WorldWideScience

Sample records for based enrichment method

  1. Pros and cons of methylation-based enrichment methods for ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Gamba, Cristina; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Louvel, Guillaume; Boulygina, Eugenia; Sokolov, Alexey; Nedoluzhko, Artem; Lorenzen, Eline; Lopez, Patricio; McDonald, H. Gregory; Scott, Eric; Tikhonov, Alexei; Stafford jr., Thomas; Alfarhan, Ahmed H.; Alquraishi, Saleh A.; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Shapiro, Beth; Willerslev, Eske; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery that DNA methylation survives in fossil material provides an opportunity for novel molecular approaches in palaeogenomics. Here, we apply to ancient DNA extracts the probe-independent Methylated Binding Domains (MBD)-based enrichment method, which targets DNA molecules...... containing methylated CpGs. Using remains of a Palaeo-Eskimo Saqqaq individual, woolly mammoths, polar bears and two equine species, we confirm that DNA methylation survives in a variety of tissues, environmental contexts and over a large temporal range (4,000 to over 45,000 years before present). MBD...... enrichment, however, appears principally biased towards the recovery of CpG-rich and long DNA templates and is limited by the fast post-mortem cytosine deamination rates of methylated epialleles. This method, thus, appears only appropriate for the analysis of ancient methylomes from very well preserved...

  2. Recent developments of nanoparticle-based enrichment methods for mass spectrometric analysis in proteomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In proteome research, rapid and effective separation strategies are essential for successful protein identification due to the broad dynamic range of proteins in biological samples. Some important proteins are often expressed in ultra low abundance, thus making the pre-concentration procedure before mass spectrometric analysis prerequisite. The main purpose of enrichment is to isolate target molecules from complex mixtures to reduce sample complexity and facilitate the subsequent analyzing steps. The introduction of nanoparticles into this field has accelerated the development of enrichment methods. In this review, we mainly focus on recent developments of using different nanomaterials for pre-concentration of low-abundance peptides/ proteins, including those containing post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and glycosylation, prior to mass spectrometric analysis.

  3. Phosphopeptide enrichment: Development of magnetic solid phase extraction method based on polydopamine coating and Ti(4+)-IMAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesana, Susy; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Ferraris, Francesca; Samperi, Roberto; Ventura, Salvatore; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-02-25

    Protein post translational modifications currently represent one of the main challenges with proteomic analysis, due to the important biological role they play within cells. Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important, with several approaches developed for phosphopeptides enrichment and analysis, essential for comprehensive phosphoproteomic analysis. However, the development of new materials for phosphopeptides enrichment may overcome previous drawbacks and improve enrichment of such peptides. In this regard, new magnetic stationary phases based on polydopamine coating and Ti(4+) immobilization exploit the potential of IMAC enrichment and couple it with the versatility of magnetic solid phase extraction. In this work the use of such stationary phase was extended from the MALDI proof of concept stage with the development of an optimized method for phosphopeptides enrichment compatible with typical shotgun proteomics experimental workflows. Different loading and elution buffers were tested to improve phosphopeptides recovery and enrichment selectivity. Finally, the analysis of isolated peptides pointed out that polydopamine alone is an ideal support matrix for polar post translational modifications because it enables to reduce unspecific binding and preferentially binds hydrophilic peptides. PMID:26851086

  4. ExtraPEG: A Polyethylene Glycol-Based Method for Enrichment of Extracellular Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Mark A.; Hurwitz, Stephanie N.; Meckes, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Initially thought to be a means for cells to eliminate waste, secreted extracellular vesicles, known as exosomes, are now understood to mediate numerous healthy and pathological processes. Though abundant in biological fluids, purifying exosomes has been challenging because their biophysical properties overlap with other secreted cell products. Easy-to-use commercial kits for harvesting exosomes are now widely used, but the relative low-purity and high-cost of the preparations restricts their utility. Here we describe a method for purifying exosomes and other extracellular vesicles by adapting methods for isolating viruses using polyethylene glycol. This technique, called ExtraPEG, enriches exosomes from large volumes of media rapidly and inexpensively using low-speed centrifugation, followed by a single small-volume ultracentrifugation purification step. Total protein and RNA harvested from vesicles is sufficient in quantity and quality for proteomics and sequencing analyses, demonstrating the utility of this method for biomarker discovery and diagnostics. Additionally, confocal microscopy studies suggest that the biological activity of vesicles is not impaired. The ExtraPEG method can be easily adapted to enrich for different vesicle populations, or as an efficient precursor to subsequent purification techniques, providing a means to harvest exosomes from many different biological fluids and for a wide variety of purposes. PMID:27068479

  5. A combined enrichment/polymerase chain reaction based method for the routine screening of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Munari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is the most common cause of life-threatening infection in neonates. Guidelines from CDC recommend universal screening of pregnant women for rectovaginal GBS colonization. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a combined enrichment/PCR based method targeting the atr gene in relation to culture using enrichment with selective broth medium (standard method to identify the presence of GBS in pregnant women. Rectovaginal GBS samples from women at ≥36 weeks of pregnancy were obtained with a swab and analyzed by the two methods. A total of 89 samples were evaluated. The prevalence of positive results for GBS detection was considerable higher when assessed by the combined enrichment/PCR method than with the standard method (35.9% versus 22.5%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the use of selective enrichment broth followed by PCR targeting the atr gene is a highly sensitive, specific and accurate test for GBS screening in pregnant women, allowing the detection of the bacteria even in lightly colonized patients. This PCR methodology may provide a useful diagnostic tool for GBS detection and contributes for a more accurate and effective intrapartum antibiotic and lower newborn mortality and morbidity.

  6. Network-based functional enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirel Christopher L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many methods have been developed to infer and reason about molecular interaction networks. These approaches often yield networks with hundreds or thousands of nodes and up to an order of magnitude more edges. It is often desirable to summarize the biological information in such networks. A very common approach is to use gene function enrichment analysis for this task. A major drawback of this method is that it ignores information about the edges in the network being analyzed, i.e., it treats the network simply as a set of genes. In this paper, we introduce a novel method for functional enrichment that explicitly takes network interactions into account. Results Our approach naturally generalizes Fisher’s exact test, a gene set-based technique. Given a function of interest, we compute the subgraph of the network induced by genes annotated to this function. We use the sequence of sizes of the connected components of this sub-network to estimate its connectivity. We estimate the statistical significance of the connectivity empirically by a permutation test. We present three applications of our method: i determine which functions are enriched in a given network, ii given a network and an interesting sub-network of genes within that network, determine which functions are enriched in the sub-network, and iii given two networks, determine the functions for which the connectivity improves when we merge the second network into the first. Through these applications, we show that our approach is a natural alternative to network clustering algorithms. Conclusions We presented a novel approach to functional enrichment that takes into account the pairwise relationships among genes annotated by a particular function. Each of the three applications discovers highly relevant functions. We used our methods to study biological data from three different organisms. Our results demonstrate the wide applicability of our methods. Our algorithms are

  7. A Laser-Based Method for On-site Analysis of UF6 and Environmental Samples at Enrichment Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) long-term R&D plan calls for more cost-effective and efficient safeguard methods to detect and deter misuse of gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEPs). The IAEA's current safeguards approaches at GCEPs are based on a combination of routine and random inspections that include environmental sampling (ES) and destructive assay (DA) sample collection from UF6 in-process material and selected cylinders. Samples are then shipped off-site for subsequent laboratory analysis. On-site analysis could provide timely screening of ES samples, and help to meet challenges in transportation and chain of custody for UF6 DA samples. PNNL's development of the Laser Ablation, Laser Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) method is aimed at these two applications. For both ES and DA samples, a LAARS analysis instrument could be temporarily or permanently deployed in the IAEA control room of the facility, for example in the IAEA data acquisition cabinet. Sample collection concepts include a PNNL-designed handheld DA sampler with a small sampling planchet to collect microgrammes of adsorbed UF6 gas directly from a process line tap and potentially, from a cylinder headspace. The sample planchet could then be assayed on-site by LAARS; some portion of the sample could be reserved for laboratory analysis (low sample activity should mitigate shipping restrictions). A second sampling concept collects aerosol particles from facility surfaces using a small backpack aerosol collector based on a PNNL rotating drum impactor design, which offers the possibility of sample segregation by sampling location and particle size. Some portions of the collector drums could be characterized on-site by LAARS to provide early sample screening and to guide additional sampling. The remaining drum samples could be transported to off-site laboratories for comprehensive analysis need to confirm or refute initial on-site findings. (author)

  8. Application and comparison of large-scale solution-based DNA capture-enrichment methods on ancient DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Enrico Cappellini; J. Alberto Romero-Navarro; Nathan Wales; J. Víctor Moreno-Mayar; Morten Rasmussen; Fordyce, Sarah L.; Rafael Montiel; Jean-Philippe Vielle-Calzada; Eske Willerslev; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    The development of second-generation sequencing technologies has greatly benefitted the field of ancient DNA (aDNA). Its application can be further exploited by the use of targeted capture-enrichment methods to overcome restrictions posed by low endogenous and contaminating DNA in ancient samples. We tested the performance of Agilent's SureSelect and Mycroarray's MySelect in-solution capture systems on Illumina sequencing libraries built from ancient maize to identify key factors influencing ...

  9. Convergence of finite elements enriched with meshless methods

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez Mendez, Sonia; Díez, Pedro; Huerta, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    A combined hierarchical approximation based on finite elements and mesh-less methods is proposed and studied. Finite Elements are enriched adding hierarchical shape functions based on a particle distribution. Convergence results are presented and proved.

  10. Effect of cooking method on the fatty acid content of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched pork patties formulated with a konjac-based oil bulking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Sandoval, Lorena; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    The effect of cooking methods (electric grilling and pan-frying in olive oil) on the composition of reduced-fat and reduced-fat/PUFA enriched pork patties was studied. Fat reduction was performed by replacing pork backfat (38% and 100%) with konjac gel and PUFA-enrichment by replacing pork backfat (49%) with a konjac-based oil bulking system stabilizing a healthier oil combination (olive, linseed and fish oils). Cooking losses (13%-27%) were affected (pKonjac materials were successfully used to produce pork patties with a better lipid composition. PMID:25150632

  11. Assessment of phosphopeptide enrichment/precipitation method for LC-MS/MS based phosphoproteomic analysis of plant tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Juanying; Rudashevskaya, Elena; Hansen, Thomas Aarup;

    stardand sample preparation protocols. Here, we combine 3 phosphpeptide enrichment methods (IMAC, TiO2 and Calcium Phosphate Precipitation (CPP)), and apply them to phosphoproteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane preparation. Method Plant plasma membranes were isolated from Arabidopsis...... thaliana (Col-0) leaves using a two-phase partitioning system. The concentration of plasma membrane protein was determined by Bradford assay. Protein was digested with Lys-C for 4 hours and then by trypsin overnight. The peptide mixture was purified with IMAC, TiO2, CPP, SIMAC (IMAC+TiO2), the combination...... of CPP and IMAC, and the combination of CPP and TiO2, respectively. Nano-LC-MS was performed using LTQ-Orbitrap XL and LTQ-Orbitrap-XL/ETD mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, Bremen, Germany) connected to an EASY nano-LC system (Proxeon Biosystems, Odense, Denmark). In CID mode, multi...

  12. Application and comparison of large-scale solution-based DNA capture-enrichment methods on ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Cappellini, Enrico; Romero-Navarro, J Alberto;

    2011-01-01

    . We tested the performance of Agilent's SureSelect and Mycroarray's MySelect in-solution capture systems on Illumina sequencing libraries built from ancient maize to identify key factors influencing aDNA capture experiments. High levels of clonality as well as the presence of multiple-copy sequences......The development of second-generation sequencing technologies has greatly benefitted the field of ancient DNA (aDNA). Its application can be further exploited by the use of targeted capture-enrichment methods to overcome restrictions posed by low endogenous and contaminating DNA in ancient samples...... plausibility of capturing aDNA from ancient plant material, our results also enable us to provide useful recommendations for those planning targeted-sequencing on aDNA....

  13. GOMA: functional enrichment analysis tool based on GO modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Huang; Ling-Yun Wu; Yong Wang; Xiang-Sun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing the function of gene sets is a critical step in interpreting the results of high-throughput experiments in systems biology.A variety of enrichment analysis tools have been developed in recent years,but most output a long list of significantly enriched terms that are often redundant,making it difficult to extract the most meaningful functions.In this paper,we present GOMA,a novel enrichment analysis method based on the new concept of enriched functional Gene Ontology (GO) modules.With this method,we systematically revealed functional GO modules,i.e.,groups of functionally similar GO terms,via an optimization model and then ranked them by enrichment scores.Our new method simplifies enrichment analysis results by reducing redundancy,thereby preventing inconsistent enrichment results among functionally similar terms and providing more biologically meaningful results.

  14. Assessment of phosphopeptide enrichment/precipitation method for LC-MS/MS based phosphoproteomic analysis of plant tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Juanying; Rudashevskaya, Elena; Hansen, Thomas Aarup; Fuglsang, Anja T.; Palmgren, Michael G.; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2009-01-01

      IntroductionMass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful technology for study of PTMs, including protein phosphorylation. Due to the low abundance of many phosphoproteins and the relatively poor ionization efficiency of phosphopeptides, specific enrichment of phosphopeptides prior to MS analysis is necessary. At present, numerous phosphopeptide enrichment approaches have been established and applied to complex biological samples. We and others have reported that multi-step phosphopeptide purificati...

  15. A NDT Method For Uranium Fuel Enrichment Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive testing of fresh uranium fuel materials as a part of a QA programme in a nuclear industry is wide accepted today. These inspections of the fuel materials are based on the well known methods. As a participation of the NET Laboratory in the new QA programme at the VINCA Institute, a method for the absolute determination of the enrichment value of fresh high enriched uranium fuel segments, based on a gamma-ray spectroscopy, is developed. It is primary based on the application of a developed ANA computer code for a gamma spectrum analysis, and the initial experience gained in the previous works on the QA at the VINCA Institute. (author)

  16. Clustering based gene expression feature selection method: A computational approach to enrich the classifier efficiency of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Abusamra, Heba

    2016-07-20

    The native nature of high dimension low sample size of gene expression data make the classification task more challenging. Therefore, feature (gene) selection become an apparent need. Selecting a meaningful and relevant genes for classifier not only decrease the computational time and cost, but also improve the classification performance. Among different approaches of feature selection methods, however most of them suffer from several problems such as lack of robustness, validation issues etc. Here, we present a new feature selection technique that takes advantage of clustering both samples and genes. Materials and methods We used leukemia gene expression dataset [1]. The effectiveness of the selected features were evaluated by four different classification methods; support vector machines, k-nearest neighbor, random forest, and linear discriminate analysis. The method evaluate the importance and relevance of each gene cluster by summing the expression level for each gene belongs to this cluster. The gene cluster consider important, if it satisfies conditions depend on thresholds and percentage otherwise eliminated. Results Initial analysis identified 7120 differentially expressed genes of leukemia (Fig. 15a), after applying our feature selection methodology we end up with specific 1117 genes discriminating two classes of leukemia (Fig. 15b). Further applying the same method with more stringent higher positive and lower negative threshold condition, number reduced to 58 genes have be tested to evaluate the effectiveness of the method (Fig. 15c). The results of the four classification methods are summarized in Table 11. Conclusions The feature selection method gave good results with minimum classification error. Our heat-map result shows distinct pattern of refines genes discriminating between two classes of leukemia.

  17. Recommendations based on semantically enriched museum collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Stash, N.; Aroyo, L.; Gorgels, P.; Rutledge, L.; Schreiber, G.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the CHIP demonstrator1 for providing personalized access to digital museum collections. It consists of three main components: Art Recommender, Tour Wizard, and Mobile Tour Guide. Based on the semantically enriched Rijksmuseum Amsterdam2 collection, we show how Semantic Web tech

  18. Method and apparatus for enrichment or upgrading heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus for upgrading and final enrichment of heavy water are described, comprising means for contacting partially enriched heavy water feed in a catalyst column with hydrogen gas (essentially D2) originating in an electrolysis cell so as to enrich the feed water with deuterium extracted from the electrolytic hydrogen gas and means for passing the deuterium enriched water to the electrolysis cell. (author)

  19. An improved cell recovery method for iron oxidizing bacterial (IOB) enrichments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ran; Graf, Joerg; Smets, Barth F.

    2008-01-01

    Two cell recovery methods for IOB enrichments were evaluated for DNA extraction and further PCR-based 16S rRNA gene clone library creation. One was a published method consisting of heating plus oxalic acid treatment and the other one was a new method based on enzymatic agarose digestion (using β...

  20. An investigation of methods for enriching trophoblast from maternal blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, M; Knight, M; Maher, E J; Smith, K; Sargent, I L

    1995-10-01

    Trophoblast deportation is known to occur in normal human pregnancy, but it is not yet clear whether these cells routinely enter the maternal peripheral circulation and are available as a source of fetal DNA for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders. To resolve this issue requires an efficient method of enriching trophoblast from maternal blood combined with a means to confirm its identity. Five different techniques were tested on ten retroplacental blood samples to determine the most sensitive and operator-efficient method. Lysis of red cells alone gave the best recovery of trophoblast but had to be discounted, together with Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, due to the very low purity and the excessive time required. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of pre-enriched trophoblast resulted in the lowest recovery rate (8 per cent) despite a 3250-fold enrichment and a very high purity. Immunomagnetic beads (Dynabeads) coated with anti-CD16 antibody proved to be the best method for the subsequent immunocytochemical characterization of deported trophoblast. However, IO beads coated with anti-CD45 antibody may be more useful for isolating trophoblast for prenatal diagnosis due to the high purity, enrichment (32-fold), and recovery rate (78 per cent) obtained with this method. PMID:8587860

  1. Simulating distinguish enriched uranium from depleted uranium by activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detecting uranium material is an important work in arms control Active detection is an efficient method for uranium material. The paper focuses on the feasibility that can distinguish the enriched uranium and the depleted uranium by MCNP program. It can distinguish the enriched uranium and the depleted uranium by the curve of relationship between fission rate of uranium material and thickness of moderator.Advantages of 252Cf and 14 MeV neutron sources are discussed in detecting uranium material through calculation. The results show that 252Cf neutron source is better than 14 MeV one. Delayed neutrons are more easily detected than delayed gamma ray at measurement aspect. (authors)

  2. Distribution of Listeria spp. in confectioners' pastries from western France: comparison of enrichment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, P; Michard, J

    1993-06-01

    Three hundred samples of pastry from 100 different suppliers in western France, including butter-cream, whipped dairy cream and custard filled cakes from each supplier, were collected and tested for the occurrence of Listeria spp. in 25 g samples. Listeria spp. were detected in 21.7% of he samples: Listeria monocytogenes in 13.7%, Listeria innocua in 10% and Listeria seeligeri in 2.3%. Thirteen samples were contaminated with two species simultaneously. The frequency of contaminated samples was not related to the composition of the pastry filling used, but it seemed to increase with the number of aerobic contaminant microorganisms in the dairy cream-based samples. The contamination rate was dependent on the place of manufacture. The numbers of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were estimated on positive samples at the 25 g level as follows: < 0.3/g, Listeria spp. in 47 samples, L monocytogenes in 27; 0.3-30/g, Listeria spp. in 13, L. monocytogenes in nine; 30-300/g, L. monocytogenes in one; 300-3000/g; L. monocytogenes in three; 700,000/g, L. monocytogenes in one. Various detection methods were tested, including two enrichments broths tested in parallel: a modified LEB broth using 10 mg/l acriflavine-HCl and the UVM 1 broth, with incubation at 30 degrees C and streaking onto PALCAM agar. The enrichment procedures were: (a) primary enrichment of 25 g sample and plating after 48 h and 7 days; (b) secondary enrichment by subculturing the primary enrichment broths incubated for 24 h and 6 days, into fresh enrichment broth, then plating after 24 h incubation; (c) pre-enrichment of 25 g sample for 24 h in the basal enrichment broths without inhibitors, followed by subculturing in complete broths which were plated after 24 h and 6 days incubation. In all cases, UVM performed better than the LEB broth. It was unnecessary to extend the primary enrichment period beyond 48 h. Secondary enrichments inoculated from 24-h incubated primary enrichments gave a slightly better

  3. 77 FR 14838 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... COMMISSION General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment... considering the issuance of a license to General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC (GLE or the... the NRC's Electronic Reading Room at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/adams.html . From this site,...

  4. Measurement of uranium mass and enrichment by time correlation coincidence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Nuclear materials especially highly enriched uranium materials attract more and more attentions, and increasing methods and technical means are used to detect its information of mass and enrichment. Purpose: In order to solve the key technique problem of measuring the mass and enrichment of highly enriched uranium materials in the heavy shielded containers, a novel trial method was proposed in the paper: Methods: Time correlation coincidence method was implemented by using 14-MeV neutrons and continuous spectrum neutrons obtained by moderating 14-MeV neutrons to interrogate uranium materials inside of lead container with different mass and enrichment. Results: Within the certain range of low enrichment, the relation of different uranium samples mass of same enrichment was linear, and so was the relation of different uranium samples enrichment of same mass. Conclusion: Time correlation coincidence method might be an effective solution to measure the mass and enrichment of uranium materials in the heavy shielded container in the future. (authors)

  5. Hybrid Enrichment Assay Methods for a UF6 Cylinder Verification Station: FY10 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Leon E.; Jordan, David V.; Orton, Christopher R.; Misner, Alex C.; Mace, Emily K.

    2010-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing the concept of an automated UF6 cylinder verification station that would be located at key measurement points to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the collected data in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until the arrival of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors. At the center of this unattended system is a hybrid enrichment assay technique that combines the traditional enrichment-meter method (based on the 186 keV peak from 235U) with non-traditional neutron-induced high-energy gamma-ray signatures (spawned primarily by 234U alpha emissions and 19F(alpha, neutron) reactions). Previous work by PNNL provided proof-of-principle for the non-traditional signatures to support accurate, full-volume interrogation of the cylinder enrichment, thereby reducing the systematic uncertainties in enrichment assay due to UF6 heterogeneity and providing greater sensitivity to material substitution scenarios. The work described here builds on that preliminary evaluation of the non-traditional signatures, but focuses on a prototype field system utilizing NaI(Tl) and LaBr3(Ce) spectrometers, and enrichment analysis algorithms that integrate the traditional and non-traditional signatures. Results for the assay of Type-30B cylinders ranging from 0.2 to 4.95 wt% 235U, at an AREVA fuel fabrication plant in Richland, WA, are described for the following enrichment analysis methods: 1) traditional enrichment meter signature (186 keV peak) as calculated using a square-wave convolute (SWC) algorithm; 2) non-traditional high-energy gamma-ray signature that provides neutron detection without neutron detectors and 3) hybrid algorithm that merges the traditional and non-traditional signatures. Uncertainties for each method, relative to the declared enrichment for each cylinder, are calculated and compared to the uncertainties from an attended

  6. Hybrid Enrichment Assay Methods for a UF6 Cylinder Verification Station: FY10 Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing the concept of an automated UF6 cylinder verification station that would be located at key measurement points to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the collected data in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until the arrival of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors. At the center of this unattended system is a hybrid enrichment assay technique that combines the traditional enrichment-meter method (based on the 186 keV peak from 235U) with non-traditional neutron-induced high-energy gamma-ray signatures (spawned primarily by 234U alpha emissions and 19F(alpha, neutron) reactions). Previous work by PNNL provided proof-of-principle for the non-traditional signatures to support accurate, full-volume interrogation of the cylinder enrichment, thereby reducing the systematic uncertainties in enrichment assay due to UF6 heterogeneity and providing greater sensitivity to material substitution scenarios. The work described here builds on that preliminary evaluation of the non-traditional signatures, but focuses on a prototype field system utilizing NaI(Tl) and LaBr3(Ce) spectrometers, and enrichment analysis algorithms that integrate the traditional and non-traditional signatures. Results for the assay of Type-30B cylinders ranging from 0.2 to 4.95 wt% 235U, at an AREVA fuel fabrication plant in Richland, WA, are described for the following enrichment analysis methods: (1) traditional enrichment meter signature (186 keV peak) as calculated using a square-wave convolute (SWC) algorithm; (2) non-traditional high-energy gamma-ray signature that provides neutron detection without neutron detectors and (3) hybrid algorithm that merges the traditional and non-traditional signatures. Uncertainties for each method, relative to the declared enrichment for each cylinder, are calculated and compared to the uncertainties from an

  7. Using PSEA-Quant for Protein Set Enrichment Analysis of Quantitative Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Yates, John R

    2016-01-01

    PSEA-Quant analyzes quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics datasets to identify enrichments of annotations contained in repositories such as the Gene Ontology and Molecular Signature databases. It allows users to identify the annotations that are significantly enriched for reproducibly quantified high abundance proteins. PSEA-Quant is available on the Web and as a command-line tool. It is compatible with all label-free and isotopic labeling-based quantitative proteomics methods. This protocol describes how to use PSEA-Quant and interpret its output. The importance of each parameter as well as troubleshooting approaches are also discussed. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27010334

  8. Mercury release from deforested soils triggered by base cation enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farella, N; Lucotte, M; Davidson, R; Daigle, S

    2006-09-01

    The Brazilian Amazon has experienced considerable colonization in the last few decades. Family agriculture based on slash-and-burn enables millions of people to live in that region. However, the poor nutrient content of most Amazonian soils requires cation-rich ashes from the burning of the vegetation biomass for cultivation to be successful, which leads to forest ecosystem degradation, soil erosion and mercury contamination. While recent studies have suggested that mercury present in soils was transferred towards rivers upon deforestation, little is known about the dynamics between agricultural land-use and mercury leaching. In this context, the present study proposes an explanation that illustrates how agricultural land-use triggers mercury loss from soils. This explanation lies in the competition between base cations and mercury in soils which are characterized by a low adsorption capacity. Since these soils are naturally very poor in base cations, the burning of the forest biomass suddenly brings high quantities of base cations to soils, destabilizing the previous equilibrium amongst cations. Base cation enrichment triggers mobility in soil cations, rapidly dislocating mercury atoms. This conclusion comes from principal component analyses illustrating that agricultural land-use was associated with base cation enrichment and mercury depletion. The overall conclusions highlight a pernicious cycle: while soil nutrient enrichment actually occurs through biomass burning, although on a temporary basis, there is a loss in Hg content, which is leached to rivers, entering the aquatic chain, and posing a potential health threat to local populations. Data presented here reflects three decades of deforestation activities, but little is known about the long-term impact of such a disequilibrium. These findings may have repercussions on our understanding of the complex dynamics of deforestation and agriculture worldwide. PMID:16781764

  9. Rank-statistics based enrichment-site prediction algorithm developed for chromatin immunoprecipitation on chip experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekinger Edward

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High density oligonucleotide tiling arrays are an effective and powerful platform for conducting unbiased genome-wide studies. The ab initio probe selection method employed in tiling arrays is unbiased, and thus ensures consistent sampling across coding and non-coding regions of the genome. Tiling arrays are increasingly used in chromatin immunoprecipitation (IP experiments (ChIP on chip. ChIP on chip facilitates the generation of genome-wide maps of in-vivo interactions between DNA-associated proteins including transcription factors and DNA. Analysis of the hybridization of an immunoprecipitated sample to a tiling array facilitates the identification of ChIP-enriched segments of the genome. These enriched segments are putative targets of antibody assayable regulatory elements. The enrichment response is not ubiquitous across the genome. Typically 5 to 10% of tiled probes manifest some significant enrichment. Depending upon the factor being studied, this response can drop to less than 1%. The detection and assessment of significance for interactions that emanate from non-canonical and/or un-annotated regions of the genome is especially challenging. This is the motivation behind the proposed algorithm. Results We have proposed a novel rank and replicate statistics-based methodology for identifying and ascribing statistical confidence to regions of ChIP-enrichment. The algorithm is optimized for identification of sites that manifest low levels of enrichment but are true positives, as validated by alternative biochemical experiments. Although the method is described here in the context of ChIP on chip experiments, it can be generalized to any treatment-control experimental design. The results of the algorithm show a high degree of concordance with independent biochemical validation methods. The sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm have been characterized via quantitative PCR and independent computational approaches

  10. Development of quality assurance methods for low enriched fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) fuel development program has furthered the technology of low enriched uranium fuels, much effort has been expended to specify requirements, perform appropriate inspections, and to qualify experimental fuel plates and assemblies for irradiation. A great deal of consideration has been given to generate examinations and criteria that are both applicable to the unique fuel types being developed and consistent with industry practices for inspecting plate-type reactor fuel. Recent developments in quality assurance (QA) methodologies have given a heightened confidence in satisfactory fuel plate performance. At the same time, recommendations are given to further develop a system suitable for the testing and acceptance of production fuel elements containing low enriched uranium fuels. (author)

  11. Enriching semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining in big data applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichselbraun, A; Gindl, S; Scharl, A

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a novel method for contextualizing and enriching large semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining with a focus on Web intelligence platforms and other high-throughput big data applications. The method is not only applicable to traditional sentiment lexicons, but also to more comprehensive, multi-dimensional affective resources such as SenticNet. It comprises the following steps: (i) identify ambiguous sentiment terms, (ii) provide context information extracted from a domain-specific training corpus, and (iii) ground this contextual information to structured background knowledge sources such as ConceptNet and WordNet. A quantitative evaluation shows a significant improvement when using an enriched version of SenticNet for polarity classification. Crowdsourced gold standard data in conjunction with a qualitative evaluation sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of the concept grounding, and on the quality of the enrichment process. PMID:25431524

  12. Enrichment Assay Methods Development for the Integrated Cylinder Verification System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility's entire product-cylinder inventory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a concept to automate the verification of enrichment plant cylinders to enable 100 percent product-cylinder verification and potentially, mass-balance calculations on the facility as a whole (by also measuring feed and tails cylinders). The Integrated Cylinder Verification System (ICVS) could be located at key measurement points to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the collected data in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until IAEA inspector arrival. The three main objectives of this FY09 project are summarized here and described in more detail in the report: (1) Develop a preliminary design for a prototype NDA system, (2) Refine PNNL's MCNP models of the NDA system, and (3) Procure and test key pulse-processing components. Progress against these tasks to date, and next steps, are discussed.

  13. What Is the Best NGS Enrichment Method for the Molecular Diagnosis of Monogenic Diabetes and Obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Philippe

    Full Text Available Molecular diagnosis of monogenic diabetes and obesity is of paramount importance for both the patient and society, as it can result in personalized medicine associated with a better life and it eventually saves health care spending. Genetic clinical laboratories are currently switching from Sanger sequencing to next-generation sequencing (NGS approaches but choosing the optimal protocols is not easy. Here, we compared the sequencing coverage of 43 genes involved in monogenic forms of diabetes and obesity, and variant detection rates, resulting from four enrichment methods based on the sonication of DNA (Agilent SureSelect, RainDance technologies, or using enzymes for DNA fragmentation (Illumina Nextera, Agilent HaloPlex. We analyzed coding exons and untranslated regions of the 43 genes involved in monogenic diabetes and obesity. We found that none of the methods achieves yet full sequencing of the gene targets. Nonetheless, the RainDance, SureSelect and HaloPlex enrichment methods led to the best sequencing coverage of the targets; while the Nextera method resulted in the poorest sequencing coverage. Although the sequencing coverage was high, we unexpectedly found that the HaloPlex method missed 20% of variants detected by the three other methods and Nextera missed 10%. The question of which NGS technique for genetic diagnosis yields the highest diagnosis rate is frequently discussed in the literature and the response is still unclear. Here, we showed that the RainDance enrichment method as well as SureSelect, which are both based on the sonication of DNA, resulted in a good sequencing quality and variant detection, while the use of enzymes to fragment DNA (HaloPlex or Nextera might not be the best strategy to get an accurate sequencing.

  14. Prospects of lithium enrichment on 7Li isotope by method of controlled ions electro-migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoyan, G. A.; Kalugin, M. M.; Gabrielyan, A. V.; Martoyan, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with a new electro-membrane method of enrichment of 7Li isotope. The data are presented on the importance and application fields regarding the use of 7Li isotopes. Existing methods and criteria of separation of lithium isotopes are discussed. The principle of new technology, regimes of enrichment experiments, and analysis details of obtained products are briefly described.

  15. A Novel Magnetic Separation Oxygen-enriched Method and the Influence of Temperature and Magnetic Field on Enrichment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li WANG; Jun CAI; Ping WU; Lige TONG; Shufeng SUN

    2007-01-01

    A novel oxygen-enriched method is presented. Using two opposite magnetic poles of two magnets with certain distance forms a magnetic space having a field intensity gradient near its borders. When air injected into the magnetic space outflows from the magnetic space via its borders, oxygen molecules in air will experience the interception effect of the gradient magnetic field, but nitrogen molecules will outflow without hindrance. Thereby the continuous oxygen enrichment is realized. The results show that the maximum increment of oxygen concentration reaches 0.49% at 298 K when the maximum product of magnetic flux density and field intensity gradient is 563T2/m. The enrichment level is significantly influenced by the gas temperature and the magnetic field. The maximum increment of oxygen concentration drops to 0.16% when the gas temperature rises to 343 K, and drops to 0.09% when the maximum product of magnetic flux density and gradient is reduced to 101 T2/m from 563T2/m.

  16. Benchmarking Methods and Data Sets for Ligand Enrichment Assessment in Virtual Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Jie; Tilahun, Ermias Lemma; Reid, Terry-Elinor; Zhang, Liangren; Wang, Xiang Simon

    2014-01-01

    Retrospective small-scale virtual screening (VS) based on benchmarking data sets has been widely used to estimate ligand enrichments of VS approaches in the prospective (i.e. real-world) efforts. However, the intrinsic differences of benchmarking sets to the real screening chemical libraries can cause biased assessment. Herein, we summarize the history of benchmarking methods as well as data sets and highlight three main types of biases found in benchmarking sets, i.e. “analogue bias”, “artif...

  17. NET-GE: a novel NETwork-based Gene Enrichment for detecting biological processes associated to Mendelian diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Di Lena, Pietro; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Fariselli, Piero; Casadio, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Background Enrichment analysis is a widely applied procedure for shedding light on the molecular mechanisms and functions at the basis of phenotypes, for enlarging the dataset of possibly related genes/proteins and for helping interpretation and prioritization of newly determined variations. Several standard and Network-based enrichment methods are available. Both approaches rely on the annotations that characterize the genes/proteins included in the input set; network based ones also include...

  18. A Clustering-Based Approach to Enriching Code Foraging Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Nan; Jin, Xiaoyu; Niu, Zhendong; Cheng, Jing-Ru C; Li, Ling; Kataev, Mikhail Yu

    2016-09-01

    Developers often spend valuable time navigating and seeking relevant code in software maintenance. Currently, there is a lack of theoretical foundations to guide tool design and evaluation to best shape the code base to developers. This paper contributes a unified code navigation theory in light of the optimal food-foraging principles. We further develop a novel framework for automatically assessing the foraging mechanisms in the context of program investigation. We use the framework to examine to what extent the clustering of software entities affects code foraging. Our quantitative analysis of long-lived open-source projects suggests that clustering enriches the software environment and improves foraging efficiency. Our qualitative inquiry reveals concrete insights into real developer's behavior. Our research opens the avenue toward building a new set of ecologically valid code navigation tools. PMID:25910273

  19. Bioavailability of Mineral Nutrients in Plantain Based Product Enriched With Bambara Groundnut Protein Concentrate

    OpenAIRE

    David B. Kiin-Kabari; Sunday Y. Giami; Boisa Ndokiari

    2015-01-01

    Plantain based products (amala, cookies, bread and cakes) enriched with bambara groundnut protein concentrate were produced. Total minerals content of the products were investigated using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A total of six essential minerals: iron, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium were determined. The bioavailability of these minerals was studied using pepsin and pancreatin enzymes in-vitro digestion method. The products developed were high in potassiu...

  20. SNP-guided identification of monoallelic DNA-methylation events from enrichment-based sequencing data

    OpenAIRE

    Steyaert, Sandra; Van Criekinge, Wim; De Paepe, Ayla; Denil, Simon; Mensaert, Klaas; Vandepitte, Katrien; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Trooskens, Geert; de Meyer, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Monoallelic gene expression is typically initiated early in the development of an organism. Dysregulation of monoallelic gene expression has already been linked to several non-Mendelian inherited genetic disorders. In humans, DNA-methylation is deemed to be an important regulator of monoallelic gene expression, but only few examples are known. One important reason is that current, cost-affordable truly genome-wide methods to assess DNA-methylation are based on sequencing post-enrichment. Here...

  1. Development of a new 48Ca enrichment method and the CANDLES experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Tadafumi

    2015-10-01

    CANDLES is a project to study double beta decay of 48Ca. CANDLES could become the most competitive experiment if we could have an efficient method to enrich 48Ca. We developed a new method for enrichment of large amount of calcium isotopes. The method is called Multi-Channel Counter-Current Electrophoresis (MCCCE) which can be found elsewhre. Essential point is the increase of the power density in the migration path. In MCCCE, ions migrate in multi-channels on a boron nitride (BN) plate by which substantial increase of the power density was achieved. We made a tiny prototype instrument with a 10 mm thick BN plate and obtained 3 for an enrichment factor for the ratio of abundance of 48Ca to 43Ca over that of natural abundance. It corresponds to 6 for the enrichment factor of 48Ca to 40Ca. Recently we obtained 10 for the enrichment factor by using 20 mm BN plate. This remarkably large enrichment factor demonstrates that the MCCCE is a realistic and promising method for the enrichment of large amount of ions. This method can be applied to many other elements and compounds. I will describe MCCCE and its effect on the study of double beta decay and other fields.

  2. SNP-guided identification of monoallelic DNA-methylation events from enrichment-based sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, Sandra; Van Criekinge, Wim; De Paepe, Ayla; Denil, Simon; Mensaert, Klaas; Vandepitte, Katrien; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Trooskens, Geert; De Meyer, Tim

    2014-11-10

    Monoallelic gene expression is typically initiated early in the development of an organism. Dysregulation of monoallelic gene expression has already been linked to several non-Mendelian inherited genetic disorders. In humans, DNA-methylation is deemed to be an important regulator of monoallelic gene expression, but only few examples are known. One important reason is that current, cost-affordable truly genome-wide methods to assess DNA-methylation are based on sequencing post-enrichment. Here, we present a new methodology based on classical population genetic theory, i.e. the Hardy-Weinberg theorem, that combines methylomic data from MethylCap-seq with associated SNP profiles to identify monoallelically methylated loci. Applied on 334 MethylCap-seq samples of very diverse origin, this resulted in the identification of 80 genomic regions featured by monoallelic DNA-methylation. Of these 80 loci, 49 are located in genic regions of which 25 have already been linked to imprinting. Further analysis revealed statistically significant enrichment of these loci in promoter regions, further establishing the relevance and usefulness of the method. Additional validation was done using both 14 whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data sets and 16 mRNA-seq data sets. Importantly, the developed approach can be easily applied to other enrichment-based sequencing technologies, like the ChIP-seq-based identification of monoallelic histone modifications. PMID:25237057

  3. Enrichment methods to detect bone marrow micrometastases in breast carcinoma patients: clinical relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving technologies for the detection and purification of bone marrow (BM) micrometastatic cells in breast cancer patients should lead to earlier prognosis of the risk of relapse and should make it possible to design more appropriate therapies. The technique used has to overcome the challenges resulting from the small number of target cells (one per million hematopoietic cells) and the heterogeneous expression of micrometastatic cell markers. In the present study, we have assessed the clinical relevance of current methods aimed at detecting rare disseminated carcinoma cells. BM aspirates from 32 carcinoma patients were screened for the presence of micrometastatic cells positive for epithelial cell adhesion molecule and positive for cytokeratins, using optimized immunodetection methods. A comparison with data obtained for 46 control BM aspirates and a correlation with the clinical status of patients were performed. We developed a sensitive and efficient immunomagnetic protocol for the enrichment of BM micrometastases. This method was used to divide 32 breast carcinoma patients into three categories according to their epithelial cell adhesion molecule status. These categories were highly correlated with the recently revised American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for breast cancer, demonstrating the clinical relevance of this simple and reliable immunomagnetic technique. We also evaluated immunocytochemical detection of cytokeratin-positive cells and cytomorphological parameters. Immunocytochemistry-based methods for the detection of BM micrometastases did not provide any information about the clinical status of patients, but helped to refine the immunomagnetic data by confirming the presence of micrometastases in some cases. We also tested a new density gradient centrifugation system, able to enrich the tumor fraction of BM specimens by twofold to threefold as compared with standard Ficoll methods. These improved methods for the detection of

  4. Study on atmospheric hydrogen enrichment by cryopump method and isotope separation by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain the information of source of atmospheric hydrogen tritium an analysis of tritium isotopes is thought to be effective. So an atmospheric hydrogen enrichment apparatus and a cryogenic gas chromatographic column were made. Experiments were carried out to study the performance of cryopump to enrich atmospheric hydrogen and the column to separate hydrogen isotopes that obtained by cryopump method. The cryopump was able to process about 1000 1 atmosphere and the column was able to separate hydrogen isotopes with good resolution. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Methyl-Binding Domain Based Enrichment Approaches Revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina A Aberg

    Full Text Available Methyl-binding domain (MBD enrichment followed by deep sequencing (MBD-seq, is a robust and cost efficient approach for methylome-wide association studies (MWAS. MBD-seq has been demonstrated to be capable of identifying differentially methylated regions, detecting previously reported robust associations and producing findings that replicate with other technologies such as targeted pyrosequencing of bisulfite converted DNA. There are several kits commercially available that can be used for MBD enrichment. Our previous work has involved MethylMiner (Life Technologies, Foster City, CA, USA that we chose after careful investigation of its properties. However, in a recent evaluation of five commercially available MBD-enrichment kits the performance of the MethylMiner was deemed poor. Given our positive experience with MethylMiner, we were surprised by this report. In an attempt to reproduce these findings we here have performed a direct comparison of MethylMiner with MethylCap (Diagenode Inc, Denville, NJ, USA, the best performing kit in that study. We find that both MethylMiner and MethylCap are two well performing MBD-enrichment kits. However, MethylMiner shows somewhat better enrichment efficiency and lower levels of background "noise". In addition, for the purpose of MWAS where we want to investigate the majority of CpGs, we find MethylMiner to be superior as it allows tailoring the enrichment to the regions where most CpGs are located. Using targeted bisulfite sequencing we confirmed that sites where methylation was detected by either MethylMiner or by MethylCap indeed were methylated.

  6. Gene Ontology and KEGG Pathway Enrichment Analysis of a Drug Target-Based Classification System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    Full Text Available Drug-target interaction (DTI is a key aspect in pharmaceutical research. With the ever-increasing new drug data resources, computational approaches have emerged as powerful and labor-saving tools in predicting new DTIs. However, so far, most of these predictions have been based on structural similarities rather than biological relevance. In this study, we proposed for the first time a "GO and KEGG enrichment score" method to represent a certain category of drug molecules by further classification and interpretation of the DTI database. A benchmark dataset consisting of 2,015 drugs that are assigned to nine categories ((1 G protein-coupled receptors, (2 cytokine receptors, (3 nuclear receptors, (4 ion channels, (5 transporters, (6 enzymes, (7 protein kinases, (8 cellular antigens and (9 pathogens was constructed by collecting data from KEGG. We analyzed each category and each drug for its contribution in GO terms and KEGG pathways using the popular feature selection "minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR" method, and key GO terms and KEGG pathways were extracted. Our analysis revealed the top enriched GO terms and KEGG pathways of each drug category, which were highly enriched in the literature and clinical trials. Our results provide for the first time the biological relevance among drugs, targets and biological functions, which serves as a new basis for future DTI predictions.

  7. Batch methods for enriching trace impurities in hydrogen gas for their further analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Lee, Sheldon H.D.; Kumar, Romesh; Papdias, Dionissios D.

    2014-07-15

    Provided herein are batch methods and devices for enriching trace quantities of impurities in gaseous mixtures, such as hydrogen fuel. The methods and devices rely on concentrating impurities using hydrogen transport membranes wherein the time period for concentrating the sample is calculated on the basis of optimized membrane characteristics, comprising its thickness and permeance, with optimization of temperature, and wherein the enrichment of trace impurities is proportional to the pressure ratio P.sub.hi/P.sub.lo and the volume ratio V.sub.1/V.sub.2, with following detection of the impurities using commonly-available detection methods.

  8. WaveSeq: a novel data-driven method of detecting histone modification enrichments using wavelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apratim Mitra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing is a genome-wide analysis technique that can be used to detect various epigenetic phenomena such as, transcription factor binding sites and histone modifications. Histone modification profiles can be either punctate or diffuse which makes it difficult to distinguish regions of enrichment from background noise. With the discovery of histone marks having a wide variety of enrichment patterns, there is an urgent need for analysis methods that are robust to various data characteristics and capable of detecting a broad range of enrichment patterns. RESULTS: To address these challenges we propose WaveSeq, a novel data-driven method of detecting regions of significant enrichment in ChIP-Seq data. Our approach utilizes the wavelet transform, is free of distributional assumptions and is robust to diverse data characteristics such as low signal-to-noise ratios and broad enrichment patterns. Using publicly available datasets we showed that WaveSeq compares favorably with other published methods, exhibiting high sensitivity and precision for both punctate and diffuse enrichment regions even in the absence of a control data set. The application of our algorithm to a complex histone modification data set helped make novel functional discoveries which further underlined its utility in such an experimental setup. CONCLUSIONS: WaveSeq is a highly sensitive method capable of accurate identification of enriched regions in a broad range of data sets. WaveSeq can detect both narrow and broad peaks with a high degree of accuracy even in low signal-to-noise ratio data sets. WaveSeq is also suited for application in complex experimental scenarios, helping make biologically relevant functional discoveries.

  9. Characterization of the surface properties of nitrogen-enriched carbons by inverse gas chromatography methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagner, C.; Finqueneisel, G.; Zimny, T.; Burg, P.; Grzyb, B.; Machnikowski, J.; Weber, J.V. [University of Metz, St. Avold (France)

    2003-07-01

    The characterization of the surface properties of carbonaceous materials by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) techniques is described. The cokes investigated were produced by the co-pyrolysis of a coal-tar pitch (CTP) with different amounts of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a possible method to synthesize carbonaceous materials enriched in nitrogen. IGC at infinite dilution and LSER (linear solvation energy relationship) techniques were used to determine the physical and chemical surface properties of the cokes. In general, the surface free energy of adsorption is due to both dispersive and specific interactions. The dispersive component of the surface free energy was determined using n-alkane probes. For the specific component, which is primarily due to acid-base interactions, different polar probes were used. The LSER method was applied to improve our understanding of the adsorption process in terms of molecular interactions. We show that, to characterize dispersive interactions using n-alkanes, the LSER and IGC methods are equivalent. On the other hand, with both methods we find that all the samples present acidic and basic characteristics. However, the sensitivity of the LSER method does not allow one to discriminate between the three samples in terms of specific interactions.

  10. An evaluation of different target enrichment methods in pooled sequencing designs for complex disease association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron G Day-Williams

    Full Text Available Pooled sequencing can be a cost-effective approach to disease variant discovery, but its applicability in association studies remains unclear. We compare sequence enrichment methods coupled to next-generation sequencing in non-indexed pools of 1, 2, 10, 20 and 50 individuals and assess their ability to discover variants and to estimate their allele frequencies. We find that pooled resequencing is most usefully applied as a variant discovery tool due to limitations in estimating allele frequency with high enough accuracy for association studies, and that in-solution hybrid-capture performs best among the enrichment methods examined regardless of pool size.

  11. Thermo-elastic extended meshfree method for fracture without crack tip enrichment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. ASADPOUR

    2015-01-01

    This is the first manuscript presenting an extended meshfree method for thermo- elastic fracture which does not exploit a crack tip enrichment. The crack is modeled by partition of unity enrichment of the displacement and temperature field. Only a step function is employed that facilitates the implementation. To ensure that crack tip is at the correct position, a Lagrange multiplier field ahead of the crack tip is introduced along a line. The Lagrange multiplier nodal parameters are discretised with the available meshfree functions. Two benchmark examples illustrate the efficiency of the method.

  12. Data mining based on gradual itemsets extraction : contextualization and enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Oudni, Amal

    2014-01-01

    This thesis's works belongs to the framework of knowledge extraction and data mining applied to numerical or fuzzy data in order to extract linguistic summaries in the form of gradual itemsets: the latter express correlation between attribute values of the form « the more the temperature increases, the more the pressure increases ». Our goal is to contextualize and enrich these gradual itemsets by proposing different types of additional information so as to increase their quality and provide ...

  13. Assessment of the latest NGS enrichment capture methods in clinical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Gema; Baux, David; Faugère, Valérie; Moclyn, Mélody; Koenig, Michel; Claustres, Mireille; Roux, Anne-Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Enrichment capture methods for NGS are widely used, however, they evolve rapidly and it is necessary to periodically measure their strengths and weaknesses before transfer to diagnostic services. We assessed two recently released custom DNA solution-capture enrichment methods for NGS, namely Illumina NRCCE and Agilent SureSelect(QXT), against a reference method NimbleGen SeqCap EZ Choice on a similar gene panel, sharing 678 kb and 110 genes. Two Illumina MiSeq runs of 12 samples each have been performed, for each of the three methods, using the same 24 patients (affected with sensorineural disorders). Technical outcomes have been computed and compared, including depth and evenness of coverage, enrichment in targeted regions, performance in GC-rich regions and ability to generate consistent variant datasets. While we show that the three methods resulted in suitable datasets for standard DNA variant discovery, we describe significant differences between the results for the above parameters. NimbleGen offered the best depth of coverage and evenness, while NRCCE showed the highest on target levels but high duplicate rates. SureSelect(QXT) showed an overall quality close to that of NimbleGen. The new methods exhibit reduced preparation time but behave differently. These findings will guide laboratories in their choice of library enrichment approach. PMID:26864517

  14. Consideration of methods to determine an enrichment of commercial fast reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the situation that a variety of fuel composition is fed to fast breeder reactors (FBRs) during LWR-to-FBR transition stage, a special consideration on fuel reactivity and its loss by burnup is needed for each feeding fuel to keep criticality during operation period as prescribed. This paper describes some characteristics of the methods used to determine an enrichment of fast reactor fuel from the core design points of view. 5 methods have been considered: 1) Align reactivity worth of fresh fuel, 2) Align reactivity worth of 1 cycle-burnt fuel, 3) Align reactivity worth of discharged fuel, 4) Align reactivity worth of fuel at the end of equilibrium cycle, and 5) Ad-hoc determination of fuel enrichment keeping criticality cycle-by-cycle. Some other methods may be possible. However, they would be nothing more than the minor changes of 1) to 5). The characteristics of the 5 methods to determine an enrichment of fast reactor fuel have been evaluated from the viewpoints of core design by 2-dimensional neutronic calculation. Enrichments of fuels and various core characteristics such as the excess reactivity, the maximum linear power, and the total maximum assembly power have been investigated by using two kinds of typical fuel composition representing LWR spent fuel with short and long cooling times. Merits and demerits of these methods are clarified

  15. Method for semi-automated microscopy of filtration-enriched circulating tumor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pailler, Emma; Oulhen, Marianne; Billiot, Fanny; Galland, Alexandre; Auger, Nathalie; Faugeroux, Vincent; Laplace-Builhé, Corinne; Besse, Benjamin; Loriot, Yohann; Ngo-Camus, Maud; Hemanda, Merouan; Colin R. Lindsay; Soria, Jean-Charles; Vielh, Philippe; Farace, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating tumor cell (CTC)-filtration methods capture high numbers of CTCs in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) patients, and hold promise as a non-invasive technique for treatment selection and disease monitoring. However filters have drawbacks that make the automation of microscopy challenging. We report the semi-automated microscopy method we developed to analyze filtration-enriched CTCs from NSCLC and mPCa patients. Methods Spiked cell l...

  16. Evaluating the Outcomes of Gerontological Curriculum Enrichment: A Multi-Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.; Murty, Susan A.; Ingram, Jerry G.; Li, Han

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a multi-method approach to evaluating a gerontological social work curriculum enrichment initiative funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation. The project involved all required first year core courses in the BA and MSW curricula. Data were collected from students at three geographically dispersed academic centers of a School…

  17. Aptamer based peptide enrichment for quantitative analysis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, S L; Cawley, A T; Cavicchioli, R; Suann, C J; Pickford, R; Raftery, M J

    2016-04-01

    Over recent years threats to racing have expanded to include naturally occurring biological molecules, such as peptides and proteins, and their synthetic analogues. Traditionally, antibodies have been used to enable detection of these compounds as they allow purification and concentration of the analyte of interest. The rapid expansion of peptide-based therapeutics necessitates a similarly rapid development of suitable antibodies or other means of enrichment. Potential alternative enrichment strategies include the use of aptamers, which offer the significant advantage of chemical synthesis once the nucleic acid sequence is known. A method was developed for the enrichment, detection and quantitation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in equine urine using aptamer-based enrichment and LC-MS/MS. The method achieved comparable limits of detection (1 pg/mL) and quantification (2.5 pg/mL) to previously published antibody-based enrichment methods. The intra- and inter-assay precision achieved was less than 10% at both 5 and 20 pg/mL, and displayed a working dynamic range of 2.5-100 pg/mL. Significant matrix enhancement (170 ± 8%) and low analytical recovery (29 ± 15%) was observed, although the use of an isotopically heavy labelled GnRH peptide, GnRH (Pro(13)C5,(15)N), as the internal standard provides compensation for these parameters. Within the current limits of detection GnRH was detectable up to 1h post administration in urine and identification of a urinary catabolite extended this detection window to 4h. Based on the results of this preliminary investigation we propose the use of aptamers as a viable alternative to antibodies in the enrichment of peptide targets from equine urine. PMID:26838458

  18. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses the development of uranium enrichment processes. In the introduction there is a brief history of uranium enrichment, followed by a summary of the criteria used for the assessment of an isotope separation process, e.g. the separation factor, separative power, and the power consumption of a separating element. This is followed by a discussion of the two main processes used, i.e. gaseous diffusion and centrifugation. The reason for the change from diffusion to centrifugation in the UK, mainly on power costs, is discussed. The development potential of centrifuges is also assessed. Other processes which have been developed up to pilot stage are described, e.g. the Becker jet nozzle and the South African process. This is followed by a description of some plasma-based methods. The next topic is concerned with chemical exchange methods and an attempt is made to assess their potential in the enrichment scene from published information. This chapter concludes with a discussion of the advanced laser isotope-separation methods. The two approaches, i.e. the atomic and the molecular routes are discussed again using published information. This information is insufficient to give a complete assessment of the methods, especially the molecular route, but is enough to give indications of their potential

  19. Simulation of performance and nitrogen oxide formation of a hydrogen-enriched diesel engine with the steam injection method

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Guven; Sahin Bahri

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, steam injection method (SIM) is implemented to a hydrogen-enriched diesel engine in order to improve the levels of performance and NO emissions. As hydrogen enrichment method increases effective efficiency, NO emissions could be increased. However, the SIM is used to control NO emissions and improve the engine performance. Due to these positive effects, hydrogen enrichment and the SIM)are applied into a diesel engine by using a two-zon...

  20. Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Determination of Uranium Enrichment in Standard Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non-destructive analytical method has been developed for determination of uranium enrichment using hyper pure germanium (HPGe) gamma ray detector. The absolute efficiency was measured experimentally by different radioactive sources at different distances from the detector crystal. The variation of the absolute peak efficiency for 185.7 keV with source to detector distances has been determined and used to estimate the absolute peak efficiency for the nuclear material samples at 185 keV with the help of analytical method. The validity of the developed analytical method has been confirmed by measuring the 235U enrichment of uranium oxide powders (U3O8) contained in cylindrical aluminum cans

  1. Enriched finite element method for 2-D and 3-D blunt crack problems in a viscoelastic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of two-dimensional and three-dimensional blunt crack problems in a linear viscoelastic medium is numerically investigated using the enriched finite element method. The enriched crack-tip elements are established by enriching the asymptotic displacement fields at the blunt crack front to the regular elements. The corresponding transition elements are formulated to eliminate displacement field incompatibility. The viscoelastic incremental formulations for the enriched finite element method in time domain are derived according to the Boltzmann superposition principle. The time-dependent deformations of crack are presented and the stress intensity factors are directly obtained from the enriched degree of freedoms. The numerical examples indicate that the enriched finite element method is extremely suitable for dealing with complicated blunt crack problems

  2. An Enriched Constitutive Model for Fracture Propagation Analysis using the Material Point Method

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Giang Dinh

    2013-01-01

    We develop a novel constitutive modeling approach for the analysis of fracture propagation in quasi-brittle materials using the Material Point Method. The kinematics of constitutive models is enriched with an additional mode of localized deformation to take into account the strain discontinuity once cracking has occurred. The crack details therefore can be stored at material point level and there is no need to enrich the kinematics of finite elements to capture the localization caused by fracturing processes. This enhancement also removes the drawback of classical smeared crack approach in producing unphysical snapping back constitutive responses when the spatial resolution is not fine enough. All these facilitate the implementation of the new approach in the Material Point Method for analysis of large scale problems. Numerical examples of fracture propagation are used to demonstrate the effectiveness and potentials of the new approach.

  3. Automated, Reproducible, Titania-Based Phosphopeptide Enrichment Strategy for Label-Free Quantitative Phosphoproteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Brenna McJury; Soderblom, Erik J.; Thompson, J. Will; Moseley, M Arthur

    2013-01-01

    An automated phosphopeptide enrichment strategy is described using titanium dioxide (TiO2)-packed, fused silica capillaries for use with liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS-based, label-free proteomics workflows. To correlate an optimum peptide:TiO2 loading ratio between different particle types, the ratio of phenyl phosphate-binding capacities was used. The optimum loading for the column was then verified through replicate enrichments of a range of quantities of digested rat...

  4. SNP-based pathway enrichment analysis for genome-wide association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potkin Steven G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently we have witnessed a surge of interest in using genome-wide association studies (GWAS to discover the genetic basis of complex diseases. Many genetic variations, mostly in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, have been identified in a wide spectrum of diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and psychiatric diseases. A common theme arising from these studies is that the genetic variations discovered by GWAS can only explain a small fraction of the genetic risks associated with the complex diseases. New strategies and statistical approaches are needed to address this lack of explanation. One such approach is the pathway analysis, which considers the genetic variations underlying a biological pathway, rather than separately as in the traditional GWAS studies. A critical challenge in the pathway analysis is how to combine evidences of association over multiple SNPs within a gene and multiple genes within a pathway. Most current methods choose the most significant SNP from each gene as a representative, ignoring the joint action of multiple SNPs within a gene. This approach leads to preferential identification of genes with a greater number of SNPs. Results We describe a SNP-based pathway enrichment method for GWAS studies. The method consists of the following two main steps: 1 for a given pathway, using an adaptive truncated product statistic to identify all representative (potentially more than one SNPs of each gene, calculating the average number of representative SNPs for the genes, then re-selecting the representative SNPs of genes in the pathway based on this number; and 2 ranking all selected SNPs by the significance of their statistical association with a trait of interest, and testing if the set of SNPs from a particular pathway is significantly enriched with high ranks using a weighted Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We applied our method to two large genetically distinct GWAS data sets of schizophrenia, one

  5. A disposition strategy for highly enriched, aluminum-based fuel from research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy proposed in this paper offers the Department of Energy an approach for disposing of aluminum-based, highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuels from foreign and domestic research reactors. The proposal is technically, socially, and economically sound. If implemented, it would advance US non-proliferation goals while also disposing of the spent fuel's waste by timely and proven methods using existing technologies and facilities at SRS without prolonged and controversial storage of the spent fuel. The fuel would be processed through 221-H. The radioactive fission products (waste) would be treated along with existing SRS high level waste by vitrifying it as borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for disposal in the national geological repository. The HEU would be isotopically diluted, during processing, to low-enriched uranium (LEU) which can not be used to make weapons, thus eliminating proliferation concerns. The LEU can be sold to fabricators of either research reactor fuel or commercial power fuel. This proposed processing-LEU recycle approach has several important advantages over other alternatives, including: Lowest capital investment; lowest net total cost; quickest route to acceptable waste form and final geologic disposal; and likely lowest safety, health, and environmental impacts

  6. Pedagogical Quality Enrichment in OER-Based Courseware: Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This is a critical phase for Open Educational Resources (OER) movement: on one side the number of OER is increasing rapidly, and on other side debates about quality of OER-based courseware are heating up. These debates emanate from the fact that OER-based courseware are supposed to help users to follow a logical learning path and get an engaging,…

  7. Method of oxygen-enriched two-stage underground coal gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hongtao; Chen Feng; Pan Xia; Yao Kai; Liu Shuqin

    2011-01-01

    Two-stage underground coal gasification was studied to improve the caloric value of the syngas and to extend gas production times. A model test using the oxygen-enriched two-stage coal gasification method was carried out. The composition of the gas produced, the time ratio of the two stages, and the role of the temperature field were analysed. The results show that oxygen-enriched two-stage gasification shortens the time of the first stage and prolongs the time of the second stage. Feed oxygen concentrations of 30%,35%, 40%, 45%, 60%, or 80% gave time ratios (first stage to second stage) of 1:0.12, 1:0.21, 1:0.51, 1:0.64,1:0.90, and 1:4.0 respectively. Cooling rates of the temperature field after steam injection decreased with time from about 19.1-27.4 ℃/min to 2.3-6.8 ℃/min. But this rate increased with increasing oxygen concentrations in the first stage. The caloric value of the syngas improves with increased oxygen concentration in the first stage. Injection of 80% oxygen-enriched air gave gas with the highest caloric value and also gave the longest production time. The caloric value of the gas obtained from the oxygenenriched two-stage gasification method lies in the range from 5.31 MJ/Nm3 to 10.54 MJ/Nm3.

  8. Pedagogical quality enrichment in OER based courseware: Guiding principles

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Kumar Misra

    2013-01-01

    This is a critical phase for Open Educational Resources (OER) movement: on one side the number of OER is increasing rapidly, and on other side debates about quality of OER-based courseware are heating up. These debates emanate from the fact that OER-based courseware are supposed to help users to follow a logical learning path and get an engaging, interactive, and enjoyable learning experience. There are two aspects of quality assurance in OER-based courseware: content and pedagogy. The conten...

  9. A Microbiome DNA Enrichment Method for Next-Generation Sequencing Sample Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Erbay; Feehery, George R; Langhorst, Bradley W; Stewart, Fiona J; Dimalanta, Eileen T; Pradhan, Sriharsa; Slatko, Barton; Gardner, Andrew F; McFarland, James; Sumner, Christine; Davis, Theodore B

    2016-01-01

    "Microbiome" is used to describe the communities of microorganisms and their genes in a particular environment, including communities in association with a eukaryotic host or part of a host. One challenge in microbiome analysis concerns the presence of host DNA in samples. Removal of host DNA before sequencing results in greater sequence depth of the intended microbiome target population. This unit describes a novel method of microbial DNA enrichment in which methylated host DNA such as human genomic DNA is selectively bound and separated from microbial DNA before next-generation sequencing (NGS) library construction. This microbiome enrichment technique yields a higher fraction of microbial sequencing reads and improved read quality resulting in a reduced cost of downstream data generation and analysis. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27366894

  10. Protein expression and isotopic enrichment based on induction of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refaeli, Bosmat [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Tel Aviv (Israel); Goldbourt, Amir, E-mail: amirgo@post.tau.ac.il [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Entner-Doudoroff pathway is induced during protein expression in E. coli. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1-{sup 13}C-gluconate and {sup 15}NH{sub 4}Cl provide a carbonyl-amide protein backbone labeling scheme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enrichment pattern is determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. -- Abstract: The Entner-Doudoroff pathway is known to exist in many organisms including bacteria, archea and eukarya. Although the common route for carbon catabolism in Escherichia coli is the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, it was shown that gluconate catabolism in E. coli occurs via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. We demonstrate here that by supplying BL21(DE3) competent E.coli cells with gluconate in a minimal growth medium, protein expression can be induced. Nuclear magnetic resonance data of over-expressed ubiquitin show that by using [1-{sup 13}C]-gluconate as the only carbon source, and {sup 15}N-enriched ammonium chloride, sparse isotopic enrichment in the form of a spin-pair carbonyl-amide backbone enrichment is obtained. The specific amino acid labeling pattern is analyzed and is shown to be compatible with Entner-Doudoroff metabolism. Isotopic enrichment serves as a key factor in the biophysical characterization of proteins by various methods including nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy and more. Therefore, the method presented here can be applied to study proteins by obtaining sparse enrichment schemes that are not based on the regular glycolytic pathway, or to study the Entner-Doudoroff metabolism during protein expression.

  11. Active Knowledge: Dynamically Enriching RDF Knowledge Bases by Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Preda; Gjergji Kasneci; Fabian Suchanek; Thomas Neumann; Wenjun Yuan; Gerhard Weikum. Active Knowledge

    2010-01-01

    The proliferation of knowledge-sharing communities and the advances in information extraction have enabled the construction of large knowledge bases using the RDF data model to represent entities and relationships. However, as the Web and its latently embedded facts evolve, a knowledge base can never be complete and up-to-date. On the other hand, a rapidly increasing suite of Web services provide access to timely and high-quality information, but this is encapsulated by the service interface....

  12. Enriched Element-Free Galerkin Method for Fracture Analysis of Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Wei Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method using the enriched element-free Galerkin method (EEFGM to model functionally graded piezoelectric materials (FGPMs with cracks was presented. To improve the solution accuracy, extended terms were introduced into the approximation function of the conventional element-free Galerkin method (EFGM to describe the displacement and electric fields near the crack. Compared with the conventional EFGM, the new approach requires smaller domain to describe the crack-tip singular field. Additionally, the domain of the nodes was not affected by the crack. Therefore, the visibility method and the diffraction method were no longer needed. The mechanical response of FGPM was discussed, when its material parameters changed exponentially in a certain direction. The modified J-integrals for FGPM were deduced, whose results were compared with the results of the conventional EFGM and the analytical solution. Numerical example results illustrated that this method is feasible and precise.

  13. Enriching location-based games with navigational game activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadarajah, Stephanie Githa; Overgaard, Benjamin Nicholas; Pedersen, Peder Walz;

    2016-01-01

    Mobile location-based games are experiences that entertain its players by requiring interactions mainly at points of interest (POIs). Navigation between POIs often involve the use of either a physical or digital map, not taking advantage of the opportunity available to engage users in activities...

  14. Comparison of Diverse Differential Plating Methods to Enrich Bovine Spermatogonial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassetti, M I; Goissis, M D; de Barros, Fro; Bruno, A H; Assumpção, Meoa; Visintin, J A

    2016-02-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) have important applications in domestic animal reproduction and advanced biotechnologies. Because differential plating is one of the most common methods used for SSC enrichment, the goal of this study was to compare three differential plating methods for the enrichment of bovine SSC. To achieve this goal, testicular parenchyma from pre-pubertal calves was minced and single cells were obtained after two enzymatic digestions. We compared three coating methods for differential plating: laminin (20 ng/ml), BSA (0.05 mg/ml) and PBS. Cells were incubated at 37°C, 5% CO2 in air for 15 min onto laminin-coated dishes or 2 h onto BSA- or PBS-coated dishes. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion method. Recovered cells were analysed for the expression of SSC molecular markers by quantitative RT-PCR (GFRA1, CXCR4, ITGA6, THY1) and flow cytometry (GFRA1, CXCR4 and ITGA6). Cells at time 0, adherent cells on laminin and non-adherent cells from BSA and PBS groups had the same cell viability (p = 0.0655). GFRA1, CXCR4 and THY1 relative gene expression was higher (p = 0.0402, p = 0.0007, p = 0.0117, respectively) for non-adherent cells selected in PBS group. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the presence of GFRA-positive (GFRA+) cells was higher in non-adherent cells from BSA and PBS groups (p method for the enrichment of bovine undifferentiated spermatogonia and higher expression of SSC markers is obtained without laminin or BSA coating. PMID:26576932

  15. Application of a method to measure uranium enrichment without use of standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The determination of uranium enrichment in the many different stages present at a gaseous diffusion enrichment plant (diffusers, cisterns, deposits in pipes, drums with rests of process), or materials of deposit (plates of fuel elements not irradiated and recipients with uranium oxide), that have several geometries and physics properties of the containers, is very important for safeguards inspections. In this work is tested a non destructive analysis technique to determine the value of uranium enrichment of different samples with uranium materials without use of standards, to apply in safeguards inspections. It was used a hyper pure germanium detector with efficiency of 20% to obtain the gamma spectrum of the samples. In each spectrum, were used the net area values corresponding to four lines of U-235 (at 143, 163, 186 and 205 keV) and three lines of U-238 (258, 766 and 1001 keV); these values were analysed with two different methods. The comparison of the calculated and declared values showed a discrepancy of about 10%. (author)

  16. A semantically enriched web usage based recommendation model

    CERN Document Server

    Ramesh, C; Govardhan, A

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid growth of internet technologies, Web has become a huge repository of information and keeps growing exponentially under no editorial control. However the human capability to read, access and understand Web content remains constant. This motivated researchers to provide Web personalized online services such as Web recommendations to alleviate the information overload problem and provide tailored Web experiences to the Web users. Recent studies show that Web usage mining has emerged as a popular approach in providing Web personalization. However conventional Web usage based recommender systems are limited in their ability to use the domain knowledge of the Web application. The focus is only on Web usage data. As a consequence the quality of the discovered patterns is low. In this paper, we propose a novel framework integrating semantic information in the Web usage mining process. Sequential Pattern Mining technique is applied over the semantic space to discover the frequent sequential patterns. Th...

  17. Property Enrichment of Aged Nickel Base Superalloy Supercast 247A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavakumar Avala

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The commercial nickel-base superalloy Supercast 247A can be used for applications in which is required high mechanical strength and corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures, such as turbine blades and automotive turbocharger rotors. The mechanical properties are totally connected to the morphology, size and distribution of γ' phase and carbides. In order to improve the mechanical properties, the material is subjected to solution and aging heat treatment, to raise the volume fraction of γ' phase in the matrix and to form carbides at grain boundaries. In the present study the Supercast 247A superalloy was remelted and cast to obtain the desired polycrystalline test bars by controlling casting parameters, followed by the investigation of precipitation morphology and mechanical properties with respect to solution treatment and aging treatment. The experimental results show that by well controlled casting parameters the Supercast 247A owns excellent castability to form a superalloy with fine grain structure, resistance to indentation as well as superior strength.

  18. Modified micro-diffusion method for 15N-enriched soil solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of solutions for determination of 15N/14N isotope ratios is described, with special reference to dilute samples. A micro-diffusion method has been simplified to be more suitable for rapid isotope-ratio determination in soil solutions collected in tensionics. Ammonia expelled during micro-diffusion is captured on acidified filter discs fixed to the caps of gas-tight vials. The discs are transferred to tin capsules for shipment to the Soil Science Unit for 15N-enrichment determination. (author)

  19. Finite element solution of multi-scale transport problems using the least squares based bubble function enrichment

    CERN Document Server

    Yazdani, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an optimum technique based on the least squares method for the derivation of the bubble functions to enrich the standard linear finite elements employed in the formulation of Galerkin weighted-residual statements. The element-level linear shape functions are enhanced with supplementary polynomial bubble functions with undetermined coefficients. The best least squares minimization of the residual functional obtained from the insertion of these trial functions into model equations results in an algebraic system of equations whose solution provides the unknown coefficients in terms of element-level nodal values. The normal finite element procedures for the construction of stiffness matrices may then be followed with no extra degree of freedom incurred as a result of such enrichment. The performance of the proposed method has been tested on a number of benchmark linear transport equations with the results compared against the exact and standard linear element solutions. It has been observed th...

  20. Fast critical assembly safeguards: NDA methods for highly enriched uranium. Summary report, October 1978-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) methods, principally passive gamma measurements and active neutron interrogation, have been studied for their safeguards effectiveness and programmatic impact as tools for making inventories of highly enriched uranium fast critical assembly fuel plates. It was concluded that no NDA method is the sole answer to the safeguards problem, that each of those emphasized here has its place in an integrated safeguards system, and that each has minimum facility impact. It was found that the 185-keV area, as determined with a NaI detector, was independent of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) plate irradiation history, though the random neutron driver methods used here did not permit accurate assay of irradiated plates. Containment procedures most effective for accurate assaying were considered, and a particular geometry is recommended for active interrogation by a random driver. A model, pertinent to that geometry, which relates the effects of multiplication and self-absorption, is described. Probabilities of failing to detect that plates are missing are examined

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF STORAGE CONDITIONS OF CANDIED FRUITS ENRICHED WITH VITAMIN C BY DIFFERENT METHODS ON ITS CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Wypchoł

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of storage conditions of candied fruits enriched with vitamin C on its concentration in that product. The materials were candied fruits (black chokeberry and black currant enriched with vitamin C by two methods during their production. The final products were stored within 3 months at 8 and 20°C. On the basis of the results it was stated that enrichment method affected the concentration of the vitamin C in fruits measured during storage period at the above conditions. doi:10.5219/55

  2. Recent advances in enrichment and separation strategies for mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chenxi; Zhong, Xuefei; Li, Lingjun

    2016-01-01

    Due to the significance of protein phosphorylation in various biological processes and signaling events, new analytical techniques for enhanced phosphoproteomics have been rapidly introduced in recent years. The combinatorial use of the phospho-specific enrichment techniques and prefractionation methods prior to MS analysis enables comprehensive profiling of the phosphoproteome and facilitates deciphering the critical roles that phosphorylation plays in signaling pathways in various biological systems. This review places special emphasis on the recent five-year (2009–2013) advances for enrichment and separation techniques that have been utilized for phosphopeptides prior to MS analysis. PMID:24687451

  3. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at…

  4. Temperature-dependent surface-enrichment effects of imidazolium-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbeck, Claudia; Deyko, Alexey; Matsuda, Takashi; Kohler, Florian T U; Wasserscheid, Peter; Maier, Florian; Steinrück, Hans-Peter

    2013-11-11

    We present the first systematic study of the influence of temperature on the degree of surface enrichment of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs). Using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the degree of surface enrichment strongly decreases with increasing temperature for all the studied ILs. For ILs with the same cation, but different anions, [C8 C1 Im]Br, [C8 C1 Im][TfO] and [C8 C1 Im][Tf2 N], no significant differences of the temperature-induced partial loss of surface enrichment are found. Measurements for [C4 C1 Im][TfO], [C8 C1 Im][TfO] and [C18 C1 Im][TfO] indicate a small effect of the chain length. For [C18 C1 Im][TfO], a continuous decrease of alkyl surface enrichment is found with increasing temperature, with no abrupt changes at the phase-transition temperature from the smectic A to the isotropic phase, indicating that the surface enrichment is not affected by this phase transition. PMID:24123477

  5. CTen: a web-based platform for identifying enriched cell types from heterogeneous microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoemaker Jason E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpreting in vivo sampled microarray data is often complicated by changes in the cell population demographics. To put gene expression into its proper biological context, it is necessary to distinguish differential gene transcription from artificial gene expression induced by changes in the cellular demographics. Results CTen (cell type enrichment is a web-based analytical tool which uses our highly expressed, cell specific (HECS gene database to identify enriched cell types in heterogeneous microarray data. The web interface is designed for differential expression and gene clustering studies, and the enrichment results are presented as heatmaps or downloadable text files. Conclusions In this work, we use an independent, cell-specific gene expression data set to assess CTen's performance in accurately identifying the appropriate cell type and provide insight into the suggested level of enrichment to optimally minimize the number of false discoveries. We show that CTen, when applied to microarray data developed from infected lung tissue, can correctly identify the cell signatures of key lymphocytes in a highly heterogeneous environment and compare its performance to another popular bioinformatics tool. Furthermore, we discuss the strong implications cell type enrichment has in the design of effective microarray workflow strategies and show that, by combining CTen with gene expression clustering, we may be able to determine the relative changes in the number of key cell types. CTen is available at http://www.influenza-x.org/~jshoemaker/cten/

  6. Non-destructive evaluation methods to improve quality control in low enrichment MTR fuel plate production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises some preliminary non-destructive measurements made recently at the Harwell Laboratory on a prototype low enrichment MTR fuel plate. The measurements were intended to indicate the potential of two different techniques for improving quality control in plate production. Pulse Video Thermography (PVT) is being considered as an alternative to ultrasound transmission measurements for the detection and sizing of lack of thermal bonding between the fuel and the clad layers, either to verify the indications from the established ultrasonic methods before destroying the plate or as a replacement method of inspection. High frequency pulse-echo ultrasonics is being considered for providing maps of clad layer thickness on each side of the plate. The measurements have indicated the potential for both methods, but more work is required, using a test plate containing controlled defects, to establish their capability. (orig.)

  7. Examining How Middle School Science Teachers Implement a Multimedia-enriched Problem-based Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Min; Wivagg, Jennifer; Geurtz, Renata; Lee, Shih-Ting; Chang, Hyeseung Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how a group of ten middle school teachers implemented a technology enriched problem-based learning (PBL) environment. The goal was to understand their motivation, document their implementation techniques, and identify factors that teachers considered important in using technology-based PBL tools in their teaching. The analysis identified four factors that provided the impetus for teachers to consider the adoption of technology-based PBL instruction. These factors are (1) t...

  8. BIM-based Modeling and Data Enrichment of Classical Architectural Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Ivan Apollonio; Marco Gaiani; Zheng Sun

    2012-01-01

    EnIn this paper we presented a BIM-based approach for the documentation of Architectural Heritage. Knowledge of classical architecture is first extracted from the treatises for parametric modeling in object level. Then we established a profile library based on semantic studies to sweep out different objects. Variants grow out from the parametric models by editing or regrouping parameters based on grammars. Multiple data including material, structure and real-life state are enriched with respe...

  9. DOE-ARN proposed method to verify uranium inventory at the Pilcaniyeu Gaseous Diffusion Enrichment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pilcaniyeu Gaseous Diffusion Plant is located near San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina, in the Province of Rio Negro. It is designed to enrich uranium to a nominal level of 5% 235U and a nominal capacity of 20,000 separative work units per year. Since 1993, this facility has been under international safeguards. New measurement methods were required to accurately verify Pilcaniyeu's uranium inventory, because this is the first gaseous diffusion enrichment plant to come under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. In 1992, the United States and Argentina embarked on a cooperative effort to accomplish this task. Several nondestructive measurement experiments were performed at gaseous diffusion plants in the United State and at the Pilcaniyeu plant in Argentina. It was determined that passive gamma-ray measurement is the technique of choice for Pilcaniyeu. Mathematical algorithms were developed that accurately estimate the uranium inventory of the facility. This paper summarizes the measurement activities conducted under Argentine- US cooperation, discusses the proposed methods, and proposes a process to validate the procedure for IAEA use. (author)

  10. Simulation of performance and nitrogen oxide formation of a hydrogen-enriched diesel engine with the steam injection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Guven

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, steam injection method (SIM is implemented to a hydrogen-enriched diesel engine in order to improve the levels of performance and NO emissions. As hydrogen enrichment method increases effective efficiency, NO emissions could be increased. However, the SIM is used to control NO emissions and improve the engine performance. Due to these positive effects, hydrogen enrichment and the SIMare applied into a diesel engine by using a two-zone combustion model for30% hydrogen enrichment of the fuel volume and 20% steam ratio of the fuel mass at full load conditions. The results obtained are compared with conventional diesel engine (D, steam injected diesel engine (D+S20, hydrogen-enriched diesel engine (D+H30 and hydrogen-enriched diesel engine with steam injection (D+H30+S20 in terms of performance and NO emissions. In the results, the effective efficiency and effective power improve up to 22.8% and %3.1, as NO emissions decrease up to 22.1%. Hence, the hydrogen enrichment with steam injection method is more environmentally friendly with better performance.

  11. A study on the vibration-based self-monitoring capabilities of nano-enriched composite laminated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, David; Trendafilova, Irina; Inman, Daniel J.

    2016-04-01

    This is an exploratory investigation on the self-sensing capabilities of nano-enriched glass/fibre laminates for damage detection purposes through changes in the dynamic responses, which are estimated by measuring the changes in voltage due to a dynamic strain. The deformation of the nano-enriched structure introduces changes in the resistance/voltage of the nanocomposites. The measured voltage signals contain information of the vibratory response of the laminated beam. This research uses a vibration-based data driven methodology for damage detection applied for the estimated vibratory signals using the conductivity properties of the embedded nano-particles. The structure considered in this study is a glass/fibre laminated beam enriched with carbon black nanoparticles (CB). The structure is subjected to a direct electric current and the voltage signal is measured. The vibration based monitoring method used is generally based on singular spectrum analysis applied on the estimated vibratory response. The voltage response signal is divided into a certain number of principal components which contain the oscillatory components distributed by their content of variance in the voltage signal. The components with more variance are used to define a reference state based on the status of the healthy structure. Consequently, the estimated vibratory signals from beams with a simulated damage are compared to the healthy state which eventually results in the damage detection procedure. The damage was simulated firstly by adding an additional mass on the beam tip and secondly by drilling a hole on the beam tip. The results demonstrate the potential for using the voltage estimated vibratory signals for self-sensing damage detection purposes in carbon nano-enriched glass/fibre structures.

  12. A spectrometrical method to measure the deuterium content in 2H-enriched water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test method and spectrometer has been developed for emission-spectrometrical measurement of the deuterium content in water enriched with deuterium. The water sample is melted into a previously evacuated glas tube and a gas discharge is excited in vapour over the cooled sample to adjust to a low vapour pressure with high frequency. The intensities of the H(α) and D(α) lines appearing in the spectrum determine the D-content. Both lines were resolved by a Fabry-Perot interferometer and geometrically separated fed to two photodetectors. The remaining spectrum is filtered off. Following electronic calculation of the signals, the measured value is indicated which has to be corrected by a standard curve. The relative measuring accuracy is about +-1% for enrichments of over 1% D and less than +-5% in the region of 0.3-1% D. The detection limit is about 0.03% D (sample amount: 50 μl, average of 5 samples). (orig./HP)

  13. 235U isotopic characterization of natural and enriched uranium materials by using multigroup analysis (MGA method at a defined geometry using different absorbers and collimators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yücel Haluk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of nuclear materials is an important topic within the context of nuclear safeguards, homeland security and nuclear forensics. This paper deals with the performance of multigroup gamma-ray analysis (MGA method using the X- and γ-rays in the 80-130 keV region and enrichment meter principle (EMP based on the analysis of 185.7 keV peak for a certain geometry using different absorbers and collimators. The results from MGA and those of EMP are compared. In particular, the effect of aluminum/lead absorbers and lead collimator on the enrichment determination of 235U in natural and low enriched samples is investigated in a given source-detector geometry. The optimum diameter/height ratio for the Pb-collimator is found to be Dc/Hc = 1.4-1.6 in the chosen geometry. In order to simulate the container walls, ten different thicknesses of Al-absorbers of 141 to 840 mg·cm-2 and six different thicknesses of Pb-absorbers of 1120-7367 mg·cm-2 are interposed between sample and detector. The calibration coefficients (% enrichment/cps are calculated for each geometry. The comparison of the MGA and EMP methods shows that the enrichment meter principle provides more accurate and precise results for 235U abundance than those of MGA method at the chosen geometrical conditions. The present results suggest that a two-step procedure should be used in analyses of uranium enrichment. Firstly MGA method can be applied in situ and then EMP method can be used at a defined geometry in laboratory.

  14. Kernel-Based Semantic Relation Detection and Classification via Enriched Parse Tree Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Dong Zhou; Qiao-Ming Zhu

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a tree kernel method of semantic relation detection and classification (RDC) between named entities. It resolves two critical problems in previous tree kernel methods of RDC. First, a new tree kernel is presented to better capture the inherent structural information in a parse tree by enabling the standard convolution tree kernel with context-sensitiveness and approximate matching of sub-trees. Second, an enriched parse tree structure is proposed to well derive necessary structural information, e.g., proper latent annotations, from a parse tree. Evaluation on the ACE RDC corpora shows that both the new tree kernel and the enriched parse tree structure contribute significantly to RDC and our tree kernel method much outperforms the state-of-the-art ones.

  15. Isolation and enrichment of low abundant particles with insulator-based dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaLonde, Alexandra; Romero-Creel, Maria F; Saucedo-Espinosa, Mario A; Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca H

    2015-11-01

    Isolation and enrichment of low-abundant particles are essential steps in many bio-analytical and clinical applications. In this work, the capability of an insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) device for the detection and stable capture of low abundant polystyrene particles and yeast cells was evaluated. Binary and tertiary mixtures of particles and cells were tested, where the low-abundant particles had concentration ratios on the order of 1:10 000 000 compared to the other particles present in the mixture. The results demonstrated successful and stable capture and enrichment of rare particles and cells (trapping efficiencies over 99%), where particles remained trapped in a stable manner for up to 4 min. A device with four reservoirs was employed for the separation and enrichment of rare particles, where the particles of interest were first selectively concentrated and then effectively directed to a side port for future collection and analysis. The present study demonstrates that simple iDEP devices have appropriate screening capacity and can be used for handling samples containing rare particles; achieving both enrichment and isolation of low-abundant particles and cells. PMID:26674134

  16. Rheology, fatty acid profile and quality characteristics of nutrient enriched pizza base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chaitali Sen; Milind; Jeyarani, T; Rajiv, Jyotsna

    2015-05-01

    Enrichment of thick bread type pizza base (PZB) was done by substituting wheat flour (WF) with 5, 10 and 15 % soya protein isolate (SPI). The rheological characteristics of WF showed that water absorption increased, extensibility and peak viscosity decreased when level of SPI increased from 5 to 15 %. Baking studies showed that spread ratio decreased and hardness values of PZB increased with the increase in amount of SPI from 5 to15 %. Beyond 10 % SPI, the overall quality of PZB was adversely affected. To the optimal blend of 10 % SPI, 5 % psyllium husk (PH) was added and the hydrogenated fat was replaced by canola oil (CAN) in enriched PZB. The enriched PZB treated with combination of additives had 1.7 and 1.6 times more protein and dietary fiber than the control PZB. Fatty acid analysis showed that the enriched PZB had 58.65 % oleic, 6.58 % linolenic acid and 31.28 % polyunsaturated fatty acid and no Trans fat was present. PMID:25892792

  17. Field experiments using CO2 enrichment: a comparison of two main methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic increase in global atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past century is hypothesized to have significant impacts on the earth system. To understand the effects of elevated CO2 on terrestrial ecosystems, two main methods have been used to simulate an increase of CO2 in a semi-controlled field setting: 1 Open Top Chambers (OTC; and 2 Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE. The OTC method has been applied to study the components of forest ecosystems at small scale by manipulating seedlings or isolated juvenile trees, but is not able to address ecosystem processes as a whole. For technical reasons, OTC cannot be used to consider scaling issues, interaction with the boundary layer, and competition among species. To address these issues FACE technology was developed. FACE enables longer-term studies in larger plots, and allows studies of plant processes such as leaf area and canopy development, canopy energy balance and canopy gas exchange. In this review, I synthesize results from literature, in particular from meta-analysis techniques applied either to OTC or FACE. The results are qualitatively similar: CO2 enrichment leads to reduced stomatal conductance and leaf nitrogen, and enhanced photosynthesis and production. However, photosynthesis and crop yield were lower in FACE experiments than OTC, while starch content was higher. These results provide support for ecosystem model simulations, and help fill the gap between individual plants, forest and regional ecosystem. Neither OTC nor FACE can provide a clear indication of the regional-scale feedbacks between atmosphere and vegetation that might be expected under elevated CO2. To address this issue, further research is needed.

  18. Introduction to Statistical Methods for Analyzing Large Data Sets: Gene-Set Enrichment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Neil R.; Ma’ayan, Avi

    2011-01-01

    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes, slides, and a problem set for a series of lectures introducing the mathematical concepts behind gene-set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and were part of a course entitled “Systems Biology: Biomedical Modeling.” GSEA is a statistical functional enrichment analysis commonly applied to identify enrichment of biological functional categories in sets of ranked differentially expressed genes from genome-wide mRNA expression data sets.

  19. Standard test method for measurement of 235U fraction using enrichment meter principle

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of the fraction of 235U in uranium using measurement of the 185.7 keV gamma-ray produced during the decay of 235U. 1.2 This test method is applicable to items containing homogeneous uranium-bearing materials of known chemical composition in which the compound is considered infinitely thick with respect to 185.7 keV gamma-rays. 1.3 This test method can be used for the entire range of 235U fraction as a weight percent, from depleted (0.2 % 235U) to highly enriched (97.5 % 235U). 1.4 Measurement of items that have not reached secular equilibrium between 238U and 234Th may not produce the stated bias when low-resolution detectors are used with the computational method listed in Annex A2. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety co...

  20. A Technology Based Program That Matches Enrichment Resources With Student Strengths

    OpenAIRE

    J.S. Renzulli; S.M. Reis

    2007-01-01

    Remarkable advances in instructionalcommunication technology (ICT) have now made ispossible to provide high levels of enrichment and thekinds of curricular differentiation that facilitateadvanced learning services to students who have accessto a computer and the Internet. But in order tomaximize the potential if ICT it is necessary to constructprograms that are based on learning theory that goesbeyond the didactic and prescriptive models that haveresulted in too much worksheets-on-line and el...

  1. Development of gel-filter method for high enrichment of low-molecular weight proteins from serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingsheng Chen

    Full Text Available The human serum proteome has been extensively screened for biomarkers. However, the large dynamic range of protein concentrations in serum and the presence of highly abundant and large molecular weight proteins, make identification and detection changes in the amount of low-molecular weight proteins (LMW, molecular weight ≤ 30kDa difficult. Here, we developed a gel-filter method including four layers of different concentration of tricine SDS-PAGE-based gels to block high-molecular weight proteins and enrich LMW proteins. By utilizing this method, we identified 1,576 proteins (n = 2 from 10 μL serum. Among them, 559 (n = 2 proteins belonged to LMW proteins. Furthermore, this gel-filter method could identify 67.4% and 39.8% more LMW proteins than that in representative methods of glycine SDS-PAGE and optimized-DS, respectively. By utilizing SILAC-AQUA approach with labeled recombinant protein as internal standard, the recovery rate for GST spiked in serum during the treatment of gel-filter, optimized-DS, and ProteoMiner was 33.1 ± 0.01%, 18.7 ± 0.01% and 9.6 ± 0.03%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the gel-filter method offers a rapid, highly reproducible and efficient approach for screening biomarkers from serum through proteomic analyses.

  2. Development of Gel-Filter Method for High Enrichment of Low-Molecular Weight Proteins from Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingsheng; Zhai, Linhui; Li, Yanchang; Li, Ning; Zhang, Chengpu; Ping, Lingyan; Chang, Lei; Wu, Junzhu; Li, Xiangping; Shi, Deshun; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The human serum proteome has been extensively screened for biomarkers. However, the large dynamic range of protein concentrations in serum and the presence of highly abundant and large molecular weight proteins, make identification and detection changes in the amount of low-molecular weight proteins (LMW, molecular weight ≤ 30kDa) difficult. Here, we developed a gel-filter method including four layers of different concentration of tricine SDS-PAGE-based gels to block high-molecular weight proteins and enrich LMW proteins. By utilizing this method, we identified 1,576 proteins (n = 2) from 10 μL serum. Among them, 559 (n = 2) proteins belonged to LMW proteins. Furthermore, this gel-filter method could identify 67.4% and 39.8% more LMW proteins than that in representative methods of glycine SDS-PAGE and optimized-DS, respectively. By utilizing SILAC-AQUA approach with labeled recombinant protein as internal standard, the recovery rate for GST spiked in serum during the treatment of gel-filter, optimized-DS, and ProteoMiner was 33.1 ± 0.01%, 18.7 ± 0.01% and 9.6 ± 0.03%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the gel-filter method offers a rapid, highly reproducible and efficient approach for screening biomarkers from serum through proteomic analyses. PMID:25723528

  3. Evaluation of a RF-Based Approach for Tracking UF6 Cylinders at a Uranium Enrichment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approved industry-standard cylinders are used globally to handle and store uranium hexafluoride (UF6) feed, product, tails, and samples at uranium enrichment plants. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on time-consuming physical inspections to verify operator declarations and detect possible diversion of UF6. Development of a reliable, automated, and tamper-resistant system for near real-time tracking and monitoring UF6 cylinders (as they move within an enrichment facility) would greatly improve the inspector function. This type of system can reduce the risk of false or misreported cylinder tare weights, diversion of nuclear material, concealment of excess production, utilization of undeclared cylinders, and misrepresentation of the cylinders contents. This paper will describe a proof-of-concept approach that was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using radio frequency (RF)-based technologies to track individual UF6 cylinders throughout a portion of their life cycle, and thus demonstrate the potential for improved domestic accountability of materials, and a more effective and efficient method for application of site-level IAEA safeguards. The evaluation system incorporates RF-based identification devices (RFID) which provide a foundation for establishing a reliable, automated, and near real-time tracking system that can be set up to utilize site-specific, rules-based detection algorithms. This paper will report results from a proof-of-concept demonstration at a real enrichment facility that is specifically designed to evaluate both the feasibility of using RF to track cylinders and the durability of the RF equipment to survive the rigors of operational processing and handling. The paper also discusses methods for securely attaching RF devices and describes how the technology can effectively be layered with other safeguard systems and approaches to build a robust system for detecting cylinder diversion. Additionally, concepts for off

  4. Methods for nondestructive assay holdup measurements in shutdown uranium enrichment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement surveys of uranium holdup using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques are being conducted for shutdown gaseous diffusion facilities at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant). When in operation, these facilities processed UF6 with enrichments ranging from 0.2 to 93 wt % 235U. Following final shutdown of all process facilities, NDA surveys were initiated to provide process holdup data for the planning and implementation of decontamination and decommissioning activities. A three-step process is used to locate and quantify deposits: (1) high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are performed to generally define the relative abundances of radioisotopes present, (2) sizable deposits are identified using gamma-ray scanning methods, and (3) the deposits are quantified using neutron measurement methods. Following initial quantitative measurements, deposit sizes are calculated; high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are then performed on the items containing large deposits. The quantitative estimates for the large deposits are refined on the basis of these measurements. Facility management is using the results of the survey to support a variety of activities including isolation and removal of large deposits; performing health, safety, and environmental analyses; and improving facility nuclear material control and accountability records. 3 refs., 1 tab

  5. Different EV enrichment methods suitable for clinical settings yield different subpopulations of urinary extracellular vesicles from human samples

    OpenAIRE

    Royo, Felix; Zuñiga-Garcia, Patricia; Sanchez-Mosquera, Pilar; Egia, Ainara; Perez, Amparo; Loizaga, Ana; Arceo, Raquel; Lacasa, Isabel; Rabade, Ainara; Arrieta, Edurne; Bilbao, Roberto; Unda, Miguel; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Falcon-Perez, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Urine sample analysis is irreplaceable as a non-invasive method for disease diagnosis and follow-up. However, in urine samples, non-degraded protein and RNA may be only found in urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs). In recent years, various methods of uEV enrichment using low volumes of urine and unsophisticated equipment have been developed, with variable success. We compared the results of the differential ultracentrifugation procedure with 4 of these methods. The methods tested were a lec...

  6. Sonication-based isolation and enrichment of Chlorella protothecoides chloroplasts for illumina genome sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelova, Angelina [University of Arizona; Park, Sang-Hycuk [University of Arizona; Kyndt, John [Bellevue University; Fitzsimmons, Kevin [University of Arizona; Brown, Judith K [University of Arizona

    2013-09-01

    With the increasing world demand for biofuel, a number of oleaginous algal species are being considered as renewable sources of oil. Chlorella protothecoides Krüger synthesizes triacylglycerols (TAGs) as storage compounds that can be converted into renewable fuel utilizing an anabolic pathway that is poorly understood. The paucity of algal chloroplast genome sequences has been an important constraint to chloroplast transformation and for studying gene expression in TAGs pathways. In this study, the intact chloroplasts were released from algal cells using sonication followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation, resulting in a 2.36-fold enrichment of chloroplasts from C. protothecoides, based on qPCR analysis. The C. protothecoides chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform and found to be 84,576 Kb in size (8.57 Kb) in size, with a GC content of 30.8 %. This is the first report of an optimized protocol that uses a sonication step, followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation, to release and enrich intact chloroplasts from a microalga (C. prototheocoides) of sufficient quality to permit chloroplast genome sequencing with high coverage, while minimizing nuclear genome contamination. The approach is expected to guide chloroplast isolation from other oleaginous algal species for a variety of uses that benefit from enrichment of chloroplasts, ranging from biochemical analysis to genomics studies.

  7. Numerical modeling of undersea acoustics using a partition of unity method with plane waves enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospital-Bravo, Raúl; Sarrate, Josep; Díez, Pedro

    2016-05-01

    A new 2D numerical model to predict the underwater acoustic propagation is obtained by exploring the potential of the Partition of Unity Method (PUM) enriched with plane waves. The aim of the work is to obtain sound pressure level distributions when multiple operational noise sources are present, in order to assess the acoustic impact over the marine fauna. The model takes advantage of the suitability of the PUM for solving the Helmholtz equation, especially for the practical case of large domains and medium frequencies. The seawater acoustic absorption and the acoustic reflectance of the sea surface and sea bottom are explicitly considered, and perfectly matched layers (PML) are placed at the lateral artificial boundaries to avoid spurious reflexions. The model includes semi-analytical integration rules which are adapted to highly oscillatory integrands with the aim of reducing the computational cost of the integration step. In addition, we develop a novel strategy to mitigate the ill-conditioning of the elemental and global system matrices. Specifically, we compute a low-rank approximation of the local space of solutions, which in turn reduces the number of degrees of freedom, the CPU time and the memory footprint. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the model and to assess its accuracy.

  8. The separation nozzle method for enrichment of the light uranium isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of the development of the separation nozzle method for enrichment of the light uranium isotope is described as a contribution to a memorandum published by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. The work was triggered off by an effect which had been observed in fundamental studies on gas kinetics. Development up to the technical maturity covered a period of more than 25 years. The implementation of the project at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center provided an adequate financial and technical framework, the employment of senior staff without limitations in time being of major importance for the continuity of work. The links established between the Institute and the University and the resulting opportunity of having doctoral theses written, on the other hand, gave rise to a permanent flow of young, highly qualified scientists and engineers. Thus the Institut's requirements for junior staff could be satisfied in an optimum way. Although the Center offered a variety of possibilities of internal technical cooperation, important developments were performed jointly with industrial firms experienced in related fields. By this, not only a steady flow of know-how had been accumulated but also the large-scale applicability was ensured at a later date of results jointly obtained. (orig.)

  9. Variational multiscale enrichment method with mixed boundary conditions for elasto-viscoplastic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuhai; Oskay, Caglar

    2015-04-01

    This manuscript presents the formulation and implementation of the variational multiscale enrichment (VME) method for the analysis of elasto-viscoplastic problems. VME is a global-local approach that allows accurate fine scale representation at small subdomains, where important physical phenomena are likely to occur. The response within far-fields is idealized using a coarse scale representation. The fine scale representation not only approximates the coarse grid residual, but also accounts for the material heterogeneity. A one-parameter family of mixed boundary conditions that range from Dirichlet to Neumann is employed to study the effect of the choice of the boundary conditions at the fine scale on accuracy. The inelastic material behavior is modeled using Perzyna type viscoplasticity coupled with flow stress evolution idealized by the Johnson-Cook model. Numerical verifications are performed to assess the performance of the proposed approach against the direct finite element simulations. The results of verification studies demonstrate that VME with proper boundary conditions accurately model the inelastic response accounting for material heterogeneity.

  10. A powerful Bayesian meta-analysis method to integrate multiple gene set enrichment studies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Min; Zang, Miao; Wang, Xinlei; Xiao, Guanghua

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Much research effort has been devoted to the identification of enriched gene sets for microarray experiments. However, identified gene sets are often found to be inconsistent among independent studies. This is probably owing to the noisy data of microarray experiments coupled with small sample sizes of individual studies. Therefore, combining information from multiple studies is likely to improve the detection of truly enriched gene classes. As more and more data become available,...

  11. The effect of feeding enrichment methods on the behavior of captive Western lowland gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Erin B; Proudfoot, Kathryn L; Fraser, David

    2012-01-01

    Three feeding enrichment treatments were tested in an outdoor yard used by six Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). In "Yard-toss," forage was thrown by hand over one third of the yard. In "Set-up," forage and browse were hand-scattered throughout the yard. "Set-up Enriched" was similar with the addition of either a hay- and forage-filled feeder or forage-filled boomer ball(s) suspended from a climbing structure. Each treatment was presented on 5 d. Behavior was recorded for 30 min before (baseline) and 30 min after the start of each treatment. All treatments led to more foraging and less inactivity compared with baseline (P80.05), but Yard-toss was the least effective, likely because resources were clumped and monopolized by dominant animals. In Set-up Enriched, dominant animals had the greatest increase in foraging (P=0.03), partly because they generally monopolized the suspended items, but this allowed others to forage at ground level. This separation of the animals likely explains why Set-Up Enriched led to more foraging than all other treatments (P80.05). Findings show that for these hierarchical animals, enrichment resources are most effective when distributed widely, including vertically, and that enrichment strategies must take social structure into account. PMID:21656848

  12. Sequential Elution from IMAC (SIMAC): An Efficient Method for Enrichment and Separation of Mono- and Multi-phosphorylated Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Larsen, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoproteomics relies on methods for efficient purification and sequencing of phosphopeptides from highly complex biological systems, especially when using low amounts of starting material. Current methods for phosphopeptide enrichment, e.g., Immobilized Metal ion Affinity Chromatography and titanium dioxide chromatography provide varying degrees of selectivity and specificity for phosphopeptide enrichment. The number of multi-phosphorylated peptides identified in most published studies is rather low. Here we describe a protocol for a strategy that separates mono-phosphorylated peptides from multiply phosphorylated peptides using Sequential elution from Immobilized Metal ion Affinity Chromatography. The method relies on the initial enrichment and separation of mono- and multi-phosphorylated peptides using Immobilized Metal ion Affinity Chromatography and a subsequent enrichment of the mono-phosphorylated peptides using titanium dioxide chromatography. The two separate phosphopeptide fractions are then subsequently analyzed by mass spectrometric methods optimized for mono-phosphorylated and multi-phosphorylated peptides, respectively, resulting in improved identification of especially multi-phosphorylated peptides from a minimum amount of starting material. PMID:26584924

  13. Rheology, fatty acid profile and quality characteristics of nutrient enriched pizza base

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Chaitali Sen; Milind; Jeyarani, T.; Rajiv, Jyotsna

    2014-01-01

    Enrichment of thick bread type pizza base (PZB) was done by substituting wheat flour (WF) with 5, 10 and 15 % soya protein isolate (SPI). The rheological characteristics of WF showed that water absorption increased, extensibility and peak viscosity decreased when level of SPI increased from 5 to 15 %. Baking studies showed that spread ratio decreased and hardness values of PZB increased with the increase in amount of SPI from 5 to15 %. Beyond 10 % SPI, the overall quality of PZB was adversely...

  14. Condensin I recruitment to base damage-enriched DNA lesions is modulated by PARP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangduo Kong

    Full Text Available Condensin I is important for chromosome organization and segregation in mitosis. We previously showed that condensin I also interacts with PARP1 in response to DNA damage and plays a role in single-strand break repair. However, whether condensin I physically associates with DNA damage sites and how PARP1 may contribute to this process were unclear. We found that condensin I is preferentially recruited to DNA damage sites enriched for base damage. This process is dictated by PARP1 through its interaction with the chromosome-targeting domain of the hCAP-D2 subunit of condensin I.

  15. Passive markers as a low-cost method of enriching cultural visits on user’s demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anestis Koutsoudis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of enriching a cultural heritage visitor’s experience by employing mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets is an active research domain. This is mainly due to the worldwide user penetration of such devices along with their continuous hardware performance enhancement. This work presents the experience and feedback gained by one year of operation of an experimental information system that aims in enhancing the experience of a visitor on his/her demand. The evaluated system is based on the use case-scenario where the a mobile device is used to capture and decode passive markers (such as QR-codes that are located on facades of selected important buildings in the old town of Xanthi, Greece, in order to enrich the visitor’s experience through a broad context of historical and architectural information delivered over the Web.   Keywords: On-demand information, Passive marker, QR-code, Smartphone, Visit enrichment.

  16. Enriched glucose and dextrin mannitol-based media modulates fibroblast behavior on bacterial cellulose membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Gluconacetobacter hansenii is a suitable biopolymer for biomedical applications. In order to modulate the properties of BC and expand its use as substrate for tissue engineering mainly in the form of biomembranes, glucose or dextrin were added into a BC fermentation mannitol-based medium (BCGl and BCDe, respectively) under static culture conditions. SEM images showed effects on fiber density and porosity on both sides of the BC membranes. Both enriched media decreased the BET surface area, water holding capacity, and rehydration rate. Fourier transform infrared (attenuated total reflectance mode) spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) analysis revealed no change in the chemical structure of BC. L929 fibroblast cells were seeded on all BC-based membranes and evaluated in aspects of cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology. BCG1 membranes showed the highest biological performance and hold promise for the use in tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Glucose and dextrin were used to modify culture media for BC production. • Microarchitecture of BC was different depending on the enriching agent. • Fibroblasts adhered on the surface of BC modified microarchitectures. • Fibroblasts adhered on glucose modified BC exhibited healthy cell morphology

  17. Enriched glucose and dextrin mannitol-based media modulates fibroblast behavior on bacterial cellulose membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumpf, Taisa R.; Pértile, Renata A.N. [Integrated Technologies Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Food Engineering (Brazil); Rambo, Carlos R., E-mail: rambo@intelab.ufsc.br [Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-900 (Brazil); Porto, Luismar M. [Integrated Technologies Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Food Engineering (Brazil)

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Gluconacetobacter hansenii is a suitable biopolymer for biomedical applications. In order to modulate the properties of BC and expand its use as substrate for tissue engineering mainly in the form of biomembranes, glucose or dextrin were added into a BC fermentation mannitol-based medium (BCGl and BCDe, respectively) under static culture conditions. SEM images showed effects on fiber density and porosity on both sides of the BC membranes. Both enriched media decreased the BET surface area, water holding capacity, and rehydration rate. Fourier transform infrared (attenuated total reflectance mode) spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) analysis revealed no change in the chemical structure of BC. L929 fibroblast cells were seeded on all BC-based membranes and evaluated in aspects of cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology. BCG1 membranes showed the highest biological performance and hold promise for the use in tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Glucose and dextrin were used to modify culture media for BC production. • Microarchitecture of BC was different depending on the enriching agent. • Fibroblasts adhered on the surface of BC modified microarchitectures. • Fibroblasts adhered on glucose modified BC exhibited healthy cell morphology.

  18. A data base for PHW reactor operating on a once-through, low enriched uranium-thorium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of a detailed data base for a new once-through uranium-thorium cycle using low enriched uranium (4 and 5,5% wt. U-235) and distinct UO2 and ThO2 fuel channels has been performed. With reference to a standard 638 MWe CANDU-type PHWR with 380 channels, evaluation of economics, fuel behaviour and safety has been performed. The Feinberg-Galanin method (code FEINGAL) has been used for calculation of axial flux distribution. All parameters have been provided by LATREP code following up the irradiation history. Economical assessment has shown that this fuel cycle is competitive with the natural uranium fuel cycle for 1979-based values of the parameters. Fuel behaviour and safety features modelling has shown that core behaviour of the uranium-thorium reactor under abnormal and accident conditions would be at least as good as that of the standard natural uranium reactor

  19. Depletion Gilding: An Ancient Method for Surface Enrichment of Gold Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Ancient objects made of noble metal alloys, that is, gold with copper and/or silver, can show the phenomenon of surface enrichment. This phenomenon is regarding the composition of the surface, which has a percentage of gold higher than that of the bulk. This enrichment is obtained by a depletion of the other elements of the alloy, which are, in some manner, removed. This depletion gilding process was used by pre-Columbian populations for their 'tumbaga', a gold-copper alloy, to give it the luster of gold.

  20. Application of biclustering of gene expression data and gene set enrichment analysis methods to identify potentially disease causing nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Williams; Sabina Halappanavar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The presence of diverse types of nanomaterials (NMs) in commerce is growing at an exponential pace. As a result, human exposure to these materials in the environment is inevitable, necessitating the need for rapid and reliable toxicity testing methods to accurately assess the potential hazards associated with NMs. In this study, we applied biclustering and gene set enrichment analysis methods to derive essential features of altered lung transcriptome following exposure to NMs that...

  1. Optimizing TiO2-based phosphopeptide enrichment for automated multidimensional liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Cantin, Greg T.; Shock, Teresa R.; Park, Sung Kyu; Madhani, Hiten D.; Yates, John R.

    2007-01-01

    An automated online multidimensional liquid chromatography system coupled to ESI-based tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess the effectiveness of TiO2 in the enrichment of phosphopeptides from tryptic digests of protein mixtures. By monitoring the enrichment of phosphopeptides, an optimized set of loading, wash, and elution conditions were realized for TiO2. A comparison of TiO2 with other resins used for phosphopeptide enrichment, Fe(III)-IMAC and ZrO2, was also carried out using trypt...

  2. Gene-ontology enrichment analysis in two independent family-based samples highlights biologically plausible processes for autism spectrum disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anney, Richard J L

    2012-02-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated a range of genes from discrete biological pathways in the aetiology of autism. However, despite the strong influence of genetic factors, association studies have yet to identify statistically robust, replicated major effect genes or SNPs. We apply the principle of the SNP ratio test methodology described by O\\'Dushlaine et al to over 2100 families from the Autism Genome Project (AGP). Using a two-stage design we examine association enrichment in 5955 unique gene-ontology classifications across four groupings based on two phenotypic and two ancestral classifications. Based on estimates from simulation we identify excess of association enrichment across all analyses. We observe enrichment in association for sets of genes involved in diverse biological processes, including pyruvate metabolism, transcription factor activation, cell-signalling and cell-cycle regulation. Both genes and processes that show enrichment have previously been examined in autistic disorders and offer biologically plausibility to these findings.

  3. Efficient dielectrophoretic cell enrichment using a dielectrophoresis-well based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Razak, Mohd Azhar; Hoettges, Kai F; Fatoyinbo, Henry O; Labeed, Fatima H; Hughes, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Whilst laboratory-on-chip cell separation systems using dielectrophoresis are increasingly reported in the literature, many systems are afflicted by factors which impede "real world" performance, chief among these being cell loss (in dead spaces, attached to glass and tubing surfaces, or sedimentation from flow), and designs with large channel height-to-width ratios (large channel widths, small channel heights) that make the systems difficult to interface with other microfluidic systems. In this paper, we present a scalable structure based on 3D wells with approximately unity height-to-width ratios (based on tubes with electrodes on the sides), which is capable of enriching yeast cell populations whilst ensuring that up to 94.3% of cells processed through the device can be collected in tubes beyond the output. PMID:24396544

  4. Single-step enrichment of basophils from human peripheral blood by a novel method using a Percoll density gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Takuya; Okada, Tadashi; Ito, Yoichiro

    2016-08-01

    We have developed a novel continuous flow-through cell separation method using a Percoll density gradient. This method can continuously separate a large number of cells into five fractions according to their densities. To apply this method to the separation of basophils, Percoll density gradients were modified to improve basophil enrichment. When a set of Percoll density gradients was prepared (1.071, 1.075, 1.080, 1.084, and 1.090 g/mL) the basophils in a healthy volunteer were enriched by an average of 23.1 and 63.5% at Percoll densities of 1.075 (fraction 3) and 1.080 g/mL (fraction 4), respectively. On average, the yield of basophils was 1.66 × 10(5) cells in fraction 3 and 1.61 × 10(5) cells in fraction 4 from 9 mL of peripheral blood. The expression of CD203c (cluster of differentiation 203c) on separated basophils was upregulated by anti-immunoglobulin E stimulation similar to basophils in whole blood. Histamine release induced by calcium ionophore was also observed in the separated basophils. The present method will be useful for basophil enrichment since it preserves their function without using counterflow elutriation and immunological reagents, and this method will be effective as a preparative separation for cell purification by flow cytometry. PMID:27293108

  5. A Technology Based Program That Matches Enrichment Resources With Student Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Renzulli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Remarkable advances in instructionalcommunication technology (ICT have now made ispossible to provide high levels of enrichment and thekinds of curricular differentiation that facilitateadvanced learning services to students who have accessto a computer and the Internet. But in order tomaximize the potential if ICT it is necessary to constructprograms that are based on learning theory that goesbeyond the didactic and prescriptive models that haveresulted in too much worksheets-on-line and electronicencyclopedias. The Renzulli Learning System (RLSuses a strength-based learning theory called theEnrichment Triad Model that is purposefully designedto promote advanced level learning, creativeproductivity, and high levels of student engagement byfocusing on the application of knowledge rather than themere acquisition and storage of information.The Renzulli Learning System is acomprehensive program that begins by providing acomputer-generated profile of each student’s academicstrengths, interests, learning styles, and preferred modesof expression. A search engine then matches Internetresources to the student’s profile from fourteen carefullyscreened data bases that are categorized by subject area,grade level, state curricular standards, and degree ofcomplexity. There are also hundreds of enrichmentactivities that can be down loaded and reproduced forindividual or group learning activities. A managementsystem called the Wizard Project Maker guides studentsin the application of knowledge to teacher or studentselected assignments, independent research studies, orcreative projects that individuals or small groups wouldlike to pursue. Students and teachers can evaluate thequality of students’ products using a rubric called TheStudent Product Assessment Form. Students can rateeach site visited, conduct a self-assessment of what theyhave gained from the site, and place resources in theirown Total talent Portfolio for future use. RLS alsoincludes a

  6. Imaging-based enrichment criteria using deep learning algorithms for efficient clinical trials in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithapu, Vamsi K; Singh, Vikas; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Chappell, Richard J; Dowling, N Maritza; Johnson, Sterling C

    2015-12-01

    The mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be optimal for clinical trials to test potential treatments for preventing or delaying decline to dementia. However, MCI is heterogeneous in that not all cases progress to dementia within the time frame of a trial and some may not have underlying AD pathology. Identifying those MCIs who are most likely to decline during a trial and thus most likely to benefit from treatment will improve trial efficiency and power to detect treatment effects. To this end, using multimodal, imaging-derived, inclusion criteria may be especially beneficial. Here, we present a novel multimodal imaging marker that predicts future cognitive and neural decline from [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET), amyloid florbetapir PET, and structural magnetic resonance imaging, based on a new deep learning algorithm (randomized denoising autoencoder marker, rDAm). Using ADNI2 MCI data, we show that using rDAm as a trial enrichment criterion reduces the required sample estimates by at least five times compared with the no-enrichment regime and leads to smaller trials with high statistical power, compared with existing methods. PMID:26093156

  7. Size-exclusion chromatography-based enrichment of extracellular vesicles from urine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Lozano-Ramos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Renal biopsy is the gold-standard procedure to diagnose most of renal pathologies. However, this invasive method is of limited repeatability and often describes an irreversible renal damage. Urine is an easily accessible fluid and urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs may be ideal to describe new biomarkers associated with renal pathologies. Several methods to enrich EVs have been described. Most of them contain a mixture of proteins, lipoproteins and cell debris that may be masking relevant biomarkers. Here, we evaluated size-exclusion chromatography (SEC as a suitable method to isolate urinary EVs. Following a conventional centrifugation to eliminate cell debris and apoptotic bodies, urine samples were concentrated using ultrafiltration and loaded on a SEC column. Collected fractions were analysed by protein content and flow cytometry to determine the presence of tetraspanin markers (CD63 and CD9. The highest tetraspanin content was routinely detected in fractions well before the bulk of proteins eluted. These tetraspanin-peak fractions were analysed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM and nanoparticle tracking analysis revealing the presence of EVs.When analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tetraspanin-peak fractions from urine concentrated samples contained multiple bands but the main urine proteins (such as Tamm–Horsfall protein were absent. Furthermore, a preliminary proteomic study of these fractions revealed the presence of EV-related proteins, suggesting their enrichment in concentrated samples. In addition, RNA profiling also showed the presence of vesicular small RNA species.To summarize, our results demonstrated that concentrated urine followed by SEC is a suitable option to isolate EVs with low presence of soluble contaminants. This methodology could permit more accurate analyses of EV-related biomarkers when further characterized by -omics technologies compared with other approaches.

  8. Ground-Based Network and Supersite Observations to Complement and Enrich EOS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997 NASA has been successfully launching a series of satellites - the Earth Observing System (EOS) - to intensively study, and gain a better understanding of, the Earth as an integrated system. Space-borne remote sensing observations, however, are often plagued by contamination of surface signatures. Thus, ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing measurements, where signals come directly from atmospheric constituents, the sun, and/or the Earth-atmosphere interactions, provide additional information content for comparisons that confirm quantitatively the usefulness of the integrated surface, aircraft, and satellite datasets. Through numerous participations, particularly but not limited to the EOS remote-sensing/retrieval and validation projects over the years, NASA/GSFC has developed and continuously refined ground-based networks and mobile observatories that proved to be vital in providing high temporal measurements, which complement and enrich the satellite observations. These are: the AERO NET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) a federation of ground-based globally distributed network of spectral sun-sky photometers; the MPLNET (Micro-Pulse Lidar NETwork, a similarly organized network of micro-pulse lidar systems measuring aerosol and cloud vertical structure continuously; and the SMART-COMMIT (Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer - Chemical, Optical & Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere, mobile observatories, a suite of spectral radiometers and in-situ probes acquiring supersite measurements. Most MPLNET sites are collocated with those of AERONET, and both networks always support the deployment of SMART-COMMIT worldwide. These data products follow the data structure of EOS conventions: Level-0, instrument archived raw data; Level-1 (or 1.5), real-time data with no (or limited) quality assurance; Level-2, not real high temporal and spectral resolutions. In this talk, we will present NASA/GSFC groundbased facilities, serving

  9. A NURBS-based interface-enriched generalized finite element scheme for the computational analysis and design of high temperature microvascular composites

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Marcus Hwai Yik; Najafi, Ahmad R.; Safdari, Masoud; Geubelle, Philippe H.

    2014-01-01

    Computational studies on multifunctional microvascular composite materials for high temperature application have focused on simple microchannel geometries [1–2]. Motivated by recent advances in the manufacturing of microvascular composites based on a sacrificial fiber technique that allows a complex network of curved microchannels to be embedded in the material [3], we develop an Interface Enriched Generalized Finite Element Method (IGFEM) [4] with Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) to an...

  10. BIM-based Modeling and Data Enrichment of Classical Architectural Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ivan Apollonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available EnIn this paper we presented a BIM-based approach for the documentation of Architectural Heritage. Knowledge of classical architecture is first extracted from the treatises for parametric modeling in object level. Then we established a profile library based on semantic studies to sweep out different objects. Variants grow out from the parametric models by editing or regrouping parameters based on grammars. Multiple data including material, structure and real-life state are enriched with respect to different research motivations. The BIM models are expected to ease the modeling process and provide comprehensive data shared among different platforms for further simulations.ItIn questo articolo è presentata una procedura definita nell'ambito dei sistemi BIM con l'obiettivo di documentare il Patrimonio Architettonico. I dati conoscitivi relativi all'architettura classica sono, in una prima fase, ottenuti dai trattati al fine di modellare in maniera parametrica a livello di oggetti. Successivamente è stata definita una libreria di profili, basata su principi semantici, dalla quale è possibile ottenere oggetti differenti. Dati di natura differente, relativi ad esempio ai materiali, alle strutture, allo stato di fatto, sono implementati in funzione delle differenti esigenze. I modelli BIM hanno la potenzialità di facilitare le procedure di modellazione e di fornire informazioni e dati completi che possono essere condivisi tra piattaforme differenti per ulteriori simulazioni ed analisi.

  11. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that in 1990 the Department of Energy began a two-year project to illustrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new uranium enrichment technology-the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. GAO believes that completing the AVLIS demonstration project will provide valuable information about the technical viability and cost of building an AVLIS plant and will keep future plant construction options open. However, Congress should be aware that DOE still needs to adequately demonstrate AVLIS with full-scale equipment and develop convincing cost projects. Program activities, such as the plant-licensing process, that must be completed before a plant is built, could take many years. Further, an updated and expanded uranium enrichment analysis will be needed before any decision is made about building an AVLIS plant. GAO, which has long supported legislation that would restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation, encourages DOE's goal of transferring AVLIS to the corporation. This could reduce the government's financial risk and help ensure that the decision to build an AVLIS plant is based on commercial concerns. DOE, however, has no alternative plans should the government corporation not be formed. Further, by curtailing a planned public access program, which would have given private firms an opportunity to learn about the technology during the demonstration project, DOE may limit its ability to transfer AVLIS to the private sector

  12. A 'Proof-of-Concept' Demonstration of RF-Based Technologies for UF6 Cylinder Tracking at Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This effort describes how radio-frequency (RF) technology can be integrated into a uranium enrichment facility's nuclear materials accounting and control program to enhance uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinder tracking and thus provide benefits to both domestic and international safeguards. Approved industry-standard cylinders are used to handle and store UF6 feed, product, tails, and samples at uranium enrichment plants. In the international arena, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on time-consuming manual cylinder inventory and tracking techniques to verify operator declarations and to detect potential diversion of UF6. Development of a reliable, automated, and tamper-resistant process for tracking and monitoring UF6 cylinders would greatly reduce the risk of false or misreported cylinder tare weights, diversion of nuclear material, concealment of excess production, utilization of undeclared cylinders, and misrepresentation of the cylinders contents. This paper will describe a 'proof-of concept' system that was designed show the feasibility of using RF based technologies to track individual UF6 cylinders throughout their entire life cycle, and thus ensure both increased domestic accountability of materials and a more effective and efficient method for application of IAEA international safeguards at the site level. The proposed system incorporates RF-based identification devices, which provide a mechanism for a reliable, automated, and tamper-resistant tracking network. We explore how securely attached RF tags can be integrated with other safeguards technologies to better detect diversion of cylinders. The tracking system could also provide a foundation for integration of other types of safeguards that would further enhance detection of undeclared activities

  13. Gene-based analysis of regionally enriched cortical genes in GWAS data sets of cognitive traits and psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari M Ersland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its estimated high heritability, the genetic architecture leading to differences in cognitive performance remains poorly understood. Different cortical regions play important roles in normal cognitive functioning and impairment. Recently, we reported on sets of regionally enriched genes in three different cortical areas (frontomedial, temporal and occipital cortices of the adult rat brain. It has been suggested that genes preferentially, or specifically, expressed in one region or organ reflect functional specialisation. Employing a gene-based approach to the analysis, we used the regionally enriched cortical genes to mine a genome-wide association study (GWAS of the Norwegian Cognitive NeuroGenetics (NCNG sample of healthy adults for association to nine psychometric tests measures. In addition, we explored GWAS data sets for the serious psychiatric disorders schizophrenia (SCZ (n = 3 samples and bipolar affective disorder (BP (n = 3 samples, to which cognitive impairment is linked. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At the single gene level, the temporal cortex enriched gene RAR-related orphan receptor B (RORB showed the strongest overall association, namely to a test of verbal intelligence (Vocabulary, P = 7.7E-04. We also applied gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA to test the candidate genes, as gene sets, for enrichment of association signal in the NCNG GWAS and in GWASs of BP and of SCZ. We found that genes differentially expressed in the temporal cortex showed a significant enrichment of association signal in a test measure of non-verbal intelligence (Reasoning in the NCNG sample. CONCLUSION: Our gene-based approach suggests that RORB could be involved in verbal intelligence differences, while the genes enriched in the temporal cortex might be important to intellectual functions as measured by a test of reasoning in the healthy population. These findings warrant further replication in independent samples on cognitive traits.

  14. Beyond Job Enrichment to Employment Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werther, William B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Employment enrichment views the total work environment confronting employees as a system consisting of two overlapping areas: worker-job and worker-organization subsystems. Job enrichment has improved the worker-job subsystem. The focus of this article is on methods of improving the worker-organization relationship. (Author/JB)

  15. Methods of staining and visualization of sphingolipid enriched and non-enriched plasma membrane regions of Arabidopsis thaliana with fluorescent dyes and lipid analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blachutzik Jörg O

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sterols and Sphingolipids form lipid clusters in the plasma membranes of cell types throughout the animal and plant kingdoms. These lipid domains provide a medium for protein signaling complexes at the plasma membrane and are also observed to be principal regions of membrane contact at the inception of infection. We visualized different specific fluorescent lipophilic stains of the both sphingolipid enriched and non-sphingolipid enriched regions in the plasma membranes of live protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Lipid staining protocols for several fluorescent lipid analogues in plants are presented. The most emphasis was placed on successful protocols for the single and dual staining of sphingolipid enriched regions and exclusion of sphingolipid enriched regions on the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts. A secondary focus was placed to ensure that these staining protocols presented still maintain cell viability. Furthermore, the protocols were successfully tested with the spectrally sensitive dye Laurdan. Conclusion Almost all existing staining procedures of the plasma membrane with fluorescent lipid analogues are specified for animal cells and tissues. In order to develop lipid staining protocols for plants, procedures were established with critical steps for the plasma membrane staining of Arabidopsis leaf tissue and protoplasts. The success of the plasma membrane staining protocols was additionally verified by measurements of lipid dynamics by the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique and by the observation of new phenomena such as time dependent lipid polarization events in living protoplasts, for which a putative physiological relevance is suggested.

  16. Event-Based Media Enrichment Using an Adaptive Probabilistic Hypergraph Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueliang; Wang, Meng; Yin, Bao-Cai; Huet, Benoit; Li, Xuelong

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, with the continual development of digital capture technologies and social media services, a vast number of media documents are captured and shared online to help attendees record their experience during events. In this paper, we present a method combining semantic inference and multimodal analysis for automatically finding media content to illustrate events using an adaptive probabilistic hypergraph model. In this model, media items are taken as vertices in the weighted hypergraph and the task of enriching media to illustrate events is formulated as a ranking problem. In our method, each hyperedge is constructed using the K-nearest neighbors of a given media document. We also employ a probabilistic representation, which assigns each vertex to a hyperedge in a probabilistic way, to further exploit the correlation among media data. Furthermore, we optimize the hypergraph weights in a regularization framework, which is solved as a second-order cone problem. The approach is initiated by seed media and then used to rank the media documents using a transductive inference process. The results obtained from validating the approach on an event dataset collected from EventMedia demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:26470061

  17. A sensory- and consumer-based approach to optimize cheese enrichment with grape skin powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, L; Piochi, M; Marchiani, R; Zeppa, G; Dinnella, C; Monteleone, E

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to present a sensory- and consumer-based approach to optimize cheese enrichment with grape skin powders (GSP). The combined sensory evaluation approach, involving a descriptive and an affective test, respectively, was applied to evaluate the effect of the addition of grape skin powders from 2 grape varieties (Barbera and Chardonnay) at different levels [0.8, 1.6, and 2.4%; weight (wt) powder/wt curd] on the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of innovative soft cow milk cheeses. The experimental plan envisaged 7 products, 6 fortified prototypes (at rates of Barbera and Chardonnay of 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4%) and a control sample, with 1 wk of ripening. By means of a free choice profile, 21 cheese experts described the sensory properties of prototypes. A central location test with 90 consumers was subsequently conducted to assess the acceptability of samples. The GSP enrichment strongly affected the sensory properties of innovative products, mainly in terms of appearance and texture. Fortified samples were typically described with a marbling aspect (violet or brown as function of the grape variety) and with an increased granularity, sourness, saltiness, and astringency. The fortification also contributed certain vegetable sensations perceived at low intensity (grassy, cereal, nuts), and some potential negative sensations (earthy, animal, winy, varnish). The white color, the homogeneous dough, the compact and elastic texture, and the presence of lactic flavors resulted the positive drivers of preference. On the contrary, the marbling aspect, granularity, sandiness, sourness, saltiness, and astringency negatively affected the cheese acceptability for amounts of powder, exceeding 0.8 and 1.6% for the Barbera and Chardonnay prototypes, respectively. Therefore, the amount of powder resulted a critical parameter for liking of fortified cheeses and a discriminant between the 2 varieties. Reducing the GSP particle size and improving the GSP

  18. Investigation of factors influencing the accuracy of uranium enrichment level determination by multi- analysis method (MGAU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical characteristics of multi-group analysis technique for isotopic composition determination of uranium samples, realised in the form of portable 'U-Pu InSpector' spectrometry system and MGAU V.1.0 code, have been studied with the help of uranium isotopic standard reference materials in the range 0.32 - 4.5 % of 235U and 0.004 - 0.036 % of 234U concentration. The influence of a number of factors that cause systematic bias of measured values are also studied. Obtained results reveal dependence of measured 235U enrichment level upon isotopic composition of uranium sample and geometry of the measurement. Systematic underestimation of measured 234U content turned out to be of about 23 % in the concentration range. Possible sources of revealed systematic biases are discussed as well as some recommendations for improving of MGAU code are given

  19. NDA method for recovered UF6 from hold-up in enrichment process (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With renewal of centrifuges in Rokkasho Enrichment Plant uranium fluoride recovered from spent centrifuges has been stored in special cylinders heterogeneously together with iodine fluoride which was used to release adherent uranium. For material accountancy of these cylinders we have introduced UCAS (Uranium Cylinder Assay System) which is a passive neutron basis NDA (Non Destructive Assay) developed jointly with Los Alamos National Laboratory because normal destructive assay for material accountancy cannot be applied to them due to lack of representativeness in sampling. Though evaluation in last year suggested that iodine fluoride makes not so significant impact on neutron measurement, quantitative performance has not been confirmed because isotopic composition used for the evaluation was derived from gamma ray measurement which was ill affected by iodine fluoride. In this year we have since introduced a new mass spectrometer available for such a mixture and modified calibration coefficients of UCAS. Consequently quantitative performance was confirmed and UCAS was applied to PIT (Physical Inventory Taking). (author)

  20. Development of microsatellite markers for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) based on screening of non-enriched, small-insert genomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Torres, Monica Muñoz; Pedraza, Fabio; Giraldo, Martha C; Buendía, Hector F; Hurtado, Natalia

    2009-09-01

    Microsatellite markers are useful genetic tools for a wide array of genomic analyses although their development is time-consuming and requires the identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from genomic sequences. Screening of non-enriched, small-insert libraries is an effective method of SSR isolation that can give an unbiased picture of motif frequency. Here we adapt high-throughput protocols for the screening of plasmid-based libraries using robotic colony picking and filter preparation. Seven non-enriched genomic libraries from common bean genomic DNA were made by digestion with four frequently cutting restriction enzymes, double digestion with a frequently cutting restriction enzyme and a less frequently cutting restriction enzyme, or sonication. Library quality was compared and three of the small-insert libraries were selected for further analysis. Each library was plated and picked into 384-well plates that were used to create high-density filter arrays of over 18 000 clones each, which were screened with oligonucleotide probes for various SSR motifs. Positive clones were found to have low redundancy. One hundred SSR markers were developed and 80 were tested for polymorphism in a standard parental survey. These microsatellite markers derived from non-SSR-enriched libraries should be useful additions to previous markers developed from enriched libraries. PMID:19935925

  1. Comprehensive evaluation of imidazole-based polymers for the enrichment of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemeth, Dieter; Kappacher, Christoph; Rainer, Matthias; Thalinger, Ramona; Bonn, Günther K

    2016-06-01

    This study reports the comparison of four manufactured imidazole-based copolymers and two commercially available hydrophilic sorbents for the solid phase extraction (SPE) of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Different hydrophilic copolymers were obtained by a suspension polymerization using a styrene-based and a methacrylate-based cross-linker and by single step modifications for enhancing the ion-exchange character. SPE protocols were optimized for both non-modified and modified sorbents and applied for the enrichment of selected NSAID using all six copolymers. Comparison and evaluation were carried out by determining recovery rates of standard mixtures at different concentration levels ranging from 0.5mgL(-1) to 10mgL(-1) and by the enrichment of spiked human urine at two concentration levels. In order to gain insight into the complexity of the biological sample and its reduction after solid phase extraction, UHPLC-MS analysis and following database comparison was performed for the three mixed-mode strong anion-exchange sorbents. In order to prove the applicability of the modified imidazole-based polymers for the enrichment of NSAID in surface water, river water or groundwater, solid phase extraction was performed with 10ppb of NSAID which resulted into enhanced enrichment by a hundredfold. PMID:27130106

  2. Effects of four different cooking methods on some quality characteristics of low fat Inegol meatball enriched with flaxseed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turp, Gulen Yildiz

    2016-11-01

    The present study is concerned with the effects of four different cooking methods (grill, oven, pan and ohmic cooking) on physicochemical parameters (cooking yield moisture retention, fat retention, color, texture), fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of low fat Turkish traditional Inegol meatball. Flaxseed flour was used as a fat substitute in the production of meatballs. Meatball proximate composition was affected by the cooking methods mainly as a consequence of the weight losses. The highest cooking yield was found in samples cooked in the oven. Flaxseed flour contains high amount of α-linolenic acid and ohmic cooking seems to be the best cooking method in terms of retaining this fatty acid in meatballs enriched with flaxseed flour. However ohmic cooked meatball samples had a brighter surface color and harder texture in comparison with meatball samples cooked via traditional methods. There was no significant difference between the sensory evaluation scores of meatballs. PMID:27258146

  3. Zein based oil-in-glycerol emulgels enriched with β-carotene as margarine alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Fu, Shi-Yao; Hou, Jun-Jie; Guo, Jian; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-11-15

    Structuring edible oils into solid lipids without saturated and trans fats has attracted increasing interest due to the benefits for human health and promises potential as novel delivery systems for lipophilic bioactive ingredients. The study shows that a zein stabilized high (ϕ=0.6) oil-in-glycerol (O/G) emulgels enriched with β-carotene was performed, by a facile one-step homogenization. Rheological measurements and morphologies observations indicated that increasing β-carotene resulted in a progressive strengthening of gel-like network and improving their spreadability in the O/G emulgels stabilized by zein, which was closely related to the hydrophobic interaction of zein and β-carotene. The formation of emulgels significantly enhanced the UV photo-stability of β-carotene, and more than 88% of β-carotene was retained in 64h storage under UV exposure, and consequently retarded oil oxidation while storage. Further, cakes prepared using zein-based O/G emulgels as a margarine alternative showed comparable functionalities (texture and sensory attributes) to the standard cake. PMID:27283703

  4. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanna

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at increasing female students' interest in science and science-related careers. This study examined the effectiveness of InSTEP on 123 female students' pre-assessment and post-assessment changes in attitudes toward science and content knowledge of selected science concepts. An attitude survey, a science content test with multiple-choice questions, written assignments, and interviews to collect data were all used to measure students' attitudes and content knowledge. A within-group, repeated measure design was conducted, and the results indicated that at the post-intervention level, InSTEP increased the participants' positive attitudes toward science, science-related careers, and content knowledge of selected science concepts.

  5. Starch-based extruded cereals enriched in fibers: a behavior of composite solid foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanvrier, Hélène; Desbois, Fabrice; Perotti, Fabienne; Salzmann, Claire; Chassagne, Sophie; Gumy, Jean-Claude; Blank, Imre

    2013-10-15

    Extruded cereals mainly composed of starch and enriched in fibers were produced with two types of base recipes: (i) one recipe mainly composed of wheat flour and (ii) one recipe mainly composed of corn and soya flours. The addition of fibers was performed through the use of oat bran concentrate or wheat bran, up to 32% of the recipe. The structure of the extrudates, assessed by X-ray tomography, pointed out the decrease of porosity and of mean cells size with the increase of the total dietary fibers content of the recipe. The hardness of the products, i.e. the maximum stress determined by a compression test, was linked to their porosity. The Gibson-Ashby relationship could be applied and the fit was even improved when considering the walls of the solid foam as composite materials. Fibers and proteins can be indeed considered as particles dispersed in the starchy phase. This work thus shows the impact of the structure of the extrudates on their mechanical properties. The structure is taken into account at different length scales; at the level of the porous structure and at the level of the phase of the main biopolymers present in the recipe (starch, proteins and fibers). The mechanical behavior of these products is then discussed according to their characteristics of composite solid foams. PMID:23987420

  6. Methods in Logic Based Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    1999-01-01

    Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...

  7. A method and software framework for enriching private biomedical sources with data from public online repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita, Alberto; García-Remesal, Miguel; Graf, Norbert; Maojo, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Modern biomedical research relies on the semantic integration of heterogeneous data sources to find data correlations. Researchers access multiple datasets of disparate origin, and identify elements-e.g. genes, compounds, pathways-that lead to interesting correlations. Normally, they must refer to additional public databases in order to enrich the information about the identified entities-e.g. scientific literature, published clinical trial results, etc. While semantic integration techniques have traditionally focused on providing homogeneous access to private datasets-thus helping automate the first part of the research, and there exist different solutions for browsing public data, there is still a need for tools that facilitate merging public repositories with private datasets. This paper presents a framework that automatically locates public data of interest to the researcher and semantically integrates it with existing private datasets. The framework has been designed as an extension of traditional data integration systems, and has been validated with an existing data integration platform from a European research project by integrating a private biological dataset with data from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). PMID:26873780

  8. Comparison of sequencing-based methods to profile DNA methylation and identification of monoallelic epigenetic modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of DNA methylation patterns relies increasingly on sequencing-based profiling methods. The four most frequently used sequencing-based technologies are the bisulfite-based methods MethylC-seq and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS), and the enrichment-based techniques methylat...

  9. Entropy-based benchmarking methods

    OpenAIRE

    Temurshoev, Umed

    2012-01-01

    We argue that benchmarking sign-volatile series should be based on the principle of movement and sign preservation, which states that a bench-marked series should reproduce the movement and signs in the original series. We show that the widely used variants of Denton (1971) method and the growth preservation method of Causey and Trager (1981) may violate this principle, while its requirements are explicitly taken into account in the pro-posed entropy-based benchmarking methods. Our illustrati...

  10. Activity based costing (ABC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Saveta Tudorache

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the need and advantages are presented of using the Activity BasedCosting method, need arising from the need of solving the information pertinence issue. This issue has occurreddue to the limitation of classic methods in this field, limitation also reflected by the disadvantages ofsuch classic methods in establishing complete costs.

  11. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, Olli [Senior Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  12. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  13. Application of biclustering of gene expression data and gene set enrichment analysis methods to identify potentially disease causing nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of diverse types of nanomaterials (NMs in commerce is growing at an exponential pace. As a result, human exposure to these materials in the environment is inevitable, necessitating the need for rapid and reliable toxicity testing methods to accurately assess the potential hazards associated with NMs. In this study, we applied biclustering and gene set enrichment analysis methods to derive essential features of altered lung transcriptome following exposure to NMs that are associated with lung-specific diseases. Several datasets from public microarray repositories describing pulmonary diseases in mouse models following exposure to a variety of substances were examined and functionally related biclusters of genes showing similar expression profiles were identified. The identified biclusters were then used to conduct a gene set enrichment analysis on pulmonary gene expression profiles derived from mice exposed to nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2, carbon black (CB or carbon nanotubes (CNTs to determine the disease significance of these data-driven gene sets.Results: Biclusters representing inflammation (chemokine activity, DNA binding, cell cycle, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS and fibrosis processes were identified. All of the NM studies were significant with respect to the bicluster related to chemokine activity (DAVID; FDR p-value = 0.032. The bicluster related to pulmonary fibrosis was enriched in studies where toxicity induced by CNT and CB studies was investigated, suggesting the potential for these materials to induce lung fibrosis. The pro-fibrogenic potential of CNTs is well established. Although CB has not been shown to induce fibrosis, it induces stronger inflammatory, oxidative stress and DNA damage responses than nano-TiO2 particles.Conclusion: The results of the analysis correctly identified all NMs to be inflammogenic and only CB and CNTs as potentially fibrogenic. In addition to identifying several

  14. Development and demonstration of the new methods for the detection of hidden highly enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the airports of many countries, in parallel with modern x-ray monitoring systems, there are passive devices to detect nuclear materials. Unfortunately, it is problematic to detect highly enriched uranium (HEU) in this way, due to the low energy of emitted gamma-radiation and HEU's practical absence of spontaneous fission. Using 'active interrogation' techniques, it is possible to detect even small amounts of shielded HEU. It this research, it was proposed to develop a mechanical 'switchable' source of neutrons that is different from normal 'D-T generator' style of pulsed neutrons. The type of switched-off neutron source was chosen to be Am-LiF. Extensive calculations were performed, and a 'switchable' source was designed. It was designed to meet the following technical requirements: 1. Overall dimensions of equipment do not exceed the size of modern x-ray visual devices. 2. During the working regime radiation conditions outside of device correspond to the radiation safety requirements. 3. The lowest detectable mass of detected substance do not exceed 10 gram that corresponds to the one pellet of assemblage of heat-generating cell. 4. Time of detection of the lowest mass (with probability 99%) in the luggage compartment (having dimensions 60 x 60 x 50) does not exceed one second. Three Russian nuclear centers (Khlopin's Radium Institute in St-Petersburg, IPPE in Obninsck and the Scientific Research Institute of Nuclear Reactors of the Russian Federation in Dimitrovgrad city) have express preliminary consent (with juridical and financial reservations) to develop the experimental models of modern sources. At this time a physical model has not been fabricated. (author)

  15. A Hybrid Design Optimization Method using Enriched Craig-Bampton Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Akcay Perdahcioglu, D.; Ellenbroek, M.H.M.; Boer

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid design optimization method is presented which combines a number of techniques such as Component Mode Synthesis (CMS), Design of Computer Experiments and Neural Networks for surrogate modeling with Genetic Algorithms and Sequential Quadratic Programming for optimization. In the method, the FE analysis is decomposed and reduced by a well-known CMS technique called the Craig-Bampton method. Since the optimization method requires CMS calculations of the updated model at each of its itera...

  16. A new virus discovered by immunocapture of double-stranded RNA, a rapid method for virus enrichment in metagenomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Arnaud G; Ross, Howard A; Hobson-Peters, Jody; O'Brien, Caitlin A; Warren, Ben; MacDiarmid, Robin

    2016-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies enable the rapid identification of viral infection of diseased organisms. However, despite a consistent decrease in sequencing costs, it is difficult to justify their use in large-scale surveys without a virus sequence enrichment technique. As the majority of plant viruses have an RNA genome, a common approach is to extract the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) replicative form, to enrich the replicating virus genetic material over the host background. The traditional dsRNA extraction is time-consuming and labour-intensive. We present an alternative method to enrich dsRNA from plant extracts using anti-dsRNA monoclonal antibodies in a pull-down assay. The extracted dsRNA can be amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced by next-generation sequencing. In our study, we have selected three distinct plant hosts: Māori potato (Solanum tuberosum), rengarenga (Arthropodium cirratum) and broadleaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius) representing a cultivated crop, a New Zealand-native ornamental plant and a weed, respectively. Of the sequence data obtained, 31-74% of the reads were of viral origin, and we identified five viruses including Potato virus Y and Potato virus S in potato; Turnip mosaic virus in rengarenga (a new host record); and in the dock sample Cherry leaf roll virus and a novel virus belonging to the genus Macluravirus. We believe that this new assay represents a significant opportunity to upscale virus ecology studies from environmental, primary industry and/or medical samples. PMID:26990372

  17. Aquatic sediments pollution estimate using the metal fractionation, secondary phase enrichment factor calculation, and used statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakan, Sanja; Popović, Aleksandar; Anđelković, Ivan; Đorđević, Dragana

    2016-06-01

    The sequential extraction procedure of the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) was applied for the fractionation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, and V in the Serbian river sediments. The aim of this paper was to describe a new approach in detection of anthropogenic elements in sediments, related to the Serbian river courses in order to assess their metal contamination. For sediment pollution evaluation, the risk assessment code (RAC) and the secondary phase enrichment factor (KSPEF) were used. Metal fractionation showed more easily mobilized forms predominant for copper, zinc, cadmium, manganese, and lead, which can be one of the indicators for anthropogenic source input. Chromium, nickel, iron, and vanadium found in the residual fraction indicate these metals may be an indicator for natural sources input. Based on RAC classification, results of sediments show no risk (Cr and V), low risk (Ni, Pb, and Fe), medium risk (Cu), high risk (Cd and Zn), and very high risk (Mn). The mean values of KSPEF were Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Mn > Pb > Fe > Cr > V, decreasing scale of no to moderately severe enrichment. The sediments were found to be contaminated by heavy metals to various extents, mostly Cd, Cu, and Zn. Research has shown the importance of KSPEF in quantifying degree of metal enrichment in sediments using results of sequential extraction. With the application of this factor, which is not frequently used in the scientific literature, the results obtained with sequential extraction can be used not only for assessment of mobility but also to quantify the metal pollution. PMID:26385383

  18. A Hybrid Design Optimization Method using Enriched Craig-Bampton Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akcay Perdahcioglu, D.; Ellenbroek, M.H.M.; Boer, de A.

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid design optimization method is presented which combines a number of techniques such as Component Mode Synthesis (CMS), Design of Computer Experiments and Neural Networks for surrogate modeling with Genetic Algorithms and Sequential Quadratic Programming for optimization. In the method, the F

  19. Qualitative Methods Can Enrich Quantitative Research on Occupational Stress: An Example from One Occupational Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Farrell, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The chapter examines the ways in which qualitative and quantitative methods support each other in research on occupational stress. Qualitative methods include eliciting from workers unconstrained descriptions of work experiences, careful first-hand observations of the workplace, and participant-observers describing "from the inside" a particular…

  20. A novel method for sample preparation of fresh lung cancer tissue for proteomics analysis by tumor cell enrichment and removal of blood contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orre Lotta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In-depth proteomics analyses of tumors are frequently biased by the presence of blood components and stromal contamination, which leads to large experimental variation and decreases the proteome coverage. We have established a reproducible method to prepare freshly collected lung tumors for proteomics analysis, aiming at tumor cell enrichment and reduction of plasma protein contamination. We obtained enriched tumor-cell suspensions (ETS from six lung cancer cases (two adenocarcinomas, two squamous-cell carcinomas, two large-cell carcinomas and from two normal lung samples. The cell content of resulting ETS was evaluated with immunocytological stainings and compared with the histologic pattern of the original specimens. By means of a quantitative mass spectrometry-based method we evaluated the reproducibility of the sample preparation protocol and we assessed the proteome coverage by comparing lysates from ETS samples with the direct lysate of corresponding fresh-frozen samples. Results Cytological analyses on cytospin specimens showed that the percentage of tumoral cells in the ETS samples ranged from 20% to 70%. In the normal lung samples the percentage of epithelial cells was less then 10%. The reproducibility of the sample preparation protocol was very good, with coefficient of variation at the peptide level and at the protein level of 13% and 7%, respectively. Proteomics analysis led to the identification of a significantly higher number of proteins in the ETS samples than in the FF samples (244 vs 109, respectively. Albumin and hemoglobin were among the top 5 most abundant proteins identified in the FF samples, showing a high contamination with blood and plasma proteins, whereas ubiquitin and the mitochondrial ATP synthase 5A1 where among the top 5 most abundant proteins in the ETS samples. Conclusion The method is feasible and reproducible. We could obtain a fair enrichment of cells but the major benefit of the method

  1. A novel method for the multiplexed target enrichment of MinION next generation sequencing libraries using PCR-generated baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamitros, Timokratis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas

    2015-01-01

    The enrichment of targeted regions within complex next generation sequencing libraries commonly uses biotinylated baits to capture the desired sequences. This method results in high read coverage over the targets and their flanking regions. Oxford Nanopore Technologies recently released an USB3.0-interfaced sequencer, the MinION. To date no particular method for enriching MinION libraries has been standardized. Here, using biotinylated PCR-generated baits in a novel approach, we describe a simple and efficient way for multiplexed enrichment of MinION libraries, overcoming technical limitations related with the chemistry of the sequencing-adapters and the length of the DNA fragments. Using Phage Lambda and Escherichia coli as models we selectively enrich for specific targets, significantly increasing the corresponding read-coverage, eliminating unwanted regions. We show that by capturing genomic fragments, which contain the target sequences, we recover reads extending targeted regions and thus can be used for the determination of potentially unknown flanking sequences. By pooling enriched libraries derived from two distinct E. coli strains and analyzing them in parallel, we demonstrate the efficiency of this method in multiplexed format. Crucially we evaluated the optimal bait size for large fragment libraries and we describe for the first time a standardized method for target enrichment in MinION platform. PMID:26240383

  2. A novel method for the multiplexed target enrichment of MinION next generation sequencing libraries using PCR-generated baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamitros, Timokratis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas

    2015-12-15

    The enrichment of targeted regions within complex next generation sequencing libraries commonly uses biotinylated baits to capture the desired sequences. This method results in high read coverage over the targets and their flanking regions. Oxford Nanopore Technologies recently released an USB3.0-interfaced sequencer, the MinION. To date no particular method for enriching MinION libraries has been standardized. Here, using biotinylated PCR-generated baits in a novel approach, we describe a simple and efficient way for multiplexed enrichment of MinION libraries, overcoming technical limitations related with the chemistry of the sequencing-adapters and the length of the DNA fragments. Using Phage Lambda and Escherichia coli as models we selectively enrich for specific targets, significantly increasing the corresponding read-coverage, eliminating unwanted regions. We show that by capturing genomic fragments, which contain the target sequences, we recover reads extending targeted regions and thus can be used for the determination of potentially unknown flanking sequences. By pooling enriched libraries derived from two distinct E. coli strains and analyzing them in parallel, we demonstrate the efficiency of this method in multiplexed format. Crucially we evaluated the optimal bait size for large fragment libraries and we describe for the first time a standardized method for target enrichment in MinION platform. PMID:26240383

  3. A design pattern for event-based processing of security-enriched SOAP messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko; Lo Iacono, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    For Web Services in Cloud Computing contexts, the efficient processing of XML documents is a major topic of interest. Especially for WS-Security-enriched messages, processing performance nowadays tends to become a major issue. Streaming XML processing approaches lead to valuable optimization due...

  4. Oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched mayonnaise-based salads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    significantly different from the standard mayonnaise in the volatile concentration during the end of storage. In fish oil-enriched shrimp salad, asparagus had an anti-oxidative effect and shrimp a pro-oxidative effect, where the anti-oxidative effect of asparagus was strong enough to prevent the pro...

  5. Enrichment of true positives from structural alerts through the use of novel atomic fragment based descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, A.; Rydberg, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    To enhance the discrimination rate for methods applying structural alerts and biotransformation rules in the prediction of toxicity and drug metabolism we have developed a set of novel fragment based atomic descriptors. These atomic descriptors encode the properties of the fragments separating an...

  6. Advanced enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century. (author)

  7. Method Development to Increase Protein Enrichment During Dry Fractionation of Starch-Rich Legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    A facile method was developed to establish milling settings that optimally separate starch granules from protein bodies and cell wall fibres for starch-rich legumes. Optimal separation was obtained for pea, bean, lentil and chickpea when the particle size distribution curve of flour and isolated sta

  8. Enriching GoldRush with core subject Open Access journals: motives and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Heather L.; Dunn, Lisa G.

    2006-01-01

    Open Access (OA) journals in some subject areas can be overlooked by existing OA database providers. Subject bibliographers at the Colorado School of Mines Library collected OA journals as part of their collection development responsibilities, and in the process identified 48 overlooked OA journals. The titles were uploaded to the Gold Rush e-journal management system, making them findable by all GoldRush users. The motives, methods, and analysis of this collaborative project are discussed.

  9. Characterization of a TiO2 enrichment method for label-free quantitative phosphoproteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Alex; Beltran, Luisa; Casado, Pedro; Rodríguez-Prados, Juan-Carlos; Cutillas, Pedro R.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorylation is a protein post-translational modification with key roles in the regulation of cell biochemistry and signaling. In-depth analysis of phosphorylation using mass spectrometry is permitting the investigation of processes controlled by phosphorylation at the system level. A critical step of these phosphoproteomics methods involves the isolation of phosphorylated peptides from the more abundant unmodified peptides produced by the digestion of cell lysates. Although different tech...

  10. TRIGA fuel enrichment verification based on the measurement of short-lived fission products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peir, J.-J.; Liu, C.-C. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, T.-K. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    1999-06-01

    A method is developed to verify the {sup 235}U content of TRIGA fresh fuel using gamma-ray spectrometry of the short-lived fission products {sup 97}Zr/{sup 97}Nb, {sup 132}I and {sup 140}La. The short-lived fission-product activities can be established by irradiating the fuel in a nuclear reactor. Based on the measured activities, the {sup 235}U content can be deduced by iterative calculations. The aim of this work is to establish a calibration method for estimating the burnup values of the rod-type spent fuels without the need for detailed data on fuel irradiation history.

  11. TRIGA fuel enrichment verification based on the measurement of short-lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is developed to verify the 235U content of TRIGA fresh fuel using gamma-ray spectrometry of the short-lived fission products 97Zr/97Nb, 132I and 140La. The short-lived fission-product activities can be established by irradiating the fuel in a nuclear reactor. Based on the measured activities, the 235U content can be deduced by iterative calculations. The aim of this work is to establish a calibration method for estimating the burnup values of the rod-type spent fuels without the need for detailed data on fuel irradiation history

  12. Multilevel correlations in the biological phosphorus removal process: From bacterial enrichment to conductivity-based metabolic batch tests and polyphosphatase assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrodt, David G; Maillard, Julien; Brovelli, Alessandro; Chabrelie, Alexandre; May, Jonathan; Holliger, Christof

    2014-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater relies on the preferential selection of active polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) in the underlying bacterial community continuum. Efficient management of the bacterial resource requires understanding of population dynamics as well as availability of bioanalytical methods for rapid and regular assessment of relative abundances of active PAOs and their glycogen-accumulating competitors (GAO). A systems approach was adopted here toward the investigation of multilevel correlations from the EBPR bioprocess to the bacterial community, metabolic, and enzymatic levels. Two anaerobic-aerobic sequencing-batch reactors were operated to enrich activated sludge in PAOs and GAOs affiliating with "Candidati Accumulibacter and Competibacter phosphates", respectively. Bacterial selection was optimized by dynamic control of the organic loading rate and the anaerobic contact time. The distinct core bacteriomes mainly comprised populations related to the classes Betaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, and Chloroflexi in the PAO enrichment and of Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Sphingobacteria in the GAO enrichment. An anaerobic metabolic batch test based on electrical conductivity evolution and a polyphosphatase enzymatic assay were developed for rapid and low-cost assessment of the active PAO fraction and dephosphatation potential of activated sludge. Linear correlations were obtained between the PAO fraction, biomass specific rate of conductivity increase under anaerobic conditions, and polyphosphate-hydrolyzing activity of PAO/GAO mixtures. The correlations between PAO/GAO ratios, metabolic activities, and conductivity profiles were confirmed by simulations with a mathematical model developed in the aqueous geochemistry software PHREEQC. PMID:24975745

  13. Is Job Enrichment Really Enriching?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Mohr; Cindy Zoghi

    2006-01-01

    This study uses a survey of Canadian workers with rich, matched data on job characteristics to examine whether “enriched” job design, with features like quality circles, feedback, suggestion programs, and task teams, affects job satisfaction. We identify two competing hypotheses on the relationship between enriched jobs and job satisfaction. The “motivation hypothesis,” implies that enrichment will generally increase satisfaction and the “intensification hypothesis,” implies that enrichment m...

  14. Enrichment Method for the Isolation of Bioactive Actinomycetes From Mangrove Sediments of Andaman Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran, R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various pre-treatment methods and three different media were employed for the isolation of bioactive actinomycetes from mangrove sediments of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Sediments from four different sites of mangrove forest were collected and pre-treated by dry heat method, and the media were supplemented with cycloheximide 80 µg/mL and nalidixic acid 75 µg/mL. The mean actinomycetes population density in sediment samples were recorded as 22 CFU-10^-6/gm in KUA medium followed by 12 CFU-10^-6/gm in AIA medium and 8 CFU-10^-6/gm in SCA medium. A total of 42 actinomycetes were isolated, and all the isolates were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria on two different media. Among 42 isolates tested, 22 species were found to be antibacterial metabolite producer against test bacteria namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Particularly, the actinomycete strains such as A101, A102, A107, A116, A121, A125, A130, F101, F102, F104, F106, De101 and De102 significantly inhibited the growth of all bacteria which were tested. Of these strains, A107 was identified as Streptomyces spp. This strain had the maximum activity against all used pathogens on both medium. Hence, the isolation, characterization and studies of secondary metabolites of actinomycetes from mangrove sediments in Andaman and Nicobar Island could be a pathway for discovery of antibiotics from marine actinomycetes.

  15. Uncovering Arabidopsis membrane protein interactome enriched in transporters using mating-based split ubiquitin assays and classification models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin eChen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput data are a double-edged sword; for the benefit of large amount of data, there is an associated cost of noise. To increase reliability and scalability of high-throughput protein interaction data generation, we tested the efficacy of classification to enrich potential protein-protein interactions (pPPIs. We applied this method to identify interactions among Arabidopsis membrane proteins enriched in transporters. We validated our method with multiple retests. Classification improved the quality of the ensuing interaction network and was effective in reducing the search space and increasing true positive rate. The final network of 541 interactions among 239 proteins (of which 179 are transporters is the first protein interaction network enriched in membrane transporters reported for any organism. This network has similar topological attributes to other published protein interaction networks. It also extends and fills gaps in currently available biological networks in plants and allows building a number of hypotheses about processes and mechanisms involving signal-transduction and transport systems.

  16. Gene-Based Analysis of Regionally Enriched Cortical Genes in GWAS Data Sets of Cognitive Traits and Psychiatric Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersland, Kari M; Christoforou, Andrea; Stansberg, Christine;

    2012-01-01

    Despite its estimated high heritability, the genetic architecture leading to differences in cognitive performance remains poorly understood. Different cortical regions play important roles in normal cognitive functioning and impairment. Recently, we reported on sets of regionally enriched genes in...... three different cortical areas (frontomedial, temporal and occipital cortices) of the adult rat brain. It has been suggested that genes preferentially, or specifically, expressed in one region or organ reflect functional specialisation. Employing a gene-based approach to the analysis, we used the...... regionally enriched cortical genes to mine a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the Norwegian Cognitive NeuroGenetics (NCNG) sample of healthy adults for association to nine psychometric tests measures. In addition, we explored GWAS data sets for the serious psychiatric disorders schizophrenia (SCZ) (n...

  17. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GAO was asked to address several questions concerning a number of proposed uranium enrichment bills introduced during the 100th Congress. The bill would have restructured the Department of Energy's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation to allow it to compete more effectively in the domestic and international markets. Some of GAO's findings discussed are: uranium market experts believe and existing market models show that the proposed DOE purchase of a $750 million of uranium from domestic producers may not significantly increase production because of large producer-held inventories; excess uranium enrichment production capacity exists throughout the world; therefore, foreign producers are expected to compete heavily in the United States throughout the 1990s as utilities' contracts with DOE expire; and according to a 1988 agreement between DOE's Offices of Nuclear Energy and Defense Programs, enrichment decommissioning costs, estimated to total $3.6 billion for planning purposes, will be shared by the commercial enrichment program and the government

  18. L-Lactate-selective microbial sensor based on flavocytochrome b2-enriched yeast cells using recombinant and nanotechnology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkovska, Maria; Smutok, Oleh; Stasyuk, Nataliya; Gonchar, Mykhailo

    2015-11-01

    In the recent years, nanotechnology is the most developing branch due to a wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, biotechnological and agriculture fields. The binding nanoparticles with various biological molecules makes them attractive candidates for using in sensor technologies. The particularly actual is obtaining the bionanomembranes based on biocatalytic elements with improved sensing characteristics. The aim of this investigation is to study the properties of microbial L-lactate-selective sensor based on using the recombinant Hansenula polymorpha yeast cells overproducing flavocytochrome b2 (FC b2), as well as additionally enriched by the enzyme bound with gold nanoparticles (FC b2-nAu). Although, the high permeability of the living cells to nanoparticles is being intensively studied (mostly for delivery of drugs), the idea of using both recombinant technology and nanotechnology to increase the amount of the target enzyme in the biosensing layer is really novel. The FC b2-nAu-enriched living and permeabilized yeast cells were used for construction of a bioselective membrane of microbial L-lactate-selective amperometric biosensor. Phenazine methosulphate was served as a free defusing electron transfer mediator which provides effective electron transfer from the reduced enzyme to the electrode surface. It was shown that the output to L-lactate of FC b2-nAu-enriched permeabilized yeast cells is 2.5-fold higher when compared to the control cells. The obtained results confirm that additional enrichment of the recombinant yeast cell by the enzyme bound with nanoparticles improves the analytical parameters of microbial sensor. PMID:26452947

  19. Validation of a novel cognitive bias task based on difference in quantity of reinforcement for assessing environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Heidi A; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Evans, Marc; Shepherdson, David J; Newberry, Ruth C

    2014-05-01

    Cognitive bias tasks purport to assess affective states via responses to ambiguous stimuli. We hypothesized that a novel cognitive bias task based on positive reinforcement using quantity differences would detect changes in affect in captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). We trained bears (n = 8) to respond differently (nose or paw touch) to two stimuli (light or dark gray cue cards), with responses counterbalanced across bears. The two cues signaled a small or large food reward, respectively. Responses to ambiguous probe stimuli (i.e., shades of gray) intermediate to the trained stimuli were classified as either 'optimistic,' appropriate for the larger reward, or 'pessimistic,' appropriate for the smaller reward. In Experiment 1, we explored the contrast in reward size necessary to detect a change in response across probe stimuli (large reward, 3 or 6 apple slices: small reward, 1 slice). We observed a change in response across probe stimuli, with no difference in response between reward-value groups, indicating that a contrast of 3:1 apple slices was sufficient to affect responses. In Experiment 2, we investigated cognitive bias after 2.1 h of exposure to enrichment items varying in attractiveness. Results were unaffected by enrichment type or time spent interacting with enrichments, indicating that the task failed to demonstrate criterion validity for comparing mood following exposure to different enrichment items. However, greater time spent pacing prior to testing was associated with 'optimistic' judgments. The data provide some support for use of cognitive bias tasks based on quantity differences in animal welfare assessments involving captive wildlife. PMID:24045850

  20. ENRICHMENT OF SECURITY THROUGH CRYPTOGRAPHIC PUBLIC KEY ALGORITHM BASED ON BLOCK CIPHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAKASH KUPPUSWAMY

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Data Security using cryptography has emerged as a topic of significant interest in both academic and industry circles. This paper deals with a new algorithm, which is based on linear block cipher. Our goal is to build upon the new Asymmetric key algorithm based on linear block cipher or Hill cipher encryption codes of existing methods and design a set of simulation and emulation. It is the scheme based on the block cipher. All the encryption is based on the Alphabets and numbers. Here, we are creating synthetic data value, based on the 26 alphabets and 0-9 numerals. Encryption as cipher text use invertible square matrix, blocking the message according to the selected square matrix i.e if the square matrix is 3 x 3 make the message or plain text 3 blocks, and select ‘e’ as any natural number and multiply with selected matrix and message, use modulation 37, then the remainder is our cipher text or encrypted message. This factor is then transmitted. At decryption we use the inverse of the square matrix and inverse of e value which is now called as d and multiply with received message and use modulation 37, then remainder is our plain Text or message. The decryption algorithm will be there for the receiver as the private key known as k!. The concept of this new algorithm is based on modular 37 (alphabets an numerals whereas existing algorithms are based only on modular 26 (only alphabets. We are naming this linear based algorithm as New linear block cipher or Nlbc.

  1. Centrifuge enrichment plants. January 1970-October 1988 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-October 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the design, control, monitoring, and safety of centrifuge enrichment plants. Power supplies, enrichment plant safeguards, facility design, cascade heater test loops to monitor the enrichment process, inspection strategies, and the socio-economic effects of centrifuge enrichment plants are examined. Radioactive waste disposal problems are briefly considered. (Contains 151 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  2. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada is the world's largest producer and exporter of uranium, most of which is enriched elsewhere for use as fuel in LWRs. The feasibility of a Canadian uranium-enrichment enterprise is therefore a perennial question. Recent developments in uranium-enrichment technology, and their likely impacts on separative work supply and demand, suggest an opportunity window for Canadian entry into this international market. The Canadian opportunity results from three particular impacts of the new technologies: 1) the bulk of the world's uranium-enrichment capacity is in gaseous diffusion plants which, because of their large requirements for electricity (more than 2000 kW·h per SWU), are vulnerable to competition from the new processes; 2) the decline in enrichment costs increases the economic incentive for the use of slightly-enriched uranium (SEU) fuel in CANDU reactors, thus creating a potential Canadian market; and 3) the new processes allow economic operation on a much smaller scale, which drastically reduces the investment required for market entry and is comparable with the potential Canadian SEU requirement. The opportunity is not open-ended. By the end of the century the enrichment supply industry will have adapted to the new processes and long-term customer/supplier relationships will have been established. In order to seize the opportunity, Canada must become a credible supplier during this century

  3. Safety Issues Related to Production of Fission-based Mo-99 by Using Low Enriched Uranium (LEU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) is the daughter element of Molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and is work horse of modern nuclear diagnostic. More than 80% (.30 million patients with a growth rate of 1% to 2%) of the world-wide nuclear diagnostic imaging procedures are being carried out by using Tc-99m. Mo-99 can be produced either by reactor-based technology or by accelerator-based technology. Cross sections for reactor and accelerator based technologies are shown in Table 1. Keeping in view the above results, the fission-based option remains an appropriate option for production of Mo-99 on commercial scale. In order to produce fission-based Mo-99 from research reactors two types of targets are being developed and irradiated: HEU with U-235 enrichments more than 90 wt% of U-235 and LEU with U-235 enrichments less than 20wt% of U-235. It is worth noting that medium enriched uranium i.e. 36wt% of U-235 as being used in South Africa is also regarded as non-LEU from the nuclear security point of view. The purpose of this review was to look into the comparative studies of the LEU and HEU targets as well as to discuss and compile the safety issues related to irradiation and processing of LEU targets. Mo-99 production from LEU targets comparable to HEU targets will need more targets, more irradiation facilities, appropriate transportation for large number of irradiated targets and processing facilities capable of holding more liquid and solid waste in comparison to HEU process facilities. The production of radioactive waste is inadvertent however; its impact can be lessened by adopting effective waste storage, monitoring and disposal strategies

  4. Iron oxide nanoparticle coating of organic polymer-based monolithic columns for phosphopeptide enrichment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenková, Jana; Foret, František

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 34, 16-17 (2011), s. 2106-2112. ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA ČR(CZ) GPP206/11/P004 Grant ostatní: Jihomoravský kraj(CZ) 2SGA2721 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : iron oxide nanoparticles * monolithic column * phosphopeptide enrichment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2011

  5. Potential seaweed-based food ingredients to inhibit lipid oxidation in fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honold, Philipp; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Jónsdóttir, Rósa;

    2016-01-01

    partitioning between water and octanol. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated in a fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise. Acetone and ethanol were found to extract the highest amount of phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Water used as extraction solvent, extracted some phenolic compounds...... but also higher amount of metals and chlorophyll derivates. It was proposed that extracts with high phenolic content and low iron content, such as the acetone and ethanol extract, would have the highest potential as antioxidants in foods. This was confirmed in the storage trial, where these extracts...

  6. Resin-assisted enrichment of thiols as a general strategy for proteomic profiling of cysteine-based reversible modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jia [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gaffrey, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Su, Dian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Liu, Tao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Camp, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Richard D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qian, Weijun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-12

    Reversible modifications on cysteine thiols play a significant role in redox signaling and regulation. A number of reversible redox modifications, including disulfide formation, S-nitrosylation, and S-glutathionylation, have been recognized for their significance in various physiological and pathological processes. Here we describe in detail a resin-assisted thiol-affinity enrichment protocol for both biochemical and proteomics applications. This protocol serves as a general approach for specific isolation of thiol-containing proteins or peptides derived from reversible redox-modified proteins. This approach utilizes thiol-affinity resins to directly capture thiol-containing proteins or peptides through a disulfide exchange reaction followed by on-resin protein digestion and on-resin multiplexed isobaric labeling to facilitate LC-MS/MS based quantitative site-specific analysis of redox modifications. The overall approach requires a much simpler workflow with increased specificity compared to the commonly used biotin switch technique. By coupling different selective reduction strategies, the resin-assisted approach provides the researcher with a useful tool capable of enriching different types of reversible modifications on protein thiols. Procedures for selective enrichment and analyses of S-nitrosylation and total reversible cysteine oxidation are presented to demonstrate the utility of this general strategy.

  7. On using enriched cover function in the Partition-of-unity method for singular boundary-value problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Lee, C. K.; Fan, S. C.

    Amongst the various approaches of `meshless' method, the Partition-of-unity concept married with the traditional finite-element method, namely PUFEM, has emerged to be competitive in solving the boundary-value problems. It inherits most of the advantages from both techniques except that the beauty of being `meshless' vanishes. This paper presents an alternative approach to solve singular boundary-value problems. It follows the basic PUFEM procedures. The salient feature is to enhance the quality of the influence functions, either over one single nodal cover or multi-nodal-covers. In the vicinity of the singularity, available asymptotic analytical solution is employed to enrich the influence function. The beauty of present approach is that it facilitates easy replacement of the influence functions. In other words, it favors the `influence-function refinement' procedure in a bid to search for more accurate solutions. It is analogous to the `p-version refinement' in the traditional finite-element procedures. The present approach can yield very accurate solution without adopting refined meshes. As a result, the quantities around the singularity can be evaluated directly once the nodal values are solved. No additional post-processing is needed. Firstly, the formulation of the present PUFEM approach is described. Subsequently, illustrative examples show the application to three classical singular benchmark problems having various orders of singularity. Results obtained through mesh refinements, single-nodal-cover refinements or multi-nodal-cover refinements are compared.

  8. Enantiomorphous Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica-Based Nanocomposite Hydrogel Scaffolds for Cell Adhesion and Cell Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehr, Nermin Seda

    2016-03-14

    The chemical functionalization of nanomaterials with bioactive molecules has been used as an effective tool to mimic extracellular matrix (ECM) and to study the cell-material interaction in tissue engineering applications. In this respect, this study demonstrates the use of enantiomerically functionalized periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMO) for the generation of new multifunctional 3D nanocomposite (NC) hydrogels to control the affinity of cells to the hydrogel surfaces and so to control the enrichment of cells and simultaneous drug delivery in 3D network. The functionalization of PMO with enantiomers of bioactive molecules, preparation of their nanocomposite hydrogels, and the stereoselective interaction of them with selected cell types are described. The results show that the affinity of cells to the respective NC hydrogel scaffolds is affected by the nature of the biomolecule and its enantiomers, which is more pronounced in serum containing media. The differentiation of enantiomorphous NC hydrogels by cells is used to enrich one cell type from a mixture of two cells. Finally, PMO are utilized as nanocontainers to release two different dye molecules as a proof of principle for multidrug delivery in 3D NC hydrogel scaffolds. PMID:26811946

  9. Network-Based Enriched Gene Subnetwork Identification: A Game-Theoretic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Abolfazl; Afghah, Fatemeh; Singh, Salendra; Varadan, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Identifying subsets of genes that jointly mediate cancer etiology, progression, or therapy response remains a challenging problem due to the complexity and heterogeneity in cancer biology, a problem further exacerbated by the relatively small number of cancer samples profiled as compared with the sheer number of potential molecular factors involved. Pure data-driven methods that merely rely on multiomics data have been successful in discovering potentially functional genes but suffer from high false-positive rates and tend to report subsets of genes whose biological interrelationships are unclear. Recently, integrative data-driven models have been developed to integrate multiomics data with signaling pathway networks in order to identify pathways associated with clinical or biological phenotypes. However, these approaches suffer from an important drawback of being restricted to previously discovered pathway structures and miss novel genomic interactions as well as potential crosstalk among the pathways. In this article, we propose a novel coalition-based game-theoretic approach to overcome the challenge of identifying biologically relevant gene subnetworks associated with disease phenotypes. The algorithm starts from a set of seed genes and traverses a protein–protein interaction network to identify modulated subnetworks. The optimal set of modulated subnetworks is identified using Shapley value that accounts for both individual and collective utility of the subnetwork of genes. The algorithm is applied to two illustrative applications, including the identification of subnetworks associated with (i) disease progression risk in response to platinum-based therapy in ovarian cancer and (ii) immune infiltration in triple-negative breast cancer. The results demonstrate an improved predictive power of the proposed method when compared with state-of-the-art feature selection methods, with the added advantage of identifying novel potentially functional gene subnetworks

  10. Full waveform inversion based on scattering angle enrichment with application to real dataset

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2015-08-19

    Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI). However, the drawback of the existing RWI methods is inability to utilize diving waves and the extra sensitivity to the migrated image. We propose a combined FWI and RWI optimization problem through dividing the velocity into the background and perturbed components. We optimize both the background and perturbed components, as independent parameters. The new objective function is quadratic with respect to the perturbed component, which will reduce the nonlinearity of the optimization problem. Solving this optimization provides a true amplitude image and utilizes the diving waves to update the velocity of the shallow parts. To insure a proper wavenumber continuation, we use an efficient scattering angle filter to direct the inversion at the early stages to direct energy corresponding to large (smooth velocity) scattering angles to the background velocity update and the small (high wavenumber) scattering angles to the perturbed velocity update. This efficient implementation of the filter is fast and requires less memory than the conventional approach based on extended images. Thus, the new FWI procedure updates the background velocity mainly along the wavepath for both diving and reflected waves in the initial stages. At the same time, it updates the perturbation with mainly reflections (filtering out the diving waves). To demonstrate the capability of this method, we apply it to a real 2D marine dataset.

  11. Bioremediation of oil sludge contaminated soil using bulking agent mixture enriched consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulking agent mixture enriched consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost was used on bioremediation of microcosm scale contaminated by hydrocarbon soil. Bioremediation composting was carried out for 42 days. Composting was done with a mixture of bulking agent (sawdust, residual sludge biogas and compost) by 30%, mud petroleum (oil sludge) by 20% and 50% of soil. Mixture of 80% soil and 20% oil sludge was used as a control. Irradiated compost was used as a carrier for consortia of microbial inoculants (F + B) which biodegradable hydrocarbons. Treatment variations include A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2, D1 and D2. Process parameters were observed to determine the optimal conditions include: temperature, pH, water content, TPC (Total Plate Count) and degradation of % TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon). Optimal conditions were achieved in the remediation of oil sludge contamination of 20% using the B2 treatment with the addition consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost of sawdust (bulking agentby 30% at concentrations of soil by 50% with TPH degradation optimal efficiency of 81.32%. The result of GC-MS analysis showed that bioremediation for 42 days by using a sawdust as a mixture of bulking agents which enriched consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost is biodegradeable, so initial hydrocarbons with the distribution of the carbon chain C-7 to C-54 into final hydrocarbons with the distribution of carbon chain C-6 to C-8. (author)

  12. New method for GC/FID and GC-C-IRMS Analysis of plasma free fatty acid concentration and isotopic enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Kangani, Cyrous O.; Kelley, David E.; DeLany, James P.

    2008-01-01

    A simple, direct and accurate method for the determination of concentration and enrichment of free fatty acids in human plasma was developed. The validation and comparison to a conventional method are reported. Three amide derivatives, dimethyl, diethyl and pyrrolidide, were investigated in order to achieve optimal resolution of the individual fatty acids. This method involves the use of dimethylamine/Deoxo-Fluor to derivatize plasma free fatty acids to their dimethylamides. This derivatizati...

  13. Tree-based ranking methods

    OpenAIRE

    Clémençon, Stéphan; Vayatis, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    The paper investigates how recursive partitioning methods can be adapted to the bipartite ranking problem. In ranking, the pursued goal is global: based on past data, define an order on the whole input space X, so that positive instances take up the top ranks with maximum probability. The most natural way to order all instances consists of projecting the input data onto the real line through a real-valued scoring function s and use the natural order on R. The accuracy of the ordering induced ...

  14. Improving the Enrichment and Plating Methods for Rapid Detection of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Dairy Compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongye; Chen, Zhao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2016-03-01

    A culture method to detect non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was optimized in this study. The finished dairy compost with 30% moisture content was inoculated with a cocktail of six non-O157 STEC serovars at initial concentrations of 1 to 100 CFU/g. Afterward, non-O157 STEC cells in the inoculated dairy compost were enriched by four methods, followed by plating onto cefixime-tellurite sorbitol MacConkey agar supplemented with 5 mg/liter novobiocin (CTNSMAC) and modified Rainbow agar containing 5 mg/liter novobiocin, 0.05 mg/liter cefixime trihydrate, and 0.15 mg/liter potassium tellurite (mRBA). Immunomagnetic bead separation (IMS) was used to compare the cell concentration of individual non-O157 STEC serotypes after enrichment. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between CTN-SMAC and mRBA for non-O157 STEC enumeration. The single-step selective enrichment recovered ca. 0.54 log CFU/g more cells (ca. 0.41 log CFU/g for compost-adapted cells) (P < 0.05) compared with the two-step enrichment. Furthermore, the duration of the process to detect non-O157 STEC from dairy compost by selective enrichment, followed by IMS, was optimized. Among six non-O157 STEC serotypes, serotypes O111, O45, and O145 reached the highest cell density after enrichment in dairy compost, and the cell populations reached 7.3, 7.4, and 7.8 log CFU/g within 16 h of incubation, respectively. In contrast, without an enrichment step, the IMS detection limit of individual non-O157 STEC serovars ranged from 3.15 to 4.15 log CFU/g in dairy compost. These results demonstrate that low levels of non-O157 STEC can be detected within 2 days from dairy compost by using a culture method with an optimized enrichment procedure followed by IMS. PMID:26939651

  15. New method for GC/FID and GC-C-IRMS analysis of plasma free fatty acid concentration and isotopic enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangani, Cyrous O; Kelley, David E; Delany, James P

    2008-09-15

    A simple, direct and accurate method for the determination of concentration and enrichment of free fatty acids (FFAs) in human plasma was developed. The validation and comparison to a conventional method are reported. Three amide derivatives, dimethyl, diethyl and pyrrolidide, were investigated in order to achieve optimal resolution of the individual fatty acids. This method involves the use of dimethylamine/Deoxo-Fluor to derivatize plasma free fatty acids to their dimethylamides. This derivatization method is very mild and efficient, and is selective only towards FFAs so that no separation from a total lipid extract is required. The direct method gave lower concentrations for palmitic acid and stearic acid and increased concentrations for oleic acid and linoleic acid in plasma as compared to methyl ester derivative after thin-layer chromatography. The [(13)C]palmitate isotope enrichment measured using direct method was significantly higher than that observed with the BF(3)/MeOH-TLC method. The present method provided accurate and precise measures of concentration as well as enrichment when analyzed with gas chromatography combustion-isotope ratio-mass spectrometry. PMID:18757250

  16. DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN METHODS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOFMAYER,C.MILLER,C.WANG,Y.COSTELLO,J.

    2003-07-15

    A research effort was undertaken to determine the need for any changes to USNRC's seismic regulatory practice to reflect the move, in the earthquake engineering community, toward using expected displacement rather than force (or stress) as the basis for assessing design adequacy. The research explored the extent to which displacement based seismic design methods, such as given in FEMA 273, could be useful for reviewing nuclear power stations. Two structures common to nuclear power plants were chosen to compare the results of the analysis models used. The first structure is a four-story frame structure with shear walls providing the primary lateral load system, referred herein as the shear wall model. The second structure is the turbine building of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. The models were analyzed using both displacement based (pushover) analysis and nonlinear dynamic analysis. In addition, for the shear wall model an elastic analysis with ductility factors applied was also performed. The objectives of the work were to compare the results between the analyses, and to develop insights regarding the work that would be needed before the displacement based analysis methodology could be considered applicable to facilities licensed by the NRC. A summary of the research results, which were published in NUREGICR-6719 in July 2001, is presented in this paper.

  17. Job Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Rick

    1970-01-01

    Job enrichment means giving people more decision-making power, more responsibility, more grasp of the totality of the job, and a sense of their own importance in the company. This article presents evidence of the successful working of this approach (Donnelly Mirrors), and the lack of success with an opposing approach (General Motors). (NL)

  18. Affinity-based enrichment strategies to assay methyl-CpG binding activity and DNA methylation in early Xenopus embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Ozren

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation is a widespread epigenetic modification in vertebrate genomes. Genomic sites of DNA methylation can be bound by methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins (MBDs and specific zinc finger proteins, which can recruit co-repressor complexes to silence transcription on targeted loci. The binding to methylated DNA may be regulated by post-translational MBD modifications. Findings A methylated DNA affinity precipitation method was implemented to assay binding of proteins to methylated DNA. Endogenous MeCP2 and MBD3 were precipitated from Xenopus oocyte extracts and conditions for methylation-specific binding were optimized. For a reverse experiment, DNA methylation in early Xenopus embryos was assessed by MBD affinity capture. Conclusions A methylated DNA affinity resin can be applied to probe for MBD activity in extracts. This assay has a broad application potential as it can be coupled to downstream procedures such as western blotting, fluorimetric HDAC assays and quantitative mass spectrometry. Methylated DNA affinity capture by methyl-CpG binding proteins produces fractions highly enriched for methylated DNA, suitable for coupling to next generation sequencing technologies. The two enrichment strategies allow probing of methyl-CpG protein interactions in early vertebrate oocytes and embryos.

  19. A strategy for enrichment of the bioactive sphingoid base-1-phosphates produced by Hypericum perforatum L. in a balloon type airlift reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, You-Xun; Cui, Xi-Hua; Paek, Kee-Yoeup; Yim, Yong-Hyeon

    2012-11-01

    An efficient enrichment method using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) was developed for selective extraction of bioactive sphingoid base-1-phosphates (SB1Ps) from adventitious roots of Hypericum perforatum cultured in bioreactor. The phosphate-selective IMAC enrichment coupled with LC-MS/MS enabled sensitive analysis of low-abundance SB1Ps present in the root biomass, which would not be feasible otherwise due to severe interferences from complex biological matrices. The time-dependent growth rate and production of SB1Ps from adventitious roots were investigated. The level of phytosphingosine-1-phosphate, which was found to be the major SB1Ps, reached a maximum amount of 635.6pmolpergram of dry weight after 3weeks of culture and decreased between 3 and 5weeks of culture subsequently. On the other hand, sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphinganine-1-phosphate were present at levels of 18.91 and 73.15pmolpergram of dry weight, respectively, after a week of culture and their level decreased thereafter. PMID:22940331

  20. Development of a real-time PCR method coupled with a selective pre-enrichment step for quantification of Morganella morganii and Morganella psychrotolerans in fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podeur, Gaetan; Dalgaard, Paw; Leroi, Francoise; Prevost, Herve; Emborg, Jette; Martinussen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Filet, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    quantitative enrichment step with a selective Medium was included and improved the sensitivity of the methods to a LOQ of below 50 CFU/g in seafood. RTi qPCR methods with or without enrichment were,evaluated for enumeration of Morganella species in naturally contaminated fresh fish and lightly preserved...... poisoning. Morganella morganii and Morganella psychrotolerans are both strong producer of histamine. However, little is known about the occurrence and critical stages for fish contamination with these bacteria. To elucidate contamination routes of Morganella, specific real-time quantitative PCR (RTi q......PCR) methods for quantification of M. morganii and M. psychrotolerans have been developed. Selective primers amplified a 110 bp region of the vasD gene for M. psychrotolerans and a 171 bp region of the galactokinase gene for M. morganii. These primer-sets showed high specificity as demonstrated by using...

  1. A history-based method to estimate animal preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Caroline Marques; Volpato, Gilson Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Giving animals their preferred items (e.g., environmental enrichment) has been suggested as a method to improve animal welfare, thus raising the question of how to determine what animals want. Most studies have employed choice tests for detecting animal preferences. However, whether choice tests represent animal preferences remains a matter of controversy. Here, we present a history-based method to analyse data from individual choice tests to discriminate between preferred and non-preferred items. This method differentially weighs choices from older and recent tests performed over time. Accordingly, we provide both a preference index that identifies preferred items contrasted with non-preferred items in successive multiple-choice tests and methods to detect the strength of animal preferences for each item. We achieved this goal by investigating colour choices in the Nile tilapia fish species. PMID:27350213

  2. An impact of an enriched visual - verbal information remittance, regarding crawl style swimming, learning and teaching effects basing on AWF students in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaca M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to define an enriched impact, visual -verbal information remittance in a swimming teaching process affecting free style progression. Research was done in academic year 2007/2008 and involved 158 students from AWF in Cracow. The main exploratory method was a natural pedagogic experiment. Experimental factor was a teaching method relied on an enriched visual - verbal information remittance. Acquired research scores reveal that the apply teaching method focused on the auto observation and self-assessment of one's own skills (with the use of parallel display, improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning crawl technique process.

  3. Application of the A/E pulse shape discrimination method to first Ge-76 enriched BEGe detectors operated in GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaro, Andrea; Agostini, Matteo; Budjas, Dusan; Schoenert, Stefan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    In 2013 the Gerda experiment will be upgraded to its second phase with more than double of the current {sup 76}Ge mass. The additional diodes are custom made Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors. This design has been chosen to enhance the pulse shape discrimination (PSD) capability, with respect to the Phase I coaxial detectors. The goal of Phase II is to improve by one order of magnitude the current background index; the PSD will bring a major contribution to this result. Since summer 2012 the first set of five enriched BEGe detectors are operated in Gerda Phase I. This offers us the possibility to test the PSD performances and the signal analysis in an environment as close as possible to the Gerda Phase II configuration. In this talk I present the A/E analysis, the calibration of the cut parameters and the results in terms of background reduction for the data taken with these enriched BEGe.

  4. Application of the A/E pulse shape discrimination method to first Ge-76 enriched BEGe detectors operated in GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2013 the Gerda experiment will be upgraded to its second phase with more than double of the current 76Ge mass. The additional diodes are custom made Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors. This design has been chosen to enhance the pulse shape discrimination (PSD) capability, with respect to the Phase I coaxial detectors. The goal of Phase II is to improve by one order of magnitude the current background index; the PSD will bring a major contribution to this result. Since summer 2012 the first set of five enriched BEGe detectors are operated in Gerda Phase I. This offers us the possibility to test the PSD performances and the signal analysis in an environment as close as possible to the Gerda Phase II configuration. In this talk I present the A/E analysis, the calibration of the cut parameters and the results in terms of background reduction for the data taken with these enriched BEGe.

  5. SciMiner: web-based literature mining tool for target identification and functional enrichment analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hur, Junguk; Schuyler, Adam D.; States, David J.; Eva L Feldman

    2009-01-01

    Summary:SciMiner is a web-based literature mining and functional analysis tool that identifies genes and proteins using a context specific analysis of MEDLINE abstracts and full texts. SciMiner accepts a free text query (PubMed Entrez search) or a list of PubMed identifiers as input. SciMiner uses both regular expression patterns and dictionaries of gene symbols and names compiled from multiple sources. Ambiguous acronyms are resolved by a scoring scheme based on the co-occurrence of acronyms...

  6. A Walk-based Semantically Enriched Tree Kernel Over Distributed Word Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srivastava, Shashank; Hovy, Dirk

    We propose a walk-based graph kernel that generalizes the notion of tree-kernels to continuous spaces. Our proposed approach subsumes a general framework for word-similarity, and in particular, provides a flexible way to incorporate distributed representations. Using vector representations, such ...... diverse NLP tasks, showing state-of-the-art results....

  7. A method to assess relative preference for training and environmental enrichment in captive wolves (Canis lupus and Canis lupus arctos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorey, Nicole R; Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Tacey, Jay

    2015-11-01

    It is currently debated as to whether or not positive reinforcement training is enriching to captive animals. Although both husbandry training and environmental enrichment (EE) have been found to benefit animal welfare in captivity, to date, no systematic investigation has compared an animal's preference for performing a trained behavior to engaging freely with a stimuli provided as EE. In the current paper, we used four captive wolves to (1) test the efficacy of a paired-stimulus preference assessment to determine preference for engaging in a trained behavior as a choice; and to (2) use a paired-stimulus preference assessment to determine whether or not individuals prefer to engage in a previously trained behavior versus a previously encountered EE stimuli. Of the four subjects tested, visual inspection of the graphs revealed that two of the subjects preferred trained behavior stimuli and two of the subjects preferred EE stimuli; only one of the wolves had a statically higher preference for an EE stimulus over a trained behavior. We believe that letting the animals choose between these two events is the first step in answering the question of whether or not is training enriching, however more research needs to be done and suggestions for future research is discussed. PMID:26274933

  8. Blueprint for domestic uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AEC advisory committee on domestic production of uranium enrichment has studied for more than a year how to achieve the domestic enrichment of uranium by the construction and operation of a commercial enriching plant using centrifugal separation method, and the report was submitted to the Atomic Energy Commission on August 18, 1980. Japan has depended wholly on overseas services for her uranium enrichment needs, but the development of domestic enrichment has been carried on in parallel. The AEC decided to construct a uranium enrichment pilot plant using centrifuges, and it has been forwarded as a national project. The plant is operated by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. since 1979. The capacity of the plant will be raised to approximately 75 ton SWU a year. The centrifuges already operated have provided the first delivery of fuel of about 1 ton for the ATR ''Fugen''. The demand-supply balance of uranium enrichment service, the significance of the domestic enrichment of uranium, the evaluation of uranium enrichment technology, the target for domestic enrichment plan, the measures to promote domestic uranium enrichment, and the promotion of the construction of a demonstration plant are reported. (Kako, I.)

  9. SNP-PRAGE: SNP-based parametric robust analysis of gene set enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jaehoon; Ahn, Soyeon; Oh, Sohee; Weir, Bruce; Park, Taesung

    2011-01-01

    Background The current genome-wide association (GWA) analysis mainly focuses on the single genetic variant, which may not reveal some the genetic variants that have small individual effects but large joint effects. Considering the multiple SNPs jointly in Genome-wide association (GWA) analysis can increase power. When multiple SNPs are jointly considered, the corresponding SNP-level association measures are likely to be correlated due to the linkage disequilibrium (LD) among SNPs. Methods We ...

  10. Contemporary technology of enrichment of kaolins of Angren deposit. II. Removal of impurities and whitening of kaolins: using electrophysical and chemical methods of cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contemporary methods of enrichment of Angren kaolins have been described. The electrophoresis and chemical whitening are demonstrated to be the most effective methods of scavenging. Application of ultrasonic dispersion, electrophoresis and chemical whitening methods allows one to obtain kaolin with whiteness ≅ 88% and content of iron oxides ≅ 0.4%. Using such kaolin as a sorbent at de coloration of plant oil have been shown good adsorption properties, meeting the level of world-wide standards for such class of materials. (authors)

  11. Comparison of iridium- and ruthenium-based, Pt-surface-enriched, nanosize catalysts for the oxygen-reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D.; Goor, M.; Alon, M.; Tsizin, S.; Burstein, L.; Rosenberg, Y.; Popov, I.; Peled, E.

    2016-02-01

    Pt-surface-enriched nanosize catalysts (Pt-SENS catalysts) with ruthenium and iridium cores, supported on XC72, were synthesized and characterized. The structure and composition of the catalysts are determined by Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical characterization tests, including oxygen-reduction-catalysis activity and durability studies of catalysts are performed with the use of cyclic-voltammetry and rotating-disk-electrode (RDE) techniques at room temperature. The ORR activity of the homemade catalysts is also compared to ORR activity of commercial 50%Pt/C catalyst. It is determined that the Ir-based catalyst (Pt/Ir/XC72) shows higher ORR activity in terms of A g-1 of Pt (at 0.85 V vs. RHE) than the Ru-based catalyst (Pt/Ru/XC72) and the commercial 50%Pt/C. The Ru-based catalyst shows similar ORR activity in terms of A g-1 of Pt, to that of the commercial 50%Pt/C, but with much lower durability.

  12. Targeted Screening With Combined Age- and Morphology-Based Criteria Enriches Detection of Lynch Syndrome in Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Douglas I; Hecht, Jonathan L

    2016-06-01

    Endometrial cancer is associated with Lynch syndrome in 2% to 6% of cases. Adequate screening may prevent of a second cancer and incident cancers in family members via risk-reducing strategies. The goal of the study was to evaluate the detection rate of Lynch syndrome via a targeted screening approach. In 2009, we incorporated targeted Lynch syndrome screening via immunohistochemistry for MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6, followed by MLH1 promoter hypermethylation, in select cases of endometrial carcinoma. Criteria for patient selection included (1) all patients ovarian carcinomas); (3) clinician's request based on family or personal history; and (4) ad hoc retrospective testing based on the established criteria on patients discovered on follow-up visits. By using a targeted screening approach in a 4.5-year period, approximately 2.1% of endometrial cancers (7 of 328) were potentially associated with Lynch syndrome. Therefore, targeted screening with combined age and morphology based criteria enriches detection of Lynch syndrome in endometrial cancer. However, the detection rate is lower than the rates from published series that offer universal screening. PMID:26842347

  13. Data base for a CANDU-PHW operating on a once-through, slightly enriched uranium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, prepared for INFCE, gives data for an extrapolated 1000 MW(e) CANDU-PHW design operating on a once-through fuel cycle with a feed fuel of slightly enriched uranium: 1.2 weight percent U-235 in uranium. The effects of varying fuel enrichment, maximum channel power, and economic parameters are also discussed. (author)

  14. Data base for a CANDU-PHW operating on a once-through, slightly enriched uranium cycle (AECL-6594)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, prepared for INFCE, gives data for an extrapolated 1000 MW(e) CANDU-PHW design operating on a once-through fuel cycle with a feed fuel of slightly enriched uranium - 1.2 weight % U-235 in uranium. The effects of varying fuel enrichment, maximum channel power, and economic parameters are also discussed

  15. An N-sulfanylethylanilide-based traceable linker for enrichment and selective labelling of target proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Takuya; Denda, Masaya; Yamamoto, Jun; Tsuji, Daisuke; Inokuma, Tsubasa; Itoh, Kohji; Shigenaga, Akira; Otaka, Akira

    2016-05-25

    An N-sulfanylethylanilide-based traceable linker, developed to facilitate identification of target proteins of bioactive compounds, was introduced into an alkynylated target protein. Subsequent adsorption onto streptavidin beads allowed it to be treated with a cysteine-fluorophore conjugate in the presence of phosphate. This induced the N-S acyl transfer reaction of the N-sulfanylethylanilide unit. The subsequent native chemical ligation of the fluorophore resulted in cleavage of the linker for target elution and fluorescence labelling of the target, allowing it to be distinguished from non-target proteins. PMID:27146590

  16. Addressing Loss of Efficiency Due to Misclassification Error in Enriched Clinical Trials for the Evaluation of Targeted Therapies Based on the Cox Proportional Hazards Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chen-An; Lee, Kuan-Ting; Liu, Jen-pei

    2016-01-01

    A key feature of precision medicine is that it takes individual variability at the genetic or molecular level into account in determining the best treatment for patients diagnosed with diseases detected by recently developed novel biotechnologies. The enrichment design is an efficient design that enrolls only the patients testing positive for specific molecular targets and randomly assigns them for the targeted treatment or the concurrent control. However there is no diagnostic device with perfect accuracy and precision for detecting molecular targets. In particular, the positive predictive value (PPV) can be quite low for rare diseases with low prevalence. Under the enrichment design, some patients testing positive for specific molecular targets may not have the molecular targets. The efficacy of the targeted therapy may be underestimated in the patients that actually do have the molecular targets. To address the loss of efficiency due to misclassification error, we apply the discrete mixture modeling for time-to-event data proposed by Eng and Hanlon [8] to develop an inferential procedure, based on the Cox proportional hazard model, for treatment effects of the targeted treatment effect for the true-positive patients with the molecular targets. Our proposed procedure incorporates both inaccuracy of diagnostic devices and uncertainty of estimated accuracy measures. We employed the expectation-maximization algorithm in conjunction with the bootstrap technique for estimation of the hazard ratio and its estimated variance. We report the results of simulation studies which empirically investigated the performance of the proposed method. Our proposed method is illustrated by a numerical example. PMID:27120450

  17. Functional soy food based on flaxseed and quinoa and enriched with iron and Vitamin B12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Braga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in food derived from vegetables reduces the risk of developing chronic and degenerative diseases and provides the essential nutrients for human consumption. Besides soybean, other foods of vegetal origin have been studied and incorporated in healthy formulations, such as quinoa and linseed. Current assay comprises a sensorial analysis of a product of vegetable origin, a soy product, based on quinoa and flaxseed, considered to be functional food, for its organoleptic characteristics acceptable by a sample group of 80 individuals. Several tests were conducted to reach an adequate formulation for the product, characterized by 11.1 g of protein content, 9.6 g of dietary fiber and low levels of lipids, since it had only 1.4 g. The resulting product revealed adequate microbiological conditions when subjected to microbiological analysis (coliforms at 45ºC; coliforms at 35ºC and Staphylococcus aureus. According to scores in the sensory analysis, it may be assumed that the product was accepted by the sample group. The favorable results indicate the possibility of consumers adhering to a processed diet rich in food derived from vegetables, with functional properties, to replace animal-derived food which is rich in saturated fats and low in fiber.

  18. Enrichment of DNRA bacteria in a continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Eveline M; van Dongen, Udo; Abbas, Ben; van Loosdrecht, Mark Cm

    2015-10-01

    Denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are competing microbial nitrate-reduction processes. The occurrence of DNRA has been shown to be effected qualitatively by various parameters in the environment. A more quantitative understanding can be obtained using enrichment cultures in a laboratory reactor, yet no successful DNRA enrichment culture has been described. We showed that a stable DNRA-dominated enrichment culture can be obtained in a chemostat system. The enrichment was based on the hypothesis that nitrate limitation is the dominant factor in selecting for DNRA. First, a conventional denitrifying culture was enriched from activated sludge, with acetate and nitrate as substrates. Next, the acetate concentration in the medium was increased to obtain nitrate-limiting conditions. As a result, conversions shifted from denitrification to DNRA. In this selection of a DNRA culture, two important factors were the nitrate limitation and a relatively low dilution rate (0.026 h(-1)). The culture was a highly enriched population of Deltaproteobacteria most closely related to Geobacter lovleyi, based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing (97% similarity). We established a stable and reproducible cultivation method for the enrichment of DNRA bacteria in a continuously operated reactor system. This enrichment method allows to further investigate the DNRA process and address the factors for competition between DNRA and denitrification, or other N-conversion pathways. PMID:25909972

  19. COMPANY VALUATION METHODS BASED ON PATRIMONY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The methods used for the company valuation can be divided into 3 main groups: methods based on patrimony,methods based on financial performance, methods based both on patrimony and on performance. The companyvaluation methods based on patrimony are implemented taking into account the balance sheet or the financialstatement. The financial statement refers to that type of balance in which the assets are arranged according to liquidity,and the liabilities according to their financial maturity date. The patrimonial methods are based on the principle thatthe value of the company equals that of the patrimony it owns. From a legal point of view, the patrimony refers to allthe rights and obligations of a company. The valuation of companies based on their financial performance can be donein 3 ways: the return value, the yield value, the present value of the cash flows. The mixed methods depend both onpatrimony and on financial performance or can make use of other methods.

  20. Based on Penalty Function Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaq Baba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dual response surface for simultaneously optimizing the mean and variance models as separate functions suffers some deficiencies in handling the tradeoffs between bias and variance components of mean squared error (MSE. In this paper, the accuracy of the predicted response is given a serious attention in the determination of the optimum setting conditions. We consider four different objective functions for the dual response surface optimization approach. The essence of the proposed method is to reduce the influence of variance of the predicted response by minimizing the variability relative to the quality characteristics of interest and at the same time achieving the specific target output. The basic idea is to convert the constraint optimization function into an unconstraint problem by adding the constraint to the original objective function. Numerical examples and simulations study are carried out to compare performance of the proposed method with some existing procedures. Numerical results show that the performance of the proposed method is encouraging and has exhibited clear improvement over the existing approaches.

  1. Asset-Based Civics for, with, and by Immigrant Students: Three Sites of Enriched Teaching and Learning for Immigrant and Native-Born Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative collective case study with 6 high school civics teachers, I found that using an asset-based approach to teaching civics for, with, and by immigrant students enriched teaching and learning for immigrant and native-born students, although participants missed some opportunities for deeper exploration. I used a combined theoretical…

  2. Digestion and ruminal fermentation of cocoa pod silage based ration enriched by gliricidia and calliandra leaves on goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puastuti W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In term of availability, cacao pod is potential for ruminant feed. According to its nutrients content, cacao pod can be used as feed fiber source. Protein sources materials must be added when cacao pod was ensilaged due to low protein content of this material. The aim of this study was to investigate digestibility value and end products of rumen fermentation of goat fed grass or cacao pod based ration. Randomized block design and 20 heads of lambs (16.95±2.36 kg to evaluated 5 type of rations: R (50% grass + 50% concentrate; S (50% cacao pod silage + 50% concentrate; SG (50% cacao pod-gliricidia silage + 50% concentrate; SK (50% cacao pod-calliandra silage + 50% concentrate dan SC (50% cacao pod-mixture of gliricidia-calliandra silage + 50% concentrate. Feeding trial was conducted for over 15 weeks. Measurements were taken on feed digestibility and rumen-fermentation end-products after 3 weeks of treatments. Results shows that nutrients digestibility was different significantly among the groups of treatments (P<0.05. Digestibillity of organic matter, NDF and energy of R ration was those of higher significantly (P<0.05 than those of other groups. N-ammonia of rumen from goat feed R ration was higher (P<0.05 than other groups. Total VFA and each component were different among the groups (P<0.05, however the value was similar among the groups of cacao pod silage rations. It is concluded that cacao pod silaged based rations enriched by Gliricidia and Calliandra leaves did not produce similar digestibility value and end products of rumen fermentation with grass based ration.

  3. Venturini Method Based Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derick Mathew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, matrix converter has received considerable interest as a viable alternative to the conventional ac-dc-ac converter. This direct ac-ac converter provides some attractive characteristics such as: four quadrant operation, absence of bulky dc-link electrolyte capacitors, clean input power characteristics. Due to the absence of dc link energy storage elements any disturbance in the input voltage will be immediately reflected to the output voltages. In this paper venturini method for matrix converter has been presented. Three phase sinusoidal symmetrical voltage or current can obtained .

  4. Family, employment, and individual resource-based antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Buehler, Cheryl

    2016-07-01

    This study used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,019) to examine family, employment, and individual antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood. Work-family conflict and important confounding factors were controlled. From the family domain, higher income-to-needs ratio and social support were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the employment domain, greater job rewards, benefits of employment for children, and work commitment were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the individual domain, higher maternal education and extroversion were associated with higher work-family enrichment. No family, employment, and individual characteristics were associated with work-family conflict across time except for partner intimacy. In general, the results supported antecedents of work-family enrichment that supply needed resources. The present study contributed to the literature by identifying antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment across early child developmental stages, which goes beyond examinations of particular life stages and a work-family conflict perspective. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26641483

  5. An interactive segmentation method based on superpixel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Shu; Zhu, Yaping; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an interactive image-segmentation method which is based on superpixel. To achieve fast segmentation, the method is used to establish a Graphcut model using superpixels as nodes, and a new energy function is proposed. Experimental results demonstrate that the authors' method has...... excellent performance in terms of segmentation accuracy and computation efficiency compared with other segmentation algorithm based on pixels....

  6. Digital Autofocusing Method Based on Contourlet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The autofocusing technique based on contourlet transform is discussed in this paper and an autofocusing method is proposed for images with much information in certain directions. The experimental results show that theproposed method can focus accurately and the sensitivity ratio is higher than that of the other autofocusing methods based on conventional image processing

  7. Determination of Trace Amounts of Gold in Soil Sample Using Plastic Foam Enrichment-ICP-MS Method%泡塑富集ICP-MS测定土壤中痕量金

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余波

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the trace amount of gold in soil sample using plastic foam enrichment-ICP-MS method. The national standard reference materials including GAu-2,GAu-10,GAu-11 and GAu-13 were used for parallel determination by ICPMS. The results showed that the method performed well in detection limit, precision and accuracy, indicating that the plastic foam enrichment-ICP-MS method could be used to determine the trace amounts of gold in soil sample.

  8. Enrichment Methods of Phosphopeptides in Proteomics%蛋白质组学中磷酸化肽的常用富集方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏章; 王粤博

    2012-01-01

    The reversible phosphorylation of proteins is recognized as an important branch of proteomics. As one of the most important post-translational modifications, protein phosphorylation plays a very important role in cellular recognition, cellular signal transduction, gene expression and cellular metabolism. Exploration of phosphopeptides using appropriate methods can help us further understand the mechanism of physiology and pathology. However, mass spectra (MS) signals of phosphopeptides are frequently suppressed by the presence of abundant nonphosphopeptides and superabundant of salts which will cause poor selectivity. Therefore, selective enrichment of phosphopeptides is essential to facilitate the MS analysis. This paper summarizes several enrichment techniques of phosphopeptides, including immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), metal oxide enrichment methods, strong cation exchange chromatography (SCX), strong anion exchange chromatography (SAX) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) on-plate enrichment methods, especially, the materials used in these enrichment methods have been discussed in detail. At the end of this review, the advantages and disadvantages of each method are summarized, and a prospect of effective enrichment strategies of phosphopeptides is given.%磷酸化作用是最重要的蛋白质翻译后修饰方式之一,它是蛋白质组学的一个重要分支,在细胞识别、细胞信息传递、基因表达和新陈代谢等方面发挥着重要作用。采用适当方法对磷酸化肽进行分析有助于我们更好地了解生理病理机制。但是直接进行质谱分析时磷酸化肽的信号强度会受到无机盐以及大量非磷酸化肽的抑制,选择性差。为解决这一难题,在质谱分析前要对磷酸化肽进行选择性富集。本文回顾了几种常用的磷酸化肽富集方法,介绍了每种方法的发展状况和常用材料,其中包括固定金属离子亲和

  9. Effective method for recovering and enriching tritium from tritiated water by dual-temperature H2O-H2 exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composite packing with the hydrophobic platinum catalyst for the isotope exchange reaction in H2O-H2 system was improved to be appreciably active. Therefore, it became realistic to design a process for tritium recovery by the dual-temperature exchange method. The separation performance of dual-temperature 5stage cascade (S3-E2) was simulated. The process was designed to be operated under the condition of P = 0.1 MPa, T /sub H/ = 700C, T /sub c/ = 15 about 20 0C. The cascade could attain tritium recovery ratio of 0.99 and enriching ratio larger than 103

  10. A new method of pure 111In production by proton-induced nuclear reactions with enriched 112Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed at finding out a simple and reliable way of 111In production with the highest radionuclide purity from its grand parent 111Sb and parent 111Sn nuclei, produced by the 112Sn(p, 2n)111Sb and 112Sn(p, pn)111Sn reactions, respectively. The target was a metallic 112Sn sample enriched to 84%. We have measured activation cross sections for seven reactions on an enriched 112Sn sample induced by 23.6 ± 0.8 MeV energy protons. Gamma-ray spectroscopy with high-purity germanium detectors has been used. We also identified the activities of 55Co (T1/2 = 17.5 h) and 60Cu (T1/2 = 23.7 min) in proton beam monitoring Ni foils, induced in the natNi(p,X)55Co and natNi(p,X)60Cu reactions at 22.8 MeV proton energy. The cross sections determined for these reactions are: σ[natNi(p,X)55Co] = 36.6 ±4 mb and σ[natNi(p,X)60Cu] 64.4 ±7 mb. The measured cross sections of reactions on tin isotopes are: σ[112Sn(p,n)112Sb] = 4 ±0.8 mb; σ[112Sn(p,2n)111Sb] = 182 ±26 mb; σ[112Sn(p,pn)111Sn] = 307 ±35 mb; σ[114Sn(p,2n)113Sb] = 442 ±52 mb; σ[117Sn(p,n)117Sb] = 15 ±3 mb; σ[117Sn(p,p)117mSn] = 0.37 ±0.06 mb; σ[115Sn(p,2p)114m2In] = 0.01 ±0.002 mb. Our measurements indicated the expected yield of the 111In production to be 46 MBq/μAh (1.2 mCi/μAh). The contamination of 111In by the undesired nuclide 114m2In was determined and belongs to the smallest ones found in the literature. The measured cross sections were compared with theoretical calculations by two top-level nuclear reaction codes EMPIRE and TALYS. (authors)

  11. Evaluation of different buffered peptone water (BPW) based enrichment broths for detection of Gram-negative foodborne pathogens from various food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, H; Zwietering, M H; Joosten, H; O'Mahony, Emer; Stephan, R

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of changing the composition of the pre-enrichment medium buffered peptone water (BPW) on the growth of stressed and unstressed Gram-negative foodborne pathogens in a one-broth enrichment strategy. BPW supplemented with an available iron source and sodium pyruvate, along with low levels of 8-hydroxyquinoline and sodium deoxycholate (BPW-S) improved the recovery of desiccated Cronobacter spp. from powdered infant formula. Growth of Salmonella and STEC was comparable in all BPW variants tested for different food matrices. In products with high levels of Gram-negative background flora (e.g. sprouts), the target organisms could not be reliably detected by PCR in any of the BPW variants tested unless the initial level exceeded 10(3) cfu/10 g of sprouts. Based on these results we suggest BPW-S for a one-broth enrichment strategy of stressed Gram-negative foodborne pathogens from dry products. However, a one-broth enrichment strategy based on BPW variants tested in this evaluation is not recommended for produce with a high level of Gram-negative background flora due to very high detection limits. PMID:26267889

  12. ExtraPEG: A Polyethylene Glycol-Based Method for Enrichment of Extracellular Vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Rider, Mark A.; Hurwitz, Stephanie N.; David G. Meckes Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Initially thought to be a means for cells to eliminate waste, secreted extracellular vesicles, known as exosomes, are now understood to mediate numerous healthy and pathological processes. Though abundant in biological fluids, purifying exosomes has been challenging because their biophysical properties overlap with other secreted cell products. Easy-to-use commercial kits for harvesting exosomes are now widely used, but the relative low-purity and high-cost of the preparations restricts their...

  13. Uranium enrichment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several technically mature and commercially proven methods of separation are currently available on the enrichment market, such as the diffusion and centrifuge methods. According to the information available, the diffusion technologies, which have dominated the scene so far, will lose much of their influence in favor of the centrifuge technologies which, because of their special process characteristics, such as lower energy consumption and smaller economic plant sizes, can adapt themselves to the conditions of the market in a flexible and economic way. Other methods, such as the gas dynamics Helikon and separation nozzle techniques, and chemical enrichment are on the verge of commercial maturity. However, their economic performance and chances in the enrichment market cannot yet be assessed with any degree of precision. The prospects and possibilities of the laser method, which has received much backing recently, especially in the USA, are difficult to weigh in the light of the knowledge available to date. However, it is hardly to be expected that technically mature and commercially viable plants operating by this technology are going to be available before the turn of the century. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of isotope element by electrolytic enrichment method for ground water and surface water in Saurashtra region, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been aimed for the assessment of isotope element Tritium (3H. It is a great threat to human health and environment for lengthy duration. The tritium exists in earth in diverse forms such as (1 small amounts of natural tritium are produced by alpha decay of lithium-7, (2 natural atmospheric tritium is also generated by secondary neutron cosmic ray bombardment of nitrogen, (3 atmospheric nuclear bomb testing in the 1950s, although the contribution from nuclear power plants is small. Tritium or 3H is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with a half-life of 12.32 ± 0.02 years. Water samples from ground water, surface water, and precipitation were collected from different locations in Gujarat area and were analyzed for the same. Distillation of samples was done to reduce the conductivity. Deuterium and Hydrogen were removed by the process of physico-chemical fractionation in the tritium enrichment unit. The basis of physico-chemical fractionation is the difference in the strength of bonds formed by the light vs. the heavier isotope of a given element. A total of 10 cycles (runs were executed using Quintals process. Tritium concentration files were created with help of WinQ and Quick start software in Quintals process (Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer. The concentration of tritium in terms of tritium units (TU of various samples has been determined. The TU values of the samples vary in the range of 0.90–6.62 TU.

  15. PNEA: a Parametric test for Network Enrichment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Signorelli, Mirko; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst C.

    2016-01-01

    Network enrichment analysis (NEA) is a powerful method, that integrates gene enrichment analysis with information on dependences between genes. Existing tests for NEA rely on normality assumptions, they can deal only with undirected networks and are computationally slow. We propose PNEA, an alternative test based on the hypergeometric distribution. PNEA can be applied also to directed and mixed networks, and our simulations show that it is faster and more powerful than existing NEA tests. The...

  16. A novel molecularly imprinted material based on magnetic halloysite nanotubes for rapid enrichment of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Shian; Zhou, Chengyun; Zhang, Xiaona [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhou, Hui [Cancer Hospital of Xiangya Medical College, Central South University, Changsha 410013 (China); Li, Hui; Zhu, Xiaohong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang, Yan, E-mail: yanwangcsu@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successful preparation of a novel type of magnetic halloysite molecularly imprinted material. • Rapid enrichment for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in water. • This material possesses high adsorption capacity and specific recognition to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. • Magnetic halloysite were synthesized by co-precipitation method. - Abstract: A new type of magnetic halloysite nanotubes molecularly imprinted polymer (MHNTs@MIP) based on halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with embedded magnetic nanoparticles was introduced in this study. MHNTs@MIP was prepared through surface imprinting technology, using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as a template, 4-vinylpyridine as the monomer, divinylbenzene as cross-linking agents, and 2,2-azodiisobutyronitrile as initiator. MHNTs@MIP was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometer. MHNTs@MIP exhibited rapid and reliable analysis with supermagnetic properties, as well as repeated use and template-specific recognition. The adsorption capacity of magnetic halloysite nanotubes non-imprinted polymer (MHNTs@NIP) and MHNTs@MIP was 10.3 mg/g and 35.2 mg/g, respectively. In the detailed discussion on specific selectivity, MHNTs@MIP can be applied as an adsorbent for sample pretreatment extraction and obtain high recoveries of about 85–94%. After extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography was used to detect 2,4-D residue in water.

  17. A novel molecularly imprinted material based on magnetic halloysite nanotubes for rapid enrichment of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successful preparation of a novel type of magnetic halloysite molecularly imprinted material. • Rapid enrichment for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in water. • This material possesses high adsorption capacity and specific recognition to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. • Magnetic halloysite were synthesized by co-precipitation method. - Abstract: A new type of magnetic halloysite nanotubes molecularly imprinted polymer (MHNTs@MIP) based on halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with embedded magnetic nanoparticles was introduced in this study. MHNTs@MIP was prepared through surface imprinting technology, using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as a template, 4-vinylpyridine as the monomer, divinylbenzene as cross-linking agents, and 2,2-azodiisobutyronitrile as initiator. MHNTs@MIP was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometer. MHNTs@MIP exhibited rapid and reliable analysis with supermagnetic properties, as well as repeated use and template-specific recognition. The adsorption capacity of magnetic halloysite nanotubes non-imprinted polymer (MHNTs@NIP) and MHNTs@MIP was 10.3 mg/g and 35.2 mg/g, respectively. In the detailed discussion on specific selectivity, MHNTs@MIP can be applied as an adsorbent for sample pretreatment extraction and obtain high recoveries of about 85–94%. After extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography was used to detect 2,4-D residue in water

  18. No Pain, No Gain? A Resource-Based Model of Work-to-Family Enrichment and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Powell, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Work-family scholars tend to work in two largely disconnected research streams, focusing on either work-family enrichment--the positive side of the work-family interface--or work-family conflict--the negative side of this interface. The purpose of this study is to suggest a reconciliation of the two research streams by proposing and testing a…

  19. Enriching Careers and Lives: Introducing a Positive, Holistic, and Narrative Career Counseling Method that Bridges Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikic, Jelena; Franklin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    CareerCycles (CC) career counseling framework and method of practice integrates and builds on aspects of positive psychology. Through its holistic and narrative approach, the CC method seeks to collaboratively identify and understand clients' career and life stories. It focuses on their strengths, desires, preferences, assets, future…

  20. Development of a microprocessing-assisted cell-systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment method for human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazono, Hideyuki; Kim, Hyonchol; Nomura, Fumimasa; Yasuda, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    We developed a microprocessing-assisted technique to select single-strand DNA aptamers that bind to unknown targets on the cell surface by modifying the conventional systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (cell-SELEX). Our technique involves 1) the specific selection of target-cell-surface-bound aptamers without leakage of intracellular components by trypsinization and 2) cloning of aptamers by microprocessing-assisted picking of single cells using magnetic beads. After cell-SELEX, the enriched aptamers were conjugated with magnetic beads. The aptamer-magnetic beads conjugates attached to target cells were collected individually by microassisted procedures using microneedles under a microscope. After that, the sequences of the collected magnetic-bead-bound aptamers were identified. As a result, a specific aptamer for the surface of target cells, e.g., human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), was chosen and its specificity was examined using other cell types, e.g., HeLa cells. The results indicate that this microprocessing-assisted cell-SELEX method for identifying aptamers is applicable in biological research and clinical diagnostics.

  1. Reliability-based concurrent subspace optimization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hui; LI Wei-ji

    2008-01-01

    To avoid the high computational cost and much modification in the process of applying traditional re-liability-based design optimization method, a new reliability-based concurrent subspace optimization approach is proposed based on the comparison and analysis of the existing muhidisciplinary optimization techniques and reli-ability assessment methods. It is shown through a canard configuration optimization for a three-surface transport that the proposed method is computationally efficient and practical with the least modification to the current de-terministic optimization process.

  2. A simple enzyme-substrate localized conjugation method to generate immobilized, functional glutathione S-transferase fusion protein columns for affinity enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, John; Masci, Allyson; Gronke, Robert S; Bergelson, Svetlana; Co, Carl

    2016-07-15

    Immobilized protein receptors and enzymes are tools for isolating or enriching ligands and substrates based on affinity. For example, glutathione S-transferase (GST) is fused to proteins as a tag for binding to its substrate glutathione (GSH) linked to solid supports. One issue with this approach is that high-affinity interactions between receptors and ligands require harsh elution conditions such as low pH, which can result in leached receptor. Another issue is the inherent nonspecific chemical conjugation of reactive groups such as N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) that couple lysines to solid supports; the nonspecificity of NHS may result in residue modifications near the binding site(s) of the receptor that can affect ligand specificity. In this study, a simple conjugation procedure is presented that overcomes these limitations and results in immobilized GST fusion proteins that are functional and specific. Here, the affinity of GST for GSH was used to generate an enzyme-substrate site-specific cross-linking reaction; GSH-Sepharose was preactivated with 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and then incubated Fc gamma receptor IIIa (FcγRIIIa)-GST. The immobilized FcγRIIIa-GST more specifically bound glycosylated immunoglobulin G1s (IgG1s) and was used to enrich nonfucosylated IgG1s from weaker binding species. This technique can be used when modifications of amino acids lead to changes in activity. PMID:27063248

  3. The fractionation of the elements in river waters with respect to the continental crust: a UK perspective based on a river enrichment factor approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractionation in chemical elements for UK river waters is described relative to the continental crust based on data collected within studies of upland acidic catchments in mid-Wales and major eastern-UK rivers. Four types of river are examined (upland, rural, agricultural and industrial/urban together with an average for the UK based on a 'river enrichment factor', REF. Here, the REF is defined as the ratio of the median river water concentration to the average abundance for the upper continental crust for each element. For this purpose, graphical representations of the logarithm of the REF are presented sequentially in increasing order of magnitude. The results demonstrate vividly the high fractionating of the more volatile, anionic and ‘sea-salt' elements to the aqueous phase and the retention of transition elements of high charge due to solubility controls with intermediate controls for the divalent base cations of intermediate solubility. They also show the increasing significance of pollutants in the agriculturally and industrially/ urban impacted environments. Keywords: Elements; major elements; trace elements; nutrients; river; hydrochemistry; enrichment factor; river enrichment factor; LOIS; Plynlimon; River Severn; Afon Hafren; River Tweed; River Aire; River Thames

  4. Enriching Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    "IPO" and "education" are two different animals, but they're beginning to cohabitate in China and hopefully will procreate smarts When the Beijing-based New Oriental School's parent company went public in New York on September 7, it essentially nullified the oxymoron "rich teacher."

  5. Enrichment Strategies in Phosphoproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The comprehensive study of the phosphoproteome is heavily dependent on appropriate enrichment strategies that are most often, but not exclusively, carried out on the peptide level. In this chapter, I give an overview of the most widely used techniques. In addition to dedicated antibodies, phosphopeptides are enriched by their selective interaction with metals in the form of chelated metal ions or metal oxides. The negative charge of the phosphate group is also exploited in a variety of chromatographic fractionation methods that include different types of ion exchange chromatography, hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC), and electrostatic repulsion HILIC (ERLIC) chromatography. Selected examples from the literature will demonstrate how a combination of these techniques with current high-performance mass spectrometry enables the identification of thousands of phosphorylation sites from various sample types. PMID:26584921

  6. Discrete mechanics Based on Finite Element Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jing-Bo; Guo, Han-Ying; Wu, Ke

    2002-01-01

    Discrete Mechanics based on finite element methods is presented in this paper. We also explore the relationship between this discrete mechanics and Veselov discrete mechanics. High order discretizations are constructed in terms of high order interpolations.

  7. The Melt-Dilute Treatment of Al-Base Highly Enriched DOE Spent Nuclear Fuels: Principles and Practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The melt-dilute treatment technology program is focused on the development and implementation of a treatment technology for diluting highly enriched (>20 percent 235U) aluminum spent nuclear fuel to low enriched levels (<20 percent 235U) and qualifying the LEU Al-SNF form for geologic repository storage. In order to reduce the enrichment of these assemblies prior to ultimate geologic repository disposal, the melt-dilute technology proposes to melt these SNF assemblies and then dilute with additions of depleted uranium. The benefits accrued from this treatment process include the potential for significant volume reduction, reduced criticality potential, and the potential for enhanced SNF form characteristics. The emphasis within the development program to date has been on determining the process metallurgy and off-gas system design for the treatment of all types of Al SNF (UAlx, Al-U3O8, and Al-U3Si2). In determining the process metallurgy a wide range of alloys, representative of those expected in the Al-SNF form, have been fabricated and their product characteristics, namely microstructure, homogeneity, phase composition, and ''ternary'' constituent effects have been analyzed. As a result of the presence of species within the melt which will possess significant vapor pressures in the desired operating temperature range an off-gas system is necessary. Of the volitile species the one of greatest concern is 137Cs

  8. The Melt-Dilute Treatment of Al-Base Highly Enriched DOE Spent Nuclear Fuels: Principles and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T.M.

    1998-11-25

    The melt-dilute treatment technology program is focused on the development and implementation of a treatment technology for diluting highly enriched (>20 percent 235U) aluminum spent nuclear fuel to low enriched levels (<20 percent 235U) and qualifying the LEU Al-SNF form for geologic repository storage. In order to reduce the enrichment of these assemblies prior to ultimate geologic repository disposal, the melt-dilute technology proposes to melt these SNF assemblies and then dilute with additions of depleted uranium. The benefits accrued from this treatment process include the potential for significant volume reduction, reduced criticality potential, and the potential for enhanced SNF form characteristics. The emphasis within the development program to date has been on determining the process metallurgy and off-gas system design for the treatment of all types of Al SNF (UAlx, Al-U3O8, and Al-U3Si2). In determining the process metallurgy a wide range of alloys, representative of those expected in the Al-SNF form, have been fabricated and their product characteristics, namely microstructure, homogeneity, phase composition, and "ternary" constituent effects have been analyzed. As a result of the presence of species within the melt which will possess significant vapor pressures in the desired operating temperature range an off-gas system is necessary. Of the volitile species the one of greatest concern is 137Cs.

  9. Multicenter validation of PCR-based method for detection of Salmonella in chicken and pig samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Cook, N.; D'Agostino, M.;

    2004-01-01

    As part of a standardization project, an interlaboratory trial including 15 laboratories from 13 European countries was conducted to evaluate the performance of a noproprietary polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the detection of Salmonella on artificially contaminated chicken rinse......) and PCR assay (gel electrophoresis detection) were performed by the receiving laboratories. Aliquots of BPW enrichment cultures were sent to the participants, who analyzed them using a thermal lysis procedure followed by a validated Salmonella-specific PCR assay. The results were reported as negative...... and pig swab samples. The 3 levels were 1-10, 10-100, and 100-1000 colony-forming units (CFU)/100 mL. Sample preparations, including inoculation and pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water (BPW), were performed centrally in a German laboratory; the pre-PCR sample preparation (by a resin-based method...

  10. Agent Based Image Segmentation Method : A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Mishra; Navita Srivastava; Shukla, K. K.; Achintya Singlal

    2011-01-01

    Image segmentation is an important research area in computer vision and many segmentation methods have been proposed. This paper attempts to provide a brief overview of elemental segmentation techniques based on boundary or regional approaches. It focuses mainly on the agent based image segmentation techniques

  11. Design for validation, based on formal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.

    1990-01-01

    Validation of ultra-reliable systems decomposes into two subproblems: (1) quantification of probability of system failure due to physical failure; (2) establishing that Design Errors are not present. Methods of design, testing, and analysis of ultra-reliable software are discussed. It is concluded that a design-for-validation based on formal methods is needed for the digital flight control systems problem, and also that formal methods will play a major role in the development of future high reliability digital systems.

  12. Regulation of the Contribution of Integrin to Cell Attachment on Poly(2-Methoxyethyl Acrylate (PMEA Analogous Polymers for Attachment-Based Cell Enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hoshiba

    Full Text Available Cell enrichment is currently in high demand in medical engineering. We have reported that non-blood cells can attach to a blood-compatible poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate (PMEA substrate through integrin-dependent and integrin-independent mechanisms because the PMEA substrate suppresses protein adsorption. Therefore, we assumed that PMEA analogous polymers can change the contribution of integrin to cell attachment through the regulation of protein adsorption. In the present study, we investigated protein adsorption, cell attachment profiles, and attachment mechanisms on PMEA analogous polymer substrates. Additionally, we demonstrated the possibility of attachment-based cell enrichment on PMEA analogous polymer substrates. HT-1080 and MDA-MB-231 cells started to attach to poly(butyl acrylate (PBA and poly(tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate (PTHFA, on which proteins could adsorb well, within 1 h. HepG2 cells started to attach after 1 h. HT-1080, MDA-MB-231, and HepG2 cells started to attach within 30 min to PMEA, poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy ethyl acrylate-co-butyl acrylate (30:70 mol%, PMe2A and poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy ethoxy ethyl acrylate-co-butyl acrylate (30:70 mol%, PMe3A, which suppress protein adsorption. Moreover, the ratio of attached cells from a cell mixture can be changed on PMEA analogous polymers. These findings suggested that PMEA analogous polymers can be used for attachment-based cell enrichment.

  13. Regulation of the Contribution of Integrin to Cell Attachment on Poly(2-Methoxyethyl Acrylate) (PMEA) Analogous Polymers for Attachment-Based Cell Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiba, Takashi; Nemoto, Eri; Sato, Kazuhiro; Orui, Toshihiko; Otaki, Takayuki; Yoshihiro, Ayano; Tanaka, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Cell enrichment is currently in high demand in medical engineering. We have reported that non-blood cells can attach to a blood-compatible poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) substrate through integrin-dependent and integrin-independent mechanisms because the PMEA substrate suppresses protein adsorption. Therefore, we assumed that PMEA analogous polymers can change the contribution of integrin to cell attachment through the regulation of protein adsorption. In the present study, we investigated protein adsorption, cell attachment profiles, and attachment mechanisms on PMEA analogous polymer substrates. Additionally, we demonstrated the possibility of attachment-based cell enrichment on PMEA analogous polymer substrates. HT-1080 and MDA-MB-231 cells started to attach to poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) and poly(tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate) (PTHFA), on which proteins could adsorb well, within 1 h. HepG2 cells started to attach after 1 h. HT-1080, MDA-MB-231, and HepG2 cells started to attach within 30 min to PMEA, poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethyl acrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (30:70 mol%, PMe2A) and poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethoxy ethyl acrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (30:70 mol%, PMe3A), which suppress protein adsorption. Moreover, the ratio of attached cells from a cell mixture can be changed on PMEA analogous polymers. These findings suggested that PMEA analogous polymers can be used for attachment-based cell enrichment. PMID:26288362

  14. Identification of Cross-Linked Peptides after Click-Based Enrichment Using Sequential Collision-Induced Dissociation and Electron Transfer Dissociation Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Saiful M.; Du, Xiuxia; Tolic, Nikola; Wu, Si; Moore, Ronald J.; Mayer, M. Uljana; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2009-07-01

    Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometric analysis is emerging as a powerful technique for protein-protein interaction and protein structure elucidation studies.1 Cross-linkers covalently link two interacting proteins, often with chemistries specific to certain amino acid side chains. After enzymatic digestion of the proteins, the resulting cross-linked peptides can be subjected to analysis by LC-MS(/MS) to identify cross-linked species.2,3 For studying protein interactions using chemical cross-linking towards global discovery-based applications, the critical needs are the development of cross-linkers that are highly specific, amenable to LC-MS/MS, and resulting spectra are interpretable by bioinformatics tools to automatically assign cross-linked peptides with high confidence.4-10 As recently mentioned by Aebersold and co-workers, due to the low relative abundances of cross-linking products compared to their unmodified counterparts, enrichment of cross-linked species is also highly desirable to improve the likelihood of unambiguous identification of cross-linked peptides.6 Most of the currently available enrichable cross-linkers are bulky and are not amenable to studying protein-protein interactions in vivo. To discover protein-protein interactions with high confidence, there is a need for chemical cross-linkers that can effectively label protein complexes, utilize mass spectrometry based bottom-up proteomics analysis pipelines and also contains enrichment functionality.

  15. An efficient and target-oriented sample enrichment method for preparative separation of minor alkaloids by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui-Hong; Hou, Jin-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Bei; Pan, Hui-Qin; Yang, Wenzhi; Qi, Peng; Yao, Shuai; Cai, Lu-Ying; Yang, Min; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2015-08-28

    An efficient and target-oriented sample enrichment method was established to increase the content of the minor alkaloids in crude extract by using the corresponding two-phase solvent system applied in pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. The enrichment and separation of seven minor indole alkaloids from Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil(UR) were selected as an example to show the advantage of this method. An optimized two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:1:9, v/v) was used in this study, where triethylamine (TEA) as the retainer and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as the eluter were added at the equimolar of 10mM. Crude alkaloids of UR dissolved in the corresponding upper phase (containing 10mM TEA) were extracted twice with lower phase (containing 10mM TEA) and lower phase (containing 10mM HCl), respectively, the second lower phase extract was subjected to pH-zone-refining CCC separation after alkalization and desalination. Finally, from 10g of crude alkaloids, 4g of refined alkaloids was obtained and the total content of seven target indole alkaloids was increased from 4.64% to 15.78%. Seven indole alkaloids, including 54mg isocorynoxeine, 21mg corynoxeine, 46mg isorhynchophylline, 35mg rhynchophylline, 65mg hirsutine, 51mg hirsuteine and 27mg geissoschizine methylether were all simultaneously separated from 2.5g of refined alkaloids, with the purity of 86.4%, 97.5%, 90.3%, 92.1%, 98.5%, 92.3%, and 92.8%, respectively. The total content and purities of the seven minor indole alkaloids were tested by HPLC and their chemical structures were elucidated by ESI-HRMS and (1)H NMR. PMID:26209189

  16. Model-Based Method for Sensor Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatan, Farrokh

    2012-01-01

    Fault detection, diagnosis, and prognosis are essential tasks in the operation of autonomous spacecraft, instruments, and in situ platforms. One of NASA s key mission requirements is robust state estimation. Sensing, using a wide range of sensors and sensor fusion approaches, plays a central role in robust state estimation, and there is a need to diagnose sensor failure as well as component failure. Sensor validation can be considered to be part of the larger effort of improving reliability and safety. The standard methods for solving the sensor validation problem are based on probabilistic analysis of the system, from which the method based on Bayesian networks is most popular. Therefore, these methods can only predict the most probable faulty sensors, which are subject to the initial probabilities defined for the failures. The method developed in this work is based on a model-based approach and provides the faulty sensors (if any), which can be logically inferred from the model of the system and the sensor readings (observations). The method is also more suitable for the systems when it is hard, or even impossible, to find the probability functions of the system. The method starts by a new mathematical description of the problem and develops a very efficient and systematic algorithm for its solution. The method builds on the concepts of analytical redundant relations (ARRs).

  17. EMIS: Enrichment Management Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the effort was the development of a calculational tool which would permit DOE to make realistic projections of the separative work demands of its customers as an aid in planning for the future operation of the enrichment facilities. The calculational methods were to recognize the flexibility in scheduling, etc., available to DOE customers under their enrichment contreacts as well as the ability to pool separative work withdrawn under two or more contracts. It was also to be designed to permit the user to add new customers or delete existing contracts as well as to allow variation of the estimated start-up dates for those reactors currently under construction. The output of the model was to display projections of separative work demand as SWU and in triplet form for several categories of reactors. These included, in addition to the total demand on the enrichment complex, separate totals for domestic and foreign customers, for reactors with Requirements and Adjustable Fixed Commitment contracts and for reactors in operation, under construction and projected new reactors designated by the user. The foundations upon which the system is based are described in this report. This includes a discussion of the available alternatives for customer management of separative work and the assumptions and guidelines established for development of the model. The report also contains a description of the computational procedures used in the model, and a description of the EMIS system itself, which also serves as a users' manual for the code. Finally, samples demonstrating the use of the system and indicating the form of the input and output are included

  18. Software Testing Method Based on Model Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-dong; LU Yan-sheng; MAO Cheng-yin

    2008-01-01

    A model comparison based software testing method (MCST) is proposed. In this method, the requirements and programs of software under test are transformed into the ones in the same form, and described by the same model describe language (MDL).Then, the requirements are transformed into a specification model and the programs into an implementation model. Thus, the elements and structures of the two models are compared, and the differences between them are obtained. Based on the diffrences, a test suite is generated. Different MDLs can be chosen for the software under test. The usages of two classical MDLs in MCST, the equivalence classes model and the extended finite state machine (EFSM) model, are described with example applications. The results show that the test suites generated by MCST are more efficient and smaller than some other testing methods, such as the path-coverage testing method, the object state diagram testing method, etc.

  19. Quantification of histone modification ChIP-seq enrichment for data mining and machine learning applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekiranov Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of ChIP-seq technology has made the investigation of epigenetic regulatory networks a computationally tractable problem. Several groups have applied statistical computing methods to ChIP-seq datasets to gain insight into the epigenetic regulation of transcription. However, methods for estimating enrichment levels in ChIP-seq data for these computational studies are understudied and variable. Since the conclusions drawn from these data mining and machine learning applications strongly depend on the enrichment level inputs, a comparison of estimation methods with respect to the performance of statistical models should be made. Results Various methods were used to estimate the gene-wise ChIP-seq enrichment levels for 20 histone methylations and the histone variant H2A.Z. The Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS algorithm was applied for each estimation method using the estimation of enrichment levels as predictors and gene expression levels as responses. The methods used to estimate enrichment levels included tag counting and model-based methods that were applied to whole genes and specific gene regions. These methods were also applied to various sizes of estimation windows. The MARS model performance was assessed with the Generalized Cross-Validation Score (GCV. We determined that model-based methods of enrichment estimation that spatially weight enrichment based on average patterns provided an improvement over tag counting methods. Also, methods that included information across the entire gene body provided improvement over methods that focus on a specific sub-region of the gene (e.g., the 5' or 3' region. Conclusion The performance of data mining and machine learning methods when applied to histone modification ChIP-seq data can be improved by using data across the entire gene body, and incorporating the spatial distribution of enrichment. Refinement of enrichment estimation ultimately improved accuracy

  20. Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Seq2Logo is a web-based sequence logo generator. Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active...... sites, etc. in biological sequences. Accurate generation of sequence logos is often compromised by sequence redundancy and low number of observations. Moreover, most methods available for sequence logo generation focus on displaying the position-specific enrichment of amino acids, discarding the equally...... valuable information related to amino acid depletion. Seq2logo aims at resolving these issues allowing the user to include sequence weighting to correct for data redundancy, pseudo counts to correct for low number of observations and different logotype representations each capturing different aspects...

  1. Development of cryogenic low background detector based on enriched zinc molybdate crystal scintillators to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of $^{100}$Mo

    CERN Document Server

    Chernyak, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    ZnMoO$_4$ scintillators with a mass of $\\sim$ 0.3 kg, as well as Zn$^{100}$MoO$_4$ crystals enriched in the isotope $^{100}$Mo were produced for the first time by using the low-thermal-gradient Czochralski technique. The optical and luminescent properties of the produced crystals were studied to estimate the progress in crystal growth quality. The low-temperature tests with a 313 g ZnMoO$_4$ and two enriched Zn$^{100}$MoO$_4$ crystals were performed aboveground in the Centre de Sciences Nucl\\'eaires et de Sciences de la Mati\\`ere. The low background measurements with a three ZnMoO$_4$ and two enriched detectors installed in the EDELWEISS set-up at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane were carried out. To optimize the light collection in ZnMoO$_4$ scintillating bolometers, we have simulated the collection of scintillation photons in a detector module for different geometries by Monte Carlo method using the GEANT4 package. Response to the 2$\

  2. Simultaneous determination of silver and other heavy metals in aquatic environment receiving wastewater from industrial area, applying an enrichment method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, silver (Ag, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, cobalt (Co and lead (Pb were simultaneously determined in water samples of fresh water canal receiving untreated effluents from an industrial area, of Sindh Pakistan. The analytes in the water sample were determined by CPE using ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC as a complexing agent and then entrapped in non-ionic surfactant, octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114. The surfactant rich phase was diluted with acidic ethanol prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The variables affecting the complexation and extraction steps such as pH of sample solution, concentration of oxine and Triton X-114, equilibration temperature and time period for shaking were investigated in detail. The validation of the procedure was carried out by analysis of a certified reference sample of water (CRM1634e. Reliability of the proposed method was also checked by the standard addition method in a real sample at three concentration levels of all metals. Under the optimum conditions, the preconcentration of 10 mL sample solutions, allowed preconcentration factor of 20-fold. The lower limit of detection obtained for Ag, Cd, Ni, Co and Pb was 0.42, 0.48, 0.92, 0.62, and 1.42 μg L−1, respectively. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to waste and fresh water samples for simultaneous determination of different metals. The concentration of Ag, Cd, Ni, Co and Pb has shown a decreased trend from 46.5–6.96, 23.0–8.92, 30.2–12.8, 14.2–4.45 and 15.3–5.32 μg L−1, respectively from initial entrance of waste water along the downstream of canal.

  3. Report of Sectional Committee on Industrialization of Uranium Enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to accelerate the development and utilization of atomic energy which is the core of the substitute energies for petroleum, it is indispensable requirement to establish independent fuel cycle as the base. In particular, the domestic production of enriched uranium is necessary to eliminate the obstacles to secure the energy supply in Japan. The construction and operation of the pilot plant for uranium enrichment by centrifugal separation method have progressed smoothly, and the technical base for the domestic production of enriched uranium is being consolidated. For the time being, the service of uranium enrichment is given by USA and France, but it is expected that the short supply will arise around 1990. The start of operation of the uranium enrichment plant in Japan is scheduled around 1990, and the scale of the plant will be expanded stepwise thereafter. The scale of production is assumed as 3000 t SWU/year in 2000. Prior to this commercial plant, the prototype plant of up to 250 t SWU/year capacity will be operated in 1986, starting the production of centrifugal separators in 1983. The production line for centrifugal separators will have the capacity of up to 125 t SWU/year. The organization for operating these plants, the home production of natural uranium conversion, the uranium enrichment by chemical method and others are described. (Kako, I.)

  4. A Property Restriction Based Knowledge Merging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Haiyan; Chen, Wei; Feng, Tie; Zhang, Jiachen

    Merging new instance knowledge extracted from the Web according to certain domain ontology into the knowledge base (KB for short) is essential for the knowledge management and should be processed carefully, since this may introduce redundant or contradictory knowledge, and the quality of the knowledge in the KB, which is very important for a knowledge-based system to provide users high quality services, will suffer from such "bad" knowledge. Advocates a property restriction based knowledge merging method, it can identify the equivalent instances, redundant or contradictory knowledge according to the property restrictions defined in the domain ontology and can consolidate the knowledge about equivalent instances and discard the redundancy and conflict to keep the KB compact and consistent. This knowledge merging method has been used in a semantic-based search engine project: CRAB and the effect is satisfactory.

  5. Cloud Based Development Issues: A Methodical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhpal Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud based development is a challenging task for various software engineering projects, especifically for those which demand extraordinary quality, reusability and security along with general architecture. In this paper we present a report on a methodical analysis of cloud based development problems published in major computer science and software engineering journals and conferences organized by various researchers. Research papers were collected from different scholarly databases using search engines within a particular period of time. A total of 89 research papers were analyzed in this methodical study and we categorized into four classes according to the problems addressed by them. The majority of the research papers focused on quality (24 papers associated with cloud based development and 16 papers focused on analysis and design. By considering the areas focused by existing authors and their gaps, untouched areas of cloud based development can be discovered for future research works.

  6. Method for a human based design process

    OpenAIRE

    Van Herck, Tine

    2013-01-01

    We are developing a method for a human based design process. This means a design method that enables to improve the social relevance of projects. It can be applied to projects of different scale : from interior architecture to landscape strategies. What should be the attitude of a designer in today's society where all certainties threaten to disappear? How to contribute something small to society in order to create a stronger tissue, a safety net, a solid found...

  7. Recommendation advertising method based on behavior retargeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; YIN, Xin-Chun; CHEN, Zhi-Min

    2011-10-01

    Online advertising has become an important business in e-commerce. Ad recommended algorithms are the most critical part in recommendation systems. We propose a recommendation advertising method based on behavior retargeting which can avoid leakage click of advertising due to objective reasons and can observe the changes of the user's interest in time. Experiments show that our new method can have a significant effect and can be further to apply to online system.

  8. Rough set-based feature selection method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Yanmei; ZENG Xiangyang; SUN Jincai

    2005-01-01

    A new feature selection method is proposed based on the discern matrix in rough set in this paper. The main idea of this method is that the most effective feature, if used for classification, can distinguish the most number of samples belonging to different classes. Experiments are performed using this method to select relevant features for artificial datasets and real-world datasets. Results show that the selection method proposed can correctly select all the relevant features of artificial datasets and drastically reduce the number of features at the same time. In addition, when this method is used for the selection of classification features of real-world underwater targets,the number of classification features after selection drops to 20% of the original feature set, and the classification accuracy increases about 6% using dataset after feature selection.

  9. Bayesian individualization via sampling-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, J

    1996-02-01

    We consider the situation where we wish to adjust the dosage regimen of a patient based on (in general) sparse concentration measurements taken on-line. A Bayesian decision theory approach is taken which requires the specification of an appropriate prior distribution and loss function. A simple method for obtaining samples from the posterior distribution of the pharmacokinetic parameters of the patient is described. In general, these samples are used to obtain a Monte Carlo estimate of the expected loss which is then minimized with respect to the dosage regimen. Some special cases which yield analytic solutions are described. When the prior distribution is based on a population analysis then a method of accounting for the uncertainty in the population parameters is described. Two simulation studies showing how the methods work in practice are presented. PMID:8827585

  10. Shelf-life study of Indian traditional food based nutraceutical (oryzanol) enriched instant mixes Bhath-OZ and Upma-OZ

    OpenAIRE

    Baby Latha, R.; Debnath, Sukumar; Sarmandal, C. V.; Hemavathy, J.; Khatoon, Sakina; Gopala Krishna, A. G.; Lokesh, B. R.

    2011-01-01

    To provide nutraceutical such as oryzanol through food, two instant mixes based on the Indian traditional food cuisine Bisibele bhath and Upma(Bhath-OZ and Upma-OZ) were developed and evaluated for shelf-life. The formulations contained cereals, pulses, and spices along with oryzanol enriched oil and were packed in 200gauge/50 gauge metallized polyester packaging material and stored under ambient (27 °C 65%RH) and accelerated conditions (37 °C/92%RH). Samples were withdrawn periodically and p...

  11. Nataf transformation based point estimate method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HongShuang; L(U) ZhenZhou; YUAN XiuKai

    2008-01-01

    Structural probabilistic analysis quantifies the effect of input random variables, such as material proper-ties, geometrical parameters and loading conditions, on the structural responses. The point estimate method (PEM) is a direct and easy-used way to perform the structural probabilistic analysis in practice. In this paper, a novel and efficient point estimate method is proposed for computing the first four statistical moments of structural response which is a function of input random variables. The method adopts Nataf transformation to replace Rosenblatt transformation in conventional point estimate method. Because of the nature of engineering problems and limited statistical data, the joint probability density function (PDF) of all input random variables is hard to acquire, but it must be known in Rosenblatt transformation. A more common case is that the marginal PDF of each random variable and the correlation matrix are available, which just satisfy the service condition of Nataf transformation. Hence the Nataf transformation based point estimate method is particularly suitable for engineering applications. The comparison be-tween the proposed method and the conventional point estimate method shows that (1) they are equiva-lent when all random variables are mutually independent; (2) if the marginal PDFs and the correlation matrix are known, the conventional PEM cannot be applicable, but the proposed method can give a ra-tional approximation. Finally, the procedure is demonstrated in detail through a simple illustration.

  12. Research on aerodynamic means of isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a research program directed toward the understanding of the fundamental gas dynamics involved in aerodynamic isotope enrichment are summarized. The specific aerodynamic isotope enrichment method which was examined in this research is based on a velocity slip phenomenon which occurs in the rarefied hypersonic expansion of a heavy molecular weight gas and a light carrier gas in a nozzle or free jet. This particular aerodynamic method was chosen for study because it contains the fundamental molecular physics of other more complex techniques within the context of a one-dimensional flow without boundary effects. From both an experimental and theoretical modeling perspective this provides an excellent basis for testing the experimental and numerical tools with which to investigate more complex aerodynamic isotope enrichment processes. This report consists of three separate parts. Part I contains a theoretical analysis of the velocity slip effect in free jet expansions of binary and ternary gas mixtures. The analysis, based on a source flow model and using moment equations is derived from the Boltzmann equation using the hypersonic approximation. Part II contains the experimental measurements of velocity slip. The numerical simulation of the slip process was carried out by using a Monte-Carlo numerical technique. In addition, comparisons between the theoretical analysis of Part I and the experiments are presented. Part III describes impact pressure measurements of free jet expansions from slot shaped two dimensional nozzles. At least two methods of aerodynamic isotope enrichment (opposed jet and velocity slip) would depend on the use of this type of two dimensional expansion. Flow surveys of single free jet and the interferene of crossed free jets are presented

  13. Preparation of stir cake sorptive extraction based on polymeric ionic liquid for the enrichment of benzimidazole anthelmintics in water, honey and milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new polymeric ionic liquid-based monolith was prepared. • The monolith was used as the extractive medium of stir cake sorptive extraction. • The SCSE–AMIIDB can extract benzimidazole anthelmintics (BAs) effectively. • A combination of SCSE–AMIIDB–LD–HPLC/DAD was developed. • The combination was applied to monitor trace BAs in water, milk and honey samples. - Abstract: In this work, a new stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) using polymeric ionic liquid monolith as sorbent was prepared. The sorbent was obtained by in situ copolymerization of an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoro methyl)sulfonyl]imide (AMII) and divinylbenzene (DB) in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. The influence of the content of ionic liquid and the porogen in the polymerization mixture on extraction performance was studied thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the polymeric ionic liquid were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The usefulness of SCSE–AMIIDB was demonstrated by the enrichment of trace benzimidazole anthelmintics. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, and under the optimized conditions, a simple and effective method for the determination of trace benzimidazoles residues in water, milk and honey samples was established by coupling SCSE–AMIIDB with high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (SCSE–AMIIDB–HPLC/DAD). Results indicated that the limits of detection (S/N = 3) for target compounds were 0.020–0.072 μg L−1, 0.035–0.10 μg L−1 and 0.026–0.076 μg L−1 in water, milk and honey samples, respectively. In addition, an acceptable reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 9% and 11%, respectively. Finally, the established AMII–SCSE–HPLC/DAD method was

  14. Preparation of stir cake sorptive extraction based on polymeric ionic liquid for the enrichment of benzimidazole anthelmintics in water, honey and milk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yulei [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Siming Road, P.O. Box 1009, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhang, Jie [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Huang, Xiaojia, E-mail: hxj@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Siming Road, P.O. Box 1009, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yuan, Dongxing [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Siming Road, P.O. Box 1009, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-08-20

    Highlights: • A new polymeric ionic liquid-based monolith was prepared. • The monolith was used as the extractive medium of stir cake sorptive extraction. • The SCSE–AMIIDB can extract benzimidazole anthelmintics (BAs) effectively. • A combination of SCSE–AMIIDB–LD–HPLC/DAD was developed. • The combination was applied to monitor trace BAs in water, milk and honey samples. - Abstract: In this work, a new stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) using polymeric ionic liquid monolith as sorbent was prepared. The sorbent was obtained by in situ copolymerization of an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoro methyl)sulfonyl]imide (AMII) and divinylbenzene (DB) in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. The influence of the content of ionic liquid and the porogen in the polymerization mixture on extraction performance was studied thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the polymeric ionic liquid were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The usefulness of SCSE–AMIIDB was demonstrated by the enrichment of trace benzimidazole anthelmintics. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, and under the optimized conditions, a simple and effective method for the determination of trace benzimidazoles residues in water, milk and honey samples was established by coupling SCSE–AMIIDB with high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (SCSE–AMIIDB–HPLC/DAD). Results indicated that the limits of detection (S/N = 3) for target compounds were 0.020–0.072 μg L{sup −1}, 0.035–0.10 μg L{sup −1} and 0.026–0.076 μg L{sup −1} in water, milk and honey samples, respectively. In addition, an acceptable reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 9% and 11%, respectively. Finally, the established AMII

  15. Quantitative determination of 8-isoprostaglandin F(2α) in human urine using microfluidic chip-based nano-liquid chromatography with on-chip sample enrichment and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hsin-Yu; Lin, Shu-Ling; Chung, Yu-Ting; Liu, Tsung-Yun; Chan, Shan-An; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2011-04-15

    Urinary 8-isoprostaglandin F(2α) (8-isoPGF(2α)) has been reported as an important biomarker to indicate the oxidative stress status in vivo. In order to quantitatively determine the low contents of 8-isoPGF(2α) (in sub- to low ng mL(-1) range) in physiological fluids, a sensitive detection method has become an important issue. In this study, we employed a microfluidic chip-based nano liquid chromatography (chip-nanoLC) with on-chip sample enrichment coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS) for the quantitative determination of 8-isoPGF(2α) in human urine. This chip-nanoLC unit integrates a microfluidic switch, a chip column design having a pre-column (enrichment column) for sample enrichment prior to an analytical column for separation, as well as a nanospray emitter on a single polyimide chip. The introduction of enrichment column offers the advantages of online sample pre-concentration and reducing matrix influence on MS detection to improve sensitivity. In this study, the chip-nanoLC consisting of Zorbax 300A SB-C18 columns and Agilent QqQ Mass spectrometer were used for determining 8-isoPGF(2α) in human urine. Gradient elution was employed for effective LC separation and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was utilized for the quantitative determination of 8-isoPGF(2α) (m/z 353→193). We employed liquid-liquid extraction (LLE)/solid-phase extraction (SPE) for extracting analyte and reducing matrix effect from urine sample prior to chip-nanoLC/QqQ-MS analysis for determining urinary 8-isoPGF(2α). Good recoveries were found to be in the range of 83.0-85.3%. The linear range was 0.01-2 ng mL(-1) for urinary 8-isoPGF(2α). In addition, the proposed method showed good precision and accuracy for 8-isoPGF(2α) spiked synthetic urine samples. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were 1.8-5.0% and 4.3-5.8%, respectively. The method accuracy for intra-day and inter-day assays ranged from 99.3 to 99.9% and 99.4 to 99.7%, respectively. Due to its

  16. An image mosaic method based on corner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zetao; Nie, Heting

    2015-08-01

    In view of the shortcomings of the traditional image mosaic, this paper describes a new algorithm for image mosaic based on the Harris corner. Firstly, Harris operator combining the constructed low-pass smoothing filter based on splines function and circular window search is applied to detect the image corner, which allows us to have better localisation performance and effectively avoid the phenomenon of cluster. Secondly, the correlation feature registration is used to find registration pair, remove the false registration using random sampling consensus. Finally use the method of weighted trigonometric combined with interpolation function for image fusion. The experiments show that this method can effectively remove the splicing ghosting and improve the accuracy of image mosaic.

  17. Reinforcement Learning Based on Active Learning Method

    CERN Document Server

    Sagha, Hesam; Khasteh, Hosein; Kiaei, Ali Akbar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new reinforcement learning approach is proposed which is based on a powerful concept named Active Learning Method (ALM) in modeling. ALM expresses any multi-input-single-output system as a fuzzy combination of some single-input-singleoutput systems. The proposed method is an actor-critic system similar to Generalized Approximate Reasoning based Intelligent Control (GARIC) structure to adapt the ALM by delayed reinforcement signals. Our system uses Temporal Difference (TD) learning to model the behavior of useful actions of a control system. The goodness of an action is modeled on Reward- Penalty-Plane. IDS planes will be updated according to this plane. It is shown that the system can learn with a predefined fuzzy system or without it (through random actions).

  18. REEF: searching REgionally Enriched Features in genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli Gian Antonio

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Eukaryotic genomes, different features including genes are not uniformly distributed. The integration of annotation information and genomic position of functional DNA elements in the Eukaryotic genomes opened the way to test novel hypotheses of higher order genome organization and regulation of expression. Results REEF is a new tool, aimed at identifying genomic regions enriched in specific features, such as a class or group of genes homogeneous for expression and/or functional characteristics. The method for the calculation of local feature enrichment uses test statistic based on the Hypergeometric Distribution applied genome-wide by using a sliding window approach and adopting the False Discovery Rate for controlling multiplicity. REEF software, source code and documentation are freely available at http://telethon.bio.unipd.it/bioinfo/reef/. Conclusion REEF can aid to shed light on the role of organization of specific genomic regions in the determination of their functional role.

  19. REEF: searching REgionally Enriched Features in genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppe, Alessandro; Danieli, Gian Antonio; Bortoluzzi, Stefania

    2006-01-01

    Background In Eukaryotic genomes, different features including genes are not uniformly distributed. The integration of annotation information and genomic position of functional DNA elements in the Eukaryotic genomes opened the way to test novel hypotheses of higher order genome organization and regulation of expression. Results REEF is a new tool, aimed at identifying genomic regions enriched in specific features, such as a class or group of genes homogeneous for expression and/or functional characteristics. The method for the calculation of local feature enrichment uses test statistic based on the Hypergeometric Distribution applied genome-wide by using a sliding window approach and adopting the False Discovery Rate for controlling multiplicity. REEF software, source code and documentation are freely available at . Conclusion REEF can aid to shed light on the role of organization of specific genomic regions in the determination of their functional role. PMID:17042935

  20. AN SVAD ALGORITHM BASED ON FNNKD METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Dong; Zhang Yan; Kuang Jingming

    2002-01-01

    The capacity of mobile communication system is improved by using Voice Activity Detection (VAD) technology. In this letter, a novel VAD algorithm, SVAD algorithm based on Fuzzy Neural Network Knowledge Discovery (FNNKD) method is proposed. The performance of SVAD algorithm is discussed and compared with traditional algorithm recommended by ITU G.729B in different situations. The simulation results show that the SVAD algorithm performs better.

  1. Injectable self-gelling composites for bone tissue engineering based on gellan gum hydrogel enriched with different bioglasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogels of biocompatible calcium-crosslinkable polysaccharide gellan gum (GG) were enriched with bioglass particles to enhance (i) mineralization with calcium phosphate (CaP); (ii) antibacterial properties and (iii) growth of bone-forming cells for future bone regeneration applications. Three bioglasses were compared, namely one calcium-rich and one calcium-poor preparation both produced by a sol-gel technique (hereafter referred to as A2 and S2, respectively) and one preparation of composition close to that of the commonly used 45S5 type (hereafter referred to as NBG). Incubation in SBF for 7 d, 14 d and 21 d caused apatite formation in bioglass-containing but not in bioglass-free samples, as confirmed by FTIR, XRD, SEM, ICP-OES, and measurements of dry mass, i.e. mass attributable to polymer and mineral and not water. Mechanical testing revealed an increase in compressive modulus in samples containing S2 and NBG but not A2. Antibacterial testing using biofilm-forming meticillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) showed markedly higher antibacterial activity of samples containing A2 and S2 than samples containing NBG and bioglass-free samples. Cell biological characterization using rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) revealed a stimulatory effect of NBG on rMSC differentiation. The addition of bioglass thus promotes GG mineralizability and, depending on bioglass type, antibacterial properties and rMSC differentiation. (paper)

  2. Basic uranium-235 enrichment by the Asahi Chemical Enrichment Process (ACEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of Asahi Chemical Enrichment Process (ACEP) led to the establishment of basic process technology permitting attainment of 3% enrichment within several months of operation by the mid-1980s, through advances which brought increased electron-exchange and adsorption-desorption reaction rates, effective uranium adsorption band formation and maintenance, and equilibrium plate height reductions based on the elucidation of mobile-phase dispersion. The theoretical and experimental development of redox agent self-regeneration led to a new 'Super Process' characterized by greater simplicity and efficiency than previously thought possible. A semi-commercial plant with enrichment columns of 1 m in diameter and 3 m in height, constructed at Hyuga City in Miyazaki Prefecture, demonstrated 3% uranium enrichment in April 1988. Through the improvement of enrichment efficiency, overall enrichment costs have been greatly lowered. The advantage of the chemical enrichment process, and its low cost of enrichment, have now been clearly demonstrated. (author)

  3. Uranium Enrichment, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This general presentation on uranium enrichment will be followed by lectures on more specific topics including descriptions of enrichment processes and assessments of the prevailing commercial and industrial situations. I shall therefore avoid as much as possible duplications with these other lectures, and rather dwell on: some theoretical aspects of enrichment in general, underlying the differences between statistical and selective processes, a review and comparison between enrichment processes, remarks of general order regarding applications, the proliferation potential of enrichment. It is noteworthy that enrichment: may occur twice in the LWR fuel cycle: first by enriching natural uranium, second by reenriching uranium recovered from reprocessing, must meet LWR requirements, and in particular higher assays required by high burn up fuel elements, bears on the structure of the entire front part of the fuel cycle, namely in the conversion/reconversion steps only involving UF6 for the moment. (author). tabs., figs., 4 refs

  4. Lagrangian based methods for coherent structure detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a proliferation in the development of Lagrangian analytical methods for detecting coherent structures in fluid flow transport, yielding a variety of qualitatively different approaches. We present a review of four approaches and demonstrate the utility of these methods via their application to the same sample analytic model, the canonical double-gyre flow, highlighting the pros and cons of each approach. Two of the methods, the geometric and probabilistic approaches, are well established and require velocity field data over the time interval of interest to identify particularly important material lines and surfaces, and influential regions, respectively. The other two approaches, implementing tools from cluster and braid theory, seek coherent structures based on limited trajectory data, attempting to partition the flow transport into distinct regions. All four of these approaches share the common trait that they are objective methods, meaning that their results do not depend on the frame of reference used. For each method, we also present a number of example applications ranging from blood flow and chemical reactions to ocean and atmospheric flows

  5. Lagrangian based methods for coherent structure detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allshouse, Michael R., E-mail: mallshouse@chaos.utexas.edu [Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Peacock, Thomas, E-mail: tomp@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    There has been a proliferation in the development of Lagrangian analytical methods for detecting coherent structures in fluid flow transport, yielding a variety of qualitatively different approaches. We present a review of four approaches and demonstrate the utility of these methods via their application to the same sample analytic model, the canonical double-gyre flow, highlighting the pros and cons of each approach. Two of the methods, the geometric and probabilistic approaches, are well established and require velocity field data over the time interval of interest to identify particularly important material lines and surfaces, and influential regions, respectively. The other two approaches, implementing tools from cluster and braid theory, seek coherent structures based on limited trajectory data, attempting to partition the flow transport into distinct regions. All four of these approaches share the common trait that they are objective methods, meaning that their results do not depend on the frame of reference used. For each method, we also present a number of example applications ranging from blood flow and chemical reactions to ocean and atmospheric flows.

  6. Phase space bases for response matrix methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New basis functions in space, angle, and energy are developed for use in the eigenvalue response matrix method (ERMM). ERMM solves reactor eigenvalue problems by spatially decomposing a model and linking the resulting independent nodes through approximate boundary conditions. The conditions are defined via a set of nodal transport calculations for which the forcing function is a tensor product of basis functions in all phase space variables on one nodal surface (with vacuum elsewhere). Traditional implementations of ERMM have used the standard bases of mathematical physics, including Legendre polynomials and their discrete analogs. Alternatively, new bases that incorporate some physics a priori are shown to yield satisfactory results with far lower expansion orders than is possible with more traditional bases. In particular, a very simple spatial basis incorporating pin-dependent spatial variation reduces partial current errors by nearly an order of magnitude over a standard basis. In angle, conservative bases with appropriate angular quadratures outperform simpler bases. In energy, incorporating representative spectral information from infinite medium calculations results in a basis that can achieve sub-1% pin fission rate errors with as low as a 5th order expansion in energy for a 44-group problem. The results indicate that highly-accurate, low-order response matrix solutions should be feasible for reactor physics analysis. (author)

  7. Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

    2010-05-01

    Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

  8. A phylogeny of birds based on over 1,500 loci collected by target enrichment and high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E McCormack

    Full Text Available Evolutionary relationships among birds in Neoaves, the clade comprising the vast majority of avian diversity, have vexed systematists due to the ancient, rapid radiation of numerous lineages. We applied a new phylogenomic approach to resolve relationships in Neoaves using target enrichment (sequence capture and high-throughput sequencing of ultraconserved elements (UCEs in avian genomes. We collected sequence data from UCE loci for 32 members of Neoaves and one outgroup (chicken and analyzed data sets that differed in their amount of missing data. An alignment of 1,541 loci that allowed missing data was 87% complete and resulted in a highly resolved phylogeny with broad agreement between the Bayesian and maximum-likelihood (ML trees. Although results from the 100% complete matrix of 416 UCE loci were similar, the Bayesian and ML trees differed to a greater extent in this analysis, suggesting that increasing from 416 to 1,541 loci led to increased stability and resolution of the tree. Novel results of our study include surprisingly close relationships between phenotypically divergent bird families, such as tropicbirds (Phaethontidae and the sunbittern (Eurypygidae as well as between bustards (Otididae and turacos (Musophagidae. This phylogeny bolsters support for monophyletic waterbird and landbird clades and also strongly supports controversial results from previous studies, including the sister relationship between passerines and parrots and the non-monophyly of raptorial birds in the hawk and falcon families. Although significant challenges remain to fully resolving some of the deep relationships in Neoaves, especially among lineages outside the waterbirds and landbirds, this study suggests that increased data will yield an increasingly resolved avian phylogeny.

  9. eEF1A1 binds and enriches protoporphyrin IX in cancer cells in 5-aminolevulinic acid based photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhichao; Cui, Xiaojun; Wei, Dan; Liu, Wei; Li, Buhong; He, Hao; Ye, Huamao; Zhu, Naishuo; Wei, Xunbin

    2016-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which is endogenously derived from 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or its derivatives, is a promising modality for the treatment of both pre-malignant and malignant lesions. However, the mechanisms of how ALA-induced PpIX selectively accumulated in the tumors are not fully elucidated. Here we discovered that eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 (eEF1A1) interacted with PpIX (with an affinity constant of 2.96 × 106 M‑1). Microscopy imaging showed that ALA-induced PpIX was co-localized with eEF1A1 in cancer cells. eEF1A1 was found to enrich ALA-induced PpIX in cells by competitively blocking the downstream bioavailability of PpIX. Taken together, our study discovered eEF1A1 as a novel photosensitizer binding protein, which may play an essential role in the enrichment of ALA-induced PpIX in cancer cells during PDT. These suggested eEF1A1 as a molecular marker to predict the selectivity and efficiency of 5-ALA based PDT in cancer therapy.

  10. An analytical method for hydrogeochemical surveys: Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry after using enrichment coprecipitation with cobalt and ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Trace metals that are commonly associated with mineralization were concentrated and separated from natural water by coprecipitation with ammonium pyrollidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) and cobalt and determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The method is useful in hydrogeochemical surveys because it permits preconcentration near the sample sites, and selected metals are preserved shortly after the samples are collected. The procedure is relatively simple: (1) a liter of water is filtered; (2) the pH is adjusted; (3) Co chloride and APDC are added to coprecipitate the trace metals; and (4) later, the precipitate is filtered, dissolved, and diluted to 10 ml for a 100-fold concentration enrichment of the separated metals. Sb(III), As(III), Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mo, Ni, Ag, V, and Zn can then be determined simultaneously by ICP-AES. In an experiment designed to measure the coprecipitation efficiency, Sb(III), Cd and Ag were recovered at 70 to 75% of their original concentration. The remaining metals were recovered at 85 to 100% of their original concentrations, however. The range for the lower limits of determination for the metals after preconcentration is 0.1 to 3.0 ??g/l. The precision of the method was evaluated by replicate analyses of a Colorado creek water and two simulated water samples. The accuracy of the method was estimated using a water reference standard (SRM 1643a) certified by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards. In addition, the method was evaluated by analyzing groundwater samples collected near a porphyry copper deposit in Arizona and by analyzing meltwater from glacier-covered areas favorable for mineralization in south-central Alaska. The results for the ICP-AES analyses compared favorably with those obtained using the sequential technique of GFAAS on the acidified but unconcentrated water samples. ICP-AES analysis of trace-metal preconcentrates for hydrogeochemical surveys is more efficient than GFAAS because a

  11. Meshless numerical method based on tensor product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A normalized space constructed by tensor product is used in field function approach to give a special case of moving least squares (MLS) interpolation scheme.In the regular domain,the field function which meets homogenous boundary conditions is constructed by spanning base space to make the MLS interpolation scheme simpler and more efficient.Owing to expanded basis functions selection,some drawbacks in general MLS method,for example repeated inversion,low calculation efficiency,and complex criterions,can be avoided completely.Numerical examples illustrate that the proposed method is characterized by simple mathematical concept,convenient repeat calculations with high accuracy,good continuity,less computation and rapid convergence.

  12. Trinocular Calibration Method Based on Binocular Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Dan-Dan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the self-occlusion problem in plane-based multi-camera calibration system and expand the measurement range, a tri-camera vision system based on binocular calibration is proposed. The three cameras are grouped into two pairs, while the public camera is taken as the reference to build the global coordinate. By calibration of the measured absolute distance and the true absolute distance, global calibration is realized. The MRE (mean relative error of the global calibration of the two camera pairs in the experiments can be as low as 0.277% and 0.328% respectively. Experiment results show that this method is feasible, simple and effective, and has high precision.

  13. Kernel method-based fuzzy clustering algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhongdong; Gao Xinbo; Xie Weixin; Yu Jianping

    2005-01-01

    The fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm(FCM) to the fuzzy kernel C-means clustering algorithm(FKCM) to effectively perform cluster analysis on the diversiform structures are extended, such as non-hyperspherical data, data with noise, data with mixture of heterogeneous cluster prototypes, asymmetric data, etc. Based on the Mercer kernel, FKCM clustering algorithm is derived from FCM algorithm united with kernel method. The results of experiments with the synthetic and real data show that the FKCM clustering algorithm is universality and can effectively unsupervised analyze datasets with variform structures in contrast to FCM algorithm. It is can be imagined that kernel-based clustering algorithm is one of important research direction of fuzzy clustering analysis.

  14. On Task-based English Learning Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱蕾

    2010-01-01

    @@ Task-Based learning(TBL)is becoming a catchword in English circles.The new national English Curricular Syllabus also recommends the use of the TBL approach in classroom teaching.The purpose of learning a foreign language is the most direct communicative in the target language,and speaking is the most direct communicative method.In recent years,with the publication of the New Curriculum Standard by the State Education Department,the teaching reform in middle and primary schools has been being implemented step by step.

  15. Peak fitting applied to low-resolution enrichment measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, D.; McKown, T.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gunnink, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kartoshov, M.; Kuropatwinski, J.; Raphina, G.; Sokolov, G. [Ulba Metallurgical Facility, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-12-01

    Materials accounting at bulk processing facilities that handle low enriched uranium consists primarily of weight and uranium enrichment measurements. Most low enriched uranium processing facilities draw separate materials balances for each enrichment handled at the facility. The enrichment measurement determines the isotopic abundance of the {sup 235}U, thereby determining the proper strata for the item, while the weight measurement generates the primary accounting value for the item. Enrichment measurements using the passive gamma radiation from uranium were developed for use in US facilities a few decades ago. In the US, the use of low-resolution detectors was favored because they cost less, are lighter and more robust, and don`t require the use of liquid nitrogen. When these techniques were exported to Europe, however, difficulties were encountered. Two of the possible root causes were discovered to be inaccurate knowledge of the container wall thickness and higher levels of minor isotopes of uranium introduced by the use of reactor returns in the enrichment plants. the minor isotopes cause an increase in the Compton continuum under the 185.7 keV assay peak and the observance of interfering 238.6 keV gamma rays. The solution selected to address these problems was to rely on the slower, more costly, high-resolution gamma ray detectors when the low-resolution method failed. Recently, these gamma ray based enrichment measurement techniques have been applied to Russian origin material. The presence of interfering gamma radiation from minor isotopes was confirmed. However, with the advent of fast portable computers, it is now possible to apply more sophisticated analysis techniques to the low-resolution data in the field. Explicit corrections for Compton background, gamma rays from {sup 236}U daughters, and the attenuation caused by thick containers can be part of the least squares fitting routine. Preliminary results from field measurements in Kazakhstan will be

  16. Bus Based Synchronization Method for CHIPPER Based NoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Muralidharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Network on Chip (NoC reduces the communication delay of System on Chip (SoC. The main limitation of NoC is power consumption and area overhead. Bufferless NoC reduces the area complexity and power consumption by eliminating buffers in the traditional routers. The bufferless NoC design should include live lock freeness since they use hot potato routing. This increases the complexity of bufferless NoC design. Among the available propositions to reduce this complexity, CHIPPER based bufferless NoC is considered as one of the best options. Live lock freeness is provided in CHIPPER through golden epoch and golden packet. All routers follow some synchronization method to identify a golden packet. Clock based method is intuitively followed for synchronization in CHIPPER based NoCs. It is shown in this work that the worst-case latency of packets is unbearably high when the above synchronization is followed. To alleviate this problem, broadcast bus NoC (BBus NoC approach is proposed in this work. The proposed method decreases the worst-case latency of packets by increasing the golden epoch rate of CHIPPER.

  17. Phosphopeptide enrichment with inorganic nanofibers prepared by forcespinning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenkova, Jana; Moravkova, Jaroslava; Buk, Jan; Foret, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    Efficient selective sample enrichment is often a key procedure in protocols for analyses of complex samples. This applies not only to trace sample components but also to species with weak detection response. For example enrichment of phosphopeptides using selective affinity techniques prior to mass spectrometry analysis is necessary to increase detection sensitivity of phosphopeptides from highly complex peptide mixtures. In this work we have developed inorganic nanofibrous materials based on titanium or zirconium dioxides for selective and efficient enrichment of phosphopeptides for MALDI/MS detection. In comparison to the common bead based materials the presented nanofibrous materials exhibit much higher permeability allowing their use not only for batch mode or packed in the column operation, but also in the pipette tip format without the need for high pressure. Both the methods of preparation and characterization of the resulting materials are presented. PMID:26689825

  18. Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James

    2006-04-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert. PMID:16185937

  19. Enrichment and Separation of Phosphorylated Peptides on Titanium Dioxide Surfaces : Applied and Fundamental Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Anna I. K.

    2013-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a very common posttranslational modification (PTM), which lately has been found to hold the keyrole in the development of many severe diseases, including cancer. Thereby, phosphoprotein analysis tools, generally based on specific enrichment of the phosphoryl group, have been a hot topic during the last decade. In this thesis, two new TiO2-based on-target enrichment methods are developed and presented together with enlightening fundamental results. Evaluation of the ...

  20. Natural gas C3-C8 Hydrocarbon Enrichment Analysis Methods%天然气C3-C8烃类浓缩分析新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓春; 王璋

    2015-01-01

    天然气形成的原因,但在一般情况下,天然气和油的成因是不同的,在天然气中,所用的有用信息数量不多。根据这一情况,自己配制了以C3—C8烃为主的天然气浓缩器,而当场就可以去井口搜集天然气的、浓缩的样品,在此基础上,形成了以天然气C3—C8烃为主的浓缩方法。对于该方法,能把天然气中的C3—C8烃类物质分析出来,从而完成了任务,即对天然气组分不多、气源相对不易,这是一个新的思路、方法,值得我们学习。%The causes of the formation of natural gas,but in general,the causes of natural gas an d oil are different,in natural gas,the small number of useful information.According to this situation,make myself a predominantly C3 - C8 hydrocarbon gas concentrator,and can go on the wellhead collecting gas,concentration of sample,on this basis,formed mainly gas C3 - C8 hydrocarbon enrichment method.For the method,can change the C3 - C8 hydrocarbons in natural gas analysis,so as to complete the task,namely a few components of natural gas,gas source is relatively difficult,this is a new train of thought,method and worth our learning.

  1. Evaluation of Hybridization Capture Versus Amplicon‐Based Methods for Whole‐Exome Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorodnitsky, Eric; Jewell, Benjamin M.; Hagopian, Raffi; Miya, Jharna; Wing, Michele R.; Lyon, Ezra; Damodaran, Senthilkumar; Bhatt, Darshna; Reeser, Julie W.; Datta, Jharna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Next‐generation sequencing has aided characterization of genomic variation. While whole‐genome sequencing may capture all possible mutations, whole‐exome sequencing remains cost‐effective and captures most phenotype‐altering mutations. Initial strategies for exome enrichment utilized a hybridization‐based capture approach. Recently, amplicon‐based methods were designed to simplify preparation and utilize smaller DNA inputs. We evaluated two hybridization capture‐based and two amplicon‐based whole‐exome sequencing approaches, utilizing both Illumina and Ion Torrent sequencers, comparing on‐target alignment, uniformity, and variant calling. While the amplicon methods had higher on‐target rates, the hybridization capture‐based approaches demonstrated better uniformity. All methods identified many of the same single‐nucleotide variants, but each amplicon‐based method missed variants detected by the other three methods and reported additional variants discordant with all three other technologies. Many of these potential false positives or negatives appear to result from limited coverage, low variant frequency, vicinity to read starts/ends, or the need for platform‐specific variant calling algorithms. All methods demonstrated effective copy‐number variant calling when evaluated against a single‐nucleotide polymorphism array. This study illustrates some differences between whole‐exome sequencing approaches, highlights the need for selecting appropriate variant calling based on capture method, and will aid laboratories in selecting their preferred approach. PMID:26110913

  2. Evaluation of Hybridization Capture Versus Amplicon-Based Methods for Whole-Exome Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorodnitsky, Eric; Jewell, Benjamin M; Hagopian, Raffi; Miya, Jharna; Wing, Michele R; Lyon, Ezra; Damodaran, Senthilkumar; Bhatt, Darshna; Reeser, Julie W; Datta, Jharna; Roychowdhury, Sameek

    2015-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing has aided characterization of genomic variation. While whole-genome sequencing may capture all possible mutations, whole-exome sequencing remains cost-effective and captures most phenotype-altering mutations. Initial strategies for exome enrichment utilized a hybridization-based capture approach. Recently, amplicon-based methods were designed to simplify preparation and utilize smaller DNA inputs. We evaluated two hybridization capture-based and two amplicon-based whole-exome sequencing approaches, utilizing both Illumina and Ion Torrent sequencers, comparing on-target alignment, uniformity, and variant calling. While the amplicon methods had higher on-target rates, the hybridization capture-based approaches demonstrated better uniformity. All methods identified many of the same single-nucleotide variants, but each amplicon-based method missed variants detected by the other three methods and reported additional variants discordant with all three other technologies. Many of these potential false positives or negatives appear to result from limited coverage, low variant frequency, vicinity to read starts/ends, or the need for platform-specific variant calling algorithms. All methods demonstrated effective copy-number variant calling when evaluated against a single-nucleotide polymorphism array. This study illustrates some differences between whole-exome sequencing approaches, highlights the need for selecting appropriate variant calling based on capture method, and will aid laboratories in selecting their preferred approach. PMID:26110913

  3. Uranium enrichment: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a general presentation of uranium enrichment processes and assessments of the prevailing commercial and industrial situations. It gives first some theoretical aspects of enrichment in general and explains the differences between statistical and selective processes in particular. Then a review of the different processes is made with a comparison between them. Finally, some general remarks concerning applications are given and the risks of proliferation related to enrichment are mentioned. (J.S.). 4 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  4. The effects of inquiry-based summer enrichment activities on rising eighth graders' knowledge of science processes, attitude toward science, and perceptions of scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Juanita Martin

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of summer science enrichment on eighth-graders' science process skills knowledge, attitude toward science and perceptions of scientists. A single group pre- and post-test design was used to test participants in a summer science enrichment camp, which took place over a three-week period in the summer of 2000. Participants, all of whom were residents of the Mississippi area known as the Delta, lived on the campus of Mississippi Valley State University for the entire course of the camp. Activities included several guided inquiry-based projects such as water rocket design and solar or battery-powered car design. Participants also took trips to an environmental camp in north Mississippi and to the Stennis Space Center on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Participants worked on their projects in groups, supervised by an undergraduate student "mentor". Participants were encouraged to keep journals of their experiences throughout the camp, and the researcher developed a rubric to evaluate student journals for process knowledge, evidence of planning, reflective thought, and disposition toward science. Tests were used to evaluate student knowledge of process skills, attitude toward science, and perceptions of scientists. On the Test of Integrated Process Skills (Dillashaw & Okey, 1983), the students showed significant improvement overall, but when evaluated separately, males showed significant improvement while females did not. On the Attitude toward Science in School Assessment (Germane, 1988), data indicated that attitude toward science improved significantly for the group as a whole, but upon closer inspection, indicated a significant improvement for the female students only. On Chamber's Draw-a-Scientist Test (1983), analysis of student drawings indicated no significant change in stereotypical images of scientists for the group overall. However, boys' scores indicated a significant improvement when analyzed separately

  5. Enriched coalgebraic modal logic

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Toby

    2013-01-01

    We formalise the notion of enriched coalgebraic modal logic, and determine conditions on the category V (over which we enrich), that allow an enriched logical connection to be extended to a framework for enriched coalgebraic modal logic. Our framework uses V-functors L: A ? A and T: X ? X, where L determines the modalities of the resulting modal logics, and T determines the coalgebras that provide the semantics. We introduce the V-category Mod(A, ?) of models for an L-algebra (A, ?), and ...

  6. High-performance thin-film-transistors based on semiconducting-enriched single-walled carbon nanotubes processed by electrical-breakdown strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aïssa, B., E-mail: aissab@emt.inrs.ca [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI), Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Nedil, M. [Telebec Wireless Underground Communication Laboratory, UQAT, 675, 1" è" r" e Avenue, Val d’Or, Québec J9P 1Y3 (Canada); Habib, M.A. [Computer Sciences and Engineering Department, Yanbu University College, P.O. Box 30031 (Saudi Arabia); Abdul-Hafidh, E.H. [High Energy Physics Department, Yanbu University College, P.O. Box 30031 (Saudi Arabia); Rosei, F. [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We selectively burn metallic single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) by electrical breakdown. • We successfully achieve a semiconducting enriched-SWCNT in TFT configuration. • High performance, like On/Off of 10{sup 5} and a subthreshold swing of 165 mV/decades were obtained. • After PMMA coating, the SWCNT–TFTs were found stables for more than 4 months. - Abstract: Over the past two decades, among remarkable variety of nanomaterials, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) remain the most intriguing and uniquely well suited materials for applications in high-performance electronics. The most advanced technologies require the ability to form purely semiconducting SWCNTs. Here, we report on our strategy based on the well known progressive electrical breakdown process that offer this capability and serves as highly efficient means for selectively removing metallic carbon nanotubes from electronically heterogeneous random networks, deposited on silicon substrates in a thin film transistor (TFT) configuration. We demonstrate the successful achievement of semiconducting enriched-SWCNT networks in TFT scheme that reach On/Off switching ratios of ∼100,000, on-conductance of 20 μS, and a subthreshold swing of less than 165 mV/decades. The obtained TFT devices were then protected with thin film poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to keep the percolation level of the SWCNTs network spatially and temporally stable, while protecting it from atmosphere exchanges. TFT devices were found to be air-stable and maintained their excellent characteristics in ambient atmosphere for more than 4 months. This approach could work as a platform for future nanotube-based nanoelectronics.

  7. High-performance thin-film-transistors based on semiconducting-enriched single-walled carbon nanotubes processed by electrical-breakdown strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We selectively burn metallic single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) by electrical breakdown. • We successfully achieve a semiconducting enriched-SWCNT in TFT configuration. • High performance, like On/Off of 105 and a subthreshold swing of 165 mV/decades were obtained. • After PMMA coating, the SWCNT–TFTs were found stables for more than 4 months. - Abstract: Over the past two decades, among remarkable variety of nanomaterials, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) remain the most intriguing and uniquely well suited materials for applications in high-performance electronics. The most advanced technologies require the ability to form purely semiconducting SWCNTs. Here, we report on our strategy based on the well known progressive electrical breakdown process that offer this capability and serves as highly efficient means for selectively removing metallic carbon nanotubes from electronically heterogeneous random networks, deposited on silicon substrates in a thin film transistor (TFT) configuration. We demonstrate the successful achievement of semiconducting enriched-SWCNT networks in TFT scheme that reach On/Off switching ratios of ∼100,000, on-conductance of 20 μS, and a subthreshold swing of less than 165 mV/decades. The obtained TFT devices were then protected with thin film poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to keep the percolation level of the SWCNTs network spatially and temporally stable, while protecting it from atmosphere exchanges. TFT devices were found to be air-stable and maintained their excellent characteristics in ambient atmosphere for more than 4 months. This approach could work as a platform for future nanotube-based nanoelectronics

  8. Experimental study on the mechanism of SO2 emission and calcium-based desulfurization in the coal oxygen-enriched combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The emission of SO2, CO2 brings serious harm to the ecological environment, human health and the global climate change. The largest source of SO2, CO2 is the combustion of fossil fuels for power generation. So developing the new technology for controlling pollutants emissions from coal combustion was imperative. Oxygen-enriched combustion technology is such a new technology which can realize CO2 zero emission, enhance the combustion efficiency and reduce pollutants emission. Due to the high concentration of CO2, it has many different aspects in the SO2 emission and calcium-based desulfurization compare with the conventional combustion. In this article, experiments have been done to investigate the behavior and mechanism of SO2 emissions and removal in oxygen-enriched combustion. First, in TGA and fixed bed reactor, the SO2 emission characteristics were investigated under various bed temperature, particle size and O2/ CO2 concentration. It was observed that SO2 released faster and the emission peak was higher than air atmosphere. SO2 emission concentration increased with the reaction temperature increasing. Simultaneously, the mechanism of SO2 emission was obtained by analyzing the sulfur compounds in the gas products and solid products in different reaction times. Then, the impacts of reaction temperature, particle size, O2/ CO2 concentration and SO2 concentration etc. on the efficiency of SO2 removal were analyzed. The phase analysis, pore diameter distribution and microstructure of the solid product were investigated. The experimental results showed that the sulphur capture takes place by direct sulphation reaction at high CO2 concentration which attributes to light sinter, better porous structure, higher optimal desulfurization temperature and high desulfurization efficiency of calcium-based sorbent. (author)

  9. Composition-based classification of short metagenomic sequences elucidates the landscapes of taxonomic and functional enrichment of microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jiemeng; Wang, Haifeng; Yang, Hongxing; Zhang, Yizhe; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhao, Fangqing; Qi, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Compared with traditional algorithms for long metagenomic sequence classification, characterizing microorganisms’ taxonomic and functional abundance based on tens of millions of very short reads are much more challenging. We describe an efficient composition and phylogeny-based algorithm [Metagenome Composition Vector (MetaCV)] to classify very short metagenomic reads (75–100 bp) into specific taxonomic and functional groups. We applied MetaCV to the Meta-HIT data (371-Gb 75-bp reads of 109 h...

  10. Graph-based Methods for Orbit Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagherjeiran, A; Kamath, C

    2005-09-29

    An important step in the quest for low-cost fusion power is the ability to perform and analyze experiments in prototype fusion reactors. One of the tasks in the analysis of experimental data is the classification of orbits in Poincare plots. These plots are generated by the particles in a fusion reactor as they move within the toroidal device. In this paper, we describe the use of graph-based methods to extract features from orbits. These features are then used to classify the orbits into several categories. Our results show that existing machine learning algorithms are successful in classifying orbits with few points, a situation which can arise in data from experiments.

  11. Background and Objective: Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium transferred by foods and is the agent of many sporadic and epidemic diseases in humans. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and to determinine their antibiotic resistance profile in red meats. Material and Methods: this cross-sectional study was performed on 400 red meat samples obtained from industrial slaughterhouses placed in Kerman, Iran. First, the samples were enriched with Simultaneous Enrichment Broth (SEB, and then plated onto Palcam agar and Tryptic Soy Broth Yeast Extract Broth (TSAYE. After identification of the isolates based on biochemical tests and PCR, the isolates were checked for their antibiotic resistance profile using disk Diffusion Results: of 400 samples, 12 samples (3% were contaminated with different species of Listeria. Using PCR, hly gene was recognized in eight samples (2% of L. monocytogenes. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in isolation rate of lamb samples compared to cow ones. While all of the isolates were resistant to clindamycin, amikacin and chloramphenicol, they were sensitive to penicillin. Conclusion: in spite of low rate of infection in red meat samples in Kerman city, due to high risk of Listeria contamination in red meats, we recommend applying a routine screening to identify this bacterium in our county.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kargar, M. (PhD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium transferred by foods and is the agent of many sporadic and epidemic diseases in humans. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and to determinine their antibiotic resistance profile in red meats. Material and Methods: this cross-sectional study was performed on 400 red meat samples obtained from industrial slaughterhouses placed in Kerman, Iran. First, the samples were enriched with Simultaneous Enrichment Broth (SEB, and then plated onto Palcam agar and Tryptic Soy Broth Yeast Extract Broth (TSAYE. After identification of the isolates based on biochemical tests and PCR, the isolates were checked for their antibiotic resistance profile using disk Diffusion Results: of 400 samples, 12 samples (3% were contaminated with different species of Listeria. Using PCR, hly gene was recognized in eight samples (2% of L. monocytogenes. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in isolation rate of lamb samples compared to cow ones. While all of the isolates were resistant to clindamycin, amikacin and chloramphenicol, they were sensitive to penicillin. Conclusion: in spite of low rate of infection in red meat samples in Kerman city, due to high risk of Listeria contamination in red meats, we recommend applying a routine screening to identify this bacterium in our county

  12. Uranium enrichment. Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium enrichment industry is a more than 60 years old history and has developed without practically no cost, efficiency or profit constraints. However, remarkable improvements have been accomplished since the Second World War and have led to the development of various competing processes which reflect the diversity of uranium compositions and of uranium needs. Content: 1 - general considerations: uranium isotopes, problem of uranium enrichment, first realizations (USA, Russia, Europe, Asia, other countries), present day situation, future needs and market evolution; 2 - principles of isotopic separation: processes classification (high or low enrichment), low elementary enrichment processes, equilibrium time, cascade star-up and monitoring, multi-isotopes case, uranium reprocessing; 3 - enrichment and proliferation. (J.S.)

  13. Formulation and characterization of a nutritional pumpkin-based whey beverages, enriched with oatmeal and passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Valencia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect on the addition of oatmeal (Avena sativa and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis in the content of fiber, calcium, iron, phosphorus and A vitamin in beverage formulation based on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, milk and whey, was determined. The beverages undergone significant changes during the storage time, the pH decreased as the acidity showed a slight increase. The coordinates of CIELAB (L *, a * and b * were located in quadrant 1 indicating a clear tendency to yellow caused by the presence of carotenoids from the pumpkin and passion fruit. Based on the sensory analysis it was selected best treatment who was higher in 3 of the 4 parameters evaluated. This sample also presented a pseudoplastic behavior with a consistency index of 3.57 Pa.s0.24 and a shelf life of 9 days

  14. A Generalized Method for Integrating Rule-based Knowledge into Inductive Methods Through Virtual Sample Creation

    CERN Document Server

    Iqbal, Ridwan Al

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid learning methods use theoretical knowledge of a domain and a set of classified examples to develop a method for classification. Methods that use domain knowledge have been shown to perform better than inductive learners. However, there is no general method to include domain knowledge into all inductive learning algorithms as all hybrid methods are highly specialized for a particular algorithm. We present an algorithm that will take domain knowledge in the form of propositional rules, generate artificial examples from the rules and also remove instances likely to be flawed. This enriched dataset then can be used by any learning algorithm. Experimental results of different scenarios are shown that demonstrate this method to be more effective than simple inductive learning.

  15. DNA enrichment approaches to identify unauthorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulandhu, Alfred J; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Dobnik, David; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Shi, Jianxin; Zel, Jana; Kok, Esther J

    2016-07-01

    With the increased global production of different genetically modified (GM) plant varieties, chances increase that unauthorized GM organisms (UGMOs) may enter the food chain. At the same time, the detection of UGMOs is a challenging task because of the limited sequence information that will generally be available. PCR-based methods are available to detect and quantify known UGMOs in specific cases. If this approach is not feasible, DNA enrichment of the unknown adjacent sequences of known GMO elements is one way to detect the presence of UGMOs in a food or feed product. These enrichment approaches are also known as chromosome walking or gene walking (GW). In recent years, enrichment approaches have been coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis and implemented in, amongst others, the medical and microbiological fields. The present review will provide an overview of these approaches and an evaluation of their applicability in the identification of UGMOs in complex food or feed samples. PMID:27086015

  16. A general modular framework for gene set enrichment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strimmer Korbinian

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of microarray and other high-throughput data on the basis of gene sets, rather than individual genes, is becoming more important in genomic studies. Correspondingly, a large number of statistical approaches for detecting gene set enrichment have been proposed, but both the interrelations and the relative performance of the various methods are still very much unclear. Results We conduct an extensive survey of statistical approaches for gene set analysis and identify a common modular structure underlying most published methods. Based on this finding we propose a general framework for detecting gene set enrichment. This framework provides a meta-theory of gene set analysis that not only helps to gain a better understanding of the relative merits of each embedded approach but also facilitates a principled comparison and offers insights into the relative interplay of the methods. Conclusion We use this framework to conduct a computer simulation comparing 261 different variants of gene set enrichment procedures and to analyze two experimental data sets. Based on the results we offer recommendations for best practices regarding the choice of effective procedures for gene set enrichment analysis.

  17. Effects of polysaccharide-based edible coatings enriched with dietary fiber on quality attributes of fresh-cut apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Maria R; Cassani, Lucía; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Little information is available regarding the incorporation of dietary fiber into edible films and coatings. In this work, apple fiber and inulin were incorporated into polysaccharide-based (alginate, pectine and gellan gum) edible coating formulations and their effects on the quality attributes of fresh-cut apples were evaluated. Antioxidant properties, color, firmness, sensory quality and microbial growth of fresh-cut apple were studied during 16 days of storage at 4 °C. Results show that dietary fiber extracts incorporated to gellan gum, pectin and alginate-based coatings together with calcium chloride and ascorbic acid successfully maintained the firmness and color of coated fresh-cut apples in comparison with uncoated control samples, which presented severe texture softening and browning. The firmness of apple pieces coated with polysaccharide-based coating formulations incorporating apple fiber doubled, and sometimes tripled, that of uncoated samples. Any of the assayed coatings exhibited a positive effect on the sensory properties of fresh-cut apples. The incorporation of apple fiber, together with the use of ascorbic acid, contributed to keep the antioxidant potential of the fruit at least during the first week of storage. Furthermore, gellan gum coatings had a marked effect in reducing mesophilic and psychrophilic counts on fresh-cut apples throughout storage regardless the addition of dietary fibers. The results achieved demonstrate the feasibility of the addition of dietary fiber to edible coating formulations for increasing the nutritional value of fresh-cut apples without compromising their fresh-like quality attributes. PMID:26604352

  18. Improving data management and dissemination in web based information systems by semantic enrichment of descriptive data aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Steffen; Wehrmann, Thilo; Klinger, Verena; Schettler, Ingo; Huth, Juliane; Künzer, Claudia; Dech, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    The German-Vietnamese water-related information system for the Mekong Delta (WISDOM) project supports business processes in Integrated Water Resources Management in Vietnam. Multiple disciplines bring together earth and ground based observation themes, such as environmental monitoring, water management, demographics, economy, information technology, and infrastructural systems. This paper introduces the components of the web-based WISDOM system including data, logic and presentation tier. It focuses on the data models upon which the database management system is built, including techniques for tagging or linking metadata with the stored information. The model also uses ordered groupings of spatial, thematic and temporal reference objects to semantically tag datasets to enable fast data retrieval, such as finding all data in a specific administrative unit belonging to a specific theme. A spatial database extension is employed by the PostgreSQL database. This object-oriented database was chosen over a relational database to tag spatial objects to tabular data, improving the retrieval of census and observational data at regional, provincial, and local areas. While the spatial database hinders processing raster data, a "work-around" was built into WISDOM to permit efficient management of both raster and vector data. The data model also incorporates styling aspects of the spatial datasets through styled layer descriptions (SLD) and web mapping service (WMS) layer specifications, allowing retrieval of rendered maps. Metadata elements of the spatial data are based on the ISO19115 standard. XML structured information of the SLD and metadata are stored in an XML database. The data models and the data management system are robust for managing the large quantity of spatial objects, sensor observations, census and document data. The operational WISDOM information system prototype contains modules for data management, automatic data integration, and web services for data

  19. Preliminary investigations for technology assessment of /sup 99/Mo production from LEU (low enriched uranium) targets. [For production of /sup 99m/Tc; by different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Chaiko, D.J.; Heinrich, R.R.; Kucera, E.T.; Jensen, K.J.; Poa, D.S.; Varma, R.; Vissers, D.R.

    1986-11-01

    This paper presents the results of preliminary studies on the effects of substituting low enriched uranium (LEU) for highly enriched uranium (HEU) in targets for the production of fission product /sup 99/Mo. Issues that were addressed are: (1) purity and yield of the /sup 99/Mo//sup 99m/Tc product, (2) fabrication of LEU targets and related concerns, and (3) radioactive waste. Laboratory experimentation was part of the efforts for issues (1) and (2); thus far, radioactive waste disposal has only been addressed in a paper study. Although the reported results are still preliminary, there is reason to be optimistic about the feasibility of utilizing LEU targets for /sup 99/Mo production. 37 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  20. Region-based multisensor image fusion method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Image fusion should consider the priori knowledge of the source images to be fused, such as the characteristics of the images and the goal of image fusion, that is to say, the knowledge about the input data and the application plays a crucial role. This paper is concerned on multiresolution (MR) image fusion. Considering the characteristics of the multisensor (SAR and FLIR etc) and the goal of fusion, which is to achieve one image in possession of the contours feature and the target region feature. It seems more meaningful to combine features rather than pixels. A multisensor image fusion scheme based on K-means cluster and steerable pyramid is presented. K-means cluster is used to segment out objects in FLIR images. The steerable pyramid is a multiresolution analysis method, which has a good property to extract contours information at different scales. Comparisons are made with the relevant existing techniques in the literature. The paper concludes with some examples to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  1. A Long PCR–Based Approach for DNA Enrichment Prior to Next-Generation Sequencing for Systematic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Uribe-Convers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: We present an alternative approach for molecular systematic studies that combines long PCR and next-generation sequencing. Our approach can be used to generate templates from any DNA source for next-generation sequencing. Here we test our approach by amplifying complete chloroplast genomes, and we present a set of 58 potentially universal primers for angiosperms to do so. Additionally, this approach is likely to be particularly useful for nuclear and mitochondrial regions. Methods and Results: Chloroplast genomes of 30 species across angiosperms were amplified to test our approach. Amplification success varied depending on whether PCR conditions were optimized for a given taxon. To further test our approach, some amplicons were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000. Conclusions: Although here we tested this approach by sequencing plastomes, long PCR amplicons could be generated using DNA from any genome, expanding the possibilities of this approach for molecular systematic studies.

  2. A novel strategy for enrichment and isolation of osteoprogenitor cells from induced pluripotent stem cells based on surface marker combination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Ochiai-Shino

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a new method to stimulate osteogenic differentiation in tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP-positive cells liberated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs-derived embryoid bodies (EBs with 14 days long TGF-β/IGF-1/FGF-2 treatment. TNAP is a marker protein of osteolineage cells. We analyzed and isolated TNAP-positive and E-cadherin-negative nonepithelial cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Treating the cells with a combination of transforming growth factor (TGF-β, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 for 14 days greatly enhanced TNAP expression and maximized expression frequency up to 77.3%. The isolated cells expressed high levels of osterix, which is an exclusive osteogenic marker. Culturing these TNAP-positive cells in osteoblast differentiation medium (OBM led to the expression of runt-related transcription factor 2, type I collagen, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin (OCN. These cells responded to treatment with activated vitamin D3 by upregulating OCN. Furthermore, in OBM they were capable of generating many mineralized nodules with strong expression of receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand and sclerostin (SOST. Real-time RT-PCR showed a significant increase in the expression of osteocyte marker genes, including SOST, neuropeptide Y, and reelin. Scanning electron microscopy showed dendritic morphology. Examination of semi-thin toluidine blue-stained sections showed many interconnected dendrites. Thus, TNAP-positive cells cultured in OBM may eventually become terminally differentiated osteocyte-like cells. In conclusion, treating hiPSCs-derived cells with a combination of TGF-β, IGF-1, and FGF-2 generated TNAP-positive cells at high frequency. These TNAP-positive cells had a high osteogenic potential and could terminally differentiate into osteocyte-like cells. The method described here may reveal new pathways of osteogenesis and provide a novel

  3. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium-zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched-uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with GA's standard commercial warranty

  4. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with General Atomic's standard commercial warranty

  5. Screening Key Genes Associated with the Development and Progression of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Based on Gene-enrichment Analysis and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwu HE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is one of the most common malignant tumors; however, its causes are still not completely understood. This study was designed to screen the key genes and pathways related to NSCLC occurrence and development and to establish the scientific foundation for the genetic mechanisms and targeted therapy of NSCLC. Methods Both gene set-enrichment analysis (GSEA and meta-analysis (meta were used to screen the critical pathways and genes that might be corretacted with the development and progression of lung cancer at the transcription level. Results Using the GSEA and meta methods, focal adhesion and regulation of actin cytoskeleton were determined to be the more prominent overlapping significant pathways. In the focal adhesion pathway, 31 genes were statistically significant (P<0.05, whereas in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathway, 32 genes were statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion The focal adhesion and the regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathways might play important roles in the occurrence and development of NSCLC. Further studies are needed to determine the biological function for the positiue genes.

  6. The development of the MACE work-family enrichment instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa de Klerk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: An instrument based on a theoretical model is necessary to measure the positive side of the work-family interface.Research purpose: To develop items for measurement of work-family enrichment based on the elements contained within a theoretical model and to evaluate the latent trait functioning of these items.Motivation for the study: Major limitations exist regarding the conceptualisation and scale development of the positive side of the work-family interface.Research design, approach, and method: A quantitative research approach using scale development procedures was employed to develop the 95-item instrument. A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect data randomly from selected employees; data were processed using Rasch analysis.Main findings: The five-category scale works well for the most part, although a four-category scale could be considered. Thirty-five items either over-fitted or under-fitted the work-family enrichment model. Person ability was measured in the low to middle ranges of work-family enrichment. Participants’ experience of work-family enrichment could be represented accurately. Sub-scale items displayed misfit, bias or both.Practical/managerial implications: The developed instrument can be investigated further to identify work-family enrichment factors that can measure workers’ experience of enrichment in their work and family domains.Contribution/value-add: This study furthers theory building and empirical research in industrial psychology, by developing a new theory-based measuring instrument for the positive side of the work-family interface in the South African context. This study expanded on the model proposed by Greenhaus and Powell, by including all five categories of resources gains. Furthermore, the total of the resources was diversified, since some of the content of these resources encompasses multiple meanings.

  7. An Evolution-Based Screen for Genetic Differentiation between Anopheles Sister Taxa Enriches for Detection of Functional Immune Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mitri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide variation patterns across species are shaped by the processes of natural selection, including exposure to environmental pathogens. We examined patterns of genetic variation in two sister species, Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii, both efficient natural vectors of human malaria in West Africa. We used the differentiation signature displayed by a known coordinate selective sweep of immune genes APL1 and TEP1 in A. coluzzii to design a population genetic screen trained on the sweep, classified a panel of 26 potential immune genes for concordance with the signature, and functionally tested their immune phenotypes. The screen results were strongly predictive for genes with protective immune phenotypes: genes meeting the screen criteria were significantly more likely to display a functional phenotype against malaria infection than genes not meeting the criteria (p = 0.0005. Thus, an evolution-based screen can efficiently prioritize candidate genes for labor-intensive downstream functional testing, and safely allow the elimination of genes not meeting the screen criteria. The suite of immune genes with characteristics similar to the APL1-TEP1 selective sweep appears to be more widespread in the A. coluzzii genome than previously recognized. The immune gene differentiation may be a consequence of adaptation of A. coluzzii to new pathogens encountered in its niche expansion during the separation from A. gambiae, although the role, if any of natural selection by Plasmodium is unknown. Application of the screen allowed identification of new functional immune factors, and assignment of new functions to known factors. We describe biochemical binding interactions between immune proteins that underlie functional activity for malaria infection, which highlights the interplay between pathogen specificity and the structure of immune complexes. We also find that most malaria-protective immune factors display phenotypes for either human or rodent

  8. An Evolution-Based Screen for Genetic Differentiation between Anopheles Sister Taxa Enriches for Detection of Functional Immune Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Christian; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Takashima, Eizo; Williams, Marni; Eiglmeier, Karin; Pain, Adrien; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M; Gneme, Awa; Brito-Fravallo, Emma; Holm, Inge; Lavazec, Catherine; Sagnon, N'Fale; Baxter, Richard H; Riehle, Michelle M; Vernick, Kenneth D

    2015-12-01

    Nucleotide variation patterns across species are shaped by the processes of natural selection, including exposure to environmental pathogens. We examined patterns of genetic variation in two sister species, Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii, both efficient natural vectors of human malaria in West Africa. We used the differentiation signature displayed by a known coordinate selective sweep of immune genes APL1 and TEP1 in A. coluzzii to design a population genetic screen trained on the sweep, classified a panel of 26 potential immune genes for concordance with the signature, and functionally tested their immune phenotypes. The screen results were strongly predictive for genes with protective immune phenotypes: genes meeting the screen criteria were significantly more likely to display a functional phenotype against malaria infection than genes not meeting the criteria (p = 0.0005). Thus, an evolution-based screen can efficiently prioritize candidate genes for labor-intensive downstream functional testing, and safely allow the elimination of genes not meeting the screen criteria. The suite of immune genes with characteristics similar to the APL1-TEP1 selective sweep appears to be more widespread in the A. coluzzii genome than previously recognized. The immune gene differentiation may be a consequence of adaptation of A. coluzzii to new pathogens encountered in its niche expansion during the separation from A. gambiae, although the role, if any of natural selection by Plasmodium is unknown. Application of the screen allowed identification of new functional immune factors, and assignment of new functions to known factors. We describe biochemical binding interactions between immune proteins that underlie functional activity for malaria infection, which highlights the interplay between pathogen specificity and the structure of immune complexes. We also find that most malaria-protective immune factors display phenotypes for either human or rodent malaria, with

  9. Effective Enrichment and Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Phosphopeptides Using Mesoporous Metal Oxide Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Cory A.; Szczech, Jeannine R.; Dooley, Chad J.; Xu, Qingge; Lawrence, Matthew J.; Zhu, Haoyue; Jin, Song; Ge, Ying

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomics remains challenging due to the low abundance of phosphoproteins and substoichiometric phosphorylation. This demands better methods to effectively enrich phosphoproteins/peptides prior to MS analysis. We have previously communicated the first use of mesoporous zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanomaterials for effective phosphopeptide enrichment. Here we present the full report including the synthesis, characterization, and application of mesoporous titaniu...

  10. Rare-cell enrichment by a rapid, label-free, ultrasonic isopycnic technique for medical diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Bourquin, Yannyk; Syed, Abeer; Reboud, Julien; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa C.; Barrett, Michael P.; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    One significant challenge in medical diagnostics lies in the development of label-free methods to separate different cells within complex biological samples. Here we demonstrate a generic, low-power ultrasonic separation technique, able to enrich different cell types based upon their physical properties. For malaria, we differentiate between infected and non-infected red blood cells in a fingerprick-sized drop of blood. We are able to achieve an enrichment of circulating cells infected by the...

  11. Rare-Cell Enrichment by a Rapid, Label-Free, Ultrasonic Isopycnic Technique for Medical Diagnostics**

    OpenAIRE

    Bourquin, Yannyk; Syed, Abeer; Reboud, Julien; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa C.; Barrett, Michael P.; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    One significant challenge in medical diagnostics lies in the development of label-free methods to separate different cells within complex biological samples. Here we demonstrate a generic, low-power ultrasonic separation technique, able to enrich different cell types based upon their physical properties. For malaria, we differentiate between infected and non-infected red blood cells in a fingerprick-sized drop of blood. We are able to achieve an enrichment of circulating cells infected by the...

  12. Heteronuclear NMR studies of cobalamins. 9. Temperature-dependent NMR of organocobalt corrins enriched in 13C in the organic ligand and the thermodynamics of the base-on/base-off reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of alkylcobinamides (RCbi) enriched in 13C in the organic axial ligand by standard reductive alkylation procedures from 13C-enriched alkyl halides has been shown to lead essentially exclusively to β-alkylcobamides (i.e., the organic ligand in the upper axial ligand position) by uv-visible and NMR spectroscopy and HPLC coupled with direct synthesis of 13CH3Cbi of known stereochemistry from 13C-enriched methylcobalamin (13CH3Cbl). The ionic strength dependence of the on/off pK/sub a/ of CH3Cbl, CH3CH2Cbl, and α-ribazole has also been investigated. Measurements of the relative 13C resonance frequency of 13CH3Cbl and 13CH3Cbi as a function of temperature at several ionic strengths have been used to investigate the thermodynamics of the base-on/base-off reaction of cobalamins. Additional evidence has thus been obtained for a previously detected species of base-off, but benzimidazole-deprotonated, cobalamin in which the benzimidazole B3 nitrogen atom is hydrogen-bonded to an e side chain N-H, and the thermodynamics of formation of this species have been evaluated. These results have been confirmed by similar measurements on mixtures of -OOC13CH2Cbl and -OOC13CH2Cbi. Although the new species is the predominant form (80-90%) of the base-off but benzimidazole-deprotonated cobalamins in solution at all ionic strengths, its presence has only a minor effect on the primary on/off equilibrium constants previously calculated for RCbl's. 45 references, 4 figures, 8 tables

  13. Triptycene-based ladder monomers and polymers, methods of making each, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Pinnau, Ingo

    2015-02-05

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a triptycene-based A-B monomer, a method of making a triptycene-based A-B monomer, a triptycene-based ladder polymer, a method of making a triptycene-based ladder polymers, a method of using triptycene-based ladder polymers, a structure incorporating triptycene-based ladder polymers, a method of gas separation, and the like.

  14. The Standardization Method of Address Information for POIs from Internet Based on Positional Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As points of interest (POIon the internet, exists widely incomplete addresses and inconsistent literal expressions, a fast standardization processing method of network POIs address information based on spatial constraints was proposed. Based on the model of the extensible address expression, first of all, address information of POI was segmented and extracted. Address elements are updated by means of matching with the address tree layer by layer. Then, by defining four types of positional relations, corresponding set are selected from standard POI library as candidate for enrichment and amendment of non-standard address. At last, the fast standardized processing of POI address information was achieved with the help of backtracking address elements with minimum granularity. Experiments in this paper proved that the standardization processing of an address can be realized by means of this method with higher accuracy in order to build the address database.

  15. An Ontology-Based Method for Semantic Integration of Business Components

    CERN Document Server

    Elasri, Hicham; Kzaz, Larbi

    2011-01-01

    Building new business information systems from reusable components is today an approach widely adopted and used. Using this approach in analysis and design phases presents a great interest and requires the use of a particular class of components called Business Components (BC). Business Components are today developed by several manufacturers and are available in many repositories. However, reusing and integrating them in a new Information System requires detection and resolution of semantic conflicts. Moreover, most of integration and semantic conflict resolution systems rely on ontology alignment methods based on domain ontology. This work is positioned at the intersection of two research areas: Integration of reusable Business Components and alignment of ontologies for semantic conflict resolution. Our contribution concerns both the proposal of a BC integration solution based on ontologies alignment and a method for enriching the domain ontology used as a support for alignment.

  16. Multicenter validation of PCR-based method for detection of Salmonella in chicken and pig samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Cook, N.; D'Agostino, M.; De Medici, D.; Croci, L.; Abdulmawjood, A.; Fach, P.; Karpiskova, R.; Aymerich, T.; Kwaitek, K.; Kuchta, T.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    and pig swab samples. The 3 levels were 1-10, 10-100, and 100-1000 colony-forming units (CFU)/100 mL. Sample preparations, including inoculation and pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water (BPW), were performed centrally in a German laboratory; the pre-PCR sample preparation (by a resin-based method......As part of a standardization project, an interlaboratory trial including 15 laboratories from 13 European countries was conducted to evaluate the performance of a noproprietary polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the detection of Salmonella on artificially contaminated chicken rinse...... or positive. Outlier results caused, for example, by gross departures from the experimental protocol, were omitted from the analysis. For both the chicken rinse and the pig swab samples, the diagnostic sensitivity was 100%, with 100% accordance (repeatability) and concordance (reproducibility). The...

  17. New deghosting method based on generalized triangulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Jing; Wang Guohong; Xiu Jianjuan; Wang Xiaobo

    2009-01-01

    A new deghosting method baaed on the generalized triangulation is presented. First, two intersection points corresponding to the emitter position are obtained by utilizing two azimuth angles and two elevation angles from two jammed 3-D radars (or 2-D passive sensors). Then, hypothesis testing baaed deghosting method in the multiple target scenarios is proposed using the two intersection points. In order to analyze the performance of the proposed method, the correct association probability of the true targets and the incorrect association probability of the ghost targets are defined. Finally, the Monte Carlo simulations are given for the proposed method compared with the hinge angle method in the cases of both two and three radars. The simulation results show that the proposed method has better performance than the hinge angle method in three radars case.

  18. Enrichment of solid fuels. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers deal with the methods for solid fuels enrichment, spatially coals, biomass and solid wastes, in order to improve their quality, as well as the price and interest of their use. The priority is given to the Macedonian lignite due to its low calorific value, moisture, ash content and bad mechanical characteristics. The holding of this Meeting was initiated by ZEMAK - Association of power engineers of Macedonia. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  19. The Numerical Simulation of the Crack Elastoplastic Extension Based on the Extended Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Xiaozhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the extended finite element method, the exponent disconnected function is introduced to reflect the discontinuous characteristic of crack and the crack tip enrichment function which is made of triangular basis function, and the linear polar radius function is adopted to describe the displacement field distribution of elastoplastic crack tip. Where, the linear polar radius function form is chosen to decrease the singularity characteristic induced by the plastic yield zone of crack tip, and the triangle basis function form is adopted to describe the displacement distribution character with the polar angle of crack tip. Based on the displacement model containing the above enrichment displacement function, the increment iterative form of elastoplastic extended finite element method is deduced by virtual work principle. For nonuniform hardening material such as concrete, in order to avoid the nonsymmetry characteristic of stiffness matrix induced by the non-associate flowing of plastic strain, the plastic flowing rule containing cross item based on the least energy dissipation principle is adopted. Finally, some numerical examples show that the elastoplastic X-FEM constructed in this paper is of validity.

  20. Uranium conversion and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the Atomic Energy Corporation's uranium conversion and enrichment plants at Valinda ba, including a brief discussion of problems encountered and plans for future developments. (author)

  1. City model enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Philip D.; Quinn, Jonathan A.; Jones, Christopher B.

    The combination of mobile communication technology with location and orientation aware digital cameras has introduced increasing interest in the exploitation of 3D city models for applications such as augmented reality and automated image captioning. The effectiveness of such applications is, at present, severely limited by the often poor quality of semantic annotation of the 3D models. In this paper, we show how freely available sources of georeferenced Web 2.0 information can be used for automated enrichment of 3D city models. Point referenced names of prominent buildings and landmarks mined from Wikipedia articles and from the OpenStreetMaps digital map and Geonames gazetteer have been matched to the 2D ground plan geometry of a 3D city model. In order to address the ambiguities that arise in the associations between these sources and the city model, we present procedures to merge potentially related buildings and implement fuzzy matching between reference points and building polygons. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented methods.

  2. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated nano-magnets for selective adsorption and enrichment of illegal cationic dyes in food matrices prior to high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ping; Liang, Zhi-an; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Jian; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Qing-qiong; Zheng, Chun-hao; Luo, Li-Ni; Lin, Zi-hao; Zhu, Fang; Zhang, Xue-wu

    2016-03-11

    In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (MHSPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the extraction and separation of four banned cationic dyes, Auramine O, Rhodamine B, Basic orange 21 and Basic orange 22, in condiments prior to HPLC detection. The main factors affecting the extraction of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent concentrations and zeta potential were studied and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method was successful applied for the analysis of banned cationic dyes in food samples such as chili sauce, soybean paste and tomato sauce. Validation data showed the good recoveries in the range of 70.1-104.5%, with relative standard deviations less than 15%. The method limits of determination/quantification were in the range of 0.2-0.9 and 0.7-3μgkg(-1), respectively. The selective adsorption and enrichment of cationic dyes were achieved by the synergistic effects of hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic attraction between mixed hemimicelles and the cationic dyes, which also resulted in the removal of natural pigments interferences from sample extracts. When applied to real samples, RB was detected in several positive samples (chili powders) within the range from 0.042 to 0.177mgkg(-1). These results indicate that magnetic MHSPE is an efficient and selective sample preparation technique for the extraction of banned cationic dyes in a complex matrix. PMID:26877180

  3. A validated PCR-based method to detect Listeria monocytogenes using raw milk as a food model - Towards an international standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, M.; Wagner, M.; Vazquez-Boland, J.A.; Kuchta, T.; Karpiskova, R.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Novella, S.; Scortti, M.; Ellison, J.; Murray, A.; Fernandes, I.; Kuhn, M.; Pazlarova, J.; Heuvelink, A.; Cook, N.

    2004-01-01

    both the accordance (repeatability) and the concordance (reproducibility) were 99.4%. The assay was incorporated within a method for the detection of L. monocytogenes in raw milk, which involves 24 It of enrichment in half-Fraser broth followed by 16 h of enrichment in a medium that can be added...... concordance was 68.1%. The sensitivity (correct identification of milk samples inoculated with 20 to 200 L. monocytogenes cells per 25 ml) was 89.4%, the accordance was 81.2%, and the concordance was 80.7%. This method provides a basis for the application of routine PCR-based analysis to dairy products and...

  4. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairrow, Nannette Lea

    Safeguarding special nuclear material (SNM) in the Department of Energy Complex is vital to the national security of the United States. Active and passive nondestructive assays are used to confirm the presence of SNM in various configurations ranging from waste to nuclear weapons. Confirmation measurements for nuclear weapons are more challenging because the design complicates the detection of a distinct signal for highly enriched uranium. The emphasis of this dissertation was to investigate a new nondestructive assay technique that provides an independent and distinct signal to confirm the presence of highly enriched uranium (HEU). Once completed and tested this assay method could be applied to confirmation measurements of nuclear weapons. The new system uses a 14-MeV neutron source for interrogation and records the arrival time of neutrons between the pulses with a high efficiency detection system. The data is then analyzed by the Feynman reduced variance method. The analysis determined the amount of correlation in the data and provided a unique signature of correlated fission neutrons. Measurements of HEU spheres were conducted at Los Alamos with the new system. Then, Monte Carlo calculations were performed to verify hypothesis made about the behavior of the neutrons in the experiment. Comparisons of calculated counting rates by the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) were made with the experimental data to confirm that the measured response reflected the desired behavior of neutron interactions in the highly enriched uranium. In addition, MCNP calculations of the delayed neutron build-up were compared with the measured data. Based on the results obtained from this dissertation, this measurement method has the potential to be expanded to include mass determinations of highly enriched uranium. Although many safeguards techniques exist for measuring special nuclear material, the number of assays that can be used to confirm HEU in shielded systems is

  5. Communication Error Analysis Method based on CREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Communication error has been considered as a primary reason of many incidents and accidents in nuclear industry. In order to prevent these accidents, an analysis method of communication errors is proposed. This study presents a qualitative method to analyze communication errors. The qualitative method focuses on finding a root cause of the communication error and predicting the type of communication error which could happen in nuclear power plants. We develop context conditions and antecedent-consequent links of influential factors related to communication error. A case study has been conducted to validate the applicability of the proposed methods

  6. Adaptation strategies for high order discontinuous Galerkin methods based on Tau-estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompenhans, Moritz; Rubio, Gonzalo; Ferrer, Esteban; Valero, Eusebio

    2016-02-01

    In this paper three p-adaptation strategies based on the minimization of the truncation error are presented for high order discontinuous Galerkin methods. The truncation error is approximated by means of a τ-estimation procedure and enables the identification of mesh regions that require adaptation. Three adaptation strategies are developed and termed a posteriori, quasi-a priori and quasi-a priori corrected. All strategies require fine solutions, which are obtained by enriching the polynomial order, but while the former needs time converged solutions, the last two rely on non-converged solutions, which lead to faster computations. In addition, the high order method permits the spatial decoupling for the estimated errors and enables anisotropic p-adaptation. These strategies are verified and compared in terms of accuracy and computational cost for the Euler and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. It is shown that the two quasi-a priori methods achieve a significant reduction in computational cost when compared to a uniform polynomial enrichment. Namely, for a viscous boundary layer flow, we obtain a speedup of 6.6 and 7.6 for the quasi-a priori and quasi-a priori corrected approaches, respectively.

  7. Enrichment technology. Dependable vendor of gas centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enrichment Technology is an innovative, high-tech company that develops, manufactures and installs gas centrifuges for enriching uranium. In addition, Enrichment Technology designs enrichment plants that use gas centrifuge technology. This technology offers the most efficient and cost-effective method for enriching uranium yet: high-performance, safe technology that dominates the market with a global share of 45 percent. A determining factor in Enrichment Technology's success is its mission: supplying its customers with safe, reliable technology. Production of the centrifuges requires versatile know-how and collaboration between different departments as well as interdisciplinary teams at the various sites. More than 2000 operators at 8 sites in 5 countries contribute their individual knowledge and personal skills in order to produce this exceptional technology. The head office is in Beaconsfield near London and the operational headquarters are in Almelo in the Netherlands. There are other sites in Germany (Juelich und Gronau), Great Britain (Capenhurst) as well as project sites in the USA and France. Capenhurst is where experienced engineers design new enrichment plants and organise their construction. Centrifuge components are manufactured in Almelo and Juelich, while the pipework needed to connect up the centrifuges is produced at the site in Gronau. In Juelich, highly qualified scientists in interdisciplinary teams are continuously researching ways of improving the current centrifuges. Communication between specialists in the fields of chemistry, physics and engineering forms the basis for the company's success and the key to extending this leading position in the global enrichment market. (orig.)

  8. An effort to use human-based exome capture methods to analyze chimpanzee and macaque exomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jin

    Full Text Available Non-human primates have emerged as an important resource for the study of human disease and evolution. The characterization of genomic variation between and within non-human primate species could advance the development of genetically defined non-human primate disease models. However, non-human primate specific reagents that would expedite such research, such as exon-capture tools, are lacking. We evaluated the efficiency of using a human exome capture design for the selective enrichment of exonic regions of non-human primates. We compared the exon sequence recovery in nine chimpanzees, two crab-eating macaques and eight Japanese macaques. Over 91% of the target regions were captured in the non-human primate samples, although the specificity of the capture decreased as evolutionary divergence from humans increased. Both intra-specific and inter-specific DNA variants were identified; Sanger-based resequencing validated 85.4% of 41 randomly selected SNPs. Among the short indels identified, a majority (54.6%-77.3% of the variants resulted in a change of 3 base pairs, consistent with expectations for a selection against frame shift mutations. Taken together, these findings indicate that use of a human design exon-capture array can provide efficient enrichment of non-human primate gene regions. Accordingly, use of the human exon-capture methods provides an attractive, cost-effective approach for the comparative analysis of non-human primate genomes, including gene-based DNA variant discovery.

  9. Direct Measurement of Initial Enrichment and Burn-up of Spent Fuel Assembly with a Differential Die-Away Technique Based Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-16

    A key objective of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is to utilize non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques to determine the elemental plutonium (Pu) content in a commercial-grade nuclear spent fuel assembly (SFA). In the third year of the NGSI Spent Fuel NDA project, the research focus is on the integration of a few NDA techniques. One of the reoccurring challenges to the accurate determination of Pu content has been the explicit dependence of the measured signal on the presence of neutron absorbers which build up in the assembly in accordance with its operating and irradiation history. The history of any SFA is often summarized by the parameters of burn-up (BU), initial enrichment (IE) and cooling time (CT). While such parameters can typically be provided by the operator, the ability to directly measure and verify them would significantly enhance the autonomy of the IAEA inspectorate. Within this paper, we demonstrate that an instrument based on a Differential Die-Away technique is in principle capable of direct measurement of IE and, should the CT be known, also the BU.

  10. Contemporary and prospective fuel cycles for VVER-440 based on new assemblies with higher Uranium capacity and higher average fuel enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RRC Kurchatov Institute has performed an extensive cycle of calculations intended to validate the opportunities of improving different fuel cycles for VVER-440 reactors. Works were performed to upgrade and improve VVER-440 fuel cycles on the basis of second generation fuel assemblies allowing core thermal power to be up rated to 107%-108% of its nominal value (1375 MW), while maintaining the same fuel operation lifetime. Currently intensive work is underway to develop fuel cycles based on second-generation assemblies with higher fuel capacity and average fuel enrichment per assembly increased up to 4.87% of U-235. Fuel capacity of second-generation assemblies was increased by means of eliminated central apertures of fuel pellets, and pellet diameter extended due to reduced fuel cladding thickness. This paper intends to summarize the results of works performed in the field of VVER-440 fuel cycle modernization, and to present yet unemployed opportunities and prospects of further improvement of VVER-440 neutronic and operating parameters by means of additional optimization of fuel assembly designs and fuel element arrangements applied. (author)

  11. Community-aware user profile enrichment in folksonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haoran; Li, Qing; Mao, Xudong; Li, Xiaodong; Cai, Yi; Rao, Yanghui

    2014-10-01

    In the era of big data, collaborative tagging (a.k.a. folksonomy) systems have proliferated as a consequence of the growth of Web 2.0 communities. Constructing user profiles from folksonomy systems is useful for many applications such as personalized search and recommender systems. The identification of latent user communities is one way to better understand and meet user needs. The behavior of users is highly influenced by the behavior of their neighbors or community members, and this can be utilized in constructing user profiles. However, conventional user profiling techniques often encounter data sparsity problems as data from a single user is insufficient to build a powerful profile. Hence, in this paper we propose a method of enriching user profiles based on latent user communities in folksonomy data. Specifically, the proposed approach contains four sub-processes: (i) tag-based user profiles are extracted from a folksonomy tripartite graph; (ii) a multi-faceted folksonomy graph is constructed by integrating tag and image affinity subgraphs with the folksonomy tripartite graph; (iii) random walk distance is used to unify various relationships and measure user similarities; (iv) a novel prototype-based clustering method based on user similarities is used to identify user communities, which are further used to enrich the extracted user profiles. To evaluate the proposed method, we conducted experiments using a public dataset, the results of which show that our approach outperforms previous ones in user profile enrichment. PMID:24907893

  12. A Novel Method For Speech Segmentation Based On Speakers' Characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Abdolali, Behrouz; 10.5121/sipij.2012.3205

    2012-01-01

    Speech Segmentation is the process change point detection for partitioning an input audio stream into regions each of which corresponds to only one audio source or one speaker. One application of this system is in Speaker Diarization systems. There are several methods for speaker segmentation; however, most of the Speaker Diarization Systems use BIC-based Segmentation methods. The main goal of this paper is to propose a new method for speaker segmentation with higher speed than the current methods - e.g. BIC - and acceptable accuracy. Our proposed method is based on the pitch frequency of the speech. The accuracy of this method is similar to the accuracy of common speaker segmentation methods. However, its computation cost is much less than theirs. We show that our method is about 2.4 times faster than the BIC-based method, while the average accuracy of pitch-based method is slightly higher than that of the BIC-based method.

  13. A novel method to identify pathways associated with renal cell carcinoma based on a gene co-expression network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiyun; Li, Hongyun; Liu, Bo; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Shibao; Sun, Zeqiang; Liu, Shuangqing; Sun, Fahai; Liu, Qingyong

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a novel method for identifying pathways associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) based on a gene co-expression network. A framework was established where a co-expression network was derived from the database as well as various co-expression approaches. First, the backbone of the network based on differentially expressed (DE) genes between RCC patients and normal controls was constructed by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) database. The differentially co-expressed links were detected by Pearson's correlation, the empirical Bayesian (EB) approach and Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA). The co-expressed gene pairs were merged by a rank-based algorithm. We obtained 842; 371; 2,883 and 1,595 co-expressed gene pairs from the co-expression networks of the STRING database, Pearson's correlation EB method and WGCNA, respectively. Two hundred and eighty-one differentially co-expressed (DC) gene pairs were obtained from the merged network using this novel method. Pathway enrichment analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database and the network enrichment analysis (NEA) method were performed to verify feasibility of the merged method. Results of the KEGG and NEA pathway analyses showed that the network was associated with RCC. The suggested method was computationally efficient to identify pathways associated with RCC and has been identified as a useful complement to traditional co-expression analysis. PMID:26058425

  14. Deuterium enrichment of interstellar dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Majumdar, Liton; Sahu, Dipen

    2016-07-01

    High abundance of some abundant and simple interstellar species could be explained by considering the chemistry that occurs on interstellar dusts. Because of its simplicity, the rate equation method is widely used to study the surface chemistry. However, because the recombination efficiency for the formation of any surface species is highly dependent on various physical and chemical parameters, the Monte Carlo method is best suited for addressing the randomness of the processes. We carry out Monte-Carlo simulation to study deuterium enrichment of interstellar grain mantle under various physical conditions. Based on the physical properties, various types of clouds are considered. We find that in diffuse cloud regions, very strong radiation fields persists and hardly a few layers of surface species are formed. In translucent cloud regions with a moderate radiation field, significant number of layers would be produced and surface coverage is mainly dominated by photo-dissociation products such as, C, CH_3, CH_2D, OH and OD. In the intermediate dense cloud regions (having number density of total hydrogen nuclei in all forms ˜2 × 10^4 cm^{-3}), water and methanol along with their deuterated derivatives are efficiently formed. For much higher density regions (˜10^6 cm^{-3}), water and methanol productions are suppressed but surface coverage of CO, CO_2, O_2, O_3 are dramatically increased. We find a very high degree of fractionation of water and methanol. Observational results support a high fractionation of methanol but surprisingly water fractionation is found to be low. This is in contradiction with our model results indicating alternative routes for de-fractionation of water.

  15. Highly efficient preparation of sphingoid bases from glucosylceramides by chemoenzymatic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Siddabasave Gowda B; Usuki, Seigo; Hammam, Mostafa A S; Murai, Yuta; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Monde, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Sphingoid base derivatives have attracted increasing attention as promising chemotherapeutic candidates against lifestyle diseases such as diabetes and cancer. Natural sphingoid bases can be a potential resource instead of those derived by time-consuming total organic synthesis. In particular, glucosylceramides (GlcCers) in food plants are enriched sources of sphingoid bases, differing from those of animals. Several chemical methodologies to transform GlcCers to sphingoid bases have already investigated; however, these conventional methods using acid or alkaline hydrolysis are not efficient due to poor reaction yield, producing complex by-products and resulting in separation problems. In this study, an extremely efficient and practical chemoenzymatic transformation method has been developed using microwave-enhanced butanolysis of GlcCers and a large amount of readily available almond β-glucosidase for its deglycosylation reaction of lysoGlcCers. The method is superior to conventional acid/base hydrolysis methods in its rapidity and its reaction cleanness (no isomerization, no rearrangement) with excellent overall yield. PMID:26667669

  16. Trinocular Calibration Method Based on Binocular Calibration

    OpenAIRE

    CAO Dan-Dan; Luo, Chun; GAO Shu-Yuan; Wang, Yun; Li, Wen-Bin; XU Zhen-Ying

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the self-occlusion problem in plane-based multi-camera calibration system and expand the measurement range, a tri-camera vision system based on binocular calibration is proposed. The three cameras are grouped into two pairs, while the public camera is taken as the reference to build the global coordinate. By calibration of the measured absolute distance and the true absolute distance, global calibration is realized. The MRE (mean relative error) of the global calibration of ...

  17. A Multidimensional System for Phosphopeptide Analysis Using TiO2 Enrichment and Ion-exchange Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although offline enrichment of phosphorylated peptides is widely used, enrichment for phosphopeptides using TiO2 is often performed manually, which is labor-intensive and can lead to irreproducible results. To address the problems associated with offline enrichment and to improve the effectiveness of phosphopeptide detection, we developed an automated online enrichment system for phosphopeptide analysis. A standard protein mixture comprising BSA, fetuin, crystalline, α-casein and β-casein, and ovalbumin was assessed using our new system. Our multidimensional system has four main parts: a sample pump, a 20-mm TiO2-based column, a weak anion-exchange, and a strong cation-exchange (2:1 WAX:SCX) separation column with LC/MS. Phosphorylated peptides were successfully detected using the TiO2-based online system with little interference from nonphosphorylated peptides. Our results confirmed that our online enrichment system is a simple and efficient method for detecting phosphorylated peptides

  18. AN EVEN COMPONENT BASED FACE RECOGNITION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel face recognition algorithm. To provide additional variations to training data set, even-odd decomposition is adopted, and only the even components (half-even face images) are used for further processing. To tackle with shift-variant problem,Fourier transform is applied to half-even face images. To reduce the dimension of an image,PCA (Principle Component Analysis) features are extracted from the amplitude spectrum of half-even face images. Finally, nearest neighbor classifier is employed for the task of classification. Experimental results on ORL database show that the proposed method outperforms in terms of accuracy the conventional eigenface method which applies PCA on original images and the eigenface method which uses both the original images and their mirror images as training set.

  19. LEVEL SET METHODS BASED ON DISTANCE FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德军; 唐云; 于洪川; 唐泽圣

    2003-01-01

    Some basic problems on the level set methods were discussed, such as the method used to preserve the distance function, the existence and uniqueness of solution for the level set equations. The main contribution is to prove that in a neighborhood of the initial zero level set, the level set equations with the restriction of the distance function have a unique solution, which must be the signed distance function with respect to the evolving surface. Some skillful approaches were used: Noticing that any solution for the original equation was a distance function, the original level set equations were transformed into a simpler alternative form. Moreover, since the new system was not a classical one, the system was transforned into an ordinary one, for which the implicit function method was adopted.

  20. Enrichment: Dealing with overcapacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today's surplus of enrichment capacity will continue until at least the end of this century. This will challenge the ingenuity of the separative work unit (SWU) suppliers as they attempt to keep market share and remain profitable in a very competitive marketplace. The utilities will be faced with attractive choices, but making the best choice will require careful analysis and increased attention to market factors. Current demand projections will probably prove too high to the extent that more reactors are canceled or delayed. The DOE has the vast majority of the unused capacity, so it will feel the most immediate impact of this large surplus in productive capacity. The DOE has responded to these market challenges by planning another reorganization of its enriching operations. Without a major agreement among the governments affected by the current surplus in enrichment capacity, the future will see lower prices, more competitive terms, and the gradual substitution of centrifuge or laser enrichment for the gaseous diffusion plants. The competition that is forcing the gaseous diffusion prices down to marginal cost will provide the long-term price basis for the enrichment industry

  1. Valuing Convertible Bonds Based on LSRQM Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Convertible bonds are one of the essential financial products for corporate finance, while the pricing theory is the key problem to the theoretical research of convertible bonds. This paper demonstrates how to price convertible bonds with call and put provisions using Least-Squares Randomized Quasi-Monte Carlo (LSRQM method. We consider the financial market with stochastic interest rates and credit risk and present a detailed description on calculating steps of convertible bonds value. The empirical results show that the model fits well the market prices of convertible bonds in China’s market and the LSRQM method is effective.

  2. HMM-Based Gene Annotation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haussler, David; Hughey, Richard; Karplus, Keven

    1999-09-20

    Development of new statistical methods and computational tools to identify genes in human genomic DNA, and to provide clues to their functions by identifying features such as transcription factor binding sites, tissue, specific expression and splicing patterns, and remove homologies at the protein level with genes of known function.

  3. String-Based Methods in Perturbative Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bern, Z.; Dunbar, D.C.; Shimada, T.

    1993-01-01

    String theory implies a relatively modest growth in computational complexity for perturbative gravity calculations as compared to gauge theory calculations, contrary to field theory expectations. An explicit string-based calculation, which would be extremely difficult using conventional techniques, is presented to illustrate this.

  4. Melting curve analysis after T allele enrichment (MelcaTle as a highly sensitive and reliable method for detecting the JAK2V617F mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soji Morishita

    Full Text Available Detection of the JAK2V617F mutation is essential for diagnosing patients with classical myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs. However, detection of the low-frequency JAK2V617F mutation is a challenging task due to the necessity of discriminating between true-positive and false-positive results. Here, we have developed a highly sensitive and accurate assay for the detection of JAK2V617F and named it melting curve analysis after T allele enrichment (MelcaTle. MelcaTle comprises three steps: 1 two cycles of JAK2V617F allele enrichment by PCR amplification followed by BsaXI digestion, 2 selective amplification of the JAK2V617F allele in the presence of a bridged nucleic acid (BNA probe, and 3 a melting curve assay using a BODIPY-FL-labeled oligonucleotide. Using this assay, we successfully detected nearly a single copy of the JAK2V617F allele, without false-positive signals, using 10 ng of genomic DNA standard. Furthermore, MelcaTle showed no positive signals in 90 assays screening healthy individuals for JAK2V617F. When applying MelcaTle to 27 patients who were initially classified as JAK2V617F-positive on the basis of allele-specific PCR analysis and were thus suspected as having MPNs, we found that two of the patients were actually JAK2V617F-negative. A more careful clinical data analysis revealed that these two patients had developed transient erythrocytosis of unknown etiology but not polycythemia vera, a subtype of MPNs. These findings indicate that the newly developed MelcaTle assay should markedly improve the diagnosis of JAK2V617F-positive MPNs.

  5. Diffusion-based separation methods: dry distillation of zinc, cadmium and mercury isotopes from irradiated targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion-based separation methods allow the extraction of produced radionuclides with a low loss of target material, which is of special importance when enriched target material is used. We present a simple, non-destructive and rapid method to separate radioactive isotopes of IIB group elements (zinc, cadmium and mercury) from IB group metal targets irradiated with protons. Irradiated target foils were heated to a temperature 20oC below the melting point of the target material. During these conditions at least 90% of the desired radioactivity was evaporated with negligible loss of target material. Separation time was 15 min for mercury, 60 min for cadmium and 120 min for zinc. (author)

  6. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  7. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  8. Valuing Convertible Bonds Based on LSRQM Method

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Liu; Lizhao Yan; Chaoqun Ma

    2014-01-01

    Convertible bonds are one of the essential financial products for corporate finance, while the pricing theory is the key problem to the theoretical research of convertible bonds. This paper demonstrates how to price convertible bonds with call and put provisions using Least-Squares Randomized Quasi-Monte Carlo (LSRQM) method. We consider the financial market with stochastic interest rates and credit risk and present a detailed description on calculating steps of convertible bonds value. The e...

  9. An ICA based method for texture recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Fournel, Thierry; Becker, Jean-Marie; Daniela COLTUC; Yann BOUTANT

    2006-01-01

    The method proposed in this paper uses the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for an application of unsupervised recognition of textures. The analysed texture is modelled by a weighted sum of almost statistically independent random signals that are extracted with FastICA algorithm. Each resulting signal is described by its negentropy, more precisely, by one of the approximations used by FastICA algorithm. The approximated negentropies are sorted into descending order and represented by a cu...

  10. The Low Chamber Pancreatic Cancer Cells Had Stem-Like Characteristics in Modified Transwell System: Is It a Novel Method to Identify and Enrich Cancer Stem-Like Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs or cancer-initiating cells (CICs play an important role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, chemoresistance, and recurrence. It is important to construct an effective method to identify and isolate CSCs for biotherapy of cancer. During the past years, many researchers had paid more attention to it; however, this method was still on seeking. Therefore, compared to the former methods that were used to isolate the cancer stem cell, in the present study, we tried to use modified transwell system to isolate and enrich CSCs from human pancreatic cancer cell lines (Panc-1. Our results clearly showed that the lower chamber cells in modified transwell system were easily forming spheres; furthermore, these spheres expressed high levels of stem cell markers (CD133/CD44/CD24/Oct-4/ESA and exhibited chemoresistance, underwent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, and possessed the properties of self-renewal in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Therefore, we speculated that modified transwell assay system, as a rapid and effective method, can be used to isolate and enrich CSCs.

  11. Advanced uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  12. Segal Enriched Categories I

    CERN Document Server

    Bacard, Hugo V

    2010-01-01

    We develop a theory of enriched categories over a (higher) category M equipped with a class W of morphisms called homotopy equivalences. We call them Segal M_W -categories. Our motivation was to generalize the notion of "up-to-homotopy monoids" in a monoidal category M, introduced by Leinster. The formalism adopted generalizes the classical Segal categories and extends the theory of enriched category over a bicategory. In particular we have a linear version of Segal categories which did not exist so far. Our goal in this paper is to present the theory and provide some examples. Applications are reserved for the future.

  13. Environmental signatures of enrichment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental sampling is a potentially useful tool that could be used for the detection of undeclared enrichment facilities. However, this would be likely to require the use of sophisticated and expensive analytical techniques to evaluate 235U/238U ratios. It would be, therefore, unlikely to be an inexpensive approach to detect proliferation. The probability of detecting an enrichment operation will depend on the type of facility. A gaseous diffusion operation will be relatively difficult to detect in relation to an EMIS facility and a gaseous centrifuge plant will be more difficult still. Releases from an enrichment operation are likely to be restricted to atmospheric discharges. Aquatic discharges would be relatively easy to contain and it would be unwise to devise a sampling strategy based on the measurement of these. The detection of atmospheric discharges is likely to be dependent on meteorological conditions, in particular stability. Stable atmospheric conditions are the most favourable for detecting releases at significant distances from the plant. Given stable conditions, detection of an EMIS facility might be possible at a distance of several 10s of km

  14. Knowledge-based methods for control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis consists of three projects which combine artificial intelligence and control. The first part describes an expert system interface for system identification, using the interactive identification program Idpac. The interface works as an intelligent help system, using the command spy strategy. It contains a multitude of help system ideas. The concept of scripts is introduced as a data structure used to describe the procedural part of the knowledge in the interface. Production rules are used to represent diagnostic knowledge. A small knowledge database of scripts and rules has been developed and an example run is shown. The second part describes an expert system for frequency response analysis. This is one of the oldest and most widely used methods to determine the dynamics of a stable linear system. Though quite simple, it requires knowledge and experience of the user, in order to produce reliable results. The expert system is designed to help the user in performing the analysis. It checks whether the system is linear, finds the frequency and amplitude ranges, verifies the results, and, if errors should occur, tries to give explanation and remedies for them. The third part describes three diagnostic methods for use with industrial processes. They are measurement validation, i.e., consistency checking of sensor and measurement values using any redundancy of instrumentation; alarm analysis, i.e. analysis of multiple alarm situations to find which alarms are directly connected to primary faults and which alarms are consequential effects of the primary ones; and fault diagnosis, i.e., a search for the causes of and remedies for faults. The three methods use multilevel flow models, (MFM), to describe the target process. They have been implemented in the programming tool G2, and successfully tested on two small processes. (164 refs.) (au)

  15. Biogenic carbon-enriched and pollutant depleted SRF from commercial and pretreated heterogeneous waste generated by NIR sensor-based sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieber, Simone; Ragossnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland; Curtis, Alexander

    2012-04-01

    Mechanical processing using predominantly particle size and density as separation criteria is currently applied in the production of solid-recovered fuel or refuse-derived fuel. It does not sufficiently allow for the optimization of the quality of heterogeneous solid waste for subsequent energy recovery. Material-specific processing, in contrast, allows the separation criterion to be linked to specific chemical constituents. Therefore, the technical applicability of material-specific sorting of heterogeneous waste, in order to optimize its routing options, was evaluated. Two sorting steps were tested on a pilot and a large scale. Near infrared multiplexed sensor-based sorting devices were used (1) to reduce the chlorine (Cl) respectively pollutant content, in order to broaden the utilization options of SRF in industrial co-incineration, and (2) to increase the biogenic carbon (C(bio)) content, which is highly relevant in the light of the EU emission trading scheme on CO₂. It was found that the technology is generally applicable for the heterogeneous waste fractions looked at, if the sensor systems are appropriately adjusted for the sorting task. The first sorting step allowed for the removal of up to 40% of the Cl freight by separating only 3 to 5% of the material mass. Very low Cl concentrations were achieved in the output stream to be used as solid-recovered fuel stream and additionally, the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentration was decreased. A two- to four-fold enriched C(bio) content was achieved by the second sorting step. Due to lower yields in the large-scale test further challenges need to be addressed. PMID:22363024

  16. Tailor-Made Stable Zr(IV)-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks for Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Small Molecules and Simultaneous Enrichment of Phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianfang; Ou, Junjie; Wang, Hongwei; Liu, Zhongshan; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2016-08-10

    Although thousands of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been fabricated and widely applied in gas storage/separations, adsorption, catalysis, and so on, few kinds of MOFs have been used as adsorption materials while simultaneously serving as matrixes to analyze small molecules for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). Herein, a new concept is introduced to design and synthesize MOFs as both adsorption materials and matrixes according to the structure of ligands and common matrixes. The proof of concept design was demonstrated by selection of 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDC) and 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid (DHT) as ligands for synthesis of MOFs. Two Zr(IV)-based MOFs of UiO-66-PDC and UiO-66-(OH)2 were synthesized and applied for the first time as new matrixes for analysis of small molecules by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Both of them showed low matrix interferences, high ionization efficiency, and good reproducibility when used as matrixes. A variety of small molecules, including saccharides, amino acids, nucleosides, peptides, alkaline drugs, and natural products, were analyzed. In addition, UiO-66-(OH)2 exhibited potential for application in the quantitative determination of glucose and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Furthermore, thanks to its intrinsically large surface area and highly ordered pores, UiO-66-(OH)2 also showed sensitive and specific enrichment of phosphopeptides prior to MS analysis. These results demonstrated that this strategy can be used to efficiently screen tailor-made MOFs as matrixes to analyze small molecules by MALDI-TOF-MS. PMID:27427857

  17. Shelf-life study of Indian traditional food based nutraceutical (oryzanol) enriched instant mixes Bhath-OZ and Upma-OZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby Latha, R; Debnath, Sukumar; Sarmandal, C V; Hemavathy, J; Khatoon, Sakina; Gopala Krishna, A G; Lokesh, B R

    2014-01-01

    To provide nutraceutical such as oryzanol through food, two instant mixes based on the Indian traditional food cuisine Bisibele bhath and Upma(Bhath-OZ and Upma-OZ) were developed and evaluated for shelf-life. The formulations contained cereals, pulses, and spices along with oryzanol enriched oil and were packed in 200gauge/50 gauge metallized polyester packaging material and stored under ambient (27 °C 65%RH) and accelerated conditions (37 °C/92%RH). Samples were withdrawn periodically and peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid value (FFA), fatty acid composition, oryzanol, and total tocopherols content were estimated. Sensory evaluation of reconstituted products was also carried out. Oryzanol content (610 and 550 mg%) did not change appreciably in Bhath-OZ and Upma-OZ respectively. The peroxide value under ambient condition increased from 1.1 to 9.3 meq.O2/kg and 2.24 to 9.02 meq.O2/kg during the 6 month storage study at 27 °C and 65% RH, while under accelerated conditions at 37 °C and 92%RH, it increased from 1.12 to 8.54 meq. O2/kg and 2.24 to 6.96 meq. O2/kg during 2 month storage period. Bhath-OZ and Upma-OZ packed in metallized polyester pouches stored at 27 °C and 65% RH had a shelf-life of 4 months without affecting the oryzanol content and quality of instant mixes during the storage period. PMID:24426057

  18. Scope-Based Method Cache Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Benedikt; Hepp, Stefan; Schoeberl, Martin

    requests memory transfers at well-defined instructions only. In this article, we present a new cache analysis framework that generalizes and improves work on cache persistence analysis. The analysis demonstrates that a global view on the cache behavior permits the precise analyses of caches which are hard......The quest for time-predictable systems has led to the exploration of new hardware architectures that simplify analysis and reasoning in the temporal domain, while still providing competitive performance. For the instruction memory, the method cache is a conceptually attractive solution, as it...

  19. High-Throughput Sequencing Based Methods of RNA Structure Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan

    In this thesis we describe the development of four related methods for RNA structure probing that utilize massive parallel sequencing. Using them, we were able to gather structural data for multiple, long molecules simultaneously. First, we have established an easy to follow experimental and...... RTTS-Seq to detect antisense oligonucleotide binding sites within a transcriptome. In this case, we applied an enrichment strategy to greatly reduce the background. Finally, we have modified the RTTS-Seq to study the secondary structure of 3’ untranslated regions. In the course of this thesis we...... computational protocol for detecting the reverse transcription termination sites (RTTS-Seq). This protocol was subsequently applied to hydroxyl radical footprinting of three dimensional RNA structures to give a probing signal that correlates well with the RNA backbone solvent accessibility. Moreover, we applied...

  20. Proposal for Scrambled Method based on NTRU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Tariq Sadiq

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Scrambling is widely used to protect the security of data files such as text, image, video or audio files; however, it is not the most efficient method to protect the security of the data files. This article uses NTRU public key cryptosystem to increase the robustness of scrambling of sound files. In this work, we convert the sound file into text, and then scramble it in the following way: first, we encrypt the header of the sound file then, scramble the data of the file after the header in three stages. In each stage we scramble the data of the sound file and keep the original order of data in an array then, the three arrays are encrypted by the sender and sent with the encrypted header to the receiver in one file, while the scrambled data of the sound file is sent to the receiver in another file. We have tested the proposed method on several sound files; the results show that the time of encryption and decryption is reduced to approximately one-third, or less, compared to encrypting the file using NTRU.

  1. Reactor Physics Methods and Preconceptual Core Design Analyses for Conversion of the Advanced Test Reactor to Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg; Sean R. Morrell

    2012-09-01

    Under the current long-term DOE policy and planning scenario, both the ATR and the ATRC will be reconfigured at an appropriate time within the next several years to operate with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This will be accomplished under the auspices of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, administered by the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). At a minimum, the internal design and composition of the fuel element plates and support structure will change, to accommodate the need for low enrichment in a manner that maintains total core excess reactivity at a suitable level for anticipated operational needs throughout each cycle while respecting all control and shutdown margin requirements and power distribution limits. The complete engineering design and optimization of LEU cores for the ATR and the ATRC will require significant multi-year efforts in the areas of fuel design, development and testing, as well as a complete re-analysis of the relevant reactor physics parameters for a core composed of LEU fuel, with possible control system modifications. Ultimately, revalidation of the computational physics parameters per applicable national and international standards against data from experimental measurements for prototypes of the new ATR and ATRC core designs will also be required for Safety Analysis Report (SAR) changes to support routine operations with LEU. This report is focused on reactor physics analyses conducted during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 to support the initial development of several potential preconceptual fuel element designs that are suitable candidates for further study and refinement during FY-2013 and beyond. In a separate, but related, effort in the general area of computational support for ATR operations, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is conducting a focused multiyear effort to introduce modern high-fidelity computational reactor physics software and associated validation protocols to replace

  2. Gradient-based methods for sparse recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Hager, William; Zhang, Hongchao

    2009-01-01

    The convergence rate is analyzed for the SpaSRA algorithm (Sparse Reconstruction by Separable Approximation) for minimizing a sum $f (\\m{x}) + \\psi (\\m{x})$ where $f$ is smooth and $\\psi$ is convex, but possibly nonsmooth. It is shown that if $f$ is convex, then the error in the objective function at iteration $k$, for $k$ sufficiently large, is bounded by $a/(b+k)$ for suitable choices of $a$ and $b$. Moreover, if the objective function is strongly convex, then the convergence is $R$-linear. An improved version of the algorithm based on a cycle version of the BB iteration and an adaptive line search is given. The performance of the algorithm is investigated using applications in the areas of signal processing and image reconstruction.

  3. Enriching Number Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    Exploring number systems of other cultures can be an enjoyable learning experience that enriches students' knowledge of numbers and number systems in important ways. It helps students deepen mental computation fluency, knowledge of place value, and equivalent representations for numbers. This article describes how the author designed her…

  4. Everyone Vegetarian, World Enriching

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    This essay advocates global vegetarian diet. Firstly, seven personal health benefits and four global benefits of vegetarian dinners are specified to enrich the entire globe, and then, secondly, I explore concretely how to overcome internal hurdle and external hurdle, so as to effectively propagate vegetarian dinners throughout the world. Everyone wins, including animals!

  5. Methodology for content enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederbragt, H.; Heerlien, M.

    2010-01-01

    The STERNA project mainly focuses on enrichment of existing content of content holding organisations in the natural history domain. Therefore, developing a methodology on how to best integrate one’s content into the STERNA information space is an essential part of the project. This document is the o

  6. Designing job enrichment projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clakeley, G L

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a management strategy for a job satisfaction program utilized in a large occupational therapy department. The goal of the program is to retain satisfied, productive employees and reduce attrition of therapists and assistants. The use of job enrichment projects for occupational therapy assistants will be presented with brief descriptions of two projects. PMID:23944880

  7. Job Enrichment in Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourman, Louis S.; Jones, Jo

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 10 participants in Ohio State University's job enrichment program for midcareer extension agents found that 5 returned to their same jobs after the experience but only 2 felt challenged/renewed. Part-time participation while working made it difficult to balance responsibilities. More information and a structured orientation were…

  8. Triptycene-based dianhydrides, polyimides, methods of making each, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bader

    2015-12-30

    A triptycene-based monomer, a method of making a triptycene-based monomer, a triptycene-based aromatic polyimide, a method of making a triptycene- based aromatic polyimide, methods of using triptycene-based aromatic polyimides, structures incorporating triptycene-based aromatic polyimides, and methods of gas separation are provided. Embodiments of the triptycene-based monomers and triptycene-based aromatic polyimides have high permeabilities and excellent selectivities. Embodiments of the triptycene-based aromatic polyimides have one or more of the following characteristics: intrinsic microporosity, good thermal stability, and enhanced solubility. In an exemplary embodiment, the triptycene-based aromatic polyimides are microporous and have a high BET surface area. In an exemplary embodiment, the triptycene-based aromatic polyimides can be used to form a gas separation membrane.

  9. Phosphopeptide enrichment by immobilized metal affinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E.; Larsen, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    binding capacity. After binding, the enriched phosphopeptides are released from the metal ions using alkaline buffers of pH 10–11, EDTA, or phosphate-containing buffers. Here we describe a protocol for IMAC using Fe 3+ for phosphopeptide enrichment. The principles are illustrated on a semi-complex peptide......Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) has been the method of choice for phosphopeptide enrichment prior to mass spectrometric analysis for many years and it is still used extensively in many laboratories. Using the affinity of negatively charged phosphate groups towards positively...... charged metal ions such as Fe3+, Ga3+, Al3+, Zr4+, and Ti4+ has made it possible to enrich phosphorylated peptides from peptide samples. However, the selectivity of most of the metal ions is limited, when working with highly complex samples, e.g., whole-cell extracts, resulting in contamination from...

  10. Iterative Methods for the Force-based Quasicontinuum Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Matthew; Luskin, Mitchell; Ortner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Force-based atomistic-continuum hybrid methods are the only known pointwise consistent methods for coupling a general atomistic model to a finite element continuum model. For this reason, and due to their algorithmic simplicity, force-based coupling methods have become a popular class of atomistic-continuum hybrid models as well as other types of multiphysics models. However, the recently discovered unusual stability properties of the linearized force-based quasicontinuum (QCF) approximation,...

  11. A network diagnostics method based on pattern recognition algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Olizarovich, E. V.; Rodchenko, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    This report deals with the problem of designing and building of a computer network diagnostic system. Diagnostic content problems are reviewed, as well as ways of their solution based on mathematical and computer modelling methods. A traffic analysis-based diagnostic method is suggested for process statuses in a computer network. The method is based on algorithms of the mathematical pattern recognition theory. To build a diagnostic system, a multi-level model building and verification arrange...

  12. Promotion of uranium enrichment business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Committee on Nuclear Power has studied on the basic nuclear power policy, establishing its five subcommittees, entrusted by the Ministry of Nternational Trade and Industry. The results of examination by the subcommittee on uranium enrichment business are given along with a report in this connection by the Committee. In order to establish the nuclear fuel cycle, the aspect of uranium enrichment is essential. The uranium enrichment by centrifugal process has proceeded steadily in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The following matters are described: the need for domestic uranium enrichment, the outlook for overseas enrichment services and the schedule for establishing domestic enrichment business, the current state of technology development, the position of the prototype enrichment plant, the course to be taken to establish enrichment business the main organization operating the prototype and commercial plants, the system of supplying centrifuges, the domestic conversion of natural uranium the subsidies for uranium enrichment business. (J.P.N.)

  13. Uranium enrichment plant risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for risk analysis of enrichment facilities is presented and applied to a small scale ultracentrifuge plant. Internal events are identified and the consequences of accidental releases of U F6 are quantified in terms of its toxicological and radiological impact. It is shown that releases in the feed and the cascade areas offers no hazards to the public . Releases of liquefied U F6 in the withdrawal areas, associated with failures in the building isolation systems, may cause undesirable consequences. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Boron isotopic enrichment by displacement chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    10B enriched boron is used in applications requiring high volumetric neutron absorption (absorption cross section- 3837 barn for thermal and 1 barn for 1 MeV fast neutron). It is used in fast breeder reactor (as control rod material), in neutron counter, in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy etc. Owing to very small separation factor, boron isotopic enrichment is a complex process requiring large number of separation stages. Heavy Water Board has ventured in industrial scale production of 10B enriched boron using Exchange Distillation Process as well as Ion Displacement Chromatography Process. Ion Displacement Chromatography process is used in Boron Enrichment Plant at HWP, Manuguru. It is based on isotopic exchange between borate ions (B(OH)4-) on anion exchange resin and boric acid passing through resin. The isotopic exchange takes place due to difference in zero point energy of 10B and 11B

  15. Answer Card Identification Method Based on Pattern Recognition Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Jing; Zhang Kun Fang

    2016-01-01

    The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader), most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recogniti...

  16. Whole-Exome Enrichment with the Illumina TruSeq Exome Enrichment Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Rui; Im, Hogune; Snyder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Multiple platforms are available for whole-exome enrichment and sequencing (WES). This protocol is based on the Illumina TruSeq Exome Enrichment platform, which captures ~62 Mb of the human exonic regions using 95-base DNA probes. In addition to covering the RefSeq and Ensembl coding sequences, the enriched sequences also include ~28 Mb of RefSeq untranslated regions (UTR). The protocol can be performed at the benchside without the need for automation, and the resulting library can be used fo...

  17. Brain Based Teaching: Fad or Promising Teaching Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Clyde A.

    This paper discusses brain-based teaching and examines its relevance as a teaching method and knowledge base. Brain-based teaching is very popular among early childhood educators. Positive attributes of brain-based education include student engagement and active involvement in their own learning, teachers teaching for meaning and understanding,…

  18. The gut microbiome as a target for regulatory T cell-based immunotherapy: induction of regulatory lymphocytes by oral administration of anti-LPS enriched colostrum alleviates immune mediated colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yaʼacov, Ami Ben; Lichtenstein, Yoav; Zolotarov, Lidya; Ilan, Yaron

    2015-01-01

    Background Gut-derived bacterial endotoxin is an important cofactor in the pathogenesis of IBD. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for maintenance of peripheral tolerance and can prevent and alleviate IBD. To determine the immune modulatory effect of anti-LPS enriched hyperimmune colostrum, its ability to induce Tregs and alleviate immune mediated colitis. Methods Immune-mediated colitis was induced in mice by intra-colonic instillation of Trinitrobenzene Sulfonate (TNBS). Four groups o...

  19. AN IMAGE RETRIEVAL METHOD BASED ON SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF COLOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Color histogram is now widely used in image retrieval. Color histogram-based image retrieval methods are simple and efficient but without considering the spatial distribution information of the color. To overcome the shortcoming of conventional color histogram-based image retrieval methods, an image retrieval method based on Radon Transform (RT) is proposed. In order to reduce the computational complexity,wavelet decomposition is used to compress image data. Firstly, images are decomposed by Mallat algorithm.The low-frequency components are then projected by RT to generate the spatial color feature. Finally the moment feature matrices which are saved along with original images are obtained. Experimental results show that the RT based retrieval is more accurate and efficient than traditional color histogram-based method in case that there are obvious objects in images. Further more, RT based retrieval runs significantly faster than the traditional color histogram methods.

  20. What is Enrichment For (?)

    OpenAIRE

    Matsangos, P.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been held that schooling, the curriculum (hidden or otherwise), and the pedagogical practices pertaining to them are the perpetrators of social and economic inequalities in Western society. My interest surrounds the role of ‘enrichment’, as an auxiliary of education, in perpetuating or restricting social justice. As the enrichment coordinator within an inner city Sixth Form college, it became part of my remit to research the dispositions held by our largely underprivileged student...

  1. Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs - 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughter, Mark D [ORNL

    2007-11-01

    of the future, but has yet to be demonstrated commercially. In the early 1980s, six countries developing gas centrifuge technology (United States, United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Japan, and Australia) along with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) began developing effective safeguards techniques for GCEPs. This effort was known as the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP). The HSP had the goal of maximizing safeguards effectiveness while minimizing the cost to the operator and inspectorate, and adopted several recommendations, such as the acceptance of limited-frequency unannounced access (LFUA) inspections in cascade halls, and the use of nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements and tamper-indicating seals. While only the HSP participants initially committed to implementing all the measures of the approach, it has been used as a model for the safeguards applied to GCEPs in additional states. This report provides a snapshot overview of world enrichment capacity in 2007, including profiles of the uranium enrichment programs of individual states. It is based on open-source information, which is dependent on unclassified sources and may therefore not reflect the most recent developments. In addition, it briefly describes some of the safeguards techniques being used at various enrichment plants, including implementation of HSP recommendations.

  2. Systems and methods for interpolation-based dynamic programming

    KAUST Repository

    Rockwood, Alyn

    2013-01-03

    Embodiments of systems and methods for interpolation-based dynamic programming. In one embodiment, the method includes receiving an object function and a set of constraints associated with the objective function. The method may also include identifying a solution on the objective function corresponding to intersections of the constraints. Additionally, the method may include generating an interpolated surface that is in constant contact with the solution. The method may also include generating a vector field in response to the interpolated surface.

  3. Appraisal of {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance methods for estimating N{sub 2} fixation by understorey Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparimma in a native forest of subtropical Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Environmental Futures Centre; Sun, Fangfang [Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Research Centre for Quality, Safety and Standard of Agricultural Products; Chen, Chengrong [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). School of Environment, Environmental Futures Centre; Wild, Clyde [Griffith Univ., Gold Coast, QLD (Australia). School of Environment, Environmental Futures Centre

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: It is anticipated that global climate change will increase the frequency of wildfires in native forests of eastern Australia. Understorey legumes such as Acacia species play an important role in maintaining ecosystem nitrogen (N) balance through biological N fixation (BNF). This is particularly important in Australian native forests with soils of low nutrient status and frequent disturbance of the nutrient cycles by fires. This study aimed to examine {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance techniques in terms of their utilisation for evaluation of N{sub 2} fixation of understorey acacias and determine the relationship between species ecophysiological traits and N{sub 2} fixation. Materials and methods: A trial was established at sites 1 and 2 located at Toohey Forest, Queensland, Australia, a eucalypt-dominated native forest, to examine the determination of BNF using {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance methods. Toohey Forest is an urban forest and subjected to frequent fuel reduction burns to protect the adjacent properties. Plant physiological status was measured to determine the relationship between physiological and N{sub 2} fixation activities. Results and discussion: Both {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance techniques may be used to estimate N{sub 2} fixation of acacia tree species. The estimation of BNF using {sup 15}N enrichment was higher than those of the {sup 15}N natural abundance method. A grass reference plant, Themeda triandra, as well as tree reference plants provided an appropriate {delta}{sup 15}N signal. Potential B values for Acacia spp. between -0.3 permille and 1.0 permille provided an acceptable BNF estimation. This suburban forest is located nearby a busy highway leading to N deposition over time with consequent negative {delta}{sup 15}N signal. This N deposition may explain the separation between the {delta}{sup 15}N signal of the acacias and that of the reference plants which led to

  4. Decision Making Method Based on Paraconsistent Annotated Logic and Statistical Method: a Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Fábio Romeu; Brunstein, Israel; Abe, Jair Minoro

    2008-10-01

    Presently, there are new kinds of logic capable of handling uncertain and contradictory data without becoming trivial. Decision making theories based on these logics have shown to be powerful in many aspects regarding more traditional methods based on Statistics. In this paper we intend to outline a first study for a decision making theory based on Paraconsistent Annotated Evidential Logic Eτ (Paraconsistent Decision Method (PDM)) and classical Statistical Decision Method (SDM). Some discussion is presented below.

  5. Enrichment-ELISA for Detection of Salmonella typhi From Food and Water Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.KUMAR; K.BALAKRISHNA; HV.BATRA

    2008-01-01

    Objective Development of monoclonal antibody based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbant assay(sELISA)for rapid detection of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi(S.typhi) from food and water samples and optimization of enrichment procedures for use with the developed sELISA to increase the detection Sensitivity of the assay. Methods Spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with flagellin(H=d)antigen of S.typhi were fused with Sp2/0 myeloma cells.The hybridoma cell line specific to H=d antigen was established.characterized and ascites raised against one of these clones.The hypefimmune serum to flagellin antigen was raised in New Zealand White rabbits.An sELISA was developed using polyclonalantibody as capture and monoelonal antibody as detection antibody.To design the efficient culture sUrategies for use with the sELISA.different pre-enrichment and enrichment brothswere evaluated.The mediaincluded buffered peptonewater(BPW)and brain heart infusion broth for pre-enrichment and selenite F broth and Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth as enrichment broths.The developed sELISA with preceding enrichment step in BPW(Enrichment-ELISA)was evaluated in various food samples artificially inoculated with S. typhi bacteria.Various food(30)and water(35)samples collected from field were also tested by Enrichment-ELISA and culture method. Results Out of four specific clones to H=d antigen,one clone(#2/56.IgG2a isotype)was usedin sELISA.The sELISA had the detectionlimit of 104-105 cfu of S.typhi.Of the various broths used with sELISA,BPW was found to yield maximum ELISA values.Enrichment-ELISA,when tested in artificially inoculated food samples,generally,could detect 102S.typhi cfu/mL within 10 h from variousfood rinses(meat,vegetable)and milk samples.After overnight enrichment in BPW,as less as 2 bacteria per 10 mL of milk,meat rinse.and chicken rinse could be detected.Only one of the field samples(water)gave false positive result by Enrichment-ELISA.Conclusion In comparison to culture

  6. Auditory-model-based Feature Extraction Method for Mechanical Faults Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yungong; ZHANG Jinping; DAI Li; ZHANG Zhanyi; LIU Jie

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the human auditory system possesses remarkable capabilities to analyze and identify signals. Therefore, it would be significant to build an auditory model based on the mechanism of human auditory systems, which may improve the effects of mechanical signal analysis and enrich the methods of mechanical faults features extraction. However the existing methods are all based on explicit senses of mathematics or physics, and have some shortages on distinguishing different faults, stability, and suppressing the disturbance noise, etc. For the purpose of improving the performances of the work of feature extraction, an auditory model, early auditory(EA) model, is introduced for the first time. This auditory model transforms time domain signal into auditory spectrum via bandpass filtering, nonlinear compressing, and lateral inhibiting by simulating the principle of the human auditory system. The EA model is developed with the Gammatone filterbank as the basilar membrane. According to the characteristics of vibration signals, a method is proposed for determining the parameter of inner hair cells model of EA model. The performance of EA model is evaluated through experiments on four rotor faults, including misalignment, rotor-to-stator rubbing, oil film whirl, and pedestal looseness. The results show that the auditory spectrum, output of EA model, can effectively distinguish different faults with satisfactory stability and has the ability to suppress the disturbance noise. Then, it is feasible to apply auditory model, as a new method, to the feature extraction for mechanical faults diagnosis with effect.

  7. A novel method for fast enrichment and monitoring of hexavalent and trivalent chromium at the ppt level with modified silica MCM-41 and its determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganjali Mohammad Reza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromium(III at the ng L-1 level was extracted using partially silylated MCM-41 modified by a tetraazamacrocyclic compound (TAMC and determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emision spectrometry (ICP OES. The extraction time and efficiency, pH and flow rate, type and minimum amount of stripping acid, and break- through volume were investigated. The method's enrichment factor and detection limit are 300 and 45.5 pg mL-1, respectively. The maximum capacity of the 10 mg of modified silylated MCM-41 was found to be 400.5?4.7 µg for Cr(III. The method was applied to the determination of Cr(III and Cr(VI in the wastewater of the chromium electroplating industry and in environmental and biological samples (black tea, hot and black pepper.

  8. A visual saliency based method for vehicle logo detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Shen, Yiping; Chang, Hongxing

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a novel method based on visual saliency and template matching for detecting vehicle logo from images captured by cross-road cameras. To detect the logo, such method first generates a saliency map based on the modified Itti's saliency model, and then obtains regions of interest (ROI) by thresholding the saliency map, at last performs an edge-based template matching to locate the logo. Experiments on more than 2400 images validate both high accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method, and demonstrates our method suitable for real-time application.

  9. Enrichment marketplace - today (and tomorrow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technologies and capacities of the four primary sources of enrichment services, the United States Department of Energy, Eurodif, Techsnabexport of the Soviet Union, and Urenco, were given. Forecasts of future capacities and prices of enriched uranium were also included

  10. Identification of Distinct Breast Cancer Stem Cell Populations Based on Single-Cell Analyses of Functionally Enriched Stem and Progenitor Pools

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Akrap; Daniel Andersson; Eva Bom; Pernilla Gregersson; Anders Ståhlberg; Göran Landberg

    2016-01-01

    Summary The identification of breast cancer cell subpopulations featuring truly malignant stem cell qualities is a challenge due to the complexity of the disease and lack of general markers. By combining extensive single-cell gene expression profiling with three functional strategies for cancer stem cell enrichment including anchorage-independent culture, hypoxia, and analyses of low-proliferative, label-retaining cells derived from mammospheres, we identified distinct stem cell clusters in b...

  11. Regulation of the Contribution of Integrin to Cell Attachment on Poly(2-Methoxyethyl Acrylate) (PMEA) Analogous Polymers for Attachment-Based Cell Enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshiba, Takashi; Nemoto, Eri; Sato, Kazuhiro; Orui, Toshihiko; Otaki, Takayuki; Yoshihiro, Ayano; Tanaka, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Cell enrichment is currently in high demand in medical engineering. We have reported that non-blood cells can attach to a blood-compatible poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) substrate through integrin-dependent and integrin-independent mechanisms because the PMEA substrate suppresses protein adsorption. Therefore, we assumed that PMEA analogous polymers can change the contribution of integrin to cell attachment through the regulation of protein adsorption. In the present study, we investiga...

  12. Method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Mosdorf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper evaluates method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis of trace log generated by software execution. Described method for detecting software anomalies is based on windowed recurrence quantification analysis for selected measures (e.g. Recurrence rate - RR or Determinism - DET. Initial results show that proposed method is useful in detecting silent software anomalies that do not result in typical crashes (e.g. exceptions.

  13. Proceedings of the international meeting on development, fabrication, and application of Reduced Enrichment fuels for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). Base technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international effort to develop new fuel materials and designs which will make it feasible to fuel research and test reactors throughout the world with low-enrichment uranium, instead of high-enrichment uranium, has made significant progress during the past year. This progress has taken place at research centers located in many different countries, and is of crucial interest to reactor operators and licensors whose geographical distribution is even more varied. It is appropriate, therefore, that international meetings be held periodically to foster direct communication among the specialists in this area. To achieve this purpose, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at the Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the third of a series which begun in 1978. The papers presented at this meeting were divided into sessions according to relevant subject: status of RERTR program and safety issues; development of new fuel types; testing of new fuel elements; specific reactor applications. These proceedings were edited by various members of the RERTR Program

  14. Classification-Based Method of Linear Multicriteria Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilev, Vassil; Genova, Krassimira; Vassileva, Mariyana; Narula, Subhash

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes a classification-based learning-oriented interactive method for solving linear multicriteria optimization problems. The method allows the decision makers describe their preferences with greater flexibility, accuracy and reliability. The method is realized in an experimental software system supporting the solution of multicriteria optimization problems.

  15. Teaching based on the case method of building collective protection

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Garcia, Nieves; Cobo Escamilla, Alfonso; Moreno Fernandez, Maria Esther

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental aspects in the adaptation of the teaching to the European higher education is changing based models of teacher education to models based on student learning. In this work we present an educational experience developed with the teaching method based on the case method, with a clearly multidisciplinary. The experience has been developed in the teaching of analysis and verification of safety rails. This is a multidisciplinary field that presents great difficulties during t...

  16. Improvement of the safeguards approach at Rokkasho Enrichment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokkasho Enrichment Plant (REP) has been operated since 1992 with implementing the safeguards-based on the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP) concept. In order to improve confidence on safeguards at REP, Japan Safeguards Office (JSGO), IAEA and JNFL have established the task force meeting to discuss the safeguards improvement plans including concepts of integrated safeguards approach at REP. This paper presents accountancy method, outline of current inspection activities, group seals on tails cylinders, UF6 tracking system based on optical surveillance cameras under trial use as part of improvement plan, and integrated safeguards approach under study with issue to be solved. (author)

  17. Enriching Orphans’ Potentials through Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Intelligence Enrichment Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulwahida Hj Azid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orphans are considered a minority and they should be given a greater emphasis so that they do not feel left out and can build their own lives without a sense of humility. This does not mean that the orphans should be pampered instead they should be given the confidence and motivation to strive for success in later life. Humility among orphans can be associated with interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of problem-solving activity treatment based on the interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. 46 students from two orphanages were involved as the treatment group. The research design used was a one-group pretest-posttest design applied through a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Enrichment activities that provided interpersonal and intrapersonal skills as evidenced in this study should be carried out regularly at orphanages. Our study has proven that orphans‟ rights to learn cannot be neglected and „no child left behind „policy needs to be carried through by everybody involved with orphans‟ well-being. Teachers and carers need to be trained to use these enrichment activities at their orphanages to help maximize the orphans‟ potentials.

  18. Pathogen enrichment device (PED) enables one-step growth, enrichment and separation of pathogen from food matrices for detection using bioanalytical platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Byoung-Kwon; Kim, Hyochin; Singh, Atul K; Bhunia, Arun K

    2015-10-01

    The bottleneck for accurate detection of foodborne pathogens is separation of target analytes from complex food matrices. Currently used sample preparation methods are cumbersome, arduous and lengthy; thus, a user-friendly system is desirable. A hand-held sample preparation system designated pathogen enrichment device (PED) was built that contains a growth chamber, filters, and an ion exchange cartridge to deliver bacteria directly onto the detection platforms. Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes were used as model pathogens. Spinach, ground beef, hotdogs, and eggs were used as model foods to evaluate PED performance, and results were compared with traditional bag enrichment method. Bacterial cells were inoculated at 1, 10, and 100 CFU/g of the sample and enriched in PED using appropriate pathogen-specific selective enrichment broths. The bacterial cell counts in both PED and stomacher-bag were comparable and the pH in PED-recovered cell suspension was close to neutral whereas the pH of cell suspension in the stomacher-bag was slightly acidic. The bacterial recovery from the PED was 79-100% and was directly detected by lateral-flow immunoassay (LFIA), quantitative PCR (qPCR) and light scattering sensor with sample-to-result time of 8-24h with a detection limit of 1CFU/g. In qPCR, the amplified PCR products appeared in 4-5 cycles earlier with PED-enriched cultures compared to the cultures enriched in stomacher-bag. The hand-held PED proved to be a one-step procedure for enrichment and recovery of homogenous particle-free bacterial cells for detection using immunological, molecular or biosensor-based platforms. PMID:26211638

  19. Question Categorization Using SVM Based on Different Term Weighting Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka G Pillai

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the performance of Question Categorization based on four different term weighting methods. Term weighting methods such as tf*idf, qf*icf, iqf*qf*icf and vrf together with SVM classifier were used for categorization. From the experiments conducted using both linear and nonlinear SVM, term weighting method iqf*qf*icf showed better performance in question categorization than other methods.

  20. Question Categorization Using SVM Based on Different Term Weighting Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka G Pillai; Jayasree Narayanan

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance of Question Categorization based on four different term weighting methods. Term weighting methods such as tf*idf, qf*icf, iqf*qf*icf and vrf together with SVM classifier were used for categorization. From the experiments conducted using both linear and nonlinear SVM, term weighting method iqf*qf*icf showed better performance in question categorization than other methods.

  1. Conceptual bases of the brand valuation by cost method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Y. Studinska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of valuing intangible assets in accordance with international trends is substantiated. The brand is seen as more important component of intangible assets, as an effective management tool company. The benefits and uses of brand evaluation results are investigated. System monocriterion cost brand evaluation methods is analyzed. In particular, methods that require evaluation by the time factor (current and forecast methods and methods for factor comparison base (relative and absolute. The cost method of brand valuation through market transactions in accordance J.Common’s classification is considered in detail. The explanation of the difference between method a summation of all costs and method of brand valuation through market transactions is provided. The advantages and disadvantages considered cost method of brand valuation are investigated. The cost method as the relative-predicted of the brand valuation, «The method of determining the proportion of the brand from the discounted total costs» is grounded

  2. A Study of Learning and Motivation in a New Media Enriched Environment for Middle School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Horton, Lucas; Olmanson, Justin; Toprac, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This study examines middle school students' learning and motivation as they engaged in a new media enriched problem-based learning (PBL) environment for middle school science. Using a mixed-method design with both quantitative and qualitative data, we investigated the effect of a new media environment on sixth graders' science learning, their…

  3. A Spatialization-based Method for Checking and Updating Metadata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the application of spatialization technology on metadata quality check and updating was discussed. A new method based on spatialization was proposed for checking and updating metadata to overcome the deficiency of text based methods with the powerful functions of spatial query and analysis provided by GIS software. This method employs the technology of spatialization to transform metadata into a coordinate space and the functions of spatial analysis in GIS to check and update spatial metadata in a visual environment. The basic principle and technical flow of this method were explained in detail, and an example of implementation using ArcMap of GIS software was illustrated with a metadata set of digital raster maps. The result shows the new method with the support of interaction of graph and text is much more intuitive and convenient than the ordinary text based method, and can fully utilize the functions of GIS spatial query and analysis with more accuracy and efficiency.

  4. Multiplex target enrichment using DNA indexing for ultra-high throughput SNP detection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny, Elaine M

    2011-02-01

    Screening large numbers of target regions in multiple DNA samples for sequence variation is an important application of next-generation sequencing but an efficient method to enrich the samples in parallel has yet to be reported. We describe an advanced method that combines DNA samples using indexes or barcodes prior to target enrichment to facilitate this type of experiment. Sequencing libraries for multiple individual DNA samples, each incorporating a unique 6-bp index, are combined in equal quantities, enriched using a single in-solution target enrichment assay and sequenced in a single reaction. Sequence reads are parsed based on the index, allowing sequence analysis of individual samples. We show that the use of indexed samples does not impact on the efficiency of the enrichment reaction. For three- and nine-indexed HapMap DNA samples, the method was found to be highly accurate for SNP identification. Even with sequence coverage as low as 8x, 99% of sequence SNP calls were concordant with known genotypes. Within a single experiment, this method can sequence the exonic regions of hundreds of genes in tens of samples for sequence and structural variation using as little as 1 μg of input DNA per sample.

  5. Theory-Based Lexicographical Methods in a Functional Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This contribution provides an overview of some of the methods used in relation to the function theory. It starts with a definition of the concept of method and the relation existing between theory and method. It establishes an initial distinction between artisanal and theory-based methods and...... various methods used in the different sub-phases of the overall dictionary compilation process, from the making of the concept to the preparation for publication on the chosen media, with focus on the Internet. Finally, it briefly discusses some of the methods used to create and test the function theory...

  6. Uranium enrichment in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eurodif's uranium enrichment plant in France will undoubtedly remain reliable, flexible and competitive for at least the next twenty years. Its replacement is nevertheless already under study and evaluation by Cogema, the main shareholder, since the investment decisions about the technology chosen for the substitution of the gaseous process diffusion will have to be made in near future. Supporting the efforts of the nuclear utilities to keep the nuclear power option viable and competitive, Cogema presently focuses on the development of laser processes, designed to attractively offer fully loaded costs, i.e. including the returns on investment, not much higher than the variable production costs of today. (orig.)

  7. Enriching recycled uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the progress of the use of recycled uranium during the period 1985-8. This article was originally presented as a paper at the 1988 Uranium Institute symposium (which was held in London). A description is given of the differences between natural and recycled uranium, and the presence of U236 in recycled uranium. The concept of equivalent reactivity is described, as well as the cost benefit of using recycled uranium. A summary of Urenco tests and trials with reprocessed uranium is given. Enrichment, UF6 conversion and fuel fabrication are also discussed. (U.K.)

  8. Clogging the enrichment bypass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue that has come to be known as the bypass is the latest dispute in the continuing saga of uranium trade between the United States and the Commonwealth of Indepenent States. Bypass deals now being conducted by US utilities have drawn heavy criticism from the US Department of Commerce but are perfectly legal under the terms of the Suspension Agreements. Urged on by the United States Enrichment Corporation, the US DOC intends to stop, or at least severely restrict, bypass deals. Using a recent agreement with Kazakhstan as a case study, this article reviews the implications of such bypass deals

  9. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery via Logic-Based Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Triantaphyllou, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    There are many approaches to data mining and knowledge discovery (DM&KD), including neural networks, closest neighbor methods, and various statistical methods. This monograph, however, focuses on the development and use of a novel approach, based on mathematical logic, that the author and his research associates have worked on over the last 20 years. The methods presented in the book deal with key DM&KD issues in an intuitive manner and in a natural sequence. Compared to other DM&KD methods, those based on mathematical logic offer a direct and often intuitive approach for extracting easily int

  10. Network Traffic Anomalies Identification Based on Classification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Račys

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A problem of network traffic anomalies detection in the computer networks is analyzed. Overview of anomalies detection methods is given then advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are analyzed. Model for the traffic anomalies detection was developed based on IBM SPSS Modeler and is used to analyze SNMP data of the router. Investigation of the traffic anomalies was done using three classification methods and different sets of the learning data. Based on the results of investigation it was determined that C5.1 decision tree method has the largest accuracy and performance and can be successfully used for identification of the network traffic anomalies.

  11. Uranium enrichment by gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After recalling the physical principles and the techniques of centrifuge enrichment the report describes the centrifuge enrichment programmes of the various countries concerned and compares this technology with other enrichment technologies like gaseous diffusion, laser, aerodynamic devices and chemical processes. The centrifuge enrichment process is said to be able to replace with advantage the existing enrichment facilities in the short and medium term. Future prospects of the process are also described, like recycled uranium enrichment and economic improvements; research and development needs to achieve the economic prospects are also indicated. Finally the report takes note of the positive aspect of centrifuge enrichment as far as safeguards and nuclear safety are concerned. 27 figs, 113 refs

  12. 煤矿陷落柱赋水特征的综合物探探查原理与方法%Integrated geophysical prospecting principle and method of explorating the water enrichment of coal mine collapse column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨武洋

    2013-01-01

    The sizes and distribution range of collapse columns existing in Huainan mining area have been found out by 3-D seismic exploration, but the water enrichment conditions inside the columns are not clear, which greatly influences the safety mining. In this paper, the Controlled-Source Audiomag-netotellurics and Electromagnetic Wave method were adopted to prospect the water abundance of collapse columns. The result shows that the apparent formation resistivity has a certain correlation with the water abundance, that is, low resistivity is corresponding to abundant water, while high resistivity correlates with low or no water abundance. Meanwhile, the water enrichment of collapse column are analyzed according to tlie horizontal and longitudinal apparent resisitivity profiles in different depth, and the detection results show that the water abundance in the south of collapse column and partial areas near the faults are relatively large, namely there only exists partial water enrichment in the collapse column. A small amount of validation drillings on the ground have been constructed, and the detection results correspond well with those of drilling, which provides a new integrated geophysical method for the prospecting of collapse column in coal mine.%用三维地震勘探查明了淮南矿区多个陷落柱的大小及分布范围,但柱体内赋水状况不明,极大地影响了矿井的安全生产,决定采用可控源音频大地电磁法和电磁波法对陷落柱的富水性进行探查.研究表明,地层电阻率的大小与富水程度具有一定的相关性,低电阻率值对应于强富水,高电阻率为弱富水或不富水.依据陷落柱不同深度的电阻率水平截面和纵向电阻率剖面对陷落柱的富水性作出分析,探测结果显示:在陷落柱的南部及靠近断层的局部地段富水较强,即柱体内仅局部富水.在地面施工少量验证钻孔,探测结果与钻探资料吻合较好,为煤矿陷落柱的探查提供了一种新的综合物探方法.

  13. The world enrichment market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enrichment market can be divided into two periods: the near-term market (1991 to 1995) and the long-term market (1995 and beyond). The near-term market is characterized by limited unfilled requirements of 4% per year, to be supplied by national stockpiles and excess inventories. This low-cost material will be drawn down by about 1993, causing a subsequent price rise. As the price rises, primary supplier activity is expected to increase. In the near-term, two contracting activities are apparent: spot; and intermediate-term. The current spot market is expected to last until available low cost inventories are drawn down. Recently, in attempts to gain market share, suppliers have offered attractively priced intermediate-term (3 year) contracts for 1996 to 1998. While a small spot market will continue after 1995, it is anticipated that utilities will prefer a mix of medium- and long-term (5 to 10 year) contracts from primary suppliers for most of their enrichment requirements. As national stockpiles and utility inventories are consumed, low-cost supply available to the spot market is expected to diminish. Consequently, with little low-cost supply available, the only apparent source of material will be from primary suppliers, and the resulting competition over market share is expected to be intense. (author)

  14. Enrichment of U-235 by the separation nozzle process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most favorable results for practical application of the separation nozzle method have so far been obtained with a separating system in which a band-shaped gaseous jet consisting of a UF6/H2-mixture is deflected by a curved wall. Different methods have been developed to produce tubular separation elements based on this principle. Presently, separation capacities of up to 50 SWU/year can be achieved with tubular separation elements 15 cm in diameter and 2 m in length. These separation nozzles need a specific compression work of 2,700 kWh/SWU. Taking into account all energy losses of the enrichment facility this results in a specific energy consumption of about 4,000 kWh/SWU for an industrial-scale plant. Stages equipped with tubular separation elements have performed successfully since 1972 and 1974, respectively. The efficiency of UF6-recycling on the top of the cascades has been demonstrated. The tests of these prototypes provided the knowledge necessary for planning and engineering of industrial-scale enrichment plants. The operating characteristics of such separation nozzle plants can be predicted with high reliability using appropriate digital computer simulation showing that smooth and inherent stable cascade operation can be expected. On the basis of these results a technology program was initiated to provide the prototypes for enrichment plants with capacities of the order of 2.5 to 5 million SWU/year and more. (orig.)

  15. Iron oxide nanoparticle coating of organic polymer based monolithic columns for phosphopeptide enrichment and off-line MALDI/MS or LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenková, Jana; Nováková, K.; Zdráhal, Z.; Foret, František

    Brno : Ústav analytické chemie AV ČR v. v. i., 2011 - (Foret, F.). s. 47 ISBN 978-80-904959-0-6. [International Interdisciplinary Meeting on Bioanalysis /8./. 03.11.2011-04.11.2011, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA MŠk LC06023 Grant ostatní: Jihomoravský kraj(CZ) 2SGA2721 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : iron oxide nanoparticles * monolithic column * phosphopeptide enrichment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  16. Results of the work on development of research reactor fuel element based on high density fuel with decreased enrichment in uranium-235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work is developed to the branch program on decrease of fuel enrichment in the Russian research reactors. The analysis of results of foreign works and own studies on creating dispersion fuel compositions on the basis of high density uranium compounds is accomplished. The uranium alloys U3Si, U3Si alloys, U-Zr-Nb, U6Fe and U6Fe alloys are chosen for application in further developments. Characteristics of these alloys are given from the viewpoint of their behaviour under irradiation

  17. Direct Measurement of Initial Enrichment, Burn-up and Cooling Time of Spent Fuel Assembly with a Differential Die-Away Technique Based Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-13

    An outline of this presentation of what a Differential Die-Away (DDA) instrument can do are: (1) Principle of operation of DDA instrument; (2) Determination of initial enrichment (IE) ({sigma} < 5%); (3) Determination of burn up (BU) ({sigma} {approx} 6%); (4) Determination of cooling time (CT) ({sigma} {approx} 20-50%); and (5) DDA instrument as a standalone device. DDA response (fresh fuel vs. spent fuel) is: (1) Fresh fuel => DDA response increases (die-away time is longer) with increasing fissile content; and (2) Spent fuel => DDA response decreases (die-away time is shorter) with higher burn-up (i.e. more neutron absorbers present).

  18. Ellipse-based shape description and retrieval method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向阳; 潘云鹤

    2002-01-01

    Using a group of ellipses to approach the shape contour, a new shape retrieval method is presented in this paper. In order to keep shape-based retrieval invariant to its position, orientation and size, the shape normalization method is presented. From our research, any closed shape contour can be uniquely decomposed into a group of ellipses, and the original shape contour can be re-constructed using the decomposed ellipses. The ellipse-based shape description and similar retrieval method is introduced in this paper. Based on ellipse's contribution to shape contour, the decomposed ellipses are parted into low-order ellipses and high-order ellipses. The low-order ellipses measure the macroscopic feature of a shape contour, and the high-order ellipses measure the microscopic feature. The two-phase shape matching method is given. Through the experiment test, our method has better shape retrieval effect.

  19. ENHANCED GRAPH BASED NORMALIZED CUT METHODS FOR IMAGE SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Kapade

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is one of the important steps in digital image processing. Several algorithms are available for segmenting the images, posing many challenges such as precise criteria and efficient computations. Most of the graph based methods used for segmentation depend on local properties of graphs without considering global impressions of image, which ultimately limits segmentation quality. In this paper, we propose an enhanced graph based normalized cut method for extracting global impression and consistencies in the image. We propose a technique to add flexibility to original recursive normalized two way cut method which was further extended to other graph based methods. The results show that the proposed technique improves segmentation quality as well as requires lesser computational time than the regular normalized cut method.

  20. Development of an enrichment monitor for the Portsmouth GCEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a gas-phase UF6 enrichment monitor for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant. The enrichment monitoring system provides a method for effective nuclear materials accountability verification while reducing the effort for both the facility operator and the inspector. The experience with an inplant prototype monitor, the facility and operational constraints, and the constraints related to international safeguards inspection are described in terms of the impact on the monitor design

  1. Oxygen enriched air using membrane for palm oil wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ramlah Mohd Tajuddin; Ahmad Fauzi Ismail; Mohd Razman Salim

    2002-01-01

    A research aimed to explore new method of aeration using oxygen enriched air performance on BOD reduction of palm oil wastewater was conducted. The oxygen enriched air was obtained from an Oxygen Enriched System (OES) developed using asymmetric polysulfone hollow fiber membrane with composition consisting of PSF: 22%, DMAc: 31.8%, THF: 31.8%, EtOH: 14.4%. Palm oil wastewater samples were taken from facultative pond effluent. These samples were tested for its initial biochemical oxygen demand ...

  2. Development of low enrichment MTR fuel at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work up to October 1983 on the development of a manufacturing route for the manufacture of low enriched fuel at Dounreay concentrated on the roll-bonding method of plate manufacture. Both U-Al alloy and U3O8-Al cermet elements at 45% enrichment have been irradiated and the fabrication of 20% enriched U3O8-Al cermet elements is in hand. (author). 3 refs, 2 tabs

  3. Metamorphic computer virus detection by Case- Based Reasoning (CBR) methods

    OpenAIRE

    Abdellatif Berkat

    2011-01-01

    Metamorphic virus employs code obfuscation techniques to mutate itself. It absconds from signaturebaseddetection system by modifying internal structure without compromising original functionality.In this paper, we propose a new method, for detecting metamorphic computer viruses, that is based on thetechnique of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). In this method:-Can detect similar viruses with high probability.- The updating of the virus database is done automatically without connecting to the Intern...

  4. ENHANCED GRAPH BASED NORMALIZED CUT METHODS FOR IMAGE SEGMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    S.D. Kapade; S.M. Khairnar; B.S. Chaudhari

    2014-01-01

    Image segmentation is one of the important steps in digital image processing. Several algorithms are available for segmenting the images, posing many challenges such as precise criteria and efficient computations. Most of the graph based methods used for segmentation depend on local properties of graphs without considering global impressions of image, which ultimately limits segmentation quality. In this paper, we propose an enhanced graph based normalized cut method for extracting global imp...

  5. Convergence of a residual based artificial viscosity finite element method

    KAUST Repository

    Nazarov, Murtazo

    2013-02-01

    We present a residual based artificial viscosity finite element method to solve conservation laws. The Galerkin approximation is stabilized by only residual based artificial viscosity, without any least-squares, SUPG, or streamline diffusion terms. We prove convergence of the method, applied to a scalar conservation law in two space dimensions, toward an unique entropy solution for implicit time stepping schemes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Online trapping and enrichment ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for sensitive measurement of 'arginine-asymmetric dimethylarginine cycle' biomarkers in human exhaled breath condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Gangi, Iole Maria, E-mail: giordano@pediatria.unipd.it [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Pirillo, Paola [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Carraro, Silvia [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Gucciardi, Antonina; Naturale, Mauro [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Baraldi, Eugenio [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Giordano, Giuseppe [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy)

    2012-11-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous quantification of 'arginine-ADMA cycle' metabolites developed in EBC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC is a non-invasive matrix highly useful in patients with respiratory diseases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Method, fast, precise and accurate, is suitable in the pediatric clinical studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity is increased using on-line trapping and enrichment-UPLC-MS/MS method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC measurements in asthmatic adolescents confirm that ADMA is increased in asthma. - Abstract: Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a biofluid collected non invasively that, enabling the measurement of several biomarkers, has proven useful in the study of airway inflammatory diseases, including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report of any analytical method to detect ADMA in EBC. Objectives: Aim of this work was to develop an online sample trapping and enrichment system, coupled with an UPLC-MS/MS method, for simultaneous quantification of seven metabolites related to 'Arginine-ADMA cycle', using the isotopic dilution. Methods: Butylated EBC samples were trapped in an online cartridge, washed before and after each injection with cleanup solution to remove matrix components and switched inline into the high pressure analytical column. Multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode was used for analyte quantification by tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Validation studies were performed in EBC to examine accuracy, precision and robustness of the method. For each compound, the calibration curves showed a coefficient of correlation (r{sup 2}) greater than 0.992. Accuracy (%Bias) was <3% except for NMMA and H-Arg (<20%), intra- and inter-assay precision (expressed as CV%) were within {+-}20% and recovery ranged from 97.1 to 102.8% for all analytes. Inter-day variability analysis on 20 EBC of adult subjects did

  7. Experimental research on biomass particle combustion characteristics based on oxygen-enriched conditions%基于富氧条件的生物质颗粒燃烧特性实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱艳艳; 张林华; 崔永章; 李凯; 吕文超

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen-enriched combustion is an important method to solve the low temperature problem of biomass pellet fuel direct combustion. In order to study the combustion characteristics of biomass pellet fuel in the oxygen-enrich conditions, the paper utilizes thermal gravimetric analysis method to carry out combustion characteristics test about com stalks, cotton stalks and sawdust. Through the analysis of TG-DTG curves of three straws in different oxygen concentrations, we study the effect of oxygen-enriched conditions on combustion characteristics index of the three typical biomass pellet fuels. The results show that the burnout temperature interval of three biomass pellet fuels in the oxygen-enriched conditions reduced nearly 100 ℃ than that in the air, and fixed carbon combustion maximum rate is 2 -2. 75 times that in the air. In addition, fuel combustion characteristic index rises rapidly in the oxygen-enriched conditions, and the increase margin of corn stalk is the largest, so the promoting role of corn stalk is the strongest.%富氧燃烧是解决生物质能源直接燃烧温度低问题的重要方法.文章采用热重分析法分别对玉米、棉秆以及木屑进行燃烧特性试验,通过分析不同氧气浓度下三种秸秆的TG-DTG曲线,研究富氧条件对三种典型生物质颗粒燃料燃烧特性指数的影响.结果表明:富氧条件下三种生物质颗粒燃料燃尽温度区间比空气中减少近100℃,挥发分最大析出速率是空气中的2 ~2.75倍;富氧条件下,燃料的燃烧特性指数迅速上升,且玉米杆的上升幅度最大,表明富氧对玉米杆促进作用最强.

  8. Enrichment: Present and projected future supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenders, Maurice [URENCO, Buckinghamshire (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Long term fuel cycle contracts provide reliable supply at predictable cost. By 2015 all operating enrichment capacity may be based on centrifuge. Enrichment capacity expansion will be modular and adjusted to meet demand in a competitive market. Two primary sources of technology (ETC or Russia) can provide all required capacity worldwide. Sufficient enrichment capacity can be installed on time to meet forecast SWU demand for existing and new NPP worldwide.

  9. The afforestation problem: a heuristic method based on simulated annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the afforestation problem, that is the location and design of new forest compartments to be planted in a given area. This optimization problem is solved by a two-step heuristic method based on simulated annealing. Tests and experiences with this method are also presented....

  10. A Channelization-Based DOA Estimation Method for Wideband Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel direction of arrival (DOA estimation method for wideband signals with sensor arrays. The proposed method splits the wideband array output into multiple frequency sub-channels and estimates the signal parameters using a digital channelization receiver. Based on the output sub-channels, a channelization-based incoherent signal subspace method (Channelization-ISM and a channelization-based test of orthogonality of projected subspaces method (Channelization-TOPS are proposed. Channelization-ISM applies narrowband signal subspace methods on each sub-channel independently. Then the arithmetic mean or geometric mean of the estimated DOAs from each sub-channel gives the final result. Channelization-TOPS measures the orthogonality between the signal and the noise subspaces of the output sub-channels to estimate DOAs. The proposed channelization-based method isolates signals in different bandwidths reasonably and improves the output SNR. It outperforms the conventional ISM and TOPS methods on estimation accuracy and dynamic range, especially in real environments. Besides, the parallel processing architecture makes it easy to implement on hardware. A wideband digital array radar (DAR using direct wideband radio frequency (RF digitization is presented. Experiments carried out in a microwave anechoic chamber with the wideband DAR are presented to demonstrate the performance. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. A Channelization-Based DOA Estimation Method for Wideband Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, Yue; Lin, Qianqiang; Chen, Zengping

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method for wideband signals with sensor arrays. The proposed method splits the wideband array output into multiple frequency sub-channels and estimates the signal parameters using a digital channelization receiver. Based on the output sub-channels, a channelization-based incoherent signal subspace method (Channelization-ISM) and a channelization-based test of orthogonality of projected subspaces method (Channelization-TOPS) are proposed. Channelization-ISM applies narrowband signal subspace methods on each sub-channel independently. Then the arithmetic mean or geometric mean of the estimated DOAs from each sub-channel gives the final result. Channelization-TOPS measures the orthogonality between the signal and the noise subspaces of the output sub-channels to estimate DOAs. The proposed channelization-based method isolates signals in different bandwidths reasonably and improves the output SNR. It outperforms the conventional ISM and TOPS methods on estimation accuracy and dynamic range, especially in real environments. Besides, the parallel processing architecture makes it easy to implement on hardware. A wideband digital array radar (DAR) using direct wideband radio frequency (RF) digitization is presented. Experiments carried out in a microwave anechoic chamber with the wideband DAR are presented to demonstrate the performance. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:27384566

  12. A copula-based method for synthetic microarray data generation

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Sergio; Solé-Casals, Jordi; Caiafa, Cesar F.; Bau i Macià, Josep

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we propose a copula-based method to generate synthetic gene expression data that account for marginal and joint probability distributions features captured from real data. Our method allows us to implant significant genes in the synthetic dataset in a controlled manner, giving the possibility of testing new detection algorithms under more realistic environments.

  13. Tomographs based on non-conventional radiation sources and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer techniques for tomographic reconstruction of objects X-rayed with a compact plasma focus (PF) are presented. The implemented reconstruction algorithms are based on stochastic searching of solutions of Radon equation, using Genetic Algorithms and Monte Carlo methods. Numerical experiments using actual projections were performed concluding the feasibility of the application of both methods in tomographic reconstruction problem. (author)

  14. Selection of boron based tribological hard coatings using multi-criteria decision making methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Boron based coating selection problem for cutting tools was solved. • EXPROM2, TOPSIS and VIKOR methods were used for ranking the alternative materials. • The best coatings for cutting tool were selected as TiBN and TiSiBN. • The ranking results are in good agreement with cutting test results in literature. - Abstract: Mechanical and tribological properties of hard coatings can be enhanced using boron as alloying element. Therefore, multicomponent nanostructured boron based hard coatings are deposited on cutting tools by different methods at different parameters. Different mechanical and tribological properties are obtained after deposition, and it is a difficult task to select the best coating material. In this paper, therefore, a systematic evaluation model was proposed to tackle the difficulty of the material selection with specific properties among a set of available alternatives. The alternatives consist of multicomponent nanostructured TiBN, TiCrBN, TiSiBN and TiAlSiBN coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering and ion implantation assisted magnetron sputtering at different parameters. The alternative coating materials were ranked by using three multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods, i.e. EXPROM2 (preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation), TOPSIS (technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution) and VIKOR (VIšekriterijumsko KOmpromisno Rangiranje), in order to determine the best coating material for cutting tools. Hardness (H), Young’s modulus (E), elastic recovery, friction coefficient, critical load, H/E and H3/E2 ratios were considered as material selection criteria. In order to determine the importance weights of the evaluation criteria, a compromised weighting method, which composes of the analytic hierarchy process and Entropy methods, were used. The ranking results showed that TiBN and TiSiBN coatings deposited at given parameters are the best coatings for cutting tools

  15. The ''RB'' reactor uranium fuel enrichment verification by gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma spectrometry analysis of natural and 2% enriched uranium metal fuel at the RB reactor was performed by germanium gamma spectrometer applying developed computer code ANA. Different samples of the RB reactor uranium fuel, placed at various distances from the Ge detector, were used during measurements. Gamma-ray self-absorption in the fuel material and the geometrical corrections were included in the calculation performed by computer code EFI based on a Monte Carlo method. Evaluated experimental data were used to determine branching ratio for the 1001 keV gamma line of 234mPa which is in equilibrium with 238U. Obtained results were in good agreement with the results of other authors. Applied gamma spectrometry method is used for examination of the fresh fuel composition and validation of isotopic enrichment of the 2% enriched uranium fuel at the RB reactor. (author)

  16. A Semantic Retrieval Method Based on the Fuzzy Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives a semantic fuzzy retrieval method of multimedia object,discusses the principle of fuzzy semantic retrieval technique,presents a fuzzy reasoning mechanism based on the knowledge base,and designs the relevant reasoning algorithms.Researchful results have innovative significance.

  17. Role-based Integration Method of Enterprise Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ming-hui; FEI Qi; CHEN Xue-guang

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the current situation of enterprise information system and methods of system integration at first. Then a role-based analyzing method is proposed. It can help confirm the keystone of the construction of information system and the direction of system integration. At last, a case study on theintegration of material dispatching information system in a large-scale project is presented briefly. It shows that this new method is more effective than the others are.

  18. Application of ICPMS for performance evaluation of boron enrichment plant at HWP, Manuguru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    10B enriched compounds are used in neutron control rod in Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR), Neutron Detector, Neutron Capture Therapy, and Neutron Shielding. Heavy Water Board (HWB) is given a mandate to produce enriched elemental boron which is being produced using Ion exchange chromatography and BF3 - ether complex distillation methods. Ion Exchange Chromatography based Boron Enrichment Plant is operating at HWP, Manuguru. Ion Exchange Chromatography based process depends, besides other process parameters, on column run time and movement of band length. For effective process and quality control, it is necessary to analyze 10B/11B ratio in feed, process stream, waste and the product. 10B/11B ratio measurements are possible by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS), the former offers better accuracy but takes longer analysis time whereas the later offers quick analysis of isotopic ratios and as well as trace metal impurities in the Boric acid

  19. Enrichment of Auxotrophic Mutants in Streptomyces griseus

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Rolf G.; Demain, Arnold L.

    1980-01-01

    A method for the isolation and enrichment of tryptophan auxotrophic mutants of the indolmycin-producing strain Streptomyces griseus ATCC 12648 was developed, using penicillin selection. With UV irradiation of 2.2 × 104 μW cm−2, a mutation rate to tryptophan auxotrophy of 5.6 × 10−4 was achieved. With 300 μg ml−1 of penicillin G, an enrichment of tryptophan auxotrophs of about 1,000-fold was attained. Approximately 40% of all survivors were tryptophan auxotrophs.

  20. A method for selecting training samples based on camera response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leihong; Li, Bei; Pan, Zilan; Liang, Dong; Kang, Yi; Zhang, Dawei; Ma, Xiuhua

    2016-09-01

    In the process of spectral reflectance reconstruction, sample selection plays an important role in the accuracy of the constructed model and in reconstruction effects. In this paper, a method for training sample selection based on camera response is proposed. It has been proved that the camera response value has a close correlation with the spectral reflectance. Consequently, in this paper we adopt the technique of drawing a sphere in camera response value space to select the training samples which have a higher correlation with the test samples. In addition, the Wiener estimation method is used to reconstruct the spectral reflectance. Finally, we find that the method of sample selection based on camera response value has the smallest color difference and root mean square error after reconstruction compared to the method using the full set of Munsell color charts, the Mohammadi training sample selection method, and the stratified sampling method. Moreover, the goodness of fit coefficient of this method is also the highest among the four sample selection methods. Taking all the factors mentioned above into consideration, the method of training sample selection based on camera response value enhances the reconstruction accuracy from both the colorimetric and spectral perspectives.

  1. Local Coding Based Matching Kernel Method for Image Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yan; McLoughlin, Ian Vince; Dai, Li-rong

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly focuses on how to effectively and efficiently measure visual similarity for local feature based representation. Among existing methods, metrics based on Bag of Visual Word (BoV) techniques are efficient and conceptually simple, at the expense of effectiveness. By contrast, kernel based metrics are more effective, but at the cost of greater computational complexity and increased storage requirements. We show that a unified visual matching framework can be developed to encompa...

  2. 2D geometric measurement method based on industrial CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To achieve the non-destructive measurement of the internal structure of the objects, a kind of automatic dimension measuring method using industrial computed tomography (ICT) images was presented based on a threshold of edge extraction. First, a pretreatment of CT images was carried out Then, the best threshold segmentation method was used to extract edge, based on this work the automatic geometry measurement of the CT images was achieved. The results show that geometric measurement of images reaches to a certain degree of accuracy and meet the basic needs of accuracy and repeatability. Simultaneously this method may reduce the influence of artifacts. (authors)

  3. An Efficient Method for Reliability-based Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Hui; Li Weiji

    2008-01-01

    Design for modem engineering system is becoming multidisciplinary and incorporates practical uncertainties; therefore, it is necessary to synthesize reliability analysis and the multidiscipLinary design optimization (MDO) techniques for the design of complex engineering system. An advanced first order second moment method-based concurrent subspace optimization approach is proposed based on the comparison and analysis of the existing multidisciplinary optimization techniques and the reliability analysis methods. It is seen through a canard configuration optimization for a three-surface transport that the proposed method is computationally efficient and practical with the least modification to the current deterministic optimization process.

  4. Challenges when developing omega-3 enriched foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Due to the polyunsaturated nature of omega-3 fatty acids, lipid oxidation is a major challenge when developing omega-3 enriched foods. In multiphase food systems, several factors can affect lipid oxidation and efficacy of antioxidants, added to prevent lipid oxidation. This review discusses the...... influence of important factors such as oil quality, delivery systems for omega-3 fatty acids, processing conditions, composition of the food matrix on lipid oxidation in different omega-3 enriched foods (milk, yoghurt, mayonnaise and mayonnaise-based salads, dressing, energy bar and fish paté). Moreover...

  5. Mitoxantrone Loaded Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles for Drug Targeting: A Versatile and Sensitive Method for Quantification of Drug Enrichment in Rabbit Tissues Using HPLC-UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Tietze

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In medicine, superparamagnetic nanoparticles bound to chemotherapeutics are currently investigated for their feasibility in local tumor therapy. After intraarterial application, these particles can be accumulated in the targeted area by an external magnetic field to increase the drug concentration in the region of interest (Magnetic-Drug-Targeting. We here present an analytical method (HPLC-UV, to detect pure or ferrofluid-bound mitoxantrone in a complex matrix even in trace amounts in order to perform biodistribution studies. Mitoxantrone could be extracted in high yields from different tissues. Recovery of mitoxantrone in liver tissue (5000 ng/g was 76±2%. The limit of quantification of mitoxantrone standard was 10 ng/mL ±12%. Validation criteria such as linearity, precision, and stability were evaluated in ranges achieving the FDA requirements. As shown for pilot samples, biodistribution studies can easily be performed after application of pure or ferrofluid-bound mitoxantrone.

  6. An Entropy-Based Network Anomaly Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Bereziński

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning and statistics. One of the data mining tasks is anomaly detection which is the analysis of large quantities of data to identify items, events or observations which do not conform to an expected pattern. Anomaly detection is applicable in a variety of domains, e.g., fraud detection, fault detection, system health monitoring but this article focuses on application of anomaly detection in the field of network intrusion detection.The main goal of the article is to prove that an entropy-based approach is suitable to detect modern botnet-like malware based on anomalous patterns in network. This aim is achieved by realization of the following points: (i preparation of a concept of original entropy-based network anomaly detection method, (ii implementation of the method, (iii preparation of original dataset, (iv evaluation of the method.

  7. Optimizing distance-based methods for large data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Tobias; Brenner, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Distance-based methods for measuring spatial concentration of industries have received an increasing popularity in the spatial econometrics community. However, a limiting factor for using these methods is their computational complexity since both their memory requirements and running times are in {{O}}(n^2). In this paper, we present an algorithm with constant memory requirements and shorter running time, enabling distance-based methods to deal with large data sets. We discuss three recent distance-based methods in spatial econometrics: the D&O-Index by Duranton and Overman (Rev Econ Stud 72(4):1077-1106, 2005), the M-function by Marcon and Puech (J Econ Geogr 10(5):745-762, 2010) and the Cluster-Index by Scholl and Brenner (Reg Stud (ahead-of-print):1-15, 2014). Finally, we present an alternative calculation for the latter index that allows the use of data sets with millions of firms.

  8. Kernel based eigenvalue-decomposition methods for analysing ham

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Møller, Flemming;

    2010-01-01

    conditions and finding useful additives to hinder the color to change rapidly. To be able to prove which methods of storing and additives work, Danisco wants to monitor the development of the color of meat in a slice of ham as a function of time, environment and ingredients. We have chosen to use multi......Every consumer wants fresh ham and the way we decide whether the meat is fresh or not is by looking at the color. The producers of ham wants a long shelf life, meaning they want the ham to look fresh for a long time. The Danish company Danisco is therefore trying to develop optimal storing...... methods, such as PCA, MAF or MNF. We therefore investigated the applicability of kernel based versions of these transformation. This meant implementing the kernel based methods and developing new theory, since kernel based MAF and MNF is not described in the literature yet. The traditional methods only...

  9. Patch nearfield acoustic holography based on the equivalent source method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of nearfield acoustic holography (NAH) based on the equivalent source method (ESM), patch NAH based on the ESM is proposed. The method overcomes the shortcoming in the conventional NAH that the hologram surface should be larger than the source surface. It need not to discretize the whole source and its measurement need not to cover the whole source. The measurement may be performed over the region of interest, and the reconstruction can be done in the region directly. The method is flexible in applications, stable in computation, and very easy to implement. It has good potential applications in engineering. The numerical simulations show the invalidity of the conventional NAH based on the ESM and prove the validities of the proposed method for reconstructing a partial source and the regularization for reducing the error effect of the pressure measured on the hologram surface.

  10. Patch nearfield acoustic holography based on the equivalent source method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of nearfield acoustic holography (NAH) based on the equivalent source method (ESM), patch NAH based on the ESM is proposed. The method overcomes the shortcoming in the conventional NAH that the hologram surface should be larger than the source surface. It need not to discretize the whole source and its measurement need not to cover the whole source. The measurement may be performed over the region of interest, and the reconstruction can be done in the region directly. The method is flexible in applications, stable in computation, and very easy to implement. It has good potential applications in engineering. The nu- merical simulations show the invalidity of the conventional NAH based on the ESM and prove the validities of the proposed method for reconstructing a partial source and the regularization for reducing the error effect of the pressure measured on the hologram surface.

  11. Correction of Misclassifications Using a Proximity-Based Estimation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemistö, Antti; Shmulevich, Ilya; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Dolia, Alexander N.; Yli-Harja, Olli

    2004-12-01

    An estimation method for correcting misclassifications in signal and image processing is presented. The method is based on the use of context-based (temporal or spatial) information in a sliding-window fashion. The classes can be purely nominal, that is, an ordering of the classes is not required. The method employs nonlinear operations based on class proximities defined by a proximity matrix. Two case studies are presented. In the first, the proposed method is applied to one-dimensional signals for processing data that are obtained by a musical key-finding algorithm. In the second, the estimation method is applied to two-dimensional signals for correction of misclassifications in images. In the first case study, the proximity matrix employed by the estimation method follows directly from music perception studies, whereas in the second case study, the optimal proximity matrix is obtained with genetic algorithms as the learning rule in a training-based optimization framework. Simulation results are presented in both case studies and the degree of improvement in classification accuracy that is obtained by the proposed method is assessed statistically using Kappa analysis.

  12. Correction of Misclassifications Using a Proximity-Based Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulevich Ilya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An estimation method for correcting misclassifications in signal and image processing is presented. The method is based on the use of context-based (temporal or spatial information in a sliding-window fashion. The classes can be purely nominal, that is, an ordering of the classes is not required. The method employs nonlinear operations based on class proximities defined by a proximity matrix. Two case studies are presented. In the first, the proposed method is applied to one-dimensional signals for processing data that are obtained by a musical key-finding algorithm. In the second, the estimation method is applied to two-dimensional signals for correction of misclassifications in images. In the first case study, the proximity matrix employed by the estimation method follows directly from music perception studies, whereas in the second case study, the optimal proximity matrix is obtained with genetic algorithms as the learning rule in a training-based optimization framework. Simulation results are presented in both case studies and the degree of improvement in classification accuracy that is obtained by the proposed method is assessed statistically using Kappa analysis.

  13. Semantically Enriched Web Usage Mining for Predicting User Future Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Shirgave

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Explosive and quick growth of the World Wide Web has resulted in intricate Web sites, demanding enhanced user skills and sophisticated tools to help the Web user to find the desired information. Finding desired information on the Web has become a critical ingredient of everyday personal, educational, and business life. Thus, there is a demand for more sophisticated tools to help the user to navigate a Web site and find the desired information. The users must be provided with information and services specific to their needs, rather than an undifferentiated mass of information. For discovering interesting and frequent navigation patterns from Web server logs many Web usage mining techniques have been applied. The recommendation accuracy of solely usage based techniques can be improved by integrating Web site content and site structure in the personalization process.Herein, we propose Semantically enriched Web Usage Mining method (SWUM, which combines the fields of Web Usage Mining and Semantic Web. In the proposed method, the undirected graph derived from usage data is enriched with rich semantic information extracted from the Web pages and the Web site structure. The experimental results show that the SWUM generates accurate recommendations with integration of usage, semantic data and Web site structure. The results shows that proposed method is able to achieve 10-20% better accuracy than the solely usage based model, and 5-8% better than an ontology based model.

  14. Uranium enrichment management review: summary of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    In May 1980, the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications within the Department of Energy requested that a group of experienced business executives be assembled to review the operation, financing, and management of the uranium enrichment enterprise as a basis for advising the Secretary of Energy. After extensive investigation, analysis, and discussion, the review group presented its findings and recommendations in a report on December 2, 1980. The following pages contain background material on which that final report was based. This report is arranged in chapters that parallel those of the uranium enrichment management review final report - chapters that contain summaries of the review group's discussion and analyses in six areas: management of operations and construction; long-range planning; marketing of enrichment services; financial management; research and development; and general management. Further information, in-depth analysis, and discussion of suggested alternative management practices are provided in five appendices.

  15. Uranium enrichment management review: summary of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1980, the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications within the Department of Energy requested that a group of experienced business executives be assembled to review the operation, financing, and management of the uranium enrichment enterprise as a basis for advising the Secretary of Energy. After extensive investigation, analysis, and discussion, the review group presented its findings and recommendations in a report on December 2, 1980. The following pages contain background material on which that final report was based. This report is arranged in chapters that parallel those of the uranium enrichment management review final report - chapters that contain summaries of the review group's discussion and analyses in six areas: management of operations and construction; long-range planning; marketing of enrichment services; financial management; research and development; and general management. Further information, in-depth analysis, and discussion of suggested alternative management practices are provided in five appendices

  16. Deployable nuclear fleet based on available quantities of uranium and reactor types – the case of fast reactors started up with enriched uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baschwitz Anne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available International organizations regularly produce global energy demand scenarios. To account for the increasing population and GDP trends, as well as to encompass evolving energy uses while satisfying constraints on greenhouse gas emissions, long-term installed nuclear power capacity scenarios tend to be more ambitious, even after the Fukushima accident. Thus, the amounts of uranium or plutonium needed to deploy such capacities could be limiting factors. This study first considers light-water reactors (LWR, GEN III using enriched uranium, like most of the current reactor technologies. It then examines the contribution of future fast reactors (FR, GEN IV operating with an initial fissile load and then using depleted uranium and recycling their own plutonium. However, as plutonium is only available in limited quantity since it is only produced in nuclear reactors, the possibility of starting up these Generation IV reactors with a fissile load of enriched uranium is also explored. In one of our previous studies, the uranium consumption of a third-generation reactor like an EPR™ was compared with that of a fast reactor started up with enriched uranium (U5-FR. For a reactor lifespan of 60 years, the U5-FR consumes three times less uranium than the EPR and represents a 60% reduction in terms of separative work units (SWU, though its requirements are concentrated over the first few years of operation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relevance of U5-FRs in a nuclear fleet deployment configuration. Considering several power demand scenarios and assuming different finite quantities of available natural uranium, this paper examines what types of reactors must be deployed to meet the demand. The deployment of light-water reactors only is not sustainable in the long run. Generation IV reactors are therefore essential. Yet when started up with plutonium, the number of reactors that can be deployed is also limited. In a fleet deployment

  17. The method for evaluation of irradiated fuel performance based on Gamma - Spectrometric analysis of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main aims of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) activities is safeguards control related to the nuclear weapons nonproliferation treaty. To solve this problem, IAEA performs the control of nuclear reactors operation regimes independent of the operator's data. In cases where direct control is impossible, the control of reactor operation regimes may be carried out indirectly by means of spent-fuel parameter investigation. Such spent-fuel parameters as the contents of nuclides 235U, 239Pu, initial fuel enrichment, decay cooling time, and average neutron flux are able to characterize the reactor operation regime. Evaluation of the aforementioned parameters may be carried out utilizing gamma-spectrometric analysis of fission products. Existing methods of gamma-spectrometric data interpretation require information about irradiation history and cooling time after fuel withdrawal. For a research reactor, this information may be incorrect or falsified by the reactor operator; therefore, application of these methods for control of reactor operation regimes is not quite correct. This paper describes a method for spent-fuel parameter evaluation that is based only on utilization of experimental information on ratios of fission product concentrations without data on irradiation history and cooling time

  18. Folding to Curved Surfaces: A Generalized Design Method and Mechanics of Origami-based Cylindrical Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Gong, Haoran; Chen, Xi; Chen, C Q

    2016-01-01

    Origami structures enrich the field of mechanical metamaterials with the ability to convert morphologically and systematically between two-dimensional (2D) thin sheets and three-dimensional (3D) spatial structures. In this study, an in-plane design method is proposed to approximate curved surfaces of interest with generalized Miura-ori units. Using this method, two combination types of crease lines are unified in one reprogrammable procedure, generating multiple types of cylindrical structures. Structural completeness conditions of the finite-thickness counterparts to the two types are also proposed. As an example of the design method, the kinematics and elastic properties of an origami-based circular cylindrical shell are analysed. The concept of Poisson's ratio is extended to the cylindrical structures, demonstrating their auxetic property. An analytical model of rigid plates linked by elastic hinges, consistent with numerical simulations, is employed to describe the mechanical response of the structures. Under particular load patterns, the circular shells display novel mechanical behaviour such as snap-through and limiting folding positions. By analysing the geometry and mechanics of the origami structures, we extend the design space of mechanical metamaterials and provide a basis for their practical applications in science and engineering. PMID:27624892

  19. Integrated navigation method based on inertial navigation system and Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyue; Shi, Haitao; Pan, Jianye; Zhang, Chunxi

    2016-04-01

    An integrated navigation method based on the inertial navigational system (INS) and Lidar was proposed for land navigation. Compared with the traditional integrated navigational method and dead reckoning (DR) method, the influence of the inertial measurement unit (IMU) scale factor and misalignment was considered in the new method. First, the influence of the IMU scale factor and misalignment on navigation accuracy was analyzed. Based on the analysis, the integrated system error model of INS and Lidar was established, in which the IMU scale factor and misalignment error states were included. Then the observability of IMU error states was analyzed. According to the results of the observability analysis, the integrated system was optimized. Finally, numerical simulation and a vehicle test were carried out to validate the availability and utility of the proposed INS/Lidar integrated navigational method. Compared with the test result of a traditional integrated navigation method and DR method, the proposed integrated navigational method could result in a higher navigation precision. Consequently, the IMU scale factor and misalignment error were effectively compensated by the proposed method and the new integrated navigational method is valid.

  20. NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION METHOD BASED ON RS-MSVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yun; Han Chongzhao; Zheng Qinghua; Zhang Junjie

    2006-01-01

    A new method called RS-MSVM (Rough Set and Multi-class Support Vector Machine) is proposed for network intrusion detection. This method is based on rough set followed by MSVM for attribute reduction and classification respectively. The number of attributes of the network data used in this paper is reduced from 41 to 30 using rough set theory. The kernel function of HVDM-RBF (Heterogeneous Value Difference Metric Radial Basis Function), based on the heterogeneous value difference metric of heterogeneous datasets, is constructed for the heterogeneous network data. HVDM-RBF and one-against-one method are applied to build MSVM. DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) intrusion detection evaluating data were used in the experiment. The testing results show that our method outperforms other methods mentioned in this paper on six aspects: detection accuracy, number of support vectors, false positive rate, false negative rate, training time and testing time.

  1. NONLINEAR DATA RECONCILIATION METHOD BASED ON KERNEL PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In the industrial process situation, principal component analysis (PCA) is a general method in data reconciliation.However, PCA sometime is unfeasible to nonlinear feature analysis and limited in application to nonlinear industrial process.Kernel PCA (KPCA) is extension of PCA and can be used for nonlinear feature analysis.A nonlinear data reconciliation method based on KPCA is proposed.The basic idea of this method is that firstly original data are mapped to high dimensional feature space by nonlinear function, and PCA is implemented in the feature space.Then nonlinear feature analysis is implemented and data are reconstructed by using the kernel.The data reconciliation method based on KPCA is applied to ternary distillation column.Simulation results show that this method can filter the noise in measurements of nonlinear process and reconciliated data can represent the true information of nonlinear process.

  2. Consistency-based ellipse detection method for complicated images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Huang, Xuexiang; Feng, Weichun; Liang, Shuli; Hu, Tianjian

    2016-05-01

    Accurate ellipse detection in complicated images is a challenging problem due to corruptions from image clutter, noise, or occlusion of other objects. To cope with this problem, an edge-following-based ellipse detection method is proposed which promotes the performances of the subprocesses based on consistency. The ellipse detector models edge connectivity by line segments and exploits inconsistent endpoints of the line segments to split the edge contours into smooth arcs. The smooth arcs are further refined with a novel arc refinement method which iteratively improves the consistency degree of the smooth arc. A two-phase arc integration method is developed to group disconnected elliptical arcs belonging to the same ellipse, and two constraints based on consistency are defined to increase the effectiveness and speed of the merging process. Finally, an efficient ellipse validation method is proposed to evaluate the saliency of the elliptic hypotheses. Detailed evaluation on synthetic images shows that our method outperforms other state-of-the-art ellipse detection methods in terms of effectiveness and speed. Additionally, we test our detector on three challenging real-world datasets. The F-measure score and execution time of results demonstrate that our method is effective and fast in complicated images. Therefore, the proposed method is suitable for practical applications.

  3. Color Restoration Method Based on Spectral Information Using Normalized Cut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuro Morimoto; Tohru Mihashi; Katsushi Ikeuchi

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for color restoration that can effectively apply accurate color based on spectral information to a segmented image using the normalized cut technique. Using the proposed method, we can obtain a digital still camera image and spectral information in different environments. Also, it is not necessary to estimate reflectance spectra using a spectral database such as other methods. The synthesized images are accurate and high resolution. The proposed method effectively works in making digital archive contents. Some experimental results are demonstrated in this paper.

  4. Analysis of fault detection method based on predictive filter approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji; ZHANG Hongyue

    2005-01-01

    A new detection method for component faults based on predictive filters together with the fault detectability, false alarm rate, missed alarm rate and upper bound of detection time are proposed. The efficiency of the method is illustrated by a simulation example of a second-order system. It is shown that the fault detection method using predictive filters has a small delay, a low false alarm rate and a low missed alarm rate. Furthermore the filter can give accurate estimates of states even after a fault occurs. The real-time estimation provided by this method can also be used for fault tolerant control.

  5. Assembly and Irradiation Modeling of Residual Stresses in Low-Enriched Uranium Foil-Based Annular Targets for Molybdenum-99 Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisharan G. Govindarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a composite cylindrical structure, with low-enriched uranium (LEU foil enclosed between two aluminum 6061-T6 cylinders. A recess is cut all around the outer circumference of the inner tube to accommodate the LEU foil of open-cross section. To obtain perfect contact at the interfaces of the foil and the tubes, an internal pressure is applied to the inner tube, thereby plastically and elastically deforming it. The residual stresses resulting from the assembly process are used along with a thermal stress model to predict the stress margins in the cladding during irradiation. The whole process was simulated as a steady-state two-dimensional problem using the commercial finite element code Abaqus FEA. The irradiation behavior of the annular target has been presented, and the effect of the assembly residual stresses has been discussed.

  6. Optimization criteria and biological process enrichment in homologous multiprotein modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Luqman; Karp, Richard M

    2013-06-25

    Biological process enrichment is a widely used metric for evaluating the quality of multiprotein modules. In this study, we examine possible optimization criteria for detecting homologous multiprotein modules and quantify their effects on biological process enrichment. We find that modularity, linear density, and module size are the most important criteria considered, complementary to each other, and that graph theoretical attributes account for 36% of the variance in biological process enrichment. Variations in protein interaction similarity within module pairs have only minor effects on biological process enrichment. As random modules increase in size, both biological process enrichment and modularity tend to improve, although modularity does not show this upward trend in modules with size at most 50 proteins. To adjust for these trends, we recommend a size correction based on random sampling of modules when using biological process enrichment or other attributes to evaluate module boundaries. Characteristics of homologous multiprotein modules optimized for each of the optimization criteria are examined. PMID:23757502

  7. Determination of U235 enrichment from nuclear fuel by neutronic activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enrichment of 235U in UO2 pellets samples through the instrumental neutron activation analysis method (I.N.A.A.) was determined. By high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (H.R.G.S.), from analysis of isotopic ratios between fission products peaks from 235U and 239Np different energies peaks from 238U, the enrichment was achieved. The 'Boatstrap' statistics technique for the analytical results, which is based in shaping results of an unknown distribution to the Gaussian distribution by B replications in interested statistics such as: the mean and its standard error, was introduced. (M.J.C.)

  8. Low enriched fuels for NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low enriched uranium silicide dispersion fuels are under development for use in Canadian test reactors. These 20% enriched dispersion fuels are to replace the current 93% enriched uranium-aluminum alloy driver fuels. The reduced enrichment is intended to reduce the risk of illegal diversion for weapons proliferation. Developments in uranium silicide dispersion manufacturing technology have proven the production viability of the fuel. Success in the irradiation testing of the dispersion fuels in mini-element form has led to the irradiation of seven full-size fuel assemblies

  9. Enrichment of Phosphopeptides via Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaney, Danielle L; Villén, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) is a frequently used method for the enrichment of phosphorylated peptides from complex, cellular lysate-derived peptide mixtures. Here we outline an IMAC protocol that uses iron-chelated magnetic beads to selectively isolate phosphorylated peptides for mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis. Under acidic conditions, negatively charged phosphoryl modifications preferentially bind to positively charged metal ions (e.g., Fe(3+), Ga(3+)) on the beads. After washing away nonphosphorylated peptides, a pH shift to basic conditions causes the elution of bound phosphopeptides from the metal ion. Under optimal conditions, very high specificity for phosphopeptides can be achieved. PMID:26933247

  10. Genetic Diversity through the Looking Glass: Effect of Enrichment Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Dunbar, J.; White, S.; Forney, L

    1997-01-01

    The effect of enrichment bias on the diversity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D)-degrading (2,4-D(sup+)) bacteria recovered from soil was evaluated by comparing the diversity of isolates obtained by direct plating to the diversity of isolates obtained from 85 liquid batch cultures. By the two methods, a total of 159 isolates were purified from 1 g of soil and divided into populations based on repeated extragenic palindromic sequence PCR (rep-PCR) genomic fingerprints. Approximately 42% of...

  11. a Minimum Spanning Tree Based Method for Uav Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Wei, Zheng; Cui, Weihong; Lin, Zhiyong

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a Minimum Span Tree (MST) based image segmentation method for UAV images in coastal area. An edge weight based optimal criterion (merging predicate) is defined, which based on statistical learning theory (SLT). And we used a scale control parameter to control the segmentation scale. Experiments based on the high resolution UAV images in coastal area show that the proposed merging predicate can keep the integrity of the objects and prevent results from over segmentation. The segmentation results proves its efficiency in segmenting the rich texture images with good boundary of objects.

  12. A flower image retrieval method based on ROI feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪安祥; 陈刚; 李均利; 池哲儒; 张亶

    2004-01-01

    Flower image retrieval is a very important step for computer-aided plant species recognition. In this paper, we propose an efficient segmentation method based on color clustering and domain knowledge to extract flower regions from flower images. For flower retrieval, we use the color histogram of a flower region to characterize the color features of flower and two shape-based features sets, Centroid-Contour Distance (CCD) and Angle Code Histogram (ACH), to characterize the shape features of a flower contour. Experimental results showed that our flower region extraction method based on color clustering and domain knowledge can produce accurate flower regions. Flower retrieval results on a database of 885 flower images collected from 14 plant species showed that our Region-of-Interest (ROI) based retrieval approach using both color and shape features can perform better than a method based on the global color histogram proposed by Swain and Ballard (1991) and a method based on domain knowledge-driven segmentation and color names proposed by Das et al.(1999).

  13. A flower image retrieval method based on ROI feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪安祥; 陈刚; 李均利; 池哲儒; 张亶

    2004-01-01

    Flower image retrieval is a very important step for computer-aided plant species recognition.In this paper,we propose an efficient segmentation method based on color clustering and domain knowledge to extract flower regions from flower images.For flower retrieval,we use the color histogram of a flower region to characterize the color features of flower and two shape-based features sets,Centroid-Contour Distance(CCD)and Angle Code Histogram(ACH),to characterize the shape features of a flower contour.Experimental results showed that our flower region extraction method based on color clustering and domain knowledge can produce accurate flower regions.Flower retrieval results on a database of 885 flower images collected from 14 plant species showed that our Region-of-Interest(ROD based retrieval approach using both color and shape features can perform better than a method based on the global color histogram proposed by Swain and Ballard(1991)and a method based on domain knowledge-driven segmentation and color names proposed by Das et al.(1999).

  14. Facial Feature Extraction Method Based on Coefficients of Variances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Xi Song; David Zhang; Cai-Kou Chen; Jing-Yu Yang

    2007-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) are two popular feature ex- traction techniques in statistical pattern recognition field. Due to small sample size problem LDA cannot be directly applied to appearance-based face recognition tasks. As a consequence, a lot of LDA-based facial feature extraction techniques are proposed to deal with the problem one after the other. Nullspace Method is one of the most effective methods among them. The Nullspace Method tries to find a set of discriminant vectors which maximize the between-class scatter in the null space of the within-class scatter matrix. The calculation of its discriminant vectors will involve performing singular value decomposition on a high-dimensional matrix. It is generally memory- and time-consuming. Borrowing the key idea in Nullspace method and the concept of coefficient of variance in statistical analysis we present a novel facial feature extraction method, i.e., Discriminant based on Coefficient of Variance (DCV) in this paper. Experimental results performed on the FERET and AR face image databases demonstrate that DCV is a promising technique in comparison with Eigenfaces, Nullspace Method, and other state-of-the-art facial feature extraction methods.

  15. Expansion of U. S. uranium enrichment capacity. Final environmental statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-04-01

    Reasonably foreseeable environmental, social, economic, and technological costs and benefits of postulated expansion of U. S. enrichment capacity through the year 2000 and reasonably available alternatives to such expansion are described. Both the gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion methods for the enrichment of uranium are considered in this impact assessment. (JGB)

  16. Testability integrated evaluation method based on testability virtual test data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Guanjun; Zhao Chenxu; Qiu Jing; Zhang Yong

    2014-01-01

    Testability virtual test is a new test method for testability verification, which has the advantages such as low cost, few restrictions and large sample of test data. It can be used to make up the deficiency of testability physical test. In order to take the advantage of testability virtual test data effectively and to improve the accuracy of testability evaluation, a testability integrated eval-uation method is proposed in this paper based on testability virtual test data. Considering the char-acteristic of testability virtual test data, the credibility analysis method for testability virtual test data is studied firstly. Then the integrated calculation method is proposed fusing the testability vir-tual and physical test data. Finally, certain helicopter heading and attitude system is presented to demonstrate the proposed method. The results show that the testability integrated evaluation method is feasible and effective.

  17. Preconditioned WR-LMF-based method for ODE systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao-Qing; Sin, Vai-Kuong; Song, Li-Li

    2004-01-01

    The waveform relaxation (WR) method was developed as an iterative method for solving large systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). In each WR iteration, we are required to solve a system of ODEs. We then introduce the boundary value method (BVM) which is a relatively new method based on the linear multistep formulae to solve ODEs. In particular, we apply the generalized minimal residual method with the Strang-type block-circulant preconditioner for solving linear systems arising from the application of BVMs to each WR iteration. It is demonstrated that these techniques are very effective in speeding up the convergence rate of the resulting iterative processes. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of our methods.

  18. Testability integrated evaluation method based on testability virtual test data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Guanjun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Testability virtual test is a new test method for testability verification, which has the advantages such as low cost, few restrictions and large sample of test data. It can be used to make up the deficiency of testability physical test. In order to take the advantage of testability virtual test data effectively and to improve the accuracy of testability evaluation, a testability integrated evaluation method is proposed in this paper based on testability virtual test data. Considering the characteristic of testability virtual test data, the credibility analysis method for testability virtual test data is studied firstly. Then the integrated calculation method is proposed fusing the testability virtual and physical test data. Finally, certain helicopter heading and attitude system is presented to demonstrate the proposed method. The results show that the testability integrated evaluation method is feasible and effective.

  19. Quaternion-based discriminant analysis method for color face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Pattern recognition techniques have been used to automatically recognize the objects, personal identities, predict the function of protein, the category of the cancer, identify lesion, perform product inspection, and so on. In this paper we propose a novel quaternion-based discriminant method. This method represents and classifies color images in a simple and mathematically tractable way. The proposed method is suitable for a large variety of real-world applications such as color face recognition and classification of the ground target shown in multispectrum remote images. This method first uses the quaternion number to denote the pixel in the color image and exploits a quaternion vector to represent the color image. This method then uses the linear discriminant analysis algorithm to transform the quaternion vector into a lower-dimensional quaternion vector and classifies it in this space. The experimental results show that the proposed method can obtain a very high accuracy for color face recognition. PMID:22937054

  20. A SUBARRAY-SYNTHESIS BASED 2D DOA ESTIMATION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wenlong; Jiang Wei; Li Zengfu; Shang Yong; Xiang Haige

    2006-01-01

    In some satellite communications, we need to perform Direction Of Arrival (DOA) angle estimation under the restriction that the number of receivers is less than that of the array elements in an array antenna.To solve the conundrum, a method named subarray-synthesis-based Two-Dimensional DOA (2D DOA) angle estimation is proposed. In the method, firstly, the array antenna is divided into a series of subarray antennas based on the total number of receivers; secondly, the subarray antennas' output covariance matrices are estimated; thirdly, an equivalent covariance matrix is synthesized based on the subarray output covariance matrices; then 2D DOA estimation is performed. Monte Carlo simulations showed that the estimation method is effective.