechanism for the genetic regulation of target gene expression. Deciphering this mechanism has been a daunting task due to the difficulty in characterizing protein-bound DNA on a large scale. A powerful technique has recently emerged that couples chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP with next-generation sequencing, (ChIP-Seq. This technique provides a direct survey of the cistrom of transcription factors and other chromatin-associated proteins. In order to realize the full potential of this technique, increasingly sophisticated statistical algorithms have been developed to analyze the massive amount of data generated by this method. Results Here we introduce HPeak, a Hidden Markov model (HMM-based Peak-finding algorithm for analyzing ChIP-Seq data to identify protein-interacting genomic regions. In contrast to the majority of available ChIP-Seq analysis software packages, HPeak is a model-based approach allowing for rigorous statistical inference. This approach enables HPeak to accurately infer genomic regions enriched with sequence reads by assuming realistic probability distributions, in conjunction with a novel weighting scheme on the sequencing read coverage. Conclusions Using biologically relevant data collections, we found that HPeak showed a higher prevalence of the expected transcription factor binding motifs in ChIP-enriched sequences relative to the control sequences when compared to other currently available ChIP-Seq analysis approaches. Additionally, in comparison to the ChIP-chip assay, ChIP-Seq provides higher resolution along with improved sensitivity and specificity of binding site detection. Additional file and the HPeak program are freely available at http://www.sph.umich.edu/csg/qin/HPeak.

  8. Treatment Protocols for Eating Disorders: Clinicians? Attitudes, Concerns, Adherence and Difficulties Delivering Evidence-Based Psychological Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    There are several protocols in existence that guide clinicians in the implementation of effective, evidence-based psychological interventions for eating disorders. These have been made accessible in the form of treatment manuals. However, relatively few clinicians use those protocols, preferring to offer more eclectic or integrative approaches. Following a summary of the research that shows that these evidence-based approaches can be used successfully in routine clinical settings, this review...

  9. Integrating human impacts and ecological integrity into a risk-based protocol for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, K.M.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation planning aims to protect biodiversity by sustainng the natural physical, chemical, and biological processes within representative ecosystems. Often data to measure these components are inadequate or unavailable. The impact of human activities on ecosystem processes complicates integrity assessments and might alter ecosystem organization at multiple spatial scales. Freshwater conservation targets, such as populations and communities, are influenced by both intrinsic aquatic properties and the surrounding landscape, and locally collected data might not accurately reflect potential impacts. We suggest that changes in five major biotic drivers-energy sources, physical habitat, flow regime, water quality, and biotic interactions-might be used as surrogates to inform conservation planners of the ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems. Threats to freshwater systems might be evaluated based on their impact to these drivers to provide an overview of potential risk to conservation targets. We developed a risk-based protocol, the Ecological Risk Index (ERI), to identify watersheds with least/most risk to conservation targets. Our protocol combines risk-based components, specifically the frequency and severity of human-induced stressors, with biotic drivers and mappable land- and water-use data to provide a summary of relative risk to watersheds. We illustrate application of our protocol with a case study of the upper Tennessee River basin, USA. Differences in risk patterns among the major drainages in the basin reflect dominant land uses, such as mining and agriculture. A principal components analysis showed that localized, moderately severe threats accounted for most of the threat composition differences among our watersheds. We also found that the relative importance of threats is sensitive to the spatial grain of the analysis. Our case study demonstrates that the ERI is useful for evaluating the frequency and severity of ecosystemwide risk, which can

  10. Lightweight ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Debiao; Kumar, Neeraj; Chilamkurti, Naveen; Lee, Jong-Hyouk

    2014-10-01

    The radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely adopted and being deployed as a dominant identification technology in a health care domain such as medical information authentication, patient tracking, blood transfusion medicine, etc. With more and more stringent security and privacy requirements to RFID based authentication schemes, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) based RFID authentication schemes have been proposed to meet the requirements. However, many recently published ECC based RFID authentication schemes have serious security weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a new ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol that overcomes the weaknesses of the existing schemes. A comprehensive security analysis has been conducted to show strong security properties that are provided from the proposed authentication scheme. Moreover, the performance of the proposed authentication scheme is analyzed in terms of computational cost, communicational cost, and storage requirement.

  11. Research and analysis of ZigBee network performance based on AODV protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Chunqiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of ad-hoc network size and application range,network need to provide more and more quantity and quality of services,while the qualityrequirement of networkservices also increases.Through the combination of Zigbee network and classic AODV protocol,this paper simulates and tests the delay of routing discovery and the delay of end to end based on different transmission radius,analyses the impact of transmission range on network performance,and provides some advices for improving and optimizing ZigBee network applications,with the application of NS2 simulation platform.

  12. A Proposal of Protocol and Policy-Based Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Baba

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, intrusion detection systems (IDSs are widely deployed in enterprise networks for detecting network attacks. Most existing commercial IDSs are based on misuse detection model. In misuse detection, although known attacks can be detected, unknown ones cannot be detected because attack signatures for unknown attacks cannot be generated. In this paper, we propose a method for detecting network attacks including unknown ones against servers such as web servers, mail servers, FTP servers, and DNS servers, using protocol specifications and site access policy. Furthermore, we propose a method to predict damage from detected attacks using neural networks.

  13. Implementing an evidence-based detoxification protocol for alcoholism in a residential addictions treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundio, Albert

    2013-09-01

    Chemical dependency, commonly known as substance abuse and use disorders, continues to plague residents of the United States. Because treatment has expanded beyond the walls of the acute care hospital, advanced practice nurses play a pivotal role in caring for clients addicted to various substances. This article describes how an advanced practice nurse in collaboration with the medical director and a director of nursing at a residential treatment center in southern New Jersey oversaw the development of an evidence-based detoxification treatment protocol for alcohol dependency, emphasizing the critical role of nurses in assuring that clinical practice is rooted in current evidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fuzzy Extractor and Elliptic Curve Based Efficient User Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks and Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Maurya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To improve the quality of service and reduce the possibility of security attacks, a secure and efficient user authentication mechanism is required for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and the Internet of Things (IoT. Session key establishment between the sensor node and the user is also required for secure communication. In this paper, we perform the security analysis of A.K.Das’s user authentication scheme (given in 2015, Choi et al.’s scheme (given in 2016, and Park et al.’s scheme (given in 2016. The security analysis shows that their schemes are vulnerable to various attacks like user impersonation attack, sensor node impersonation attack and attacks based on legitimate users. Based on the cryptanalysis of these existing protocols, we propose a secure and efficient authenticated session key establishment protocol which ensures various security features and overcomes the drawbacks of existing protocols. The formal and informal security analysis indicates that the proposed protocol withstands the various security vulnerabilities involved in WSNs. The automated validation using AVISPA and Scyther tool ensures the absence of security attacks in our scheme. The logical verification using the Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN logic confirms the correctness of the proposed protocol. Finally, the comparative analysis based on computational overhead and security features of other existing protocol indicate that the proposed user authentication system is secure and efficient. In future, we intend to implement the proposed protocol in real-world applications of WSNs and IoT.

  15. Modeling and Simulation of a Novel Relay Node Based Secure Routing Protocol Using Multiple Mobile Sink for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Madhumathy; Dhandapani, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Data gathering and optimal path selection for wireless sensor networks (WSN) using existing protocols result in collision. Increase in collision further increases the possibility of packet drop. Thus there is a necessity to eliminate collision during data aggregation. Increasing the efficiency is the need of the hour with maximum security. This paper is an effort to come up with a reliable and energy efficient WSN routing and secure protocol with minimum delay. This technique is named as relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS). This protocol finds the rendezvous point for optimal transmission of data using a "splitting tree" technique in tree-shaped network topology and then to determine all the subsequent positions of a sink the "Biased Random Walk" model is used. In case of an event, the sink gathers the data from all sources, when they are in the sensing range of rendezvous point. Otherwise relay node is selected from its neighbor to transfer packets from rendezvous point to sink. A symmetric key cryptography is used for secure transmission. The proposed relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS) is experimented and simulation results are compared with Intelligent Agent-Based Routing (IAR) protocol to prove that there is increase in the network lifetime compared with other routing protocols.

  16. Ephemeral-Secret-Leakage Secure ID-Based Three-Party Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol for Mobile Distributed Computing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Liang Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A three-party Authenticated Key Agreement (AKA protocol in the distributed computing environment is a client that requests services from an application server through an authentication server. The authentication server is responsible for authenticating the participating entities and helping them to construct a common session key. Adopting the Key Transfer Authentication Protocol (KTAP in such an environment, the authentication server is able to monitor the communication messages to prevent and trace network crime. However, the session key in the KTAP setting is created only by the authentication server and is vulnerable to the resilience of key control. On the other hand, with the rapid growth of network technologies, mobile devices are widely used by people to access servers in the Internet. Many AKA protocols for mobile devices have been proposed, however, most protocols are vulnerable to Ephemeral Secret Leakage (ESL attacks which compromise the private keys of clients and the session key by an adversary from eavesdropped messages. This paper proposes a novel ESL-secure ID-based three-party AKA protocol for mobile distributed computing environments based on ESL-secure ID-based Authenticated Key Exchange (ID-AKE protocol. The proposed protocol solves the key control problem in KTAP while retaining the advantages of preventing and tracing network crime in KTAP and also resists ESL attacks. The AVISPA tool simulation results confirm the correctness of the protocol security analysis. Furthermore, we present a parallel version of the proposed ESL-secure ID-based three-party AKA protocol that is communication-efficient.

  17. A game theory-based obstacle avoidance routing protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xin; Wu, Huayang; Bi, Shujun

    2011-01-01

    The obstacle avoidance problem in geographic forwarding is an important issue for location-based routing in wireless sensor networks. The presence of an obstacle leads to several geographic routing problems such as excessive energy consumption and data congestion. Obstacles are hard to avoid in realistic environments. To bypass obstacles, most routing protocols tend to forward packets along the obstacle boundaries. This leads to a situation where the nodes at the boundaries exhaust their energy rapidly and the obstacle area is diffused. In this paper, we introduce a novel routing algorithm to solve the obstacle problem in wireless sensor networks based on a game-theory model. Our algorithm forms a concave region that cannot forward packets to achieve the aim of improving the transmission success rate and decreasing packet transmission delays. We consider the residual energy, out-degree and forwarding angle to determine the forwarding probability and payoff function of forwarding candidates. This achieves the aim of load balance and reduces network energy consumption. Simulation results show that based on the average delivery delay, energy consumption and packet delivery ratio performances our protocol is superior to other traditional schemes.

  18. Economic and Environmental Effectiveness of a Technology-based Climate Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchner, B.; Cersosimo, I. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Venice (Italy); Carraro, C. [University of Venice and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Campo Santa Maria Formosa, Palazzo Querini Stampalia, Castello 5252, 30122, Venice (Italy)

    2004-04-01

    The present stalemate in climate negotiations has led policy analysts and economists to explore the possible emergence of alternative climate regimes. This paper explores the idea of replacing international cooperation on greenhouse gas emission control with international cooperation on climate-related technological innovation and diffusion. This idea - recently proposed among others by Barrett (2001) and Benedick (2001) - is based on the insight that incentives to free-ride are much smaller in the case of technological cooperation than in the case of cooperation on emission control. This paper provides a first applied game theory analysis of a technology-based climate protocol by assessing: (1) the self-enforcingness (namely, the absence of incentives to free ride) of the coalition that would form when countries negotiate on climate-related technological cooperation; (2) the environmental effectiveness of a technology-based climate protocol. The analysis is carried out by using a model in which endogenous and induced technical change are explicitly modelled and in which international technological spillovers are also quantified. The results of our analysis partly support Barrett's and Benedick's conjecture. On the one hand, a self-enforcing agreement is more likely to emerge when countries cooperate on environmental technological innovation and diffusion than when they cooperate on emission abatement. However, technological cooperation - without any commitment to emission control - may not lead to a sufficient abatement of greenhouse gas concentrations.

  19. A Game Theory-Based Obstacle Avoidance Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujun Bi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The obstacle avoidance problem in geographic forwarding is an important issue for location-based routing in wireless sensor networks. The presence of an obstacle leads to several geographic routing problems such as excessive energy consumption and data congestion. Obstacles are hard to avoid in realistic environments. To bypass obstacles, most routing protocols tend to forward packets along the obstacle boundaries. This leads to a situation where the nodes at the boundaries exhaust their energy rapidly and the obstacle area is diffused. In this paper, we introduce a novel routing algorithm to solve the obstacle problem in wireless sensor networks based on a game-theory model. Our algorithm forms a concave region that cannot forward packets to achieve the aim of improving the transmission success rate and decreasing packet transmission delays. We consider the residual energy, out-degree and forwarding angle to determine the forwarding probability and payoff function of forwarding candidates. This achieves the aim of load balance and reduces network energy consumption. Simulation results show that based on the average delivery delay, energy consumption and packet delivery ratio performances our protocol is superior to other traditional schemes.

  20. A Walk-based Semantically Enriched Tree Kernel Over Distributed Word Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srivastava, Shashank; Hovy, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    We propose a walk-based graph kernel that generalizes the notion of tree-kernels to continuous spaces. Our proposed approach subsumes a general framework for word-similarity, and in particular, provides a flexible way to incorporate distributed representations. Using vector representations, such ...... diverse NLP tasks, showing state-of-the-art results....

  1. A Mirror Therapy-Based Action Observation Protocol to Improve Motor Learning After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Wouter J; Bussmann, Johannes B J; Selles, Ruud W; Hurkmans, Henri L P; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2015-07-01

    Mirror therapy is a priming technique to improve motor function of the affected arm after stroke. To investigate whether a mirror therapy-based action observation (AO) protocol contributes to motor learning of the affected arm after stroke. A total of 37 participants in the chronic stage after stroke were randomly allocated to the AO or control observation (CO) group. Participants were instructed to perform an upper-arm reaching task as fast and as fluently as possible. All participants trained the upper-arm reaching task with their affected arm alternated with either AO or CO. Participants in the AO group observed mirrored video tapes of reaching movements performed by their unaffected arm, whereas participants in the CO group observed static photographs of landscapes. The experimental condition effect was investigated by evaluating the primary outcome measure: movement time (in seconds) of the reaching movement, measured by accelerometry. Movement time decreased significantly in both groups: 18.3% in the AO and 9.1% in the CO group. Decrease in movement time was significantly more in the AO compared with the CO group (mean difference = 0.14 s; 95% confidence interval = 0.02, 0.26; P = .026). The present study showed that a mirror therapy-based AO protocol contributes to motor learning after stroke. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Enrichment of true positives from structural alerts through the use of novel atomic fragment based descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, A.; Rydberg, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    To enhance the discrimination rate for methods applying structural alerts and biotransformation rules in the prediction of toxicity and drug metabolism we have developed a set of novel fragment based atomic descriptors. These atomic descriptors encode the properties of the fragments separating...... an atom from the closest end of a branch or the molecule. The end of a branch and the end of a molecule, as well as the selection of the fragments, are made by an algorithm that uses only the distance matrix of the molecule. The novel descriptors are applied to a small set of biotransformation rules...

  3. An Advanced Encryption Standard Powered Mutual Authentication Protocol Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography for RFID, Proven on WISP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaauldin Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Information in patients’ medical histories is subject to various security and privacy concerns. Meanwhile, any modification or error in a patient’s medical data may cause serious or even fatal harm. To protect and transfer this valuable and sensitive information in a secure manner, radio-frequency identification (RFID technology has been widely adopted in healthcare systems and is being deployed in many hospitals. In this paper, we propose a mutual authentication protocol for RFID tags based on elliptic curve cryptography and advanced encryption standard. Unlike existing authentication protocols, which only send the tag ID securely, the proposed protocol could also send the valuable data stored in the tag in an encrypted pattern. The proposed protocol is not simply a theoretical construct; it has been coded and tested on an experimental RFID tag. The proposed scheme achieves mutual authentication in just two steps and satisfies all the essential security requirements of RFID-based healthcare systems.

  4. An Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Query-Based Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Ahvar; Shohreh Ahvar; Gyu Myoung Lee; Noel Crespi

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) typically has energy consumption restriction. Designing energy-aware routing protocol can significantly reduce energy consumption in WSNs. Energy-aware routing protocols can be classified into two categories, energy savers and energy balancers. Energy saving protocols are used to minimize the overall energy consumed by a WSN, while energy balancing protocols attempt to efficiently distribute the consumption of energy throughout the network. In general terms, ener...

  5. Validation of a school-based amblyopia screening protocol in a kindergarten population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Llera, Pilar; Ortega, Paula; Rubio, Inmaculada; Santos, Verónica; Prieto, María J; Alio, Jorge L

    2016-08-04

    To validate a school-based amblyopia screening program model by comparing its outcomes to those of a state-of-the-art conventional ophthalmic clinic examination in a kindergarten population of children between the ages of 4 and 5 years. An amblyopia screening protocol, which consisted of visual acuity measurement using Lea charts, ocular alignment test, ocular motility assessment, and stereoacuity with TNO random-dot test, was performed at school in a pediatric 4- to 5-year-old population by qualified healthcare professionals. The outcomes were validated in a selected group by a conventional ophthalmologic examination performed in a fully equipped ophthalmologic center. The ophthalmologic evaluation was used to confirm whether or not children were correctly classified by the screening protocol. The sensitivity and specificity of the test model to detect amblyopia were established. A total of 18,587 4- to 5-year-old children were subjected to the amblyopia screening program during the 2010-2011 school year. A population of 100 children were selected for the ophthalmologic validation screening. A sensitivity of 89.3%, specificity of 93.1%, positive predictive value of 83.3%, negative predictive value of 95.7%, positive likelihood ratio of 12.86, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.12 was obtained for the amblyopia screening validation model. The amblyopia screening protocol model tested in this investigation shows high sensitivity and specificity in detecting high-risk cases of amblyopia compared to the standard ophthalmologic examination. This screening program may be highly relevant for amblyopia screening at schools.

  6. Towards an evidence-based unified psychodynamic protocol for emotional disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Falk; Steinert, Christiane

    2018-05-01

    In psychotherapy research unified, transdiagnostic and modular treatments have emerged. This is true for both cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychodynamic therapy. Recently, two unified psychodynamic protocols were presented, one for anxiety disorders, another for depressive disorders. Integrating the treatment principles for these two highly prevalent disorder groups into one protocol for "emotional disorders" may be useful for both clinical practice and training in psychotherapy. After updating the evidence for psychodynamic therapy in anxiety and depressive disorders in terms of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by a systematic search, the treatment elements applied in those RCTs providing evidence for the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy in depressive or anxiety disorders were reviewed and compared. Twenty-seven RCTs for anxiety or depressive disorders were identified. A review revealed a high overlap between the principles used for the psychodynamic treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders, reflecting the transdiagnostic nature of psychodynamic therapy. The overlap suggested to integrate the identified treatment principles into one unified psychodynamic protocol for "emotional disorders" (UPP-EMO). As a result, seven treatment principles or modules were distilled which can be flexibly applied depending on the patient´s symptoms and needs. In addition, a separate module addresses diagnostic assessment. Across modules, a focus on resources has been included. Despite being based on RCTs, UPP-EMO has not yet been examined in an RCT - which is planned as a next step. As psychodynamic therapy is transdiagnostic in origin focusing on core underlying processes of mental disorders, acceptability of UPP-EMO among psychodynamic psychotherapists is likely to be high. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Development and Testing of a Literature Search Protocol for Evidence Based Nursing: An Applied Student Learning Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Hickner; Christopher R. Friese; Margaret Irwin

    2011-01-01

    Objective – The study aimed to develop a search protocol and evaluate reviewers' satisfaction with an evidence-based practice (EBP) review by embedding a library science student in the process.Methods – The student was embedded in one of four review teams overseen by a professional organization for oncology nurses (ONS). A literature search protocol was developed by the student following discussion and feedback from the review team. Organization staff provided process feedback. Reviewers from...

  8. Functional soy food based on flaxseed and quinoa and enriched with iron and Vitamin B12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Braga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in food derived from vegetables reduces the risk of developing chronic and degenerative diseases and provides the essential nutrients for human consumption. Besides soybean, other foods of vegetal origin have been studied and incorporated in healthy formulations, such as quinoa and linseed. Current assay comprises a sensorial analysis of a product of vegetable origin, a soy product, based on quinoa and flaxseed, considered to be functional food, for its organoleptic characteristics acceptable by a sample group of 80 individuals. Several tests were conducted to reach an adequate formulation for the product, characterized by 11.1 g of protein content, 9.6 g of dietary fiber and low levels of lipids, since it had only 1.4 g. The resulting product revealed adequate microbiological conditions when subjected to microbiological analysis (coliforms at 45ºC; coliforms at 35ºC and Staphylococcus aureus. According to scores in the sensory analysis, it may be assumed that the product was accepted by the sample group. The favorable results indicate the possibility of consumers adhering to a processed diet rich in food derived from vegetables, with functional properties, to replace animal-derived food which is rich in saturated fats and low in fiber.

  9. Full waveform inversion based on scattering angle enrichment with application to real dataset

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2015-08-19

    Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI). However, the drawback of the existing RWI methods is inability to utilize diving waves and the extra sensitivity to the migrated image. We propose a combined FWI and RWI optimization problem through dividing the velocity into the background and perturbed components. We optimize both the background and perturbed components, as independent parameters. The new objective function is quadratic with respect to the perturbed component, which will reduce the nonlinearity of the optimization problem. Solving this optimization provides a true amplitude image and utilizes the diving waves to update the velocity of the shallow parts. To insure a proper wavenumber continuation, we use an efficient scattering angle filter to direct the inversion at the early stages to direct energy corresponding to large (smooth velocity) scattering angles to the background velocity update and the small (high wavenumber) scattering angles to the perturbed velocity update. This efficient implementation of the filter is fast and requires less memory than the conventional approach based on extended images. Thus, the new FWI procedure updates the background velocity mainly along the wavepath for both diving and reflected waves in the initial stages. At the same time, it updates the perturbation with mainly reflections (filtering out the diving waves). To demonstrate the capability of this method, we apply it to a real 2D marine dataset.

  10. RFID Cryptographic Protocol Based on Cyclic Redundancy Check for High Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, RFID encryption protocol is proposed based on the security problems in wireless signal channel. In order to solve the privacy issues of electronic tags, the most commonly way is to improve algorithms based on Hash function. However, there are some problems that can only play roles in some specific domains. Due to the limitations in various kinds of algorithms, in this paper we put forward a new kind of agreement. When it is required to locate target labels accurately and rapidly in a movement environment, using this agreement can achieve high efficiency through combining the Hash function, the two division search algorithm and CRC check. The results show that this algorithm can accurately identify the tags with merits of low cost, execution rate and anti-attack ability etc.

  11. Automated respiratory therapy system based on the ARDSNet protocol with systemic perfusion control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomprapa Anake

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A medical expert system of automatic artificial ventilation is set up in a star topology with additional closed-loop hemodynamic control. Arterial blood pressure (MAP is controlled by noradrenaline (NA as a controlling variable. The overall patient-in-the-loop expert system can intensively and intelligently perform a long-term treatment based on the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network (ARDSNet protocol. Three main goals are actively carried out, namely the stabilization and regulation of oxygenation, plateau pressure and blood pH value. The developed system shows a distinctive experimental result based on a 31.5-kg pig, in order to fulfil the ventilatory goals and to ensure proper systemic perfusion. Hence, this system has enormous potentials to realize a commercial system for individual patient with ARDS.

  12. A quantum secure direct communication protocol based on a five-particle cluster state and classical XOR operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Song Danjie; Guo Xiaojing; Jing Bo

    2012-01-01

    In order to transmit secure messages, a quantum secure direct communication protocol based on a five-particle cluster state and classical XOR operation is presented. The five-particle cluster state is used to detect eavesdroppers, and the classical XOR operation serving as a one-time-pad is used to ensure the security of the protocol. In the security analysis, the entropy theory method is introduced, and three detection strategies are compared quantitatively by using the constraint between the information that the eavesdroppers can obtain and the interference introduced. If the eavesdroppers intend to obtain all the information, the detection rate of the original ping-pong protocol is 50%; the second protocol, using two particles of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair as detection particles, is also 50%; while the presented protocol is 89%. Finally, the security of the proposed protocol is discussed, and the analysis results indicate that the protocol in this paper is more secure than the other two. (authors)

  13. Improving the efficiency of single and multiple teleportation protocols based on the direct use of partially entangled states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Raphael; Rigolin, Gustavo, E-mail: rigolin@ifi.unicamp.br

    2013-09-15

    We push the limits of the direct use of partially pure entangled states to perform quantum teleportation by presenting several protocols in many different scenarios that achieve the optimal efficiency possible. We review and put in a single formalism the three major strategies known to date that allow one to use partially entangled states for direct quantum teleportation (no distillation strategies permitted) and compare their efficiencies in real world implementations. We show how one can improve the efficiency of many direct teleportation protocols by combining these techniques. We then develop new teleportation protocols employing multipartite partially entangled states. The three techniques are also used here in order to achieve the highest efficiency possible. Finally, we prove the upper bound for the optimal success rate for protocols based on partially entangled Bell states and show that some of the protocols here developed achieve such a bound. -- Highlights: •Optimal direct teleportation protocols using directly partially entangled states. •We put in a single formalism all strategies of direct teleportation. •We extend these techniques for multipartite partially entangle states. •We give upper bounds for the optimal efficiency of these protocols.

  14. Chaotic maps and biometrics-based anonymous three-party authenticated key exchange protocol without using passwords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Hu, Bin; Chen, Ke-Fei; Liu, Wen-Hao; Tan, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    In three-party password authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol, since two users use their passwords to establish a secure session key over an insecure communication channel with the help of the trusted server, such a protocol may suffer the password guessing attacks and the server has to maintain the password table. To eliminate the shortages of password-based AKE protocol, very recently, according to chaotic maps, Lee et al. [2015 Nonlinear Dyn. 79 2485] proposed a first three-party-authenticated key exchange scheme without using passwords, and claimed its security by providing a well-organized BAN logic test. Unfortunately, their protocol cannot resist impersonation attack, which is demonstrated in the present paper. To overcome their security weakness, by using chaotic maps, we propose a biometrics-based anonymous three-party AKE protocol with the same advantages. Further, we use the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our AKE protocol achieves authentication, security and anonymity, and an acceptable efficiency. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LZ12F02005), the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB834205), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61070153).

  15. Chaotic maps and biometrics-based anonymous three-party authenticated key exchange protocol without using passwords

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Qi; Hu Bin; Chen Ke-Fei; Liu Wen-Hao; Tan Xiao

    2015-01-01

    In three-party password authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol, since two users use their passwords to establish a secure session key over an insecure communication channel with the help of the trusted server, such a protocol may suffer the password guessing attacks and the server has to maintain the password table. To eliminate the shortages of password-based AKE protocol, very recently, according to chaotic maps, Lee et al. [2015 Nonlinear Dyn. 79 2485] proposed a first three-party-authenticated key exchange scheme without using passwords, and claimed its security by providing a well-organized BAN logic test. Unfortunately, their protocol cannot resist impersonation attack, which is demonstrated in the present paper. To overcome their security weakness, by using chaotic maps, we propose a biometrics-based anonymous three-party AKE protocol with the same advantages. Further, we use the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our AKE protocol achieves authentication, security and anonymity, and an acceptable efficiency. (paper)

  16. Experimental protocol to assess the tourism vehicles accessibility based on heart rate and access time measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcala Fazio, E.; Alvarez Fernandez, N.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the Project is to define an experimental protocol for the accessibility assessment of the transport vehicles, by analysing the evolution of the effort and time variables consumed by a target group –Persons of Reduced Mobility (PMRs). This protocol consisted in tests of accessibility on a sample of 6 passenger cars (class M1) by 8 elderly people carrying a heart rate monitor, and whose access manoeuvres were recorded by video cameras. Based on the Hilloskorpi et al. [1] model and by developing a method of truncation of the heart rate (HR) tests records - eliminating the component of the work biologically needed by the organism to keep its basal metabolic rate from the work each person performed – it was possible to evaluate how much energy each individual invested in each access manoeuver. Immediately after each test, and after the whole round of vehicles, each participant was surveyed for a subjective assessment of the difficulty of accessing to the cars. According to each of the above results, the HR objective measurements and the subjective opinion about the ease of access experienced by each individual, the vehicles were ranked by order of accessibility to the front and rear seats. The result of both rankings showed the orders of the similar vehicles, the potential of the method and a fair closeness between its results and the subjective, but real and unequivocal, judgments of the participants. (Author)

  17. Interfaces and Communication Protocols in ATCA-Based LLRF Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Dariusz; Koprek, Waldemar; Jezynski, Tomasz; Piotrowski, Adam; Jablonski, Grzegorz; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Simrock, Stefan

    2009-10-01

    Linear accelerators driving Free Electron Lasers (FELs), such as the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) or the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL), require sophisticated Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control systems. The controller of the LLRF system should stabilize the phase and amplitude of the field in accelerating modules below 0.02% of the amplitude and 0.01 degree for phase tolerances to produce an ultra stable electron beam that meets the required conditions for Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE). Since the LLRF system for the XFEL must be in operation for the next 20 years, it should be reliable, reproducible and upgradeable. Having in mind all requirements of the LLRF control system, the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) has been chosen to build a prototype of the LLRF system for the FLASH accelerator that is able to supervise 32 cavities of one RF station. The LLRF controller takes advantage of features offered by the ATCA standard. The LLRF system consists of a few ATCA carrier blades, Rear Transition Modules (RTM) and several Advanced Mezzanine Cards (AMCs) that provide all necessary digital and analog hardware components. The distributed hardware of the LLRF system requires a number of communication links that should provide different latencies, bandwidths and protocols. The paper presents the general view of the ATC A-based LLRF system, discusses requirements and proposes an application for various interfaces and protocols in the distributed LLRF control system.

  18. A Routing Protocol Based on Received Signal Strength for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiju Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs are featured by long propagation delay, limited energy, narrow bandwidth, high BER (Bit Error Rate and variable topology structure. These features make it very difficult to design a short delay and high energy-efficiency routing protocol for UWSNs. In this paper, a routing protocol independent of location information is proposed based on received signal strength (RSS, which is called RRSS. In RRSS, a sensor node firstly establishes a vector from the node to a sink node; the length of the vector indicates the RSS of the beacon signal (RSSB from the sink node. A node selects the next-hop along the vector according to RSSB and the RSS of a hello packet (RSSH. The node nearer to the vector has higher priority to be a candidate next-hop. To avoid data packets being delivered to the neighbor nodes in a void area, a void-avoiding algorithm is introduced. In addition, residual energy is considered when selecting the next-hop. Meanwhile, we establish mathematic models to analyze the robustness and energy efficiency of RRSS. Lastly, we conduct extensive simulations, and the simulation results show RRSS can save energy consumption and decrease end-to-end delay.

  19. Minimum expected delay-based routing protocol (MEDR) for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yong; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xiaomin; Gong, Haigang

    2010-01-01

    It is a challenging work to develop efficient routing protocols for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks (DTMSNs), which have several unique characteristics such as sensor mobility, intermittent connectivity, energy limit, and delay tolerability. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol called Minimum Expected Delay-based Routing (MEDR) tailored for DTMSNs. MEDR achieves a good routing performance by finding and using the connected paths formed dynamically by mobile sensors. In MEDR, each sensor maintains two important parameters: Minimum Expected Delay (MED) and its expiration time. According to MED, messages will be delivered to the sensor that has at least a connected path with their hosting nodes, and has the shortest expected delay to communication directly with the sink node. Because of the changing network topology, the path is fragile and volatile, so we use the expiration time of MED to indicate the valid time of the path, and avoid wrong transmissions. Simulation results show that the proposed MEDR achieves a higher message delivery ratio with lower transmission overhead and data delivery delay than other DTMSN routing approaches.

  20. A routing protocol based on energy and link quality for Internet of Things applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Kássio; Rosário, Denis; Cerqueira, Eduardo; Loureiro, Antonio A F; Neto, Augusto; Souza, José Neuman de

    2013-02-04

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL) for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols.

  1. A Routing Protocol Based on Energy and Link Quality for Internet of Things Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. F. Loureiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols.

  2. C-DAM: CONTENTION BASED DISTRIBUTED RESERVATION PROTOCOL ALLOCATION ALGORITHM FOR WIMEDIA MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UMADEVI K. S.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available WiMedia Medium Access Control (MAC provides high rate data transfer for wireless networking thereby enables construction of high speed home networks. It facilitates data communication between the nodes through two modes namely: i Distributed Reservation Protocol (DRP for isochronous traffic and ii Prioritized Contention Access (PCA for asynchronous traffic. PCA mode enables medium access using CSMA/CA similar to IEEE 802.11e. In the presence of DRP, the throughput of PCA saturates when there is an increase in the number of devices accessing PCA channel. Researchers suggest that the better utilization of medium resolves many issues in an effective way. To demonstrate the effective utilization of the medium, Contention Based Distributed Reservation Protocol Allocation Algorithm for WiMedia Medium Access Control is proposed for reserving Medium Access Slots under DRP in the presence of PCA. The proposed algorithm provides a better medium access, reduces energy consumption and enhances the throughput when compared to the existing methodologies.

  3. History and Nature of Science enriched Problem-Based Learning on the origins of biodiversity and of continents and oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sousa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The episode of the History of Science (HOS on the theory of continental drift proposed by Alfred Wegener has been considered an excellent example for teaching students aspects of Nature of Science (NOS and the relation of Science with social and tecnological contexts. We implemented a NOS and HOS-enriched Problem-Based Learning environment at the middle (year 7 of the Portuguese National Curriculum and secondary level (year 10 for teaching the origins of biodiversity and of continents and oceans (mobilism.  The goal of providing detailed implementation practices is to adress the lack of how to in Problem-based learning (PBL implementation in classrooms for 12 to 16 year old students and is the first practical example of implementation using this episode of HOS for teaching geological mobilism integrated with evolution. Therefore, in this study, we provide specific suggestions for supporting teachers’ classroom efforts in implementing PBL, such as scaffolding. The ill-problem presented to students, without a single correct answer, was based on the phylogeny of extant and extinct ratite birds, described by Charles Darwin and the present geographical distribution. The evaluation of the students was focused on the chain of reasoning employed, and we performed a comparisation analysis of the problem’s solution presented by the students of both classes regarding the explanation of the phylogeny of ratites based on geological mobilism. We observed an overall improvement (25-77% of the percentages of students pre- and post-instruction adequate answers; therefore our PBL strategy was efficient.

  4. Efficient identity-based authenticated multiple key exchange protocol - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.16434

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitao Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Authenticated multiple key exchange (AMKE protocols not only allow participants to warrant multiple session keys within one run of the protocol but also ensure the authenticity of the other party. Many AMKE protocols using bilinear pairings have been proposed. However, the relative computation cost of the pairing is approximately twenty times higher than that of the scalar multiplication over elliptic curve group. In order to improve the performance, an ID-based AMKE protocol without bilinear pairing is proposed. Since the running time is largely saved, suggested protocol is more practical than the previous related protocols for practical applications.   

  5. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    necessary tools. In this paper, we present the Protocol Implementation Generator (PiG), a framework that can be used to add protocol generation to protocol negotiation, or to easily share and implement new protocols throughout a network. PiG enables the sharing, verification, and translation...... of communication protocols. With it, partners can suggest a new protocol by sending its specification. After formally verifying the specification, each partner generates an implementation, which can then be used for establishing communication. We also present a practical realisation of the Protocol Implementation...... Generator framework based on the LySatool and a translator from the LySa language into C or Java....

  6. Base excision repair pathway is involved in the repair of lesions generated by flavonoid-enriched fractions of pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius, Raddi) stem bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Barca, Francisco Napoleão Túlio; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo

    2007-10-01

    Cell-free and bacterial assays indicate that flavonoid-enriched fractions and the flavonoids of pepper tree stem bark from Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi have genotoxic rather than antigenotoxic properties. In the present report, we have examined the ability of flavonoid-enriched fractions to damage plasmid DNA and the repair pathways involved in the recognition of these DNA lesions. High concentrations of two flavonoid-enriched fractions were able to break phosphodiester bonds in DNA. In addition, studies using bacterial strains deficient in nucleotide excision repair and base excision repair (BER) enzymes indicated that the flavonoid-enriched fractions generated lesions that were substrates for enzymes belonging to the BER pathway. In addition, in vitro studies indicated that the DNA damage produced by the flavonoid-enriched fractions was also a substrate for exonuclease III and that the phosphodiester breakage was amplified by copper ions. These results indicate that flavonoids from the pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius, Raddi) generate lesions on DNA that are potential targets of FPG and MutY glycosylase from the BER pathway. Chromatographic and spectral analyses helped to support the hypothesis that the flavonoids of the Brazilian pepper tree bark are the main factors involved in the fraction's damage potential. The isolated flavonoids from Fraction II were also tested in vitro and support the oxidative damage potential of these flavonoids. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Integrated and Contextual Basic Science Instruction in Preclinical Education: Problem-Based Learning Experience Enriched with Brain/Mind Learning Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülpinar, Mehmet Ali; Isoglu-Alkaç, Ümmühan; Yegen, Berrak Çaglayan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, integrated and contextual learning models such as problem-based learning (PBL) and brain/mind learning (BML) have become prominent. The present study aimed to develop and evaluate a PBL program enriched with BML principles. In this study, participants were 295 first-year medical students. The study used both quantitative and qualitative…

  8. Lutein-enriched emulsion-based delivery systems: Influence of pH and temperature on physical and chemical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidov-Pardo, Gabriel; Gumus, Cansu Ekin; McClements, David Julian

    2016-04-01

    Lutein may be utilized in foods as a natural pigment or nutraceutical ingredient to improve eye health. Nevertheless, its use is limited by its poor water-solubility and chemical instability. We evaluated the effect of storage temperature and pH on the physical and chemical stability of lutein-enriched emulsions prepared using caseinate. The emulsions (initial droplet diameter=232 nm) remained physically stable at all incubation temperatures (5-70 °C); however the chemical degradation of lutein increased with increasing temperature (activation energy=38 kJ/mol). Solution pH had a major impact on the physical stability of the emulsions, causing droplet aggregation at pH 4 and 5. Conversely, the chemical stability of lutein was largely independent of the pH, with only a slight decrease in degradation at pH 8. This work provides important information for the rational design of emulsion-based delivery systems for a lipophilic natural dye and nutraceutical. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Family, Employment, and Individual Resource-Based Antecedents of Maternal Work-Family Enrichment from Infancy through Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Buehler, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    This study used data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,019) to examine family, employment, and individual antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood. Work-family conflict and important confounding factors were controlled. From the family domain, higher income-to-needs ratio and social support were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the employment domain, greater job rewards, benefits of employment for children, and work commitment were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the individual domain, higher maternal education and extroversion were associated with higher work-family enrichment. No family, employment, and individual characteristics were associated with work-family conflict across time except for partner intimacy. In general, the results supported antecedents of work-family enrichment that supply needed resources. The present study contributed to the literature by identifying antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment across early child developmental stages, which goes beyond examinations of particular life stages and a work-family conflict perspective. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:26641483

  10. Digestion and ruminal fermentation of cocoa pod silage based ration enriched by gliricidia and calliandra leaves on goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puastuti W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In term of availability, cacao pod is potential for ruminant feed. According to its nutrients content, cacao pod can be used as feed fiber source. Protein sources materials must be added when cacao pod was ensilaged due to low protein content of this material. The aim of this study was to investigate digestibility value and end products of rumen fermentation of goat fed grass or cacao pod based ration. Randomized block design and 20 heads of lambs (16.95±2.36 kg to evaluated 5 type of rations: R (50% grass + 50% concentrate; S (50% cacao pod silage + 50% concentrate; SG (50% cacao pod-gliricidia silage + 50% concentrate; SK (50% cacao pod-calliandra silage + 50% concentrate dan SC (50% cacao pod-mixture of gliricidia-calliandra silage + 50% concentrate. Feeding trial was conducted for over 15 weeks. Measurements were taken on feed digestibility and rumen-fermentation end-products after 3 weeks of treatments. Results shows that nutrients digestibility was different significantly among the groups of treatments (P<0.05. Digestibillity of organic matter, NDF and energy of R ration was those of higher significantly (P<0.05 than those of other groups. N-ammonia of rumen from goat feed R ration was higher (P<0.05 than other groups. Total VFA and each component were different among the groups (P<0.05, however the value was similar among the groups of cacao pod silage rations. It is concluded that cacao pod silaged based rations enriched by Gliricidia and Calliandra leaves did not produce similar digestibility value and end products of rumen fermentation with grass based ration.

  11. CENTERA: A Centralized Trust-Based Efficient Routing Protocol with Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Tajeddine

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN. CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of “bad” nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes’ battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics—maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility—and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates “bad”, “misbehaving” or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node’s bad/probation level with repeated “bad” behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to “good” nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations.

  12. Comprehensive protocols for CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing in human pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, David P.; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Eggan, Kevin; Merkle, Florian T.

    2016-01-01

    Application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit the genomes of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has the potential to revolutionize hPSC-based disease modeling, drug screening, and transplantation therapy. Here, we aim to provide a single resource to enable groups, even those with limited experience with hPSC culture or the CRISPR/Cas9 system, to successfully perform genome editing. The methods are presented in detail and are supported by a theoretical framework to allow for the incorporation of inevitable improvements in the rapidly evolving gene-editing field. We describe protocols to generate hPSC lines with gene-specific knock-outs, small targeted mutations, or knock-in reporters. PMID:27532820

  13. A Rational Threshold Signature Model and Protocol Based on Different Permissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a novel model and protocol used in some specific scenarios, in which the participants of multiple groups with different permissions can finish the signature together. We apply the secret sharing scheme based on difference equation to the private key distribution phase and secret reconstruction phrase of our threshold signature scheme. In addition, our scheme can achieve the signature success because of the punishment strategy of the repeated rational secret sharing. Besides, the bit commitment and verification method used to detect players’ cheating behavior acts as a contributing factor to prevent the internal fraud. Using bit commitments, verifiable parameters, and time sequences, this paper constructs a dynamic game model, which has the features of threshold signature management with different permissions, cheat proof, and forward security.

  14. Architecture Design and Experimental Platform Demonstration of Optical Network based on OpenFlow Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangyuan; Wang, Honghuan; Yin, Hongxi; Li, Ming; Luo, Shenzi; Wu, Chenguang

    2016-02-01

    With the extensive application of cloud computing and data centres, as well as the constantly emerging services, the big data with the burst characteristic has brought huge challenges to optical networks. Consequently, the software defined optical network (SDON) that combines optical networks with software defined network (SDN), has attracted much attention. In this paper, an OpenFlow-enabled optical node employed in optical cross-connect (OXC) and reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM), is proposed. An open source OpenFlow controller is extended on routing strategies. In addition, the experiment platform based on OpenFlow protocol for software defined optical network, is designed. The feasibility and availability of the OpenFlow-enabled optical nodes and the extended OpenFlow controller are validated by the connectivity test, protection switching and load balancing experiments in this test platform.

  15. A dynamical strategy of multi-channel MAC protocol based on QoS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bu-shuo; Lv, Na; Chen, Ke-fan; Zhao, Peng-bo

    2017-10-01

    Aiming at the QoS problems of QoS and channel access in aviation Ad Hoc network under high load. A multi-channel MAC protocol(DQM)based on the dynamic QoS is put forward. On the basis of statistical multi-channel detection, DQM optimizes the network traffic to ensure high priority data transmit successfully with low latency by closuring the low priority data. Aiming at ensuring the access rate of high priority data, it utilizes the flow prediction model to predict the network flow and uses the PSO to find the most optimal priority threshold .The simulation results prove that DQM maintains an optimized network traffic by adaptively controlling channel access under high load, ensures the access rate of high priority data more than 99% and solve the QoS and latency problem caused by high traffic in aviation data link.

  16. Practical private database queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobi, Markus; Simon, Christoph; Gisin, Nicolas; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Branciard, Cyril; Walenta, Nino; Zbinden, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Private queries allow a user, Alice, to learn an element of a database held by a provider, Bob, without revealing which element she is interested in, while limiting her information about the other elements. We propose to implement private queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol, with changes only in the classical postprocessing of the key. This approach makes our scheme both easy to implement and loss tolerant. While unconditionally secure private queries are known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved by relying on fundamental physical principles instead of unverifiable security assumptions in order to protect both the user and the database. We think that the scope exists for such practical private queries to become another remarkable application of quantum information in the footsteps of quantum key distribution.

  17. [Virtual environment: assistance in nursing care for the deaf based on the protocol of primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Silvia Cristina Martini; Damião, Gardênia Costa

    2014-08-01

    Presenting a Virtual Environment (VE) based on the Protocol of Treatment of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus type 2, used in Primary Care for evaluation of dietary habits in nursing consultations. An experimental study applied by two nurses and a nurse manager, in a sample of 30 deaf patients aged between 30 and 60 years. The environment was built in Visual Basic NET and offered eight screens about feeding containing food pictures, videos in Libras (Brazilian sign language) and audio. The analysis of the VE was done through questionnaires applied to patients and professionals by the Poisson statistical test. The VE shows the possible diagnostics in red, yellow, green and blue colors, depending on the degree of patients' need. The environment obtained excellent acceptance by patients and nurses, allowing great interaction between them, even without an interpreter. The time in consultation was reduced to 15 minutes, with the preservation of patient privacy.

  18. Remote upgrade and control system of NAT crossing based on mail protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new scheme which uses transmits information such as related IP address and port by the mail server POP3 and SMTP protocol to realize net address turning (NAT crossing.The UDP connection between client and device node is realized by using "burrow" technology.Compared to the scheme that uses procedure server to realize NAT crossing schemes by the "burrow" technology,our scheme has advantages of saving operating costs,improving the stability of the system and enhancing the transferability of the system.With multiple equipment node,and a variety of network environment,we introduces the firmware update module,designs and realizes the remote upgrade and the control system of an intelligent device of Internet of Things based on the proposed scheme,and discusses the robustness of the system.

  19. Resource Usage Protocols for Iterators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Haack, C.; Müller, P.; Hurlin, C.

    We discuss usage protocols for iterator objects that prevent concurrent modifications of the underlying collection while iterators are in progress. We formalize these protocols in Java-like object interfaces, enriched with separation logic contracts. We present examples of iterator clients and

  20. Interprofessional primary care protocols: a strategy to promote an evidence-based approach to teamwork and the delivery of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Joanne; Meuser, Jamie; Lawrie, Lynne; Rogers, Jess; Reeves, Scott

    2010-11-01

    Primary care reform involving interprofessional team-based care is a global phenomenon. In Ontario, Canada, 150 Family Health Teams (FHTs) have been approved in the past few years. The transition to a FHT is complex involving many changes and the processes for collaborative teamwork are not clearly delineated. To support the transition to team-based care in FHTs, a project was undertaken to develop and implement a series of interprofessional protocols in four clinical areas. These interprofessional protocols would contain relevant and evidence-based resources to support both a team and evidence-based approach to care. This paper reports on a qualitative study to examine the process of interprofessional protocol development and pilot implementation. Adopting an exploratory case study approach (Robson, 2002 ), 36 interviews were conducted with health professionals and community group members who participated in the creation and piloting of the protocols, and with project managers. In addition, observational and documentary data were gathered on the protocol development and implementation processes. The findings from the protocol development stage demonstrate the value of the focus on evidence and team, the process of assessing and targeting FHT needs, inter-organizational and interprofessional sharing, the importance of facilitation and support, and expectations for implementation. The findings from the pilot implementation stage report on the importance of champions and leaders, the implementation strategies used, FHT and organizational factors affecting implementation, and outcomes achieved. Findings are discussed in relation to the knowledge translation and interprofessional literature. Research is ongoing to examine the effectiveness of dissemination of the protocols to FHTs across the province of Ontario and its impact on health care outcomes.

  1. Three-dimensional ordered titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide film-based microfluidic device for efficient on-chip phosphopeptide enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De; He, Zhongyuan; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2016-09-15

    Microfluidic technology plays a significant role in separating biomolecules, because of its miniaturization, integration, and automation. Introducing micro/nanostructured functional materials can improve the properties of microfluidic devices, and extend their application. Inverse opal has a three-dimensional ordered net-like structure. It possesses a large surface area and exhibits good mass transport, making it a good candidate for bio-separation. This study exploits inverse opal titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide films for on-chip phosphopeptide enrichment. Titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide inverse opal film-based microfluidic devices were constructed from templates of 270-, 340-, and 370-nm-diameter poly(methylmethacrylate) spheres. The phosphopeptide enrichments of these devices were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The device constructed from the 270-nm-diameter sphere template exhibited good comprehensive phosphopeptide enrichment, and was the best among these three devices. Because the size of opal template used in construction was the smallest, the inverse opal film therefore had the smallest pore sizes and the largest surface area. Enrichment by this device was also better than those of similar devices based on nanoparticle films and single component films. The titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide inverse opal film-based device provides a promising approach for the efficient separation of various biomolecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Towards an international standard for PCR-based detection of foodborne thermotolerant campylobacters: interaction of enrichment media and pre-PCR treatment on carcass rinse samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsen, M H; Lübeck, P S; Hansen, F; Hoorfar, J

    2004-07-01

    As part of a large EU project for standardisation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a systematic evaluation of the interaction of enrichment media, type of DNA polymerase and pre-PCR sample treatment for a PCR detecting thermotolerant campylobacters was carried out. The growth-supporting capacity and PCR compatibility of enrichment in Preston, Mueller-Hinton and Bolton broth (blood-containing and blood-free) were evaluated. The effect of resin-based DNA extraction and DNA extraction by boiling on the final PCR assay was investigated. The time-course studies indicated that a 20-h sample enrichment in blood-containing Bolton broth, followed by a simple resin-based extraction of DNA and a PCR amplification using Tth polymerase, resulted in strong and clear PCR amplicons for target (287 bp) and internal amplification control (IAC, 124 bp). The enrichment PCR-based method, tested on 68 presumably naturally contaminated poultry-rinse samples, showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 97.5% (39 PCR-positive/40 total positive samples) and a diagnostic specificity of 100% (28 PCR-negative/28 total negative samples; P=0.32) when compared to a standard bacteriological method (ISO 10272). Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  3. AR-RBFS: Aware-Routing Protocol Based on Recursive Best-First Search Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Kiani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy issue is one of the most important problems in wireless sensor networks. They consist of low-power sensor nodes and a few base station nodes. They must be adaptive and efficient in data transmission to sink in various areas. This paper proposes an aware-routing protocol based on clustering and recursive search approaches. The paper focuses on the energy efficiency issue with various measures such as prolonging network lifetime along with reducing energy consumption in the sensor nodes and increasing the system reliability. Our proposed protocol consists of two phases. In the first phase (network development phase, the sensors are placed into virtual layers. The second phase (data transmission is related to routes discovery and data transferring so it is based on virtual-based Classic-RBFS algorithm in the lake of energy problem environments but, in the nonchargeable environments, all nodes in each layer can be modeled as a random graph and then begin to be managed by the duty cycle method. Additionally, the protocol uses new topology control, data aggregation, and sleep/wake-up schemas for energy saving in the network. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol is optimal in the network lifetime and packet delivery parameters according to the present protocols.

  4. Base station MAC with APRMA protocol for broadband multimedia ATM in micro/pico-cellular mobile networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Khanh Hoang; Nielsen, Søren Nørskov; Dittmann, Lars

    1998-01-01

    The concept for a wireless ATM access system that enables seamless mobile connectivity to the B-ISDN is presented. It is based on small, low cost and intelligent base stations running a medium access control (MAC) protocol using adaptive packet reservation multiple access (APRMA). Both the princi...

  5. A Language-Based Approach for Improving the Robustness of Network Application Protocol Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgy, Laurent; Reveillere, Laurent; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2007-01-01

    -specific language, Zebu, for generating robust and efficient message processing layers. A Zebu specification, based on the notation used in RFCs, describes protocol message formats and related processing constraints. Zebu-based applications are efficient, since message fragments can be specified to be processed...

  6. Formal Analysis of Fairness in E-Payment Protocol Based on Strand Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Ma, Jianping; Chen, Bo

    Fairness as one of most important properties in E-payment protocol, it is important to verify it through informal and formal analysis approach. In this paper, we present the procedure to analyze iKP protocol in terms of strand space model, which consists of three key steps: First, we use strand space terminology to create the bundle of iKP protocol. Second, we enumerate all possible traces of each participant's strand in the run process of iKP. Third, according to the definition of fairness, determine whether iKP satisfy fairness. Then, we present the algorithm to verify fairness of E-payment protocol in pseudo code and use this algorithm to analyze ISI protocol successfully. This algorithm allows us to automatically verify fairness of E-payment protocol.

  7. A Standard Mutual Authentication Protocol for Cloud Computing Based Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohit, Prerna; Amin, Ruhul; Karati, Arijit; Biswas, G P; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2017-04-01

    Telecare Medical Information System (TMIS) supports a standard platform to the patient for getting necessary medical treatment from the doctor(s) via Internet communication. Security protection is important for medical records (data) of the patients because of very sensitive information. Besides, patient anonymity is another most important property, which must be protected. Most recently, Chiou et al. suggested an authentication protocol for TMIS by utilizing the concept of cloud environment. They claimed that their protocol is patient anonymous and well security protected. We reviewed their protocol and found that it is completely insecure against patient anonymity. Further, the same protocol is not protected against mobile device stolen attack. In order to improve security level and complexity, we design a light weight authentication protocol for the same environment. Our security analysis ensures resilience of all possible security attacks. The performance of our protocol is relatively standard in comparison with the related previous research.

  8. Implementation of the Welfare Quality broiler assessment protocol – final report : overview of outcome-based measurement of broiler welfare and a general discussion on the Welfare Quality broiler assessment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Gunnink, H.; Hindle, V.A.

    2015-01-01

    In the current report, two topics related to our study on the implementation of the Welfare Quality® broiler assessment protocol are discussed. First, animal-based measures for broiler welfare, currently included in the Welfare Quality® broiler assessment protocol, are discussed with respect to

  9. How do nurses, midwives and health visitors contribute to protocol-based care? A synthesis of the UK literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilott, Irene; Booth, Andrew; Rick, Jo; Patterson, Malcolm

    2010-06-01

    To explore how nurses, midwives and health visitors contribute to the development, implementation and audit of protocol-based care. Protocol-based care refers to the use of documents that set standards for clinical care processes with the intent of reducing unacceptable variations in practice. Documents such as protocols, clinical guidelines and care pathways underpin evidence-based practice throughout the world. An interpretative review using the five-stage systematic literature review process. The data sources were the British Nursing Index, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and Web of Science from onset to 2005. The Journal of Integrated Care Pathways was hand searched (1997-June 2006). Thirty three studies about protocol-based care in the United Kingdom were appraised using the Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (QARI version 2). The literature was synthesized inductively and deductively, using an official 12-step guide for development as a framework for the deductive synthesis. Most papers were descriptive, offering practitioner knowledge and positive findings about a locally developed and owned protocol-based care. The majority were instigated in response to clinical need or service re-design. Development of protocol-based care was a non-linear, idiosyncratic process, with steps omitted, repeated or completed in a different order. The context and the multiple purposes of protocol-based care influenced the development process. Implementation and sustainability were rarely mentioned, or theorised as a change. The roles and activities of nurses were so understated as to be almost invisible. There were notable gaps in the literature about the resource use costs, the engagement of patients in the decision-making process, leadership and the impact of formalisation and new roles on inter-professional relations. Documents that standardise clinical care are part of the history of nursing as well as contemporary evidence-based care and expanded roles. Considering the

  10. Cryptanalysis and Improvement for the Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on Triplet Entangled State and Single-Particle Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Xu; Tian-Yu, Ye

    2017-03-01

    Quantum private comparison (QPC) aims to accomplish the equality comparison of secret inputs from two users on the basis of not leaking their contents out. Recently, Chen et al. proposed the QPC protocol based on triplet GHZ state and single-particle measurement (Optics Communications 283, 1561-1565 (2010)). In this paper, they suggested the standard model of a semi-honest third party (TP) for the first time, and declared that their protocol is secure. Subsequently, Lin et al. pointed out that in Chen et al.'s protocol, one user can extract the other user's secret without being discovered by performing the intercept-resend attack, and suggested two corresponding improvements (Optics Communications 284, 2412-2414 (2011)). However, Yang et al. first pointed out that the model of TP adopted by both Chen et al.'s protocol and Lin et al.'s improved protocols is unreasonable, and thought that a practical TP may also try any possible means to steal the users' secrets except being corrupted by the adversary including the dishonest user (Quantum Inf Process 12, 877-885 (2013). In this paper, after taking the possible attacks from TP into account, we propose the eavesdropping strategy of TP toward Lin et al.'s improved protocols and suggest two feasible solutions accordingly.

  11. An empirical evaluation of lightweight random walk based routing protocol in duty cycle aware wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Adnan Noor; Fatima, Mehwish; Khan, Raees; Prakash, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important design paradigm in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and its consumption in dynamic environment is even more critical. Duty cycling of sensor nodes is used to address the energy consumption problem. However, along with advantages, duty cycle aware networks introduce some complexities like synchronization and latency. Due to their inherent characteristics, many traditional routing protocols show low performance in densely deployed WSNs with duty cycle awareness, when sensor nodes are supposed to have high mobility. In this paper we first present a three messages exchange Lightweight Random Walk Routing (LRWR) protocol and then evaluate its performance in WSNs for routing low data rate packets. Through NS-2 based simulations, we examine the LRWR protocol by comparing it with DYMO, a widely used WSN protocol, in both static and dynamic environments with varying duty cycles, assuming the standard IEEE 802.15.4 in lower layers. Results for the three metrics, that is, reliability, end-to-end delay, and energy consumption, show that LRWR protocol outperforms DYMO in scalability, mobility, and robustness, showing this protocol as a suitable choice in low duty cycle and dense WSNs.

  12. Plant-RRBS, a bisulfite and next-generation sequencing-based methylome profiling method enriching for coverage of cytosine positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martin; Van Bel, Michiel; Woloszynska, Magdalena; Slabbinck, Bram; Martens, Cindy; De Block, Marc; Coppens, Frederik; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2017-07-06

    Cytosine methylation in plant genomes is important for the regulation of gene transcription and transposon activity. Genome-wide methylomes are studied upon mutation of the DNA methyltransferases, adaptation to environmental stresses or during development. However, from basic biology to breeding programs, there is a need to monitor multiple samples to determine transgenerational methylation inheritance or differential cytosine methylation. Methylome data obtained by sodium hydrogen sulfite (bisulfite)-conversion and next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide genome-wide information on cytosine methylation. However, a profiling method that detects cytosine methylation state dispersed over the genome would allow high-throughput analysis of multiple plant samples with distinct epigenetic signatures. We use specific restriction endonucleases to enrich for cytosine coverage in a bisulfite and NGS-based profiling method, which was compared to whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of the same plant material. We established an effective methylome profiling method in plants, termed plant-reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (plant-RRBS), using optimized double restriction endonuclease digestion, fragment end repair, adapter ligation, followed by bisulfite conversion, PCR amplification and NGS. We report a performant laboratory protocol and a straightforward bioinformatics data analysis pipeline for plant-RRBS, applicable for any reference-sequenced plant species. As a proof of concept, methylome profiling was performed using an Oryza sativa ssp. indica pure breeding line and a derived epigenetically altered line (epiline). Plant-RRBS detects methylation levels at tens of millions of cytosine positions deduced from bisulfite conversion in multiple samples. To evaluate the method, the coverage of cytosine positions, the intra-line similarity and the differential cytosine methylation levels between the pure breeding line and the epiline were determined. Plant

  13. Resynchronization with unknown pregnancy status using progestin-based timed artificial insemination protocol in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Filho, M F; Marques, M O; Girotto, R; Santos, F A; Sala, R V; Barbuio, J P; Baruselli, P S

    2014-01-15

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the use of resynchronization (RESYNCH) protocols using a progestin-based timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol in beef cattle. In experiment 1, 475 cyclic Nelore heifers were resynchronized 22 days after the first TAI using two different inducers of new follicular wave emergence (estradiol benzoate [EB; n = 241] or GnRH [n = 234]) with the insertion of a norgestomet ear implant. At ear implant removal (7 days later), a pregnancy test was performed, and nonpregnant heifers received a dose of prostaglandin plus 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate, with a timed insemination 48 hours later. The pregnancy rate after the first TAI was similar (P = 0.97) between treatments (EB [41.9%] vs. GnRH [41.5%]). However, EB-treated heifers (49.3%) had a greater (P = 0.04) pregnancy per AI (P/AI) after the resynchronization than the GnRH-treated heifers (37.2%). In experiment 2, the pregnancy loss in 664 zebu females (344 nonlactating cows and 320 cyclic heifers) between 30 and 60 days after resynchronization was evaluated. Females were randomly assigned to one of two groups (RESYNCH 22 days after the first TAI [n = 317] or submitted only to natural mating [NM; n = 347]). Females from the NM group were maintained with bulls from 15 to 30 days after the first TAI. The RESYNC-treated females were resynchronized 22 days after the first TAI using 1 mg of EB on the first day of the resynchronization, similar to experiment 1. No difference was found in P/AI (NM [57.1%] vs. RESYNC [61.5%]; P = 0.32) or pregnancy loss (NM [2.0%] vs. RESYNC [4.1%]; P = 0.21) after the first TAI. Moreover, the overall P/AI after the RESYNCH protocol was 47.5%. Thus, the administration of 1 mg of EB on day 22 after the first TAI, when the pregnancy status was undetermined, promotes a higher P/AI in the resynchronized TAI than the use of GnRH. Also, the administration of 1 mg of EB 22 days after the TAI did not affect the preestablished pregnancy. Copyright © 2014

  14. Routing protocol for wireless quantum multi-hop mesh backbone network based on partially entangled GHZ state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Pei-Ying; Yu, Xu-Tao; Zhang, Zai-Chen; Zhan, Hai-Tao; Hua, Jing-Yu

    2017-08-01

    Quantum multi-hop teleportation is important in the field of quantum communication. In this study, we propose a quantum multi-hop communication model and a quantum routing protocol with multihop teleportation for wireless mesh backbone networks. Based on an analysis of quantum multi-hop protocols, a partially entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is selected as the quantum channel for the proposed protocol. Both quantum and classical wireless channels exist between two neighboring nodes along the route. With the proposed routing protocol, quantum information can be transmitted hop by hop from the source node to the destination node. Based on multi-hop teleportation based on the partially entangled GHZ state, a quantum route established with the minimum number of hops. The difference between our routing protocol and the classical one is that in the former, the processes used to find a quantum route and establish quantum channel entanglement occur simultaneously. The Bell state measurement results of each hop are piggybacked to quantum route finding information. This method reduces the total number of packets and the magnitude of air interface delay. The deduction of the establishment of a quantum channel between source and destination is also presented here. The final success probability of quantum multi-hop teleportation in wireless mesh backbone networks was simulated and analyzed. Our research shows that quantum multi-hop teleportation in wireless mesh backbone networks through a partially entangled GHZ state is feasible.

  15. Dynamic Subchannel Assignment-Based Cross-Layer MAC and Network Protocol for Multihop Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Nguyen Quang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a dynamic subchannel assignment algorithm based on orthogonal frequency division multiple access technology operating in the time division duplexing and a new cross-layer design based on a proposed routing protocol jointed with the MAC protocol. The proposed dynamic sub-channel assignment algorithm provides a new interference avoidance mechanism which solves several drawbacks of existing radio resource allocation techniques in wireless networks using OFDMA/TDD, such as the hidden node and exposed node problems, mobility, and cochannels interference in frequency (CCI. Besides, in wireless networks, when a route is established, the radio resource allocation problems may decrease the end to end performance proportionally with the length of each route. The contention at MAC layer may cause the routing protocol at network layer to respond by finding new routes and routing table updates. The proposed routing protocol is jointed with the MAC protocol based on dynamic sub-channel assignment to ensure that the quality of service in multihop ad hoc networks is significantly improved.

  16. ADAPTIVE CLUSTER BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL WITH ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK IN DISASTER AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Budianto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In post-disaster rehabilitation efforts, the availability of telecommunication facilities takes important role. However, the process to improve telecommunication facilities in disaster area is risky if it is done by humans. Therefore, a network method that can work efficiently, effectively, and capable to reach the widest possible area is needed. This research introduces a cluster-based routing protocol named Adaptive Cluster Based Routing Protocol (ACBRP equipped by Ant Colony Optimization method, and its implementation in a simulator developed by author. After data analysis and statistical tests, it can be concluded that routing protocol ACBRP performs better than AODV and DSR routing protocol. Pada upaya rehabilitasi pascabencana, ketersediaan fasilitas telekomunikasi memiliki peranan yang sangat penting. Namun, proses untuk memperbaiki fasilitas telekomunikasi di daerah bencana memiliki resiko jika dilakukan oleh manusia. Oleh karena itu, metode jaringan yang dapat bekerja secara efisien, efektif, dan mampu mencapai area seluas mungkin diperlukan. Penelitian ini memperkenalkan sebuah protokol routing berbasis klaster bernama Adaptive Cluster Based Routing Protocol (ACBRP, yang dilengkapi dengan metode Ant Colony Optimization, dan diimplementasikan pada simulator yang dikembangkan penulis. Setelah data dianalisis dan dilakukan uji statistik, disimpulkan bahwa protokol routing ACBRP beroperasi lebih baik daripada protokol routing AODV maupun DSR.

  17. Study of accent-based music speech protocol development for improving voice problems in stroke patients with mixed dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Ji; Jo, Uiri

    2013-01-01

    Based on the anatomical and functional commonality between singing and speech, various types of musical elements have been employed in music therapy research for speech rehabilitation. This study was to develop an accent-based music speech protocol to address voice problems of stroke patients with mixed dysarthria. Subjects were 6 stroke patients with mixed dysarthria and they received individual music therapy sessions. Each session was conducted for 30 minutes and 12 sessions including pre- and post-test were administered for each patient. For examining the protocol efficacy, the measures of maximum phonation time (MPT), fundamental frequency (F0), average intensity (dB), jitter, shimmer, noise to harmonics ratio (NHR), and diadochokinesis (DDK) were compared between pre and post-test and analyzed with a paired sample t-test. The results showed that the measures of MPT, F0, dB, and sequential motion rates (SMR) were significantly increased after administering the protocol. Also, there were statistically significant differences in the measures of shimmer, and alternating motion rates (AMR) of the syllable /K$\\inve$/ between pre- and post-test. The results indicated that the accent-based music speech protocol may improve speech motor coordination including respiration, phonation, articulation, resonance, and prosody of patients with dysarthria. This suggests the possibility of utilizing the music speech protocol to maximize immediate treatment effects in the course of a long-term treatment for patients with dysarthria.

  18. Compton DIV: Using a Compton-Based Gamma-Ray Imager for Design Information Verification of Uranium Enrichment Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burks, M.; Verbeke, J.; Dougan, A.; Wang, T.; Decman, D.

    2009-01-01

    A feasibility study has been performed to determine the potential usefulness of Compton imaging as a tool for design information verification (DIV) of uranium enrichment plants. Compton imaging is a method of gamma-ray imaging capable of imaging with a 360-degree field of view over a broad range of energies. These systems can image a room (with a time span on the order of one hour) and return a picture of the distribution and composition of radioactive material in that room. The effectiveness of Compton imaging depends on the sensitivity and resolution of the instrument as well the strength and energy of the radioactive material to be imaged. This study combined measurements and simulations to examine the specific issue of UF 6 gas flow in pipes, at various enrichment levels, as well as hold-up resulting from the accumulation of enriched material in those pipes. It was found that current generation imagers could image pipes carrying UF 6 in less than one hour at moderate to high enrichment. Pipes with low enriched gas would require more time. It was also found that hold-up was more amenable to this technique and could be imaged in gram quantities in a fraction of an hour. another questions arises regarding the ability to separately image two pipes spaced closely together. This depends on the capabilities of the instrument in question. These results are described in detail. In addition, suggestions are given as to how to develop Compton imaging as a tool for DIV

  19. A Joint Beamforming based SDMA Protocol for IEEE 802.11n Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Guo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To support space division multiple access (SDMA in the IEEE 802.11n downlink, a joint beamforming based MAC protocol, J-MAC is presented in this paper. An access point (AP follows J-MAC, which employs multiple array antennas, and user equipments (UEs follow the IEEE 802.11x standard which employ omni-directional MIMO antennas. J-MAC maintains full compatibility with 802.11x, and UEs do not change any more. In J-MAC, firstly, the AP achieves the weight vector for the array antenna-based beamforming, and updates it periodically. Secondly, before transmitting any data-frame, the AP achieves the weight vector for the MIMO-based beamforming, which should be updated in each transmission. Finally, after getting the joint beamforming, the AP transmits its data-frames to multiple UEs simultaneously. Simulation results show that J-MAC can support the joint beamforming effectively and provide much higher network throughput, lower delay, jitter and packet-loss-rate than DCF does.

  20. A research-based child welfare employee selection protocol: strengthening retention of the workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Alberta J; Ellett, Chad D; Ellis, Jacquelyn; Lerner, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development and initial implementation of a new employee selection protocol (ESP) for child welfare grounded in the results of recent large-scale employee retention studies and a set of research-based, minimally essential knowledge, skills, abilities, and values. The complete ESP consists of a sequenced set of Web- and site-based assessment processes and procedures for potential applicants. Using the ESP, applicants and employers make informed decisions about the goodness of fit between the applicant and the demands of a career in child welfare. To date, the new ESP has been piloted in three Georgia Division of Family and Children Services (DFCS) regions and implemented by all nine colleges and universities participating in IV-E child welfare education programs. Evaluation data collected from students and new employees in one DFCS region strongly support the value of the ESP Web-based activities to make a more informed decision about whether to apply for the IV-E stipends and child welfare positions. Feedback from trained ESP assessors supports the value of various ESP activities. A major goal of implementing the ESP is to select more professionally committed and highly qualified applicants to strengthen employee retention and outcomes for children and families.

  1. Analysis of authentication protocols in agent-based systems using labeled tableaux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ji; Orgun, Mehmet A; Sattar, Abdul

    2009-08-01

    The study of multiagent systems (MASs) focuses on systems in which many intelligent agents interact with each other using communication protocols. For example, an authentication protocol is used to verify and authorize agents acting on behalf of users to protect restricted data and information. After authentication, two agents should be entitled to believe that they are communicating with each other and not with intruders. For specifying and reasoning about the security properties of authentication protocols, many researchers have proposed the use of belief logics. Since authentication protocols are designed to operate in dynamic environments, it is important to model the evolution of authentication systems through time in a systematic way. We advocate the systematic combinations of logics of beliefs and time for modeling and reasoning about evolving agent beliefs in MASs. In particular, we use a temporal belief logic called TML (+) for establishing trust theories for authentication systems and also propose a labeled tableau system for this logic. To illustrate the capabilities of TML (+), we present trust theories for several well-known authentication protocols, namely, the Lowe modified wide-mouthed frog protocol, the amended Needham-Schroeder symmetric key protocol, and Kerberos. We also show how to verify certain security properties of those protocols. With the logic TML (+) and its associated modal tableaux, we are able to reason about and verify authentication systems operating in dynamic environments.

  2. Type-Based Automated Verification of Authenticity in Asymmetric Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Kobayashi, Naoki; Sun, Yunde

    2011-01-01

    Gordon and Jeffrey developed a type system for verification of asymmetric and symmetric cryptographic protocols. We propose a modified version of Gordon and Jeffrey's type system and develop a type inference algorithm for it, so that protocols can be verified automatically as they are, without an...

  3. eviQ cancer treatments online: how does the web-based protocol system fare in a comprehensive quality assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Julia M; Pearson, Sallie-Anne

    2011-12-01

    There have been few evaluations of the quality of computerized decision support tools in medical oncology despite their widespread use in clinical practice. In this article, we provide an in-depth quality assessment of eviQ, an Australian web-based protocol system. We used the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE-II) instrument to examine the quality of eviQ chemotherapy protocols across six domains: scope and purpose, stakeholder involvement, rigor of development, clarity of presentation, applicability, editorial independence and overall quality rating. Domain scores were categorized as high quality (scores of >70%), moderate quality (30-70%), and low quality (development process and the rigor with which protocols were developed were of moderate quality (scores of 34-37%) and the management of editorial independence and conflict of interest issues were rated in the low quality range (22%). Our evaluation demonstrated the eviQ protocol system is generally of high quality. However, we identified a number of areas in which eviQ could improve either its development processes or the means by which these processes are communicated to end-users. This research represents the first comprehensive evaluation of oncology protocols and paves the way for continued quality assurance research to ensure that these tools meet their objective of facilitating evidence-based medicine, standardizing treatment and, ultimately, improving patient outcomes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Tracking the Recovery of Freshwater Mussel Diversity in Ontario Rivers: Evaluation of a Quadrat-Based Monitoring Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Reid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Watershed inventories and population monitoring are essential components of efforts to conserve and recover freshwater mussel diversity in Canada. We used two datasets to assess the efficacy of a quadrat-based sampling protocol for: (1 detecting mussel species at risk; (2 characterizing species composition; (3 providing accurate estimates of abundance; and (4 detecting changes in density. The protocol is based on a systematic design (with random starts that samples 20% of monitoring sites with visual-tactile surface searches and excavation of 1 m2 quadrats. The first dataset included 40 sampling sites in five Ontario rivers, and the second dataset consisted of complete census sampling at two 375 m2 sites that represented contrasting mussel assemblages. Our results show that the protocol can be expected to detect the majority of species present at a site and provide accurate and precise estimates of total mussel density. Excavation was essential for detection of small individuals and to accurately estimate abundance. However, the protocol was of limited usefulness for reliable detection of most species at risk. Furthermore, imprecise density estimates precluded detection of all but the most extreme changes in density of most individual species. Meeting monitoring objectives will require either substantially greater sampling effort under the current protocol, or a fundamental revision of the sampling approach.

  5. Can we reduce the surgical site infection rate in cesarean sections using a chlorhexidine-based antisepsis protocol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer-Alshiek, Jonia; Alshiek, Tahani; Almog, Benny; Lessing, Joseph B; Satel, Abed; Many, Ariel; Levin, Ishai

    2013-11-01

    To determine whether chlorhexidine-based antisepsis reduces the rate of surgical site infections (SSIs) in elective and non-elective cesarean sections (CS) compared with povidone-iodine protocol. This was a retrospective study. Women undergoing elective and non-elective CS during two periods of time who were treated with two different antisepsis protocols were included. The protocols for antisepsis were povidone-iodine 10% scrub followed by 10% povidone-iodine in 65% alcohol (n = 163) and chlorhexidine 2% followed by 70% alcohol (n = 163). The rate of SSIs and the risk factors for their occurrence were calculated and compared between the two groups. Antisepsis with chlorhexidine and alcohol was associated with a lower rate of SSIs, 10.43% versus 3.07% with povidone-iodine (p = 0.08). The two groups of patients were similar in baseline characteristics. Risk factors associated with SSIs were body mass index, urgent CS, and the use of the povidone-iodine protocol. Antisepsis with Chlorhexidine-based regimen was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of SSIs compared to povidone-iodine antisepsis in women undergoing elective and non-elective CS. This is of extreme clinical importance, as a change in antisepsis protocol can significantly reduce the morbidity and healthcare costs regarding cesarean sections.

  6. Energy neutral protocol based on hierarchical routing techniques for energy harvesting wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Umar B.; Ezugwu, Absalom E.; Ofem, Paulinus O.; Rajamäki, Jyri; Aderemi, Adewumi O.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, researchers in the field of wireless sensor networks have resorted to energy harvesting techniques that allows energy to be harvested from the ambient environment to power sensor nodes. Using such Energy harvesting techniques together with proper routing protocols, an Energy Neutral state can be achieved so that sensor nodes can run perpetually. In this paper, we propose an Energy Neutral LEACH routing protocol which is an extension to the traditional LEACH protocol. The goal of the proposed protocol is to use Gateway node in each cluster so as to reduce the data transmission ranges of cluster head nodes. Simulation results show that the proposed routing protocol achieves a higher throughput and ensure the energy neutral status of the entire network.

  7. Development of EPA Protocol Information Enquiry Service System Based on Embedded ARM Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Daogang; Zhang, Hao; Weng, Jiannian; Li, Hui; Xia, Fei

    Industrial Ethernet is a new technology for industrial network communications developed in recent years. In the field of industrial automation in China, EPA is the first standard accepted and published by ISO, and has been included in the fourth edition IEC61158 Fieldbus of NO.14 type. According to EPA standard, Field devices such as industrial field controller, actuator and other instruments are all able to realize communication based on the Ethernet standard. The Atmel AT91RM9200 embedded development board and open source embedded Linux are used to develop an information inquiry service system of EPA protocol based on embedded ARM Linux in this paper. The system is capable of designing an EPA Server program for EPA data acquisition procedures, the EPA information inquiry service is available for programs in local or remote host through Socket interface. The EPA client can access data and information of other EPA equipments on the EPA network when it establishes connection with the monitoring port of the server.

  8. Formal Security-Proved Mobile Anonymous Authentication Protocols with Credit-Based Chargeability and Controllable Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-I Fan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart mobile phones are widely popularized and advanced mobile communication services are provided increasingly often, such that ubiquitous computing environments will soon be a reality. However, there are many security threats to mobile networks and their impact on security is more serious than that in wireline networks owing to the features of wireless transmissions and the ubiquity property. The secret information which mobile users carry may be stolen by malicious entities. To guarantee the quality of advanced services, security and privacy would be important issues when users roam within various mobile networks. In this manuscript, an anonymous authentication scheme will be proposed to protect the security of the network system and the privacy of users. Not only does the proposed scheme provide mutual authentication between each user and the system, but also each user’s identity is kept secret against anyone else, including the system. Although the system anonymously authenticates the users, it can still generate correct bills to charge these anonymous users via a credit-based solution instead of debit-based ones. Furthermore, our protocols also achieve fair privacy which allows the judge to revoke the anonymity and trace the illegal users when they have misused the anonymity property, for example, if they have committed crimes. Finally, in this paper, we also carry out complete theoretical proofs on each claimed security property.

  9. Oxidative Stability of Granola Bars Enriched with Multilayered Fish Oil Emulsion in the Presence of Novel Brown Seaweed Based Antioxidants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Ditte Baun; Karadaǧ, Ayşe; Andersen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Fucus vesiculosus extracts that have both radical scavenging activity and metal chelating ability in vitro were used as natural antioxidant in granola bars enriched with fish oil emulsion by using primary and secondary emulsion systems stabilized by sodium caseinate alone and sodium caseinate...... were added to the granola bars especially in combination with acetone and ethanol extracts of Fucus vesiculosus....

  10. Effective Enrichment and Detection of Trace Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Food Samples based on Magnetic Covalent Organic Framework Hybrid Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Wu, Di; Hu, Na; Fan, Guangsen; Li, Xiuting; Sun, Jing; Chen, Xuefeng; Suo, Yourui; Li, Guoliang; Wu, Yongning

    2018-04-04

    The present study reported a facile, sensitive, and efficient method for enrichment and determination of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food samples by employing new core-shell nanostructure magnetic covalent organic framework hybrid microspheres (Fe 3 O 4 @COF-(TpBD)) as the sorbent followed by HPLC-DAD. Under mild synthetic conditions, the Fe 3 O 4 @COF-(TpBD) were prepared with the retention of colloidal nanosize, larger specific surface area, higher porosity, uniform morphology, and supermagnetism. The as-prepared materials showed an excellent adsorption ability for PAHs, and the enrichment efficiency of the Fe 3 O 4 @COF-(TpBD) could reach 99.95%. The obtained materials also had fast adsorption kinetics and realized adsorption equilibrium within 12 min. The eluent was further analyzed by HPLC-DAD, and good linearity was observed in the range of 1-100 ng/mL with the linear correlation being above 0.9990. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) and limits of quantitation (S/N = 10) for 15 PAHs were in the range of 0.83-11.7 ng/L and 2.76-39.0 ng/L, respectively. For the application, the obtained materials were employed for the enrichment of trace PAHs in food samples and exhibited superior enrichment capacity and excellent applicability.

  11. Application and comparison of large-scale solution-based DNA capture-enrichment methods on ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Cappellini, Enrico; Romero-Navarro, J. Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The development of second-generation sequencing technologies has greatly benefitted the field of ancient DNA (aDNA). Its application can be further exploited by the use of targeted capture-enrichment methods to overcome restrictions posed by low endogenous and contaminating DNA in ancient samples...

  12. The Multiple Intelligence Based Enrichment Module on the Development of Human Potential: Examining Its Impact and the Views of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azid, Nurulwahida Hj; Yaacob, Aizan; Shaik-Abdullah, Sarimah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Howard Gardners' concept of multiple intelligence (MI) offers an alternative perspective on intelligence which highlights the importance of acknowledging learner diversity, individual talents and the development of human potentials. MI has been used as a basis for the construction of modular enrichment activities to facilitate the…

  13. Real-time pathogen monitoring during enrichment: a novel nanotechnology-based approach to food safety testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemaier, Kristin; Carruthers, Erin; Curry, Adam; Kuroda, Melody; Fallows, Eric; Thomas, Joseph; Sherman, Douglas; Muldoon, Mark

    2015-04-02

    We describe a new approach for the real-time detection and identification of pathogens in food and environmental samples undergoing culture. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) nanoparticles are combined with a novel homogeneous immunoassay to allow sensitive detection of pathogens in complex samples such as stomached food without the need for wash steps or extensive sample preparation. SERS-labeled immunoassay reagents are present in the cultural enrichment vessel, and the signal is monitored real-time through the wall of the vessel while culture is ongoing. This continuous monitoring of pathogen load throughout the enrichment process enables rapid, hands-free detection of food pathogens. Furthermore, the integration of the food pathogen immunoassay directly into the enrichment vessel enables fully biocontained food safety testing, thereby significantly reducing the risk of contaminating the surrounding environment with enriched pathogens. Here, we present experimental results showing the detection of E. coli, Salmonella, or Listeria in several matrices (raw ground beef, raw ground poultry, chocolate milk, tuna salad, spinach, brie cheese, hot dogs, deli turkey, orange juice, cola, and swabs and sponges used to sample a stainless steel surface) using the SERS system and demonstrate the accuracy of the approach compared to plating results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gene-Based Analysis of Regionally Enriched Cortical Genes in GWAS Data Sets of Cognitive Traits and Psychiatric Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersland, Kari M; Christoforou, Andrea; Stansberg, Christine

    2012-01-01

    the regionally enriched cortical genes to mine a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the Norwegian Cognitive NeuroGenetics (NCNG) sample of healthy adults for association to nine psychometric tests measures. In addition, we explored GWAS data sets for the serious psychiatric disorders schizophrenia (SCZ) (n...

  15. Probabilistic Location-based Routing Protocol for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks with Intermittent Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho KUMAGAI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In a sensor network, sensor data messages reach the nearest stationary sink node connected to the Internet by wireless multihop transmissions. Recently, various mobile sensors are available due to advances of robotics technologies and communication technologies. A location based message-by-message routing protocol, such as Geographic Distance Routing (GEDIR is suitable for such mobile wireless networks; however, it is required for each mobile wireless sensor node to know the current locations of all its neighbor nodes. On the other hand, various intermittent communication methods for a low power consumption requirement have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. Intermittent Receiver-driven Data Transmission (IRDT is one of the most efficient methods; however, it is difficult to combine the location based routing and the intermittent communication. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a probabilistic approach IRDT-GEDIR with the help of one of the solutions of the secretaries problem. Here, each time a neighbor sensor node wakes up from its sleep mode, an intermediate sensor node determines whether it forwards its buffered sensor data messages to it or not based on an estimation of achieved pseudo speed of the messages. Simulation experiments show that IRDT-GEDIR achieves higher pseudo speed of sensor data message transmissions and shorter transmission delay than achieves shorter transmission delay than the two naive combinations of IRDT and GEDIR in sensor networks with mobile sensor nodes and a stationary sink node. In addition, the guideline of the estimated numbers of the neighbor nodes of each intermediate sensor node is provided based on the results of the simulation experiments to apply the probabilistic approach IRDT-GEDIR.

  16. Species delimitation and phylogenetic reconstruction of the sinipercids (Perciformes: Sinipercidae) based on target enrichment of thousands of nuclear coding sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuli; Zhao, Jinliang; Li, Chenhong

    2017-06-01

    The sinipercids are freshwater fishes endemic to East Asia, mainly in China. Phylogenetic studies on the sinipercids have made great progress in the last decades, but interspecific relationships and evolutionary history of the sinipercids remain unresolved. Lack of distinctive morphological characters leads to problems in validating of some species, such as Siniperca loona. Moreover, genetic data are needed to delimitate species pairs with explicit hypothesis testing, such as in S. chuatsi vs. S. kneri and Coreoperca whiteheadi vs. C. liui. Here we reconstructed phylogeny of the sinipercids with an unprecedented scale of data, 16,943 loci of single-copy coding sequence data from nine sinipercid species, eight putative sister taxa and two outgroups. Targeted sequences were collected using gene enrichment and Illumina sequencing, yielding thousands of protein coding sequences and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) data. Maximum likelihood and coalescent species tree analyses resulted in identical and highly supported trees. We confirmed that the centrarchids are sister to the sinipercids. A monophyletic Sinipercidae with two genera, Siniperca and Coreoperca was also supported. Different from most previous studies, S. scherzeri was found as the most basal taxon to other species of Siniperca, which consists of two clades: a clade having S. roulei sister to S. chuatsi and S. kneri, and a clade consisting S. loona sister to S. obscura and S. undulata. We found that both S. loona and C. liui are valid species using Bayes factor delimitation (BFD ∗ ) based on SNPs data. Species delimitation also provided decisive support for S. chuatsi and S. kneri being two distinct species. We calibrated a chronogram of the sinipercids based on 100 loci and three fossil calibration points using BEAST, and reconstructed ancestral ranges of the sinipercids using Lagrange Analysis (DEC model) and Statistical Dispersal-Vicariance Analysis (S-DIVA) implemented in RASP. Divergence time

  17. Selection based on indirect genetic effects for growth, environmental enrichment and coping style affect the immune status of pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inonge Reimert

    Full Text Available Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (-SBV were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n  =  80 pens in total. A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders.

  18. A secure distance-based RFID identification protocol with an off-line back-end database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peris-Lopez, P.; Orfila, A.; Palomar, E.; Hernandez-Castro, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a secure RFID identification scheme is a thought-provoking challenge, and this paper deals with this problem adopting a groundbreaking approach. The proposed protocol, called Noent, is based on cryptographic puzzles to avoid the indiscriminate disclose of the confidential information

  19. Prophylactic aortic root surgery in patients with Marfan syndrome : 10 years' experience with a protocol based on body surface area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, Jan J. J.; van Tintelen, J. Peter; Hillege, Hans L.; Boonstra, Piet W.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; Waterbolk, T

    Background: Current guidelines recommending prophylactic aortic root replacement in Marfan syndrome are based on absolute diameters of the aortic root. However, aortic root diameter is a function of body surface area (BSA). Here, we report our experience with a protocol for prophylactic aortic root

  20. RT-based memory detection : Item saliency effects in the single-probe and the multiple-probe protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Kleinberg, B.; Theocharidou, K.

    RT-based memory detection may provide an efficient means to assess recognition of concealed information. There is, however, considerable heterogeneity in detection rates, and we explored two potential moderators: item saliency and test protocol. Participants tried to conceal low salient (e.g.,

  1. Feasibility and effect of home-based therapy programmes for children with cerebral palsy: A protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, L.W.M.E.; Schnackers, M.L.A.P.; Janssen-Potten, Y.J.M.; Kleijnen, J.P.M.; Steenbergen, B.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Given the promising advantages of upper extremity home-based programmes in children with cerebral palsy (CP), a systematic review of the available literature on this topic is warranted. The purpose of the systematic review described in this protocol is to investigate currently

  2. Detecting child abuse based on parental characteristics: Does The Hague Protocol cause parents to avoid the Emergency Department?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diderich, H.M.; Fekkes, M.; Dechesne, M.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The Hague Protocol is used by professionals at the adult Emergency Departments (ED) in The Netherlands to detect child abuse based on three parental characteristics: (1) domestic violence, (2) substance abuse or (3) suicide attempt or self-harm. After detection, a referral is made to the

  3. PMT Dark Noise Monitoring System for Neutrino Detector Borexino Based on the Devicenet Protocol and WEB-Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chepurnov, A.S.; Orekhov, D.I.; Maimistov, D.A.; Sabelnikov, A.A.; Etenko, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring of PMT dark noise in a neutrino detector BOREXINO is a procedure that indicates condition of the detector. Based on CAN industrial network, top level DeviceNet protocol and WEB visualization, the dark noise monitoring system having 256 channels for the internal detector and for the external muon veto was created. The system is composed as a set of controllers, converting the PMT signals to frequency and transmitting them over Can network. The software is the stack of the DeviceNet protocols, providing the data collecting and transporting. Server-side scripts build web pages of user interface and graphical visualization of data

  4. An overview of caries risk assessment: Rationale, risk indicators, risk assessment methods, and risk-based caries management protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Singh Suneja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift in our understanding of the dynamic, multifactorial nature of dental caries and the resultant change in caries preventive and treatment strategies necessitates that caries risk assessment (CRA should be an integral part of any caries management protocol. This review discusses the rationale for CRA and the role various risk indicators play in the fluctuating demineralization-remineralization cycle of dental caries. It also provides an overview of different CRA methods and a risk-based clinical protocol for dental caries management in infants and children.

  5. Improving preterm infant outcomes: implementing an evidence-based oral feeding advancement protocol in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Mary Z

    2014-10-01

    The ability of a preterm infant to exclusively oral feed is a necessary standard for discharge readiness from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Many of the interventions related to oral feeding advancement currently employed for preterm infants in the NICU are based on individual nursing observations and judgment. Studies involving standardized feeding protocols for oral feeding advancement have been shown to decrease variability in feeding practices, facilitate shortened transition times from gavage to oral feedings, improve bottle feeding performance, and significantly decrease the length of stay (LOS) in the NICU. This project critically evaluated the implementation of an oral feeding advancement protocol in a 74-bed level III NICU in an attempt to standardize the process of advancing oral feedings in medically stable preterm infants. A comprehensive review of the literature identified key features for successful oral feeding in preterm infants. Strong levels of evidence suggested an association between both nonnutritive sucking (NNS) opportunities and standardized feeding advancement protocols with successful oral feeding in preterm infants. These findings prompted a pilot practice change using a feeding advancement protocol and consisted of NNS and standardized oral feeding advancement opportunities. Time to exclusive oral feedings and LOS were compared pre- and postprotocol implementation during more than a 2-month evaluation period. Infants using NNS and the standardized oral feeding advancement protocol had an observed reduction in time to exclusive oral feedings and LOS, although statistical significance was not achieved.

  6. Alveolar Bone Resorption Evaluation Around Single-piece Designed Bicortical Implants, Using Immediate Loading Protocol, Based on Orthopantomographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Száva Dániel-Tamás

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inserting dental implants in severely atrophied jawbones is a great challenge for the dental practitioner. There are an increasing number of patients who choose dental implantanchored prosthetic restorations despite compromised bone quality and quantity. There have been numerous attempts in adapting implant design for the atrophic crestal bone. One-piece, needle-type basal implant design is a typical design for these cases. These implants are inserted in the remaining compact bone located in the basal aspect of the jawbones. If high primary stability is achieved, these implants are used for immediate loading protocol. From many points of view, this technique is based on contradictory principles compared to classic implant surgery and loading protocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term success of basal one-piece short-diameter dental implants used for immediate loading protocol.

  7. Registration accuracy for MR images of the prostate using a subvolume based registration protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderström Karin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, there has been a considerable research effort concerning the integration of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI into the external radiotherapy workflow motivated by the superior soft tissue contrast as compared to computed tomography. Image registration is a necessary step in many applications, e.g. in patient positioning and therapy response assessment with repeated imaging. In this study, we investigate the dependence between the registration accuracy and the size of the registration volume for a subvolume based rigid registration protocol for MR images of the prostate. Methods Ten patients were imaged four times each over the course of radiotherapy treatment using a T2 weighted sequence. The images were registered to each other using a mean square distance metric and a step gradient optimizer for registration volumes of different sizes. The precision of the registrations was evaluated using the center of mass distance between the manually defined prostates in the registered images. The optimal size of the registration volume was determined by minimizing the standard deviation of these distances. Results We found that prostate position was most uncertain in the anterior-posterior (AP direction using traditional full volume registration. The improvement in standard deviation of the mean center of mass distance between the prostate volumes using a registration volume optimized to the prostate was 3.9 mm (p Conclusions Repeated MR imaging of the prostate for therapy set-up or therapy assessment will both require high precision tissue registration. With a subvolume based registration the prostate registration uncertainty can be reduced down to the order of 1 mm (1 SD compared to several millimeters for registration based on the whole pelvis.

  8. A Multipath Routing Protocol Based on Clustering and Ant Colony Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available For monitoring burst events in a kind of reactive wireless sensor networks (WSNs, a multipath routing protocol (MRP based on dynamic clustering and ant colony optimization (ACO is proposed.. Such an approach can maximize the network lifetime and reduce the energy consumption. An important attribute of WSNs is their limited power supply, and therefore some metrics (such as energy consumption of communication among nodes, residual energy, path length were considered as very important criteria while designing routing in the MRP. Firstly, a cluster head (CH is selected among nodes located in the event area according to some parameters, such as residual energy. Secondly, an improved ACO algorithm is applied in the search for multiple paths between the CH and sink node. Finally, the CH dynamically chooses a route to transmit data with a probability that depends on many path metrics, such as energy consumption. The simulation results show that MRP can prolong the network lifetime, as well as balance of energy consumption among nodes and reduce the average energy consumption effectively.

  9. A novel strategy to access high resolution DICOM medical images based on JPEG2000 interactive protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Cai, Weihua; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2008-03-01

    The demand for sharing medical information has kept rising. However, the transmission and displaying of high resolution medical images are limited if the network has a low transmission speed or the terminal devices have limited resources. In this paper, we present an approach based on JPEG2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP) to browse high resolution medical images in an efficient way. We designed and implemented an interactive image communication system with client/server architecture and integrated it with Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). In our interactive image communication system, the JPIP server works as the middleware between clients and PACS servers. Both desktop clients and wireless mobile clients can browse high resolution images stored in PACS servers via accessing the JPIP server. The client can only make simple requests which identify the resolution, quality and region of interest and download selected portions of the JPEG2000 code-stream instead of downloading and decoding the entire code-stream. After receiving a request from a client, the JPIP server downloads the requested image from the PACS server and then responds the client by sending the appropriate code-stream. We also tested the performance of the JPIP server. The JPIP server runs stably and reliably under heavy load.

  10. Gender-based violence and absent fathers: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Nduna, Mzikazi; Khuzwayo, Nelisiwe; Mthombeni, Andile; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani Phosa

    2016-06-13

    Gender-based violence (GBV) and absent fathers are two epidemics that affect women and children in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the understanding of the complex links between GBV and absent fathers is currently inadequate. The aim of the study is to provide an overview of documented evidence that links GBV and absent fathers as well as identifies areas that require systematic review and where more primary research is needed. The search strategy for this scoping review study will involve electronic databases including: Academic Search Premier, Ingenta, Kluwer Online, PsycARTICLES (EBSCO), PsycINFO (EBSCO), Social Work Abstracts and Sociological Collection. The studies will be mapped in 2 stages: stage 1 will map studies descriptively by focus and method; stage 2 will involve additional inclusion criteria, quality assessment and data extraction undertaken by two reviewers in parallel. A thematic analysis of the studies will be carried out to extract relevant outcomes using NVIVO. We anticipate finding a large number of studies on GBV diagnostic interventions in sub-Saharan Africa which, once summarised, will be useful to guide future research. The protocol for the scoping review has been registered in PROSPERO. The study will be disseminated electronically and in print. It will also be presented to conferences related to GBV, Father Connections and Children's Health. CRD42015022094. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Evaluation of imaging protocol for ECT based on CS image reconstruction algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaolin; Yun Mingkai; Cao Xuexiang; Liu Shuangquan; Wang Lu; Huang Xianchao; Wei Long

    2014-01-01

    Single-photon emission computerized tomography and positron emission tomography are essential medical imaging tools, for which the sampling angle number and scan time should be carefully chosen to give a good compromise between image quality and radiopharmaceutical dose. In this study, the image quality of different acquisition protocols was evaluated via varied angle number and count number per angle with Monte Carlo simulation data. It was shown that, when similar imaging counts were used, the factor of acquisition counts was more important than that of the sampling number in emission computerized tomography. To further reduce the activity requirement and the scan duration, an iterative image reconstruction algorithm for limited-view and low-dose tomography based on compressed sensing theory has been developed. The total variation regulation was added to the reconstruction process to improve the signal to noise Ratio and reduce artifacts caused by the limited angle sampling. Maximization of the maximum likelihood of the estimated image and the measured data and minimization of the total variation of the image are alternatively implemented. By using this advanced algorithm, the reconstruction process is able to achieve image quality matching or exceed that of normal scans with only half of the injection radiopharmaceutical dose. (authors)

  12. Parental intimate partner homicide and its consequences for children: protocol for a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisic, Eva; Groot, Arend; Snetselaar, Hanneke; Stroeken, Tielke; van de Putte, Elise

    2015-07-29

    The loss of a parent due to intimate partner homicide has a major impact on children. Professionals involved have to make far-reaching decisions regarding placement, guardianship, mental health care and contact with the perpetrating parent, without an evidence base to guide these decisions. We introduce a study protocol to a) systematically describe the demographics, circumstances, mental health and wellbeing of children bereaved by intimate partner homicide and b) build a predictive model of factors associated with children's mental health and wellbeing after intimate partner homicide. This study focuses on children bereaved by parental intimate partner homicide in the Netherlands over a period of 20 years (1993 - 2012). It involves an incidence study to identify all Dutch intimate partner homicide cases between 1993 and 2012 by which children have been bereaved; systematic case reviews to describe the demographics, circumstances and care trajectories of these children; and a mixed-methods study to assess mental health, wellbeing, and experiences regarding decisions made and care provided. Clinical experience and initial research suggest that the children involved often need long-term intensive mental health and case management. The costs of these services are extensive and the stakes are high. This study lays the foundation for an international dataset and evidence-informed decision making.

  13. Design, Implementation, and Study Protocol of a Kindergarten-Based Health Promotion Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kobel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inactivity and an unhealthy diet amongst others have led to an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity even in young children. Since most health behaviours develop during childhood health promotion has to start early. The setting kindergarten has been shown as ideal for such interventions. “Join the Healthy Boat” is a kindergarten-based health promotion programme with a cluster-randomised study focussing on increased physical activity, reduced screen media use, and sugar-sweetened beverages, as well as a higher fruit and vegetable intake. Intervention and materials were developed using Bartholomew’s Intervention Mapping approach considering Bandura’s social-cognitive theory and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological framework for human development. The programme is distributed using a train-the-trainer approach and currently implemented in 618 kindergartens. The effectiveness of this one-year intervention with an intervention and a control group will be examined in 62 kindergartens using standardised protocols, materials, and tools for outcome and process evaluation. A sample of 1021 children and their parents provided consent and participated in the intervention. Results of this study are awaited to give a better understanding of health behaviours in early childhood and to identify strategies for effective health promotion. The current paper describes development and design of the intervention and its implementation and planned evaluation. Trial Registration. The study is registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS, Freiburg University, Germany, ID: DRKS00010089.

  14. Gender-based violence and absent fathers: a scoping review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Nduna, Mzikazi; Khuzwayo, Nelisiwe; Mthombeni, Andile; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani Phosa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gender-based violence (GBV) and absent fathers are two epidemics that affect women and children in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the understanding of the complex links between GBV and absent fathers is currently inadequate. The aim of the study is to provide an overview of documented evidence that links GBV and absent fathers as well as identifies areas that require systematic review and where more primary research is needed. Methods and analysis The search strategy for this scoping review study will involve electronic databases including: Academic Search Premier, Ingenta, Kluwer Online, PsycARTICLES (EBSCO), PsycINFO (EBSCO), Social Work Abstracts and Sociological Collection. The studies will be mapped in 2 stages: stage 1 will map studies descriptively by focus and method; stage 2 will involve additional inclusion criteria, quality assessment and data extraction undertaken by two reviewers in parallel. A thematic analysis of the studies will be carried out to extract relevant outcomes using NVIVO. Discussion We anticipate finding a large number of studies on GBV diagnostic interventions in sub-Saharan Africa which, once summarised, will be useful to guide future research. The protocol for the scoping review has been registered in PROSPERO. Dissemination The study will be disseminated electronically and in print. It will also be presented to conferences related to GBV, Father Connections and Children's Health. PROSPERO registration number CRD42015022094. PMID:27297007

  15. South Australia, uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The Report sets out the salient data relating to the establishment of a uranium processing centre at Redcliff in South Australia. It is conceived as a major development project for the Commonwealth, the South Australian Government and Australian Industry comprising the refining and enrichment of uranium produced from Australian mines. Using the data currently available in respect of markets, demand, technology and possible financial return from overseas sales, the project could be initiated immediately with hexafluoride production, followed rapidly in stages by enrichment production using the centrifuge process. A conceptual development plan is presented, involving a growth pattern that would be closely synchronised with the mining and production of yellowcake. The proposed development is presented in the form of an eight-and-half-year programme. Costs in this Report are based on 1975 values, unless otherwise stated. (Author)

  16. New quantum dialogue protocol based on continuous-variable two-mode squeezed vacuum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan-Run; Li, Jian-Fu; Yu, Zhen-Bo; Gong, Li-Hua; Farouk, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    A new quantum dialogue protocol is designed by using the continuous-variable two-mode squeezed vacuum states due to its entanglement property. The two communication parties encode their own secret information into the entangled optical modes with the translation operations. Each communication party could deduce the secret information of their counterparts with the help of his or her secret information and the Bell-basis measurement results. The security of the proposed quantum dialogue protocol is guaranteed by the correlation between two-mode squeezed vacuum states and the decoy states performed with translation operations in randomly selected time slots. Compared with the discrete variable quantum dialogue protocols, the proposed continuous-variable quantum dialogue protocol is easy to realize with perfect utilization of quantum bits.

  17. An Ad-Hoc Opportunistic Dissemination Protocol for Smartphone-based Participatory Traffic Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Seraj, Fatjon; Scholten, Johan; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces an ad-hoc opportunistic data dissemination protocol, called VADISS, that facilitates participatory traffic monitoring applications with smartphones. As a ubiquitous alternative to existing vehicular networking methods, VADISS uses the default WiFi interfaces universally adopted

  18. A novel tantalum-based sol-gel packed microextraction syringe for highly specific enrichment of phosphopeptides in MALDI-MS applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikbıçak, Ömür; Atakay, Mehmet; Güler, Ülkü; Salih, Bekir

    2013-08-07

    A new tantalum-based sol-gel material was synthesized using a unique sol-gel synthesis pathway by PEG incorporation into the sol-gel structure without performing a calcination step. This improved its chemical and physical properties for the high capacity and selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from protein digests in complex biological media. The specificity of the tantalum-based sol-gel material for phosphopeptides was evaluated and compared with tantalum(V) oxide (Ta2O5) in different phosphopeptide enrichment applications. The tantalum-based sol-gel and tantalum(V) oxide were characterized in detail using FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and also using a surface area and pore size analyzer. In the characterization studies, the surface morphology, pore volume, crystallinity of the materials and PEG incorporation into the sol-gel structure to produce a more hydrophilic material were successfully demonstrated. The X-ray diffractograms of the two different materials were compared and it was noted that the broad signals of the tantalum-based sol-gel clearly represented the amorphous structure of the sol-gel material, which was more likely to create enough surface area and to provide more accessible tantalum atoms for phosphopeptides to be easily adsorbed when compared with the neat and more crystalline structure of Ta2O5. Therefore, the phosphopeptide enrichment performance of the tantalum-based sol-gels was found to be remarkably higher than the more crystalline Ta2O5 in our studies. Phosphopeptides at femtomole levels could be selectively enriched using the tantalum-based sol-gel and detected with a higher signal-to-noise ratio by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometer (MALDI-MS). Moreover, phosphopeptides in a tryptic digest of non-fat bovine milk as a complex real-world biological sample were retained with higher yield using a tantalum-based sol-gel. Additionally, the sol-gel material

  19. A hospital-based child and adolescent overweight and obesity treatment protocol transferred into a community healthcare setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Pernille Maria; Gamborg, Michael Orland; Trier, Cæcilie

    2017-01-01

    ) and waist circumference (WC) would occur during 1.5 years of community-based overweight and obesity treatment based upon an effective hospital-based overweight and obesity treatment protocol, The Children's Obesity Clinics' Treatment protocol. Height, weight, and WC were measured at all consultations......BACKGROUND: Due to the pandemic of child and adolescent overweight and obesity, improvements in overweight and obesity treatment availability and accessibility are needed. METHODS: In this prospective study, we investigated if reductions in body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores (SDS...... was invested per child per year. CONCLUSION: BMI SDS and WC were reduced after 1.5 years of treatment. Hence, this community-based overweight and obesity treatment program may help accommodate the need for improvements in treatment availability and accessibility....

  20. Other enrichment related contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to long-term enrichment contracts, DOE has other types of contracts: (1) short-term, fixed-commitment enrichment contract; (2) emergency sales agreement for enriched uranium; (3) feed material lease agreement; (4) enriched uranium storage agreement; and (5) feed material usage agreement

  1. Development of Phage-Based Antibody Fragment Reagents for Affinity Enrichment of Bacterial Immunoglobulin G Binding Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säll, Anna; Sjöholm, Kristoffer; Waldemarson, Sofia; Happonen, Lotta; Karlsson, Christofer; Persson, Helena; Malmström, Johan

    2015-11-06

    Disease and death caused by bacterial infections are global health problems. Effective bacterial strategies are required to promote survival and proliferation within a human host, and it is important to explore how this adaption occurs. However, the detection and quantification of bacterial virulence factors in complex biological samples are technically demanding challenges. These can be addressed by combining targeted affinity enrichment of antibodies with the sensitivity of liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-SRM MS). However, many virulence factors have evolved properties that make specific detection by conventional antibodies difficult. We here present an antibody format that is particularly well suited for detection and analysis of immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding virulence factors. As proof of concept, we have generated single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies that specifically target the IgG-binding surface proteins M1 and H of Streptococcus pyogenes. The binding ability of the developed scFv is demonstrated against both recombinant soluble protein M1 and H as well as the intact surface proteins on a wild-type S. pyogenes strain. Additionally, the capacity of the developed scFv antibodies to enrich their target proteins from both simple and complex backgrounds, thereby allowing for detection and quantification with LC-SRM MS, was demonstrated. We have established a workflow that allows for affinity enrichment of bacterial virulence factors.

  2. Uncovering Arabidopsis membrane protein interactome enriched in transporters using mating-based split ubiquitin assays and classification models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin eChen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput data are a double-edged sword; for the benefit of large amount of data, there is an associated cost of noise. To increase reliability and scalability of high-throughput protein interaction data generation, we tested the efficacy of classification to enrich potential protein-protein interactions (pPPIs. We applied this method to identify interactions among Arabidopsis membrane proteins enriched in transporters. We validated our method with multiple retests. Classification improved the quality of the ensuing interaction network and was effective in reducing the search space and increasing true positive rate. The final network of 541 interactions among 239 proteins (of which 179 are transporters is the first protein interaction network enriched in membrane transporters reported for any organism. This network has similar topological attributes to other published protein interaction networks. It also extends and fills gaps in currently available biological networks in plants and allows building a number of hypotheses about processes and mechanisms involving signal-transduction and transport systems.

  3. Switching From Age-Based Stimulus Dosing to Dose Titration Protocols in Electroconvulsive Therapy: Empirical Evidence for Better Patient Outcomes With Lower Peak and Cumulative Energy Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill-Kerr, Alex; Yassin, Anhar; Rogers, Stephen; Cornish, Janie

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the proposition that adoption of a dose titration protocol may be associated with better patient outcomes, at lower treatment dose, and with comparable cumulative dose to that in patients treated using an age-based stimulus dosing protocol. This was an analysis of data assembled from archived records and based on cohorts of patients treated respectively on an age-based stimulus dosing protocol and on a dose titration protocol in the National Health Service in England. We demonstrated a significantly better response in the patient cohort treated with dose titration than with age-based stimulus dosing. Peak doses were less and the total cumulative dose was less in the dose titration group than in the age-based stimulus dosing group. Our findings are consistent with superior outcomes in patients treated using a dose titration protocol when compared with age-based stimulus dosing in a similar cohort of patients.

  4. Development and Testing of a Literature Search Protocol for Evidence Based Nursing: An Applied Student Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Hickner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The study aimed to develop a search protocol and evaluate reviewers' satisfaction with an evidence-based practice (EBP review by embedding a library science student in the process.Methods – The student was embedded in one of four review teams overseen by a professional organization for oncology nurses (ONS. A literature search protocol was developed by the student following discussion and feedback from the review team. Organization staff provided process feedback. Reviewers from both case and control groups completed a questionnaire to assess satisfaction with the literature search phases of the review process. Results – A protocol was developed and refined for use by future review teams. The collaboration and the resulting search protocol were beneficial for both the student and the review team members. The questionnaire results did not yield statistically significant differences regarding satisfaction with the search process between case and control groups. Conclusions – Evidence-based reviewers' satisfaction with the literature searching process depends on multiple factors and it was not clear that embedding an LIS specialist in the review team improved satisfaction with the process. Future research with more respondents may elucidate specific factors that may impact reviewers' assessment.

  5. Detecting child abuse based on parental characteristics: does the Hague Protocol cause parents to avoid the emergency department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diderich, Hester M; Fekkes, Minne; Dechesne, Mark; Buitendijk, Simone E; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie

    2015-04-01

    The Hague Protocol is used by professionals at the adult Emergency Departments (ED) in The Netherlands to detect child abuse based on three parental characteristics: (1) domestic violence, (2) substance abuse or (3) suicide attempt or self-harm. After detection, a referral is made to the Reporting Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (RCCAN). This study investigates whether implementing this Protocol will lead parents to avoid medical care. We compared the number of patients (for whom the Protocol applied) who attended the ED prior to implementation with those attending after implementation. We conducted telephone interviews (n = 14) with parents whose children were referred to the RCCAN to investigate their experience with the procedure. We found no decline in the number of patients, included in the Protocol, visiting the ED during the 4 year implementation period (2008-2011). Most parents (n = 10 of the 14 interviewed) were positive and stated that they would, if necessary, re-attend the ED with the same complaints in the future. ED nurses and doctors referring children based on parental characteristics do not have to fear losing these families as patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of the Contribution of Integrin to Cell Attachment on Poly(2-Methoxyethyl Acrylate (PMEA Analogous Polymers for Attachment-Based Cell Enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hoshiba

    Full Text Available Cell enrichment is currently in high demand in medical engineering. We have reported that non-blood cells can attach to a blood-compatible poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate (PMEA substrate through integrin-dependent and integrin-independent mechanisms because the PMEA substrate suppresses protein adsorption. Therefore, we assumed that PMEA analogous polymers can change the contribution of integrin to cell attachment through the regulation of protein adsorption. In the present study, we investigated protein adsorption, cell attachment profiles, and attachment mechanisms on PMEA analogous polymer substrates. Additionally, we demonstrated the possibility of attachment-based cell enrichment on PMEA analogous polymer substrates. HT-1080 and MDA-MB-231 cells started to attach to poly(butyl acrylate (PBA and poly(tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate (PTHFA, on which proteins could adsorb well, within 1 h. HepG2 cells started to attach after 1 h. HT-1080, MDA-MB-231, and HepG2 cells started to attach within 30 min to PMEA, poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy ethyl acrylate-co-butyl acrylate (30:70 mol%, PMe2A and poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy ethoxy ethyl acrylate-co-butyl acrylate (30:70 mol%, PMe3A, which suppress protein adsorption. Moreover, the ratio of attached cells from a cell mixture can be changed on PMEA analogous polymers. These findings suggested that PMEA analogous polymers can be used for attachment-based cell enrichment.

  7. Shock in the first 24 h of intensive care unit stay: observational study of protocol-based fluid management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Kay Choong; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Lau, Samuel Chuan-Xian; Tan, Sandra Ming-Yien; Lim, Tow Keang; Phua, Jason

    2015-05-01

    Precision in fluid management for shock could lead to better clinical outcomes. We evaluated the association of protocol-based fluid management with intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital mortality. We performed an observational study of mechanically ventilated patients admitted directly from our emergency department to the ICU from August 2011 to December 2013, who had circulatory shock in the first 24 h of ICU stay (systolic blood pressure 4 mmol/L). Patients with onset of shock beyond 24 h of ICU stay were excluded. Protocol-based fluid management required close physician-nurse cooperation and computerized documentation, checking for fluid response (≥10% arterial pulse pressure or stroke volume increase after two consecutive 250-mL crystalloid boluses), and fluid loading with repeated 500-mL boluses until fluid response became negative. Six hundred twelve mechanically ventilated patients with shock (mean [±SD] age, 63.0 years [16.5]; 252 or 41.2% females; mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, 30.2 [8.8]) were studied. The fluid management protocol was used 455 times for 242 patients (39.5% of 612 patients) within the first 24 h of ICU stay, with 244 (53.6% of 455) positive responses. Adjusted for age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, comorbidity, and admission year, protocol use was associated with reduced ICU mortality (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.94; P = 0.025) but not hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.23; P = 0.369). Among mechanically ventilated patients with shock within the first 24 h of ICU stay, about half had positive fluid responses. Adherence to protocol-based fluid management was associated with improved ICU survival.

  8. The Architecture of WiFi-Based WSN for AMR System and E-HWMP Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li LI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of SoC technology in recent years, the ultra-low power WiFi System on SoC Chip has emerged. As a result, WiFi-based Wireless Sensor Networks come into use, especially used in Automatic Meter Reading. While because the nodes of Wireless Sensor Networks have limited energy supply, smaller storage capability and slower calculation ability, the current WiFi technology cannot be directly applied to WiFi-based Wireless Sensor Networks. The protocols should be upgraded and the security algorithms should be improved to meet the new requests. Firstly, this article describes the network architecture of WiFi-based WSN for AMR system and discusses the reason for using this analogous Mesh architecture. Secondly, the new Hardware architecture of WiFi-based WSN node is designed to realize the AMR system and verify the research work. The node can collect the data of power meter by WiFi and can be powered by a Lithium Battery. Thirdly, on the basis of study work of WiFi original routing protocol HWMP, a new method on improving the energy saving ability of HWMP to adapt the new features of WiFi-based WSN is proposed. And the simulation work on the new routing protocol E-HWMP has been done with NS2 and the simulation results show that the life cycle of the network has been extended to some degree.

  9. Patient-based estimation of organ dose for a population of 58 adult patients across 13 protocol categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahbaee, Pooyan; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to provide a comprehensive patient-specific organ dose estimation across a multiplicity of computed tomography (CT) examination protocols. Methods: A validated Monte Carlo program was employed to model a common CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). The organ and effective doses were estimated from 13 commonly used body and neurological CT examination. The dose estimation was performed on 58 adult computational extended cardiac-torso phantoms (35 male, 23 female, mean age 51.5 years, mean weight 80.2 kg). The organ dose normalized by CTDI vol (h factor) and effective dose normalized by the dose length product (DLP) (k factor) were calculated from the results. A mathematical model was derived for the correlation between the h and k factors with the patient size across the protocols. Based on this mathematical model, a dose estimation iPhone operating system application was designed and developed to be used as a tool to estimate dose to the patients for a variety of routinely used CT examinations. Results: The organ dose results across all the protocols showed an exponential decrease with patient body size. The correlation was generally strong for the organs which were fully or partially located inside the scan coverage (Pearson sample correlation coefficient (r) of 0.49). The correlation was weaker for organs outside the scan coverage for which distance between the organ and the irradiation area was a stronger predictor of dose to the organ. For body protocols, the effective dose before and after normalization by DLP decreased exponentially with increasing patient's body diameter (r > 0.85). The exponential relationship between effective dose and patient's body diameter was significantly weaker for neurological protocols (r < 0.41), where the trunk length was a slightly stronger predictor of effective dose (0.15 < r < 0.46). Conclusions: While the most accurate estimation of a patient dose requires specific modeling of the

  10. Host based internet protocol (IP) packet analysis to enhance network security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.; Ahmad, S.Z.; Yasin, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Data communication in a computer network environment is facing serious security threats from numerous sources such as viruses, worms, Zombies etc. These threats can be broadly characterized as internal or external security threats. Internal threats are mainly attributed to sneaker-nets, utility modems and unauthorized users, which can be minimized by skillful network administration, password management and optimum usage policy definition. The external threats need more serious attention as these attacks are mostly coming from public networks such as Internet. Frequency and complexity of such attacks is much higher as compared to internal attacks. This paper presents a host based network layer screening of external and internal IP packets for logging, analyzing and real-time detection of possible IP spoofing and Denial of Service attacks. This work can also be used in tuning security rules definition for gateway firewalls. Software has been developed which intercepts IP traffic and analyses it with respect to integrity and origin of I P packet. The received IP packets are parsed and analyzed for possible signs of intrusion. The results show that by watching and categorizing composition of various transport protocol such as TCP, UDP, ICMP and others along with verifying the origin of received IP packet can help in devising real-time firewall rule and blocking possible external attack. This is highly desirable for fighting against zero day attacks and can result in a better Mean Time between Failures (MTBF) to increase the survivability of computer network. Used in a right context, packet screening and filtering can be a useful tool for provision of reliable and stable network services. (author)

  11. Protocol for the evaluation of a quality-based pay for performance scheme in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawo, Luke; Leonard, Kenneth L; Mohammed, Rianna

    2015-01-13

    Improving the quality of care at hospitals is a key next step in rebuilding Liberia's health system. In order to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of care at the secondary hospital level, the country is developing a system to upgrade health worker skills and competencies, and shifting towards improved provider accountability for results, including a Graduate Medical Residency Program (GMRP) and provider accountability for improvements in quality through performance-based financing (PBF) at the hospital level. This document outlines the protocol for the impact evaluation of the hospital improvement program. The evaluation will provide an estimate of the impact of the project and investigate the mechanism for success in a way that can provide general lessons about the quality of health care in low-income countries. The evaluation aims 1) to provide the best possible estimate of program impact and 2) to quantitatively describe the changes that took place within facilities as a result of the program. In particular, the impact evaluation focuses on the changes in human resources within the hospitals. As such, we use a three-period intensive evaluation of treated and matched comparison hospitals to see how services change in treated hospitals as well as a continuous data collection effort to track the activities of individual health workers within treated hospitals. We are particularly interested in understanding how facilities met quality targets. Did they bring in new health workers with higher qualifications? Did they improve the knowledge or competence of their existing staff? Did they improve the availability of medicines and equipment so that the capacities of existing health workers were improved? Did they address the motivation of health workers so that individuals with the same competence and capacity were able to provide higher quality? And, if they did improve quality, did patients notice?

  12. Dental care protocol based on visual supports for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Mastroberardino, Stefano; Campus, Stefano; Olivari, Benedetta; Faggioli, Raffaella; Lenti, Carlo; Strohmenger, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) have often difficulties to accept dental treatments. The aim of this study is to propose a dental care protocol based on visual supports to facilitate children with ASDs to undergo to oral examination and treatments. 83 children (age range 6-12 years) with a signed consent form were enrolled; intellectual level, verbal fluency and cooperation grade were evaluated. Children were introduced into a four stages path in order to undergo: an oral examination (stage 1), a professional oral hygiene session (stage 2), sealants (stage 3), and, if necessary, a restorative treatment (stage 4). Each stage came after a visual training, performed by a psychologist (stage 1) and by parents at home (stages 2, 3 and 4). Association between acceptance rates at each stage and gender, intellectual level, verbal fluency and cooperation grade was tested with chi-square test if appropriate. Seventy-seven (92.8%) subjects overcame both stage 1 and 2. Six (7.2%) refused stage 3 and among the 44 subjects who need restorative treatments, only three refused it. The acceptance rate at each stage was statistically significant associated to the verbal fluency (p=0.02; p=0.04; p=0.01, respectively for stage 1, 3 and 4). In stage 2 all subjects accepted to move to the next stage. The verbal/intellectual/cooperation dummy variable was statistically associated to the acceptance rate (pvisual supports has shown to be able to facilitate children with ASDs to undergo dental treatments even in non-verbal children with a low intellectual level, underlining that behavioural approach should be used as the first strategy to treat patients with ASDs in dental setting.

  13. A novel protocol for assessing aquatic pollution, based on the feeding inhibition of Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sensitivity of a novel acute bioassay based on the feeding activity of Daphnia magna was assessed, using 2 and 4 h of exposure. For calibration purposes, results were compared with those of the standard immobility test as described by the ISO 6341:1996 standard. Using potassium dichromate as the reference chemical, after 4 h of exposure the proposed protocol showed similar sensitivity in comparison with the standard, as the EC50 of the immobility test was 1.093 ± 0.098 mg·L–1, whereas the EC50 of the feeding inhibition bioassay was 1.742 ± 0.133 mg·L–1. In order to test the sensitivity of the bioassay, toxicity of two other contaminants, copper and wastewater, was estimated and the results were compared with those of the standard immobility test. For both cases, the feeding inhibition test showed higher sensitivity, as in the case of copper the EC50s were 0.0952 ± 0.0087 and 0.0753 ± 0.0152 mg·L–1, whilst the EC50 recorded for the 24-h immobility test was 0.2407 ± 0.0159 mg·L–1. In the case of the effluent, EC50 values after 2 and 4 h of exposure were 15.698 ± 2.681 and 12.557 ± 2.358 expressed as % of the wastewater, respectively, whereas the EC50 of the immobility test was calculated to be 36.4688 ± 5.4887.

  14. CogChamps - a model of implementing evidence-based care in hospitals: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Catherine; Graham, Frederick; Henderson, Amanda; Beattie, Elizabeth

    2017-03-14

    most effective aspects of the intervention. This paper describes the study protocol for the implementation of multi-component evidence-based non-pharmacological practices designed to improve the care of older hospital patients with CI. Findings will inform subsequent initiatives directed towards enhancing the capacity of the nursing workforce to implement best practices for providing high quality care for this growing patient population throughout their acute care hospital stay.

  15. A Multipath Routing Protocol Based on Bloom Filter for Multihop Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On-demand multipath routing in a wireless ad hoc network is effective in achieving load balancing over the network and in improving the degree of resilience to mobility. In this paper, the salvage capable opportunistic node-disjoint multipath routing (SNMR protocol is proposed, which forms multiple routes for data transmission and supports packet salvaging with minimum overhead. The proposed mechanism constructs a primary path and a node-disjoint backup path together with alternative paths for the intermediate nodes in the primary path. It can be achieved by considering the reverse route back to the source stored in the route cache and the primary path information compressed by a Bloom filter. Our protocol presents higher capability in packet salvaging and lower overhead in forming multiple routes. Simulation results show that SNMR outperforms the compared protocols in terms of packet delivery ratio, normalized routing load, and throughput.

  16. An efficient and reliable geographic routing protocol based on partial network coding for underwater sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kun; Jin, Zhigang; Shen, Haifeng; Wang, Ying

    2015-05-28

    Efficient routing protocols for data packet delivery are crucial to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). However, communication in UWSNs is a challenging task because of the characteristics of the acoustic channel. Network coding is a promising technique for efficient data packet delivery thanks to the broadcast nature of acoustic channels and the relatively high computation capabilities of the sensor nodes. In this work, we present GPNC, a novel geographic routing protocol for UWSNs that incorporates partial network coding to encode data packets and uses sensor nodes' location information to greedily forward data packets to sink nodes. GPNC can effectively reduce network delays and retransmissions of redundant packets causing additional network energy consumption. Simulation results show that GPNC can significantly improve network throughput and packet delivery ratio, while reducing energy consumption and network latency when compared with other routing protocols.

  17. Maximum Power Plus RSSI Based Routing Protocol for Bluetooth Low Energy Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsu Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel energy-conserving multihop routing protocol to maximize network lifetime and consume the battery in a distributed manner during route discovery in energy-constrained Bluetooth Low Energy ad hoc networks. Furthermore, a flooding avoidance approach is adopted by the proposed scheme to minimize the number of route request packets flooded. In addition, the proposed scheme maximizes network lifetime by using residual battery and RSSI as a route metric. The simulation results confirm that our proposed scheme has a surpassing performance with regard to network lifetime, evenly distributed battery consumption, and route discovery latency compared with the traditional on-demand routing protocol.

  18. Measurement of Soot Volume Fraction and Temperature for Oxygen-Enriched Ethylene Combustion Based on Flame Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Yan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for simultaneously visualizing the two-dimensional distributions of temperature and soot volume fraction in an ethylene flame was presented. A single-color charge-coupled device (CCD camera was used to capture the flame image in the visible spectrum considering the broad-response spectrum of the R and G bands of the camera. The directional emissive power of the R and G bands were calibrated and used for measurement. Slightly increased temperatures and reduced soot concentration were predicted in the central flame without self-absorption effects considered, an iterative algorithm was used for eliminating the effect of self-absorption. Nine different cases were presented in the experiment to demonstrate the effects of fuel mass flow rate and oxygen concentration on temperature and soot concentration in three different atmospheres. For ethylene combustion in pure-air atmosphere, as the fuel mass flow rate increased, the maximum temperature slightly decreased, and the maximum soot volume fraction slightly increased. For oxygen fractions of 30%, 40%, and 50% combustion in O2/N2 oxygen-enhanced atmospheres, the maximum flame temperatures were 2276, 2451, and 2678 K, whereas combustion in O2/CO2 atmospheres were 1916, 2322, and 2535 K. The maximum soot volume fractions were 4.5, 7.0, and 9.5 ppm in oxygen-enriched O2/N2 atmosphere and 13.6, 15.3, and 14.8 ppm in oxygen-enriched O2/CO2 atmosphere. Compared with the O2/CO2 atmosphere, combustion in the oxygen-enriched O2/N2 atmosphere produced higher flame temperature and larger soot volume fraction. Preliminary results indicated that this technique is reliable and can be used for combustion diagnosis.

  19. Multilevel correlations in the biological phosphorus removal process: From bacterial enrichment to conductivity-based metabolic batch tests and polyphosphatase assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrodt, David G; Maillard, Julien; Brovelli, Alessandro; Chabrelie, Alexandre; May, Jonathan; Holliger, Christof

    2014-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater relies on the preferential selection of active polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) in the underlying bacterial community continuum. Efficient management of the bacterial resource requires understanding of population dynamics as well as availability of bioanalytical methods for rapid and regular assessment of relative abundances of active PAOs and their glycogen-accumulating competitors (GAO). A systems approach was adopted here toward the investigation of multilevel correlations from the EBPR bioprocess to the bacterial community, metabolic, and enzymatic levels. Two anaerobic-aerobic sequencing-batch reactors were operated to enrich activated sludge in PAOs and GAOs affiliating with "Candidati Accumulibacter and Competibacter phosphates", respectively. Bacterial selection was optimized by dynamic control of the organic loading rate and the anaerobic contact time. The distinct core bacteriomes mainly comprised populations related to the classes Betaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, and Chloroflexi in the PAO enrichment and of Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Sphingobacteria in the GAO enrichment. An anaerobic metabolic batch test based on electrical conductivity evolution and a polyphosphatase enzymatic assay were developed for rapid and low-cost assessment of the active PAO fraction and dephosphatation potential of activated sludge. Linear correlations were obtained between the PAO fraction, biomass specific rate of conductivity increase under anaerobic conditions, and polyphosphate-hydrolyzing activity of PAO/GAO mixtures. The correlations between PAO/GAO ratios, metabolic activities, and conductivity profiles were confirmed by simulations with a mathematical model developed in the aqueous geochemistry software PHREEQC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Performance comparison of bench-top next generation sequencers using microdroplet PCR-based enrichment for targeted sequencing in patients with autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Koshimizu

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS combined with enrichment of target genes enables highly efficient and low-cost sequencing of multiple genes for genetic diseases. The aim of this study was to validate the accuracy and sensitivity of our method for comprehensive mutation detection in autism spectrum disorder (ASD. We assessed the performance of the bench-top Ion Torrent PGM and Illumina MiSeq platforms as optimized solutions for mutation detection, using microdroplet PCR-based enrichment of 62 ASD associated genes. Ten patients with known mutations were sequenced using NGS to validate the sensitivity of our method. The overall read quality was better with MiSeq, largely because of the increased indel-related error associated with PGM. The sensitivity of SNV detection was similar between the two platforms, suggesting they are both suitable for SNV detection in the human genome. Next, we used these methods to analyze 28 patients with ASD, and identified 22 novel variants in genes associated with ASD, with one mutation detected by MiSeq only. Thus, our results support the combination of target gene enrichment and NGS as a valuable molecular method for investigating rare variants in ASD.

  1. PREventive Care Infrastructure based On Ubiquitous Sensing (PRECIOUS): A Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Moreno, Jordi; Ciudin, Andrea; Parramón, Gemma; Lusilla-Palacios, Pilar

    2017-05-31

    mHealth has experienced a huge growth during the last decade. It has been presented as a new and promising pathway to increase self-management of health and chronic conditions in several populations. One of the most prolific areas of mHealth has been healthy lifestyles promotion. However, few mobile apps have succeeded in engaging people and ensuring sustained use. This paper describes the pilot test protocol of the PReventive Care Infrastructure based on Ubiquitous Sensing (PRECIOUS) project, aimed at validating the PRECIOUS system with end users. This system includes, within a motivational framework, the Bodyguard2 sensor (accelerometer with heart rate monitoring) and the PRECIOUS app. This is a pilot experimental study targeting morbidly obese prediabetic patients who will be randomized to three conditions: (1) Group 1 - Control group (Treatment as usual with the endocrinologist and the nurse + Bodyguard2), (2) Group 2 - PRECIOUS system (Bodyguard2 + PRECIOUS app), and (3) Group 3 - PRECIOUS system (Bodyguard2 + PRECIOUS app + Motivational Interviewing). The duration of the study will be 3 months with scheduled follow-up appointments within the scope of the project at Weeks 3, 5, 8, and 12. During the study, several measures related to healthy lifestyles, weight management, and health-related quality of life will be collected to explore the effectiveness of PRECIOUS to foster behavior change, as well as user acceptance, usability, and satisfaction with the solution. Because of the encouraging results shown in similar scientific work analyzing health apps acceptance in clinical settings, we expect patients to widely accept and express satisfaction with PRECIOUS. We also expect to find acceptable usability of the preventive health solution. The recruitment of the pilot study has concluded with the inclusion of 31 morbidly obese prediabetic patients. Results are expected to be available in mid-2017. Adopting and maintaining healthy habits may be challenging in

  2. Direct analysis of δ2H and δ18O in natural and enriched human urine using laser-based, Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Elena S.F.; Fortsona, Susan L.; Snaith, Steven P.; Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas S.; Chery, Isabelle; Blanc, Stephane; Melanson, Edward L.; Thomson, Peter J; Speakman, John R.

    2012-01-01

    The stable isotopes of hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) in human urine are measured during studies of total energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method, measurement of total body water, and measurement of insulin resistance by glucose disposal among other applications. An ultrasensitive laser absorption spectrometer based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy was demonstrated for simple and inexpensive measurement of stable isotopes in natural isotopic abundance and isotopically enriched human urine. Preparation of urine for analysis was simple and rapid (approx. 25 samples per hour), requiring no decolorizing or distillation steps. Analysis schemes were demonstrated to address sample-to-sample memory while still allowing analysis of 45 natural or 30 enriched urine samples per day. The instrument was linear over a wide range of water isotopes (δ2H = −454 to +1702 ‰ and δ18O= −58.3 to +265 ‰). Measurements of human urine were precise to better than 0.65 ‰ 1σ for δ2H and 0.09 ‰ 1σ for δ18O for natural urines, 1.1 ‰ 1σ for δ2H and 0.13 ‰ 1σ for δ18O for low enriched urines, and 1.0 ‰ 1σ for δ2H and 0.08 ‰ 1σ for δ18O for high enriched urines. Furthermore, the accuracy of the isotope measurements of human urines was verified to better than ±0.81 ‰ in δ2H and ±0.13 ‰ in δ18O (average deviation) against three independent IRMS laboratories. The ability to immediately and inexpensively measure the stable isotopes of water in human urine is expected to increase the number and variety of experiments which can be undertaken. PMID:23075099

  3. SELF-POWERED WIRELESS SENSOR NODE POWER MODELING BASED ON IEEE 802.11 COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivek Agarwal; Raymond A. DeCarlo; Lefteri H. Tsoukalas

    2016-04-01

    Design and technical advancements in sensing, processing, and wireless communication capabilities of small, portable devices known as wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) have drawn extensive research attention and are vastly applied in science and engineering applications. The WSNs are typically powered by a chemical battery source that has a load dependent finite lifetime. Most applications, including the nuclear industry applications, require WSNs to operate for an extended period of time beginning with their deployment. To ensure longevity, it is important to develop self-powered WSNs. The benefit of self-powered WSNs goes far beyond the cost savings of removing the need for cable installation and maintenance. Self-powered WSNs will potentially offer significant expansion in remote monitoring of nuclear facilities, and provide important data on plant equipment and component status during normal operation, as well as in case of abnormal operation, station blackouts or post-accident evaluation. Advancements in power harvesting technologies enable electric energy generation from many sources, including kinetic, thermal, and radiated energy. For the ongoing research at Idaho National Laboratory, a solid-state thermoelectric-based technology, the thermoelectric generator (TEG), is used to convert thermal energy to power a WSN. The design and development of TEGs to power WSNs that would remain active for a long period of time requires comprehensive understanding of WSN operational. This motivates the research in modeling the lifetime, i.e., power consumption, of a WSN by taking into consideration various node and network level activities. A WSN must perform three essential tasks: sense events, perform quick local information processing of sensed events, and wirelessly exchange locally processed data with the base station or with other WSNs in the network. Each task has a power cost per unit tine and an additional cost when switching between tasks. There are number of other

  4. Treatment Protocols for Eating Disorders: Clinicians' Attitudes, Concerns, Adherence and Difficulties Delivering Evidence-Based Psychological Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    There are several protocols in existence that guide clinicians in the implementation of effective, evidence-based psychological interventions for eating disorders. These have been made accessible in the form of treatment manuals. However, relatively few clinicians use those protocols, preferring to offer more eclectic or integrative approaches. Following a summary of the research that shows that these evidence-based approaches can be used successfully in routine clinical settings, this review considers why there is such poor uptake of these therapies in such settings. This review focuses on the role of service culture and on clinicians' own attitudes, beliefs and emotions. Possible means of enhancing uptake are considered, but these cannot be considered to be ideal solutions at present.

  5. Enriching Genomic Resources and Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Miscanthus sinensis under Drought Stress Based on RNA Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Miscanthus × giganteus is wildly cultivated as a potential biofuel feedstock around the world; however, the narrow genetic basis and sterile characteristics have become a limitation for its utilization. As a progenitor of M. × giganteus, M. sinensis is widely distributed around East Asia providing well abiotic stress tolerance. To enrich the M. sinensis genomic databases and resources, we sequenced and annotated the transcriptome of M. sinensis by using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Approximately 316 million high-quality trimmed reads were generated from 349 million raw reads, and a total of 114,747 unigenes were obtained after de novo assembly. Furthermore, 95,897 (83.57% unigenes were annotated to at least one database including NR, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG, GO, and NT, supporting that the sequences obtained were annotated properly. Differentially expressed gene analysis indicates that drought stress 15 days could be a critical period for M. sinensis response to drought stress. The high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of M. sinensis under drought stress has greatly enriched the current genomic available resources. The comparison of DEGs under different periods of drought stress identified a wealth of candidate genes involved in drought tolerance regulatory networks, which will facilitate further genetic improvement and molecular studies of the M. sinensis.

  6. Ant-based distributed protocol for coordination of a swarm of robots in demining mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rango, Floriano; Palmieri, Nunzia

    2016-05-01

    Coordination among multiple robots has been extensively studied, since a number of practical real problem s can be performed using an effective approach. In this paper is investigated a collective task that requires a multi-robot system to search for randomly distributed mines in an unknown environment and disarm them cooperatively. The communication among the swarm of robots influences the overall performance in terms of time to execute the task or consumed energy. To address this problem, a new distributed recruiting protocol to coordinate a swarm of robots in demining mission, is described. This problem is a multi-objective problem and two bio inspired strategies are used. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of direct and indirect communication: on one hand an indirect communication among robots is used for the exploration of the environment, on the other hand a novel protocol is used to accomplish the recruiting and coordination of the robots for demining task. This protocol attempts to tackle the question of how autonomous robot can coordinate themselves into an unknown environment relying on simple low-level capabilities. The strategy is able to adapt the current system dynamics if the number of robots or the environment structure or both change. The proposed approach has been implemented and has been evaluated in several simulated environments. We analyzed the impact of our approach in the overall performance of a robot team. Experimental results indicated the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed protocol to spread the robots in the environment.

  7. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  8. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-03-31

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  9. Modified calibration protocol evaluated in a model-based testing of SBR flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corominas, Lluís; Sin, Gürkan; Puig, Sebastià

    2011-01-01

    statistical evaluation of the calibration outcome. The updated calibration protocol is then evaluated on a case study to obtain a thoroughly validated model for testing the flexibility of an N-removing SBR to adapt the operating conditions to the changing influent wastewater load. The performance of reference...

  10. A node-disjoint multi-path routing protocol based on location ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    control message overhead. Keywords: Multi-path Routing Protocol, Mobile Ad hoc Networks, Location Prediction, Node Disjoint, Simulation. 1. Introduction ..... synchronization algorithms (example: Naumov et al., 2006; Sheu et al., 2007) have been proposed for wireless ad hoc networks. The destination node computes and ...

  11. Digital protocol for reference-based guided surgery and immediate loading: a prospective clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahmaseb, A.; de Clerck, R.; Aartman, I.; Wismeijer, D.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of a computer-aided three-dimensional planning protocol in combination with previously inserted reference mini-implants and CAD/CAM technology to restore completely edentulous patients. The study evaluated implant and superstructure survival in a prospective

  12. A single-stage polymerase-based protocol for the introduction of deletions and insertions without subcloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, John C; Jones, Rachel J; Erdogan, Eda; Smith, Susan M E

    2005-03-01

    A single-stage polymerase-based procedure is described that allows extensive modifications of DNA. The version described here uses the QuikChange Site-Directed Mutagenesis System kit supplied by Stratagene. The original protocol is replaced by a single-stage method in which linear production of complementary strands is accomplished in separate single primer reactions. This has proved effective in introducing insertions and deletions into large gene/vector combinations without subcloning.

  13. Evidence based decontamination protocols for the removal of external Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from contaminated hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvivier, Wilco F; Peeters, Ruth J P; van Beek, Teris A; Nielen, Michel W F

    2016-02-01

    External contamination can cause false positive results in forensic hair testing for drugs of abuse and is therefore a major concern when hair evidence is used in court. Current literature about decontamination strategies is mainly focused on external cocaine contamination and no consensus on the best decontamination procedure for hair samples containing cannabinoids has been reached so far. In this study, different protocols with solvents, both organic as well as aqueous, were tested on blank and drug user hair for their performance on removing external cannabis contamination originating from either smoke or indirect contact with cannabis plant material. Smoke contamination was mimicked by exposing hair samples to smoke from a cannabis cigarette and indirect contact contamination by handling hair with cannabis contaminated gloves or hands. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) levels in the hair samples and wash solvents were determined using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Aqueous surfactant solutions removed more THC contamination compared to water, but much less than organic solvents. Methanol, dichloromethane and chloroform were most efficient in removing THC contamination. Due to its lower environmental impact, methanol was chosen as the preferred decontamination solvent. After testing of different sequential wash steps on externally contaminated blank hair, three protocols performed equally well, removing all normal level and more than 99% of unrealistically high levels of external cannabis contamination. Thorough testing on cannabis users' hair, both as such and after deliberate contamination, showed that using these protocols all contamination could be washed from the hair while no incorporated THC was removed from truly positive samples. The present study provides detailed scientific evidence in support of the recommendations of the Society of Hair Testing: a protocol using a single methanol wash followed by a single aqueous

  14. Protocol-Based Resuscitation for Septic Shock: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials and Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Kyung; Kim, Ha Yeon; Lee, Jinae; Koh, Shin Ok; Kim, Jeong Min; Na, Sungwon

    2016-09-01

    Owing to the recommendations of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines, protocol-based resuscitation or goal-directed therapy (GDT) is broadly advocated for the treatment of septic shock. However, the most recently published trials showed no survival benefit from protocol-based resuscitation in septic shock patients. Hence, we aimed to assess the effect of GDT on clinical outcomes in such patients. We performed a systematic review that included a meta-analysis. We used electronic search engines including PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database to find studies comparing protocol-based GDT to common or standard care in patients with septic shock and severe sepsis. A total of 13269 septic shock patients in 24 studies were included [12 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 12 observational studies]. The overall mortality odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for GDT versus conventional care was 0.746 (0.631-0.883). In RCTs only, the mortality OR (95% CI) for GDT versus conventional care in the meta-analysis was 0.93 (0.75-1.16). The beneficial effect of GDT decreased as more recent studies were added in an alternative, cumulative meta-analysis. No significant publication bias was found. The result of this meta-analysis suggests that GDT reduces mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. However, our cumulative meta-analysis revealed that the reduction of mortality risk was diminished as more recent studies were added.

  15. An Experimental Protocol for Assessing the Performance of New Ultrasound Probes Based on CMUT Technology in Application to Brain Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrone, Giulia; Ramalli, Alessandro; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart; Quaglia, Fabio; Castellazzi, Gloria; Morbini, Patrizia; Piastra, Marco

    2017-09-24

    The possibility to perform an early and repeatable assessment of imaging performance is fundamental in the design and development process of new ultrasound (US) probes. Particularly, a more realistic analysis with application-specific imaging targets can be extremely valuable to assess the expected performance of US probes in their potential clinical field of application. The experimental protocol presented in this work was purposely designed to provide an application-specific assessment procedure for newly-developed US probe prototypes based on Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) technology in relation to brain imaging. The protocol combines the use of a bovine brain fixed in formalin as the imaging target, which ensures both realism and repeatability of the described procedures, and of neuronavigation techniques borrowed from neurosurgery. The US probe is in fact connected to a motion tracking system which acquires position data and enables the superposition of US images to reference Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of the brain. This provides a means for human experts to perform a visual qualitative assessment of the US probe imaging performance and to compare acquisitions made with different probes. Moreover, the protocol relies on the use of a complete and open research and development system for US image acquisition, i.e. the Ultrasound Advanced Open Platform (ULA-OP) scanner. The manuscript describes in detail the instruments and procedures involved in the protocol, in particular for the calibration, image acquisition and registration of US and MR images. The obtained results prove the effectiveness of the overall protocol presented, which is entirely open (within the limits of the instrumentation involved), repeatable, and covers the entire set of acquisition and processing activities for US images.

  16. Internet protocol television for personalized home-based health information: design-based research on a diabetes education system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen Mary; Clarke, Ken; Alzougool, Basil; Hines, Carolyn; Tidhar, Gil; Frukhtman, Feodor

    2014-03-10

    The use of Internet protocol television (IPTV) as a channel for consumer health information is a relatively under-explored area of medical Internet research. IPTV may afford new opportunities for health care service providers to provide health information and for consumers, patients, and caretakers to access health information. The technologies of Web 2.0 add a new and even less explored dimension to IPTV's potential. Our research explored an application of Web 2.0 integrated with IPTV for personalized home-based health information in diabetes education, particularly for people with diabetes who are not strong computer and Internet users, and thus may miss out on Web-based resources. We wanted to establish whether this system could enable diabetes educators to deliver personalized health information directly to people with diabetes in their homes; and whether this system could encourage people with diabetes who make little use of Web-based health information to build their health literacy via the interface of a home television screen and remote control. This project was undertaken as design-based research in two stages. Stage 1 comprised a feasibility study into the technical work required to integrate an existing Web 2.0 platform with an existing IPTV system, populated with content and implemented for user trials in a laboratory setting. Stage 2 comprised an evaluation of the system by consumers and providers of diabetes information. The project succeeded in developing a Web 2.0 IPTV system for people with diabetes and low literacies and their diabetes educators. The performance of the system in the laboratory setting gave them the confidence to engage seriously in thinking about the actual and potential features and benefits of a more widely-implemented system. In their feedback they pointed out a range of critical usability and usefulness issues related to Web 2.0 affordances and learning fundamentals. They also described their experiences with the system in

  17. ToNER: A tool for identifying nucleotide enrichment signals in feature-enriched RNA-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promworn, Yuttachon; Kaewprommal, Pavita; Shaw, Philip J; Intarapanich, Apichart; Tongsima, Sissades; Piriyapongsa, Jittima

    2017-01-01

    Biochemical methods are available for enriching 5' ends of RNAs in prokaryotes, which are employed in the differential RNA-seq (dRNA-seq) and the more recent Cappable-seq protocols. Computational methods are needed to locate RNA 5' ends from these data by statistical analysis of the enrichment. Although statistical-based analysis methods have been developed for dRNA-seq, they may not be suitable for Cappable-seq data. The more efficient enrichment method employed in Cappable-seq compared with dRNA-seq could affect data distribution and thus algorithm performance. We present Transformation of Nucleotide Enrichment Ratios (ToNER), a tool for statistical modeling of enrichment from RNA-seq data obtained from enriched and unenriched libraries. The tool calculates nucleotide enrichment scores and determines the global transformation for fitting to the normal distribution using the Box-Cox procedure. From the transformed distribution, sites of significant enrichment are identified. To increase power of detection, meta-analysis across experimental replicates is offered. We tested the tool on Cappable-seq and dRNA-seq data for identifying Escherichia coli transcript 5' ends and compared the results with those from the TSSAR tool, which is designed for analyzing dRNA-seq data. When combining results across Cappable-seq replicates, ToNER detects more known transcript 5' ends than TSSAR. In general, the transcript 5' ends detected by ToNER but not TSSAR occur in regions which cannot be locally modeled by TSSAR. ToNER uses a simple yet robust statistical modeling approach, which can be used for detecting RNA 5'ends from Cappable-seq data, in particular when combining information from experimental replicates. The ToNER tool could potentially be applied for analyzing other RNA-seq datasets in which enrichment for other structural features of RNA is employed. The program is freely available for download at ToNER webpage (http://www4a.biotec.or.th/GI/tools/toner) and Git

  18. ToNER: A tool for identifying nucleotide enrichment signals in feature-enriched RNA-seq data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuttachon Promworn

    Full Text Available Biochemical methods are available for enriching 5' ends of RNAs in prokaryotes, which are employed in the differential RNA-seq (dRNA-seq and the more recent Cappable-seq protocols. Computational methods are needed to locate RNA 5' ends from these data by statistical analysis of the enrichment. Although statistical-based analysis methods have been developed for dRNA-seq, they may not be suitable for Cappable-seq data. The more efficient enrichment method employed in Cappable-seq compared with dRNA-seq could affect data distribution and thus algorithm performance.We present Transformation of Nucleotide Enrichment Ratios (ToNER, a tool for statistical modeling of enrichment from RNA-seq data obtained from enriched and unenriched libraries. The tool calculates nucleotide enrichment scores and determines the global transformation for fitting to the normal distribution using the Box-Cox procedure. From the transformed distribution, sites of significant enrichment are identified. To increase power of detection, meta-analysis across experimental replicates is offered. We tested the tool on Cappable-seq and dRNA-seq data for identifying Escherichia coli transcript 5' ends and compared the results with those from the TSSAR tool, which is designed for analyzing dRNA-seq data. When combining results across Cappable-seq replicates, ToNER detects more known transcript 5' ends than TSSAR. In general, the transcript 5' ends detected by ToNER but not TSSAR occur in regions which cannot be locally modeled by TSSAR.ToNER uses a simple yet robust statistical modeling approach, which can be used for detecting RNA 5'ends from Cappable-seq data, in particular when combining information from experimental replicates. The ToNER tool could potentially be applied for analyzing other RNA-seq datasets in which enrichment for other structural features of RNA is employed. The program is freely available for download at ToNER webpage (http://www4a

  19. Differential Sarcomere and Electrophysiological Maturation of Human iPSC-Derived Cardiac Myocytes in Monolayer vs. Aggregation-Based Differentiation Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Jeziorowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs represent a powerful human model to study cardiac disease in vitro, notably channelopathies and sarcomeric cardiomyopathies. Different protocols for cardiac differentiation of iPSCs have been proposed either based on embroid body formation (3D or, more recently, on monolayer culture (2D. We performed a direct comparison of the characteristics of the derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs on day 27 ± 2 of differentiation between 3D and 2D differentiation protocols with two different Wnt-inhibitors were compared: IWR1 (inhibitor of Wnt response or IWP2 (inhibitor of Wnt production. We firstly found that the level of Troponin T (TNNT2 expression measured by FACS was significantly higher for both 2D protocols as compared to the 3D protocol. In the three methods, iPSC-CM show sarcomeric structures. However, iPSC-CM generated in 2D protocols constantly displayed larger sarcomere lengths as compared to the 3D protocol. In addition, mRNA and protein analyses reveal higher cTNi to ssTNi ratios in the 2D protocol using IWP2 as compared to both other protocols, indicating a higher sarcomeric maturation. Differentiation of cardiac myocytes with 2D monolayer-based protocols and the use of IWP2 allows the production of higher yield of cardiac myocytes that have more suitable characteristics to study sarcomeric cardiomyopathies.

  20. Incommunicado detention and torture in Spain, Part II: Enhanced credibility assessment based on the Istanbul Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sales, Pau; Morentin, Benito; Barrenetxea, Olatz; Navarro-Lashayas, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    The Istanbul Protocol (IP) is the key instrument in the documentation of allegations of torture. However, few scientific studies have evaluated its effectiveness as a tool to assess credibility of allegations of ill-treatment or torture. Present data on the credibility of allegations of torture in a sample of 45 Basque people held in short-term incommunicado detention between 1980 and 2012, using a modified version of the Standard Evaluation Form for Credibility Assessment (SEC), a new tool to assess credibility based on the IP. Each case was evaluated by two psychiatrists, a psychologist and a physician through a layered system of simultaneous, independent assessments, blind audits and peer-review processes. Clinical interviews following the IP were contrasted with psychometric tests and external documentary evidence by independent experts. All available data were structured using the SEC and cases were accordingly classified as having Maximum consistency, Highly Consistent, Consistent or Inconsistent. According to the SEC, 53% of allegations of torture were considered to have Maximum Consistency, 31% Highly consistent, 15% Consistent and 0% Inconsistent. The items that most contributed to the overall credibility assessment came from the psychological evaluation, including the description of alleged torture, emotional reactions, objective functional changes, changes in identity and worldviews and clinical diagnosis. There was little contribution from previous medical reports. When applied competently, the IP is an essential tool in the documentation of torture. Our study shows: (a) evidence that allegations of ill-treatment and torture in the Basque Country are consistent and credible, being ascertained beyond reasonable doubt and aside from any political debate; (b) the wider use of the IP as a tool to assess credibility of allegations of ill-treatment and torture; and, (c) the usefulness of the SEC as a tool. The SEC can help as a tool for documenting torture in

  1. Protocol of the COSMIN study: COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick DL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choosing an adequate measurement instrument depends on the proposed use of the instrument, the concept to be measured, the measurement properties (e.g. internal consistency, reproducibility, content and construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability, the requirements, the burden for subjects, and costs of the available instruments. As far as measurement properties are concerned, there are no sufficiently specific standards for the evaluation of measurement properties of instruments to measure health status, and also no explicit criteria for what constitutes good measurement properties. In this paper we describe the protocol for the COSMIN study, the objective of which is to develop a checklist that contains COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments, including explicit criteria for satisfying these standards. We will focus on evaluative health related patient-reported outcomes (HR-PROs, i.e. patient-reported health measurement instruments used in a longitudinal design as an outcome measure, excluding health care related PROs, such as satisfaction with care or adherence. The COSMIN standards will be made available in the form of an easily applicable checklist. Method An international Delphi study will be performed to reach consensus on which and how measurement properties should be assessed, and on criteria for good measurement properties. Two sources of input will be used for the Delphi study: (1 a systematic review of properties, standards and criteria of measurement properties found in systematic reviews of measurement instruments, and (2 an additional literature search of methodological articles presenting a comprehensive checklist of standards and criteria. The Delphi study will consist of four (written Delphi rounds, with approximately 30 expert panel members with different backgrounds in clinical medicine, biostatistics, psychology, and epidemiology. The final checklist will

  2. The stages of implementation completion for evidence-based practice: protocol for a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana, Lisa

    2014-04-05

    This protocol describes the 'development of outcome measures and suitable methodologies for dissemination and implementation approaches,' a priority for implementation research. Although many evidence-based practices (EBPs) have been developed, large knowledge gaps remain regarding how to routinely move EBPs into usual care. The lack of understanding of 'what it takes' to install EBPs has costly public health consequences, including a lack of availability of the most beneficial services, wasted efforts and resources on failed implementation attempts, and the potential for engendering reluctance to try implementing new EBPs after failed attempts.The Stages of Implementation Completion (SIC) is an eight-stage tool of implementation process and milestones, with stages spanning three implementation phases (pre-implementation, implementation, sustainability). Items delineate the date that a site completes implementation activities, yielding an assessment of duration (time to complete a stage), proportion (of stage activities completed), and a general measure of how far a site moved in the implementation process. We propose to extend the SIC to EBPs operating in child service sectors (juvenile justice, schools, substance use, child welfare). Both successful and failed implementation attempts will be scrutinized using a mixed methods design. Stage costs will be measured and examined. Both retrospective data (from previous site implementation efforts) and prospective data (from newly adopting sites) will be analyzed. The influence of pre-implementation on implementation and sustainability outcomes will be examined (Aim 1). Mixed methods procedures will focus on increasing understanding of the process of implementation failure in an effort to determine if the SIC can provide early detection of sites that are unlikely to succeed (Aim 2). Study activities will include cost mapping of SIC stages and an examination of the relationship between implementation costs and

  3. Comparison between two estradiol-progesterone based protocols for timed artificial insemination in blocks in lactating Nelore cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, L F M; Castro, N A; Neves, P M A; Cestaro, J P; Schneider, A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the use of artificial insemination in time blocks (Artificial Insemination Blocks, AIB) using an 8 and 9 d estradiol-progesterone based protocol. In this experiment, lactating Nelore cows (n=253) were subjected to two estradiol-progesterone based TAI protocols. On the morning of Day 10 (8d group, n=124) or Day 11 (9d group, n=129), cows were examined by ultrasonography to evaluate the diameter of the preovulatory follicle and were inseminated once at one of the following time points, according to the diameter of the pre-ovulatory follicle (POF): Block 0 (POF≥15mm, TAI 0h after conventional TAI), Block 1 (POF 13.0-14.9mm, TAI 6h later), Block 2 (POF 10.1-12.9mm, TAI 24h later), and Block 3 (POF≤10.0mm, TAI 30h later). The pregnancy per AI (P/AI) did not differ between 8d and 9d groups (P>0.05). Considering only multiparous cows, however, P/AI tended to be greater in the 8d (64.1%) than in the 9d group (49.3%; P=0.08). Cows from the 9d group tended to have a larger POF than cows from the 8d group (P=0.07). In conclusion, these results provide evidence that there is no difference between 8d or 9d protocols when using the AIB technique. Use of the 8d estradiol-progesterone based protocol, however, tended to increase pregnancy in multiparous cows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Beirn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread throughout the world and highly destructive to cool-season turfgrasses, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turf loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass anthracnose has been performed in the field, but knowledge of the causal organism and its basic biology is still needed. In particular, the lack of a reliable greenhouse-based inoculation protocol performed under controlled environmental conditions is an obstacle to the study of C. cereale and anthracnose disease. Our objective was to develop a consistent and reproducible inoculation protocol for the two major genetic lineages of C. cereale. By adapting previously successful field-based protocols and combining with components of existing inoculation procedures, the method we developed consistently produced C. cereale infection on two susceptible P. annua biotypes. Approximately 7 to 10 days post-inoculation, plants exhibited chlorosis and thinning consistent with anthracnose disease symptomology. Morphological inspection of inoculated plants revealed visual signs of the fungus (appressoria and acervuli, although acervuli were not always present. After stringent surface sterilization of inoculated host tissue, C. cereale was consistently re-isolated from symptomatic tissue. Real-time PCR detection analysis based on the Apn2 marker confirmed the presence of the pathogen in host tissue, with both lineages of C. cereale detected from all inoculated plants. When a humidifier was not used, no infection developed for any biotypes or fungal isolates tested. The inoculation protocol described here marks significant progress for in planta studies of C. cereale, and will enable scientifically reproducible investigations of the biology, infectivity and lifestyle of this important grass pathogen.

  5. Flux-based Enrichment Ratios of Throughfall and Stemflow Found to Vary Significantly within Urban Fragments and Along an Urban-to-Rural Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowtin, A. L.; Levia, D. F., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Throughfall and stemflow are important inputs of water and solutes to forest soils in both rural and urban forests. In metropolitan wooded ecosystems, a number of factors can affect flux-based enrichment ratios, including combustion of fossil fuels and proximity to industry. Use of flux-based enrichment ratios provides a means by which this modification of net precipitation chemistry can be quantified for both throughfall and stemflow, and allows for a characterization of the relative contributions of stemflow and throughfall in the delivery of nutrients and pollutants to forest soils. This study utilizes five mixed deciduous forest stands along an urban-to-rural gradient (3 urban fragments, 1 suburban fragment, and a portion of 1 contiguous rural forest) within a medium-sized metropolitan region of the United States' Northeast megalopolis, to determine how the size, shape, structure, and geographic context of remnant forest fragments determine hydrologic and solute fluxes within them. In situ observations of throughfall and stemflow (the latter of which is limited to Quercus rubra and Quercus alba) within each study plot allow for an identification and characterization of the spatial variability in solute fluxes within and between the respective sites. Preliminary observations indicate significant intra-site variability in solute concentrations as observed in both throughfall and stemflow, with higher concentrations along the respective windward edges of the study plots than at greater depths into their interiors. Higher flux-based stemflow enrichment ratios, for both Q. rubra and Q. alba, were also evident for certain ions (i.e., S2-, NO3-) in the urban forest fragments, with significantly lower ratios observed at the suburban and rural sites. Findings from this research are intended to aid in quantifying the spatial variability of the hydrologic and hydrochemical ecosystem service provisions of remnant metropolitan forest fragments. This research is supported in

  6. Shelf-life study of Indian traditional food based nutraceutical (oryzanol) enriched instant mixes Bhath-OZ and Upma-OZ

    OpenAIRE

    Baby Latha, R.; Debnath, Sukumar; Sarmandal, C. V.; Hemavathy, J.; Khatoon, Sakina; Gopala Krishna, A. G.; Lokesh, B. R.

    2011-01-01

    To provide nutraceutical such as oryzanol through food, two instant mixes based on the Indian traditional food cuisine Bisibele bhath and Upma(Bhath-OZ and Upma-OZ) were developed and evaluated for shelf-life. The formulations contained cereals, pulses, and spices along with oryzanol enriched oil and were packed in 200gauge/50 gauge metallized polyester packaging material and stored under ambient (27 °C 65%RH) and accelerated conditions (37 °C/92%RH). Samples were withdrawn periodically and p...

  7. Oxidative Stability of Granola Bars Enriched with Multilayered Fish Oil Emulsion in the Presence of Novel Brown Seaweed Based Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermund, Ditte B; Karadağ, Ayşe; Andersen, Ulf; Jónsdóttir, Rósa; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-11-09

    Fucus vesiculosus extracts that have both radical scavenging activity and metal chelating ability in vitro were used as natural antioxidant in granola bars enriched with fish oil emulsion by using primary and secondary emulsion systems stabilized by sodium caseinate alone and sodium caseinate-chitosan. The bars were stored at 20 °C and evaluated over a period of 10 weeks by measuring the development of primary and secondary oxidation products. The samples prepared with secondary emulsion system developed less oxidation products probably due to increased interfacial layer thickness that would act as a barrier to the penetration and diffusion of molecular species that promote oxidation. The positive charge of oil droplets in the secondary emulsion may also inhibit iron-lipid interaction through electrostatic repulsion. Additional protection against lipid oxidation was obtained when fish oil emulsions were added to the granola bars especially in combination with acetone and ethanol extracts of Fucus vesiculosus.

  8. An Efficient Data Collection Protocol Based on Multihop Routing and Single-Node Cooperation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the constrained resource and energy in wireless sensor networks, an efficient data collection protocol named ESCDD which adopts the multihop routing technology and the single-node selection cooperative communication is proposed to make the communication protocol more simple and easy to realize for the large-scale multihop wireless sensor networks. ESCDD uses the greedy strategy and the control information based on RTS/CTS to select forwarding nodes. Then, the hops in the multihop data transmission are reduced. Based on the power control in physical layer and the control frame called CoTS in MAC layer, ESCDD chooses a single cooperative node to perform cooperative transmission. The receiving node adopts maximal ratio combining (MRC to recover original data. The energy consumption per hop is reduced. Furthermore, the total energy consumption in data collection process is shared by more nodes and the network lifetime is extended. Compared with GeRaF, EERNFS, and REEFG protocol, the simulation results show that ESCDD can effectively reduce the average delay of multihop data transmission, improve the successful delivery rate of data packets, significantly save the energy consumption of network nodes, and make the energy consumption more balanced.

  9. A 1-dodecanethiol-based phase transfer protocol for the highly efficient extraction of noble metal ions from aqueous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Cui, Penglei; Cao, Hongbin; Yang, Jun

    2015-03-01

    A 1-dodecanethiol-based phase-transfer protocol is developed for the extraction of noble metal ions from aqueous solution to a hydrocarbon phase, which calls for first mixing the aqueous metal ion solution with an ethanolic solution of 1-dodecanethiol, and then extracting the coordination compounds formed between noble metal ions and 1-dodecanethiol into a non-polar organic solvent. A number of characterization techniques, including inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis demonstrate that this protocol could be applied to extract a wide variety of noble metal ions from water to dichloromethane with an efficiency of >96%, and has high selectivity for the separation of the noble metal ions from other transition metals. It is therefore an attractive alternative for the extraction of noble metals from water, soil, or waste printed circuit boards. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. New Computational Approaches for NMR-based Drug Design: A Protocol for Ligand Docking to Flexible Target Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracia, Luis; Speidel, Joshua A.; Weinstein, Harel

    2006-01-01

    NMR-based drug design has met with some success in the last decade, as illustrated in numerous instances by Fesik's ''ligand screening by NMR'' approach. Ongoing efforts to generalize this success have led us to the development of a new paradigm in which quantitative computational approaches are being integrated with NMR derived data and biological assays. The key component of this work is the inclusion of the intrinsic dynamic quality of NMR structures in theoretical models and its use in docking. A new computational protocol is introduced here, designed to dock small molecule ligands to flexible proteins derived from NMR structures. The algorithm makes use of a combination of simulated annealing monte carlo simulations (SA/MC) and a mean field potential informed by the NMR data. The new protocol is illustrated in the context of an ongoing project aimed at developing new selective inhibitors for the PCAF bromodomains that interact with HIV Tat

  11. Event-Driven On-Board Software Using Priority-Based Communications Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowell, S.; Ward, R.; Plummer, C.

    This paper describes current projects being performed by SciSys in the area of the use of software agents, built using CORBA middleware and SOIF communications protocols, to improve operations within autonomous satellite/ground systems. These concepts have been developed and demonstrated in a series of experiments variously funded by ESA's Technology Flight Opportunity Initiative (TFO) and Leading Edge Technology for SMEs (LET-SME), and the British National Space Centre's (BNSC) National Technology Programme. In [1] it is proposed that on-board software should evolve to one that uses an architecture of loosely -coupled software agents, integrated using minimum Real- Time CORBA ORBs such as the SciSys microORB. Building on that, this paper considers the requirements such an architecture and implementation place on the underlying communication protocols (software and hardware) and how these may be met by the emerging CCSDS SOIF recommendations. 2. TRENDS AND ISSUES 2.

  12. Distributed project scheduling at NASA: Requirements for manual protocols and computer-based support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephen F.

    1992-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of Space Shuttle mission planning.

  13. Spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks medium access control protocol based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pandit, Shweta

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses the use of the spectrum sharing techniques in cognitive radio technology, in order to address the problem of spectrum scarcity for future wireless communications. The authors describe a cognitive radio medium access control (MAC) protocol, with which throughput maximization has been achieved. The discussion also includes use of this MAC protocol for imperfect sensing scenarios and its effect on the performance of cognitive radio systems. The authors also discuss how energy efficiency has been maximized in this system, by applying a simple algorithm for optimizing the transmit power of the cognitive user. The study about the channel fading in the cognitive user and licensed user and power adaption policy in this scenario under peak transmit power and interference power constraint is also present in this book.

  14. Deriving Engagement Protocols Within Community-Based Co-design Projects in Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Kapuire, Gereon,; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Brereton, Margot

    2017-01-01

    Part 9: Indigenous and Local Community Grounded ICT Developments; International audience; Indigenous Knowledge (IK) is used by community members for survival in the rural context and to sustain their way of living. The procedures on how community members share their knowledge amongst themselves and with others are unique. Cultural practices communication protocols differ from mainstream research and technology development procedures. Thus appropriate community engagement is instrumental towar...

  15. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Saleem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP involves an artificial immune system (AIS that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2 and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  16. Telemetry Standards, IRIG Standard 106-17, Chapter 22, Network Based Protocol Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    structure, field definitions , and media access control (MAC) conventions specified in IEEE 802.3-2012, Section 1, Clauses 2, 3, and 4. Data link...support for ICMP broadcast pings. 22.3.1.2 Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) NetworkNodes that consume or forward dynamically configured IPv4...selection of the exact SSL and TLS versions to use. Certificate generation and exchanges shall be in accordance with the profile identified in RFC

  17. Five days of successful oral alimentation for hospitalized patients based upon passing the Yale Swallow Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Steven B; Suiter, Debra M

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the success of oral alimentation and patient retention rate 1 to 5 days after passing the Yale Swallow Protocol. Participants were 200 consecutive acute care inpatients referred for swallow assessment. Inclusion criteria were adequate cognitive abilities to participate safely, completing an oral mechanism examination, and passing the 3-ounce water swallow challenge. Exclusion criteria were altered mental status, failing the 3-ounce challenge, preadmission dysphagia, head-of-bed restrictions alimentation and retention rate. All patients who remained medically and neurologically stable drank thin liquids and ate successfully 1 to 5 days after passing the protocol. Mean (SD) volume of liquid ingested per day was 474.2 (435.5) cc. Patient retention declined steadily from day of testing (n = 200) through post-testing day 5 (n = 95). Passing the Yale Swallow Protocol allowed for initial determination of aspiration risk followed by successful oral alimentation for 1 to 5 days in medically and neurologically stable acute care hospitalized patients and without the need for instrumental dysphagia testing. The decline in patient retention was expected because of increasingly rapid transit through the acute care setting, which often renders longer follow-up problematic. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Performance Analysis of a Cluster-Based MAC Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartsakli Elli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model to evaluate the non-saturated performance of the Distributed Queuing Medium Access Control Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks (DQMANs in single-hop networks is presented in this paper. DQMAN is comprised of a spontaneous, temporary, and dynamic clustering mechanism integrated with a near-optimum distributed queuing Medium Access Control (MAC protocol. Clustering is executed in a distributed manner using a mechanism inspired by the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF of the IEEE 802.11. Once a station seizes the channel, it becomes the temporary clusterhead of a spontaneous cluster and it coordinates the peer-to-peer communications between the clustermembers. Within each cluster, a near-optimum distributed queuing MAC protocol is executed. The theoretical performance analysis of DQMAN in single-hop networks under non-saturation conditions is presented in this paper. The approach integrates the analysis of the clustering mechanism into the MAC layer model. Up to the knowledge of the authors, this approach is novel in the literature. In addition, the performance of an ad hoc network using DQMAN is compared to that obtained when using the DCF of the IEEE 802.11, as a benchmark reference.

  19. Adaptive Beaconing in Mobility Aware Clustering Based MAC Protocol for Safety Message Dissemination in VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishu Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of research contributions in wireless access in vehicular environment (WAVE/IEEE 802.11p standard focus on life critical safety-related applications. These applications require regular status update of vehicle’s position referred to as beaconing. Periodic beaconing in vehicle to vehicle communication leads to severe network congestion in the communication channel. The condition worsens under high vehicular density where it impacts reliability and upper bound latency of safety messages. In this paper, WAVE compliant enhancement to the existing IEEE 802.11p protocol is presented which targets prioritized delivery of safety messages while simultaneously provisioning the dissemination of nonsafety messages. Proposed scheme relies on dynamic generation of beacons to mitigate channel congestion and inefficient bandwidth utilization by reducing transmission frequency of beacons. Through the use of clustering mechanism, different beaconing frequencies and different data transmission rates are assigned to prioritize vehicular mobility. Through extensive simulation results, the performance of the proposed approach is evaluated in terms of a wide range of quality of service (QoS parameters for two different transmission ranges. Results show that the proposed protocol provides significant enhancement and stability of the clustered topology in vehicular ad hoc network over existing standard and other protocols with similar applications.

  20. MicroCT image based simulation to design heating protocols in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBrun, Alexander; Ma, Ronghui; Zhu, Liang

    2016-12-01

    The objective is to design heating protocols to completely damage PC3 tumors after a single magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia session with minimal collateral thermal damage, based on microCT image generated tumor and mouse models. Tumor geometries and volumetric heat generation rate distributions that are generated from microCT scans in our previous study are imported into COMSOL 4.3® multiphysics for heat transfer simulations and heating protocol design using the Arrhenius damage model. Then, parametric studies are performed to evaluate how significantly the infusion rate affects the protocol design and its resulted collateral thermal damage. The simulated temperature field in the generated tumor geometry and volumetric heat generation rate distribution are reasonable and correlates well with the amount of the total thermal energy deposited into the tumors. The time needed for complete thermal damage is determined to be approximately 12min or 25min if one uses the Arrhenius integral Ω equal to 1 or 4 as the damage threshold, when the infusion rate is 3μL/min. The heating time increases 26% or 91% in the higher infusion rate groups of 4 or 5μL/min, respectively. Collateral thermal damage to the surrounding tissue is also assessed. Although the two larger infusion rate groups can still cause thermal damage to the entire tumor, the collateral thermal damage would have exceeded the design criterion of 5%, while the assessment criterion is acceptable only in the infusion rate group of 3μL/min. Based on the results of this study, we identify an injection strategy and heating protocols to be implemented in future animal experiments to evaluate treatment efficacy for model validation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.