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Sample records for based enhanced oil

  1. Enhanced oil recovery projects data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, J.F.; Sellers, C.A.; Nautiyal, C.; Allison, E.

    1992-04-01

    A comprehensive enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project data base is maintained and updated at the Bartlesville Project Office of the Department of Energy. This data base provides an information resource that is used to analyze the advancement and application of EOR technology. The data base has extensive information on 1,388 EOR projects in 569 different oil fields from 1949 until the present, and over 90% of that information is contained in tables and graphs of this report. The projects are presented by EOR process, and an index by location is provided.

  2. SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM MOBILITY CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson

    2004-02-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine.

  3. SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM MOBILITY CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson

    2004-07-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactants makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluted to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. A dual-porosity version is demonstrated as a potential scale-up tool for fractured reservoirs.

  4. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope

    2005-07-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A combination of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT is more challenging since the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the interdependence of the various components for oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. It has been modified to represent the effects of a change in wettability. Simulated case studies demonstrate the effects of wettability.

  5. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller

    2006-09-09

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A mixture of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. The mixture is single phase for higher salinity or calcium concentrations than that for either surfactant used alone. This makes it possible to inject the surfactant slug with polymer close to optimal conditions and yet be single phase. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. It uses partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide for mobility control. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of naphthenic soap and significant reduction of synthetic surfactant adsorption. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT takes advantage of the observation that the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Even for a fixed ratio of soap to surfactant, the range of salinity for low IFT was wider than that reported for surfactant systems in the literature. Low temperature, forced displacement experiments in dolomite and silica sandpacks demonstrate that greater than 95% recovery of the waterflood remaining oil is possible with 0.2% surfactant concentration, 0.5 PV surfactant slug, with no alcohol. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the role of soap/surfactant ratio on passage of the profile through the ultralow IFT region, the importance of a wide salinity range of low IFT, and the importance of the viscosity of the surfactant slug. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs as well as a

  6. A STREAMLINE-BASED PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR ENHANCED-OIL-RECOVERY POTENTIALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jian; ZHANG Shun-kang; DU Qing-jun; LI Yu-bin

    2008-01-01

    A pseudo-three-dimensional model of potentiality prediction is proposed for enhanced oil recovery, based on the streamline method described in this article. The potential distribution of the flow through a porous medium under a complicated boundary condition is solved with the boundary element method. Furthermore, the method for tracing streamlines between injection wells and producing wells is presented. Based on the results, a numerical solution can be obtained by solving the seepage problem of the stream-tube with consideration of different methods of Enhanced Oil Recovery(EOR). The advantage of the method given in this article is that it can obtain dynamic calculation with different well patterns of any shape by easily considering different physicochemical phenomena having less calculation time and good stability. Based on the uniform theory basis-streamline method, different models, including CO2 miscible flooding, polymer flooding, alkaline/surfactant/polymer flooding and microbial flooding, are established in this article.

  7. SOVENT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY FOR IN-SITU UPGRADING OF HEAVY OIL SANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munroe, Norman

    2009-01-30

    With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under reservoir conditions due to its extremely high viscosity, which creates special production challenges. In order to overcome these challenges significant efforts were devoted by Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University and The Center for Energy Economics (CEE) at the University of Texas. A simplified model was developed to assess the density of the upgraded crude depending on the ratio of solvent mass to crude oil mass, temperature, pressure and the properties of the crude oil. The simplified model incorporated the interaction dynamics into a homogeneous, porous heavy oil reservoir to simulate the dispersion and concentration of injected CO2. The model also incorporated the characteristic of a highly varying CO2 density near the critical point. Since the major challenge in heavy oil recovery is its high viscosity, most researchers have focused their investigations on this parameter in the laboratory as well as in the field resulting in disparaging results. This was attributed to oil being a complex poly-disperse blend of light and heavy paraffins, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes, which have diverse behaviors at reservoir temperature and pressures. The situation is exacerbated by a dearth of experimental data on gas diffusion coefficients in heavy oils due to the tedious nature of diffusivity measurements. Ultimately, the viscosity and thus oil recovery is regulated by pressure and its effect on the diffusion coefficient and oil swelling factors. The generation of a new phase within the crude and the differences in mobility between the new crude matrix and the

  8. Enhancement of Epimedium Fried with Suet Oil Based on in Vivo Formation of Self-Assembled Flavonoid Compound Nanomicelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bin Jia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to research the enhancement of Epimedium fried with suet oil based on the in vivo formation self-assembled flavonoid nanomicelles. Taking icariin as the representative, under the action of suet oil, self-assembled nanomicelles were prepared under simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions and were characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The experiments with icariin self-assembled nanomicelles without suet oil were done according to the above. The influence of suet oil on the transportation of icariin across Caco-2 cell monolayers and the absorption in rat intestine of self-assembled nanomicelles were evaluated. The particle size of icariin self-assembled nanomicelles with suet oil was smaller than without suet oil. The nanomicelles seemed to be monodisperse spherical particle with smooth surfaces. The icariin entrapment efficiency of self-assembled nanomicelles with suet oil was increased from 43.1% to 89.7%. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, the absorptive permeability, secretory permeability and efflux ratio of icariin self-assembled nanomicelles with suet oil was 1.26 × 10−6 cm/s, 5.91 × 10−6 cm/s and 4.69, respectively, while that of icariin self-assembled nanomicelles without suet oil was 0.62 × 10−6 cm/s, 3.00 × 10−6 cm/s, and 4.84, respectively. In rat intestinal perfusion experiments, the permeability coefficient of icariin self-assembled nanomicelles with suet oil in duodenum was higher than the value of icariin self-assembled nanomicelles without suet oil (p < 0.05. With the action of suet oil, icariin self-assembled nanomicelles were more stable and the entrapment efficiency was higher than that without suet oil, which could increase the solubility of icariin and improve its intestinal absorption. Therefore, suet oil plays a role in its enhancement.

  9. Maximization of wave motion within a hydrocarbon reservoir for wave-based enhanced oil recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, C.

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We discuss a systematic methodology for investigating the feasibility of mobilizing oil droplets trapped within the pore space of a target reservoir region by optimally directing wave energy to the region of interest. The motivation stems from field and laboratory observations, which have provided sufficient evidence suggesting that wave-based reservoir stimulation could lead to economically viable oil recovery.Using controlled active surface wave sources, we first describe the mathematical framework necessary for identifying optimal wave source signals that can maximize a desired motion metric (kinetic energy, particle acceleration, etc.) at the target region of interest. We use the apparatus of partial-differential-equation (PDE)-constrained optimization to formulate the associated inverse-source problem, and deploy state-of-the-art numerical wave simulation tools to resolve numerically the associated discrete inverse problem.Numerical experiments with a synthetic subsurface model featuring a shallow reservoir show that the optimizer converges to wave source signals capable of maximizing the motion within the reservoir. The spectra of the wave sources are dominated by the amplification frequencies of the formation. We also show that wave energy could be focused within the target reservoir area, while simultaneously minimizing the disturbance to neighboring formations - a concept that can also be exploited in fracking operations.Lastly, we compare the results of our numerical experiments conducted at the reservoir scale, with results obtained from semi-analytical studies at the granular level, to conclude that, in the case of shallow targets, the optimized wave sources are likely to mobilize trapped oil droplets, and thus enhance oil recovery.

  10. Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altunina, L K; Kuvshinov, V A [Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-31

    Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields that are developed using water flooding and thermal steam treatment are considered. The results of pilot testing of processes based on these methods carried out at West Siberian and Chinese oil fields are analysed. The attention is focused on the processes that make use of surfactant blends and alkaline buffer solutions and thermotropic gel-forming systems.

  11. Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.

    2007-10-01

    Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields that are developed using water flooding and thermal steam treatment are considered. The results of pilot testing of processes based on these methods carried out at West Siberian and Chinese oil fields are analysed. The attention is focused on the processes that make use of surfactant blends and alkaline buffer solutions and thermotropic gel-forming systems.

  12. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lewis R

    2010-06-01

    Two-thirds of the oil ever found is still in the ground even after primary and secondary production. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the tertiary methods purported to increase oil recovery. Since 1946 more than 400 patents on MEOR have been issued, but none has gained acceptance by the oil industry. Most of the literature on MEOR is from laboratory experiments or from field trials of insufficient duration or that lack convincing proof of the process. Several authors have made recommendations required to establish MEOR as a viable method to enhance oil recovery, and until these tests are performed, MEOR will remain an unproven concept rather than a highly desirable reality. PMID:20149719

  13. Experimental study of solvent-based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in Alaska North Slope area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, F.; Mamora, D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a chemical enhanced oil recovery method to overcome some of the technical challenges associated with thermal recovery in the Alaska North Slope (ANS). This paper described the second stage research of an experimental study on nano-particle and surfactant-stabilized solvent-based emulsions for the ANS area. Four successful core flood experiments were performed using heavy ANS oil. The runs included water flooding followed by emulsion flooding; and pure emulsion injection core flooding. The injection rate and core flooding temperature remained constant and only 1 PV micro-emulsion was injected after breakthrough under water flooding or emulsion flooding. Oil recovery increased by 26.4 percent from 56.2 percent original oil in place (OOIP) with waterflooding to 82.6 percent OOIP with injection of emulsion following water flooding. Oil recovery was slightly higher with pure emulsion flooding, at 85.8 percent OOIP. The study showed that low permeability generally resulted in a higher shear rate, which is favourable for in-situ emulsification and higher displacement efficiency. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  14. Preparation and Enhancement of Thermal Conductivity of Heat Transfer Oil-Based MoS2 Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Xian Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipophilic MoS2 nanoparticles are synthesized by surface modification with stearic acid (SA. The heat transfer oil-based nanofluids, with the mass fraction of lipophilic nanoparticles varying from 0.25% up to 1.0%, are prepared and their thermal conductivity is determined at temperatures ranging from 40 to 200°C using an apparatus based on the laser flash method. It has been found that the nanofluids have higher thermal conductivity and the thermal conductivity enhancement increased not only with increasing mass fraction of nanoparticles, but also with increasing temperature in the range 40–180°C The results show a 38.7% enhancement of the thermal conductivity of MoS2 nanofluid with only 1.0% mass fraction at 180°C.

  15. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  16. Polymeric surfactants for enhanced oil recovery : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffa, Patrizio; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is surely a topic of interest, as conventional oil resources become more scarce and the necessity of exploiting heavy and unconventional oils increases. EOR methods based on polymer flooding, surfactant-polymer flooding and alkali-surfactant-polymer flooding are

  17. Solvent enhanced bioremediation of weathered oil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a novel bioremediation process for the treatment of oil spills on land. The method was developed specifically to deal with long term oil contamination where the volatile fractions have evaporated leaving the more recalcitrant fractions. A model system of sand and Kuwaiti crude oil was used to test the system. A combined treatment which introduced an additional solvent component was found to enhance mobility and availability of oil, enhancing bioremediation. (author)

  18. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Surfactant Flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandersen, Sara Bülow

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being increasingly applied in the oil industry and several different technologies have emerged during, the last decades in order to optimize oil recovery after conventional recovery methods have been applied. Surfactant flooding is an EOR technique in which the phase...... behavior inside the reservoir can be manipulated by the injection of surfactants and co-surfactants, creating advantageous conditions in order to mobilize trapped oil. Correctly designed surfactant systems together with the crude oil can create microemulsions at the interface between crude oil and water......, thus reducing the interfacial tension (IFT) to ultra low (0.001 mN/m), which consequently will mobilize the residual oil and result in improved oil recovery. This EOR technology is, however, made challenging by a number of factors, such as the adsorption of surfactant and co-surfactant to the rock...

  19. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  20. Nanostructured systems for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.; Kuvshinov, I. V.

    2015-10-01

    The reservoir energy or that of the injected heat carrier was used to generate in situ intelligent chemical systems—nanostructured gels, sols and oil-displacing surfactants systems, preserving for a long time in the reservoir a complex of the properties being optimal for oil displacement. The results of field tests and commercial application of physicochemical technologies using nanostructured systems for enhanced oil recovery in oilfields with difficult-to-recover reserves, including deposits of high-viscosity oils, have been presented. Field tests of new "cold" technologies on the deposit of high-viscosity oil in Usinskoye oilfield proved their high efficiency.

  1. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  2. Microbial enhanced oil recovery: Entering the log phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technology has advanced internationally since 1980 from a laboratory-based evaluation of microbial processes to field applications. In order to adequately support the decline in oil production in certain areas, research on cost-effective technologies such as microbial enhanced oil recovery processes must focus on both near-term and long-term applications. Many marginal wells are desperately in need of an inexpensive improved oil recovery technology today that can assist producers in order to prevent their abandonment. Microbial enhanced waterflooding technology has also been shown to be an economically feasible technology in the United States. Complementary environmental research and development will also be required to address any potential environmental impacts of microbial processes. In 1995 at this conference, the goal is to further document and promote microbial processes for improved oil recovery and related technology for solving environmental problems.

  3. Enzymes for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasiri, Hamidreza

    2011-04-15

    Primary oil recovery by reservoir pressure depletion and secondary oil recovery by waterflooding usually result in poor displacement efficiency. As a consequence there is always some trapped oil remaining in oil reservoirs. Oil entrapment is a result of complex interactions between viscous, gravity and capillary forces. Improving recovery from hydrocarbon fields typically involves altering the relative importance of the viscous and capillary forces. The potential of many EOR methods depends on their influence on fluid/rock interactions related to wettability and fluid/fluid interactions reflected in IFT. If the method has the potential to change the interactions favorably, it may be considered for further investigation, i.e. core flooding experiment, pilot and reservoir implementation. Enzyme-proteins can be introduced as an enhanced oil recovery method to improve waterflood performance by affecting interactions at the oil-water-rock interfaces. An important part of this thesis was to investigate how selected enzymes may influence wettability and capillary forces in a crude oil-brine-rock system, and thus possibly contribute to enhanced oil recovery. To investigate further by which mechanisms selected enzyme-proteins may contribute to enhance oil recovery, groups of enzymes with different properties and catalytic functions, known to be interfacially active, were chosen to cover a wide range of possible effects. These groups include (1) Greenzyme (GZ) which is a commercial EOR enzyme and consists of enzymes and stabilizers (surfactants), (2) The Zonase group consists of two types of pure enzyme, Zonase1 and Zonase2 which are protease enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze (breakdown) peptide bonds, (3) The Novozyme (NZ) group consists of three types of pure enzyme, NZ2, NZ3 and NZ6 which are esterase enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze ester bonds, and (4) Alpha-Lactalbumin ( -La) which is an important whey protein. The effect of

  4. Study of the enhanced oil recovery with surfactant based systems; Estudo de recuperacao avancada de petroleo por sistemas a base de tensoativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro Neto, Valdir Cotrim; Paulino, Luisa Cimatti; Acyoly, Alessandra; Santos, Enio Rafael M.; Dantas Neto, Afonso Avelino [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The recent changes in the world scenario, the large reserves of heavy oils and also the lack of new discoveries of large petroleum fields are indications that, in the near future, the oil recovery by conventional methods will be limited. In order to increase the efficiency of the extraction process, it must be used enhanced recovery methods. One of these technologies is the injection of surfactant solutions, where exists a chemical interaction between the injected fluid and the reservoir's fluid. With this in mind, this work was developed with two main objectives: to study of parameters that influence the surfactant behavior in solution, namely the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the surface and interface tensions between fluids and the evaluation of oil recovery with these solutions. After the Botucatu sandstone (Brazil) porosity study, the plug samples were submitted to assay steps comprising saturation with seawater and petroleum, conventional recovery with seawater and enhanced recovery with surfactant solutions. The solutions were studied in enhanced recovery step, when the plug samples could already be compared to a mature field. The PJN surfactant, at a concentration 1000% above CMC in water, had a higher recovery factor, causing the original oil in place to be recovered by an extra 20.97%, after conventional recovery with seawater. (author)

  5. Experimental Studies of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Crescente, Christian Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to understand the driving mechanisms by which the bacterium Rhodococcus sp. 094 increases oil recovery. The reason for only using this species was to thorougly investigate different aspects of it, to be able to answer as many questions as possible so that in the end it would be possible to confidently understand which mechanisms are responsible for enhanced oil recovery with this bacterium. From the lessons learned on this work one could more efficiently desi...

  6. Seismic stimulation for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pride, S.R.; Flekkoy, E.G.; Aursjo, O.

    2008-07-22

    The pore-scale effects of seismic stimulation on two-phase flow are modeled numerically in random 2D grain0pack geometries. Seismic stimulation aims to enhance oil production by sending seismic waves across a reservoir to liberate immobile patches of oil. For seismic amplitudes above a well-defined (analytically expressed) dimensionless criterion, the force perturbation associated with the waves indeed can liberate oil trapped on capillary barriers and get it flowing again under the background pressure gradient. Subsequent coalescence of the freed oil droplets acts to enhance oil movement further because longer bubbles overcome capillary barriers more efficiently than shorter bubbles do. Poroelasticity theory defines the effective force that a seismic wave adds to the background fluid-pressure gradient. The lattice-Boltzmann model in two dimensions is used to perform pore-scale numerical simulations. Dimensionless numbers (groups of material and force parameters) involved in seismic stimulation are defined carefully so that numerical simulations can be applied to field-scale conditions. Using the analytical criteria defined in the paper, there is a significant range of reservoir conditions over which seismic stimulation can be expected to enhance oil production.

  7. Acoustic Wave Stimulated Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Sven; Giese, Rüdiger; Amro, Mohammed

    2013-04-01

    High demand and the finite oil deposits will be a problem in the future. To temper the impact of a shortage in crude oil, a lot of research in the field of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is worldwide ongoing. Using seismic waves to stimulate recovery of oil is known as seismic-EOR. The development of a stimulation procedure using seismic sources and the evaluation of the obtained data in a real oil field is the aim of the project WAVE.O.R. The project is funded by the German scientific society for oil, gas and coal (DGMK). The Technical University of Freiberg (TUBAF) and the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) in Potsdam developed a flooding cell connected with magnetostrictive actuators as sources for seismic energy. This device is eligible to survey the impact of different seismic stimulation parameter like frequency, alignment, amplitude and rock characteristics on oil recovery. The obtained laboratory data of flooding experiments using seismic waves were analyzed for key features like water breakthrough point, oil recovery and oil fraction. New approach has been developed, which consists of the connection of a principal component analysis with a clustering algorithm. This new technique allows us a better understanding and thus prediction of the recovery behavior of oil bearing sediments. The experiments show promising possibilities to enhance oil recovery with seismic stimulation. Especially the combination of different frequencies between 100 Hz and 4000 Hz had a positive impact on oil recovery. The responsible mechanisms were identified and discussed. Data obtained with the laboratory device will be applied in a field test using a borehole device developed by the GFZ in the project "Seismic Prediction While Drilling" (SPWD). For this purpose experiments are conducted to obtain the radiation pattern of the seismic sources used by the SPWD device in a borehole. In addition, the development of a control setup for the 1-D actuator array is an aim of the

  8. Uncertainty quantification for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Zhenxue; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Jia, Wei; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Ampomah, William; Grigg, Reid

    2014-01-01

    This study develops a statistical method to perform uncertainty quantification for understanding CO2 storage potential within an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) environment at the Farnsworth Unit of the Anadarko Basin in northern Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil-water flow and reactive transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major uncertainty metrics: net CO2 injection, cumulative oil production, cumulative gas (CH4) production, and net water injection. A global sensitivity and response surface analysis indicates that reservoir permeability, porosity, and thickness are the major intrinsic reservoir parameters that control net CO2 injection/storage and oil/gas recovery rates. The well spacing and the initial water saturation also have large impact on the oil/gas recovery rates. Further, this study has revealed key insights into the potential behavior and the operational parameters of CO2 sequestration at CO2-EOR s...

  9. Starting up microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Michael; Sitte, Jana; Galushko, Alexander; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader a practical introduction into microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) including the microbial production of natural gas from oil. Decision makers who consider the use of one of these technologies are provided with the required scientific background as well as with practical advice for upgrading an existing laboratory in order to conduct microbiological experiments. We believe that the conversion of residual oil into natural gas (methane) and the in situ production of biosurfactants are the most promising approaches for MEOR and therefore focus on these topics. Moreover, we give an introduction to the microbiology of oilfields and demonstrate that in situ microorganisms as well as injected cultures can help displace unrecoverable oil in place (OIP). After an initial research phase, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) manager must decide whether MEOR would be economical. MEOR generally improves oil production but the increment may not justify the investment. Therefore, we provide a brief economical assessment at the end of this chapter. We describe the necessary state-of-the-art scientific equipment to guide EOR managers towards an appropriate MEOR strategy. Because it is inevitable to characterize the microbial community of an oilfield that should be treated using MEOR techniques, we describe three complementary start-up approaches. These are: (i) culturing methods, (ii) the characterization of microbial communities and possible bio-geochemical pathways by using molecular biology methods, and (iii) interfacial tension measurements. In conclusion, we hope that this chapter will facilitate a decision on whether to launch MEOR activities. We also provide an update on relevant literature for experienced MEOR researchers and oilfield operators. Microbiologists will learn about basic principles of interface physics needed to study the impact of microorganisms living on oil droplets. Last but not least, students and technicians trying to understand

  10. Combustion for Enhanced Recovery of Light Oil at Medium Pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshnevis Gargar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Using conventional production methods, recovery percentages from oil reservoirs range from 5% for difficult oil to 50% for light oil in highly permeable homogeneous reservoirs. To increase the oil recovery factor, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are used. We distinguish EOR that uses chemical me

  11. Enhanced Oil Recovery: Aqueous Flow Tracer Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rovani; John Schabron

    2009-02-01

    A low detection limit analytical method was developed to measure a suite of benzoic acid and fluorinated benzoic acid compounds intended for use as tracers for enhanced oil recovery operations. Although the new high performance liquid chromatography separation successfully measured the tracers in an aqueous matrix at low part per billion levels, the low detection limits could not be achieved in oil field water due to interference problems with the hydrocarbon-saturated water using the system's UV detector. Commercial instrument vendors were contacted in an effort to determine if mass spectrometry could be used as an alternate detection technique. The results of their work demonstrate that low part per billion analysis of the tracer compounds in oil field water could be achieved using ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

  12. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and wettability research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Bala, G.A.; Duvall, M.L.

    1991-07-01

    This report covers research results for the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and wettability research program conducted by EG G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The isolation and characterization of microbial species collected from various locations including target oil field environments is underway to develop more effective oil recovery systems for specific applications. The wettability research is a multi-year collaborative effort with the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center (NMPRRC), to evaluate reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery. Results from the wettability research will be applied to determine if alteration of wettability is a significant contributing mechanism for MEOR systems. Eight facultatively anaerobic surfactant producing isolates able to function in the reservoir conditions of the Minnelusa A Sands of the Powder River Basin in Wyoming were isolated from naturally occurring oil-laden environments. Isolates were characterized according to morphology, thermostability, halotolerance, growth substrates, affinity to crude oil/brine interfaces, degradative effects on crude oils, and biochemical profiles. Research at the INEL has focused on the elucidation of microbial mechanisms by which crude oil may be recovered from a reservoir and the chemical and physical properties of the reservoir that may impact the effectiveness of MEOR. Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 (ATCC 39307) has been used as a benchmark organism to quantify MEOR of medium weight crude oils (17.5 to 38.1{degrees}API) the capacity for oil recovery of Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 utilizing a sucrose-based nutrient has been elucidated using Berea sandstone cores. Spacial distribution of cells after microbial flooding has been analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Also the effect of microbial surfactants on the interfacial tensions (IFT) of aqueous/crude oil systems has been measured. 87 refs., 60 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery - Advanced Reservoir Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2010-01-01

    In this project, a generic model has been set up to include the two main mechanisms in the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) process; reduction of the interfacial tension (IFT) due to surfactant production, and microscopic fluid diversion as a part of the overall fluid diversion mechanism due to formation of biofilm. The construction of a one-dimensional simulator enables us to investigate how the different mechanisms and the combination of these influence the displacement processes, the...

  14. Enhanced Oil Recovery from Oil-wet Carbonate Rock by Spontaneous Imbibition of Aqueous Surfactant Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standnes, Dag Chun

    2001-09-01

    The main theme of this thesis is an experimental investigation of spontaneous imbibition (SI) of aqueous cationic surfactant solution into oil-wet carbonate (chalk- and dolomite cores). The static imbibition process is believed to represent the matrix flow of oil and water in a fractured reservoir. It was known that aqueous solution of C{sub 12}-N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Br (C12TAB) was able to imbibe spontaneously into nearly oil-wet chalk material, but the underlying mechanism was not understood. The present work was therefore initiated, with the following objectives: (1) Put forward a hypothesis for the chemical mechanism underlying the SI of C12TAB solutions into oil-wet chalk material based on experimental data and (2) Perform screening tests of low-cost commercially available surfactants for their ability to displace oil by SI of water into oil-wet carbonate rock material. It is essential for optimal use of the surfactant in field application to have detailed knowledge about the mechanism underlying the SI process. The thesis also discusses some preliminary experimental results and suggests mechanisms for enhanced oil recovery from oil-wet carbonate rock induced by supply of thermal energy.

  15. "Smart" Multifunctional Polymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles McCormick; Andrew Lowe

    2007-03-20

    Recent recommendations made by the Department of Energy, in conjunction with ongoing research at the University of Southern Mississippi, have signified a need for the development of 'smart' multi-functional polymers (SMFPs) for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes. Herein we summarize research from the period of September 2003 through March 2007 focusing on both Type I and Type II SMFPs. We have demonstrated the synthesis and behavior of materials that can respond in situ to stimuli (ionic strength, pH, temperature, and shear stress). In particular, Type I SMFPs reversibly form micelles in water and have the potential to be utilized in applications that serve to lower interfacial tension at the oil/water interface, resulting in emulsification of oil. Type II SMFPs, which consist of high molecular weight polymers, have been synthesized and have prospective applications related to the modification of fluid viscosity during the recovery process. Through the utilization of these advanced 'smart' polymers, the ability to recover more of the original oil in place and a larger portion of that by-passed or deemed 'unrecoverable' by conventional chemical flooding should be possible.

  16. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  17. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, M.P. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)); Blatchford, R.P.; Spears, R.B. (Spears and Associates, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States))

    1991-12-01

    This handbook is intended to assist owners and operators of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in acquiring some introductory knowledge of the various state agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the many environmental laws, rules and regulations which can have jurisdiction over their permitting and compliance activities. It is a compendium of summarizations of environmental rules. It is not intended to give readers specific working details of what is required from them, nor can it be used in that manner. Readers of this handbook are encouraged to contact environmental control offices nearest to locations of interest for current regulations affecting them.

  18. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook is intended to assist owners and operators of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in acquiring some introductory knowledge of the various state agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the many environmental laws, rules and regulations which can have jurisdiction over their permitting and compliance activities. It is a compendium of summarizations of environmental rules. It is not intended to give readers specific working details of what is required from them, nor can it be used in that manner. Readers of this handbook are encouraged to contact environmental control offices nearest to locations of interest for current regulations affecting them

  19. Screening Criteria and Considerations of Offshore Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Sang Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR in offshore oil fields has received significant attention due to the potentially enormous amount of recoverable oil. However, EOR application offshore is in its very early stage due to conditions that are more complex than onshore oil fields, owing to the unique parameters present offshore. Therefore, successful EOR applications in offshore oil fields require different screening criteria than those for conventional onshore applications. A comprehensive database for onshore applications of EOR processes together with a limited offshore EOR application database are analyzed in this paper, and the important parameters for successful offshore application are incorporated into the new EOR screening criteria. In this paper, screening criteria to determine acceptable EOR processes for offshore fields, including hydrocarbon gas miscible, CO2 miscible, and polymer processes, are presented. Suggested screening criteria for these EOR processes comprise quantitative boundaries and qualitative considerations. Quantitative screening criteria are predominantly based on quantifiable data, such as oil and reservoir properties. Qualitative screening considerations mainly focus on the operational issues present offshore, including platform space constraints, limited disposal options, injectant availability, and flow assurance matters (including hydrate formation and difficulties in emulsion separation.

  20. Microbial enhanced oil recovery. A short review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zekri, A.Y. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2001-03-01

    Several literature reviews have been published on microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). This paper updates the state of art in MEOR process and presents a summary of field projects. The most common practice technique of MEOR is cyclic stimulation treatment of production wells. Normally small amount of microbial solution injected in a single well and left to soak for a period of time before putting the well back on production. This process results in a limited volume of the reservoir being treated. This usual type of treatment is easy to implement, quick response and relatively inexpensive. The second technique is to apply microbial along with water flooding to improve both sweep efficiency and displacement efficiency. A number of projects have been conducted to improve oil recovery using MEOR technique. In laboratory, bacteria have been shown to produce chemicals such as surfactant, acids, solvents and gases (mainly CO{sub 2}) that can extensively contribute to improvement of displacement efficiency. Microorganism growth at substantial rate and some are capable of polymer production, which resulted in improving the volumetric sweep efficiency of the process and consequently improvement of oil recovery. MEOR process is friendly to the environment, which is an addition plus to the process. In this paper a complete review of the current laboratory work and field projects will be presented in additional to reviewing the mechanism of the process in details. (orig.)

  1. Major S&T Issues in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jiayong

    2001-01-01

    This article deals with the strategic significance of developing enhanced oil recovery technology, its current research situation, developing trend and the related important problems in science and technology.

  2. Geologic storage of carbon dioxide and enhanced oil recovery. I. Uncertainty quantification employing a streamline based proxy for reservoir flow simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is already injected into a limited class of reservoirs for oil recovery purposes; however, the engineering design question for simultaneous oil recovery and storage of anthropogenic CO2 is significantly different from that of oil recovery alone. Currently, the volumes of CO2 injected solely for oil recovery are minimized due to the purchase cost of CO2. If and when CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are managed, it will be necessary to maximize simultaneously both economic oil recovery and the volumes of CO2 emplaced in oil reservoirs. This process is coined 'cooptimization'. This paper proposes a work flow for cooptimization of oil recovery and geologic CO2 storage. An important component of the work flow is the assessment of uncertainty in predictions of performance. Typical methods for quantifying uncertainty employ exhaustive flow simulation of multiple stochastic realizations of the geologic architecture of a reservoir. Such approaches are computationally intensive and thereby time consuming. An analytic streamline based proxy for full reservoir simulation is proposed and tested. Streamline trajectories represent the three-dimensional velocity field during multiphase flow in porous media and so are useful for quantifying the similarity and differences among various reservoir models. The proxy allows rational selection of a representative subset of equi-probable reservoir models that encompass uncertainty with respect to true reservoir geology. The streamline approach is demonstrated to be thorough and rapid

  3. Isolation and study of microorganisms from oil samples for application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, Jorge F. B.; L. R. Rodrigues; Coutinho, João A. P.; J.A. Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from a reservoir beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using microorganisms and their metabolites. Stimulation of bacterial growth for biosurfactant production and degradation of heavy oil fractions by indigenous microorganisms can enhance the fluidity and reduce the capillary forces that retain the oil into the reservoir. MEOR offers major advantages over conventional EOR, namely low...

  4. Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worthington Tony

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG when used as a skin antiseptic. Method Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO and 70% (v/v isopropyl alcohol (IPA. The concentration of CHG (μg/mg of skin was determined to a skin depth of 1500 μm by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results The 2% (w/v CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v EO in combination with 2% (w/v CHG in 70% (v/v IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min. Conclusion The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis.

  5. Microbial enhancement of oil recovery: Recent advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Woodhead, A.D.; Vivirito, K.J. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    During recent years, systematic, scientific, and engineering effort by researchers in the United States and abroad, has established the scientific basis for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology. The successful application of MEOR technology as an oil recovery process is a goal of the Department of Energy (DOE). Research efforts involving aspects of MEOR in the microbiological, biochemical, and engineering fields led DOE to sponsor an International Conference at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1992, to facilitate the exchange of information and a discussion of ideas for the future research emphasis. At this, the Fourth International MEOR Conference, where international attendees from 12 countries presented a total of 35 papers, participants saw an equal distribution between research'' and field applications.'' In addition, several modeling and state-of-the-art'' presentations summed up the present status of MEOR science and engineering. Individual papers in this proceedings have been process separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Immiscible foam for enhancing oil recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simjoo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Growing worldwide oil demand increased the need of new and efficient oil recovery methods. Gas injection in oil reservoirs is deemed one of the most widely used methods to increase oil recovery. However, the full potential of gas injection is often not realized due to poor vertical and areal sweep e

  7. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Maeda; Takao Satoh; Waliul Islam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previously, we (HM) found that most commercially available edible oils, which were processed by hexane extraction followed by a number of purification steps, were extremely low in anti-peroxy radical (ROO.), or radical scavenging activity. This is a great contrast to the respective virgin oils as exemplified by extra-virgin olive oil or crude rape seed oil [1-4] (Figure 1). Therefore, such highly purified oils will became prooxidant and less desirable food components in terms of...

  8. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project

  9. National Bases Constructed to Stockpile Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Rong

    2003-01-01

    @@ CNPC has recently started the preliminary work for construction of the large-scale oil stockpiling base in Yizheng City, Jiangsu Province. When the base is completed, it will be connected to CNPC's other oil stockpiling bases in Qinhuangdao and Huangdao, shaping the country's national oil stockpiling base at its preliminary stage.

  10. Microbial enhanced oil recovery research. Final report, Annex 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, M.M.; Gerogiou, G.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an engineering framework for the exploitation of microorganisms to enhance oil recovery. An order of magnitude analysis indicated that selective plugging and the production of biosurfactants are the two most likely mechanisms for the mobilization of oil in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The latter, biosurfactant production, is easier to control within a reservoir environment and was investigated in some detail. An extensive literature survey indicated that the bacterium Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 produces a very effective surface active agent capable of increasing the capillary number to values sufficiently low for oil mobilization. In addition, earlier studies had shown that growth of this bacterium and biosurfactant production occur under conditions that are typically encountered in MEOR, namely temperatures up to 55{degrees}C, lack of oxygen and salinities of up to 10% w/v. The chemical structure of the surfactant, its interfacial properties and its production by fermentation were characterized in some detail. In parallel, a set of experiments as conducted to measure the transport of Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 in sandpacks. It was shown that the determining parameters for cell transport in porous media are: cell size and degree of coagulation, presence of dispersants, injection velocity and cell concentration. The mechanisms of bacteria retention within the pores of the reservoir were analyzed based on heuristic arguments. A mathematical simulator of MEOR was developed using conservation equations in which the mechanisms of bacteria retention and the growth kinetics of the cells were incorporated. The predictions of the model agreed reasonably well with experimental results.

  11. Enhanced oil recovery by CO{sub 2} injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moctezuma Berthier, Andres E. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    Firstly are presented some basic concepts on the enhanced oil recovery; then a description is made of where the oil deposits in Mexico are located; comments are made over what has been done in Mexico in terms of enhanced oil recovery, the projects of the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo that have dealt with the subject of enhanced oil recovery, and finally an approach is presented towards the problem of oil recovery using CO{sub 2}. [Spanish] Primeramente se presentan unos conceptos basicos sobre la recuperacion mejorada de petroleo; luego se hace una descripcion de donde se encuentran los yacimientos de petroleo en Mexico; se comenta sobre que se ha hecho en Mexico en terminos de recuperacion mejorada de petroleo; se mencionan los proyectos del Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo que han abordado el tema de la recuperacion mejorada del petroleo y por ultimo se presenta un enfoque hacia el problema de la recuperacion del petroleo usando CO{sub 2}.

  12. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Maeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previously, we (HM found that most commercially available edible oils, which were processed by hexane extraction followed by a number of purification steps, were extremely low in anti-peroxy radical (ROO., or radical scavenging activity. This is a great contrast to the respective virgin oils as exemplified by extra-virgin olive oil or crude rape seed oil [1-4] (Figure 1. Therefore, such highly purified oils will became prooxidant and less desirable food components in terms of health oriented diet. Oxidized oils may eventually cause DNA cleavages, modification of proteins, RNA, and lipids, as well as cellular damage, or promote inflammation and carcinogenesis at later time [5-9]. These commercial oils of low antioxidant activity may be improved by adding functionally effective antioxidative components, by using dried vegetable-waste such as tomato-juice-waste-residues and wine-ferment-waste-residues. Their antioxiative components will be transferred into the functionally poor grade edible oils, and consequently, one can improve the quality of such functionally poor oils and thereby contributing human health [2,8,9]. The purpose of this paper is to report a practical procedure to fortify functionally low grade conventional edible oils to functionally enriched edible oils using dried vegetable-waste residues such as tomato juice waste, and wine-ferment-residues, or other vegetable-waste residues. Methods: (1 Preparation and measurements of lycopene and carotenoid enriched oils. To 5.0g or 1.0g of the dried residue of tomato juice waste, 100ml of commercial rape seed (canola oil was added respectively. Each mixture was incubated at room temperature in dark for several weeks. Amount of lycopene and carotenoids extracted into the oil was monitored by increase of absorption (400-550nm and fluorescence at 470nm of carotenoid. Grape-juice ferment (wine waste was similarly prepared after hot air drying, and immersed in canola oil. (2

  13. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery - Modeling and Numerical Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Amundsen, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    This thesis examines the process by which microbes are used to enhance oil recovery from subsurface reservoirs. A brief introduction to reservoirs is given and the possible effects of microbes are explained. A model is developed combining porous media flow and microbial kinetics. The model is then used to run simulations in conjunction with the MATLAB Reservoir Simulation Toolbox from SINTEF (Stiftelsen for Industriell og Teknisk Forskning). Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is simulated...

  14. Screening of microorganisms for microbial enhanced oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonebayashi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, S. [Japan Food Research Laboratiories, Tokyo (Japan). Div. of Microbiology; Ono, K. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan). Tech. Research Center; Enomoto, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Tech.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to screen effective microorganisms for the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery process (or simply as MEOR). Samples of drilling cuttings, formation water, and soil were collected from domestic drilling sites and oil fields. Moreover, samples of activated-sludge and compost were collected from domestic sewage treatment facility and food treatment facility. At first, microorganisms in samples were investigated by incubation with different media; then they were isolated. By two stage-screening based on metabolizing ability, 4 strains (Bacillus licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, Enterobacter cloacae TRC-322, Bacillus subtilis TRC-4118, and Bacillus subtilis TRC-4126) were isolated as effective microorganisms for oil recovery. B. licheniformis TRC-18-2-a is a multifunctional microorganism possessing excellent surfactant productivity, and in addition it has gas, acid and polymer productivities. E. cloacae TRC-332 has gas and acid producing abilities. B. subtilis TRC-4118 and TRC-4126 are effective biosurfactant producers, and they reduce the interfacial tension to 0.04 and 0.12 dyne/cm, respectively. (author)

  15. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery - Advanced Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie

    of the relative permeabilities. Overall, these methods produce similar results. Separate investigations of the surfactant effect have been performed through exemplifying simulation cases, where no biofilm is formed. The water phase saturation profiles are found to contain a waterfront initially following...... the saturation profile for pure waterflooding. At the oil mobilization point -- where the surfactant effect starts to take place -- a sufficient surfactant concentration has been built up in order to mobilize the residual oil. A second waterfront is produced, and an oil bank is created. The recovery curve...... consists of several parts. Initially, the recovery curve follows pure waterflooding recovery until breakthrough of the oil bank. The next part of the recovery curve continues until breakthrough of the second waterfront. The incline is still relatively steep due to a low water cut. In the last part...

  16. Chemometric assessment of enhanced bioremediation of oil contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimani, Mohsen; Farhoudi, Majid; Christensen, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation is a promising technique for reclamation of oil polluted soils. In this study, six methods for enhancing bioremediation were tested on oil contaminated soils from three refinery areas in Iran (Isfahan, Arak, and Tehran). The methods included bacterial enrichment, planting, and addi......Bioremediation is a promising technique for reclamation of oil polluted soils. In this study, six methods for enhancing bioremediation were tested on oil contaminated soils from three refinery areas in Iran (Isfahan, Arak, and Tehran). The methods included bacterial enrichment, planting...... steranes were used for determining the level and type of hydrocarbon contamination. The same methods were used to study oil weathering of 2 to 6 ring polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Results demonstrated that bacterial enrichment and addition of nutrients were most efficient with 50% to 62% removal...

  17. Shale oil value enhancement research: Separation characterization of shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunger, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    The overall objective is to develop a new technology for manufacturing valuable marketable products form shale oil. Phase-I objectives are to identify desirable components in shale oil, develop separations techniques for those components, identify market needs and to identify plausible products manufacturable from raw shale oil to meet those needs. Another objective is to conduct preliminary process modeling and economic analysis of selected process sequences and product slates, including an estimation of process, costs and profitability. The end objective of Phase-I is to propose technically and economically attractive separations and conversion processes for small-scale piloting in the optional Phase-II. Optional Phase-II activities include the pilot-scale test of the Shale Oil Native Products Extraction (SO-NPX) technology and to produce specification products. Specific objectives are to develop the engineering data on separations processing, particularly those in which mixtures behave non-ideally, and to develop the conversion processes for finishing the separations concentrates into specification products.The desired process scenarios will be developed and economic analysis will be performed on the process scenarios. As a result of the process simulation and economic analysis tasks, a product manufacture and test marketing program shall be recommended for the optional Phase-III. Optional Phase-III activities are to manufacture specification products and to test market those products in order to ensure market acceptability. The activities involve the assembling of the technical, market and economic data needed for venture evaluation. The end objective is to develop the private sector interest to carry this technology forward toward commercialization.

  18. A biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strain enhances oil recovery under simulated reservoir conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; Costa, Rita; L. R. Rodrigues; Coutinho, João A. P.; J.A. Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using microorganisms and their metabolites. In situ stimulation of microorganisms that produce biosurfactants and degrade heavy oil fractions reduces the capillary forces that retain the oil inside the reservoir and decreases oil viscosity, thus promoting its flow and increasing oil production. Bacillus subtilis #573, isolated from crude oil s...

  19. Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, Chad [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Dastgheib, Seyed A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Yang, Yaning [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Ashraf, Ali [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Duckworth, Cole [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sinata, Priscilla [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sugiyono, Ivan [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Shannon, Mark A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Werth, Charles J. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO2-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter

  20. The effects of fractional wettability on microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildenschild, D.; Armstrong, R. T.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a tertiary oil recovery technology that has had inconsistent success at the field-scale, while lab-scale experiments are mostly successful. One potential reason for these inconsistencies is that the efficacy of MEOR in fractional-wet systems is unknown. Our MEOR strategy consists of the injection of ex situ produced metabolic byproducts produced by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2 (that lower interfacial tension via biosurfactant production) into fractional-wet cores containing residual oil. Fractional-wet cores tested were 50%, 25%, and 0% oil-wet and two different MEOR flooding solutions were tested; one solution contained both microbes and metabolic byproducts while the other contained only the metabolic byproducts. The columns were imaged with x-ray computed microtomography (CMT) after water flooding, and after MEOR, which allowed for the evaluation of the pore-scale processes taking place during MEOR and wettability effects. Results indicate that during MEOR the larger residual oil blobs in mostly fractional-wet pores and residual oil held under relatively low capillary pressures were the main fractions recovered, while residual oil blobs in purely oil-wet pores remained in place. Residual oil saturation, interfacial curvatures, and oil blob sizes were measured from the CMT images and used to develop a conceptual model for MEOR in fractional-wet systems. Overall, results indicate that MEOR was effective at recovering oil from fractional-wet systems with reported additional oil recovered (AOR) values between 44% and 80%; the highest AOR values were observed in the most oil-wet system.

  1. Carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Ramirez, Giovanni; Eryilmaz, Osman L; Narayanan, Badri; Liao, Yifeng; Kamath, Ganesh; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S

    2016-08-01

    Moving mechanical interfaces are commonly lubricated and separated by a combination of fluid films and solid 'tribofilms', which together ensure easy slippage and long wear life. The efficacy of the fluid film is governed by the viscosity of the base oil in the lubricant; the efficacy of the solid tribofilm, which is produced as a result of sliding contact between moving parts, relies upon the effectiveness of the lubricant's anti-wear additive (typically zinc dialkyldithiophosphate). Minimizing friction and wear continues to be a challenge, and recent efforts have focused on enhancing the anti-friction and anti-wear properties of lubricants by incorporating inorganic nanoparticles and ionic liquids. Here, we describe the in operando formation of carbon-based tribofilms via dissociative extraction from base-oil molecules on catalytically active, sliding nanometre-scale crystalline surfaces, enabling base oils to provide not only the fluid but also the solid tribofilm. We study nanocrystalline catalytic coatings composed of nitrides of either molybdenum or vanadium, containing either copper or nickel catalysts, respectively. Structurally, the resulting tribofilms are similar to diamond-like carbon. Ball-on-disk tests at contact pressures of 1.3 gigapascals reveal that these tribofilms nearly eliminate wear, and provide lower friction than tribofilms formed with zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. Reactive and ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations show that the catalytic action of the coatings facilitates dehydrogenation of linear olefins in the lubricating oil and random scission of their carbon-carbon backbones; the products recombine to nucleate and grow a compact, amorphous lubricating tribofilm. PMID:27488799

  2. Carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Ramirez, Giovanni; Eryilmaz, Osman L.; Narayanan, Badri; Liao, Yifeng; Kamath, Ganesh; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.

    2016-08-01

    Moving mechanical interfaces are commonly lubricated and separated by a combination of fluid films and solid ‘tribofilms’, which together ensure easy slippage and long wear life. The efficacy of the fluid film is governed by the viscosity of the base oil in the lubricant; the efficacy of the solid tribofilm, which is produced as a result of sliding contact between moving parts, relies upon the effectiveness of the lubricant’s anti-wear additive (typically zinc dialkyldithiophosphate). Minimizing friction and wear continues to be a challenge, and recent efforts have focused on enhancing the anti-friction and anti-wear properties of lubricants by incorporating inorganic nanoparticles and ionic liquids. Here, we describe the in operando formation of carbon-based tribofilms via dissociative extraction from base-oil molecules on catalytically active, sliding nanometre-scale crystalline surfaces, enabling base oils to provide not only the fluid but also the solid tribofilm. We study nanocrystalline catalytic coatings composed of nitrides of either molybdenum or vanadium, containing either copper or nickel catalysts, respectively. Structurally, the resulting tribofilms are similar to diamond-like carbon. Ball-on-disk tests at contact pressures of 1.3 gigapascals reveal that these tribofilms nearly eliminate wear, and provide lower friction than tribofilms formed with zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. Reactive and ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations show that the catalytic action of the coatings facilitates dehydrogenation of linear olefins in the lubricating oil and random scission of their carbon-carbon backbones; the products recombine to nucleate and grow a compact, amorphous lubricating tribofilm.

  3. How Specific Microbial Communities Benefit the Oil Industry: Microbial-Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyk, Svetlana; Søgaard, Erik

    Microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) involves injecting into the oil-saturated layer microbes and/nutrients to create the in situ production of metabolic products or nutrients to stimulate indigenous microbes. The purposes of MEOR are to increase oil production, decrease the water cut and prolong the productive life of the oilfield. The most probable targets of MEOR are reservoirs that have reached the limits of oil production by injection of water to displace oil (Donaldson and Obeida, 1991). MEOR is the cheapest approach of oil recovery after water flooding. MEOR investigations have been conducted all over the world and resulted in many successful field applications in the USA, UK, China, Russia, Malaysia, Germany, Romania, Poland and others.

  4. Microbial surfactant-enhanced mineral oil recovery under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, N K; Konwar, B K

    2008-05-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to recover incremental oil from a reservoir being beyond primary and secondary recovery operations. Effort has been made to isolate and characterize natural biosurfactant produced by bacterial isolates collected from various oil fields of ONGC in Assam. Production of biosurfactant has been considered to be an effective major index for the purpose of enhanced oil recovery. On the basis of the index, four promising bacterial isolates: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC7815), P. aeruginosa (MTCC7814), P. aeruginosa (MTCC7812) and P. aeruginosa (MTCC8165) were selected for subsequent testing. Biosurfactant produced by the promising bacterial isolates have been found to be effective in the recovery of crude oil from saturated column under laboratory conditions. Two bacterial strains: P. aeruginosa (MTCC7815) and P. aeruginosa (MTCC7812) have been found to be the highest producer of biosurfactant. Tensiometer studies revealed that biosurfactants produced by these bacterial strains could reduce the surface tension (sigma) of the growth medium from 68 to 30 mN m(-1) after 96 h of growth. The bacterial biosurfactants were found to be functionally stable at varying pH (2.5-11) conditions and temperature of 100 degrees C. The treatment of biosurfactant containing, cell free culture broth in crude oil saturated sand pack column could release about 15% more crude oil at 90 degrees C than at room temperature and 10% more than at 70 degrees C under laboratory condition. PMID:18164187

  5. Enhanced Microbial Pathways for Methane Production from Oil Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-15

    Methane from oil shale can potentially provide a significant contribution to natural gas industry, and it may be possible to increase and continue methane production by artificially enhancing methanogenic activity through the addition of various substrate and nutrient treatments. Western Research Institute in conjunction with Pick & Shovel Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted microcosm and scaled-up reactor studies to investigate the feasibility and optimization of biogenic methane production from oil shale. The microcosm study involving crushed oil shale showed the highest yield of methane was produced from oil shale pretreated with a basic solution and treated with nutrients. Incubation at 30 C, which is the estimated temperature in the subsurface where the oil shale originated, caused and increase in methane production. The methane production eventually decreased when pH of the system was above 9.00. In the scaled-up reactor study, pretreatment of the oil shale with a basic solution, nutrient enhancements, incubation at 30 C, and maintaining pH at circumneutral levels yielded the highest rate of biogenic methane production. From this study, the annual biogenic methane production rate was determined to be as high as 6042 cu. ft/ton oil shale.

  6. Enhanced crude oil biodegradation in soil via biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Esmaeil; Hassan, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Research on feasible methods for the enhancement of bioremediation in soil contaminated by crude oil is vital in oil-exporting countries such as Kuwait, where crude oil is a major pollutant and the environment is hostile to biodegradation. This study investigated the possibility of enhancing crude oil bioremediation by supplementing soil with cost-effective organic materials derived from two widespread locally grown trees, Conocarpus and Tamarix. Amendments in soils increased the counts of soil microbiota by up to 98% and enhanced their activity by up to 95.5%. The increase in the biodegradation of crude oil (75%) and high levels of alkB expression substantiated the efficiency of the proposed amendment technology for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. The identification of crude-oil-degrading bacteria revealed the dominance of the genus Microbacterium (39.6%), Sphingopyxis soli (19.3%), and Bordetella petrii (19.6%) in unamended, Conocarpus-amended, and Tamarix-amended contaminated soils, respectively. Although soil amendments favored the growth of Gram-negative bacteria and reduced bacterial diversity, the structures of bacterial communities were not significantly altered. PMID:26854134

  7. Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, João A. P.; J.A. Teixeira; L. R. Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of resi...

  8. A Comparative Study of Diesel Oil and Soybean Oil as Oil-Based Drilling Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Okorie E. Agwu; Okon, Anietie N.; Udoh, Francis D.

    2015-01-01

    Oil-based mud (OBM) was formulated with soybean oil extracted from soybean using the Soxhlet extraction method. The formulated soybean mud properties were compared with diesel oil mud properties. The compared properties were rheological properties, yield point and gel strength, and mud density and filtration loss properties, fluid loss and filter cake. The results obtained show that the soybean oil mud exhibited Bingham plastic rheological model with applicable (low) yield point and gel stren...

  9. Modelling and laboratory investigation of microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desouky, S.M. [King Saud University, College of Engineering, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Daim, M.M.; Sayyouh, M.H.; Dahab, A.S. [Cairo University, College of Engineering and Petroleum Engineering Department, Giza (Egypt)

    1996-08-15

    A one-dimensional model was developed to simulate the process of enhanced oil recovery by microorganisms. The model involves five components (oil, water, bacteria, nutrient and metabolites), with adsorption, diffusion, chemotaxis, growth and decay of bacteria, nutrient consumption, permeability damage and porosity reduction effects. Experiments were conducted to identify the parameters affecting the transport and growth of three bacterial strains: Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Bacillus in porous media. Several correlations were developed from the experimental laboratory data and were used in the simulator. Comparison between the experimental and simulated results emphasized the validity of the developed simulator and determined its degree of accuracy (average absolute relative error=8.323%). The simulator was used to investigate the effects of indigenous bacteria, slug size, incubation time, residual oil saturation, absolute permeability, and injection flow rate on oil recovery. Results show that more oil can be recovered by using Streptococcus with molasses as a medium. Oil recovery is sensitive to variation in concentration of injected indigenous bacteria, size of bacterial culture slug, incubation time and residual oil saturation. The change of absolute permeability, or injection flow rate, has no effect on oil recovery efficiency by bacteria

  10. Effective distribution of emulsified edible oil for enhanced anaerobic bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Robert C.

    2007-10-01

    Recent laboratory and field studies have shown that injection of emulsified edible oils can provide an effective, low-cost alternative for stimulating anaerobic biodegradation processes. A pilot-scale permeable reactive bio-barrier (PRBB) was installed at a perchlorate and chlorinated solvent impacted site by injecting 380 L of commercially available emulsion (EOS ®) containing emulsified soybean oil, food-grade surfactants, lactate, and yeast extract through ten direct push injection wells over a two day period. Soil cores collected six months after emulsion injection indicate the oil was distributed up to 5 m downgradient of the injection wells. A previously developed emulsion transport model was used to simulate emulsion transport and retention using independently estimated model parameters. While there was considerable variability in the soil sampling results, the model simulations generally agreed with the observed oil distribution at the field site. Model sensitivity analyses indicate that increasing the injection flow rate or diluting the oil with more water will have little effect on final oil distribution in the aquifer. The only effective approach for enhancing the spread of emulsified oil away from the injection well appears to be injecting a greater mass of oil.

  11. Influence of Oil Viscosity on Alkaline Flooding for Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil viscosity was studied as an important factor for alkaline flooding based on the mechanism of “water drops” flow. Alkaline flooding for two oil samples with different viscosities but similar acid numbers was compared. Besides, series flooding tests for the same oil sample were conducted at different temperatures and permeabilities. The results of flooding tests indicated that a high tertiary oil recovery could be achieved only in the low-permeability (approximately 500 mD sandpacks for the low-viscosity heavy oil (Zhuangxi, 390 mPa·s; however, the high-viscosity heavy oil (Chenzhuang, 3450 mPa·s performed well in both the low- and medium-permeability (approximately 1000 mD sandpacks. In addition, the results of flooding tests for the same oil at different temperatures also indicated that the oil viscosity put a similar effect on alkaline flooding. Therefore, oil with a high-viscosity is favorable for alkaline flooding. The microscopic flooding test indicated that the water drops produced during alkaline flooding for oils with different viscosities differed significantly in their sizes, which might influence the flow behaviors and therefore the sweep efficiencies of alkaline fluids. This study provides an evidence for the feasibility of the development of high-viscosity heavy oil using alkaline flooding.

  12. Oil recovery enhancement from fractured, low permeability reservoirs. Annual report 1990--1991, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, S.W.

    1991-12-31

    Joint funding by the Department of Energy and the State of Texas has Permitted a three year, multi-disciplinary investigation to enhance oil recovery from a dual porosity, fractured, low matrix permeability oil reservoir to be initiated. The Austin Chalk producing horizon trending thru the median of Texas has been identified as the candidate for analysis. Ultimate primary recovery of oil from the Austin Chalk is very low because of two major technological problems. The commercial oil producing rate is based on the wellbore encountering a significant number of natural fractures. The prediction of the location and frequency of natural fractures at any particular region in the subsurface is problematical at this time, unless extensive and expensive seismic work is conducted. A major portion of the oil remains in the low permeability matrix blocks after depletion because there are no methods currently available to the industry to mobilize this bypassed oil. The following multi-faceted study is aimed to develop new methods to increase oil and gas recovery from the Austin Chalk producing trend. These methods may involve new geological and geophysical interpretation methods, improved ways to study production decline curves or the application of a new enhanced oil recovery technique. The efforts for the second year may be summarized as one of coalescing the initial concepts developed during the initial phase to more in depth analyses. Accomplishments are predicting natural fractures; relating recovery to well-log signatures; development of the EOR imbibition process; mathematical modeling; and field test.

  13. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY BY FLOODING WITH HYDROPHILIC NANOPARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binshan Ju; Tailiang Fan; Mingxue Ma

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the mechanism of enhanced oil recovery using lipophobic and hydrophilic polysilicon (LHP)nanoparticles ranging in size from 10 to 500 nm for changing the wettability of porous media was analysed theoretically. A one-dimensional two-phase mathematical model considering the migration and adsorption of LHP and wettability change in reservoir rock was proposed, and a simulator was developed to quantitatively predict the changes in relative and effective permeability of the oil and water phases and the oil recovery in sandstone after water driving. Numerical simulations were conducted to study the distribution of the particle concentration, the reduction in porosity and absolute permeability, the LHP volume retention on pore walls and in pore throats along a dimensionless distance, and oil production performance. In conclusion, oil recovery can obviously be improved by flooding with hydrophilic nanometer powders though permeability declines for the retention of nanoparticles in porous media. It is suggested that an LHP concentration ranging from 0.02 to 0.03 is preferable to enhance oil recovery.

  14. Miscibility Development Computation in Enhanced Oil Recovery by Flare Gas Flooding

    OpenAIRE

    Tjokorde Walmiki Samadhi; Utjok W.R. Siagian; Angga P. Budiono

    2012-01-01

    The use of flare gas as injection gas in miscible gas flooding enhanced oil recovery (MGF-EOR) presents a potential synergy between oil production improvement and greenhouse gases emission mitigation. This work is a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of miscible flare gas injection based on phase behavior computations of a model oil (43%n-C5H12 : 57%n-C16H34) and a model flare gas (91%CH4 : 9%C2H6). The computations employed the multiple mixing-cell model with Peng-Robinson and PC-SAFT...

  15. Microbial consortia in Oman oil fields: a possible use in enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkader E; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Maaini, Ratiba A; Al-Alawi, Wafa J; Sugai, Yuichi; Al-Mandhari, Mussalam

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. Microbial consortia from Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water, Al-Wusta region, Oman were screened. Microbial consortia in brine samples were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The detected microbial consortia of Wafra oil wells were completely different from microbial consortia of Suwaihat formation water. A total of 33 genera and 58 species were identified in Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water. All of the identified microbial genera were first reported in Oman, with Caminicella sporogenes for the first time reported from oil fields. Most of the identified microorganisms were found to be anaerobic, thermophilic, and halophilic, and produced biogases, biosolvants, and biosurfactants as by-products, which may be good candidates for MEOR. PMID:23314376

  16. Thermal enhanced oil recovery in Indonesia. Prospect of HTGR application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the next future, Indonesia will face oil scarcity. The present reserves are estimated to be depleted in 20 years. However, after primary and secondary recovery processes, there are still more than 50% of original oil in place remaining in the reservoir, and this could be recovered by using tertiary recovery method or which is known as enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Among the three major methods of EOR, steam flooding is a thermal recovery method into which High Temperature Reactor (HTR) module can be integrated for producing steam. However, the feasibility of application of HTR as an alternative to conventional oil-fired steam generator will depend strongly on the price of oil. This paper discusses EOR screening for Indonesian oil fields to identify the appropriate oil reservoirs for steam flooding application as well as the possibility of steam supply by HTR module. Also reviewed is the previous study on HTR application for Duri Steam Flood Project. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  17. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery: 3D Simulation with Gravity Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Jessen, K.; Shapiro, Alexander;

    2010-01-01

    calculations. We investigate the benefit of MEOR relative to water flooding, comparing the processes in multiple dimensions. The results of our simulations demonstrate that the oil recovery from MEOR processes in relation to water flooding is markedly increased, and the high recovery is achieved much faster......Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) utilizes the activity of microorganisms, where microorganisms simultaneously grow in a reservoir and convert substrate into recovery enhancing products (usually, surfactants). In order to predict the performance of a MEOR process, a simulation tool is required......, with all the relevant physical processes included. We have developed a mathematical model describing the process of MEOR, where reactive transport is combined with a simple compositional approach. The model describes the displacement of oil by water containing bacteria, substrate, and the produced...

  18. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

    1980-03-01

    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  19. Single Shooting and ESDIRK Methods for adjoint-based optimization of an oil reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Völcker, Carsten; Frydendall, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    Conventional recovery techniques enable recovery of 10-50% of the oil in an oil eld. Advances in smart well technology and enhanced oil recovery techniques enable signicant larger recovery. To realize this potential, feedback model-based optimal control technologies are needed to manipulate the i...... for sensitivity computation. We demonstrate the procedure on a water ooding example with conventional injectors and producers....

  20. Microbial processes in the Athabasca Oil Sands and their potential applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, N K; Richardson, T L; Thompson, K A; Best, R J; Best, A S; Trevors, J T

    2011-11-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands are located within the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, which covers over 140,200 km(2) of land in Alberta, Canada. The oil sands provide a unique environment for bacteria as a result of the stressors of low water availability and high hydrocarbon concentrations. Understanding the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate these stresses may aid in our understanding of how hydrocarbon degradation has occurred over geological time, and how these processes and related tolerance mechanisms may be used in biotechnology applications such as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The majority of research has focused on microbiology processes in oil reservoirs and oilfields; as such there is a paucity of information specific to oil sands. By studying microbial processes in oil sands there is the potential to use microbes in MEOR applications. This article reviews the microbiology of the Athabasca Oil Sands and the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate low water and high hydrocarbon availability in oil reservoirs and oilfields, and potential applications in MEOR. PMID:21853326

  1. Laboratory Experiments on Enhanced Oil Recovery with Nitrogen Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Siregar

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on previous studies, nitrogen injection could recover oil up to 45-90% of initial reserves. Although this method has a very good ability to produce oil, sometimes the operation pressure is higher than leak off formation pressure. In this study, operation pressure used a low pressure to solve this problem under immiscible process. Objective of this study is to determine the effect of injection pressure and displacement rate on oil recovery performance of continuous one dimensional nitrogen gas injection with a slim tube apparatus. The effect of nitrogen gas-oil contact on the gas composition was investigated using Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer apparatus. In the experiments, nitrogen gas was injected into an oil sample of 38.5 oAPI gravity at various rates: 20 cc/hr, 30 cc/hr and 36.66/hr under 1500 psi pressure, and then at 20 cc/hr undr 2500 psi pressure. The results showed that an increase in injection rate increased oil recovery factor. The recovery factor lies between 40-54% of original oil in place. Gas analysis before injection and at the injection outlet showed a change of composition. when oil was contacted by nitrogen, indicating that some molecular mass transfer had taken place.

  2. Use of indigenous or injected microorganisms for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M.J.; Knapp, R.M.; Chisholm, J.L.; Bhupathiraju, V.K.; Coates, J.D. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) as an economically attractive alternative to conventional oil recovery methods which rely on thermal or chemical processes. Microbial growth occurs at exponential rates. It is therefore possible to produce large amounts of products quickly from inexpensive and renewable resources. MEOR can be grouped into the following three main categories: (1) well bore clean out process which makes use of hydrocarbon-degrading or scale-removing bacteria to remove deposits from the oil well, (2) well stimulation where an oil well close to its economic limit is treated with a mixture of anaerobic bacteria and a fermentable carbohydrate, and (3) microbially enhanced waterflooding processes which involve the injection of nutrients or microorganisms into the reservoir to stimulate microbial activity. Permeability is a limiting factor in oil production. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to show that stimulation of in situ microbial growth by nutrient injection can reduce permeability in sandstone significantly. It was shown that plugging high permeability regions diverts fluid flow to less permeable regions. A field test of this process was conducted at the Southeast Vassar Vertz sandstone reservoir in Oklahoma. The test confirmed that metabolic activity occurred as a consequence of nutrient injection and sulfide production was observed. 18 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  3. Biosurfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples enhance oil recovery at lab scale

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; L. R. Rodrigues; J.A. Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    Biosurfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples enhance oil recovery at lab scale Eduardo J Gudiña, Lígia R. Rodrigues, José A. Teixeira IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using micro...

  4. Gas Production Generated from Crude Oil Biodegradation: Preliminary Study on its Aplication in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR)

    OpenAIRE

    Astri Nugroho

    2009-01-01

    Gas Production Generated from Crude Oil Biodegradation: Preliminary Study on its Aplication in MicrobialEnhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR). The objective of this study is to observe the capacity of gas production generatedfrom crude oil degradation by the isolated bacteria. The gas in the MEOR could increase pressure in the reservoir,decrease oil viscosity, increase oil permeability-due to the increase of the porosity and viscosity, and also increase oilvolume due to the amount of dissolved gas. A ...

  5. Microbial enhanced oil recovery by Bacillus subtilis strains under simulated reservoir conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; L. R. Rodrigues; J.A. Teixeira; Pereira, J. F.; Coutinho, J.A.P.; Soares, L. P.; Ribeiro, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a tertiary oil recovery process in which microorganisms and their metabolites are used to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. Stimulation of microorganisms that produce biosurfactants and degrade heavy oil fractions in situ reduces the capillary forces that retain the oil into the reservoir and decreases oil viscosity, thus promoting its flow. As a result, oil production can be increased. In previous work, Bacillus subtilis strains that...

  6. Microfluidics: an enabling screening technology for enhanced oil recovery (EOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Victor A

    2016-05-21

    Oil production is a critical industrial process that affects the entire world population and any improvements in its efficiency while reducing its environmental impact are of utmost societal importance. The paper reviews recent applications of microfluidics and microtechnology to study processes of oil extraction and recovery. It shows that microfluidic devices can be useful tools in investigation and visualization of such processes used in the oil & gas industry as fluid propagation, flooding, fracturing, emulsification and many others. Critical macro-scale processes that define oil extraction and recovery are controlled by the micro-scale processes based on wetting, adhesion, surface tension, colloids and other concepts of microfluidics. A growing number of research efforts demonstrates that microfluidics is becoming, albeit slowly, an accepted methodology in this area. We propose several areas of development where implementation of microfluidics may bring about deeper understanding and hence better control over the processes of oil recovery based on fluid propagation, droplet generation, wettability control. Studies of processes such as hydraulic fracturing, sand particle propagation in porous networks, high throughput screening of chemicals (for example, emulsifiers and surfactants) in microfluidic devices that simulate oil reservoirs are proposed to improve our understanding of these complicated physico-chemical systems. We also discuss why methods of additive manufacturing (3D printing) should be evaluated for quick prototyping and modification of the three-dimensional structures replicating natural oil-bearing rock formations for studies accessible to a wider audience of researchers. PMID:27087065

  7. Enhanced oil recovery by nanoparticles injection: Modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, a mathematical model and numerical simulation to describe the nanoparticles-water suspension imbibes into a water-oil two-phase flow in a porous medium is introduced. We extend the model to include the negative capillary pressure and mixed relative permeabilities correlations to fit with the mixed-wet system. Also, buoyancy and capillary forces as well as Brownian diffusion are considered. Throughout this investigation, we monitor the changing of the fluids and solid properties due to addition of the nanoparticles and check for possible enhancement of the oil recovery process using numerical experiments.

  8. Enhanced oil and gas recovery in Michigan: Aurelius 35 Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzkanin, A.D.; Layton, F.L.; Lorenz, J.S.; Pollom, R.J.; Tefertiller, R.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A successful pressure maintenance program began in June, 1974, on the Aurelius 35 Field in Aurelius Township of Ingham County, Michigan. A computer simulation model evaluated geological and rock property parameters associated with the field. The implementation of pressure maintenance was expected to enhance ultimate production from the field to 32% of recoverable original oil in place as compared to a primary recovery of 10.5% or 805,000 barrels. Through the second quarter of 1977 total oil production had exceeded 1,280,000 barrels. 5 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis B30 and its application in enhancing oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Joshi, Sanket; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali; Shibulal, Biji

    2014-02-01

    The fermentative production of biosurfactants by Bacillus subtilis strain B30 and the evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery using core-flood were investigated. Different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, date molasses, cane molasses) were tested to determine the optimal biosurfactant production. The isolate B30 produced a biosurfactant that could reduce the surface tension and interfacial tension to 26.63±0.45 mN/m and 3.79±0.27 mN/m, respectively in less than 12h in both glucose or date molasses based media. A crude biosurfactant concentration of 0.3-0.5 g/l and critical micelle dilution (CMD) values of 1:8 were observed. The biosurfactants gave stable emulsions with wide range of hydrocarbons including light and heavy crude oil. The biosurfactants were partially purified and identified as a mixture of lipopeptides similar to surfactin, using high performance thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The biosurfactants were stable over wide range of pH, salinity and temperatures. The crude biosurfactant preparation enhanced light oil recovery by 17-26% and heavy oil recovery by 31% in core-flood studies. The results are indicative of the potential of the strain for the development of ex situ microbial enhanced oil recovery processes using glucose or date molasses based minimal media. PMID:24240116

  10. Enhanced reductive dechlorination in columns treated with edible oil emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Cameron M.; Borden, Robert C.

    2006-09-01

    The effect of edible oil emulsion treatment on enhanced reductive dechlorination was evaluated in a 14 month laboratory column study. Experimental treatments included: (1) emulsified soybean oil and dilute HCl to inhibit biological activity; (2) emulsified oil only; (3) emulsified oil and anaerobic digester sludge; and (4) continuously feeding soluble substrate. A single application of emulsified oil was effective in generating strongly reducing, anaerobic conditions for over 14 months. PCE was rapidly reduced to cis-DCE in all three live columns. Bioaugmentation with a halorespiring enrichment culture resulted in complete dechlorination of PCE to ethene in the soluble substrate column (yeast extract and lactate). However, an additional treatment with a pulse of yeast extract and bioaugmentation culture was required to stimulate complete dechlorination in the emulsion treated columns. Once the dechlorinating population was established, the emulsion only column degraded PCE from 90-120 μM to below detection with concurrent ethene production in a 33 day contact time. The lower biodegradation rates in the emulsion treated columns compared to the soluble substrate column suggest that emulsified oil barriers may require a somewhat longer contact time for effective treatment. In the HCl inhibited column, partitioning of PCE to the retained oil substantially delayed PCE breakthrough. However, reduction of PCE to more soluble degradation products ( cis-DCE, VC and ethene) greatly reduced the impact of oil-water partitioning in live columns. There was only a small decline in the hydraulic conductivity ( K) of column #1 (low pH + emulsion, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.57) and column #2 (live + emulsion, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.73) indicating emulsion injection did not result in appreciable clogging of the clayey sand. However, K loss was greater in column #3 (sludge +emulsion, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.12) and column #4 (soluble substrate, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.03) indicating clogging due

  11. The Application Of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery On Unconventional Oil: A Field Specific Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Sean; Millar, Andrew; Allison, Heather; McCarthy, Alan

    2014-05-01

    A substantial amount of the world's recoverable oil reserves are made from unconventional or heavy resources. However, great difficulty has been had in recovering this oil after primary and secondary recovery methods have been employed. Therefore, tertiary methods such as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) have been employed. MEOR involves the use of bacteria and their metabolic products to alter the oil properties or rock permeability within a reservoir in order to promote the flow of oil. Although MEOR has been trialed in the past with mixed outcomes, its feasibility on heavier oils has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study is to show that MEOR can be successfully applied to unconventional oils. By using an indigenous strain of bacteria isolated from a reservoir of interest and applied to field specific microcosms, we will look into the effect of these bacteria compared to variant inoculums to identify which mechanisms of action the bacteria are using to improve recovery. Using this information, we will be able to identify genes of interest and groups of bacteria that may be beneficial for MEOR and look accurately identify favorable bacteria within a reservoir.

  12. Essays on carbon policy and enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin R.

    The growing concerns about climate change have led policy makers to consider various regulatory schemes designed to reduce the stock and growth of atmospheric CO2 concentrations while at the same time improving energy security. The most prominent proposals are the so called "cap-and-trade" frameworks which set aggregate emission levels for a jurisdiction and then issue or sell a corresponding number of allowances to emitters. Typically, these policy measures will also encourage the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in geological formations and mature oil fields through subsidies or other incentives. The ability to store CO 2 in mature oil fields through the deployment of CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2--EOR) is particularly attractive as it can simultaneously improve oil recovery at those fields, and serve as a possible financial bridge to the development of CO2 transportation infrastructure. The purpose of this research is to explore the impact that a tandem subsidy-tax policy regime may have on bargaining between emitters and sequestration providers, and also to identify oil units in Wyoming that can profitably undertake CO 2--EOR as a starting point for the build-out of CO2 pipelines. In the first essay an economics lab experiment is designed to simulate private bargaining between carbon emitters (such as power plants) and carbon sequestration sites when the emitter faces carbon taxes, sequestration subsidies or both. In a tax-subsidy policy regime the carbon tax (or purchased allowances) can be avoided by sequestering the carbon, and in some cases the emitter can also earn a subsidy to help pay for the sequestration. The main policy implications of the experiment results are that the sequestration market might be inefficient, and sequestration providers seem to have bargaining power sufficient to command high prices. This may lead to the integration of CO2 sources and sequestration sites, and reduced prices for the injectable CO2 purchased by oil

  13. Castor Oil-Based Biodegradable Polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Basu, Arijit; Haim Zada, Moran; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-09-14

    This Review compiles the synthesis, physical properties, and biomedical applications for the polyesters based on castor oil and ricinoleic acid. Castor oil has been known for its medicinal value since ancient times. It contains ∼90% ricinoleic acid, which enables direct chemical transformation into polyesters without interference of other fatty acids. The presence of ricinoleic acid (hydroxyl containing fatty acid) enables synthesis of various polyester/anhydrides. In addition, castor oil contains a cis-double bond that can be hydrogenated, oxidized, halogenated, and polymerized. Castor oil is obtained pure in large quantities from natural sources; it is safe and biocompatible.

  14. Castor Oil-Based Biodegradable Polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Basu, Arijit; Haim Zada, Moran; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-09-14

    This Review compiles the synthesis, physical properties, and biomedical applications for the polyesters based on castor oil and ricinoleic acid. Castor oil has been known for its medicinal value since ancient times. It contains ∼90% ricinoleic acid, which enables direct chemical transformation into polyesters without interference of other fatty acids. The presence of ricinoleic acid (hydroxyl containing fatty acid) enables synthesis of various polyester/anhydrides. In addition, castor oil contains a cis-double bond that can be hydrogenated, oxidized, halogenated, and polymerized. Castor oil is obtained pure in large quantities from natural sources; it is safe and biocompatible. PMID:26301922

  15. 26 CFR 1.43-4 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., the costs of drilling the water wells are qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. Example 10. Leased... purpose of implementing an enhanced oil recovery project. A well drilled for the primary purpose of... qualified tertiary recovery method. As part of the enhanced oil recovery project, K drills injection...

  16. Development of an In Situ Biosurfactant Production Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; Kathleen Duncan; D.R. Simpson; N. Youssef; N. Ravi; M.J. Folmsbee; T.Fincher; S. Maudgalya; Jim Davis; Sandra Weiland

    2007-09-30

    The long-term economic potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is large with more than 300 billion barrels of oil remaining in domestic reservoirs after conventional technologies reach their economic limit. Actual EOR production in the United States has never been very large, less than 10% of the total U. S. production even though a number of economic incentives have been used to stimulate the development and application of EOR processes. The U.S. DOE Reservoir Data Base contains more than 600 reservoirs with over 12 billion barrels of unrecoverable oil that are potential targets for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). If MEOR could be successfully applied to reduce the residual oil saturation by 10% in a quarter of these reservoirs, more than 300 million barrels of oil could be added to the U.S. oil reserve. This would stimulate oil production from domestic reservoirs and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign imports. Laboratory studies have shown that detergent-like molecules called biosurfactants, which are produced by microorganisms, are very effective in mobilizing entrapped oil from model test systems. The biosurfactants are effective at very low concentrations. Given the promising laboratory results, it is important to determine the efficacy of using biosurfactants in actual field applications. The goal of this project is to move biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery from laboratory investigations to actual field applications. In order to meet this goal, several important questions must be answered. First, it is critical to know whether biosurfactant-producing microbes are present in oil formations. If they are present, then it will be important to know whether a nutrient regime can be devised to stimulate their growth and activity in the reservoir. If biosurfactant producers are not present, then a suitable strain must be obtained that can be injected into oil reservoirs. We were successful in answering all three questions. The specific

  17. Rhamnolipids enhance marine oil spill bioremediation in laboratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingguo; Bao, Mutai; Fan, Xiaoning; Liang, Shengkang; Sun, Peiyan

    2013-06-15

    This paper presents a simulated marine oil spill bioremediation experiment using a bacterial consortium amended with rhamnolipids. The role of rhamnolipids in enhancing hydrocarbon biodegradation was evaluated via GC-FID and GC-MS analysis. Rhamnolipids enhanced total oil biodegradation efficiency by 5.63%, with variation in normal alkanes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and biomakers biodegradation. The hydrocarbons biodegradation by bacteria consortium overall follows a decreasing order of PAHs>n-alkanes>biomarkers, while in different order of PAHs>biomarkers>n-alkanes when rhamnolipids was used, and the improvement in the removal efficiency by rhamnolipids follows another order of biomarkers>n-alkanes>PAHs. Rhamnolipids played a negative role in degradation of those hydrocarbons with relatively volatile property, such as n-alkanes with short chains, PAHs and sesquiterpenes with simple structure. As to the long chain normal alkanes and PAHs and biomakers with complex structure, the biosurfactant played a positive role in these hydrocarbons biodegradation. PMID:23566561

  18. Biodegradable foam plastics based on castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong Juan; Rong, Min Zhi; Zhang, Ming Qiu; Hu, Jing; Chen, Hui Wen; Czigány, Tibor

    2008-02-01

    In this work, a simple but effective approach was proposed for preparing biodegradable plastic foams with a high content of castor oil. First of all, castor oil reacted with maleic anhydride to produce maleated castor oil (MACO) without the aid of any catalyst. Then plastic foams were synthesized through free radical initiated copolymerization between MACO and diluent monomer styrene. With changes in MACO/St ratio and species of curing initiator, mechanical properties of MACO foams can be easily adjusted. In this way, biofoams with comparable compressive stress at 25% strain as commercial polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared, while the content of castor oil can be as high as 61 wt %. The soil burial tests further proved that the castor oil based foams kept the biodegradability of renewable resources despite the fact that some petrol-based components were introduced.

  19. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery - EOR thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Eighth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section.

  20. Muscle enhancement using intramuscular injections of oil in bodybuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Ch. N.; Hvolris, Jørgen Jesper; Karlsmark, Tonny;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-administered intramuscular injection of site enhancement oil (SEO) is a cosmetic and performance-enhancing procedure used to reshape muscles in the bodybuilder subculture, but its consequences and complications are only sporadically described. Methods: A systematic search...... in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases during the spring of 2009 and 2010. Internet searches were performed, and bodybuilder pharmacopoeias were consulted to describe SEO use and the clinical complications known. Results: One review and seven case reports were identified. Eight case reports describe oleomas caused...

  1. Reactive Transport Modeling of Microbe-mediated Fe (II) Oxidation for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surasani, V.; Li, L.

    2011-12-01

    Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) aims to improve the recovery of entrapped heavy oil in depleted reservoirs using microbe-based technology. Reservoir ecosystems often contain diverse microbial communities those can interact with subsurface fluids and minerals through a network of nutrients and energy fluxes. Microbe-mediated reactions products include gases, biosurfactants, biopolymers those can alter the properties of oil and interfacial interactions between oil, brine, and rocks. In addition, the produced biomass and mineral precipitates can change the reservoir permeability profile and increase sweeping efficiency. Under subsurface conditions, the injection of nitrate and Fe (II) as the electron acceptor and donor allows bacteria to grow. The reaction products include minerals such as Fe(OH)3 and nitrogen containing gases. These reaction products can have large impact on oil and reservoir properties and can enhance the recovery of trapped oil. This work aims to understand the Fe(II) oxidation by nitrate under conditions relevant to MEOR. Reactive transport modeling is used to simulate the fluid flow, transport, and reactions involved in this process. Here we developed a complex reactive network for microbial mediated nitrate-dependent Fe (II) oxidation that involves both thermodynamic controlled aqueous reactions and kinetic controlled Fe (II) mineral reaction. Reactive transport modeling is used to understand and quantify the coupling between flow, transport, and reaction processes. Our results identify key parameter controls those are important for the alteration of permeability profile under field conditions.

  2. Wavelet-based prediction of oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, Shahriar [Econometric Group, Department of Economics, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Weinreich, Ilona [Department of Mathematics and Technology, University of Applied Sciences Koblenz, RheinAhr Campus, D-53424 Remagen (Germany)]. E-mail: weinreich@rheinahrcampus.de; Reinarz, Dominik [Department of Mathematics and Technology, University of Applied Sciences Koblenz, RheinAhr Campus, D-53424 Remagen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    This paper illustrates an application of wavelets as a possible vehicle for investigating the issue of market efficiency in futures markets for oil. The paper provides a short introduction to the wavelets and a few interesting wavelet-based contributions in economics and finance are briefly reviewed. A wavelet-based prediction procedure is introduced and market data on crude oil is used to provide forecasts over different forecasting horizons. The results are compared with data from futures markets for oil and the relative performance of this procedure is used to investigate whether futures markets are efficiently priced.

  3. Novel bioemulsifier produced by a Paenibacilus sp. strain and its applicability in microbial enhanced oil recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; L. R. Rodrigues; J.A. Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using microorganisms and their metabolites. In situ stimulation of microorganisms that produce surface active compounds reduces the capillary forces that retain the oil inside the reservoir, thus promoting its flow and increasing oil production. Paenibacillus sp. #510, isolated from crude oil samples obtained from a Brazilian oil field, produc...

  4. Mixed field radiation modification of polyurethanes based on castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyurethane is among the polymers and polymer-based composite materials being investigated at the Royal Military College of Canada for the fabrication of leak-tight containers for the long-term disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of doses (0.0 - 3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The tensile mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. Increases in mechanical strength due to radiation-induced crosslinking and limitations of thermal curing were confirmed by tensile tests and changing 13C-NMR and FTIR spectra. (author)

  5. Vegetable oil base stocks for lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces, R.; Martinez-Force, E.; Salas, J.

    2011-07-01

    The use of vegetable biodegradable base stocks for lubricant oils present several advantages over the much more extended mineral bases. These advantages refer to biodegradability, a renewable feedstock of local production, lubricant and viscosity index and lower costs than synthetic lubricant bases. Despite these benefits, their use in industry and motor vehicles is not yet extensive due their lower stability and higher pour points. Vegetable oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol, and their physicochemical properties rely mainly on the composition of their acyl moieties. Thus, to assure the maximum levels of stability while maintaining acceptable behavior at low temperatures, monounsaturated fatty acids are preferred for this purpose. The presence of natural antioxidants also improves the properties of these vegetable based stocks as lubricants. These oils usually require additives to improve their viscosity value, oxidative stability and properties at low temperatures. In the present work, the different sources of vegetable oils appropriate for bio lubricant production were reviewed. Their properties and the future improvement of the oil bases, oil based stock production, uses and additives are discussed. (Author).

  6. Enhancing bioaerosol sampling by Andersen impactors using mineral-oil-spread agar plate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqiang Xu

    Full Text Available As a bioaerosol sampling standard, Andersen type impactor is widely used since its invention in 1950s, including the investigation of the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001. However, its related problems such as impaction and desiccation stress as well as particle bounce have not been solved. Here, we improved its biological collection efficiencies by plating a mineral oil layer (100 µL onto the agar plate. An Andersen six-stage sampler and a BioStage impactor were tested with mineral-oil-spread agar plates in collecting indoor and outdoor bacterial and fungal aerosols. The effects of sampling times (5, 10 and 20 min were also studied using the BioStage impactor when sampling environmental bioaerosols as well as aerosolized Bacillus subtilis (G+ and Escherichia coli (G-. In addition, particle bounce reduction by mineral-oil-plate was also investigated using an optical particle counter (OPC. Experimental results revealed that use of mineral-oil-spread agar plate can substantially enhance culturable bioaerosol recoveries by Andersen type impactors (p-values<0.05. The recovery enhancement was shown to depend on bioaerosol size, type, sampling time and environment. In general, more enhancements (extra 20% were observed for last stage of the Andersen six-stage samplers compared to the BioStage impactor for 10 min sampling. When sampling aerosolized B. subtilis, E. coli and environmental aerosols, the enhancement was shown to increase with increasing sampling time, ranging from 50% increase at 5 min to ∼100% at 20 min. OPC results indicated that use of mineral oil can effectively reduce the particle bounce with an average of 66% for 10 min sampling. Our work suggests that enhancements for fungal aerosols were primarily attributed to the reduced impaction stress, while for bacterial aerosols reduced impaction, desiccation and particle bounce played major roles. The developed technology can readily enhance the agar-based techniques

  7. Enhanced bioremediation of oil spills in the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Eliora Z; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2014-06-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are ubiquitous in the sea, including hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria that utilize hydrocarbons almost exclusively as carbon and energy sources. However, the rates at which they naturally degrade petroleum following an oil spill appear to be too slow to prevent oil from reaching the shore and causing environmental damage, as has been documented in the Exxon Valdez and Gulf of Mexico disasters. Unfortunately, there is, at present, no experimentally demonstrated methodology for accelerating the degradation of hydrocarbons in the sea. The rate-limiting factor for petroleum degradation in the sea is availability of nitrogen and phosphorus. Oleophilic fertilizers, such as Inipol EAP 22 and urea-formaldehyde polymers, have stimulated hydrocarbon degradation on shorelines but are less effective in open systems. We suggest uric acid as a potentially useful fertilizer enhancing bioremediation at sea. PMID:24657912

  8. Microbial enhancement of oil recovery: Recent advances. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Woodhead, A.D.; Vivirito, K.J. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    During recent years, systematic, scientific, and engineering effort by researchers in the United States and abroad, has established the scientific basis for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology. The successful application of MEOR technology as an oil recovery process is a goal of the Department of Energy (DOE). Research efforts involving aspects of MEOR in the microbiological, biochemical, and engineering fields led DOE to sponsor an International Conference at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1992, to facilitate the exchange of information and a discussion of ideas for the future research emphasis. At this, the Fourth International MEOR Conference, where international attendees from 12 countries presented a total of 35 papers, participants saw an equal distribution between ``research`` and ``field applications.`` In addition, several modeling and ``state-of-the-art`` presentations summed up the present status of MEOR science and engineering. Individual papers in this proceedings have been process separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. First joint SPE/DOE symposium on enhanced oil recovery, proceedings supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The First Joint Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery sponsored by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and the US Department of Energy was held in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Besides the thirty-three technical papers which covered all phases of enhanced oil recovery and were published in the Proceedings, the Symposium included a session on Enhanced Oil Recovery Incentives where ten papers were presented which discussed the status of enhanced oil recovery technology, and included papers on incentive programs of the United States, Canada and Venezuela. These papers are published in this Proceedings Supplement under the following titles: Federal Government Role in enhanced Oil Recovery; Financial Realities of an Adequate Petroleum Supply; Major Technology Constraints in Enhanced Oil Recovery; Decontrol-Opportunities and Dangers; Status of EOR Technology; Impact of Federal Incentives on US Production; Canadian Incentives Program; and Heavy Oil Incentives in Venezuela.

  10. Modeling oil production based on symbolic regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous models have been proposed to forecast the future trends of oil production and almost all of them are based on some predefined assumptions with various uncertainties. In this study, we propose a novel data-driven approach that uses symbolic regression to model oil production. We validate our approach on both synthetic and real data, and the results prove that symbolic regression could effectively identify the true models beneath the oil production data and also make reliable predictions. Symbolic regression indicates that world oil production will peak in 2021, which broadly agrees with other techniques used by researchers. Our results also show that the rate of decline after the peak is almost half the rate of increase before the peak, and it takes nearly 12 years to drop 4% from the peak. These predictions are more optimistic than those in several other reports, and the smoother decline will provide the world, especially the developing countries, with more time to orchestrate mitigation plans. -- Highlights: •A data-driven approach has been shown to be effective at modeling the oil production. •The Hubbert model could be discovered automatically from data. •The peak of world oil production is predicted to appear in 2021. •The decline rate after peak is half of the increase rate before peak. •Oil production projected to decline 4% post-peak

  11. From oil-based mud to water-based mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maersk Olie og Gas AS has used low toxic oil-based muds extensively since 1982 for drilling development wells and later in the development of horizontal well drilling techniques. However, in view of the strong drive towards a reduction in the amount of oil discharged to the North Sea from the oil industry, Maersk Olie og Gas AS initiated trials with new or improved types of water-based mud, first in deviated wells (1989) and then in horizontal wells (1990). The paper reviews Maersk Olie og Gas As experience with oil-based mud since the drilling of the first horizontal well in 1987, specifically with respect to cuttings washing equipment, oil retention on cuttings, and the procedure for monitoring of this parameter. It describes the circumstances leading to the decision to revert to water-based mud systems. Finally, it reviews the experience gained so far with the new improved types of water-based mud systems, mainly glycol and KCl/polymer mud systems. Comparison of operational data, such as rate of penetration, torque and drag, etc., is made between wells drilled with oil-based mud and water-based mud. The trials with the new improved types of water-based mud systems have been positive, i.e. horizontal wells can be drilled successfully with water-based mud. As a result, Maersk Olie og and Gas AS has decided to discontinue the use of low toxic oil-based muds in the Danish sector of the North Sea

  12. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: Sixth amendment and extension to Annex IV enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, T.B. (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)); Rivas, O. (INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela))

    1991-10-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Sixth Amendment and Extension of Annex 4, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 44 through 49. Tasks are: DOE-SUPRI-laboratory research on steam foam, CAT-SCAN, and in-situ combustion; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field projects on steam foam; DOE-NIPER-laboratory research and field projects light oil steam flooding; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field studies on wellbore heat losses; DOE-LLNL-laboratory research and field projects on electromagnetic induction tomography; INTEVEP-laoboratory research on mechanistic studies.

  13. Microbial enhanced heavy oil recovery by the aid of inhabitant spore-forming bacteria: an insight review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibulal, Biji; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Elshafie, Abdulkader E; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J

    2014-01-01

    Crude oil is the major source of energy worldwide being exploited as a source of economy, including Oman. As the price of crude oil increases and crude oil reserves collapse, exploitation of oil resources in mature reservoirs is essential for meeting future energy demands. As conventional recovery methods currently used have become less efficient for the needs, there is a continuous demand of developing a new technology which helps in the upgradation of heavy crude oil. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is an important tertiary oil recovery method which is cost-effective and eco-friendly technology to drive the residual oil trapped in the reservoirs. The potential of microorganisms to degrade heavy crude oil to reduce viscosity is considered to be very effective in MEOR. Earlier studies of MEOR (1950s) were based on three broad areas: injection, dispersion, and propagation of microorganisms in petroleum reservoirs; selective degradation of oil components to improve flow characteristics; and production of metabolites by microorganisms and their effects. Since thermophilic spore-forming bacteria can thrive in very extreme conditions in oil reservoirs, they are the most suitable organisms for the purpose. This paper contains the review of work done with thermophilic spore-forming bacteria by different researchers. PMID:24550702

  14. Microbial Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery by the Aid of Inhabitant Spore-Forming Bacteria: An Insight Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biji Shibulal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil is the major source of energy worldwide being exploited as a source of economy, including Oman. As the price of crude oil increases and crude oil reserves collapse, exploitation of oil resources in mature reservoirs is essential for meeting future energy demands. As conventional recovery methods currently used have become less efficient for the needs, there is a continuous demand of developing a new technology which helps in the upgradation of heavy crude oil. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR is an important tertiary oil recovery method which is cost-effective and eco-friendly technology to drive the residual oil trapped in the reservoirs. The potential of microorganisms to degrade heavy crude oil to reduce viscosity is considered to be very effective in MEOR. Earlier studies of MEOR (1950s were based on three broad areas: injection, dispersion, and propagation of microorganisms in petroleum reservoirs; selective degradation of oil components to improve flow characteristics; and production of metabolites by microorganisms and their effects. Since thermophilic spore-forming bacteria can thrive in very extreme conditions in oil reservoirs, they are the most suitable organisms for the purpose. This paper contains the review of work done with thermophilic spore-forming bacteria by different researchers.

  15. Microbial degradation of hydrocarbons and its applications to enhanced oil recovery at lab scale

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Jorge F. B.; Gudiña, Eduardo J.; L. R. Rodrigues; J.A. Teixeira; Coutinho, J.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The renewed interest in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques as a consequence of the current oil prices is boosting the development of the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR). This technique is useful to recover incremental oil from a reservoir beyond primary and secondary recovery operations and can be carried by the injection of exogenous or stimulation of indigenous microorganisms. This last approach is here investigated. In this work we address the isolation and identification of mic...

  16. Biosurfactant producing microorganisms and its application to enhanced oil recovery at lab scale

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; L. R. Rodrigues; Coutinho, J. A.; J.A. Teixeira; Soares, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a tertiary oil recovery process where microorganisms and their metabolites are used to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. Stimulation of biosurfactant production by indigenous microorganisms can reduce the capillary forces that retain the oil into the reservoir. The studied reservoir is characterized by alternated oil and water sand layers, with an average porosity of 25% and a permeability of 50 mD. It’s a flat structure at 450 m dept...

  17. Micro-Employees Employment, Enhanced Oil-Recovery Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahtavakoli, M.; Allahtavakoli, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Employment of Micro-organisms, as profitable micro-employees in improvement of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), leads us to a famous method named "MEOR". Applying micro-organisms in MEOR makes it more lucrative than other EOR ways because feeding these micro-employees is highly economical and their metabolic processes require some cheap food-resources such as molasses. In addition, utilizing the local micro-organism in reservoirs will reduce the costs effectively; Furthermore these micro-organisms are safety and innocuous to some extent. In MEOR, the micro-organisms are always employed for two purposes, "Restoring pressure to reservoir" and "Decreasing Oil-Viscosity". As often as more, the former is achievable by In-Situ Mechanism or by applying the micro-organisms producing Biopolymers and the latter is also reachable by applying the micro-organisms producing Bio-surfactants. This paper as a proposal which was propounded to National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) is an argument for studying and reviewing "Interaction between Micro-organisms and Reservoir physiochemical properties", "Biopolymer producers and Bio-Surfactant Producers", "In-Situ Mechanism", "Proposed Methods in MEOR" and their limitations.

  18. In situ microbial systems for the enhancement of oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial Enhancement of Oil Recovery (MEOR) offers important new opportunities in the quest for increased oil production. It refers not to a single technique but rather to a collection of methodologies, analogous to parallel non-microbiological methods. MEOR has relevance for many type of production and reservoir problems detailed protocols: may be tailored specifically to a range of individual reservoir conditions. Microorganisms downhole can generate a wide variety of chemical products from inexpensive feed stocks: where these are more cost-effective than oil field chemicals injected from the surface, microbial methods may win widespread acceptance. MEOR methods must be defined precisely; in any particular reservoir procedure their proposed mechanism of action must be clearly understood and criteria established for evaluating their success. The most important applications for MEOR are 1) the production f insoluble or highly viscous polymer to control coning or to plug selectively high permeability thief zones and fractures, 2) the continuous generation of the active agents for polymer-and/or surfactant floods, 3) matrix acidisation and acid fracturing in carbonate rocks stimulate flows into production wells. All these approaches are currently actively been explored; several programmes for field-testing microbial EOR methods already exist, or are being readied, and rapid progress is likely within the next few years. (author)

  19. Mixed Field Modification of Thermally Cured Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermally cured polyurethanes were prepared from castor oil and hexamethylene diisocyanatee (HMDI). Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of accumulated doses (0.0-3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing field of the SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor. The physico-mechanical properties of COPU, unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tests. Increased bond formation resulting from radiation-induced crosslinking was confirmed by favorable increases in mechanical properties and by solid-state 13C-NMR and FTIR spectra

  20. Enhancement of Shelf Life of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) by Fumigant Application of Lippia alba Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Pratima; Pandey, Abhay K; Mishra, Priyanka; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, N N

    2015-01-01

    Eleven essential oils isolated from higher plant species were assessed against the four isolates of Verticillium fungicola found on fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus. Eucalyptus citriodora and Lippia alba oils were more efficacious and completely inhibited the mycelial growth of fungal isolates. L. alba oil was fungistatic and fungicidal at 10- and 20-µL concentrations against all of the isolates, respectively, and was more potent than E. citriodora oil as well as some prevalent synthetic fungicides such as benomyl, ethylene dibromide, and phosphine. Eighty microliters of L. alba oil protected 500 g of fruiting bodies of A. bisporus for up to 7 d from infection of the fungus under in vivo conditions. The findings strengthen the possibility of L. alba oil as a plant-based protectant to enhance the shelf life of A. bisporus fruiting bodies. PMID:25746409

  1. CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis for CO2 Sequestration at Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenxue; Viswanathan, Hari; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Ampomah, William; Yang, Changbing; Jia, Wei; Xiao, Ting; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Balch, Robert; Grigg, Reid; White, Mark

    2016-07-19

    Using CO2 in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce sequestration costs in the absence of emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multiscale statistical framework to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis in an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit (FWU), Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil/gas-water flow and transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2/water injection/production rates, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil/gas productions, and CO2 breakthrough time. The median and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. A response-surface-based economic model has been derived to calculate the CO2-EOR profitability for the FWU site with a current oil price, which suggests that approximately 31% of the 1000 realizations can be profitable. If government carbon-tax credits are available, or the oil price goes up or CO2 capture and operating expenses reduce, more realizations would be profitable. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding CO2 storage potential and the corresponding environmental and economic risks of commercial-scale CO2-sequestration in depleted reservoirs.

  2. CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis for CO2 Sequestration at Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenxue; Viswanathan, Hari; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Ampomah, William; Yang, Changbing; Jia, Wei; Xiao, Ting; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Balch, Robert; Grigg, Reid; White, Mark

    2016-07-19

    Using CO2 in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce sequestration costs in the absence of emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multiscale statistical framework to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis in an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit (FWU), Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil/gas-water flow and transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2/water injection/production rates, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil/gas productions, and CO2 breakthrough time. The median and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. A response-surface-based economic model has been derived to calculate the CO2-EOR profitability for the FWU site with a current oil price, which suggests that approximately 31% of the 1000 realizations can be profitable. If government carbon-tax credits are available, or the oil price goes up or CO2 capture and operating expenses reduce, more realizations would be profitable. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding CO2 storage potential and the corresponding environmental and economic risks of commercial-scale CO2-sequestration in depleted reservoirs. PMID:27362472

  3. Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Pereira, Jorge F B; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, João A P; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-10-15

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of residual oil by the selected microorganisms. Four different hydrocarbon mixtures and three Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples were used. Additional oil recoveries ranged from 6 to 24% depending on the hydrocarbon mixture and microorganism used. Biosurfactant production was observed with all the microorganisms and hydrocarbon mixtures studied. The oils recovered after incubation with B. subtilis isolates showed a reduction in the percentage of long-chain n-alkanes and lower viscosity when compared with the original oils. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of the selected B. subtilis strains in situ can contribute to mobilize entrapped oil in mature reservoirs. PMID:23911831

  4. Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Pereira, Jorge F B; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, João A P; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-10-15

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of residual oil by the selected microorganisms. Four different hydrocarbon mixtures and three Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples were used. Additional oil recoveries ranged from 6 to 24% depending on the hydrocarbon mixture and microorganism used. Biosurfactant production was observed with all the microorganisms and hydrocarbon mixtures studied. The oils recovered after incubation with B. subtilis isolates showed a reduction in the percentage of long-chain n-alkanes and lower viscosity when compared with the original oils. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of the selected B. subtilis strains in situ can contribute to mobilize entrapped oil in mature reservoirs.

  5. Investigating the potential of essential oils as penetration enhancer for transdermal losartan delivery: Effectiveness and mechanism of action

    OpenAIRE

    Indu Vashisth; Abdul Ahad; Mohd Aqil; Suraj P. Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    The effect of tea tree oil (TTO), cumin oil (CO), rose oil (RO) and aloe vera oil (AVO) on the skin permeation of losartan potassium (LP) was investigated. In vitro skin permeation studies were carried out using rat skin. The mechanism of skin permeation enhancement of LP by essential oils treatment was evaluated by FTIR, DSC, activation energy measurement and histopathological examination. Both concurrent ethanol/enhancer treatment and neat enhancer pretreatment of rat SC with all the oils p...

  6. Natural oils as skin permeation enhancers for transdermal delivery of olanzapine: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Geeta; Dhawan, Sanju; HariKumar, S L

    2012-03-01

    The feasibility of development of transdermal delivery system of olanzapine utilizing natural oils as permeation enhancers was investigated. Penetration enhancing potential of corn (maize) oil, groundnut oil and jojoba oil on in vitro permeation of olanzapine across rat skin was studied. The magnitude of flux enhancement factor with corn oil, groundnut oil and jojoba oil was 7.06, 5.31 and 1.9 respectively at 5mg/ml concentration in solvent system. On the basis of in vitro permeation studies, eudragit based matrix type transdermal patches of olanzapine were fabricated using optimized concentrations of natural oils as permeation enhancers. All transdermal patches were found to be uniform with respect to physical characteristics. The interaction studies carried out by comparing the results of ultraviolet, HPLC and FTIR analyses for the pure drug, polymers and mixture of drug and polymers indicated no chemical interaction between the drug and excipients. Corn oil containing unsaturated fatty acids was found to be promising natural permeation enhancer for transdermal delivery of olanzapine with greatest cumulative amount of drug permeated (1010.68 μg/cm²/h) up to 24 h and caused no skin irritation. The fabricated transdermal patches were found to be stable. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of the final optimized matrix patch (T2) were determined after transdermal application to rabbits. The calculated relative bioavailability of TDDS was 113.6 % as compared to oral administration of olanzapine. The therapeutic effectiveness of optimized transdermal system was confirmed by tranquillizing activity in rotarod and grip mice model.

  7. Enhanced transport of colloidal oil droplets in saturated and unsaturated sand columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Micheal J; Gross, Amit; Weisbrod, Noam

    2011-11-01

    Colloidal-sized triacylglycerol droplets demonstrated enhanced transport compared to ideal latex colloid spheres in both saturated and unsaturated quartz sand columns. Oil droplets (mean diameter 0.74 ± 0.03 μm, density 0.92 g cm(-3), ζ-potential -34 ± 1 mV) were injected simultaneously with latex microsphere colloids (FluoSpheres; density 1.055 g cm(-3), diameters 0.02, 0.2, and 1.0 μm, ζ-potentials -16 ± 1, -30 ± 2, and -49 ± 1, respectively) and bromide into natural quartz sand (ζ-potential -63 ± 2 mV) via short-pulse column breakthrough experiments. Tests were conducted under both saturated and unsaturated conditions. Breakthrough of oil droplets preceded bromide and FluoSpheres. Recovery of oil droplets was 20% greater than similarly sized FluoSpheres in the saturated column, and 16% greater in the 0.18 ± 0.01 volumetric water content (VWC) unsaturated column. Higher variability was observed in the 0.14 ± 0.01 VWC column experiments with oil droplet recovery only slightly greater than similarly sized FluoSpheres. The research presents for the first time the direct comparison of colloidal oil droplet transport in porous media with that of other colloids, and demonstrates transport under unsaturated conditions. Based on experimental results and theoretical analyses, we discuss possible mechanisms that lead to the observed enhanced mobility of oil droplets compared to FluoSpheres with similar size and electrostatic properties.

  8. UV curable palm oil based inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV inks system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  9. Microemulsion Based Transdermal Drug Delivery of Tea Tree Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khokhra Sonia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is an inflammatory and proliferate disease of skin that results in rapid turnover of skin cells. Tea tree oil (TTO is the essential oil steam-distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia, known for its antimicrobial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. This oil is a mix of many terpenes and among them terpinen-4-ol is the main active component. The study aimed at formulating a microemulsion based transdermal drug delivery system for psoriasis. Microemulsions were formulated using 5% Tea tree oil, different concentrations of Polysorbate 80 as surfactant and Isopropyl Myristate and Isopropyl alcohol as cosurfactants. The formulations were characterized for pH, Droplet size, PDI, Viscosity and Surface morphology. The mean droplet size of the microemulsion was found in the range of 84-115 nm with a PDI of 0.764 indicating uniformity in the microemulsion. Rheological data was assessed for viscosity and microemulsions were found to be low viscosity system. The maximum terpinen-4-ol content observed was 1.68 µg/mg of microemulsion. The TEM images of the microemulsion depicted spherical shape and even boundary of the oil particles. The skin diffusion studies clearly depicted the enhanced ability of microemulsion to deliver the drugs through transdermal application. About 14.5% Tepinen-4-ol penetration was observed from the microemulsion. Skin irritation confirmed that levels up to 5% tea tree oil could be safely applied to the skin. The studies showed that microemulsion system of tea tree oil might be promising vehicles for the transdermal delivery for psoriasis.

  10. Development of karanja oil based offset printing ink in comparison with linseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Moumita; Roy, Ananda Sankar; Ghosh, Santinath; Dey, Munmun

    2011-01-01

    The conventional offset lithographic printing ink is mainly based on linseed oil. But in recent years, due to stiff competition from synthetic substitutes mainly from petroleum products, the crop production shrinks down to an unsustainable level, which increases the price of linseed oil. Though soyabean oil has replaced a major portion of linseed oil, it is also necessary to develop alternate cost effective vegetable oils for printing ink industry. The present study aims to evaluate the performance of karanja oil (Pongamia glabra) as an alternative of linseed oil in the formulation of offset printing ink because karanja oil is easily available in rural India. Physical properties of raw karanja oil are measured and compared with that of alkali refined linseed oil. Rosin modified phenolic resin based varnishes were made with linseed oil as well as with karanja oil and their properties are compared. Sheetfed offset inks of process colour yellow and cyan is chosen to evaluate the effect of karanja oil in ink properties. In conclusion, karanja oil can be accepted as an alternate vegetable oil source with its noticeable effect on print and post print properties with slower drying time on paper. However, the colour and odour of the oil will restrict its usage on offset inks.

  11. Coconut oil enhances tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation compared to safflower oil in the Mongolian gerbil ( Meriones unguiculatus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Lauren E; King, Ryan D; Moran, Nancy E; Erdman, John W

    2012-08-29

    Evidence suggests that monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats facilitate greater absorption of carotenoids than saturated fats. However, the comparison of consuming a polyunsaturated fat source versus a saturated fat source on tomato carotenoid bioaccumulation has not been examined. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of coconut oil and safflower oil on tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation in Mongolian gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus ) fed a 20% fat diet. Coconut oil feeding increased carotenoid concentrations among many compartments including total carotenoids in the serum (p = 0.0003), adrenal glandular phytoene (p = 0.04), hepatic phytofluene (p = 0.0001), testicular all-trans-lycopene (p = 0.01), and cis-lycopene (p = 0.006) in the prostate-seminal vesicle complex compared to safflower oil. Safflower oil-fed gerbils had greater splenic lycopene concentrations (p = 0.006) compared to coconut oil-fed gerbils. Coconut oil feeding increased serum cholesterol (p = 0.0001) and decreased hepatic cholesterol (p = 0.0003) compared to safflower oil. In summary, coconut oil enhanced tissue uptake of tomato carotenoids to a greater degree than safflower oil. These results may have been due to the large proportion of medium-chain fatty acids in coconut oil, which might have caused a shift in cholesterol flux to favor extrahepatic carotenoid tissue deposition.

  12. Oil spill monitoring via microwave tomography enhanced GPR surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Affinito, Antonio; Bertolla, Luciana; Porsani, Jorge Luís; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Oil spill detection and monitoring deserve huge attention in environmental protection as well as for timely planning maintenance actions, with the final aim to mitigate soil pollution. In this frame, the requirement for detailed subsurface diagnostics, while performing non-invasive surveys, motivates the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems and their continuous development in order to improve the achievable performance. Moving in this direction, this paper aims at investigating the reconstruction capabilities of a full 3D microwave tomography approach as a tool for pollution characterization and imaging. The microwave tomography approach exploits a Born Approximation based model of the electromagnetic scattering phenomenon and is capable of accounting for the vectorial nature of the wave-material interaction. The reconstruction capabilities are assessed against experimental data referred to oil spill in dry and water saturated sand soils, gathered in laboratory controlled conditions at the Department of Geophysics of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. The provided results state that the full 3D microwave tomography approach is able to gain accurate images of the surveyed scenarios allowing to acquire information on the oil diffusion process in both the considered soils.

  13. Simulations of Microbial-Enhanced Oil Recovery: Adsorption and Filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nesterov, Igor; Shapiro, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In the context of microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) with injection of surfactant-producing bacteria into the reservoir, different types of bacteria attachment and growth scenarios are studied using a 1D simulator. The irreversible bacteria attachment due to filtration similar to the deep bed...... filtration (DBF) is examined along with the commonly used reversible equilibrium adsorption (REA). The characteristics of the two models are highlighted. The options for bacteria growth are the uniform growth in both phases and growth of attached bacteria only. It is found that uniform growth scenario...... coefficients, and substrate injection concentrations. For both growth scenarios, there is a zone of optimal activity at which the CRP is minimal. Dependence of the CRP on substrate concentration for uniform growth scenario has also an optimal zone. Therefore, growth rate and the substrate concentration should...

  14. China to Establish Strategic Oil Stockpile Bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Based on the reports from China's State Development and Reform Committee, a new department of the State Council recently put into operation, the relevant departments have located a number of places as the country's strategic oil stockpile bases, such as Zhoushan and Zhenghai in Zhejiang Province, Huangdao in Shandong Province and Daya Bay in Guangdong Province. However, the plan still needs to be examined and approved by the State Council.

  15. Palm oil based polyols for acrylated polyurethane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)

  16. Designer-Wet Micromodels for Studying Potential Changes in Wettability during Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R. T.; Wildenschild, D.

    2010-12-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a process where microorganisms are used for tertiary recovery of oil. Some bacteria can facilitate the mobilization of oil through the production of amphiphilic compounds called biosurfactants that reduce the interfacial tension (IFT) between immiscible phases. Additionally, most bacteria have an inclination to colonize surfaces and form biofilm, which can change a reservoir's wetting properties or clog preferential flow paths. Herein, we aim to understand changes in wettability during MEOR under mixed wettability conditions within silicon etched micromodels and to identify the type of oil field (i.e. based on wettability) in which MEOR is likely to be most profitable. To quantify porous media wettability, macro-scale indexes (obtained with techniques such as the Carter or Amott methods) are used regularly. However, these measurements lack the capability for characterization of changes in wettability during MEOR treatment, and only provide macro-scale information. In an effort to understand micro-scale temporal and spatial changes in wettability we measure interfacial curvature from stereo microscope images using level set methods. Curvature, from the perspective of the oil phase, is positive for a concave interface (i.e. water-wet surface) and negative for a convex interface (i.e. oil-wet surface). Thus, shifts in the radius of curvature distribution (i.e. from positive to negative or conversely) are indicative of wettability changes. Both curvature distributions using level-set methods and the Carter method are used to characterize wettability before and after microbial treatment. In preliminary studies aimed at understanding wettability changes due to microbial surface interactions by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, oil droplets were placed on glass slides suspended in growth media and the resulting contact angle was measured over time. Results showed that a water-wet surface will become more water wet as JF-2 accumulated in

  17. The potential applications in heavy oil EOR with the nanoparticle and surfactant stabilized solvent-based emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, F. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The main challenges in developing the heavy oil reservoirs in the Alaska North Slope (ANS) include technical challenges regarding thermal recovery; sand control and disposal; high asphaltene content; and low in-situ permeability. A chemical enhanced oil recovery method may be possible for these reservoirs. Solvent based emulsion flooding provides mobility control; oil viscosity reduction; and in-situ emulsification of heavy oil. This study evaluated the potential application of nano-particle-stabilized solvent based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in the ANS. The optimized micro-emulsion composition was determined using laboratory tests such as phase behaviour scanning, rheology studies and interfacial tension measurements. The optimized nano-emulsions were used in core flooding experiments to verify the recovery efficiency. The study revealed that the potential use of this kind of emulsion flooding is a promising enhanced oil recovery process for some heavy oil reservoirs in Alaska, Canada and Venezuela. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  18. Alkyl polyglycoside/1-naphthol formulations. A case study of surfactant enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglauer, Stefan; Wu, Yongfu; Shuler, Patrick; Tang, Yongchun [California Institute of Technology, Covina, CA (United States). Div. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Goddard, William A. III [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Div. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2011-03-15

    We present a case study of surfactant enhanced oil recovery using Alkyl polyglucoside/1-naphthol formulations. Alkyl polyglucosides are a green, non-toxic and renewable surfactant class synthesized out of agricultural raw materials. We measured interfacial tensions versus n-octane and viscosities of these formulations and conducted one coreflood enhanced oil recovery (EOR) experiment where we recovered 82.6 % of initial oil in place demonstrating that these formulations are efficient EOR agents. (orig.)

  19. Enterprise field. Enhanced oil and gas recovery in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzkanin, A.D.; Layton, F.L.; Lorenz, J.S.; Pollom, R.J.; Tefertiller, R.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The Enterprise oil field of Missaukee and Roscommon counties is a successful Richfield interval waterflood project, indicated by the fact that oil production has exceeded expected primary production estimates by 42% as of 1975. The reservoir performance is described.

  20. Investigated Miscible CO2 Flooding for Enhancing Oil Recovery in Wettability Altered Chalk and Sandstone Rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabrizy, Vahid Alipour

    2012-07-01

    The thesis addresses oil recovery by miscible CO2 flooding from modified sandstone and chalk rocks. Calcite mineral surface is modified with stearic acid (SA) and asphaltene, and the silicate mineral surfaces are modified with N,N-dimethyldodecylamine (NN-DMDA) and asphaltene. The stability of adsorbed polar components in presence of SO4 2- and Mg2 + ions is also investigated. Recovery from sandstone cores is consistently lower than that from chalk cores saturated with the same oil and flooded with CO2 at all miscible flooding conditions. This may be due to the larger permeability contrasts in sandstone cores, which promote the fingering phenomenon. Miscible CO2 flooding for chalk and sandstone cores with distilled water, as initial water saturation, shows also lower oil recovery than cores saturated with different ions. At higher miscible flooding conditions, higher oil recovery is obtained. However, presence of light components (such as C1 or C3) in oil reduced the recovery. Oil recovery in presence of methane (C1) is lower than that in presence of methane and propane (C1/C3). A ternary diagram was constructed in order to understand the CO2 flooding mechanism(s) at the different flooding conditions and in presence of light components. The side effect of the flooding with CO2 is the probability for asphaltene deposition. An approach based on solubility parameter in the liquid, is used to assess the risk for asphaltene deposition during CO2 miscible flooding. The light components (C1/C3) and higher flooding conditions enhanced the risk for asphaltene instability. It is also shown higher amount of asphaltene deposition in chalk cores than that in sandstone cores at similar miscibility conditions.(au)

  1. Enhanced oil spill detection sensors in low-light environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Toomas H.; Ramboyong, Len; Roberts, Mark; Walters, Mark; Soyka, Thomas J.; Dixon, Roberta; Cho, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Although advances have been made in oil spill remote detection, many electro-optic sensors do not provide real-time images, do not work well under degraded visual environments, nor provide a measure of extreme oil thickness in marine environments. A joint program now exists between BSEE and NVESD that addresses these capability gaps in remote sensing of oil spills. Laboratory experiments, calibration techniques, and field tests were performed at Fort Belvoir, Virginia; Santa Barbara, California; and the Ohmsett Test Facility in Leonardo, New Jersey. Weathered crude oils were studied spectroscopically and characterized with LWIR, and low-light-level visible/NIR, and SWIR cameras. We designed and fabricated an oil emulsion thickness calibration cell for spectroscopic analysis and ground truth, field measurements. Digital night vision cameras provided real-time, wide-dynamic-range imagery, and were able to detect and recognize oil from full sun to partial moon light. The LWIR camera provided quantitative oil analysis (identification) for >1 mm thick crude oils both day and night. Two filtered, co-registered, SWIR cameras were used to determine whether oil thickness could be measured in real time. Spectroscopic results revealed that oil emulsions vary with location and weathered state and some oils (e.g., ANS and Santa Barbara seeps) do not show the spectral rich features from archived Deep Water Horizon hyperspectral data. Multi-sensor imagery collected during the 2015 USCG Airborne Oil Spill Remote Sensing and Reporting Exercise and the design of a compact, multiband imager are discussed.

  2. Potential of Essential Oils as Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Administration of Ibuprofen to Treat Dysmenorrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare five essential oils (EOs as penetration enhancers (PEs to improve the transdermal drug delivery (TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhoea. The EOs were prepared using the steam distillation method and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. The corresponding cytotoxicities were evaluated in epidermal keartinocyte HaCaT cell lines by an MTT assay. Furthermore, the percutaneous permeation studies were carried out to compare the permeation enhancement effect of EOs. Then the therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen with EOs was evaluated using dysmenorrheal model mice. The data supports a decreasing trend of skin cell viability in which Clove oil >Angelica oil > Chuanxiong oil > Cyperus oil > Cinnamon oil >> Azone. Chuanxiong oil and Angelica oil had been proved to possess a significant permeation enhancement for TDD of ibuprofen. More importantly, the pain inhibitory intensity of ibuprofen hydrogel was demonstrated to be greater with Chuanxiong oil when compared to ibuprofen without EOs (p < 0.05. The contents of calcium ion and nitric oxide (NO were also significantly changed after the addition of Chuanxiong oil (p < 0.05. In summary, we suggest that Chuanxiong oil should be viewed as the best PE for TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhea.

  3. Potential of Essential Oils as Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Administration of Ibuprofen to Treat Dysmenorrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Jiang, Qiu-Dong; Wu, Ye-Ming; Liu, Pei; Yao, Jun-Hong; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Hui; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare five essential oils (EOs) as penetration enhancers (PEs) to improve the transdermal drug delivery (TDD) of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhoea. The EOs were prepared using the steam distillation method and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. The corresponding cytotoxicities were evaluated in epidermal keartinocyte HaCaT cell lines by an MTT assay. Furthermore, the percutaneous permeation studies were carried out to compare the permeation enhancement effect of EOs. Then the therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen with EOs was evaluated using dysmenorrheal model mice. The data supports a decreasing trend of skin cell viability in which Clove oil >Angelica oil > Chuanxiong oil > Cyperus oil > Cinnamon oil > Azone. Chuanxiong oil and Angelica oil had been proved to possess a significant permeation enhancement for TDD of ibuprofen. More importantly, the pain inhibitory intensity of ibuprofen hydrogel was demonstrated to be greater with Chuanxiong oil when compared to ibuprofen without EOs (p oil (p oil should be viewed as the best PE for TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhea. PMID:26457698

  4. Comparative Study of an Enhanced Oil Recovery process with various chemicals for Naharkatiya Oil Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpajit Hazarika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effect of using black liquor whose main constituent is Na- lignosulfonate, which is the effluent from Nagaon paper Mill, Jagiroad, Assam, along with Alkali and Co-surfactant in enhanced crude oil recovery from Upper Assam porous media. In this paper an attempt has been done to study the change in Inter Facial Tension (IFT with different concentration of Surfactant and also a comparative study has been done determine the change in IFT with or without Alkali and Co-Surfactant. Increasing the surfactant concentration reduces the IFT, hence increases the recovery efficiency. Alkali changes the Wettability of reservoir rock and reduces the surfactant adsorption and also act as an in-situ surfactant production.

  5. DESIGN AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A LOW-NOX BURNER FOR TEOR (THERMALLY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY) STEAMERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses a program that addresses the need for advanced NOx control technology for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) steam generators. A full-scale (60 million Btu/hr) burner system has been developed and tested, the concept for which was based on fundamental stud...

  6. Preparation of organogel with tea polyphenols complex for enhancing the antioxidation properties of edible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong; Zhang, Qiuyue; Vriesekoop, Frank; Yuan, Qipeng; Liang, Hao

    2014-08-20

    Food-grade organogels are semisolid systems with immobilized liquid edible oil in a three-dimensional network of self-assembled gelators, and they are supposed to have a broad range of potential applications in food industries. In this work, an edible organogel with tea polyphenols was developed, which possesses a highly effective antioxidative function. To enhance the dispersibility of the tea polyphenols in the oil phase, a solid lipid-surfactant-tea polyphenols complex (organogel complex) was first prepared according to a novel method. Then, a food-grade organogel was prepared by mixing this organogel complex with fresh peanut oil. Compared with adding free tea polyphenols, the organogel complex could be more homogeneously distributed in the prepared organogel system, especially under heating condition. Furthermore, the organogel loading of tea polyphenols performed a 2.5-fold higher antioxidation compared with other chemically synthesized antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene and propyl gallate) by evaluating the peroxide value of the fresh peanut oil based organogel in accelerated oxidation conditions.

  7. Displacement mechanisms of enhanced heavy oil recovery by alkaline flooding in a micromodel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingzhe Dong; Qiang Liu; Aifen Li

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by alkaline flooding for conventional oils has been extensively studied.For heavy oils,investigations are very limited due to the unfavorable mobility ratio between the water and oil phases.In this study,the displacement mechanisms of alkaline flooding for heavy oil EOR are investigated by conducting flood tests in a micromodel.Two different displacement mechanisms are observed for enhancing heavy oil recovery.One is in situ water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion formation and partial wettability alteration.The W/O emulsion formed during the injection of alkaline solution plugs high permeability water channels,and pore walls are altered to become partially oil-wetted,leading to an improvement in sweep efficiency and high tertiary oil recovery.The other mechanism is the formation of an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion.Heavy oil is dispersed into the water phase by injecting an alkaline solution containing a very dilute surfactant.The oil is then entrained in the water phase and flows out of the model with the water phase.

  8. Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

    1995-08-01

    In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

  9. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR by Miscible CO2 and Water Flooding of Asphaltenic and Non-Asphaltenic Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin A. Chukwudeme

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An EOR study has been performed applying miscible CO2 flooding and compared with that for water flooding. Three different oils are used, reference oil (n-decane, model oil (n-C10, SA, toluene and 0.35 wt % asphaltene and crude oil (10 wt % asphaltene obtained from the Middle East. Stearic acid (SA is added representing a natural surfactant in oil. For the non-asphaltenic oil, miscible CO2 flooding is shown to be more favourable than that by water. However, it is interesting to see that for first years after the start of the injection (< 3 years it is shown that there is almost no difference between the recovered oils by water and CO2, after which (> 3 years oil recovery by gas injection showed a significant increase. This may be due to the enhanced performance at the increased reservoir pressure during the first period. Maximum oil recovery is shown by miscible CO2 flooding of asphaltenic oil at combined temperatures and pressures of 50 °C/90 bar and 70 °C/120 bar (no significant difference between the two cases, about 1% compared to 80 °C/140 bar. This may support the positive influence of the high combined temperatures and pressures for the miscible CO2 flooding; however beyond a certain limit the oil recovery declined due to increased asphaltene deposition. Another interesting finding in this work is that for single phase oil, an almost linear relationship is observed between the pressure drop and the asphaltene deposition regardless of the flowing fluid pressure.

  10. Vegetable oil based emulsions in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Mikulcová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products represent an important part of functional food in the market. Based on their positive health and nutritional benefits, they have gained popularity and their consumption as well as production is on the rise in the last few decades. As a result of this trend, milk-based products are being used for the delivery of bioactive food ingredients. This study is devoted to the formulation of stable emulsions containing grape seed oil dispersed with several emulsifiers (Tween 80, monocaprylin, and lecithin in milk. Photon correlation spectroscopy was used to evaluate the characteristics of the emulsions in terms of mean droplet size, droplet size distribution and polydispersity index. Emulsions were prepared using 2% and 5% w/w grape seed oil, and 3%, 5%, or 8% w/w emulsifier, and these were homogenized at two different rates of 1050 and 13400 rpm. Parameters influencing emulsion particle size and particle size distribution were identified, which included emulsifier type, its HLB value, oil type (virgin, refined, homogenization rate and the fat content in the milk. Homogenization at 13400 rpm for 10 min. produced fine emulsions with small mean particle sizes and monomodal distribution of droplets. Regarding emulsifier type, the smallest droplet sizes were obtained with formulations containing Tween 80 (250-315 nm, whereas lecithin primarily accounted for the monomodal particle size distributions.

  11. Preparation and properties of copper-oil-based nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Wenjie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the lipophilic Cu nanoparticles were synthesized by surface modification method to improve their dispersion stability in hydrophobic organic media. The oil-based nanofluids were prepared with the lipophilic Cu nanoparticles. The transport properties, viscosity, and thermal conductivity of the nanofluids have been measured. The viscosities and thermal conductivities of the nanofluids with the surface-modified nanoparticles have higher values than the base fluids do. The composition has more significant effects on the thermal conductivity than on the viscosity. It is valuable to prepare an appropriate oil-based nanofluid for enhancing the heat-transfer capacity of a hydrophobic system. The effects of adding Cu nanoparticles on the thermal oxidation stability of the fluids were investigated by measuring the hydroperoxide concentration in the Cu/kerosene nanofluids. The hydroperoxide concentrations are observed to be clearly lower in the Cu nanofluids than in their base fluids. Appropriate amounts of metal nanoparticles added in a hydrocarbon fuel can enhance the thermal oxidation stability.

  12. Characterization of indigenous oil field microorganisms for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitte, J.; Krueger, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Biegel, E.; Herold, A. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Alkan, H. [Wintershall Holding GmbH, Kassel (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Microbial activities and their resulting metabolites became a focus of attention for enhanced oil recovery (MEOR, microbial enhanced oil recovery) in the recent years. In order to develop a strategy for a MEOR application in a German oil field operated by Wintershall experiments were performed to investigate different sampling strategies and the microbial communities found in these samples. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the indigenous microbial communities, (2) to investigate the dependency of microbial activity/diversity on the different sampling strategies, and (3) to study the influence of the in situ pressure on bacterial growth and metabolite production. Fluids were sampled at the well head (surface) and in situ in approx. 785 m depth to collect uncontaminated production water directly from the reservoir horizon and under the in situ pressure of 31 bar (subsurface). In the lab the pressure was either released quickly or slowly to assess the sensitivity of microorganisms to rapid pressure changes. Quantitative PCR resulted in higher microbial cell numbers in the subsurface than in the surface sample. Biogenic CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} formation rates were determined under atmospheric and high pressure conditions in the original fluids, with highest rates found in the surface fluid. Interestingly, no methane was formed in the native fluid samples. While nitrate reduction was exclusively detected in the surface samples, sulfide formation also occurred in the subsurface fluids. Increased CO{sub 2} formation was measured after addition of a variety of substrates in the surface fluids, while only fructose and glucose showed a stimulating effect on CO{sub 2} production for the subsurface sample. Stable enrichment cultures were obtained in complex medium inoculated with the subsurface fluid, both under atmospheric and in situ pressure. Growth experiments with constant or changing pressure, and subsequent DGGE analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes

  13. Enhanced oil recovery & carbon sequestration building on successful experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Fred [BEPC (United States)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper it is spoken of the experiences in the capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the companies Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC) and Dakota Gasification Company (DGC); their by-products are mentioned and what these companies are making to control the CO{sub 2} emissions. Their challenges to compress CO{sub 2} are presented and how they have reduced the CO{sub 2} emissions in the DGC of the 2000 to the 2008; how they use CO{sub 2} to enhance the oil recovery and which are their challenges in the CO{sub 2} transport. [Spanish] En esta ponencia se habla de las experiencias en la captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2} en las empresas Basin Electic Power Cooperative (BEPC) y Dakota Gasification Campany (DGC); se mencionan sus subproductos y que estan haciendo estas empresas para controlar las emisiones de CO{sub 2}. Se presentan sus retos para comprimir CO{sub 2} y como han reducido las emisiones de CO{sub 2} en la DGC del 2000 al 2008; como utilizan el CO{sub 2} para mejorar la recuperacion de petroleo y sus cuales son retos en el transporte de CO{sub 2}.

  14. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery for thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, T.B.; Bolivar, J.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) (DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP)] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  15. Optimization of oil retention in sesame based halva using emulsifiers and fibers: an industrial assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, F; Maazoun, B; Gargouri, Y; Miled, N

    2016-03-01

    Oil bleeding during storage oleaginous seeds based confectionery products is a major problem affecting acceptance by consumers. Halva is a popular sweet food prepared from a sesame paste and a sugar mixture. The objective of this work was to improve the oil retention in this product by incorporating commercial fibers and emulsifiers: soya lecithin and monoglycerides (MG1 or MG2) during manufacturing. Oil retention yield was optimized on small batches, by response surface methodology using a central composite design applied with two factors, emulsifier concentration (0.25-2.25 %) and fibers concentration (0-2 %) at three levels. A centrifugation test was optimized to assess oil retention in halva samples. The experimental response (oil retention) was fitted with quadratic equations for each emulsifier, using multiple regression analysis. The emulsion stability increased with increasing the emulsifier concentration, particularly to 2.25 %. The oil bleeding assessed at 45 °C was slow but yielded similar results to those estimated by centrifugation test. The latter seems an attractive rapid method to quantify oil retention in oleaginous seeds and crops based food matrices. At an industrial scale, the increase of MG1 concentration to 2.25 % in halva enhances the oil retention of the product but does not affect its color or textural characteristics. Microscopic observations allowed us to explain high oil retention in this product by a homogeneous dispersion of oil droplets in the aqueous phase. PMID:27570279

  16. A Review of CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery with a Simulated Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandadige Samintha Anne Perera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a comprehensive study of the CO2-EOR (Enhanced oil recovery process, a detailed literature review and a numerical modelling study. According to past studies, CO2 injection can recover additional oil from reservoirs by reservoir pressure increment, oil swelling, the reduction of oil viscosity and density and the vaporization of oil hydrocarbons. Therefore, CO2-EOR can be used to enhance the two major oil recovery mechanisms in the field: miscible and immiscible oil recovery, which can be further increased by increasing the amount of CO2 injected, applying innovative flood design and well placement, improving the mobility ratio, extending miscibility, and controlling reservoir depth and temperature. A 3-D numerical model was developed using the CO2-Prophet simulator to examine the effective factors in the CO2-EOR process. According to that, in pure CO2 injection, oil production generally exhibits increasing trends with increasing CO2 injection rate and volume (in HCPV (Hydrocarbon pore volume and reservoir temperature. In the WAG (Water alternating gas process, oil production generally increases with increasing CO2 and water injection rates, the total amount of flood injected in HCPV and the distance between the injection wells, and reduces with WAG flood ratio and initial reservoir pressure. Compared to other factors, the water injection rate creates the minimum influence on oil production, and the CO2 injection rate, flood volume and distance between the flood wells have almost equally important influence on oil production.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Palm Oil-Based Biodiesel Combustion in an Oil Burner

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolsaeid Ganjehkaviri; Mohammad Nazri Mohd Jaafar; Seyed Ehsan Hosseini; Anas Basri Musthafa

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the combustion characteristics of palm methyl ester (PME), also known as palm oil-based biodiesel, in an oil burner system. The performance of conventional diesel fuel (CDF) and various percentages of diesel blended with palm oil-based biodiesel is also studied to evaluate their performance. The performance of the various fuels is evaluated based on the temperature profile of the combustor’s wall and emissions, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx)...

  18. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.J.; Han, S.O.; Maudgalya, S.; Mouttaki, H.; Folmsbee, M.; Knapp, R.; Nagle, D.; Jackson, B.E.; Stuadt, M.; Frey, W.

    2003-01-16

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  19. Enhanced biodegradation of alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil by mixed strains and bacterial community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Li, Chen; Zhou, Zhengxi; Wen, Jianping; You, Xueyi; Mao, Youzhi; Lu, Chunzhe; Huo, Guangxin; Jia, Xiaoqiang

    2014-04-01

    In this study, two strains, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 and Pseudomonas sp. XM-01, were isolated from soil samples polluted by crude oil at Bohai offshore. The former one could degrade alkane hydrocarbons (crude oil and diesel, 1:4 (v/v)) and crude oil efficiently; the latter one failed to grow on alkane hydrocarbons but could produce rhamnolipid (a biosurfactant) with glycerol as sole carbon source. Compared with pure culture, mixed culture of the two strains showed higher capability in degrading alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil of which degradation rate were increased from 89.35 and 74.32 ± 4.09 to 97.41 and 87.29 ± 2.41 %, respectively. In the mixed culture, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 grew fast with sufficient carbon source and produced intermediates which were subsequently utilized for the growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01 and then, rhamnolipid was produced by Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. Till the end of the process, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 was inhibited by the rapid growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. In addition, alkane hydrocarbon degradation rate of the mixed culture increased by 8.06 to 97.41 % compared with 87.29 % of the pure culture. The surface tension of medium dropping from 73.2 × 10(-3) to 28.6 × 10(-3) N/m. Based on newly found cooperation between the degrader and the coworking strain, rational investigations and optimal strategies to alkane hydrocarbons biodegradation were utilized for enhancing crude oil biodegradation. PMID:24532465

  20. Numerical Modelling of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery with Focus on Dynamic Effects: An Iterative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Skiftestad, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Recovering more of the available oil has been a main driver behind the extensive work done in the field of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) over the last decades. Microbial en- hanced oil recovery (MEOR) has been heavily researched, and is picking up pace com- pared with other EOR methods used today. MEOR is economically attractive and has a huge potential if applied in accordance to reservoir conditions. This thesis considers a two-phase flow regime in homogeneous porous media, under the influenc...

  1. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION O F SODIUM METHYL ESTER SULFONATE FOR CHEMICALLY-ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, K.; N. K. Maurya; Mandal, A.; Saxena, V. K.

    2015-01-01

    AbstractAttention has been given to reduce the cost of surfactant by using castor oil as an alternative natural source of feedstock. A new surfactant, sodium methyl ester sulfonate (SMES) was synthesised using ricinoleic acid methyl ester, which is obtained from castor oil, for enhanced oil recovery in petroleum industries. The performance of SMES was studied by measuring the surface tension with and without sodium chloride and its thermal stability at reservoir temperature. SMES exhibited go...

  2. Oil monitoring methods based on information theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Yan-chun; HUO Hua

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the Wear condition of machines accurately,oil spectrographic entropy,mutual information and ICA analysis methods based on information theory are presented.A full-scale diagnosis utilizing all channels of spectrographic analysis can be obtained.By measuring the complexity and correlativity,the characteristics of wear condition of machines can be shown clearly.The diagnostic quality is improved.The analysis processes of these monitoring methods are given through the explanation of examples.The availability of these methods is validated and further research fields are demonstrated.

  3. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery in Fractional-Wet Systems: A Pore-Scale Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Ryan T.; Wildenschild, Dorthe (Oregon State U.)

    2012-10-24

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a technology that could potentially increase the tertiary recovery of oil from mature oil formations. However, the efficacy of this technology in fractional-wet systems is unknown, and the mechanisms involved in oil mobilization therefore need further investigation. Our MEOR strategy consists of the injection of ex situ produced metabolic byproducts produced by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2 (which lower interfacial tension (IFT) via biosurfactant production) into fractional-wet cores containing residual oil. Two different MEOR flooding solutions were tested; one solution contained both microbes and metabolic byproducts while the other contained only the metabolic byproducts. The columns were imaged with X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) after water flooding, and after MEOR, which allowed for the evaluation of the pore-scale processes taking place during MEOR. Results indicate that the larger residual oil blobs and residual oil held under relatively low capillary pressures were the main fractions recovered during MEOR. Residual oil saturation, interfacial curvatures, and oil blob sizes were measured from the CMT images and used to develop a conceptual model for MEOR in fractional-wet systems. Overall, results indicate that MEOR was effective at recovering oil from fractional-wet systems with reported additional oil recovered (AOR) values between 44 and 80%; the highest AOR values were observed in the most oil-wet system.

  4. Production and characterisation of glycolipid biosurfactant by Halomonas sp. MB-30 for potential application in enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasayan, Asha; Kiran, G Seghal; Selvin, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    Biosurfactant-producing Halomonas sp. MB-30 was isolated from a marine sponge Callyspongia diffusa, and its potency in crude oil recovery from sand pack column was investigated. The biosurfactant produced by the strain MB-30 reduced the surface tension to 30 mN m(-1) in both glucose and hydrocarbon-supplemented minimal media. The critical micelle concentration of biosurfactant obtained from glucose-based medium was at 0.25 mg ml(-1) at critical micelle dilution 1:10. The chemical structure of glycolipid biosurfactant was characterised by infrared spectroscopy and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The emulsification activity of MB-30 biosurfactant was tested with different hydrocarbons, and 93.1 % emulsification activity was exhibited with crude oil followed by kerosene (86.6 %). The formed emulsion was stable for up to 1 month. To identify the effectiveness of biosurfactant for enhanced oil recovery in extreme environments, the interactive effect of pH, temperature and salinity on emulsion stability with crude oil and kerosene was evaluated. The stable emulsion was formed at and above pH 7, temperature >80 °C and NaCl concentration up to 10 % in response surface central composite orthogonal design model. The partially purified biosurfactant recovered 62 % of residual crude oil from sand pack column. Thus, the stable emulsifying biosurfactant produced by Halomonas sp. MB-30 could be used for in situ biosurfactant-mediated enhanced oil recovery process and hydrocarbon bioremediation in extreme environments. PMID:25326183

  5. Elastic waves and plasma - a new era of enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashchenko, A. F.; Ageev, P. G.

    2016-06-01

    New technology of enhanced oil recovery - plasma pulse treatment is described. The basic problems of residual oil recovery observed, taking in consideration elastic properties of a reservoir and dominant frequencies of a stratum. Numerical estimates of major parameters of an impact to the reservoir while plasma pulse treatment obtained. Positive results of PPT application introduced.

  6. Microbial Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery by the Aid of Inhabitant Spore-Forming Bacteria: An Insight Review

    OpenAIRE

    Biji Shibulal; Al-Bahry, Saif N.; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M.; Elshafie, Abdulkader E.; Al-Bemani, Ali S.; Joshi, Sanket J.

    2014-01-01

    Crude oil is the major source of energy worldwide being exploited as a source of economy, including Oman. As the price of crude oil increases and crude oil reserves collapse, exploitation of oil resources in mature reservoirs is essential for meeting future energy demands. As conventional recovery methods currently used have become less efficient for the needs, there is a continuous demand of developing a new technology which helps in the upgradation of heavy crude oil. Microbial enhanced oil...

  7. Essential oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. and its main components used as transdermal penetration enhancers: a comparative study*

    OpenAIRE

    LAN, YI; Li, Hui; Chen, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Ye-wen; Liu, Na; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies had confirmed that the essential oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Z. bungeanum oil) could effectively enhance the percutaneous permeation of drug molecules as a natural transdermal penetration enhancer. The aim of the present study is to investigate and compare the skin penetration enhancement effect of Z. bungeanum oil and its main components on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) active components. Toxicities of Z. bungeanum oil and three selected terpene compounds...

  8. Conference on microbiological processes useful in enhanced oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    Six formal presentations were made at the meeting, followed by four workshops dealing with specific topics: bioengineering, reservoir ecology and environment, transformations, and bioproducts. All were related to microbial enhancement of oil recovery. (DLC)

  9. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery from the Residual Zone - A Sustainable Vision for North Sea Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jamie; Haszeldine, Stuart; Wilkinson, Mark; Johnson, Gareth

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a 'new vision for North Sea oil production' where previously unattainable residual oil can be produced with the injection of CO2 that has been captured at power stations or other large industrial emitters. Not only could this process produce incremental oil from a maturing basin, reducing imports, it also has the capability to store large volumes of CO2 which can offset the emissions of additional carbon produced. Around the world oil production from mature basins is in decline and production from UK oil fields peaked in 1998. Other basins around the world have a similar story. Although in the UK a number of tax regimes, such as 'brown field allowances' and 'new field allowances' have been put in place to re-encourage investment, it is recognised that the majority of large discoveries have already been made. However, as a nation our demand for oil remains high and in the last decade imports of crude oil have been steadily increasing. The UK is dependent on crude oil for transport and feedstock for chemical and plastics production. Combined with the necessity to provide energy security, there is a demand to re-assess the potential for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR) in the UK offshore. Residual oil zones (ROZ) exist where one of a number of natural conditions beyond normal capillary forces have caused the geometry of a field's oil column to be altered after filling [1]. When this re-structuring happens the primary interest to the hydrocarbon industry has in the past been in where the mobile oil has migrated to. However it is now considered that significant oil resource may exist in the residual zone play where the main oil column has been displaced. Saturations within this play are predominantly close to residual saturation (Sr) and would be similar to that of a water-flooded field [2]. Evidence from a number of hydrocarbon fairways shows that, under certain circumstances, these residual zones in US fields are comparable in thickness to the

  10. Studies on interfacial tension and contact angle of synthesized surfactant and polymeric from castor oil for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Keshak; Pal, Nilanjan; Bera, Achinta; Saxena, V. K.; Mandal, Ajay

    2015-10-01

    New synthesized polymeric surfactants have immensely attracted the researchers for further development of chemical enhanced oil recovery method particularly in surfactant flooding. Contact angle and interfacial tension measurement tests are the effective ways to identify proper chemicals/surfactants for enhanced oil recovery by chemical/surfactant flooding. In the present study a new polymeric surfactant was synthesized from pre-synthesized sodium methyl ester sulfonate (surfactant) and acrylamide for application in chemical enhanced oil recovery. The synthesized surfactant and polymeric surfactant were used to measure interfacial tension between their aqueous phase and crude oil phase to investigate the efficiency of the surfactants in reduction of interfacial tension. The synthesized polymeric surfactant has also ability to control the mobility because of its viscous nature in aqueous solution. Contact angles of solid-crude oil-surfactant interface were also measured to study the effect of the synthesized surfactant and polymeric surfactant on wettability alteration mechanism. Synergistic effect was studied by using NaCl and synthesized surfactants on interfacial tension. Dynamic interfacial tensions of the surfactant and polymeric surfactant solutions with crude oil were measured at different NaCl concentrations. Interfacial tension was found to be lowered up to 10-2 to 10-3 mN/m which is effective for oil recovery. Measurement of contact angle indicates the wettability change of the quartz surface. Comparative studies on efficiencies of synthesized sodium methyl ester sulfonate surfactant and polymeric surfactant were also carried out with respect to interfacial tension reduction and contact angle change.

  11. Enhanced oil and gas recovery in Michigan: Enterprise Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzkanin, A.D.; Layton, F.L.; Lorenz, J.S.; Pollom, R.J.; Tefertiller, R.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The Enterprise Oil Field of Missaukee and Roscommen counties is a successful Richfield interval waterflood project, indicated by the fact that oil production has exceeded expected primary production estimates by 42% as of 1975. In the Enterprise Field the oil production is obtained from nine dolomite stringers located immediately below the massive anhydrite and separated by either anhydrite or dense limestone. The vertical succession of the reservoir rocks and in impervious evaporites within the Richfield interval is an important element in the success of the waterflood project. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Nigella sativa Oil Enhances the Spatial Working Memory Performance of Rats on a Radial Arm Maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahak, Mohamad Khairul Azali; Mohamed, Abdul Majid; Hashim, Noor Hashida; Hasan Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa, an established historical and religion-based remedy for a wide range of health problems, is a herbal medicine known to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This present study investigated the effect of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) administration on the spatial memory performance (SMP) of male adult rats using eight-arm radial arm maze (RAM). Twelve Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks old) were force-fed daily with 6.0  μ L/100 g body weight of Nigella sativa oil (NSO group; n = 6) or 0.1 mL/100 g body weight of corn oil (control) (CO group; n = 6) for a period of 20 consecutive weeks. For each weekly evaluation of SMP, one day food-deprived rats were tested by allowing each of them 3 minutes to explore the RAM for food as their rewards. Similar to the control group, the SMP of the treated group was not hindered, as indicated by the establishment of the reference and working memory components of the spatial memory. The results demonstrated that lesser mean numbers of error were observed for the NSO-treated group in both parameters as compared to the CO-treated group. NSO could therefore enhance the learning and memory abilities of the rats; there was a significant decrease in the overall mean number of working memory error (WME) in the NSO-treated group. PMID:24454487

  13. Nigella sativa Oil Enhances the Spatial Working Memory Performance of Rats on a Radial Arm Maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Khairul Azali Sahak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa, an established historical and religion-based remedy for a wide range of health problems, is a herbal medicine known to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This present study investigated the effect of Nigella sativa oil (NSO administration on the spatial memory performance (SMP of male adult rats using eight-arm radial arm maze (RAM. Twelve Sprague Dawley rats (7–9 weeks old were force-fed daily with 6.0 μL/100 g body weight of Nigella sativa oil (NSO group; n=6 or 0.1 mL/100 g body weight of corn oil (control (CO group; n=6 for a period of 20 consecutive weeks. For each weekly evaluation of SMP, one day food-deprived rats were tested by allowing each of them 3 minutes to explore the RAM for food as their rewards. Similar to the control group, the SMP of the treated group was not hindered, as indicated by the establishment of the reference and working memory components of the spatial memory. The results demonstrated that lesser mean numbers of error were observed for the NSO-treated group in both parameters as compared to the CO-treated group. NSO could therefore enhance the learning and memory abilities of the rats; there was a significant decrease in the overall mean number of working memory error (WME in the NSO-treated group.

  14. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy studies of yellow organic dyestuffs and lake pigments in oil paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Hannah E; Fabian, David M; Svoboda, Shelley A; Wustholz, Kristin L

    2013-08-21

    Identifying natural, organic dyes and pigments is important for the conservation, preservation, and historical interpretation of works of art. Although previous SERS studies have demonstrated high sensitivity and selectivity for red lake pigments using various pretreatment conditions, corresponding investigations of yellow lake pigments and paints are relatively sparse. Here, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy is used to identify a variety of yellow organic dyestuffs and lake pigments in oil paint. High-quality SERS spectra of yellow dyestuffs (i.e., turmeric, old fustic, Buckthorn berries) and corresponding paints could be obtained with or without sample pretreatment using microliter quantities of HCl and methanol at room temperature. However, the SERS spectra of yellow lake pigments (i.e., Stil de Grain, Reseda lake) and their corresponding oil paints were only observed upon sample pretreatment. Ultimately, we demonstrate a reliable sample treatment protocol for SERS-based identification of turmeric, old fustic, Buckthorn berries, Stil de Grain, and Reseda lake as well as for microscopic samples of the corresponding oil paints. PMID:23722232

  15. Enhanced oil recovery chemicals from renewable wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grune, W.N.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Crenshaw, J.M.

    1979-04-01

    Most of the wood pulp in the U.S. is produced by cooking, or digesting, wood chips in a chemical solution. These pulping processes have effluent streams which contain dissolved lignins, lignin breakdown products, and carbohydrates. There is a substantial economic incentive to use these materials as feedstocks for the production of high-valued micellar flood chemicals. The pulp and paper industries have practiced chemical recovery for almost a century. The largest chemical recycle processes are the internal recycle of inorganic salts for reuse in pulping. This is coupled with the use of waste organic compounds in the liquor as a fuel for directly-fired evaporation processes. Diversion of effluent and low valued streams for chemical recovery using fermentation, purification, or synthesis methods appears technically feasible in several cases. The use of new recovery processes could yield a variety of different wood-effluent based products. Some of the sugar acids in pulping liquors might be used as sequestering agents in reservoirs where there are large amounts of multivalent cations in flood brines. Fermentation production of high viscosity polymers, sequestering agents, and coagent alcohols appears worth further investigation. Tall oil acids and their derivatives can be used as surfactants in some reservoirs. Some waste constituents may adsorb preferentially on formations and thereby reduce loss of surfactants and other higher-valued chemicals.

  16. Sustainability of oil shale-based electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of oil shale-based electricity covers Estonian electricity consumption and enables also to export electricity. Oil shale-based electricity production is by now competitive on the electricity market of the Baltic States and of the neighboring EU Member States. However, production of oil shale-based electricity has low energy efficiency, demands large investments for renovation and has high environmental risks. Taxation of environmental damage will be more severe in the future, lowering the competitiveness of oil shale-based electricity. Therefore, the key issue of sustainable development of Estonian energy sector is reduction of the environmental damage of the oil shale-based electricity production, or reduction of the share of oil shale in the energy balance at the expense of other energy resources, especially renewable energy. (author)

  17. Friction Theory Prediction of Crude Oil Viscosity at Reservoir Conditions Based on Dead Oil Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisneros, Sergio; Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2003-01-01

    The general one-parameter friction theory (f-theory) models have been further extended to the prediction of the viscosity of real "live" reservoir fluids based on viscosity measurements of the "dead" oil and the compositional information of the live fluid. This work representation of the viscosity...... within the oil industry. In sake of completeness, this work also presents a simple characterization procedure which is based on compositional information of an oil sample. This procedure provides a method for characterizing an oil into a number of compound groups along with the critical constants...

  18. Water Flooding Development and Enhanced Oil Recovery of Daqing Oilfields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Zefu; Yue Dengtai; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ The Daqing oil region consists of typical sand oilfields formed by a large inland shallow water lake basin and riverdelta. It is characterized by multiple reservoirs, extreme heterogeneity, and insufficient natural oil reservoir energy. A comparatively long period of high stable yield and high efficiency recovery was achieved in the initial stage of development through the use of the hydraulic pressure drive technique, which manually injected water to maintain formation pressure.

  19. A business process for enhanced heavy oil recovery research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husky Oil's enhanced oil recovery (EOR) research management processes for reducing process development time and increasing investment efficiency were described. The considerations that went into the development of the plan a decade ago were reviewed and new ideas incorporated into the revised plan were presented. Four case studies were presented to illustrate the need for process to reservoir matching. A need for strategic research planning was emphasized. Proposed technologies for enhancement of heavy oil reservoir productivity were presented in tabular form. 1 tab., 7 figs

  20. The Rebirth of Waste Cooking Oil to Novel Bio-based Surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Qi; Cai, Bang-Xin; Xu, Wen-Jie; Gang, Hong-Ze; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is a kind of non-edible oil with enormous quantities and its unreasonable dispose may generate negative impact on human life and environment. However, WCO is certainly a renewable feedstock of bio-based materials. To get the rebirth of WCO, we have established a facile and high-yield method to convert WCO to bio-based zwitterionic surfactants with excellent surface and interfacial properties. The interfacial tension between crude oil and water could reach ultra-low value as 0.0016 mN m(-1) at a low dosage as 0.100 g L(-1) of this bio-based surfactant without the aid of extra alkali, which shows a strong interfacial activity and the great potential application in many industrial fields, in particular, the application in enhanced oil recovery in oilfields in place of petroleum-based surfactants.

  1. Diets Based on Virgin Olive Oil or Fish Oil but Not on Sunflower Oil Prevent Age-Related Alveolar Bone Resorption by Mitochondrial-Related Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Bullon; Maurizio Battino; Alfonso Varela-Lopez; Patricia Perez-Lopez; Sergio Granados-Principal; Ramirez-Tortosa, Maria C.; Ochoa, Julio J.; Mario D Cordero; Adrian Gonzalez-Alonso; César L Ramirez-Tortosa; Corrado Rubini; Antonio Zizzi; Quiles, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old) and old (24 months old) rats. Methods/Findings: Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) as virgin olive oil, n-6 pol...

  2. Investigation on Mechanisms of Polymer Enhanced Oil Recovery by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Microscopic Theoretical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-Cheng; SONG Kao-Ping; LIU Li; YANG Er-Long

    2008-01-01

    Polymer flooding is an efficient technique to enhance oil recovery over water flooding.There are lots of discussions regarding the mechanisms for polymer flooding enhancing oil recovery. The main focus is whether polymer flooding can increase sweep effciency alone,or can increase both of sweep efficiency and displacement efficiency.We present a study on this problem.Oil displacement experiments on 4 natural cores show that polymer flooding can increase oil recovery efficiency by more than 12% over water.Moreover,photos are taken by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method both after water flooding and after polymer flooding,which show remaining oil saturation distribution at the middle cross section and the central longitudinal section.Analyses of these photos demonstrate that polymer flooding can increase both sweep efficiency and displacement efficiency.

  3. [Microwave thermal remediation of soil contaminated with crude oil enhanced by granular activated carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-Wei; Zhang, Yao-Bin; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Ya-Zhi

    2009-02-15

    The advantage of rapid, selective and simultaneous heating of microwave heating technology was taken to remediate the crude oil-contaminated soil rapidly and to recover the oil contaminant efficiently. The contaminated soil was processed in the microwave field with addition of granular activated carbon (GAC), which was used as strong microwave absorber to enhance microwave heating of the soil mixture to remove the oil contaminant and recover it by a condensation system. The influences of some process parameters on the removal of the oil contaminant and the oil recovery in the remediation process were investigated. The results revealed that, under the condition of 10.0% GAC, 800 W microwave power, 0.08 MPa absolute pressure and 150 mL x min(-1) carrier gas (N2) flow-rate, more than 99% oil removal could be obtained within 15 min using this microwave thermal remediation enhanced by GAC; at the same time, about 91% of the oil contaminant could be recovered without significant changes in chemical composition. In addition, the experiment results showed that GAC can be reused in enhancing microwave heating of soil without changing its enhancement efficiency obviously.

  4. An Analysis of the Distribution and Economics of Oil Fields for Enhanced Oil Recovery-Carbon Capture and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kristyn Ann

    The rising carbon dioxide emissions contributing to climate change has lead to the examination of potential ways to mitigate the environmental impact. One such method is through the geological sequestration of carbon (CCS). Although there are several different forms of geological sequestration (i.e. Saline Aquifers, Oil and Gas Reservoirs, Unminable Coal Seams) the current projects are just initiating the large scale-testing phase. The lead entry point into CCS projects is to combine the sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) due to the improved economic model as a result of the oil recovery and the pre-existing knowledge of the geological structures. The potential scope of CCS-EOR projects throughout the continental United States in terms of a systematic examination of individual reservoir storage potential has not been examined. Instead the majority of the research completed has centered on either estimating the total United States storage potential or the potential of a single specific reservoir. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between oil recovery, carbon dioxide storage and cost during CCS-EOR. The characteristics of the oil and gas reservoirs examined in this study from the Nehring Oil and Gas Database were used in the CCS-EOR model developed by Sean McCoy to estimate the lifting and storage costs of the different reservoirs throughout the continental United States. This allows for an examination of both technical and financial viability of CCS-EOR as an intermediate step for future CCS projects in other geological formations. One option for mitigating climate change is to store industrial CO2 emissions in geologic reservoirs as part of a process known as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There is general consensus that large-scale deployment of CCS would best be initiated by combining geologic sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR), which can use CO2 to improve production from declining oil fields. Revenues from the

  5. Investigation of spore forming bacterial flooding for enhanced oil recovery in a North Sea chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    in higher oil production from the heterogeneous chalk rock. In all cases, an incubation period ('shut-in') after the bacterial and/or nutrient injection was needed to give sufficient time for the bacteria to grow inside the core and to produce more oil. Our findings show potential application of bacteria......Little has been done to study microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) in chalk reservoirs. The present study focuses on core flooding experiments designed to see microbial plugging and its effect on oil recovery. A pressure tapped core holder was used for this purpose. A spore forming bacteria...... Bacillus licheniformis 421 was used as it was shown to be a good candidate in a previous study. Bacterial spore can penetrate deeper into the chalk rock, squeezing through the pore throats. Our results showed that injection of B. licheniformis 421 as a tertiary oil recovery method, in the residual oil...

  6. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

  7. Enhancing saltiness in emulsion based foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lad Mita

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of enhancing saltiness perception in emulsions and a liquid food formulated with the emulsions (ambient vegetable soup through increasing salt concentration in the continuous phase while retaining the fat content of the (aqueous continuous product was evaluated. This was accomplished by increasing the droplet phase volume using duplex emulsion technology. Viscosity and droplet size distribution was measured. Saltiness evaluation was based on simple paired comparison testing (2-Alternate Forced Choice tests, BS ISO 5495:2007. Results Single and duplex emulsions and emulsion-based products had comparable mean oil droplet diameters (25 to 30 μm; however, viscosity of the duplex emulsion systems was considerably higher. Sensory assessment of saltiness of emulsion pairs (2AFC indicated duplex technology enhanced saltiness perception compared to a single emulsion product at the same salt content (6.3 g/100 g in both simple emulsions and the formulated food product (P = 0.0596 and 0.0004 respectively although assessors noted the increased viscosity of the duplex systems. The formulated food product also contained pea starch particles which may have aided product mixing with saliva and thus accelerated tastant transport to the taste buds. Lowering salt content in the duplex systems (to levels of aqueous phase salt concentration similar to the level in the single systems resulted in duplex systems being perceived as less salty than the single system. It appears that the higher viscosity of the duplex systems could not be “overruled” by enhanced mixing through increased droplet phase volume at lowered salt content. Conclusions The results showed that salt reduction may be possible despite the added technology of duplex systems increasing the overall measured viscosity of the product. The changes in viscosity behavior impact mouthfeel, which may be exploitable in addition to the contribution towards salt

  8. Enhanced oil and gas recovery in Michigan: Onondaga 10 Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollom, R.J.; Layton, F.L.; Lorenz, J.S.; Matzkanin, A.D.; Tefertiller, R.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The Onondaga 10 Unit is the first waterflood pressure maintenance project in the State of Michigan. The Onondaga 10 Unit produces oil from two distinct anomalies which are believed to be connected through a common water zone. The project, begun in August 1973, is monitored through a computerized field instrumentation system to assure maximum production efficiency. The field has produced 4.5 million barrels of oil through June 1977, a quantity far in excess of the original primary production estimates of 2.7 million barrels. 5 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Specifications and Quality of Lube Oil Base Stocks in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ping

    2004-01-01

    The Chinese standard Q/SHR001-95 for base stocks is compared with the API specifications. The viscosity-temperature characteristics of base stock required by lube oil in use and market demand on oil quality are analyzed. The quality indicators of base stocks in China and other countries are compared. A new classification of base stocks in response to the requirements of modem lube oil is proposed and the research on new technology to produce premium base stocks meeting API specification is recommended on the basis of current base stock processing technology.

  10. An exogenous surfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis facilitates indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peike eGao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study used an exogenous lipopeptide-producing Bacillus subtilis to strengthen the indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (IMEOR process in a water-flooded reservoir in the laboratory. The microbial processes and driving mechanisms were investigated in terms of the changes in oil properties and the interplay between the exogenous Bacillus subtilis and indigenous microbial populations. The exogenous Bacillus subtilis is a lipopeptide producer, with a short growth cycle and no oil-degrading ability. The Bacillus subtilis facilitates the IMEOR process through improving oil emulsification and accelerating microbial growth with oil as the carbon source. Microbial community studies using quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing revealed that the exogenous Bacillus subtilis could live together with reservoir microbial populations, and did not exert an observable inhibitory effect on the indigenous microbial populations during nutrient stimulation. Core-flooding tests showed that the combined exogenous and indigenous microbial flooding increased oil displacement efficiency by 16.71%, compared with 7.59% in the control where only nutrients were added, demonstrating the application potential in enhanced oil recovery in water-flooded reservoirs, in particular, for reservoirs where IMEOR treatment cannot effectively improve oil recovery.

  11. Physicochemical properties of magnetic fluids based on synthetic oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, V. V.; Ramazanova, A. G.; Yashkova, V. I.; Balmasova, O. V.

    2013-04-01

    A technique for synthesizing magnetic fluids based on Alkaren synthetic oil is described. The optimum synthesis conditions for the magnetite are selected, and the magnetic phase-stabilizer quantitative ratio is calculated. A magnetic fluid based on synthetic hydrocarbon oil is synthesized, and its physicochemical characteristics are determined.

  12. Enhanced heavy oil recovery for carbonate reservoirs integrating cross-well seismic–a synthetic Wafra case study

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-07-14

    Heavy oil recovery has been a major focus in the oil and gas industry to counter the rapid depletion of conventional reservoirs. Various techniques for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil were developed and pilot-tested, with steam drive techniques proven in most circumstances to be successful and economically viable. The Wafra field in Saudi Arabia is at the forefront of utilizing steam recovery for carbonate heavy oil reservoirs in the Middle East. With growing injection volumes, tracking the steam evolution within the reservoir and characterizing the formation, especially in terms of its porosity and permeability heterogeneity, are key objectives for sound economic decisions and enhanced production forecasts. We have developed an integrated reservoir history matching framework using ensemble based techniques incorporating seismic data for enhancing reservoir characterization and improving history matches. Examining the performance on a synthetic field study of the Wafra field, we could demonstrate the improved characterization of the reservoir formation, determining more accurately the position of the steam chambers and obtaining more reliable forecasts of the reservoir’s recovery potential. History matching results are fairly robust even for noise levels up to 30%. The results demonstrate the potential of the integration of full-waveform seismic data for steam drive reservoir characterization and increased recovery efficiency.

  13. Enhanced oil and gas recovery in Michigan: Hamilton Field, Richfield Oil Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, S.E.; Layton, F.L.; Lorenz, J.S.; Matzkanin, A.D.; Pollom, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Richfield Oil Pool of the Hamilton Field in Clare County, Michigan, is a successful waterflood project. The Hamilton Oil Field is a multipool field associated with an anticlinal structure located in parts of Frost, Hayes, and Hamilton townships of Clare County. Richfield reservoir rocks are assigned to the basal part of the Lucas Formation, Detroit River Group. This was the first waterflood project in the state to use the computer to predict production. Cumulative production has exceeded original production estimates made by Sun Oil Company. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Comblike Polyacrylamides as Flooding Agent in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Diego A. Z.; Picchioni, Francesco; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2013-01-01

    The oil recovery from core material and a specifically designed flow cell using novel branched (comblike) polyacrylamides (PAM) has been investigated. The injectivity characteristics of the different branched PAMs were evaluated by filtration tests and core-flow experiments. The number of arms of th

  15. Enhanced oil and gas recovery in Michigan: Beaver Creek Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollom, R.J.; Layton, F.L.; Lorenz, J.S.; Matzkanin, A.D.; Wilson, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    The Beaver Creek Field produces from an anticlinal structure being waterflooded in the Richfield interval. It produces from one lensic rock unit whose permeability and porosity are relatively uniform throughout the field. Orderly development and prudent operating procedures have allowed the field to surpass its original primary production estimates by over 3,000,000 barrels of oil. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Preparation and Properties of Tung Oil-Based Polyurethane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁才登; 赵晓明; 邵丽英; 唐克华

    2014-01-01

    Tung oil-based polyols were synthesized by the esterification and transesterification between Tung oil-based anhydride and butanediol. The hydroxyl values of the polyols prepared were tested and discussed. Polyurethane was prepared by using Tung oil-based polyols and/or poly(propylene glycol) as polyols and by using isophorone diisocyanate as isocyanate. The effect of the ratio of Tung oil-based polyols to poly(propylene glycol) on the proper-ties of polyurethane prepared was investigated by the water resistance, alcohol resistance and hardness tests. The re-sults show that Tung oil-based polyols are effective to improve the hardness, water resistance and alcohol resistance of polyurethane.

  17. Territory, tourism and local products. The extra virgin oil's enhancement and promotion: a benchmarking Italy-Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Paola De Salvo; José Manuel Hernández Mogollón; Elide Di Clemente; Viviana Calzati

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper intends to highlight how local tourism development is strongly oriented towards policy development based on the combination typical product-territory, in particular extra virgin olive oil, which assigns value to identity, social capital and indigenous cultural heritage. Design – The work supports the idea that the development strategies of typical products should be considered as a potential local development tool. Besides the enhancing the knowledge of product itse...

  18. Enhanced Biodegradability, Lubricity and Corrosiveness of Lubricating Oil by Oleic Acid Diethanolamide Phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Jianhua

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of oleic acid diethanolamide phosphate (abbreviated as ODAP as an additive on biodegradability, anti-wear capacity, friction-reducing ability and corrosiveness of an unreadily biodegradable HVI 350 mineral lubricating oil was studied. The biodegradabilities of neat lubricating oil and its formulations with ODAP were evaluated on a biodegradation tester. Furthermore, the anti-wear and friction-reducing abilities and the corrosiveness of neat oil and the formulated oils were determined on a four-ball tribotester and a copper strip corrosion tester, respectively. The results indicated that ODAP markedly enhanced biodegradability as well as anti-wear and friction-reducing abilities of the lubricating oil. On the other hand, excellent color ratings of copper strips for both neat oil and the ODAP-doped oil were obtained in the corrosion tests, demonstrating that the corrosiveness of neat oil and the doped oil was negligible, although the latter seemed to provide slightly better anti-corrosion ability.

  19. Large scale carbon dioxide production from coal-fired power stations for enhanced oil recovery: a new economic feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of capturing carbon dioxide from fossil-fuelled electric power generating plants and utilizing it as a flooding agent in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, was explored. In this context, this paper describes how cogeneration concepts, together with process optimization strategies, help to reduce the carbon dioxide production cost by utilizing low-pressure steam and waste heat from various sections of the power generation process. Based on these optimization strategies, the recovery cost of carbon dioxide from coal-fired power stations is estimated to be in the range of $ 0.50 to $ 2.00/mscf. Assuming an average cost of $ 1.25/mscf, the production cost of incremental oil would be about $ 18.00. This means that even with today's modest oil prices, there is room for profit to be made operating a carbon dioxide flood with flue gas extracted carbon dioxide

  20. Gas Production Generated from Crude Oil Biodegradation: Preliminary Study on its Aplication in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Nugroho

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Gas Production Generated from Crude Oil Biodegradation: Preliminary Study on its Aplication in MicrobialEnhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR. The objective of this study is to observe the capacity of gas production generatedfrom crude oil degradation by the isolated bacteria. The gas in the MEOR could increase pressure in the reservoir,decrease oil viscosity, increase oil permeability-due to the increase of the porosity and viscosity, and also increase oilvolume due to the amount of dissolved gas. A research on gas analysis of oil degradation by 6 isolated bacteria has beenconducted. The bacteria isolates including Bacillus badius (A, Bacillus circulans (B, Bacillus coagulans (C, Bacillusfirmus (D, Pasteurella avium (E and Streptobacillus moniliformis (F. The trial on gas production, gas analysis and oildegradation analysis, was carried out by using SMSS medium. The test of gas production was done by usingmicrorespirometer at 40°C. The result shows that B, C, D, E produce more gas than A and F. Gas of CO2, O2, CO, N2,CH4, and H2 were analyzed by using GC. The results show that only three gases were detected by GC i.e. CO2, N2, andO2. The concentration of CO2 and N2 gas increased while the concentration of O2 decreased over an 8th day ofobservation. CO2 gas producted by mix culture was higher than by the pure culture. On the 8th day of incubation, theproduction of CO2 gas by mix culture was 4,0452% while pure culture C and D only produced 2,4543% and 2,8729%.The mix culture increase simple hydrocarbon by 12.03% and the formation of a complex hydrocarbon by 3.07%. Themix culture (C-D generated the highest concentration of CO2 gas as well as a synergistic concortium that has ability todegrade crude oil.

  1. PRODUCTION OF HIGH QUALITY LUBRICATING BASE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@High VI lubricating oil is produced in hydrocracker through hydrocracking (HDC) and hydroisome-rization reactions. In order to effectively produce high VI component, such as iso-pafaffins and monocyclic naphtenes, it is important to load suitable HDC catalysts and operate them in the appropriate reaction conditions.   Nippon Mitsubishi Oil Corporation (NMOC) and its affiliate company, Nippon Mitsubishi Petroleum Refining Company (NMPRC) reported their original HDC catalysts four years ago in this Japan-China joint se-minar in Beijing[1]. NMOC and NMPRC operate their hydrocracker both in fuel oil production mode and in lubricating oil production mode. In lubricating oil production mode, high VI lubricating oil called VHDC are produced.   In this paper, at first, the advantages of high VI lubricating oil are described. And then it is announced that NMOC and NMPRC have developed a new generation of HDC catalyst with higher cracking activity, higher middle distillate selectivity and longer life than the other commercial HDC catalysts. In addition to those properties, the catalyst is able to yield high VI lubricating oil as well.

  2. Knowledge Based Oil and Gas Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, Amir; Blomgren, Atle

    2011-07-01

    This study presents the Norwegian upstream oil and gas industry (defined as all oil and gas related firms located in Norway, regardless of ownership) and evaluates the industry according to the underlying dimensions of a global knowledge hub - cluster attractiveness, education attractiveness, talent attractiveness, RandD and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics.(au)

  3. Immersion Condensation on Oil-Infused Heterogeneous Surfaces for Enhanced Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Miljkovic, Nenad; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2013-06-01

    Enhancing condensation heat transfer is important for broad applications from power generation to water harvesting systems. Significant efforts have focused on easy removal of the condensate, yet the other desired properties of low contact angles and high nucleation densities for high heat transfer performance have been typically neglected. In this work, we demonstrate immersion condensation on oil-infused micro and nanostructured surfaces with heterogeneous coatings, where water droplets nucleate immersed within the oil. The combination of surface energy heterogeneity, reduced oil-water interfacial energy, and surface structuring enabled drastically increased nucleation densities while maintaining easy condensate removal and low contact angles. Accordingly, on oil-infused heterogeneous nanostructured copper oxide surfaces, we demonstrated approximately 100% increase in heat transfer coefficient compared to state-of-the-art dropwise condensation surfaces in the presence of non-condensable gases. This work offers a distinct approach utilizing surface chemistry and structuring together with liquid-infusion for enhanced condensation heat transfer.

  4. Microwave thermal remediation of crude oil contaminated soil enhanced by carbon fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dawei; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Yazhi

    2009-01-01

    Thermal remediation of the soil contaminated with crude oil using microwave heating enhanced by carbon fiber (CF) was explored. The contaminated soil was treated with 2.45 GHz microwave, and CF was added to improve the conversion of microwave energy into thermal energy to heat the soil. During microwave heating, the oil contaminant was removed from the soil matrix and recovered by a condensation system of ice-salt bath. The experimental results indicated that CF could efficiently enhance the microwave heating of soil even with relatively low-dose. With 0.1 wt.% CF, the soil could be heated to approximately 700 degrees C within 4 min using 800 W of microwave irradiation. Correspondingly, the contaminated soil could be highly cleaned up in a short time. Investigation of oil recovery showed that, during the remediation process, oil contaminant in the soil could be efficiently recovered without causing significant secondary pollution.

  5. Immersion condensation on oil-infused heterogeneous surfaces for enhanced heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Miljkovic, Nenad; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing condensation heat transfer is important for broad applications from power generation to water harvesting systems. Significant efforts have focused on easy removal of the condensate, yet the other desired properties of low contact angles and high nucleation densities for high heat transfer performance have been typically neglected. In this work, we demonstrate immersion condensation on oil-infused micro and nanostructured surfaces with heterogeneous coatings, where water droplets nucleate immersed within the oil. The combination of surface energy heterogeneity, reduced oil-water interfacial energy, and surface structuring enabled drastically increased nucleation densities while maintaining easy condensate removal and low contact angles. Accordingly, on oil-infused heterogeneous nanostructured copper oxide surfaces, we demonstrated approximately 100% increase in heat transfer coefficient compared to state-of-the-art dropwise condensation surfaces in the presence of non-condensable gases. This work offers a distinct approach utilizing surface chemistry and structuring together with liquid-infusion for enhanced condensation heat transfer.

  6. Quantitative Modeling Of Formation Damage On The Reservoir During Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nmegbu, Chukwuma Godwin Jacob

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbial enhanced oil recovery is an inexpensive, environmentally friendly method of oil recovery, utilizing the potentials of certain microbes to significantly influence oil productionwith wide range of oil recovery mechanisms including oil mobilization, reservoir re-pressurization, permeability alteration, mobility control and a range of other exploitable recovery techniques. This study presents an investigation on the degree of damage to the reservoir as a result of microbial injection. Results from this analysis shows that for a continuous microbial injection process, the pore area of the formation reduces equivalently due to microbial plugging and or as a result of biomass accumulation in the reservoir. The prevailing effects of formation damage (skin due to these microbes are also presented. Residual fluid flow rates and corresponding velocities were found to reduce in magnitude with deducing pore area after several days of injection.

  7. Polyols Prepared from Ring-Opening Epoxidized Soybean Oil by a Castor Oil-Based Fatty Diol

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang; Ji Jun Tang; Jiao Xia Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Several biorenewable vegetable oil-based polyols with different molecular weights and various hydroxyl functionalities were successfully prepared by ring-opening epoxidized soybean oil with a castor oil-based fatty diol. It was found that several factors, including reaction time, reaction temperature, and molar ratios between epoxidized soybean oil and castor oil diol, affect structures and rheology behaviors of the final polyols. Proton NMR, FT-IR, GPC, and rheometry results revealed that th...

  8. Enhancement of Oil Spreadability of Biscuit Surface by Nonthermal Barrier Discharge Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, N.; Sullivan, Carl; Pankaj, Shashi; Alvarez-Jubete, Laura; Cama, Raquel; Jacoby, Franklyn; Cullen, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The application of non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma for altering the hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity of polymer surfaces is well known. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of DBD plasma in enhancing the surface hydrophobicity of freshly baked biscuits, evident from the increased spread area of vegetable oil. The electrical and optical characteristics of the DBD plasma source have also been described. The spread area of individual oil drops has been measured using ...

  9. Enhanced recovery pay off : EOR research aims to increase heavy oil recovery in a big way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, J.

    2008-03-15

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) research in Saskatchewan was discussed. Saskatchewan's Petroleum Technology Research Centre (PTRC) is home to the Joint Implementation of Vapour Extraction (JIVE) program, a multi-partner research consortium that is currently studying and field testing a solvent vapour extraction oil recovery process. PTRC also runs a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration project that is run in conjunction with the Weyburn and Midale CO{sub 2} flood projects. PTRC's Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Research Program plays a large role in the centre's research and innovation activities. The centre now estimates that new technologies will enable producers to recover an additional 6 to 8 billion barrels of Saskatchewan's heavy oil resources. PTRC is also collaborating with the University of Regina within 3 major areas, notably (1) enhanced oil recovery; (2) CO{sub 2} storage and sequestration; and (3) oilfield simulation and numerical modelling. Researchers are also investigating new waterflooding techniques and neural networks modelling techniques. It is estimated that improved polymer flooding techniques will result in the recovery of between 10 to 20 per cent more oil. The Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC) is also collaborating with the centre on a gas injection process for the enhanced recovery of light and heavy oil. The chemical-alternating-gas (CAG) will be field-tested. It was concluded that the CAG process will result in improved recoveries of up to 15 per cent of original oil in place. It was concluded that the CAG process may also be applied at locations around the world. 3 figs.

  10. Application of polymer flooding technology for enhanced oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkyt Kudaivergenov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of brine-initiated gelation of gellan for conformance control and water shutoff operations in field conditions was demonstrated. The developed technology was tested in Kumkol oilfield (Kyzylorda region, Kazakhstan on five injection wells. According to the results of the first oilfield test, the amount of additionally recovered oil during 11 months (from October 1, 2013 till September 1, 2014 was equal to 5890 tons. In 2014, the JSC “NIPIneftegas” (Aktau city, Kazakhstan carried out the second pilot test of polymer flooding technology on the same oilfield. The amount of additionally recovered oil during eight months (from October 2014 till May 2015 was equal to 8695 tons. The technology was tested for water shut-off purposes in producing well of Karabulak oilfield. After one-month treatment of production well the amount of water decreased 16 times in comparison with previous results.

  11. Onondaga 10 unit. Enhanced oil and gas recovery in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollom, R.J.; Layton, F.L.; Lorenz, J.S.; Matzkanin, A.D.; Tefertiller, R.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The Onondage 10 unit is the first Salina-Niagaran reservoir reported in the Secondary Recovery Report series and is the first waterflood pressure maintenance project in Michigan. The term pressure maintenance as used in this study is not synonymous with the term secondary recovery. A secondary recovery operation is initiated some time near the depletion of estimated primary reserves for the purpose or recovering residual oil in place. In contrast, a pressure maintenance operation is begun before the reservoir pressure has dropped to a level requiring secondary recovery. This project, begun in Aug. 1973, is monitored through a computerized field instrumentation system to assure maximum production efficiency. The field has produced 4.5 million bbl of oil through June 1977, a quantity far in excess of the original primary production estimates of 2.7 million bbl.

  12. BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

    2008-05-27

    BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

  13. Synthesis of vegetable oil based polyol with cottonseed oil and sorbitol derived from natural source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Kun Jia; Li Xiang Gong; Wen Jiao Ji; Cheng You Kan

    2011-01-01

    In order to prepare the polyol with all bio-based components as raw materials, cottonseed oil was first epoxidized by peroxyformic acid generated in situ from hydrogen peroxide and formic acid, and the cottonseed oil based polyols with variable hydroxyl value were then prepared by the ring-opening of epoxidized cottonseed oil with sorbitol, which is a multi-functional hydroxyl compound derived from a natural source. The chemical structure of the products was characterized with FTIR analysis, and the residual epoxy oxygen content and hydroxyl value of the polyol versus the ring-opening time were investigated.

  14. Experimental Study of Castor Oil Based Lubricant for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Suhane,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils due to their better natural propertiescan be used as an alternative to reduce the dependency on the conventional lubricants. With the depletion of conventional resources at faster pace, need of hour is to approach the safer alternatives for ensuring the availability of such resources for longer periods with lesser harm to the mankind and sorroundings.This workevaluates the prospects of Castor oil based lubricant for automotive applications in contrast to the available commercial servo gear oil. Experimentation has been performed on four ball tester set up.Material used is carbon steel balls. Refined castor and mahua oils are blended in fixed ratios and subjected to friction and wear tests. Experimentation reveals that castor mahua oil blend possess immense potential in contrast to servo gear oil due to good wear reducing traits apart from environmental benefits.

  15. Chemical and Microbial Characterization of North Slope Viscous Oils to Assess Viscosity Reduction and Enhanced Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Mary Beth Leigh

    2008-12-31

    A large proportion of Alaska North Slope (ANS) oil exists in the form of viscous deposits, which cannot be produced entirely using conventional methods. Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a promising approach for improving oil recovery for viscous deposits. MEOR can be achieved using either ex situ approaches such as flooding with microbial biosurfactants or injection of exogenous surfactant-producing microbes into the reservoir, or by in situ approaches such as biostimulation of indigenous surfactant-producing microbes in the oil. Experimental work was performed to analyze the potential application of MEOR to the ANS oil fields through both ex situ and in situ approaches. A microbial formulation containing a known biosurfactant-producing strain of Bacillus licheniformis was developed in order to simulate MEOR. Coreflooding experiments were performed to simulate MEOR and quantify the incremental oil recovery. Properties like viscosity, density, and chemical composition of oil were monitored to propose a mechanism for oil recovery. The microbial formulation significantly increased incremental oil recovery, and molecular biological analyses indicated that the strain survived during the shut-in period. The indigenous microflora of ANS heavy oils was investigated to characterize the microbial communities and test for surfactant producers that are potentially useful for biostimulation. Bacteria that reduce the surface tension of aqueous media were isolated from one of the five ANS oils (Milne Point) and from rock oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), and may prove valuable for ex situ MEOR strategies. The total bacterial community composition of the six different oils was evaluated using molecular genetic tools, which revealed that each oil tested possessed a unique fingerprint indicating a diverse bacterial community and varied assemblages. Collectively we have demonstrated that there is potential for in situ and ex situ MEOR of ANS oils. Future work

  16. Impact of an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery field trial on microbial community structure in a high pour-point oil reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Hua-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hou, Du-Jie

    2012-08-01

    Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes. PMID:22159733

  17. Impact of an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery field trial on microbial community structure in a high pour-point oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Hou, Du-Jie [China Univ. of Geosciences, Beijing (China). The Key Lab. of Marine Reservoir Evolution and Hydrocarbon Accumulation Mechanism; She, Yue-Hui [Yangtze Univ., Jingzhou, Hubei (China). College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering; Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). College of Life Science and Technology; Li, Hua-Min [Beijing Bioscience Research Center (China); Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang [Yangtze Univ., Jingzhou, Hubei (China). College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering; Yu, Long-Jiang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). College of Life Science and Technology

    2012-08-15

    Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes. (orig.)

  18. Identification of bacteria used for microbial enhanced oil recovery process by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, K.; Tanaka, S.; Otsuka, M. [Kansai Research Institute, Kyoto (Japan). Lifescience Lab.; Yonebayashi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan). Tech. Research Center; Enomoto, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Tech.

    2000-01-01

    A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes was developed for rapid detection of microorganisms for use in the microbial enhancement of oil recovery (MEOR) process. Two microorganisms, Enterobacter cloacae TRC-322 and Bacillus licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, were selected from a collection of Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. which were screened in previous studies as candidate microorganisms for injection, and were used for this experiment. Oligonucleotide probes, design based on specific sequences in the 16S rRNA gene were labeled with either fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), or 6-car-boxy-X-rhodamine (ROX), and were allowed to hybridize with fixed cells of the two microorganisms noted above. The fluorescence signal emitted from each microorganism cells could clearly be detected by an epifluorescence microscope. Moreover, E. cloacae TRC-322 and B, licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, suspended in actual reservoir brine, including inorganic salts, oil and aboriginal cells of the reservoir brine, could be detected directly by this hybridization method, without the need for cultivation and isolation. (author)

  19. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post treatment of the pyrolysis vapors. The in-situ catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in an entrained flow reactor system using a premixed feedstock of Na2CO3 and biomass and post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was conducted in a downstream fixed bed reactor of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3. Results have shown that both Na2CO3 and Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 can be used for the production of a high quality bio-oil from catalytic pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake. The catalytic bio-oil had very low oxygen content, water content as low as 1wt.%, a neutral pH, and a high calorific value upto 41.8MJ/kg. The bio-oil consisted of high value chemical compounds mainly hydrocarbons and undesired compounds in the bio-oil were either completely removed or considerably reduced. Increasing the triglycerides content (vegetable oil) in the wood enhanced the formation of hydrocarbons in the bio-oil. Post treatment of the pyrolysis vapor over a fixed bed of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 produced superior quality bio-oil compared to in-situ catalytic pyrolysis with Na2CO3. This high quality bio-oil may be used as a precursor in a fractionating process for the production of alternative fuels. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Preparation of microemulsions with soybean oil-based surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emulsions are widely applied in food, cosmeceutical and medicinal formulations. Smaller and highly stable droplets of emulsions are important for their application. This research reports that by using soybean oil-based surfactants, the higher stabilized oil-in-water emulsions were obtained via an ul...

  1. A Novel Enhanced Oil Recovery Technology Using Pore-scale Elastic Microspheres after Polymer Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanjin Yao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel enhanced oil recovery method using pore-scale elastic microspheres after polymer flooding was proposed. Using single-tube sand pack models, the resistant coefficient of polymer flooding and elastic microspheres profile control and flooding was contrastively studied. Then the resistant coefficient of injecting elastic microspheres after polymer flooding was studied. At last, physical simulation of elastic microspheres flooding after polymer was conducted. The results show that polymer and elastic microspheres have synergistic effect; the polymer can make the migration of elastic microspheres easily; the elastic microspheres can prevent polymer from crossing flow along the high permeability channel and extend the polymer output time of oil well. Compared to polymer flooding (1000 mg/L and (2000 mg/L, elastic microspheres flooding (1000 mg/L after polymer flooding (1000 mg/L can enhance oil recovery by 5.6 and 4.4%, respectively. The results confirm that elastic microspheres can enhance oil recovery effectively after polymer flooding. This novel technology will become an effective technical measure for polymer flooding oilfield to enhance oil recovery further.

  2. Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Micron-Size Polyacrylamide Elastic Microspheres (MPEMs): Underlying Mechanisms and Displacement Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Chuanjin

    2015-10-12

    Micron-size polyacrylamide elastic microsphere (MPEM) is a newly developed profile control and oil displacement agent for enhanced oil recovery in heterogeneous reservoirs. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of MPEMs in brine water. A transparent sandpack micromodel was used to observe the microscopic flow and displacement mechanisms, and parallel-sandpack models were used to investigate the profile control and oil displacement performance using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs. The results indicate that MPEMs almost do not increase the viscosity of injection water and can be conveniently injected using the original water injection pipelines. The microscopic profile control and oil displacement mechanisms of MPEMs in porous media mainly behave as selective-plugging in large pores, fluid diversion after MPEMs plugging, oil drainage caused by MPEMs breakthrough, and the mechanism of oil droplets converging into oil flow. MPEMs have a high plugging strength, which can tolerate a long-term water flushing. MPEMs can selectively enter and plug the large pores and pore-throats in high permeability sandpack, but almost do not damage the low permeability sandpack. MPEMs can effectively divert the water flow from the high permeability sandpack to the low permeability sandpack and improve the sweep efficiency of low permeability sandpack and low permeability area in the high permeability sandpack. The results also confirm the dynamic process of profile control and oil displacement using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs.

  3. Phase Behavior, Solid Organic Precipitation, and Mobility Characterization Studies in Support of Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery on the Alaska North Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    The medium-heavy oil (viscous oil) resources in the Alaska North Slope are estimated at 20 to 25 billion barrels. These oils are viscous, flow sluggishly in the formations, and are difficult to recover. Recovery of this viscous oil requires carefully designed enhanced oil recovery processes. Success of these recovery processes is critically dependent on accurate knowledge of the phase behavior and fluid properties, especially viscosity, of these oils under variety of pressure and temperature conditions. This project focused on predicting phase behavior and viscosity of viscous oils using equations of state and semi-empirical correlations. An experimental study was conducted to quantify the phase behavior and physical properties of viscous oils from the Alaska North Slope oil field. The oil samples were compositionally characterized by the simulated distillation technique. Constant composition expansion and differential liberation tests were conducted on viscous oil samples. Experiment results for phase behavior and reservoir fluid properties were used to tune the Peng-Robinson equation of state and predict the phase behavior accurately. A comprehensive literature search was carried out to compile available compositional viscosity models and their modifications, for application to heavy or viscous oils. With the help of meticulously amassed new medium-heavy oil viscosity data from experiments, a comparative study was conducted to evaluate the potential of various models. The widely used corresponding state viscosity model predictions deteriorate when applied to heavy oil systems. Hence, a semi-empirical approach (the Lindeloff model) was adopted for modeling the viscosity behavior. Based on the analysis, appropriate adjustments have been suggested: the major one is the division of the pressure-viscosity profile into three distinct regions. New modifications have improved the overall fit, including the saturated viscosities at low pressures. However, with the limited

  4. Enhanced Oil Recovery with CO2 Capture and Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei, Maria; De Simoni, Michela; Delbianco, Alberto; Cazzani, Piero; Zanibelli, Laura

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents the results of a feasibility study aimed at extending the production life of a small oilfield in Italy through EOR, employing the CO2 captured from the flue gas streams of the refinery nearby. The EOR operation allows the recovery of additional reserves while a consistent amount of the CO2 injected remains permanently stored into the reservoir. The screening process selection for EOR-CO2 and the main elements of the pilot project for the proper upstream-downstream integration will be described. Evaluation of EOR-CO2 extension to other oilfields and its effect on oil production and project's economics will be reported.

  5. Enhanced oil and gas recovery in Michigan: Columbus 3 Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzkanin, A.D.; Layton, F.L.; Lorenz, J.S.; Pollom, R.J.; Tefertiller, R.A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The Columbus 3 Unit located in St. Clair County is an example of a successful pressure maintenance project. The Columbus 3 field, new unitized, produces from a Niaguran reef developed during Silurian time. The incremental gain of 64% in excess of anticipated primary production is generally the result of more efficient production of the field, achieved through selective production of the best wells as permitted through the unitization agreement. As of May 1978, total field production per 1 psig pressure drop has been 10,300 barrels of oil. 5 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, December 1990--February 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, H.A. (ed.) (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The Oil Implementation Task Force was appointed to implement the US DOE's new oil research program directed toward increasing domestic oil production by expanded research on near- or mid-term enhanced oil recovery methods. An added priority is to preserve access to reservoirs that have the largest potential for oil recovery, but that are threatened by the large number of wells abandoned each year. This report describes the progress of research activities in the following areas: chemical flooding; gas displacement; thermal recovery; resource assessment; microbial technology; geoscience technology; and environmental technology. (CK)

  7. Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases.

  8. Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

    2011-09-30

    emulsions with a flow through, static mixer based apparatus under a variety of conditions that are suitable for permanent sequestration of carbon dioxide. A variety of mixtures of water, CO{sub 2} and particles may also provide suitable emulsions capable of PS. In addition, it is necessary to test the robustness of PSE formation as composition changes to be certain that emulsions of appropriate size and stability form under conditions that might vary during actual large scale EOR and sequestration operations. The goal was to lay the groundwork for an apparatus and formulation that would produce homogenous microemulsions of CO{sub 2}-in-water capable of readily mixing with the waters of deep saline aquifers and allow a safer and more permanent sequestration of carbon dioxide. In addition, as a beneficial use, we hoped to produce homogenous microemulsions of water-in-CO{sub 2} capable of readily mixing with pure liquid or supercritical CO{sub 2} for use in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). However, true homogeneous microemulsions have proven very difficult to produce and efforts have not yielded either a formulation or a mixing strategy that gives emulsions that do not settle out or that can be diluted with the continuous phase in varying proportions. Other mixtures of water, CO{sub 2} and particles, that are not technically homogeneous microemulsions, may also provide suitable emulsions capable of PS and EOR. For example, a homogeneous emulsion that is not a microemulsion might also provide all of the necessary characteristics desired. These characteristics would include easy formation, stability over time, appropriate size and the potential for mineralization under conditions that would be encountered under actual large scale sequestration operations. This report also describes work with surrogate systems in order to test conditions.

  9. 1D Simulations for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery with Metabolite Partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Shapiro, Alexander; Michelsen, Michael Locht;

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a mathematical model describing the process of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The one-dimensional isothermal model comprises displacement of oil bywater containing bacteria and substrate for their feeding. The bacterial products are both bacteria andmetabolites. In the ......We have developed a mathematical model describing the process of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The one-dimensional isothermal model comprises displacement of oil bywater containing bacteria and substrate for their feeding. The bacterial products are both bacteria andmetabolites....... The characteristics for the water phase saturation profiles and the oil recovery curves are elucidated. However, the effect from the surfactant is not necessarily restricted to influence only interfacial tension, but it can also be an approach for changing, e.g., wettability. The distribution coefficient determines...... the time lag, until residual oil mobilization is initialized. It has also been found that the final recovery depends on the distance from the inlet before the surfactant effect takes place. The surfactant effect position is sensitive to changes in maximum growth rate, and injection concentrations...

  10. Practical Considerations and Challenges Involved in Surfactant Enhanced Bioremediation of Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagarika Mohanty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant enhanced bioremediation (SEB of oil is an approach adopted to overcome the bioavailability constraints encountered in biotransformation of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL pollutants. Fuel oils contain n-alkanes and other aliphatic hydrocarbons, monoaromatics, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Although hydrocarbon degrading cultures are abundant in nature, complete biodegradation of oil is rarely achieved even under favorable environmental conditions due to the structural complexity of oil and culture specificities. Moreover, the interaction among cultures in a consortium, substrate interaction effects during the degradation and ability of specific cultures to alter the bioavailability of oil invariably affect the process. Although SEB has the potential to increase the degradation rate of oil and its constituents, there are numerous challenges in the successful application of this technology. Success is dependent on the choice of appropriate surfactant type and dose since the surfactant-hydrocarbon-microorganism interaction may be unique to each scenario. Surfactants not only enhance the uptake of constituents through micellar solubilization and emulsification but can also alter microbial cell surface characteristics. Moreover, hydrocarbons partitioned in micelles may not be readily bioavailable depending on the microorganism-surfactant interactions. Surfactant toxicity and inherent biodegradability of surfactants may pose additional challenges as discussed in this review.

  11. Laser-based sensors for oil spill remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carl E.; Fingas, Mervin F.; Mullin, Joseph V.

    1997-07-01

    Remote sensing is becoming an increasingly important tool for the effective direction of oil spill countermeasures. Cleanup personnel have recognized that remote sensing can increase spill cleanup efficiency. It has long been recognized that there is no one sensor which is capable of detecting oil and related petroleum products in all environments and spill scenarios. There are sensors which possess a wide field-of- view and can therefore be used to map the overall extent of the spill. These sensors, however lack the capability to positively identify oil and related products, especially along complicated beach and shoreline environments where several substrates are present. The laser-based sensors under development by the Emergencies Science Division of Environment Canada are designed to fill specific roles in oil spill response. The scanning laser environmental airborne fluorosensor (SLEAF) is being developed to detect and map oil and related petroleum products in complex marine and shoreline environments where other non-specific sensors experience difficulty. The role of the SLEAF would be to confirm or reject suspected oil contamination sites that have been targeted by the non-specific sensors. This confirmation will release response crews from the time-consuming task of physically inspecting each site, and direct crews to sites that require remediation. The laser ultrasonic remote sensing of oil thickness (LURSOT) sensor will provide an absolute measurement of oil thickness from an airborne platform. There are presently no sensors available, either airborne or in the laboratory which can provide an absolute measurement of oil thickness. This information is necessary for the effective direction of spill countermeasures such as dispersant application and in-situ burning. This paper describes the development of laser-based airborne oil spill remote sensing instrumentation at Environment Canada and identifies the anticipated benefits of the use of this technology

  12. China's oil reserve forecast and analysis based on peak oil models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to forecast future oil production it is necessary to know the size of the reserves and use models. In this article, we use the typical Peak Oil models, the Hu-Chen-Zhang model usually called HCZ model and the Hubbert model, which have been used commonly for forecasting in China and the world, to forecast China's oil Ultimate Recovery (URR). The former appears to give more realistic results based on an URR for China of 15.64 billion tons. The study leads to some suggestions for new policies to meet the unfolding energy situation

  13. Fingerprint Verification based on Gabor Filter Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Lavanya, B N; Venugopal, K R

    2009-01-01

    Human fingerprints are reliable characteristics for personnel identification as it is unique and persistence. A fingerprint pattern consists of ridges, valleys and minutiae. In this paper we propose Fingerprint Verification based on Gabor Filter Enhancement (FVGFE) algorithm for minutiae feature extraction and post processing based on 9 pixel neighborhood. A global feature extraction and fingerprints enhancement are based on Hong enhancement method which is simultaneously able to extract local ridge orientation and ridge frequency. It is observed that the Sensitivity and Specificity values are better compared to the existing algorithms.

  14. Structural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim

    2015-05-21

    Base oils, blended for finished lubricant formulations, are classified by the American Petroleum Institute into five groups, viz., groups I-V. Groups I-III consist of petroleum based hydrocarbons whereas groups IV and V are made of synthetic polymers. In the present study, five base oil samples belonging to groups I and III were extensively characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. First, the capabilities and limitations of each analytical technique were evaluated, and then the availed information was combined to reveal compositional details on the base oil samples studied. HPLC showed the overwhelming presence of saturated over aromatic compounds in all five base oils. A similar trend was further corroborated using GC×GC, which yielded semiquantitative information on the compound classes present in the samples and provided further details on the carbon number distributions within these classes. In addition to chromatography methods, FT-ICR MS supplemented the compositional information on the base oil samples by resolving the aromatics compounds into alkyl- and naphtheno-subtituted families. APCI proved more effective for the ionization of the highly saturated base oil components compared to APPI. Furthermore, for the detailed information on hydrocarbon molecules FT-ICR MS revealed the presence of saturated and aromatic sulfur species in all base oil samples. The results presented herein offer a unique perspective into the detailed molecular structure of base oils typically used to formulate lubricants. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  15. Exopolysaccharide production by a genetically engineered Enterobacter cloacae strain for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Luo, Yijing; Zhong, Weizhang; Xiao, Meng; Yi, Wenjing; Yu, Li; Fu, Pengcheng

    2011-05-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a petroleum biotechnology for manipulating function and/or structure of microbial environments existing in oil reservoirs for prolonged exploitation of the largest source of energy. In this study, an Enterobacter cloacae which is capable of producing water-insoluble biopolymers at 37°C and a thermophilic Geobacillus strain were used to construct an engineered strain for exopolysaccharide production at higher temperature. The resultant transformants, GW3-3.0, could produce exopolysaccharide up to 8.83 g l(-1) in molasses medium at 54°C. This elevated temperature was within the same temperature range as that for many oil reservoirs. The transformants had stable genetic phenotype which was genetically fingerprinted by RAPD analysis. Core flooding experiments were carried out to ensure effective controlled profile for the simulation of oil recovery. The results have demonstrated that this approach has a promising application potential in MEOR. PMID:21444201

  16. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on Mentha spicata essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro propagated plantlets representing two distinct chemotypes of Mentha spicata, viz. plants producing essential oils rich in piperitone oxide and piperitenone oxide (chemotype I) and rich in carvone and dihydrocarvone (chemotype II), were grown in the field under ambient or ambient plus supplemental UV-B radiation, biologically equivalent to a 15% ozone depletion over Patras (38.3°N, 29.1°E), Greece. Enhanced UV-B radiation stimulated essential oil production in chemotype II substantially, while a similar, non-significant trend was observed in chemotype I. No effect was found on the qualitative composition of the essential oils, whereas the quantitative composition was slightly modified in chemotype I. This is the first investigation reporting an improved essential oil content under UV-B supplementation in aromatic plants under field conditions

  17. Enhancement of Palm Oil Extraction Using Cell Wall Degrading Enzyme Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this recent work, application of aqueous enzymatic process to enhance recovery of palm oil was studied. Experiments were carried out to investigate the structural carbohydrate composition of oil palm mesocarp (Elaeis guineensis) and to analyze the effect of different combination of enzymes on the palm oil recovery and degree of digestibility and the respective correlation. The optimum combination of enzymes comprising of Cellic CTec2 (X1), Cellic HTec2 (X2) and Pectinex Ultra SP-L (X3) for Aqueous Enzymatic Oil Extraction Process (AEOEP), were determined using Simplex Lattice mixture design under fixed parameters. Maximum oil recovery of 88 % was achieved with ratio of enzymes at 0.46: 0.34: 0.2 (X1:X2:X3), at enzyme loading of 30 mg protein/ 10 g substrate, substrate loading of 50 % w/v, pH 4.8, and 2 hours of incubation at 50 degree Celsius. The conversion of reducing sugar at corresponding condition was measured to evaluate the effectiveness of enzymes in degrading fruit cell wall releasing trapped oil. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was utilized to indicate the increase in cell wall disintegration leading to higher release of oil with enzymatic treatment. (author)

  18. UV curable palm oil based ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV ink system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  19. Dielectric breakdown in mineral oil ITO 100 based magnetic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudelcik, J.; Bury, P.; Kopcansky, P.; Timko, M.

    The development of dielectric breakdown and the DC dielectric breakdown voltage of magnetic fluids based on inhibited transformer oil ITO 100 were investigated in parallel orientations of external magnetic field. It was shown that the breakdown voltage is strongly influenced by the magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic fluids with the volume concentration 1and 0.2% had better dielectric properties than pure transformer oil. The increase of breakdown voltage was interpreted on the base of the bubble theory of breakdown.

  20. Western states enhanced oil shale recovery program: Shale oil production facilities conceptual design studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    This report analyzes the economics of producing syncrude from oil shale combining underground and surface processing using Occidental's Modified-In-Situ (MIS) technology and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Hot Recycled Solids (HRS) retort. These retorts form the basic technology employed for oil extraction from oil shale in this study. Results are presented for both Commercial and Pre-commercial programs. Also analyzed are Pre-commercialization cost of Demonstration and Pilot programs which will confirm the HRS and MIS concepts and their mechanical designs. These programs will provide experience with the circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), the MIS retort, the HRS retort and establish environmental control parameters. Four cases are considered: commercial size plant, demonstration size plant, demonstration size plant minimum CFBC, and a pilot size plant. Budget cost estimates and schedules are determined. Process flow schemes and basic heat and material balances are determined for the HRS system. Results consist of summaries of major equipment sizes, capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates and economic analyses. 35 figs., 35 tabs.

  1. Developing High Water-cut Oil Fields Deeply to Enhance Their Oil Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Dakuang

    1994-01-01

    @@ There are 283 developed oil fields in China onshore area by the end of 1993. Most of them are in the later development stage with high water cut. The overall average water cut in these oilfields reaches 80.4%.Some old ones, such as Shengtuo, Gudao and Zhengdong,which have been put on production since 60's or 70's, have a water cut of higher than 90%and are in the extra high water-cut development stage. The recovery factors of these oilfields in terms of the recoverable reserves, which is 63.1%on average and even higher than 80% in some old fields, are also high. A lot of field data show that the distribution of oil and water in the reservoir exhibits new features differing from that in the earlier development stage. Because of the serious interlayer and intralayer heterogeneity of non--marine sandbodies both horizontally and vertically, and the complicated structural features due to the cross cutting of numerous faults, the distribution of the remaining oil in the case of such high recovery and high water cut is in a very dispersed state forming a very complex picture just like the stars in the sky. However some regularities and some relatively abundant regions still exist.

  2. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Approximately 30 research projects are summarized in this report. Title of the project, contract number, company or university, award amount, principal investigators, objectives, and summary of technical progress are given for each project. Enhanced oil recovery projects include chemical flooding, gas displacement, and thermal recovery. Most of the research projects though are related to geoscience technology and reservoir characterization.

  3. An exclusively based parenteral fish-oil emulsion reverses cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana Junco, Miryam; García Vázquez, Natalia; Zozaya, Carlos; Ybarra Zabala, Marta; Abrams, Steven; García de Lorenzo, Abelardo; Sáenz de Pipaón Marcos, Miguel

    2014-10-25

    Prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN) leads to liver damage. Recent interest has focused on the lipid component of PN. A lipid emulsion based on w-3 fatty acids decrease conjugated bilirubin. A mixed lipid emulsion derived from soybean, coconut, olive, and fish oils reverses jaundice. Here we report the reversal of cholestasis and the improvement of enteral feeding tolerance in 1 infant with intestinal failure-associated liver disease. Treatment involved the substitution of a mixed lipid emulsion with one containing primarily omega-3 fatty acids during 37 days. Growth and biochemical tests of liver function improved significantly. This suggests that fat emulsions made from fish oils may be more effective means of treating this condition compared with an intravenous lipid emulsion containing soybean oil, medium -chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil.

  4. [Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin. PMID:25296426

  5. Preservation Mechanism of Chitosan-Based Coating with Cinnamon Oil for Fruits Storage Based on Sensor Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yage; Xu, Qinglian; Yang, Simon X; Chen, Cunkun; Tang, Yong; Sun, Shumin; Zhang, Liang; Che, Zhenming; Li, Xihong

    2016-01-01

    The chitosan-based coating with antimicrobial agent has been developed recently to control the decay of fruits. However, its fresh keeping and antimicrobial mechanism is still not very clear. The preservation mechanism of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil for fruits storage is investigated in this paper. Results in the atomic force microscopy sensor images show that many micropores exist in the chitosan coating film. The roughness of coating film is affected by the concentration of chitosan. The antifungal activity of cinnamon oil should be mainly due to its main consistent trans-cinnamaldehyde, which is proportional to the trans-cinnamaldehyde concentration and improves with increasing the attachment time of oil. The exosmosis ratios of Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus flavus could be enhanced by increasing the concentration of cinnamon oil. Morphological observation indicates that, compared to the normal cell, the wizened mycelium of A. flavus is observed around the inhibition zone, and the growth of spores is also inhibited. Moreover, the analysis of gas sensors indicate that the chitosan-oil coating could decrease the level of O₂ and increase the level of CO₂ in the package of cherry fruits, which also control the fruit decay. These results indicate that its preservation mechanism might be partly due to the micropores structure of coating film as a barrier for gas and a carrier for oil, and partly due to the activity of cinnamon oil on the cell disruption. PMID:27438841

  6. Preservation Mechanism of Chitosan-Based Coating with Cinnamon Oil for Fruits Storage Based on Sensor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yage; Xu, Qinglian; Yang, Simon X.; Chen, Cunkun; Tang, Yong; Sun, Shumin; Zhang, Liang; Che, Zhenming; Li, Xihong

    2016-01-01

    The chitosan-based coating with antimicrobial agent has been developed recently to control the decay of fruits. However, its fresh keeping and antimicrobial mechanism is still not very clear. The preservation mechanism of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil for fruits storage is investigated in this paper. Results in the atomic force microscopy sensor images show that many micropores exist in the chitosan coating film. The roughness of coating film is affected by the concentration of chitosan. The antifungal activity of cinnamon oil should be mainly due to its main consistent trans-cinnamaldehyde, which is proportional to the trans-cinnamaldehyde concentration and improves with increasing the attachment time of oil. The exosmosis ratios of Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus flavus could be enhanced by increasing the concentration of cinnamon oil. Morphological observation indicates that, compared to the normal cell, the wizened mycelium of A. flavus is observed around the inhibition zone, and the growth of spores is also inhibited. Moreover, the analysis of gas sensors indicate that the chitosan-oil coating could decrease the level of O2 and increase the level of CO2 in the package of cherry fruits, which also control the fruit decay. These results indicate that its preservation mechanism might be partly due to the micropores structure of coating film as a barrier for gas and a carrier for oil, and partly due to the activity of cinnamon oil on the cell disruption. PMID:27438841

  7. Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil-brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses, with or without nitrate to boost microbial growth. Growth of the indigenous microbes was stimulated by addition of molasses. Pyrosequencing showed that specifically Anaerobaculum, Petrotoga, and Methanothermococcus were enriched. Addition of nitrate favored the growth of Petrotoga over Anaerobaculum. The microbial growth caused changes in the crude oil-brine system: formation of oil emulsions, and reduction of interfacial tension (IFT). Reduction in IFT was associated with microbes being present at the oil-brine interphase. These findings suggest that stimulation of indigenous microbial growth by addition of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs. PMID:25894951

  8. Systematic approach for synthesis of palm oil-based biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NG, Rex T. L.; NG, Denny K. S.; LAM, Hon Loong [Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Centre of Excellence for Green Technologies, Univ. of Nottingham, Selangor, (Malaysia); TAY, Douglas H. S.; LIM, Joseph H. E. [2GGS Eco Solutions Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-11-01

    Various types of palm oil biomasses are generated from palm oil mill when crude palm oil (CPO) is produced from fresh fruit bunch (FFB). In the current practice, palm oil biomasses are used as the main source of energy input in the palm oil mill to produce steam and electricity. Moreover, those biomasses are regarded as by-products and can be reclaimed easily. Therefore, there is a continuous increasing interest concerning biomasses generated from the palm oil mill as a source of renewable energy. Although various technologies have been exploited to produce bio-fuel (i.e., briquette, pellet, etc.) as well as heat and power generation, however, no systematic approach which can analyse and optimise the synthesise biorefinery is presented. In this work, a systematic approach for synthesis and optimisation of palm oil-based biorefinery which including palm oil mill and refinery with maximum economic performance is developed. The optimised network configuration with achieves the maximum economic performance can also be determined. To illustrate the proposed approach, a case study is solved in this work.

  9. Oil Recovery Enhancement from Fractured, Low Permeability Reservoirs. [Carbonated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the investigative efforts for this jointly funded DOE-State of Texas research project achieved during the 1990-1991 year may be summarized as follows: Geological Characterization - Detailed maps of the development and hierarchical nature the fracture system exhibited by Austin Chalk outcrops were prepared. The results of these efforts were directly applied to the development of production decline type curves applicable to a dual-fracture-matrix flow system. Analysis of production records obtained from Austin Chalk operators illustrated the utility of these type curves to determine relative fracture/matrix contributions and extent. Well-log response in Austin Chalk wells has been shown to be a reliable indicator of organic maturity. Shear-wave splitting concepts were used to estimate fracture orientations from Vertical Seismic Profile, VSP data. Several programs were written to facilitate analysis of the data. The results of these efforts indicated fractures could be detected with VSP seismic methods. Development of the EOR Imbibition Process - Laboratory displacement as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI and Computed Tomography, CT imaging studies have shown the carbonated water-imbibition displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from oil saturated, low permeability rocks. Field Tests - Two operators amenable to conducting a carbonated water flood test on an Austin Chalk well have been identified. Feasibility studies are presently underway.

  10. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION O F SODIUM METHYL ESTER SULFONATE FOR CHEMICALLY-ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Babu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAttention has been given to reduce the cost of surfactant by using castor oil as an alternative natural source of feedstock. A new surfactant, sodium methyl ester sulfonate (SMES was synthesised using ricinoleic acid methyl ester, which is obtained from castor oil, for enhanced oil recovery in petroleum industries. The performance of SMES was studied by measuring the surface tension with and without sodium chloride and its thermal stability at reservoir temperature. SMES exhibited good surface activity, reducing the surface tension of surfactant solution up to 38.4 mN/m and 27.6 mN/m without and with NaCl, respectively. During the thermal analysis of SMES, a 31.2% mass loss was observed from 70 ˚C to 500 ˚C. The phase behavior of the cosurfactant/SMES-oil-water system plays a key role in interpreting the performance of enhanced oil recovery by microemulsion techniques. Flooding experiments were performed using a 0.5 pore volume of synthesized SMES solutions at three different concentrations. In each case chase water was used to maintain the pressure gradient. The additional recoveries in surfactant flooding were found to be 24.53%, 26.04% and 27.31% for 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 mass% of surfactant solutions, respectively.

  11. Technical review of enhanced oil recovery literature. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This report represents the work done under DOE grant No. DE-FG05-79ER10086. It reviews the chemical, miscible and thermal areas of enhanced and recovery (EOR) and has produced a comprehensive bibliography and glossary of terms. The analysis looks into several areas of interest, including: screening criteria, process design, variable interaction and reservoir applicability. In this summary section, the following are shown: (1) screening criteria for process selection; (2) screening guide summary for EOR process; and (3) representative schematics of three major process operations.

  12. Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

    2011-09-30

    This project involves the use of an innovative new invention Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude

  13. A rapid method to authenticate vegetable oils through surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ming Yang; Zhang, Xin; Ren, Hai Rui; Liu, Luo; Zhao, Yong Mei; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Zheng Long; Liu, Li Min; Xu, Hai Jun

    2016-03-01

    Vegetable oils are essential in our daily diet. Among various vegetable oils, the major difference lies in the composition of fatty acids, including unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). USFA include oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA), while SFA are mainly palmitic acid (PA). In this study, the most typical and abundant USFA present with PA in vegetable oils were quantified. More importantly, certain proportional relationships between the integrated intensities of peaks centered at 1656 cm-1 (S1656) in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of different USFA were confirmed. Therefore, the LA or ALA content could be converted into an equivalent virtual OA content enabling the characterization of the USFA content in vegetable oils using the equivalent total OA content. In combination with the S1656 of pure OA and using peanut, sesame, and soybean oils as examples, the ranges of S1656 corresponding to the National Standards of China were established to allow the rapid authentication of vegetable oils. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analyses verified the accuracy of the method, with relative errors of less than 5%. Moreover, this method can be extended to other detection fields, such as diseases.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROORGANISMS WITH IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND BIOSURFACTANT ACTIVITY FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; D.P. Nagle, Jr.; Kathleen Duncan; N. Youssef; M.J. Folmsbee; S. Maudgakya

    2003-06-26

    Biosurfactants enhance hydrocarbon biodegradation by increasing apparent aqueous solubility or affecting the association of the cell with poorly soluble hydrocarbon. Here, we show that a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon from sand-packed columns when a viscosifying agent and a low molecular weight alcohol were present. The amount of residual hydrocarbon mobilized depended on the biosurfactant concentration. One pore volume of cell-free culture fluid with 900 mg/l of the biosurfactant, 10 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1000 mg/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer mobilized 82% of the residual hydrocarbon. Consistent with the high residual oil recoveries, we found that the bio-surfactant lowered the interfacial tension (IFT) between oil and water by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical IFT values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. The lipopeptide biosurfactant system may be effective in removing hydrocarbon contamination sources in soils and aquifers and for the recovery of entrapped oil from low production oil reservoirs. Previously, we reported that Proteose peptone was necessary for anaerobic growth and biosurfactant production by B. mojavensis JF-2. The data gathered from crude purification of the growth-enhancing factor in Proteose peptone suggested that it consisted of nucleic acids; however, nucleic acid bases, nucleotides or nucleosides did not replace the requirement for Proteose Peptone. Further studies revealed that salmon sperm DNA, herring sperm DNA, Echerichia coli DNA and synthetic DNA replaced the requirement for Proteose peptone. In addition to DNA, amino acids and nitrate were required for anaerobic growth and vitamins further improved growth. We now have a defined medium that can be used to manipulate growth and biosurfactant

  15. Isomeric enhancement of davanone from natural davana oil aided by supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, William Monroe; Dube, Michael Frances; Ashraf-Khorassani, Mehdi; Taylor, Larry Thomas

    2007-04-18

    The chemical nature of davanone isolated from natural davana oil via packed column preparative supercritical fluid chromatography with a carbon dioxide-based mobile phase has been defined. Analyses used to characterize davanone included nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, optical rotation, mass spectrometry, headspace solid-phase microextraction, enantiomeric purity via gas chromatography (GC), and GC-coupled olfactometry. For comparison, natural davana oil was subjected to the same types of measurements. The enriched davanone sample was nearly 100% optically pure. This indicates that fractionation of the davana oil with supercritical fluids at near room temperature had little effect on the optical integrity of the sample. PMID:17385880

  16. Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie;

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil–brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses, with or with......Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil–brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses...... of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs....

  17. The Status and Prospects of Enhancing Oil Recovery Technology for Waterflooding Oilfields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Pingping; Yuan Shiyi

    1994-01-01

    @@ The water injection method has been used in most of oilfields in China even at the beginning of development, meanwhile the laboratory research on enhancing oil recovery (EOR) for these oilfields simultareously started too. Oilfields developed in 1960's have mostly been at a high watercut stage since 1990.Tasks in face of petroleum reservoir engineers are on the one hand, further improving recovery of waterflooding by integrated adjustments such as infill well drilling, water/oil ratio controlling, injection profile adjusting, etc. On the other hand, EOR techniques for waterflooding oilfields must be studied and applied to improve mostly the potential of underground resources and to increase recoverable reserves.

  18. Optimization of Spore Forming Bacteria Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery in North Sea Chalk Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Shapiro, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to study microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) in chalk reservoirs. The present study focused on core flooding experiments to see microbial plugging and its effect on oil recovery. A pressure tapped core holder with pressure ports at 1.2 cm, 3.8 cm, and 6.3 cm from the inlet was used for this purpose. A spore forming bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis 421, was used as it was shown to be a good candidate in the previous study. Bacterial spore can penetrate deeper into the ...

  19. CO2-driven Enhanced Oil Recovery as a Stepping Stone to What?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2010-07-14

    This paper draws heavily on the authors’ previously published research to explore the extent to which near term carbon dioxide-driven enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) can be “a stepping stone to a long term sequestration program of a scale to be material in climate change risk mitigation.” The paper examines the historical evolution of CO2-EOR in the United States and concludes that estimates of the cost of CO2-EOR production or the extent of CO2 pipeline networks based upon this energy security-driven promotion of CO2-EOR do not provide a robust platform for spurring the commercial deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies (CCS) as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The paper notes that the evolving regulatory framework for CCS makes a clear distinction between CO2-EOR and CCS and the authors examine arguments in the technical literature about the ability for CO2-EOR to generate offsetting revenue to accelerate the commercial deployment of CCS systems in the electric power and industrial sectors of the economy. The authors conclude that the past 35 years of CO2-EOR in the U.S. have been important for boosting domestic oil production and delivering proven system components for future CCS systems. However, though there is no reason to suggest that CO2-EOR will cease to deliver these benefits, there is also little to suggest that CO2-EOR is a necessary or significantly beneficial step towards the commercial deployment of CCS as a means of addressing climate change.

  20. Experimental Study of Castor Oil Based Lubricant for Automotive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Suhane; R.M.Sarviya

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable oils due to their better natural propertiescan be used as an alternative to reduce the dependency on the conventional lubricants. With the depletion of conventional resources at faster pace, need of hour is to approach the safer alternatives for ensuring the availability of such resources for longer periods with lesser harm to the mankind and sorroundings.This workevaluates the prospects of Castor oil based lubricant for automotive applications in contrast to the ava...

  1. Fundamental studies for microbial enhanced oil recovery field test; Biseibutsu koho (MEOR) fuirudo tesuto no tameno kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, H. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Tech.; Fujiwara, K. [Kansai Research Inst., Kyoto (Japan). Lefescience Research Center; Yonebayashi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Tech. Research Center

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments relevant to the screening of microbes to adapt and monitor the targeted microbes in the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) process. Firstly, the samples of reservoir brine, soil of well site, drilling cuttings, and activated sludge were collected from domestic oil fields, drilling sites, sewage treatment facilities, and environmental conditions. To achieve higher oil recovery, metabolic products of isolates were individually evaluated. These isolates were also incubated in culture bottles packed with silica sands, to clarify the growth potential and metabolic activity in the micro culture space. By carrying out two stages of flooding experiments simulating the reservoir environment, the capability of isolates for improving oil recovery was evaluated, and the microbes were selected. Two gene-engineering techniques were established in parallel with the screening experiments for monitoring the microbes injected into the reservoir. These techniques are potentially capable of rapidly detecting the presence of injecting microbes; moreover, they are available and effective for studying the microbes relevant to the MEOR process. In addition, it was demonstrated that metabolic activity of the microbes capable of producing effective gas could be estimated based on the quantity of 2,3-butanediol found as a major end product of fermentation. The results of the huff and puff field test implied that the gene-engineering techniques established in this study and the metabolic activity analysis on 2,3-butanediol were effective for understanding the growth and metabolic activity of the microbes injected into the reservoir. (author)

  2. Enhancing National Participation in the Oil and Gas Industry in Uganda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heum, Per; Mwakali, Jackson A.; Ekern, Ole Fredrik; Byaruhanga, Jackson N.M.; Koojo, Charles A.; Bigirwenkya, Naptali K.

    2011-07-01

    In realization of the petroleum industry potential, Uganda's Oil and Gas policy seeks to optimize wealth creation from the industry to enhance the welfare of the citizens. This study has examined how Uganda may benefit from the participation of Ugandans and Ugandan firms in the petroleum activities. In the literature this is frequently referred to by applying the term local content. Local in this sense, however, refers to national as opposed to international or foreign contributions. Thus, we apply the concept national content to avoid any misunderstanding. Focus of our study has been on identifying the opportunities, gaps and challenges posed by the petroleum industry to recommend necessary measures to maximize the benefits of national content otherwise defined as national participation.The study has examined lessons Uganda may draw on from other countries and from the economic literature on industrial growth and national wealth. Furthermore, the specific point of departure for Uganda with regard to expected petroleum activities, Uganda's industrial base and its human resource base, has been investigated. On this basis, the study has made its recommendations.(eb)

  3. Enhancing selective capacity through venture bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vintergaard, Christian; Husted, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    , the few successful investments carry the costs of many moreinvestment decisions. It would obviously be attractive to improve the ability to `pick thewinners'. In this paper, we develop a conceptual framework for understanding how firms`involvement in establishing and nurturing the venture base (the idea...... creation phase)enhances their ability to select ventures.Keywords: Corporate venturing, venture base, selection, network....

  4. Community-based oil spill response in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banta, J. [Prince William Sound Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Anchorage, AK (United States); Munger, M. [Cook Inlet Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Kenai, AK (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council and the Cook Inlet Regional Citizen's Advisory Council are independent, non profit organizations formed in 1989 following the Exxon Valdez oil spill to promote the concept of community-based oil spill response (COSR) in their respective regions. COSR involves local citizens in responding to oil spilled in waters they rely upon for income, recreation and subsistence. The 2 advisory councils recently held a Community Oil Spill Response Forum to review the status of existing COSR teams and to share information about past and future COSR-related efforts. The meeting served as an information exchange process about regulatory programs, COSR variations in communities and harbors, training, and personnel issues. Key groups attending the forum were harbor masters, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, United States Coast Guard, existing COSR teams, oil response organizations, local community governments, and volunteers from the advisory councils. This paper was based on the notes taken from the forum. It was agreed that the current system is inadequate in its response to small spills that are frequently associated with non-tank vessels. It was suggested that improved capacity for community-based response could address the situation. It was also suggested that work groups should meet on an annual or biannual basis to continue to educate responders and communities about oil spill response. 7 refs.

  5. DRUG VEHICLE BASED APPROACHES OF PENETRATION ENHANCEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Swaroop R Lahoti; MOHD. HASSAN G DEHGHAN; Dinesh L Dhamecha; AMIT A RATHI; MARIA SAIFEE

    2009-01-01

    Transdermal delivery of drugs through the skin to the systemic circulation provides a convenient route of administration for a variety of clinical indications. For transdermal delivery of drugs, stratum corneum is the main barrier layer for permeation of drug. So to circumvent the stratum corneum and to increase the flux through skin membrane, different approaches of penetration enhancement are used. Many reviews had described regarding the chemical penetration enhancement but vehicle based e...

  6. Play-level distributions of estimates of recovery factors for a miscible carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery method used in oil reservoirs in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2016-03-02

    In a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study, recovery-factor estimates were calculated by using a publicly available reservoir simulator (CO2 Prophet) to estimate how much oil might be recovered with the application of a miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method to technically screened oil reservoirs located in onshore and State offshore areas in the conterminous United States. A recovery factor represents the percentage of an oil reservoir’s original oil in place estimated to be recoverable by the application of a miscible CO2-EOR method. The USGS estimates were calculated for 2,018 clastic and 1,681 carbonate candidate reservoirs in the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database” prepared by Nehring Associates, Inc. (2012).

  7. Dynamic interfacial behavior of decyl methylnaphthalene sulfonate surfactants for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Zhongkui; Ba Yan; Li Zongshi; Qiao Weihong; Cheng Luebai [State Key Lab. of Fine Chemicals, Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China)

    2004-10-01

    The high purity decyl methylnaphthalene sulfonate (DMNS) was synthesized, the purity was determined by HPLC and the structure was confirmed by IR, UV and ESI-MS. Dynamic interfacial tensions (DIT) between DMNS flooding systems and crude oil were measured and the effects of sodium carbonate concentration, surfactant concentration and sodium chloride concentration on the DIT behaviors were investigated. It's found that the surfactant concentration, alkali concentration and the salinity have obvious influences on DIT behaviors. DMNS possessed outstanding capacity and efficiency of lowering the DIT between oil and water. The minimum dynamic interfacial tension could reach 6.35 x 10{sup -6} mNm{sup -1} at a low concentration for added surfactant. DMNS might be used in Enhanced Oil Recovery with low costs and high efficiency. (orig.)

  8. Detection of chemical residues in food oil via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kexi; Huang, Qing

    2016-05-01

    Highly ordered hexagonally patterned Ag-nanorod (Ag-NR) arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of unhealthy chemical residues in food oil was reported, which was obtained by sputtering Ag on the alumina nanotip arrays stuck out of conical-pore anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. SERS measurements demonstrate that the as-fabricated large-scale Ag-nanostructures can serve as highly sensitive and reproducible SERS substrates for detection of trace amount of chemicals in oil with the lower detection limits of 2×10-6 M for thiram and 10-7 M for rhodamine B, showing the potential of application of SERS in rapid trace detection of pesticide residues and illegal additives in food oils.

  9. Investigating the potential of essential oils as penetration enhancer for transdermal losartan delivery: Effectiveness and mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Vashisth

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of tea tree oil (TTO, cumin oil (CO, rose oil (RO and aloe vera oil (AVO on the skin permeation of losartan potassium (LP was investigated. In vitro skin permeation studies were carried out using rat skin. The mechanism of skin permeation enhancement of LP by essential oils treatment was evaluated by FTIR, DSC, activation energy measurement and histopathological examination. Both concurrent ethanol/enhancer treatment and neat enhancer pretreatment of rat SC with all the oils produced significance increase in the LP flux over the control. The effectiveness of the oils as the penetration enhancers was found to be in the following descending order: AVO > RO > CO > TTO. However, only AVO was the only enhancer to provide target flux required to deliver the therapeutic transdermal dose of LP. FTIR and DSC spectra of the enhancer treated SC indicated that TTO, CO, RO and AVO increased the LP permeation by extraction of SC lipids. The results of thermodynamic studies and histopathological examination of AVO treated SC suggested additional mechanisms for AVO facilitated permeation i.e. transient reduction in barrier resistance of SC and intracellular transport by dekeratinization of corneocytes which may be attributed to the presence of triglycerides as constituents of AVO. It is feasible to deliver therapeutically effective dose of LP via transdermal route using AVO as penetration enhancer.

  10. Selection of Sinopec Lubricating Oil Producing Bases by Using the AHP Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Yunchang; Song Zhaozheng; Zheng Chengguo; Jiang Qingzhe; Xu Chunming

    2007-01-01

    The factors affecting the development of Sinopec lubricating oil were analyzed in this paper,and an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model for selecting lubricating-oil producing bases was developed. By using this model,nine lubricating oil producing companies under Sinopec were comprehensively evaluated. The evaluation result showed that the Maoming Lubricating Oil Company (Guangdong province),Jingmen Lubricating Oil Company (Hubei province) and Changcheng Lube Oil Company (Beijing) are top three choices,and should be developed preferentially for the development of Sinopec producing bases of lubricating oil in the future. The conclusions provide the theoretical basis for selecting lubricating oil producing bases for decision makers.

  11. Off-shore enhanced oil recovery in the north sea: matching CO_2 demand and supply given uncertain market conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, Tine; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Huisman, Kuno; Piessens, Kris; Kort, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Introduction CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) entails the injection of CO2 in mature oil fields in order to mobilize the oil. In particular, the injected CO2 reduces the oil's viscosity and acts as a propellant, resulting in an increased oil extraction rate (Leach et al., 2011). Given uncertainty in both oil price and CO2 price under the EU ETS system, aim of this study is to analyze under which economic conditions a CO2 exchange can be established between a CO2 supplier (an electricity producer for whom CO2 is a by-product) and a CO2 user (an offshore oil company that exploits oil fields in the North Sea and needs CO2 for enhanced oil recovery). Methodology A techno-economic simulation tool, PSS IV, was developed to provide investment decision support on integrated CO2-EOR projects (Welkenhuysen et al., 2014). Until now, a fixed onshore supply of CO2 was presumed. An economic optimization model is now developed for both the CO2 producer and the CO2 user. Because net present value and discounted cash flow methods are inadequate to deal with issues like uncertainty and the irreversibility of an investment decision, the real options theory is applied (Dixit and Pindyck, 1994). The way in which cooperation between the companies can take place, will be studied using game theoretical concepts (Lukas and Welling, 2014). Economic and technical data on CO2 capture are available from the PSS database (Piessens et al., 2012). Data on EOR performance, CO2 requirements and various costs are taken from literature (BERR, 2007; Klokk et al., 2010; Pershad et al., 2012). Results/Findings It will be shown what the impact of price uncertainty is on the investment decision of the electricity producer to capture and sell CO2, and on the decision of the oil producer to make the necessary investments to inject CO2 for enhanced oil recovery. Based on these results, it will be determined under which economic conditions a CO2 exchange and transport can take place. Furthermore, also the

  12. Polysulfide and bio-based EP additive performance in vegetable vs. paraffinic base oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twist compression test (TCT) and 4-ball extreme pressure (EP) methods were used to investigate commercial polysulfide (PS) and bio-based polyester (PE) EP additives in paraffinic (150N) and refined soybean (SOY) base oils of similar viscosity. Binary blends of EP additive and base oil were investiga...

  13. Integrated barge based oil response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 creates an entirely new environment for industry, agencies, and now involves citizen groups. New liability limits and expanded planning requirements involve increased coordination among the entities involved in marine facilities, pipelines, and tanker/barge operations. While prevention provides the best solution, the risk is not going to be eliminated. Response is directly linked to preparation/planning and timely implementation. This report chronicles the assembly of a fully self contained response system, which is modeled after the barge used to support drilling operations in the Chukichi Sea. The report includes planning, equipment list, training, and centers around the development of application specific deployment scenarios

  14. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (via Enhanced Oil Recovery) from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart Mehlman

    2010-06-16

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE’s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities

  15. Analytical Quality check of oil based blend in Flaxilip capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree Rane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of capsules containing blend in the powder form is easy, but it is bit difficult to analyse the soft gelatin capsule containing oil based blend. The purpose of this study was to develop test parameters to determine and supervise the quality of such herbal capsule formulation. Five different lots of soft gelatin Flaxilip capsule containing Linseed oil, Guggulu processed with linseed oil, Garlic oil, Fenugreek oil along with Soyabean oil as an excipient , were selected for the study. All the five lots were subjected to general capsule tests such as determination of average weight and disintegration time. Results obtained were around 1.3500g and 10minutes respectively. Specific test parameters applicable for oils like specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, iodine value were applied quantitatively for quality evaluation. Standardised suitable classical methods were applied. Results in all the five lots were found to be well within inhouse limit. All the samples were subjected to heavy metals and microbiological testing. Compliance of corresponding findings with the standard pharmacopoeial guidelines assure the safe intake of the drug. For getting the better effect, the Guggulu that is Commiphora mukul used in the formulation was processed with linseed oil. Its presence was confirmed by carrying out HPTLC for E and Z guggulu sterone. Resemblance of spots at Rf ranging from 0.36 to 0.38 and 0.43 to 0.45 in Toluene : Acetone (9:1 system showed the presence of gugulu in blends of all the lots. Hence by applying all these test parameters one can ensure the quality of the soft gelatin ayurvedic capsule formulation containing oily base like in Flaxilip capsule.

  16. A review on applications of nanotechnology in the enhanced oil recovery part B: effects of nanoparticles on flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hendraningrat, Luky

    2016-11-01

    Chemical flooding is of increasing interest and importance due to high oil prices and the need to increase oil production. Research in nanotechnology in the petroleum industry is advancing rapidly, and an enormous progress in the application of nanotechnology in this area is to be expected. The nanotechnology has been widely used in several other industries, and the interest in the oil industry is increasing. Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly change enhanced oil recovery and to improve mechanism of recovery, and it is chosen as an alternative method to unlock the remaining oil resources and applied as a new enhanced oil recovery method in last decade. This paper therefore focuses on the reviews of the application of nanotechnology in chemical flooding process in oil recovery and reviews the applications of nanomaterials for improving oil recovery that have been proposed to explain oil displacement by polymer flooding within oil reservoirs, and also this paper highlights the research advances of polymer in oil recovery. Nanochemical flooding is an immature method from an application point of view.

  17. An environmentally safe water-based alternative to oil muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a mechanism describing the onset of bit balling is given. On the basis of this mechanism, a new copolymer/polypropylene glycol (COP/PPG) water-based drilling fluid was developed. The properties of this fluid are described, and field test comparisons are made with water- and oil-based fluids

  18. The Mechanism and Usage for Enhanced Oil Recovery by Chemotaxis of Bacterium BS2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiYiqian; JingGuicheng; GaoShusheng; XungWei

    2005-01-01

    Due to its chemotaxis, the motion ability of bacterium BS2 is very strong, and under the microscope, the distribution grads of bacterium concentration can be seen at the oil-water interface. During the experiments in glass box, it can be observed, with eyes, because of the chemotaxis, that muddy gets thicker and thicker at the interface gradually, and it is measured there, from sampling, that the bacterium concentration is 109 cells/mL, pH value 4.4 and the concentration of bio-surfactant 2.87%; The microbial oil-displacement experiments are carried out in emulational network models, and the oil-displacement mechanism by the bacterium and its metabolizing production is studied. And, during oil-displacement experiments in the gravel-input glass models, because of the profile control of thalli and the production, the sweep area of subsequent waterflood becomes wider, which can be seen with eyes and the recovery is enhanced by 13.6%. Finally, the successful field test is introduced in brief: the ratio of response producers is 85.7%, and the water-cut degrades by 6.4%, while 20038t oil has increased in accumulative total in 2 years.

  19. Experimental Study of Chemical Flooding Using New Chemical Component to Enhance Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Arjmand

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research study is to introduce of new chemical component to Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR. Crude Terephthalic Acid (CTA as a macromolecule and one of the isomers of the three phthalic acids is an intermediate product of petrochemical industries which can be used as an alternative to the traditional Hydrolyzed Poly Acryl Amide (HPAM. Crude Oil samples from an Iranian oil field were selected to be used during the flooding tests. Comparison between water flooding and CTA flooding as a secondary oil recovery process revealed that the recovery was improved by 10% when CTA was used. The effect of various injection rates and different concentration of chemical solutions on the recovery factor have been checked and the results showed that high CTA concentrations and low injection rates are the optimum criteria for higher oil recovery efficiency and this chemical as a viscous surfactant and IFT reducer, would be stable in extreme conditions of high salinity and high temperature and therefore, it can be used for reservoirs with high salinity and temperature, too.

  20. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. [Annual report], 1993--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1995-03-01

    In this report, we present the results of our experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, we have (1) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (2) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (3) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are presented.

  1. Large spatial self-phase modulation in castor oil enhanced by gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Nascimento, César M.; Chávez-Cerda, Sabino; da Silva, Monique G. A.; Meneghetti, Mario R.; Hickmann, Jandir M.

    2006-02-01

    Spatial self-phase modulation was observed when a CW laser beam propagated along a cell containing castor oil. The minimum power needed to excite this effect decreases when the sample length is increased, as well as when the laser wavelength approaches to the absorption band of the medium. The same phenomenon was also observed when a laser beam interacts with a colloidal solution of gold nanoparticles in castor oil. For this system the self-phase modulation minimum power decreased dramatically, which indicates that the nonlinear refractive index for this system is enhanced due to the gold nanoparticles. Moreover, for laser wavelength near to the plasmon resonance of the gold nanoparticles, this enhancement factor is even higher. Although the large value of those media nonlinearity, its temporal response is slow. This fact suggests that this phenomenon is due to thermal effects mainly.

  2. Induction of mutations for enhanced essential oil in palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four cultivars (PRC-1, Trisha, Tripta, and M.P.) of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii var. martinii) exposed to one physical mutagen (gamma irradiation at 15 Kr) and two chemical mutagens (EMS-0.4% and EI-0.04%) together with their relative effectiveness for enhanced biomass growth and oil yield in M1 generation have been studied. The data on herbage yield in terms of plant height, second internode length, inflorescence length, leaf number and tiller number and oil yield and free geraniol percentage in the three mutagen treated cultivars (PRC-1, Trishna and Tripta) showed significant increase/enhancement over the respective untreated controls. The mutagen response in the fourth cultivar (M.P.) was found to be transgressively variable, showing an increased effect for some traits and a decreased trend for others which was attributed to heterogeneity and open pollinated nature of this cultivar

  3. Diagnosis of Multiple Gases Separated from Transformer Oil Using Cavity-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Yun; XIA Yu-Xing; HUANG Ju-Ming; ZHAN Li

    2008-01-01

    The Raman signal of gas molecules is very weak due to its small scattering cross section. Here, a near-confocal cavity-enhanced Raman detection system is demonstrated. In the cavity, a high power light of 9 W is achieved by using a cw 200mW 532nm laser, which greatly enhances the detection sensitivity of gas species. A photomultiplier tube connected to a spectrometer is used as the detection system. The Raman spectra of the mixed gases separated from transformer oil has been observed. The relationship of absolute Raman intensity and gas pressure is also obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first Raman system to detect the gases separated from transformer oil.

  4. Enhanced bioremediation of crude oil utilizing lipophilic fertilizers combined with biosurfactants and molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Maria; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2008-11-01

    Many research studies have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorus to combat oil spills in marine environments. Rapid dilution of water-soluble nutrients can be overcome by oleophilic formulations that retain optimal nutrient concentrations at the oil-water interface where biodegradation occurs. Previous work has demonstrated that biodegradation processes are enhanced by the addition of lipophilic fertilizers of natural origin (uric acid and lecithin). In this work, we examined the effectiveness of these nutrients in combination with biosurfactants (rhamnolipids) and molasses (source of C and vitamins) to enhance the biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms. It was found that the use of biosurfactants resulted in an increased removal of petroleum hydrocarbons (96% removal of C19-C34 n-alkanes within a period of 18 days) as well as in a reduction of the lag phase (almost 80% removal was achieved within the first week of biosurfactant application). PMID:18799169

  5. The Effect of Salt Concentration on Microbes during Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nmegbu, Chukwuma Godwin Jacob

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir fluid salinity, its effectiveness on viscosity as well as temperature dependency is an important parameter for enhanced oil recovery consideration. Previous studies on formation fluid properties focused on NaCl and KCl, the two most common brines in connate water and in water-based drilling mud, failing, however, to relate its performance to bacterial survival. This work has considered four different brine solutions and how it will affect the useability of pseudomonas species and halobacterium H – 356. The bacterial mixture viscosity shows a considerable difference between NaCl, CsCl, KCl and LiCl with NaCl and LiCl being favourable brines. Hence, for flooding agent at varying temperature since it makes the bacteria mixture viscosity more viscous whereas the KCl appeared less viscous compared to liquid mixture standard water. For the bacteria mixture, the viscosity of KCl and CsCl decreases with the concentration of a low temperature range and increases with the concentration at a high range.

  6. Kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation in intertidal marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind K Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Availability of inorganic nutrients, particularly N and P, is often a primary control on crude oil hydrocarbon degradation in marine systems. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of information on fundamental kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation that can be used to model the fate of crude oil in bioremediation programmes that use inorganic nutrient addition to stimulate oil biodegradation. Here we report fundamental kinetic parameters (Ks and qmax for nitrate- and phosphate-stimulated crude oil biodegradation under nutrient limited conditions and with respect to crude oil, under conditions where N&P are not limiting. Crude oil degradation was limited by both N&P availability. When N was added alone maximum rates of CO2 production measured were 3.94±0.46 µmol CO2 /g wet sediment/day. However when the same levels of N were added in the presence of 0.5% P w/w of oil (1.6 μmol P/g wet sediment maximum rates of measured CO2 production more than doubled (11.52±0.72 µmol CO2 /g wet sediment/day. Ks and qmax estimates for N (in the form of sodium nitrate when P was not limiting were 1.57±0.56 µmol/g wet sediment and 10.57±0.63 µmol CO2 /g wet sediment/day respectively. The corresponding values for P were 80 nmol/g wet sediment and 8.76±1.15 µmol CO2 /g wet sediment/day. The qmax values with respect to N and P were not significantly different (P< 0.05. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that Alcanivorax spp. were selected in these marine sediments with increasing inorganic nutrient concentration, whereas Cycloclasticus spp. were more prevalent at lower inorganic nutrient concentrations. These data suggest that simple empirical estimates of the proportion of nutrients added relative to crude oil concentrations may not be sufficient to guarantee successful crude oil bioremediation in oxic beach sediments. The data we present also help define the maximum rates and hence timescales required for bioremediation

  7. Immersion Condensation on Oil-Infused Heterogeneous Surfaces for Enhanced Heat Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Xiao; Nenad Miljkovic; Ryan Enright; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Enhancing condensation heat transfer is important for broad applications from power generation to water harvesting systems. Significant efforts have focused on easy removal of the condensate, yet the other desired properties of low contact angles and high nucleation densities for high heat transfer performance have been typically neglected. In this work, we demonstrate immersion condensation on oil-infused micro and nanostructured surfaces with heterogeneous coatings, where w...

  8. Enhancing quality management in a Finnish oil refining and marketing company

    OpenAIRE

    Vilppola, K. (Katri)

    2014-01-01

    Quality management (QM) is considered more and more to be an essential business approach to organisational improvements. Today, quality is seen as a beneficial aspect to invest in because it has proven to for example enhance the company revenue, increase productivity, reduce cost of quality and improve business performance. Nevertheless, many companies in addition to Neste Oil are struggling with questions such as “What is the best governance and management structure for quality to maximize t...

  9. Positive and negative effects of dielectric breakdown in transformer oil based magnetic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transformer oil based magnetic fluids can be considered as the next-generation insulation fluids because they offer exciting new possibilities to enhance dielectric breakdown voltage as well as heat transfer performance compared to pure transformer oils. In this study, we have investigated the dielectric breakdown strength of the fluids with the various volume concentrations of nanoparticles in accordance with IEC 156 standard and have tried to find the reason for changing the dielectric breakdown voltage of the fluids from the magnetic field analysis. It was found that the dielectric breakdown voltage of pure transformer oil is around 12 kV with the gap distance of 1.5 mm. In the case of our transformer oil-based magnetic fluids with 0.08% < Φ < 0.6% (Φ means the volume concentration of magnetic nanoparticles), the dielectric breakdown voltage shows above 40 kV, which is 3.3 times higher positively than that of pure transformer oil. Negatively in the case when the volume concentration of magnetic nanoparticles is above 0.65%, the dielectric breakdown voltage decreases reversely. From the magnetic field analysis, the reason might be considered as two situations: the positive is for the conductive nanoparticles dispersed well near the electrodes, which play an important role in converting fast electrons to slow negatively charged particles, and the negative is for the agglomeration of the particles near the electrodes, which leads to the breakdown initiation.

  10. A Multi-scale Approach for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis in CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Middleton, R. S.; Pan, F.; Ampomah, W.; Yang, C.; Jia, W.; Lee, S. Y.; McPherson, B. J. O. L.; Grigg, R.; White, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Using carbon dioxide in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce carbon sequestration costs in the absence of greenhouse gas emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multi-scale approach to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis for understanding CO2 storage potential within an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit of the Anadarko Basin in northern Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil-water flow and transport in the Marrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2 injection rate, CO2 first breakthrough time, CO2 production rate, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil and CH4 production, and water injection and production rates. A global sensitivity analysis indicates that reservoir permeability, porosity, and thickness are the major intrinsic reservoir parameters that control net CO2 injection/storage and oil/CH4 recovery rates. The well spacing (the distance between the injection and production wells) and the sequence of alternating CO2 and water injection are the major operational parameters for designing an effective five-spot CO2-EOR pattern. The response surface analysis shows that net CO2 injection rate increases with the increasing reservoir thickness, permeability, and porosity. The oil/CH4 production rates are positively correlated to reservoir permeability, porosity and thickness, but negatively correlated to the initial water saturation. The mean and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying the uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. The results from this study provide useful insights for understanding the CO2 storage potential and the corresponding risks of commercial-scale CO2-EOR fields.

  11. [Fast discrimination of edible vegetable oil based on Raman spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiu-Jun; Dai, Lian-Kui; Li, Sheng

    2012-07-01

    A novel method to fast discriminate edible vegetable oils by Raman spectroscopy is presented. The training set is composed of different edible vegetable oils with known classes. Based on their original Raman spectra, baseline correction and normalization were applied to obtain standard spectra. Two characteristic peaks describing the unsaturated degree of vegetable oil were selected as feature vectors; then the centers of all classes were calculated. For an edible vegetable oil with unknown class, the same pretreatment and feature extraction methods were used. The Euclidian distances between the feature vector of the unknown sample and the center of each class were calculated, and the class of the unknown sample was finally determined by the minimum distance. For 43 edible vegetable oil samples from seven different classes, experimental results show that the clustering effect of each class was more obvious and the class distance was much larger with the new feature extraction method compared with PCA. The above classification model can be applied to discriminate unknown edible vegetable oils rapidly and accurately. PMID:23016334

  12. Production of microbial rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MM1011 for ex situ enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, Hossein; Müller, Markus Michael; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Recently, several investigations have been carried out on the in situ bacteria flooding, but the ex situ biosurfactant production and addition to the sand pack as agents for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has little been studied. In order to develop suitable technology for ex situ MEOR processes, it is essential to carry out tests about it. Therefore, this work tries to fill the gap. The intention of this study was to investigate whether the rhamnolipid mix could be produced in high enough quantities for enhanced oil recovery in the laboratory scale and prove its potential use as an effective material for field application. In this work, the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MM1011 to grow and produce rhamnolipid on sunflower as sole carbon source under nitrogen limitation was shown. The production of Rha-C10-C10 and Rha2-C10-C10 was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The rhamnolipid mixture obtained was able to reduce the surface and interfacial tension of water to 26 and 2 mN/m, respectively. The critical micelle concentration was 120 mg/L. Maximum rhamnolipid production reached to about 0.7 g/L in a shake flask. The yield of rhamnolipid per biomass (Y RL/x ), rhamnolipid per sunflower oil (Y RL/s ), and the biomass per sunflower oil (Y x/s ) for shake flask were obtained about 0.01, 0.0035, and 0.035 g g(-1), respectively. The stability of the rhamnolipid at different salinities, pH and temperature, and also, its emulsifying activity has been investigated. It is an effective surfactant at very low concentrations over a wide range of temperatures, pHs, and salt concentrations, and it also has the ability to emulsify oil, which is essential for enhanced oil recovery. With 120 mg/L rhamnolipid, 27 % of original oil in place was recovered after water flooding from a sand pack. This result not only suggests rhamnolipids as appropriate model biosurfactants for MEOR, but it even shows the potential as a

  13. Performance Evaluation of Palm Oil-Based Biodiesel Combustion in an Oil Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolsaeid Ganjehkaviri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation of the combustion characteristics of palm methyl ester (PME, also known as palm oil-based biodiesel, in an oil burner system. The performance of conventional diesel fuel (CDF and various percentages of diesel blended with palm oil-based biodiesel is also studied to evaluate their performance. The performance of the various fuels is evaluated based on the temperature profile of the combustor’s wall and emissions, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx and carbon monoxide (CO. The combustion experiments were conducted using three different oil burner nozzles (1.25, 1.50 and 1.75 USgal/h under lean (equivalence ratio (Φ = 0.8, stoichiometric (Φ = 1 and rich fuel (Φ = 1.2 ratio conditions. The results show that the rate of emission formation decreases as the volume percent of palm biodiesel in a blend increases. PME combustion tests present a lower temperature inside the chamber compared to CDF combustion. High rates of NOx formation occur under lean mixture conditions with the presence of high nitrogen and sufficient temperature, whereas high CO occurs for rich mixtures with low oxygen presence.

  14. Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) monitoring during Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, J. W.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    Jeffrey Heenan, Dimitrios Ntarlagiannis, Lee Slater Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, Newark NJ Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is an established, cost effective, method for enhancing tertiary oil recovery. Although not commonly used for shallow heavy oils, it could be a viable alternative since it can offer sustainable economic recovery and minimal environmental impact. A critical component of successful MEOR treatments is accurate, real time monitoring of the biodegradation processes resulting from the injection of microbial communities into the formation; results of recent biogeophysical research suggest that minimally-invasive geophysical methods could significantly contribute to such monitoring efforts. Here we present results of laboratory experiments, to assess the sensitivity of the spectral induced polarization method (SIP) to MEOR treatments. We used heavy oil, obtained from a shallow oilfield in SW Missouri, to saturate three sand columns. We then followed common industry procedures,and used a commercially available microbial consortia, to treat the oil columns. The active MEOR experiments were performed in duplicate while a control column maintained similar conditions, without promoting microbial activity and oil degradation. We monitored the SIP signatures, between 0.001 Hz and 1000 Hz, for a period of six months. To support the geophysical measurements we also monitored common geochemical parameters, including pH, Eh and fluid conductivity, and collected weekly fluid samples from the outflow and inflow for further analysis; fluid samples were analyzed to confirm that microbes actively degraded the heavy oils in the column while destructive analysis of the solid materials was performed upon termination of the experiment. Preliminary analysis of the results suggests that SIP is sensitive to MEOR processes. In both inoculated columns we recorded an increase in the low frequency polarization with time; measureable

  15. Effect of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Charge Transportation in Mineral Oil and Natural Ester Based Nanofluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yuefan; LI Chengrong; L(U) Yuzhen; ZHONG Yuxiang; CHEN Mutian; ZHOU You

    2013-01-01

    TiO2 semiconductive nanoparticles are added into mineral and ester based transformer oil to form semiconductive nanofluids (SNFs) with the aim of enhancing the oil's insulating performance.Charge accumulation and decay characteristics of both pure oils and SNFs are measured by pulse electroacoustic (PEA) technique.The result reveals that compared with pure oil,SNFs have more uniform internal electric fields with voltage applied and higher charge decay rate after removing the applied voltage.This is caused by the increase of shallow trap density in SNFs,due to the test results of thermally stimulated current (TSC).It is proposed that the electron trapping and de-trapping processes in shallow traps could be the main charge transport processes in the nanofluid transformer oil.

  16. Systematic Phase Behaviour Study and Foam Stability Analysis for Optimal Alkaline/Surfactant/Foam Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini Nasab, S.M.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline-Surfactant-Foam (ASF) flooding is a recently introduced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method. This paper presents laboratory study of this ASF to better understand its mechanisms. The focus is on the interaction of ASF chemical agents with oil and in the presence and absence of naphthenic com

  17. Percutaneous penetration enhancement effect of essential oil of mint (Mentha haplocalyx Briq. on Chinese herbal components with different lipophilicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Wang

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: Mint oil at proper concentration could effectively facilitate percutaneous penetration of both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, and exhibit higher efficiency for moderate hydrophilic drugs. Mechanisms of penetration enhancement by mint oil could be explained with saturation solubility, SC/vehicle partition coefficient and the secondary structure change of SC.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH A LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is a compendium of detailed test sampling and analysis data obtained in field tests of an enhanced oil recovery steam generator (EOR steamer) equipped with a MHI PM low-NOx crude oil burner. Test data included in the report include equipment calibration records, steame...

  19. Synthetic heat carrier oil compositions based on polyalkylene glycols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of syntheses of heat carrier oils based on polyalkylene glycols (PAGs) using suitable additives have been reported. Polyalkylene glycols have been prepared by heating diethylene glycol, propylene oxide, glycols, adipic acid and 2-ethyhexanol in the presence of KOH and stannyl octoate as catalyst in the molar ratio to give proper physical properties and viscosity-temperature index. The prepared PAGs have been taken as basic components for heat carrier oil compositions. In order to improve the thermal stability and viscosity indices, as well as other specifications, anti-oxidant and anti-foaming additives were added to the base material to reach optimum compositions. Thermal stability, mass loss on vaporization at 250 oC, 350 oC and changing the specifications after heating at 300 oC for 10 h have also been investigated. The obtained heat carrier oils showed comparable improved properties in comparison with commercially available heat carriers

  20. The impact of graphene oxide particles on viscosity stabilization for diluted polymer solutions using in enhanced oil recovery at HTHP offshore reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 60% of the original oil in a place (OOIP) is retained in a reservoir after conventional methods have been exploited. Application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technology gives an additional chance to get out possibly about 20% more oil from the reservoir. The use of water-soluble polymers improves the water–oil mobility ratio, therefore, the displacement efficiency increased, and leads to enhanced oil recovery. High-molecular-weight polyacrylamide group is widely and successfully used in EOR. But no commercial polymer composition can be used in conditions of high temperature and hardness brine offshore reservoirs yet. To avoid the time consumption and high expense for selection and synthesis of the appropriate-structural polymer for EOR application, we attempt to find additives to enhance the thermal stability of polymer solutions. In this paper, we report the results of improved viscosity stability of diluted polymer/seawater solutions aged at reservoir conditions for 31days by adding graphite-oxide particles (GOs). In the presence of 300 ppm of GOs, the viscosity stability of 1700 ppm acrylamide-based polymer in sea water solution increases from 92 °C to 135 °C. FESEM pictures show good distribution of GOs in polymer network, which is a result of integration of functional groups in GOs surfaces and hydrophilic polymer chains. (paper)

  1. The impact of graphene oxide particles on viscosity stabilization for diluted polymer solutions using in enhanced oil recovery at HTHP offshore reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Nguyen, Ba; Kien Ngo, Trung; Bui, Truong Han; Khanh Pham, Duy; Loc Dinh, Xuan; Nguyen, Phuong Tung

    2015-03-01

    Over 60% of the original oil in a place (OOIP) is retained in a reservoir after conventional methods have been exploited. Application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technology gives an additional chance to get out possibly about 20% more oil from the reservoir. The use of water-soluble polymers improves the water-oil mobility ratio, therefore, the displacement efficiency increased, and leads to enhanced oil recovery. High-molecular-weight polyacrylamide group is widely and successfully used in EOR. But no commercial polymer composition can be used in conditions of high temperature and hardness brine offshore reservoirs yet. To avoid the time consumption and high expense for selection and synthesis of the appropriate-structural polymer for EOR application, we attempt to find additives to enhance the thermal stability of polymer solutions. In this paper, we report the results of improved viscosity stability of diluted polymer/seawater solutions aged at reservoir conditions for 31days by adding graphite-oxide particles (GOs). In the presence of 300 ppm of GOs, the viscosity stability of 1700 ppm acrylamide-based polymer in sea water solution increases from 92 °C to 135 °C. FESEM pictures show good distribution of GOs in polymer network, which is a result of integration of functional groups in GOs surfaces and hydrophilic polymer chains.

  2. Biodiesel Production from Spent Fish Frying Oil Through Acid-Base Catalyzed Transesterification

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalrahman B. Fadhil; Mohammed M. Dheyab; Kareem M. Ahmed; Marwa H. Yahya

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel fuels were prepared from a special type of frying oil namely spent fish frying oil through two step transesterification viz. acid-base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The oil was pre-treated with (1.0 wt% HCl) and methanol to reduce free fatty acids content of the oil. Then, conditions of the base catalyzed step such as base concentration, reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction...

  3. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Enhanced dc conductivity of low volume-fraction nano-particulate suspensions in silicone and perfluorinated oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. A.; Libor, Z.; Skordos, A. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2009-03-01

    The dc conductivities of several different types of nanoparticles (nickel, barium titanate and magnetite) suspended in both silicone and perfluorinated oils have been measured and contrasted. Enhanced dc conductivity through interaction between the particles and the fluid has been demonstrated, even at quite moderate fields, and different types of nanoparticles have been shown to exhibit different behavioural trends. Whilst the dc enhancement is partly related to the concentration (or spatial arrangement) of the particles as expected, there is clear evidence that energy-activated (electric field activated) processes also play a major role. It can be said that effective-medium theories based solely on the electrical properties and volume fractions of the component materials have limited applicability when assessing the dc conductivities of these nanoparticle-fluid combinations at low volume fractions.

  4. Diets based on virgin olive oil or fish oil but not on sunflower oil prevent age-related alveolar bone resorption by mitochondrial-related mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bullon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old and old (24 months old rats. METHODS/FINDINGS: Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA, as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations. CONCLUSIONS: The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.

  5. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery and Wettability Research Program. Annual report, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, G.A.; Barrett, K.B.; Eastman, S.L.; Herd, M.D.; Jackson, J.D.; Robertson, E.P.; Thomas, C.P.

    1993-09-01

    This report covers research results for fiscal year 1991 for the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) and Wettability Research Program conducted by EG&G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory ONEL) for the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID). The program is funded by the Assistant Secretary of Fossil Energy, and managed by DOE-ID and the Bartlesville Project Office (BPO). The objectives of this multi-year program are to develop MEOR systems for application to reservoirs containing medium to heavy crude oils and to design and implement an industry cost-shared field demonstration project of the developed technology. An understanding of the controlling mechanisms will first be developed through the use of laboratory scale testing to determine the ability of microbially mediated processes to recover oil under reservoir conditions and to develop the design criteria for scale-up to the field. Concurrently with this work, the isolation and characterization of microbial species collected from various locations including target oil field environments is underway to develop more effective oil recovery systems for specific applications. Research focus includes the study of biogenic product and formation souring processes including mitigation and prevention. Souring research performed in FY 1991 also included the development of microsensor probe technology for the detection of total sulfide in collaboration with the Montana State University Center for Interfacial Microbial Process Engineering (CIMPE). Wettability research is a multi-year collaborative effort with the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center (NMPRRC) at the New Mexico institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM to evaluate reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery. Results from the wettability research will be applied to determine if alteration of wettability is a significant contributing mechanism for MEOR systems.

  6. Investigating the Potential of Nanomaterials for Enhanced Oil Recovery: State of Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Moh. Salem Ragab

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum industry has been changed by the introduction of the nanotechnology. Nanotechnology has been tried in exploration. Drilling, production, and finally in enhanced oil recovery. For EOR, nanomaterials are considered an additive to the fluid used to displace the residual oil from the reservoir, which changes the characteristics of these solutions. These nano solutions have unique properties for a wide range of applications in oil field industry.   There are several approaches for preparations of the nanomaterials; namely chemical and mechanical methods. Of course there a big difference between both of them and one can detect these variations by measuring its characterization and properties. From these methods, SEM, TEM, and EDX. The size and shape of the powder particles normally examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM while their microanalysis are normally measured energy dispersive system (EDX.   The initial stage used to investigate the performance of the nano materials for improving the oil recovery is normally done by displacing the crude oil in a flooding system and compare the final recovery factor to that of other EOR techniques such as water flooding or polymer flooding. The second step is to try to explain and interpret the results.   This work offers an extensive literature review for assessing the applications of nano materials for improving oil recovery and investigating the current recovery problems, and then evaluating the potential technical and economic benefits that nanomaterials could provide to the reservoir engineering. Several nano materials are addressed and discussed. Moreover, it investigates the effect of nano materials on the relative permeability, the retention and loss of these materials inside the formation, and the numerical simulation of the nano material flowing in the pores. 

  7. Enhanced ex situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated beach sand by supplementation with nutrients and rhamnolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Norf, H; Kalogerakis, N

    2013-12-15

    Mediterranean coastal regions are particularly exposed to oil pollution due to extensive industrialization, urbanization and transport of crude and refined oil to and from refineries. Bioremediation of contaminated beach sand through landfarming is both simple and cost-effective to implement compared to other treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of alternative nutrients on biodegradation of crude oil contaminated beach sand in an effort to reduce the time required for bioremediation employing only indigenous hydrocarbon degraders. A natural sandy soil was collected from Agios Onoufrios beach (Chania, Greece) and was contaminated with weathered crude oil. The indigenous microbial population in the contaminated sand was tested alone (control treatment) or in combination with inorganic nutrients (KNO3 and K2HPO4) to investigate their effects on oil biodegradation rates. In addition, the ability of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), in the presence of organic nutrients (uric acid and lecithin), to further stimulate biodegradation was investigated in laboratory microcosms over a 45-day period. Biodegradation was tracked by GC/MS analysis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons components and the measured concentrations were corrected for abiotic removal by hopane normalizations. It was found that the saturated fraction of the residual oil is degraded more extensively than the aromatic fraction and the bacterial growth after an incubation period of approximately 3 weeks was much greater from the bacterial growth in the control. The results show that the treatments with inorganic or organic nutrients are equally effective over almost 30 days where C12-C35n-alkanes were degraded more than 97% and polyaromatic hydrocarbons with two or three rings were degraded more than 95% within 45 days. The results clearly show that the addition of nutrients to contaminated beach sand significantly enhanced the activity of

  8. Geologic storage of carbon dioxide and enhanced oil recovery. II. Cooptimization of storage and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in oil and gas reservoirs is one possibility to reduce the amount of CO2 released to the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide injection has been used in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes since the 1970s; the traditional approach is to reduce the amount of CO2 injected per barrel of oil produced. For a sequestration process, however, the aim is to maximize both the amount of oil produced and the amount of CO2 stored. It is not readily apparent how this aim is achieved in practice. In this study, several strategies are tested via compositional reservoir simulation to find injection and production procedures that 'cooptimize' oil recovery and CO2 storage. Flow simulations are conducted on a synthetic, three dimensional, heterogeneous reservoir model. The reservoir description is stochastic in that multiple realizations of the reservoir are available. The reservoir fluid description is compositional and incorporates 14 distinct components. The results show that traditional reservoir engineering techniques such as injecting CO2 and water in sequential fashion, a so-called water-alternating-gas process, are not conducive to maximizing the CO2 stored within the reservoir. A well control process that shuts in (i.e. closes) wells producing large volumes of gas and allows shut in wells to open as reservoir pressure increases is the most successful strategy for cooptimization. This result holds for both immiscible and miscible gas injection. The strategy appears to be robust in that full physics simulations employing multiple realizations of the reservoir model all confirmed that the well control technique produced the maximum amount of oil and simultaneously stored the most CO2

  9. Effects of particle shape and size on nanofluid properties for potential Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Mohd Tengku Amran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR in oil and gas industry is very important to increase oil recovery and prolong the lifetime of a reservoir but it has been very costly and losing properties of EOR agent due to harsh condition. Nanoparticles have been used in EOR application since they are not degradable in reservoir condition and used in smaller amount compared to polymer usage. Commonly, EOR techniques are focusing on increasing the sweep efficiency by controlling the mobility ratio between reservoir fluid and injected fluid. Thus, this research aimed to analyze the nanofluid viscosity at different particle size and shape, volumetric concentration and types of dispersing fluid, as well as to determine the oil recovery performance at different nanofluid concentration. The nanofluid viscosity was investigated at nanoparticle sizes of 15nm and 60nm and shapes of 15nm spherical-solid and porous. Five nanofluid samples with concentration ranging from 0.1wt.% to 7wt.% were used to investigate the effect of volumetric concentration. Distilled water, ethanol, ethylene glycol (EG and brine were used for the effect of dispersing fluids. Oil recovery was investigated at five different concentrations of nanofluid samples through flooding test. It was found that viscosity of nanofluid increased with decreasing particle size and increasing volumetric concentration. Solid shape particle and increasing dispersing fluid viscosity resulted in higher nanofluid viscosity. The higher the nanofluid concentration, the higher the oil recovery obtained. It can be concluded that nanofluid properties have been significantly affected by the environment and the particle used for potential EOR application.

  10. Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility.

  11. Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility

  12. Influence of Viscosity of Base Oil on Effect of Additive in Cutting Oil for Hobbing : 2nd Report, Synergism of EP Additive and Rape-Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    松岡, 寛憲; 小野, 肇; 甲木, 昭; 津田, 吉広

    1996-01-01

    In our previous paper, the effects of viscosity of a cutting base oil for hobbing on the action of additives were investigated. It was revealed that a chlorinated fatty acid ester added to the high-viscosity base oil showed the best performance in terms of reducing hob wear and that the optimal content of chlorine was 3%. This paper deals with the effect of viscosity of a base oil on the synergism of EP additive and rape-seed oil. Experiments were carried out with a single fly tool. Among the...

  13. CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery: Bald Unit Test Site, Mumford Hills Oil Field, Posey County, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frailey, Scott M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Krapac, Ivan G. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Damico, James R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Okwen, Roland T. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); McKaskle, Ray W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-03-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a small-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in a sandstone within the Clore Formation (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) in order to gauge the large-scale CO2 storage that might be realized from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of mature Illinois Basin oil fields via miscible liquid CO2 flooding.

  14. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Benkai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL. This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grinding temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven vegetable oil types. Results revealed that (1 castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (2 palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (3 MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil; (4 viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding temperature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils; (5 although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less viscous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature; (6 saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid; and (7 a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7% energy

  15. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coe cient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using di erent vegetable oils as base oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grind-ing temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven veg-etable oil types. Results revealed that (1) castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(2) palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(3) MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil;(4) viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding tem-perature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils;(5) although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less vis-cous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature;(6) saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid;and (7) a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7%energy ratio coefficient

  16. Analysis of Enhanced Associativity Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said A. Shaar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces an analysis to the performance of the Enhanced Associativity Based Routing protocol (EABR based on two factors; Operation complexity (OC and Communication Complexity (CC. OC can be defined as the number of steps required in performing a protocol operation, while CC can be defined as the number of messages exchanged in performing a protocol operation[1]. The values represent the worst-case analysis. The EABR has been analyzed based on CC and OC and the results have been compared with another routing technique called ABR. The results have shown that EABR can perform better than ABR in many circumstances during the route reconstruction.

  17. Acetic acid based oil palm biomass refining process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Lips, S.J.J.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Engelen-Smit, N.P.E.

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for refining a biomass from empty fruit bunches of oil palm with a dry matter content of 5-95 wt.%, based on the total wt. of the biomass, where the process comprises the subsequent stages of (a) water extn. under atm. pressure conditions and at pH of 5-7, (b) pre

  18. Feruloylated Soybean Oil: Novel Soy-Based Cosmeceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have synthesized novel, lipid-based cosmeceutical ingredients by incorporating ferulic acid onto the glycerol backbone of soybean oil. Ferulic acid is present in nature esterified to other plant components, such as the hemicellulose and lignin fractions of plant cell walls, as well as in the wax...

  19. Energy: China to Complete Key Oil Bases Soon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China will complete the construction of its first four strategic oil reserves by the end of 2008. "The progress has been smooth and all the four bases will be completed by the year end," Zhang Guobao, administrator of the National Energy Administration (NEA), said after a press conference in Beijing in mid-August.

  20. Performances of cutting fluids in turning. Vegetable based oil - RV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Scope of the present measurement campaign is the evaluation of the cutting fluid performance. The report presents the standard routine and the results obtained when turning stainless steel and brass with a commercial vegetable based oil called RV. The methods were developed to be applicable...

  1. β-Cyclodextrin associated polymeric systems: Rheology, flow behavior in porous media and enhanced heavy oil recovery performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bing

    2015-12-10

    This proof of concept research evaluates an approach to improve the enhanced heavy oil recovery performance of conventional polymers. Three associated polymeric systems, based on hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, xanthan gum, and a novel hydrophobic copolymer, were proposed in this work. The results of the theoretically rheology study indicate that these systems offer superior viscoelasticity and pronounced shear-thinning behavior due to the "interlocking effect". As a result of the surfactant collaboration, the dynamic interfacial tension between oil and polymer solution can be reduced by two orders of magnitude. Sandpack flooding tests demonstrated the capacity of the developed systems in mobility control during propagating in porous media, and the adsorption behavior was represented by the thickness of the adsorbed layer. The relationship between microscopic efficiency and capillary number indicated that the associated systems can significantly reduce the residual oil saturation due to the synergistic effect of the mobility reduction and surface activity, and the overall recovery efficiency was raised by 2-20% OOIP compared to the baseline polymers. PMID:26428140

  2. The in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery in fractured porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudmand-asli, Alireza; Ayatollahi, S. Shahab; Zareie, Maryam [School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran); Mohabatkar, Hassan [Department of Biology, School of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran); Shariatpanahi, S. Farzad [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran)

    2007-08-15

    These experiments aim to investigate the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technique in fractured porous media using etched-glass micromodels. Three identically patterned micromodels with different fracture angle orientation of inclined, vertical and horizontal with respect to the flow direction were utilized. A non-fractured model was also used to compare the efficiency of MEOR in fractured and non-fractured porous media. Two types of bacteria were employed: Bacillus subtilis (a biosurfactant-producing bacterium) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (an exopolymer-producing bacterium). The results show that higher oil recovery efficiency can be achieved by using biosurfactant-producing bacterium in fractured porous media. Further investigation on the effect of the mentioned bacteria on oil viscosity, porous media permeability and wettability suggests that the plugging of matrix-fracture interfaces by an exopolymer is the main reason for the low performance of the exopolymer-producing bacterium. Oil viscosity reduction as well as the reduction of IFT was also found to be the reason for better microbial recovery efficiencies of biosurfactant-producing bacterium in the fractured models. (author)

  3. Inhalation of Shin-I essential oil enhances lactate clearance in treadmill exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsuan-Ying Chen; Ming-Fu Wang; Jun-Ying Lin; Ying-Chieh Tsai; Fu-Chou Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of Shin-I essential oil inhalation on blood lactate changes in rats subjected to treadmill exercise.Methods: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n=12) were randomly divided into the control or the Shin-I group. Rats were subjected to a treadmill exercise program (15 m/min for 30 min). After exercise, rats were exposed to 200 µL of water or Shin-I essential oil, respectively, using a nebulizer for 180 min during the recovery period. Blood samples were collected every 15 min. Blood glucose and lactate concentrations were determined in a CMA 600 analyzer.Results: The basal glucose and lactate levels were no significantly different between two groups. After exercise, glucose levels were slightly increased to about 110%-120% of the basal level in both groups. Lactate levels of both groups reached to 110%-140% of basal levels during exercise. In the recovery period, lactate levels further increased to 180% of the basal level and were maintained at a plateau in the control group. However, lactate levels gradually decreased to 60%-65% of the basal level in the Shin-I group. Lactate clearance was significantly enhanced after Shin-I essential oil inhalation.Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that Shin-I essential oil inhalation may accelerate recovery after exercise in rats.

  4. Optimization of Spore Forming Bacteria Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery in North Sea Chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to study microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) in chalk reservoirs. The present study focused on core flooding experiments to see microbial plugging and its effect on oil recovery. A pressure tapped core holder with pressure ports at 1.2 cm, 3.8 cm, and 6.3 cm from the inlet...... was used for this purpose. A spore forming bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis 421, was used as it was shown to be a good candidate in the previous study. Bacterial spore can penetrate deeper into the chalk rock, squeezing through the pore throats. Our results show that B. licheniformis 421 when injected...... as a secondary technique can recover 4% more of the original oil in place (OOIP) as compared with the seawater flooding. Furthermore, when applied as tertiary technique it can recover 1.4% OOIP of the residual oil. The effective permeability decreased in the first two sections of the core (0-1.2 cm and 1...

  5. Enhanced Bioavailability of EPA From Emulsified Fish Oil Preparations Versus Capsular Triacylglycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Bukowski, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    For those individuals who are unable to consume adequate long chain omega-3 fatty acids (LCn3) from dietary sources, fish oil supplementation is an attractive alternative Pre-emulsified fish oil supplements, an alternative to capsular triacylglycerol, may enhance the uptake of LCn3 fatty acids it contains. A randomized, Latin-square crossover design was used to compare the effects of four fish oil supplement preparations (Emulsions S, B and N) on phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations in ten healthy volunteers compared to oil capsules over 48 h after a single dose and chylomicron fatty acid (CMFA) was evaluated over 8 h. Blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h and fatty acid concentrations of PLFA and CMFA were determined by gas chromatography and the integrated area under the curve over 40 h (iAUC0-48) was determined. Emulsion S and Emulsion N promoted increased uptake of EPA into PLFA over 48 h when evaluating by iAUC0-48 or individual time points of assessment. No differences were observed between supplements in the CMFA concentrations.

  6. Solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin-based geopolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Formulation with 20 vol.% of oil in a geopolymer have been successful tested. • Oil waste is encapsulated as oil droplets in metakaolin-based geopolymer. • Oil/geopolymer composite present good mechanical performance. • Carbon lixiviation of oil/geopolymer composite is very low. - Abstract: The solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin based geopolymer was studied in the present work. The process consists of obtaining a stabilised emulsion of oil in a water-glass solution and then adding metakaolin to engage the setting of a geopolymer block with an oil emulsion stabilised in the material. Geopolymer/oil composites have been made with various oil fraction (7, 14 and 20 vol.%). The rigidity and the good mechanical properties have been demonstrated with compressive strength tests. Leaching tests evidenced the release of oil from the composite material is very limited whereas the constitutive components of the geopolymer (Na, Si and OH−) are involved into diffusion process

  7. Applicability of anaerobic nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation to microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongbo; Carlson, Han K; Coates, John D

    2013-08-01

    Microbial processes that produce solid-phase minerals could be judiciously applied to modify rock porosity with subsequent alteration and improvement of floodwater sweep in petroleum reservoirs. However, there has been little investigation of the application of this to enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Here, we investigate a unique approach of altering reservoir petrology through the biogenesis of authigenic rock minerals. This process is mediated by anaerobic chemolithotrophic nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms that precipitate iron minerals from the metabolism of soluble ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) coupled to the reduction of nitrate. This mineral biogenesis can result in pore restriction and reduced pore throat diameter. Advantageously and unlike biomass plugs, these biominerals are not susceptible to pressure or thermal degradation. Furthermore, they do not require continual substrate addition for maintenance. Our studies demonstrate that the biogenesis of insoluble iron minerals in packed-bed columns results in effective hydrology alteration and homogenization of heterogeneous flowpaths upon stimulated microbial Fe(2+) biooxidation. We also demonstrate almost 100% improvement in oil recovery from hydrocarbon-saturated packed-bed columns as a result of this metabolism. These studies represent a novel departure from traditional microbial EOR approaches and indicate the potential for nitrate-dependent Fe(2+) biooxidation to improve volumetric sweep efficiency and enhance both the quality and quantity of oil recovered. PMID:23799785

  8. Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration & Enhanced Oil Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian McPherson

    2010-08-31

    A consortium of research partners led by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration and industry partners, including CAP CO2 LLC, Blue Source LLC, Coffeyville Resources, Nitrogen Fertilizers LLC, Ash Grove Cement Company, Kansas Ethanol LLC, Headwaters Clean Carbon Services, Black & Veatch, and Schlumberger Carbon Services, conducted a feasibility study of a large-scale CCS commercialization project that included large-scale CO{sub 2} sources. The overall objective of this project, entitled the 'Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project' was to design an integrated system of US mid-continent industrial CO{sub 2} sources with CO{sub 2} capture, and geologic sequestration in deep saline formations and in oil field reservoirs with concomitant EOR. Findings of this project suggest that deep saline sequestration in the mid-continent region is not feasible without major financial incentives, such as tax credits or otherwise, that do not exist at this time. However, results of the analysis suggest that enhanced oil recovery with carbon sequestration is indeed feasible and practical for specific types of geologic settings in the Midwestern U.S.

  9. Determination of technology transfer requirements for enhanced oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, T.D.; Scott, J.P.

    1980-09-01

    A detailed field study was conducted to determine the technical information needs of current and potential users of enhanced oil recovery data. Under the direction of the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC), the study (1) identifies groups which have a need for EOR-related information, (2) delineate the specific information needs of each user-group, and (3) outlines methods for improved transfer of appropriate information to the end users. This study also assesses attitudes toward the EOR-related efforts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the BETC, and the role each should play in facilitating the commercialization of EOR processes. More than 300 users and potential users of EOR information were surveyed. Included in the survey sample were representatives of major oil companies, independent oil companies, engineering consulting firms, university and private research organizations, financial institutions and federal, state, and local policy-making bodies. In-depth questionnaires were specifically designed for each group. This study analyzes each group's position pertaining to (1) current level of EOR activity or interest, (2) current and projected EOR information needs, (3) assessments of the BETC's current information services and suggestions for improvement, (4) delineation of technical and economic constraints to increased EOR activity, and (5) steps the DOE might take to enhance the attractiveness of commercial EOR operations.

  10. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  11. Gas turbine efficiency enhancement using waste heat powered absorption chillers in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    through gas turbine compressor inlet air cooling using the waste heat powered absorption refrigeration scheme is of approximately 5264 MWh per year, compared to 1774 MWh for evaporative cooling. When integrated with other plant process cooling applications, the proposed scheme would not only permit to both meet gas turbine compressor inlet air cooling loads throughout the year, including peak summer loads, but also provide other process cooling during off-peaks time periods. The economic paypack period of the waste heat recovery scheme is estimated to range from 1.3 to 3.4 years for a three-chiller system based on present and project utility prices for NGPPs in the United Arab Emirates. This study suggests that waste heat absorption refrigeration is an attractive solution to enhance electrical power generation in Middle East NGPPs through gas turbine inlet air cooling, both in terms of thermodynamic and economic feasibility. This strategy would also reduce plant natural gas consumption for power generation, hence production costs and emissions. - Highlights: ► Efficiency enhancement of oil/gas plant utilizing gas turbines for power generation. ► Gas turbine inlet air cooling scheme for high ambient temperature and RH conditions. ► Proposed scheme uses absorption chillers powered by GT exhaust gases waste heat. ► Scheme performance superior to evaporative coolers and vapor compression chillers. ► Favorable scheme economic payback period and significant reduction in NG consumption.

  12. OSIS: A PC-based oil spill information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren Spring Laboratory and BMT Ceemaid Ltd. are cooperating to produce an Oil Spill Information System (OSIS) that will have worldwide application. OSIS is based on EUROSPILL, a spill simulation model originally developed under programs sponsored by the European Commission and the Marine Pollution Control Unit of the United Kingdom government's Department of Transport. OSIS is implemented in the Microsoft Windows 3.x graphical environment on a personal computer. A variety of options enables the user to input information on continuous or instantaneous spills of different types of oil under variable environmental conditions, to simulate the fate of oil and the trajectory of a spill. Model results are presented in the forms of maps, charts, graphs, and tables, displayed in multiple windows on a color monitor. Color hard copy can be produced, and OSIS can be linked to other Windows software packages, providing the opportunity to create a suite of spill incident management tools

  13. A review on applications of nanotechnology in the enhanced oil recovery part A: effects of nanoparticles on interfacial tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hendraningrat, Luky

    2016-01-01

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery is another strong growing technology with the potential of a step change innovation, which will help to secure future oil supply by turning resources into reserves. While Substantial amount of crude oil remains in the reservoir after primary and secondary production, conventional production methods give access to on average only one-third of original oil in place, the use of surfactants and polymers allows for recovery of up to another third of this oil. Chemical flooding is of increasing interest and importance due to high oil prices and the need to increase oil production. Research in nanotechnology in the petroleum industry is advancing rapidly and an enormous progress in the application of nanotechnology in this area is to be expected. Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly change enhanced oil recovery and to improve mechanism of recovery. This paper, therefore, focuses on the reviews of the application of nano technology in chemical flooding process in oil recovery and reviews the application nano in the polymer and surfactant flooding on the interfacial tension process.

  14. Mathematical modeling of the soaking period in a microbial enhanced oil recovery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behlulgil, K. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Dept.; Durgut, I. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics Dept.

    2003-09-01

    In this study, experimental conditions of the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technique applied for Garzan oil (26{sup o} API; southeast Turkey) were utilized in a mathematical model that describes the transport of bacteria and its nutrients by convective and dispersive forces, including bacterial decay and growth. From the results of the variation of bacterial concentration with distance, it was observed that the bacterial concentration increased as the nutrients were consumed with time. Although some bacteria died during the experiments, this did not slow down the overall increase in bacterial population significantly at earlier times. However, in the later periods of the soaking process, severe bacterial decay occurred due to the lack of nutrients. The pressure behavior in the model during the shut-in period was also calculated and agreed well with the experimental results. (author)

  15. Pulping byproducts as sacrificial agents in enhanced oil recovery by micellar flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Westmoreland, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    A substantial bar to implementation of enhanced oil recovery by injection of surfactant formulations is the cost of large volumes of the chemicals. A large fraction of the chemicals is lost by adsorption on the minerals in oil-bearing formations or by precipitation by ions in the connate water or displaced from the minerals. Besides the cost, losses make difficult control of the intricate chemistry needed for optimal conditions. Cheap chemicals which would modify the formation by adsorbing competitively on the formation or by sequestering interfering ions could be important in advancing the approach. Substances generated in the pulping of wood by the kraft process are of possible interest, and evaluations of several are presented here. Of these, sodium saccharinate, caustic extract from bleaching, and weak black liquor seem promising.

  16. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jr., James S.; Westmoreland, Clyde G.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  17. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research. Annual report, September 1988--August 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  18. Use of the photoacoustic spectroscopy for characterization of magnetic fluid based on mamona oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, L. B.; Webler, G. D.; Oliveira, A. C.; Garg, V. K.; Santos, J. G.; Morais, P. C.

    2010-03-01

    In this study the photoacoustic spectroscopy was used to investigate the interaction between colloidal suspended nanosized maghemite particles and molecules present in mamona oil (ricinus communis L.). Maghemite nanoparticles were used to produce a magnetic fluid sample dispersed in mamona oil (MF-Mamona oil). In the L-band region (600 to 900 nm) of the photoacoustic spectra we found the photoacustic signal of sample MF-Mamona oil enhanced with respect to the signal of the purified mamona oil. This finding is claimed to be the signature of the strong interaction between the mamona oil's molecules and the solid surface provided by the suspended nanosized maghemite particles.

  19. Use of the photoacoustic spectroscopy for characterization of magnetic fluid based on mamona oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, L B; Webler, G D; Santos, J G [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Rondonia/NCT/UNIR, BR 364, Km 9.5. Porto Velho - RO. CEP 78.900-000 (Brazil); Oliveira, A C; Garg, V K; Morais, P C, E-mail: lbatistadasilveira@gmail.co [Instituto de Fisica, Nucleo de Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Brasilia BrasIlia-DF CEP 70919-970 (Brazil)

    2010-03-01

    In this study the photoacoustic spectroscopy was used to investigate the interaction between colloidal suspended nanosized maghemite particles and molecules present in mamona oil (ricinus communis L.). Maghemite nanoparticles were used to produce a magnetic fluid sample dispersed in mamona oil (MF-Mamona oil). In the L-band region (600 to 900 nm) of the photoacoustic spectra we found the photoacustic signal of sample MF-Mamona oil enhanced with respect to the signal of the purified mamona oil. This finding is claimed to be the signature of the strong interaction between the mamona oil's molecules and the solid surface provided by the suspended nanosized maghemite particles.

  20. 26 CFR 1.954-8 - Foreign base company oil related income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (“extraction exception”), or (ii) Oil, gas, or a primary product of oil or gas which is sold by the controlled... daily production (extraction) of foreign crude oil and natural gas by the related group which includes...) (extraction exception under paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section (75x) (D) Foreign base company oil...

  1. Fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiurong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intestinal chronic rejection (CR is the major limitation to long-term survival of transplanted organs. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplantation, and to find out whether fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The luminal and mucosal microbiota composition of CR rats were characterized by DGGE analysis at 190 days after intestinal transplant. The specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. Furthermore, changes in the localization of intestinal TJ proteins were examined by immunofluorescent staining. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that gut microbiota in CR rats had a shift towards Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp and a decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillales bacteria in the intestines. Fish oil supplementation could enhance the recovery of gut microbiota, showing a significant decrease of gut bacterial proportions of E. coli and Bacteroides spp and an increase of Lactobacillales spp. In addition, CR rats showed pronounced alteration of tight junction, depicted by marked changes in epithelial cell ultrastructure and redistribution of occuldin and claudins as well as disruption in TJ barrier function. Fish oil administration ameliorated disruption of epithelial integrity in CR, which was associated with an improvement of the mucosal structure leading to improved tight junctions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study have presented novel evidence that fish oil is involved in the maintenance of epithelial TJ integrity and recovery of gut microbiota, which may have therapeutic potential against CR in intestinal transplantation.

  2. Enhancement of skin permeation of ibuprofen from ointments and gels by sesame oil, sunflower oil and oleic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda S; Vijay Ratna J

    2006-01-01

    Several batches of paraffin ointments were prepared and ibuprofen was incorporated into them. Sesame oil, sunflower oil, and oleic acid in different concentrations were incorporated into different batches. Commercial ibuprofen gel was obtained and divided into several batches and different concentrations of sesame oil, sunflower oil, and oleic acid were incorporated into them. The in vitro drug release characteristics through hairless (88 mm) rat skin was carried out by using modified Inser...

  3. Research on surfactant flooding in high temperature and high-salinity reservoir for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ming [Southwest Petroleum Univ., Chengdu, Sichuan (China). State Key Lab. of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation; Southwest Petroleum Univ., Chengdu, Sichuan (China). School of Material Science and Engineering; Zhao, Jinzhou; Yang, Yan [Southwest Petroleum Univ., Chengdu, Sichuan (China). State Key Lab. of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation; Wang, Xu [Southwest Petroleum Univ., Chengdu, Sichuan (China). School of Material Science and Engineering

    2013-05-15

    The aim of this work was to research the solution properties of a new surfactant flooding system for high temperature and high salinity reservoir, which include trimeric sulfonate surfactants 1,2,3-tri(2-oxypropyl sulfonation-3-alkylether-propoxyl) propanes (TTSS-n) and anion-nonionic surfactant NPSO [sodium nonyl phenol polyethyleneoxy ether sulfonate, (EO = 10)]. The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of five trimeric sulfonate surfactants were smaller than 400 mg L{sup -1}. Furthermore, their interfacial tensions (IFTs) could reach an ultralow value with Tazhong 4 oil at lower concentrations. Through optimized formulation, we found that TTSS-12 had better properties and was selected as the major component of the surfactant flooding system. We designed an optimal formulation of the surfactant flooding system with 1000 mg . L{sup -1} TTSS-12 and 1000 mg . L{sup -1} NPSO surfactant. The system with a very small surfactant concentration could reach ultralow IFT with Tazhong 4 crude oils at high temperature (110 C) and high concentration formation brine (112,228.8 mg/L TDS), which proved that the simpler component surfactant had better reservoir compatibility. NPSO could weaken the disadvantage of the surfactant TTSS-12 in oil/water interface. The stability of this surfactant flooding system was evaluated by aging time, static adsorption and chromatographic separation. All experiments showed that it still keeps ultralow IFT in high temperature and high salinity conditions. Coreflooding experimentation showed that average oil recovery reached 9.8 wt% by surfactant flooding, therefore, it is feasible to use as a surfactant flooding system for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). (orig.)

  4. Mixing in three-phase systems: Implications for enhanced oil recovery and unconventional gas extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Porter, M. L.; Hyman, J.; Carey, J. W.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Although the mixing of fluids within a porous media is a common process in natural and industrial systems, how the degree of mixing depends on the miscibility of multiple phases is poorly characterized. Often, the direct consequence of miscible mixing is the modification of the resident fluid (brine and hydrocarbons) rheological properties. We investigate supercritical (sc)CO2 displacement and mixing processes in a three-phase system (scCO2, oil, and H2O) using a microfluidics experimental system that accommodates the high pressures and temperatures encountered in fossil fuel extraction operations. The miscibility of scCO2 with the resident fluids, low with aqueous solutions and high with hydrocarbons, impacts the mixing processes that control sweep efficiency in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and the unlocking of the system in unconventional oil and gas extraction. Using standard volume-averaging techniques we upscale the aqueous phase saturation to the field-scale (i.e., Darcy scale) and interpret the results as a simpler two-phase system. This process allows us to perform a statistical analysis to quantify i) the degree of heterogeneity in the system resulting from the immiscible H2O and ii) how that heterogeneity impacts mixing between scCO2 and oil and their displacement. Our results show that when scCO2 is used for miscible displacement, the presence of an aqueous solution, which is common in secondary and tertiary EOR and unconventional oil and gas extraction, strongly impacts the mixing of scCO2 with the hydrocarbons due to low scCO2-H2O miscibility. H2O, which must be displaced advectively by the injected scCO2, introduces spatio-temporal variability into the system that acts as a barrier between the two miscibile fluids. This coupled with the effect of viscosity contrast, i.e., viscous fingering, has an impact on the mixing of the more miscible pair.

  5. Speech Enhancement based on Compressive Sensing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulong, Amart; Gunawan, Teddy S.; Khalifa, Othman O.; Chebil, Jalel

    2013-12-01

    There are various methods, in performance of speech enhancement, have been proposed over the years. The accurate method for the speech enhancement design mainly focuses on quality and intelligibility. The method proposed with high performance level. A novel speech enhancement by using compressive sensing (CS) is a new paradigm of acquiring signals, fundamentally different from uniform rate digitization followed by compression, often used for transmission or storage. Using CS can reduce the number of degrees of freedom of a sparse/compressible signal by permitting only certain configurations of the large and zero/small coefficients, and structured sparsity models. Therefore, CS is significantly provides a way of reconstructing a compressed version of the speech in the original signal by taking only a small amount of linear and non-adaptive measurement. The performance of overall algorithms will be evaluated based on the speech quality by optimise using informal listening test and Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ). Experimental results show that the CS algorithm perform very well in a wide range of speech test and being significantly given good performance for speech enhancement method with better noise suppression ability over conventional approaches without obvious degradation of speech quality.

  6. Offshore disposal of oil-based drilling fluid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offshore drilling operations in the Gulf of Mexico may use oil-based drilling fluids to mitigate drilling problems. The result is the generation of a significant quantity of oily cuttings and mud. The transportation of this waste for onshore disposal is a concern from a standpoint of both personnel safety and potential environmental impact. A process for preparing a slurry of this waste and the subsequent disposal of the slurry through annular pumping has been put into use by ARCO Oil and Gas Company. The disposal technique has been approved by the Minerals Management Service (MMS). The slurried waste is displaced down a casing annulus into a permeable zone at a depth below the surface casing setting depth. The annular disposal includes all cuttings and waste oil mud generated during drilling with oil-based fluids. This disposal technique negates the need for cuttings storage on the platform, transportation to shore, and the environmental effects of onshore surface disposal. The paper describes the environmental and safety concerns with onshore disposal, the benefits of annular disposal, and the equipment and process used for the preparation and pumping of the slurry

  7. Olive Oil Based Emulsions in Frozen Puff Pastry Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Puff pastry is an interesting food product having different industrial applications. It is obtained by laminating layers of dough and fats, mainly shortenings or margarine, having specific properties which provides required spreading characteristic and able to retain moisture into dough. To obtain these characteristics, pastry shortenings are usually saturated fats, however the current trend in food industry is mainly oriented towards unsatured fats such as olive oil, which are thought to be safer for human health. In the present work, a new product, based on olive oil, was studied as shortening replacer in puff pastry production. To ensure the desired consistency, for the rheological matching between fat and dough, a water-in-oil emulsion was produced based on olive oil, emulsifier and a hydrophilic thickener agent able to increase material structure. Obtained materials were characterized by rheological dynamic tests in linear viscoelastic conditions, aiming to setup process and material consistency, and rheological data were analyzed by using the weak gel model. Results obtained for tested emulsions were compared to theological properties of a commercial margarine, adopted as reference value for texture and stability. Obtained emulsions are characterized by interesting rheological properties strongly dependent on emulsifier characteristics and water phase composition. However a change in process temperature during fat extrusion and dough lamination seems to be necessary to match properly typical dough rheological properties.

  8. Synthesis and properties of radiation modified thermally cured castor oil based polyurethanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortley, Aba; Bonin, H. W.; Bui, V. T.

    2007-12-01

    Thermally cured polyurethanes were prepared from castor oil and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI). Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were exposed to doses up to 3.0 MGy produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The physico-mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. A four-fold increase in modulus and tensile strength values from 0.930 to 4.365 MPa and 0.149 to 0.747 MPa, respectively, suggests improved physico-mechanical properties resulting from radiation. The changing areas of the carbonyl and the NH absorbance peaks and the disappearance of the isocyanate peak in the FTIR spectra as radiation progressed, indicates increased hydrogen bonding and intermolecular crosslinking, which is in agreement with the mechanical tests. Unchanging 13C solid state NMR spectra imply limited sample degradation with increasing radiation.

  9. Synthesis and properties of radiation modified thermally cured castor oil based polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermally cured polyurethanes were prepared from castor oil and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI). Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were exposed to doses up to 3.0 MGy produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The physico-mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. A four-fold increase in modulus and tensile strength values from 0.930 to 4.365 MPa and 0.149 to 0.747 MPa, respectively, suggests improved physico-mechanical properties resulting from radiation. The changing areas of the carbonyl and the NH absorbance peaks and the disappearance of the isocyanate peak in the FTIR spectra as radiation progressed, indicates increased hydrogen bonding and intermolecular crosslinking, which is in agreement with the mechanical tests. Unchanging 13C solid state NMR spectra imply limited sample degradation with increasing radiation

  10. Influence of physical and chemical methods of enhanced oil recovery in formation microflora and properties of crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, A. G.; Altunina, L. K.; Svarovskaya, L. I.; Ovsyannikova, V. S.; Filatov, D. A.; Chuikina, D. I.

    2015-10-01

    The results of the analyzes of crude oil and produced water from wells in the areas of pilot testing of new flow deflection and oil-displacing Compounds developed in the Institute of Petroleum Chemistry SB RAS. It was found that changes in the properties and Compound of the oil and water mainly occur in the redistribution of filtration flows and integration in the development of the previously unwashed areas, as well as in washing off the residual heavy oil from the reservoir rock, and in some wells - due to formation biocenosis, contributing to desorption of oil from the rock.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROORGANISMS WITH IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND BIOSURFACTANT ACTIVITY FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    Diverse microorganisms were screened for biosurfactant production and anaerobic growth at elevated salt concentrations to obtain candidates most suitable for microbial oil recovery. Seventy percent of the 205 strains tested, mostly strains of Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus sonorensis, produced biosurfactants aerobically and 41% of the strains had biosurfactant activity greater than Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, the current candidate for oil recovery. Biosurfactant activity varied with the percentage of the 3-hydroxy-tetradecanoate isomers in the fatty acid portion of the biosurfactant. Changing the medium composition by incorporation of different precursors of 3-hydroxy tetradecanoate increased the activity of biosurfactant. The surface tension and critical micelle concentration of 15 different, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains was determined individually and in combination with other biosurfactants. Some biosurfactant mixtures were found to have synergistic effect on surface tension (e.g. surface tension was lowered from 41 to 31 mN/m in some cases) while others had a synergistic effect on CMD-1 values. We compared the transport abilities of spores from three Bacillus strains using a model porous system to study spore recovery and transport. Sand-packed columns were used to select for spores or cells with the best transport abilities through brine-saturated sand. Spores of Bacillus mojavensis strains JF-2 and ROB-2 and a natural recombinant, strain C-9, transported through sand at very high efficiencies. The earliest cells/spores that emerged from the column were re-grown, allowed to sporulate, and applied to a second column. This procedure greatly enhanced the transport of strain C-9. Spores with enhanced transport abilities can be easily obtained and that the preparation of inocula for use in MEOR is feasible. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that 10 to 40 mg/l of JF-2 biosurfactant in the presence of 0

  12. Bacterial biosurfactants, and their role in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khire, J M

    2010-01-01

    Surfactants are chemically synthesized surface-active compounds widely used for large number of applications in various industries. During last few years there is increase demand of biological surface-active compounds or biosurfactants which are produced by large number of microorganisms as they exert biodegradability, low toxicity and widespread application compared to chemical surfactants. They can be used as emulsifiers, de-emulsifiers, wetting agents, spreading agents, foaming agents, functional food ingredients and detergents. Various experiments at laboratory scale on sand-pack columns and field trials have successfully indicated effectiveness of biosurfactants in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). PMID:20545280

  13. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery-Laboratory Experiments with a Strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimoh, Ismaila Adetunji

    the desired metabolic products needed for enhanced oil recovery. In this study, experiments have been performed with a strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum. The experiments focused on salinity adaptation, gas production and the ability of microbes to modify rock properties. The result of the experiments showed...... that the strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum adapted to 10, 30, 50, and 90 g/l before the start of the experiments produce more gas with an increase factor of between 0.39-6.9 for the same salinity condition than the pure culture. The adaptation process also led to the production of a strain 90F which can grow...

  14. Comparison of Formulas Based on Lipid Emulsions of Olive Oil, Soybean Oil, or Several Oils for Parenteral Nutrition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu-Jie; Sun, Li-Li; Li, Meng-Ying; Ding, Cui-Ling; Su, Yu-Cheng; Sun, Li-Juan; Xue, Sen-Hai; Yan, Feng; Zhao, Chang-Hai; Wang, Wen

    2016-03-01

    Many studies have reported that olive oil-based lipid emulsion (LE) formulas of soybean oil, medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil (SMOF) may be a viable alternative for parenteral nutrition. However, some randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) have raised concerns regarding the nutritional benefits and safety of SMOFs. We searched principally the MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases from inception to March 2014 for the relevant literature and conducted a meta-analysis of 15 selected RCTs that 1) compared either olive oil- or SMOF-based LEs with soybean oil-based LEs and 2) reported plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol, oleic acid, and ω-6 (n-6) and ω-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and liver concentrations of total bilirubin and the enzymes alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl transferase. The meta-analysis suggested that SMOF-based LEs were associated with higher plasma concentrations of plasma α-tocopherol, oleic acid, and the ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Olive oil- and SMOF-based LEs correlated with lower plasma concentrations of long-chain ω-6 PUFAs and were similar to soybean oil-based LEs with regard to their effects on liver function indicators. In summary, olive oil- and SMOF-based LEs have nutritional advantages over soybean oil-based LEs and are similarly safe. However, their performance in clinical settings requires further investigation. PMID:26980811

  15. Comparison of Formulas Based on Lipid Emulsions of Olive Oil, Soybean Oil, or Several Oils for Parenteral Nutrition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu-Jie; Sun, Li-Li; Li, Meng-Ying; Ding, Cui-Ling; Su, Yu-Cheng; Sun, Li-Juan; Xue, Sen-Hai; Yan, Feng; Zhao, Chang-Hai; Wang, Wen

    2016-03-01

    Many studies have reported that olive oil-based lipid emulsion (LE) formulas of soybean oil, medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil (SMOF) may be a viable alternative for parenteral nutrition. However, some randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) have raised concerns regarding the nutritional benefits and safety of SMOFs. We searched principally the MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases from inception to March 2014 for the relevant literature and conducted a meta-analysis of 15 selected RCTs that 1) compared either olive oil- or SMOF-based LEs with soybean oil-based LEs and 2) reported plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol, oleic acid, and ω-6 (n-6) and ω-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and liver concentrations of total bilirubin and the enzymes alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl transferase. The meta-analysis suggested that SMOF-based LEs were associated with higher plasma concentrations of plasma α-tocopherol, oleic acid, and the ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Olive oil- and SMOF-based LEs correlated with lower plasma concentrations of long-chain ω-6 PUFAs and were similar to soybean oil-based LEs with regard to their effects on liver function indicators. In summary, olive oil- and SMOF-based LEs have nutritional advantages over soybean oil-based LEs and are similarly safe. However, their performance in clinical settings requires further investigation.

  16. TREATABILITY STUDY FOR EDIBLE OIL DEPLOYMENT FOR ENHANCED CVOC ATTENUATION FOR T-AREA, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, B.; Looney, B.; Noonkester, J.; Hyde, W.; Walker, R.

    2012-05-15

    Groundwater beneath T-Area, a former laboratory and semiworks operation at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), is contaminated by chlorinated solvents (cVOCs). Since the contamination was detected in the 1980s, the cVOCs at T-Area have been treated by a combination of soil vapor extraction and groundwater pump and treat. The site received approval to temporarily discontinue the active groundwater treatment and implement a treatability study of enhanced attenuation - an engineering and regulatory strategy that has recently been developed by DOE and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC 2007). Enhanced attenuation uses active engineering solutions to alter the target site in such a way that the contaminant plume will passively stabilize and shrink and to document that the action will be effective, timely, and sustainable. The paradigm recognizes that attenuation remedies are fundamentally based on a mass balance. Thus, long-term plume dynamics can be altered either by reducing the contaminant loading from the source or by increasing the rate of natural attenuation processes within all, or part of, the plume volume. The combination of technologies that emerged for T-Area included: (1) neat (pure) vegetable oil deployment in the deep vadose zone in the former source area, (2) emulsified vegetable oil deployment within the footprint of the groundwater plume, and (3) identification of attenuation mechanisms and rates for the distal portion of the plume. In the first part, neat oil spreads laterally forming a thin layer on the water table to intercept and reduce future cVOC loading (via partitioning) and reduce oxygen inputs (via biostimulation). In the second and third parts, emulsified oil forms active bioremediation reactor zones within the plume footprint to degrade existing groundwater contamination (via reductive dechlorination and/or cometabolism) and stimulates long-term attenuation capacity in the distal plume (via

  17. A study of the chemical composition of black cumin oil and its effect on penetration enhancement from transdermal formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Saima; Mir, Showkat R; Kohli, Kanchan; Ali, Babar; Ali, Mohd

    2010-07-01

    The chemical composition of the solvent extracted fixed oil of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds was determined by capillary GC and GC/MS. Thirty-two fatty acids (99.9%) have been identified in the fixed oil. The major fatty acids were linoleic acid (50.2%), oleic acid (19.9%), margaric acid (10.3%), cis-11,14-eicosadienoic acid (7.7%) and stearic acid (2.5%). The effect of black cumin oil on in vitro percutaneous absorption of the model lipophilic drug carvedilol was investigated using excised rat abdominal skin. Transdermal flux, permeability coefficient and enhancement factor were calculated for different concentrations of oil in isopropyl alcohol. Black cumin oil (5% v/v) exhibited the highest enhancement in permeation. The increase in the permeability of the drug is due to increased drug diffusivity through the stratum corneum under the influence of black cumin oil. A higher content of linoleic acid (and other unsaturated fatty acids) in the oil has been postulated to be responsible for the enhancement of in vitro percutaneous absorption of the drug. PMID:20582810

  18. Integrated well-completion strategies with CHOPS to enhance heavy-oil production : a case study in Fula Oilfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Zou, H. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]|[Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, G.; Nie, C. [China National Oil and Gas Exploration and Development Corp., Beijing (China); Chen, J. [Shengli Oil Field (China)

    2005-11-01

    Cold Heavy Oil Production with Sand (CHOPS) is an enhanced oil recovery method that induces sand production to form a network of wormholes that increase the porosity and permeability of a formation. Under proper conditions, CHOPS can improve formation flow characteristics. Integrated well completion strategies that were used to increase oil production at Fula oil field on the south flank of Mughad Basin in Sudan were described. Limited sand influx provided a means for effective sand control while eliminating the need for conventional sand control processes. Cold heavy oil production with limited sand influx requires optimized completion methods to stimulate sand production, thereby reducing oil flow resistance and prolonging the sand removal operation cycle. Completion tests were performed in terms of different formation conditions including perforating completion; perforating and full sand control completion by screen liner; and perforating and limited sand control completion by slotted liner. Particle settling experiments for different sizes of sand samples for were also performed using clear water, guar gel and silicone oil. The wellbore sand washing treatment was described along with surface oil and separation technologies. The lifting capability of the sand for crude oil was also examined. Results indicate that 0.9 mm of sand moved up with the heavy oil to the surface while 510 mPa.s of viscous oil was lifted in 3.5 inch tubing. The use of a progressing cavity pump initiated sand influx but only 15 per cent solids were controlled to form wormholes to improve the permeability of the pay zone. Twenty heavy oil wells were equipped with progressing cavity pumps, and the average oil rate of each well was increased from 175 bopd to 580 bopd. It was noted that the best well had a peak production rate of 1200 bopd. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Research and Application of Radiation Processed Polymers to Enhance Oil Recovery in Petroleum Industry - Current Status and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of polymers for enhanced oil recovery has been carried out by radiation copolymerization method involving two monomers of acrylamide and N-vinyl-2- pyrrolidone, and N-methylpyrrolidone used as an anti-gel agent. The properties and oil recovery efficiency of polymer solution was discussed. The studied polymer dissolved in water and in saline water. They have non-precipitating behavior in hard brines at high temperature (>120oC) and their viscosity decreased 20% after heating 30 days at 120oC. Evaluation of oil recovery efficiency has been carried out at Laboratory model of reservoir of oil wells were submerged, the obtained results shown that the recovery yield of oil enhanced higher than 10% in the reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. The experimental results also shown that studied polymer products are applying in effect for submerged oil wells. These studied polymers have been being planned for application in pilot scale on the White Tiger oil field one of the big oil fields in this country. (author)

  20. Marketing Risk Management of Palm Oil Based Biodiesel Agroindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Bagus Udayana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is fuel generates from vegetable oils that have properties similar to diesel oil. The advantages of biodiesel compared to diesel is an environmentally friendly fuel because it produces much lower emissions (sulfur free, low smoke number in accordance with global issues, higher cetane number (> 57 so that the combustion efficiency is better than diesel, lubrication properties of the piston engine; biodegradable, a renewable energy because it is made from natural materials, and improve the independence of fuel supply because it can be produced locally. The purpose of this research is to design the risk management decision support system for agro-industry development biodiesel of oil palm-based. Determination of objectives and risk management strategies using the used to obtain an alternative value in the aspect of marketing. This research resulted in a decision support system that is useful to help decision makers in addressing the risk of agro-bio-diesel. Risk management model is designed in a decision support system  (DSS, can be used by industrial users and investors in the field of biodiesel. DSS software development using Microsoft Visual Basic Version 6.0 consists of three main components namely database management system, knowledge base management system and model base management system. Model base management system consists of risk marketing analysis.

  1. Effects of nitrate injection on microbial enhanced oil recovery and oilfield reservoir souring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcio Luis Busi; Soares, Hugo Moreira; Furigo, Agenor; Schmidell, Willibaldo; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

    2014-11-01

    Column experiments were utilized to investigate the effects of nitrate injection on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) inhibition and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). An indigenous microbial consortium collected from the produced water of a Brazilian offshore field was used as inoculum. The presence of 150 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFA´s) in the injection water contributed to a high biological electron acceptors demand and the establishment of anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions. Continuous injection of nitrate (up to 25 mg/L) for 90 days did not inhibit souring. Contrariwise, in nitrogen-limiting conditions, the addition of nitrate stimulated the proliferation of δ-Proteobacteria (including SRB) and the associated sulfide concentration. Denitrification-specific nirK or nirS genes were not detected. A sharp decrease in water interfacial tension (from 20.8 to 14.5 mN/m) observed concomitantly with nitrate consumption and increased oil recovery (4.3 % v/v) demonstrated the benefits of nitrate injection on MEOR. Overall, the results support the notion that the addition of nitrate, at this particular oil reservoir, can benefit MEOR by stimulating the proliferation of fortuitous biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Higher nitrate concentrations exceeding the stoichiometric volatile fatty acid (VFA) biodegradation demands and/or the use of alternative biogenic souring control strategies may be necessary to warrant effective SRB inhibition down gradient from the injection wells. PMID:25149457

  2. Evaluation of enhanced virgin coconut oil and senduduk (Melastoma malabathricum) as anthelmintics against caprine strongyle nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basripuzi, H B; Sani, R A; Ariff, O M; Chandrawathani, P

    2013-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic properties of enhanced virgin coconut oil (EVCO) and senduduk (Melastoma malabathricum) plant against strongyle nematodes in goats. Two preparations of 10% EVCO dissolved in 90% virgin coconut oil and 10% EVCO dissolved in 90% palm oil, were given orally to two groups of mixed breeds goats. The efficacy test indicated that EVCO was insufficiently active as an anthelmintic. Four concentrations of senduduk solution (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg ml(-1)) were compared with a control and albendazole in an in vitro test for larvicidal effect. There was no significant larval mortality using senduduk solution. An in vivo test of senduduk was conducted by comparing three groups of goats, namely control, levamisole and treatment groups that were given a daily oral dose of senduduk crude extract with 1g kg(-1) from Day 0 to Day 12 and 2 g kg(-1) from Day 13 to Day 30. This efficacy test with senduduk also gave negative results. The findings obtained indicated that EVCO and senduduk were ineffective as anthelmintics against caprinestrongyle nematodes at the concentrations used.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HEAVY OIL LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 30-day flue gas monitoring on a 16-MW (55 million Btu/hr) enhanced oil recovery steam generator equipped with the EPA low-NOx burner firing high-nitrogen crude.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HEAVY OIL LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 30-day flue gas monitoring on a 16-MW (55 million Btu/hr) enhanced oil recovery steam generator equipped with the EPA low-NOx burner firing high-nitrogen crude.

  5. Modification of palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsions with hydrocolloid gum for enhanced topical delivery of ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah DK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Norazlinaliza Salim,1 Mahiran Basri,1,2 Mohd BA Rahman,1 Dzulkefly K Abdullah,1 Hamidon Basri31Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, 2Laboratory of Biomolecular Medicine, Institute of Bioscience, 3Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaIntroduction: During recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of nanoemulsion as a drug-carrier system for topical delivery. A nanoemulsion is a transparent mixture of oil, surfactant and water with a very low viscosity, usually the product of its high water content. The present study investigated the modification of nanoemulsions with different hydrocolloid gums, to enhanced drug delivery of ibuprofen. The in vitro characterization of the initial and modified nanoemulsions was also studied.Methods: A palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsion was modified with different hydrocolloid gums for the topical delivery of ibuprofen. Three different hydrocolloids (gellan gum, xanthan gum, and carrageenan were selected for use. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed using palm kernel oil esters as the oil, Tween 80 as the surfactant, and water. Nanoemulsions were prepared by phase inversion composition, and were gradually mixed with the freshly prepared hydrocolloids. The initial nanoemulsion and modified nanoemulsions were characterized. The abilities of the nanoemulsions to deliver ibuprofen were assessed in vitro, using a Franz diffusion cell fitted with rat skin.Results: No significant changes were observed in droplet size (~16–20 nm but a significant difference in polydispersity indexes were observed before and after the modification of nanoemulsions using gellan gum, carrageenan, and xanthan gum. The zeta potentials of the initial nanoemulsions (–11.0 mV increased to –19.6 mV, –13.9 mV, and –41.9 mV, respectively. The abilities of both the initial nanoemulsion (T802 and the modified nanoemulsion to deliver ibuprofen

  6. Application of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring for the Control and Optimization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Toelle

    2008-11-30

    This project, 'Application of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring for the Control and Optimization of CO{sub 2} Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations', investigated the potential for monitoring CO{sub 2} floods in carbonate reservoirs through the use of standard p-wave seismic data. This primarily involved the use of 4D seismic (time lapse seismic) in an attempt to observe and map the movement of the injected CO{sub 2} through a carbonate reservoir. The differences between certain seismic attributes, such as amplitude, were used for this purpose. This technique has recently been shown to be effective in CO{sub 2} monitoring in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects, such as Weyborne. This study was conducted in the Charlton 30/31 field in the northern Michigan Basin, which is a Silurian pinnacle reef that completed its primary production in 1997 and was scheduled for enhanced oil recovery using injected CO{sub 2}. Prior to injection an initial 'Base' 3D survey was obtained over the field and was then processed and interpreted. CO{sub 2} injection within the main portion of the reef was conducted intermittently during 13 months starting in August 2005. During this time, 29,000 tons of CO{sub 2} was injected into the Guelph formation, historically known as the Niagaran Brown formation. By September 2006, the reservoir pressure within the reef had risen to approximately 2000 lbs and oil and water production from the one producing well within the field had increased significantly. The determination of the reservoir's porosity distribution, a critical aspect of reservoir characterization and simulation, proved to be a significant portion of this project. In order to relate the differences observed between the seismic attributes seen on the multiple 3D seismic surveys and the actual location of the CO{sub 2}, a predictive reservoir simulation model was developed based on seismic attributes obtained from the base 3D seismic survey and available well data. This

  7. Development of Microorganisms with Improved Transport and Biosurfactant Activity for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; K.E. Duncan; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; Randy R. Simpson; N.Ravi; D. Nagle

    2005-08-15

    growth at elevated salt concentrations to obtain candidates most suitable for microbial oil recovery. Seventy percent of the 205 strains tested, mostly strains of Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus sonorensis, produced biosurfactants aerobically and 41% of the strains had biosurfactant activity greater than Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, the current candidate for oil recovery. Biosurfactant activity varied with the percentage of the 3-hydroxy-tetradecanoate isomers in the fatty acid portion of the biosurfactant. Changing the medium composition by incorporation of different precursors of 3-hydroxy tetradecanoate increased the activity of biosurfactant. The surface tension and critical micelle concentration of 15 different, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains was determined individually and in combination with other biosurfactants. Some biosurfactant mixtures were found to have synergistic effect on surface tension (e.g. surface tension was lowered from 41 to 31 mN/m in some cases) while others had a synergistic effect on CMD-1 values. We compared the transport abilities of spores from three Bacillus strains using a model porous system to study spore recovery and transport. Sand-packed columns were used to select for spores or cells with the best transport abilities through brine-saturated sand. Spores of Bacillus mojavensis strains JF-2 and ROB-2 and a natural recombinant, strain C-9, transported through sand at very high efficiencies. The earliest cells/spores that emerged from the column were regrown, allowed to sporulate, and applied to a second column. This procedure greatly enhanced the transport of strain C-9. Spores with enhanced transport abilities can be easily obtained and that the preparation of inocula for use in MEOR is feasible. We conducted a push-pull test to study in-situ biosurfactant production by exogenous biosurfactant producers to aid in oil recovery from depleted reservoirs. Five wells from the same

  8. Structuring from nanoparticles in oil-based ferrofluids

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Rozynek; Jozefczak, A.; Knudsen, K. D.; Skumiel, A.; Hornowski, T.; Fossum, J. O.; Timko, M.; Kopcansky, P.; Koneracka, M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of magnetic field on the structure formation in an oil-based magnetic fluid with various concentrations of magnetite particles was studied. The evaluation of the experimental data obtained from small-angle X-ray scattering and ultrasonic attenuation indicates the formation of chain-like aggregates composed of magnetite particles. The experimental data obtained from ultrasonic spectroscopy fit well with the recent theoretical model by Shliomis, Mond and Morozov but only for a dilute...

  9. Characterization of Novel Castor Oil-Based Polyurethane Polymer Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Salmiah Ibrahim; Azizan Ahmad; Nor Sabirin Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Castor oil-based polyurethane as a renewable resource polymer has been synthesized for application as a host in polymer electrolyte for electrochemical devices. The polyurethane was added with LiI and NaI in different wt% to form a film of polymer electrolytes. The films were characterized by using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry and transference number measurem...

  10. Enhancement of absorption and bioavailability of echinacoside by verapamil or clove oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen JY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jin-Yang Shen,1,* Xiao-Lin Yang,2,* Zhong-Lin Yang,1 Jun-Ping Kou,1 Fei Li11State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, 2Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical and Biological Marine Resources Research and Development of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: This present study investigated the absorption kinetics of echinacoside (ECH in situ and in vitro and its oral bioavailability in rats. Additional aim was to find an agent(s to promote ECH absorption and oral bioavailability among two efflux proteins and three absorption promoters.Methods: ECH absorption behaviors were investigated by everted gut sac model in vitro and single-pass intestinal perfusion model in situ. Pharmacokinetics study was performed to investigate the influences of verapamil and clove oil on ECH bioavailability in vivo. All samples were measured at different time intervals by high performance liquid chromatography.Results: The results showed that the effective permeability coefficient (Peff and apparent permeability coefficient of ECH were 0.83×10-6–3.23×10-6 cm/s and 2.99×10-6–9.86×10-6 cm/s, respectively. The Peff among duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were not statistically different, but they were higher than colon (P<0.01, which demonstrated that intestinal ECH absorption was poor and site dependent. Additionally, verapamil and clove oil significantly increased the jejunal Peff of ECH both in situ and in vitro. Moreover, the bioavailability of ECH in combination with verapamil and clove oil were increased by 1.37-fold (P<0.05 and 2.36-fold (P<0.001, respectively, when compared to ECH group. Overall, verapamil and clove oil facilitated ECH absorption and oral bioavailability.Conclusion: The absorption and bioavailability of ECH were enhanced by verapamil and clove oil, respectively, both in vitro and in vivo. Consequently

  11. Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery by Sequential Injection of Light Hydrocarbon and Nitrate in Low- And High-Pressure Bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassara, Fatma; Suri, Navreet; Stanislav, Paul; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-10-20

    Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) often involves injection of aqueous molasses and nitrate to stimulate resident or introduced bacteria. Use of light oil components like toluene, as electron donor for nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB), offers advantages but at 1-2 mM toluene is limiting in many heavy oils. Because addition of toluene to the oil increased reduction of nitrate by NRB, we propose an MEOR technology, in which water amended with light hydrocarbon below the solubility limit (5.6 mM for toluene) is injected to improve the nitrate reduction capacity of the oil along the water flow path, followed by injection of nitrate, other nutrients (e.g., phosphate) and a consortium of NRB, if necessary. Hydrocarbon- and nitrate-mediated MEOR was tested in low- and high-pressure, water-wet sandpack bioreactors with 0.5 pore volumes of residual oil in place (ROIP). Compared to control bioreactors, those with 11-12 mM of toluene in the oil (gained by direct addition or by aqueous injection) and 80 mM of nitrate in the aqueous phase produced 16.5 ± 4.4% of additional ROIP (N = 10). Because toluene is a cheap commodity chemical, HN-MEOR has the potential to be a cost-effective method for additional oil production even in the current low oil price environment. PMID:26406569

  12. Multi-species monitoring for fugitive gases and CO2 leakage at enhanced oil recovery operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, D. A.; Lavoie, M.; Brooks, B.; Goeckede, M.; Phillips, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon, Capture, and Storage (CCS) remains an option for reducing fossil CO2 emissions, but public acceptance continues to limit the roll-out of new projects. Monitoring is one mechanism by which operators can demonstrate credibility, competency, and environmental performance. While many previous research initiatives on surface monitoring have focused largely on soil gas sampling and geochemistries, fewer have tackled site-scale atmospheric detection techniques. This study aims to develop suitable techniques for identifying produced fluid leaks from wells and fugitive emissions from other associated infrastructure, and also to understand the variability of the target gases across land use types, and through time. During the growing season of 2013, we conducted multi-species atmospheric surveys of a 100 square kilometre Enhanced Oil Recovery site, using stationary and vehicle-mounted Cavity Ringdown Spectrometers (CRDS) targeting CH4, δ13C-CH4, CO2, and H2S. The study site offered excellent opportunity to study anthropogenic emissions, as it had well over 1000 active wells onsite, spatially distributed pipeline infrastructure, geochemical differentiation among the various possible emission sources, and also a road network that provided good access to most areas of the site. Leak detection using this method presented challenges related to the atmospheric transport modelling needed to back-calculate the source regions for observed anomalies. Transport models are generally not readily applicable at these smaller scales, so we developed an operational leak detection package. This package included the in situ and roving measurements, interpreted using simple mathematical models, maps, and remote sensing data, to narrow our survey search window and score sub-domains based on the gases present and the probability that these gases were man-made (as opposed to natural), in addition to the likely nature of the anthropogenic source as indicated by gas mixing ratios. Both

  13. Microvawe pyrolysis of biomass: control of process parameters for high pyrolysis oil yields and enhanced oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, John; Dodds, Chris; Stavrinides, Alexander; Kingman, Sam; Katrib, Juliano; Wu, Zhiheng; Medrano, Jose; Overend, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The oil yield and quality of pyrolysis oil from microwave heating of biomass was established by studying the behaviour of Larch in microwave processing. This is the first study in biomass pyrolysis to use a microwave processing technique and methodology that is fundamentally scalable, from which the basis of design for a continuous processing system can be derived to maximise oil yield and quality. It is shown systematically that sample size is a vital parameter that has been overlooked by pr...

  14. Formulation, and physical, in vitro and ex vivo evaluation of transdermal ibuprofen hydrogels containing turpentine oil as penetration enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N R; Khan, G M; Wahab, A; Khan, A R; Hussain, A; Nawaz, A; Akhlaq, M

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the transdermal permeation enhancing capability of turpentine oil for ibuprofen from hydrogels. Ibuprofen 1% w/v hydrogels were developed with carboxypolymethylene with and without turpentine oil. Turpentine oil was incorporated in increasing concentrations, i.e. 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3% of the total gel formulation, and its permeation enhancing effect was examined. Gels were examined physically for pH, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability, smoothness and appearance. To study the in vitro and ex vivo permeation potential of formulated gels, permeation studies were performed with a Franz diffusion cell using cellulose membrane and excised rabbit abdominal skin. Ibuprofen hydrogel with 3% turpentine oil showed a maximum flux of 10.87 mg/cm2/h across artificial skin and 17.26 mg/cm2/h across rabbit abdominal skin.

  15. Identification of organic materials in historic oil paintings using correlated extractionless surface-enhanced Raman scattering and fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Lindsay H; Dinehart, Stephen A; Svoboda, Shelley A; Wustholz, Kristin L

    2011-06-01

    A novel spectroscopic approach, correlated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescence microscopy, is used to identify organic materials in two 18th century oil paintings. The vibrational fingerprint of analyte molecules is revealed using SERS, and corresponding fluorescence measurements provide a probe of local environment as well as an inherent capability to verify material identification. Correlated SERS and fluorescence measurements are performed directly on single pigment particles obtained from historic oil paintings with Ag colloids as the enhancing substrate. We demonstrate the first extractionless nonhydrolysis SERS study of oil paint as well as the potential of correlated SERS and fluorescence microscopy studies for the simultaneous identification of organic colorants and binding media in historic oil paintings. PMID:21524143

  16. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: EOR thermal processes. Seventh Amendment and Extension to Annex 4, Enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, T B [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States); Colonomos, P [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1993-02-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Seventh Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 50 through 55. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh reports on Annex IV, Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5 and IV-6 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/l/SP, DOE/BC-90/l/SP, and DOE/BC-92/l/SP) contain the results for the first 49 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, and October 1991, respectively. Each task report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Enhancing the value of argan oil is the best mean to sustain the argan grove economy and biodiversity, so far

    OpenAIRE

    Charrouf Zoubida; Harhar Hicham; Gharby Saïd; Guillaume Dominique

    2008-01-01

    In Morocco, the region covered with argan trees is named the argan grove. Its long-term preservation depends on the discovery of new and economically rewarding markets to sell argan tree produces. At the present time, the argan oil appears to be the best candidate to fulfill this task. The scientific results that have allowed the emergence of argan oil on the international edible and cosmetic oil markets are reported together with recent analytic results. Alternative approaches, not based on ...

  18. Options for Environmental Sustainability of the Crude Palm Oil Industry in Thailand through Enhancement of Industrial Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Chavalparit, O.; Rulkens, W.H.; A P J Mol; Khaodhair, S.

    2006-01-01

    The crude palm oil industry plays an important role in the economic development of Thailand and in enhancing the economic welfare of the population. Despite obvious benefits of this industrial development, it also significantly contributes to environmental degradation, both at the input and the output sides of its activities. On the input side, crude palm oil mills use large quantities of water and energy in the production process. On the output side, manufacturing processes generate large qu...

  19. Engineering Behavior and Characteristics of Water-Soluble Polymers: Implication on Soil Remediation and Enhanced Oil Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Shuang Cindy Cao; Bate Bate; Jong Wan Hu; Jongwon Jung

    2016-01-01

    Biopolymers have shown a great effect in enhanced oil recovery because of the improvement of water-flood performance by mobility control, as well as having been considered for oil contaminated-soil remediation thanks to their mobility control and water-flood performance. This study focused on the wettability analysis of biopolymers such as chitosan (85% deacetylated power), PEO (polyethylene oxide), Xanthan (xanthan gum), SA (Alginic Acid Sodium Salt), and PAA (polyacrylic acid), including th...

  20. Study on the Reutilization of Clear Fracturing Flowback Fluids in Surfactant Flooding with Additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    OpenAIRE

    Caili Dai; Kai Wang; Yifei Liu; Jichao Fang; Mingwei Zhao

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES) with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of α-olefin sulfonate (AOS) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were stud...

  1. Induced Mutagenesis for Oil Quality Enhancement in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing the ratio of oleic to linoleic acid (O/L) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) significantly improves the nutritional and quality attributes of the crop. The lack of sufficient genetic variation in fatty acid composition, particularly the O/L ratio, in peanut germplasm and presently grown cultivars make the creation of such variability necessary. Mutation breeding of peanut was initiated with the objective of identifying stable peanut mutants with altered fatty acid composition for improved oxidative stability and nutritional quality. Seeds of peanut cultivars 'GPBD-4' and 'TPG-41' were treated with γ-radiation and/or ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Randomly selected mutants were advanced based on single plant selection up to the M4 generation and the harvest of M4 plants was evaluated for fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Highly significant variation for palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and arachidic acid was observed. EMS (0.5%) and 200Gy treatments were found to be effective in increasing the variability in fatty acid content in GPBD-4 and TPG-41, respectively. The variability was skewed towards high levels of oleic acid (38-67%) and low levels of linoleic acid (15-41%). Mutants selected for improved oil quality were significantly superior for O/L ratio and had reduced palmitic acid. Oil with reduced palmitic acid and increased O/L ratio is desired nutritionally. Hence, these mutants can be exploited for the improvement of oil quality. The mutants GE-87 and T3-105 recorded the highest O/L ratios, of 4.30 and 3.91, compared to control values of 1.75 and 2.60, respectively. A significant negative correlation between oleic acid and linoleic acid, palmitic acid and iodine values, and weak inverse relationship with oil content indicates the possibility of selection for improved fatty acid composition. These high oleic acid lines could be utilized further in breeding programmes for improvement of peanut oil quality. (author)

  2. Induced mutagenesis for oil quality enhancement in peanut (Arachis hypogaea l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing the ratio of oleic to linoleic acid (O/L) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) significantly improves the nutritional and quality attributes of the crop. The lack of sufficient genetic variation for fatty acid profile, particularly O/L ratio in peanut germplasm and presently grown cultivars has necessitated the creation of variability. Mutation breeding of peanut was therefore initiated with the objective of identifying stable peanut mutants with altered fatty acid composition for improved oxidative stability and nutritional quality. Seeds of peanut cultivars 'GPBD-4' and 'TPG-41' were treated with γ-radiation and/or ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Randomly selected mutants were advanced based on single plant selection up to M4 generation and the harvest of M4 plants was evaluated for fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Highly significant variation for palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and arachidic acid was observed. EMS (0.5%) and 200Gy treatment were found to be effective in increasing the variability for fatty acid content in GPBD-4 and TPG-41 respectively. The variability was skewed towards high levels of oleic (38-66.58%) and low levels of linoleic acid (15-41%). Mutants with improved oil quality selected were significantly superior for O/L ratio and had reduced palmitic acid. Oil with reduced palmitic acid and increased O/L ratio is nutritionally desired. Hence these mutants can be exploited in improvement of oil quality. The mutant GE-87 and T3-105, recorded highest O/L ratio of 4.30 and 3.91 as against control value of 1.75 and 2.60 respectively. A significant negative correlation between oleic acid and linoleic acid, palmitic acid and iodine value and weak inverse relationship with oil content indicates the possibility of selection for improved fatty acid composition. These high oleic acid lines could be utilized further in breeding programs for improvement of peanut oil quality. (author)

  3. Efficiency of recycled wool-based nonwoven material for the removal of oils from water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radetic, M.; Ilic, V.; Radojevic, D.; Miladinovic, R.; Jocic, D.; Javancic, P.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight the potential use of recycled wool-based nonwoven material for the removal of diesel fuel, crude, base, vegetable and motor oil from water. Sorption capacity of the material in water and in oil without water, oil retention, sorbent reusability and buoyancy in s

  4. Water solubility enhancements of PAHs by sodium castor oil sulfonate microemulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li-zhong; ZHAO Bao-wei; LI Zong-lai

    2003-01-01

    Water solubility enhancements of naphthalene(Naph), phenantherene(Phen) and pyrene(Py) in sodium castor oil sulfonate(SCOS) microemulsions were evaluated. The apparent solubilities of PAHs are linearly proportional to the concentrations of SCOS microemulsion, and the enhancement extent by SCOS solutions is greater than that by ordinary surfactants on the basis of weight solubilization ratio(WSR). The logKem values of Naph, Phen, and Py are 3.13, 4.44 and 5.01 respectively, which are about the same as the logKow values. At 5000 mg/L of SCOS conccentration, the apparent solubilities are 8.80, 121, and 674 times as the intrinsic solubilities for Naph, Phen, and Py. The effects of inorganic ions and temperature on the solubilization of solutes are also investigated. The solubilization is improved with a moderate addition of Ca2+, Na+, NH4+ and the mixture of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+. WSR values are enhanced by 22.0% for Naph, 23.4% for Phen, and 24.6% for Py with temperature increasing by 5℃. The results indicated that SCOS microemulsions improve the performance of the surfactant-enhanced remediation(SER) of soil, by increasing solubilities of organic pollutants and reducing the level of surfactant pollution and remediation expenses.

  5. Basic properties of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil blend as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production with enhanced cold flow characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusup, Suzana; Khan, Modhar [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    Research and development in the field of biodiesel showed that fatty acid methyl esters synthesized from agriculture or animal oils and fats, which exhibit qualifying properties, can replace diesel fuel used in internal combustion engine. However, the industry had some downfall recently with the fluctuating prices of edible oils and increasing demand for nutritional needs. Crude rubber seed oil (CRSO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used in this study since both can be extracted and produced locally in Malaysia from their abundant plantations. The benefits of introducing such blend are that CRSO is considered a non-edible feedstock with no major industrial utilizations that has the potential to reduce the usage of CPO in biodiesel industry and was found to enhance the cold flow characteristics when blended with CPO by reducing the saturated fatty acids in the feedstock. The oils and blends were characterized for density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, acid value, free fatty acid content, refractive index, mono-, di- and triglycerides and sulphur content. Fatty acids composition and iodine value were established for an equivolume blend of the oils. (author)

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Polyurethanes Based on Tall Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir YAKUSHIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Amide and ester type polyols were synthesized from different kinds of tall oil and two types of ethanolamine (diethanolamine and triethanolamine. Poly(urethane amides and polyester urethanes based on the synthesized polyols were prepared. The influence of the chemical structure of the obtained polyurethanes on density, glass transition temperature, thermal stability, mechanical properties and adhesive strength was investigated. The effect of the content of rosin acids in original tall oil on the specified characteristics was estimated. It has been found that poly(urethane amides have higher mechanical characteristics, but their thermal stability is lower than that of polyester urethanes. The chemical structure of the synthesized polyols and polyurethanes is qualitatively confirmed by IR-spectroscopy data.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2666

  7. Vegetable Oil-Based Metal Working Fluids-A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Koushik A.V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal working fluids are widely employed to increase the machining productivity and quality of metal cutting, but their usage poses a great threat to ecology and health of workers in the industry. Therefore, a need arose to identify eco-friendly and hazard free alternatives to conventional mineral oil based metal working fluids. Vegetable oils have become identified world over as a potential source of environmentally favorable metal working fluids due to a combination of biodegradability, renewability and excellent lubrication performance. Low oxidation and thermal stability, poor low temperature behavior, however limit their potential application as metal working lubricants and has become the thrust area of research of scientists and tribologists world over.

  8. Plant oil-based shape memory polymer using acrylic monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tsujimoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the synthesis of a plant oil-based material using acrylic monolith. An acrylic monolith bearing oxirane groups was prepared via simple technique that involved the dissolution of poly(glycidyl methacrylate-comethyl methacrylate (PGMA in ethanolic – aqueous solution by heating and subsequent cooling. The PGMA monolith had topologically porous structure, which was attributed to the phase separation of the polymer solution. The PGMA monolith was impregnated by epoxidized soybean oil (ESO containing thermally-latent catalyst, and the subsequent curing produced a crosslinked material with relatively good transparency. The Young’s modulus and the tensile strength of polyESO/PGMA increased compared with the ESO homopolymer. The strain at break of polyESO/PGMA was larger than that of the ESO homopolymer and crosslinked PGMA. Furthermore, polyESO/PGMA exhibited good shape memory-recovery behavior.

  9. Irradiation of Yarrowia lipolytica NRRL YB-567 creating novel strains with enhanced ammonia and oil production on protein and carbohydrate substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Mitch R; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Cox, Elby J; Pinkelman, Rebecca J; Bang, Sookie S; Moser, Bryan R; Jackson, Michael A; Iten, Loren B; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Liu, Siqing; Qureshi, Nasib; Tasaki, Kenneth; Rich, Joseph O; Cotta, Michael A; Saha, Badal C; Hughes, Stephen R

    2015-11-01

    Increased interest in sustainable production of renewable diesel and other valuable bioproducts is redoubling efforts to improve economic feasibility of microbial-based oil production. Yarrowia lipolytica is capable of employing a wide variety of substrates to produce oil and valuable co-products. We irradiated Y. lipolytica NRRL YB-567 with UV-C to enhance ammonia (for fertilizer) and lipid (for biodiesel) production on low-cost protein and carbohydrate substrates. The resulting strains were screened for ammonia and oil production using color intensity of indicators on plate assays. Seven mutant strains were selected (based on ammonia assay) and further evaluated for growth rate, ammonia and oil production, soluble protein content, and morphology when grown on liver infusion medium (without sugars), and for growth on various substrates. Strains were identified among these mutants that had a faster doubling time, produced higher maximum ammonia levels (enzyme assay) and more oil (Sudan Black assay), and had higher maximum soluble protein levels (Bradford assay) than wild type. When grown on plates with substrates of interest, all mutant strains showed similar results aerobically to wild-type strain. The mutant strain with the highest oil production and the fastest doubling time was evaluated on coffee waste medium. On this medium, the strain produced 0.12 g/L ammonia and 0.20 g/L 2-phenylethanol, a valuable fragrance/flavoring, in addition to acylglycerols (oil) containing predominantly C16 and C18 residues. These mutant strains will be investigated further for potential application in commercial biodiesel production.

  10. Knowledge base verification based on enhanced colored petri net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verification is a process aimed at demonstrating whether a system meets it's specified requirements. As expert systems are used in various applications, the knowledge base verification of systems takes an importatn position. The conventional Petri net approach that has been studied recently in order to verify the knowledge base is found that it is inadequate to verify the knowledge base of large and complex system, such as alarm processing system of nuclear power plant. Thus, we propose an improved method that models the knowledge base as enhanced colored Petri net. In this study, we analyze the reachability and the error characteristics of the knowledge base and apply the method to verification of simple knowledge base

  11. Knowledge base verification based on enhanced colored petri net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Verification is a process aimed at demonstrating whether a system meets it`s specified requirements. As expert systems are used in various applications, the knowledge base verification of systems takes an important position. The conventional Petri net approach that has been studied recently in order to verify the knowledge base is found that it is inadequate to verify the knowledge base of large and complex system, such as alarm processing system of nuclear power plant. Thus, we propose an improved method that models the knowledge base as enhanced colored Petri net. In this study, we analyze the reachability and the error characteristics of the knowledge base and apply the method to verification of simple knowledge base. 8 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  12. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, July--September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, H.A. (ed.) (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The report contains a general introduction and background to DOE's revised National Energy Strategy Advanced Oil Recovery Program and activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; a detailed synopsis of the symposium, including technical presentations, comments and suggestions; a section of technical information on deltaic reservoirs; and appendices containing a comprehensive listing of references keyed to general deltaic and geological aspects of reservoirs and those relevant to six selected deltaic plays. Enhanced recovery processes include chemical floodings, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience, and microbial recovery.

  13. Impact of air pollution control regulations on thermal enhanced oil recovery production in the United States. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, J.F.; Rouge, J.D.; Beekley, P.K.; Husband, S.N.; Arnold, C.W.; Menzies, W.R.; Balentine, H.W.

    1982-03-01

    This study assesses the impact of air pollution control regulations on the costs of present and future thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) production. The conclusions of this study indicate that lengthy permitting processes, limited control sytem availability, and costly control system requirements complicate regulatory compliance and constrain TEOR production expansion. Seven heavy oil production areas with potential for increased TEOR production were selected for detailed analyses. Five of these areas are in California: central Kern County, western Kern County, Coalinga, San Ardo, and Los Angeles Basin. The other two areas are the Slocum field in Texas and the Smackover field in Arkansas. Air pollution control rule and regulation requirements were determined for each production area. State-of-the-art air pollution control technology was assessed and costs were estimated for the control systems needed to comply with previous new source review (NSR) and retrofit rules in each area. For each California production area, the maximum potential increase in TEOR production was estimated, based on available emission offsets. Potential increases in the Texas and Arkansas fields were not projected because production is expected to decrease in these areas. Costs were calculated for the control systems required to allow the maximum increase in TEOR production. An air quality impact analysis was performed for the four largest production areas in California. The results of this analysis allowed estimation of the air quality changes associated with the maximum TEOR production increase and compliance with retrofit and NSR rules.

  14. Enhancement of skin permeation of ibuprofen from ointments and gels by sesame oil, sunflower oil and oleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinda S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several batches of paraffin ointments were prepared and ibuprofen was incorporated into them. Sesame oil, sunflower oil, and oleic acid in different concentrations were incorporated into different batches. Commercial ibuprofen gel was obtained and divided into several batches and different concentrations of sesame oil, sunflower oil, and oleic acid were incorporated into them. The in vitro drug release characteristics through hairless (88 mm rat skin was carried out by using modified Insertion cell designed in our laboratory. The cell was placed into a borosil beaker containing 50 ml of pH 7.4 phosphate buffer as the diffusion fluid. The beaker was placed over the magnetic stirrer, which was maintained at 37±0.5° to maintain the temperature of diffusion fluid. The released drug content at predetermined time interval was measured using U-V-double beam spectrophotometer at 272 nm. The drug release was raised with increase in oil concentration.

  15. Glucocorticoids enhance extinction-based psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Bentz, Dorothée; Michael, Tanja; Bolt, Olivia C; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Margraf, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2011-04-19

    Behavioral exposure therapy of anxiety disorders is believed to rely on fear extinction. Because preclinical studies have shown that glucocorticoids can promote extinction processes, we aimed at investigating whether the administration of these hormones might be useful in enhancing exposure therapy. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 40 patients with specific phobia for heights were treated with three sessions of exposure therapy using virtual reality exposure to heights. Cortisol (20 mg) or placebo was administered orally 1 h before each of the treatment sessions. Subjects returned for a posttreatment assessment 3-5 d after the last treatment session and for a follow-up assessment after 1 mo. Adding cortisol to exposure therapy resulted in a significantly greater reduction in fear of heights as measured with the acrophobia questionnaire (AQ) both at posttreatment and at follow-up, compared with placebo. Furthermore, subjects receiving cortisol showed a significantly greater reduction in acute anxiety during virtual exposure to a phobic situation at posttreatment and a significantly smaller exposure-induced increase in skin conductance level at follow-up. The present findings indicate that the administration of cortisol can enhance extinction-based psychotherapy.

  16. CO{sub 2} capture and utilization for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilhelmsen, P.J.; Well, W. van; Nielsen, Charles [DONG Energy Generation, Fredericia (Denmark); Harrar, W.; Reffstrup, J. [DONG Energy Exploration and Production, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    CO{sub 2} is an international theme and the cap-and-trade systems under implementation will lead to significant alterations in the energy market and in the energy system altogether. A possible technical step to reduce atmospheric emissions is CO{sub 2} capture and the utilisation of the CO{sub 2} for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). CO{sub 2} capture is to some extent a know technology but has not yet been optimised and commercialised for power plant utilisation. Correspondingly CO{sub 2} utilisation for EOR is a known method in other areas of the world where the reservoir conditions are different from those of the North Sea. For several years Elsam and Energi E2, part of DONG Energy, have worked on reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through increased efficiency at the coal-fired power plants, and this work has now been extended to also include capture and utilisation of CO{sub 2}. DONG E and P within DONG Energy has started work on the utilisation of CO{sub 2} for EOR at the company's fields in the North Sea. Based on DONG Energy's interest in working through the whole value chain from power plants to EOR utilisation in the North Sea, this paper describes our experience with CO{sub 2} capture at the trial plant CASTOR at Esbjerg power plant and the actual work of investigating and preparing the pilot test of CO{sub 2} for EOR in the North Sea. The paper also illustrates the perspectives of retrofitting the existing fleet of super critical coal-fired power plants close to the North Sea with CO{sub 2} capture and the utilisation of the CO{sub 2} for EOR in the North Sea. DONG Energy's perspective is that CO{sub 2} for EOR can contribute to materialising the vision that the central power plant can be developed into an energy refinery. The development work presented will be carried out in cooperation with leading international players and Danish universities and knowledge centres Technical University of Denmark (DTU), The Danish Geotechnical Institute (GEO) and Geological

  17. Enhancing the value of argan oil is the best mean to sustain the argan grove economy and biodiversity, so far

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charrouf Zoubida

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In Morocco, the region covered with argan trees is named the argan grove. Its long-term preservation depends on the discovery of new and economically rewarding markets to sell argan tree produces. At the present time, the argan oil appears to be the best candidate to fulfill this task. The scientific results that have allowed the emergence of argan oil on the international edible and cosmetic oil markets are reported together with recent analytic results. Alternative approaches, not based on argan oil marketing but also aimed at safeguarding the argan grove, are also reported.

  18. Enhanced oil recovery by surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency: Second annual report, September 30, 1986-September 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, J H; Scamehorn, J F

    1988-04-01

    It is widely known that heterogeneities in oil reservoirs occurring as a result of permeability variations in the rock can have a detrimental effect on an oil recovery process; preferential diversion of injected displacement fluid occurs through the high-permeability zones, leaving the lower-permeability zones at a high residual oil content at a time when it is no longer economically viable to continue the oil recovery process. A novel oil recovery process is described which aims to improve the volumetric sweep efficiency of oil recovery. High-permeability zones are partially or completely plugged off by using the chromatographic and phase behavior of surfactants and their mixtures and the preferential invasion of high-permeability areas by low-viscosity injected fluids. The plugging will divert flow into regions of higher oil saturation. 85 refs., 46 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (STEOR). Sections 2-8. Final report, October 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzinga, E.; Arnold, C.; Allen, D.; Garman, R.; Joy, P.; Mitchell, P. Shaw, H.

    1980-11-01

    The program objectives were: (1) determine the technical, economic, operational, and environmental feasibility of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery using line focusing distributed collectors at Exxon's Edison Field, and (2) estimate the quantity of solar heat which might be applied to domestic enhanced oil recovery. This volume of the report summarizes all of the work done under the contract Statement of Work. Topics include the selection of the solar system, trade-off studies, preliminary design for steam raising, cost estimate for STEOR at Edison Field, the development plan, and a market and economics analysis. (WHK)

  20. Enhancing oil removal from water by immobilizing multi-wall carbon nanotubes on the surface of polyurethane foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Alireza; Zilouei, Hamid; Abdolmaleki, Amir; Asadinezhad, Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    A surface modification method was carried out to enhance the light crude oil sorption capacity of polyurethane foam (PUF) through immobilization of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on the foam surface at various concentrations. The developed sorbent was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and tensile elongation test. The results obtained from thermogravimetric and tensile elongation tests showed the improvement of thermal and mechanical resistance of surface-modified foam. The experimental data also revealed that the immobilization of MWCNT on PUF surface enhanced the sorption capacity of light crude oil and reduced water sorption. The highest oil removal capacity was obtained for 1 wt% MWCNT on PUF surface which was 21.44% enhancement in light crude oil sorption compared to the blank PUF. The reusability of surface modified PUF was determined through four cycles of chemical regeneration using petroleum ether. The adsorption of light crude oil with 30 g initial mass showed that 85.45% of the initial oil sorption capacity of this modified sorbent was remained after four regeneration cycles. Equilibrium isotherms for adsorption of oil were analyzed by the Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, and Redlich-Peterson models through linear and non-linear regression methods. Results of equilibrium revealed that Langmuir isotherm is the best fitting model and non-linear method is a more accurate way to predict the parameters involved in the isotherms. The overall findings suggested the promising potentials of the developed sorbent in order to be efficiently used in large-scale oil spill cleanup. PMID:25917559

  1. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil-based polymeric surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujuan HUANG,He LIU,Shibin SHANG,Zhaosheng CAI,Jie SONG,Zhanqian SONG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrated castor oil was epoxidized using phosphoric acid as a catalyst and acetic acid peroxide as an oxidant to produce epoxidized castor oil (ECO. Ring-opening polymerization with stannic chloride was used to produce polymerized ECO (PECO, and sodium hydroxide used to give hydrolyzed PECO (HPECO. The HPECO was characterized by Fourier transform infrared, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, gel permeation chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. The weight-average molecular weight of soluble PECO and HPECO were 5026 and 2274 g·mol-1, respectively. PECO and HPECO exhibited glass transition. Through neutralizing the carboxylic acid of HPECO with different counterions, castor oil-based polymeric surfactants (HPECO-M, where M= Na+, K+ or triethanolamine ion exhibited high efficiency to reduce the surface tension of water. The critical micelle concentration (CMC values of HPECO-M ranged from 0.042 to 0.098 g·L-1 and the minimum equilibrium surface tensions at CMC (gcmc of HPECO-M ranged from 25.6 to 30.0 mN·m-1. The water-hexadecane interfacial energy was calculated from measured surface tension using harmonic and geometric mean methods. Measured values of water-hexadecane interfacial tension agreed well with those calculated using the harmonic and geometric mean methods.

  2. Interactions of fines with base fractions of oil and its implication in smart water flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    Migration of fines, and formation of oil emulsion have been independently observed during smart water flooding both have been suggested to play a vital role in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). But, the exact role of fines and the reason of emulsion formation are not well studied for carbonate reservo...... reservoirs. This study shows that addition of water and crude oil on calcite fines leads to formation of soluble oil emulsions in the water phase. Formation of these emulsions and its implication in EOR has been experimentally analyzed.......Migration of fines, and formation of oil emulsion have been independently observed during smart water flooding both have been suggested to play a vital role in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). But, the exact role of fines and the reason of emulsion formation are not well studied for carbonate...

  3. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced by Bacillus licheniformis TT42 Having Potential for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Harish; Nerurkar, Anuradha

    2016-09-01

    Bacillus licheniformis TT42 produced a low-molecular weight anionic biosurfactant that reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 27 mN/m and the interfacial tension from 12 to 0.05 mN/m against crude oil. We have earlier reported significant enhancement in oil recovery in laboratory sand pack columns and core flood studies, by biosurfactant-TT42 compared to standard strain, Bacillus mojavensis JF2. In the context of this application of the biosurfactant-TT42, its characterization was deemed important. In the preliminary studies, the biosurfactant-TT42 was found to be functionally stable at under conditions of temperature, pH, and salinity generally prevalent in oil reservoirs. Furthermore, the purified biosurfactant-TT42 was found to have a CMC of 22 mg/l. A newly developed activity staining TLC method was used for the purification of biosurfactant-TT42. Structural characterization of biosurfactant-TT42 using TLC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), GC-MS, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF)/TOF suggested that it was a mixture of lipopeptide species, all having a common hydrophilic cyclic heptapeptide head with the sequence, Gln-Leu/Ileu-Leu/Ileu-Val-Asp-Leu/Ileu-Leu/Ileu linked to hydrophobic tails of different lengths of 3β-OH-fatty acids bearing 1043, 1057 and 1071 Da molecular weight, where 3β-OH-C19 fatty acid was predominant. This is the longest chain length of fatty acids reported in a lipopeptide.

  4. Adsorption of surfactants on sand surface in enhanced oil recovery: Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Achinta; Kumar, T.; Ojha, Keka; Mandal, Ajay, E-mail: mandal_ajay@hotmail.com

    2013-11-01

    Adsorption of surfactants onto reservoir rock surface may result in the loss and reduction of their concentrations in surfactant flooding, which may render them less efficient or ineffective in practical applications of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. Surfactant flooding for EOR received attraction due to its ability to increase the displacement efficiency by lowering the interfacial tension between oil and water and mobilizing the residual oil. This article highlights the adsorption of surfactants onto sand surface with variation of different influencing factors. It has been experimentally found that adsorption of cationic surfactant on sand surface is more and less for anionic surfactant, while non-ionic surfactant shows intermediate behaviour. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study of clean sand particles has been made to determine the main component present in the sand particles. The interaction between sand particles and surfactant has been studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy of the sand particles before and after aging with surfactant. Salinity plays an important role in adsorption of anionic surfactant. Batch experiments were also performed to understand the effects of pH and adsorbent dose on the sorption efficiency. The sand particles exhibited high adsorption efficiency at low pH for anionic and nonionic surfactants. But opposite trend was found for cationic surfactant. Adsorption data were analyzed by fitting with Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Sips isotherm models. Results show that the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetics models suit the equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption on sand surface. Thermodynamics feasibility of the adsorption process was also studied to verify the spontaneity of the process.

  5. Adsorption of surfactants on sand surface in enhanced oil recovery: Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption of surfactants onto reservoir rock surface may result in the loss and reduction of their concentrations in surfactant flooding, which may render them less efficient or ineffective in practical applications of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. Surfactant flooding for EOR received attraction due to its ability to increase the displacement efficiency by lowering the interfacial tension between oil and water and mobilizing the residual oil. This article highlights the adsorption of surfactants onto sand surface with variation of different influencing factors. It has been experimentally found that adsorption of cationic surfactant on sand surface is more and less for anionic surfactant, while non-ionic surfactant shows intermediate behaviour. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study of clean sand particles has been made to determine the main component present in the sand particles. The interaction between sand particles and surfactant has been studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy of the sand particles before and after aging with surfactant. Salinity plays an important role in adsorption of anionic surfactant. Batch experiments were also performed to understand the effects of pH and adsorbent dose on the sorption efficiency. The sand particles exhibited high adsorption efficiency at low pH for anionic and nonionic surfactants. But opposite trend was found for cationic surfactant. Adsorption data were analyzed by fitting with Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Sips isotherm models. Results show that the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetics models suit the equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption on sand surface. Thermodynamics feasibility of the adsorption process was also studied to verify the spontaneity of the process.

  6. Synthesis of dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate and its application in enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhenggang; Wu, Le; Sun, Mingming; Jiang, Jian-zhong; Wang, Feng [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). School of Chemical and Material Engineering

    2011-09-15

    A new hydrophobic surfactant, dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate (DLBS), was synthesized and its application in enhanced oil recovery by alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding was studied. The results show that DLBS can be synthesized by reaction of industrial dodecyl benzene with lauroyl chloride in the presence of AlCl{sub 3}, followed by sulfonation with ClSO{sub 3}H and neutralization with NaOH. The lauroyl-group is confirmed to be connected to the para-position of the alkylbenzene by1HNMR spectrum. The synthesized DLBS is well soluble in pure water and reservoir (connate) water at 45 C. It is highly surface active which is indicated by its low CMC of 1.1 . 10{sup -5} mol/L, and its low surface tension, {gamma}{sub cmc} of 28.6 mN m{sup -1}. By mixing with heavy alkylbenzene sulfonates of relatively low average molar mass (387g mol{sup -1}) at a total surfactant concentration of 5 mM, DLBS can reduce the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water to an order of 10{sup -3} mN/m at 45 C in the presence of 0.5-1.0 wt.% NaOH and 1000 mg L{sup -1} of polymer. If the NaOH was replaced by a gentle alkaline salt, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, certain amounts of dodecyl dimethyl carboxy betaine were added and the concentration of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was increased to 1.2-2.0 wt.%, the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water can also be reduced to an ultralow value. Therefore DLBS is a good hydrophobic surfactant applicable in ASP flooding with either NaOH or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as alkaline agents. (orig.)

  7. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, reporting period March--August 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, reporting period October--December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Activities of DOE's Oil Implementation Task Force for the period March--August 1991 are reviewed. Contracts for fields projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery are discussed, with a list of related publications given. Enhanced recovery processes covered include chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, and microbial recovery.

  8. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery and improved drilling technology. Progress review No. 34, quarter ending March 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. (ed.)

    1983-07-01

    Progress achieved for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented for field projects and supporting research for the following: chemical flooding; carbon dioxide injection; and thermal/heavy oil. In addition, progress reports are presented for: resource assessment technology; extraction technology; environmental and safety; microbial enhanced oil recovery; oil recovered by gravity mining; improved drilling technology; and general supporting research. (ATT)

  9. Enhanced Coagulation Efficiency of Moringa Oleifera Seeds Through Selective Oil Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman A. Muyibi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this laboratory based study, varying quantities of oil, corresponding to 20 % w/w, 25 % w/w and 30 % w/w kernel weight extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds ( S1, S2, S3 respectively  were applied in the coagulation of model turbid water (kaolin suspension and turbid river water samples from River Batang Kali and River Selangor in Malaysia to determine the percentage oil removed which gave the best coagulation efficiency. For model turbid water (kaolin suspension coagulation of low turbidity of 35 NTU, medium turbidity of 100 NTU and high turbidity of 300 NTU, sample S2  gave the best turbidity removal corresponding to 91.7%, 95.5% and 99% respectively. Application of sample S2 to River Batang Kali with low initial turbidity of 32 NTU and high initial turbidity of 502 NTU gave a highest turbidity removal of 69% and 99% respectively. Application to River Selangor with medium initial turbidity- of 87 NTU and high initial turbidity of 466 NTU gave a highest residual turbidity' of 94% and 98.9%,  respectively.Key words: Moringa oleifera seed, selective oil extraction, coagulation, model turbid water (kaolin suspension, river water, turbidity removal.

  10. Revival of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) initiatives on UK continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, D.; Brealey, N. [Reservoir Management Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-01

    This paper reviewed early activities of the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) initiative with particular reference to design and implementation of the MEOR project on the United Kingdom's continental shelf. Results of tests conducted in the 1980s and 1990s of the Biological Oil Stimulation process were ambiguous. A microbial flow diversion method was also being developed at that time to determine temperature profiles between injector and producer wells. The challenge for reservoir managers was the general lack of understanding on how a microbial treatment could affect flow within the reservoir at the microscopic and macroscopic level. There was also a need to model MEOR within a commercial reservoir. In 2001, Statoil announced the first field-wide offshore application of an aerobic MEOR technique with its development of the Norne field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. This prompted a rival and review of MEOR activity on the UK continental shelf. A workshop for UK operators was held to evaluate potential design characteristics and performance of MEOR using an adapted and commercially available reservoir simulator. New joint initiatives in the UK were also established. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Enhanced oil recovery by CO/sub 2/ foam flooding. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    An extensive review of the literature revealed that the use of foam to lower the mobility of gases used to displace oil has been considered since 1956. Although early work was related mainly to light hydrocarbons, it is natural to extend the concept to the CO/sub 2/ flooding process. Samples of foaming agents, compatible with oil reservoir environments, were obtained from major manufacturers. Ninety-three samples were tested both alone and in admixture. The most promising class of additives appears to be ionic surfactants produced by ethoxylation of a linear alcohol followed by sulfation. One of the best, Plurafoam NO-2N was tested in a linear sandpack and found to reduce the mobility of gas relative to water an average of 300-fold. Viscosity measurements of the foam at varying shear rates were made to help explain the dramatic change in gas mobility in the linear flow model. The foam is non-Newtonian but many-fold more viscous than the liquid from which it is generated at all reasonable shear rates. Viscosities exceeding 1000 centipose are routinely obtained. Addition of water-soluble polymers to the foaming liquid greatly enhances the stability of the foam. Five different polymer structures were tested, all of which had a common cellulosic type backbone. Of this group, hydroxypropyl cellulose and zanthan gum appear to be the most promising candidates. The superiority of these polymers lies primarily in their stability at reservoir conditions in the acid environment created when carbon dioxide dissolves in water.

  12. Use of amine oxide surfactants for chemical flooding EOR (enhanced oil recovery)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.

    1989-11-01

    The use of amine oxides with and without alcohols as cosolvents, and in combination with other surfactants as mixed micellar formulations for enhanced oil recovery by surfactant flooding was investigated. Amine oxides are a salt-tolerant class of surfactants that produce low interfacial tension and can develop viscosity without the addition of polymers. These salt-tolerant formulations generate three-phase regions with hydrocarbons over a broad salinity range, develop moderate solubilization, and produce low interfacial tensions, however oil recovery from amine oxide-alcohol phase behavior optimized formulations was directly dependent upon the quantity of surfactant injected. The large pore volume and high concentration of surfactant required prohibits their economic use as the primary surfactant in chemical flooding EOR. Dimethylalkylamine oxides are useful as cosurfactants and viscosifiers in formulations with other surfactants for chemical flooding EOR but the use of ethoxylated and propoxylated amine oxides should be avoided due to the decomposition of these amine oxides under reservoir conditions. Phase behavior, phase inversion temperatures, and viscosity scans have been correlated with surfactant structures to provide a guide for amine oxide applications in chemical flooding. 36 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Sources and delivery of carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery. Final report, October 1977--December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hare, M.; Perlich, H.; Robinson, R.; Shah, M.; Zimmerman, F.

    1978-12-01

    Results are presented from a comprehensive study by Pullman Kellogg, with assistance from Gulf Universities Research Consortium (GURC) and National Cryo-Chemics Incorporated (NCI), of the carbon dioxide supply situation for miscible flooding operations to enhance oil recovery. A survey of carbon dioxide sources within the geographic areas of potential EOR are shown on four regional maps with the tabular data for each region to describe the sources in terms of quantity and quality. Evaluation of all the costs, such as purchase, production, processing, and transportation, associated with delivering the carbon dioxide from its source to its destination are presented. Specific cases to illustrate the use of the maps and cost charts generated in this study have been examined.

  14. Preparation and Cracking Performance of FCC Co-Catalyst for Enhancing Light Oil Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Feiyue; Shi Li; Weng Huixin; Wang Xin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,a FCC co-catalyst for enhancing the light oil production was prepared by the sol-gel method,and its effect on the performance of residue cracking catalysts was evaluated in a CCFFB reactor.The test results indicated that the liquid product yield increased obviously,after the surface of FCC equilibrium catalyst was impregnated with the co-catalyst.The yields of dry gas,slurry and coke decreased,while the diesel yield changed slightly.And the crackability of residue was increased; the rate of coke deposition on catalyst surface was decreased,with the thermal cracking reactions inhibited.All these results showed that the co-catalyst could improve the density of acid sites and change the catalyst acidity,which could promote to prolong the catalyst activity by depositing the co-catalyst on the surface of FCC equilibrium catalysts.

  15. COST EFFECTIVE REGULATORY APPROACHES TO ENHANCE DOMESTIC OIL & GAS PRODUCTION AND ENSURE THE PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Grunewald; Paul Jehn; Tom Gillespie; Ben Binder

    2004-12-21

    The Environmental Information Management Suite/Risk Based Data Management System (EIMS/RBDMS) and Cost Effective Regulatory Approach (CERA) programs continue to be successful. All oil and gas state regulatory programs participate in these efforts. Significant accomplishments include: streamline regulatory approaches, enhancing environmental protection, and making oil and gas data available via the Internet. Oil and gas companies worldwide now have access to data on state web sites. This reduces the cost of exploration and enables companies to develop properties in areas that would have been cost prohibited for exploration. Early in project, GWPC and State Oil and Gas agencies developed the EIMS and CERA strategic plan to prioritize long term development and implementation. The planning process identifies electronic commerce and coal bed methane as high priorities. The group has involved strategic partners in industry and government to develop a common data exchange process. Technical assistance to Alaska continues to improve their program management capabilities. New initiatives in Alaska include the development of an electronic permit tracking system. This system allows managers to expedite the permitting process. Nationwide, the RBDMS system is largely completed with 22 states and one Indian Nation now using this nationally accepted data management system. Additional remaining tasks include routine maintenance and the installation of the program upon request for the remaining oil and gas states. The GWPC in working with the BLM and MMS to develop an XML schema to facilitate electronic permitting and reporting (Appendix A, B, and C). This is a significant effort and, in years to come, will increase access to federal lands by reducing regulatory barriers. The new initiatives are coal bed methane and e-commerce. The e-commerce program will provide industry and BLM/MMS access to the millions of data points housed in the RBDMS system. E-commerce will streamline

  16. Natural weathering studies of oil palm trunk lumber (OPTL) green polymer composites enhanced with oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md Nazrul; Dungani, Rudi; Abdul Khalil, HPS; Alwani, M Siti; Nadirah, WO Wan; Fizree, H Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a green composite was produced from Oil Palm Trunk Lumber (OPTL) by impregnating oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles with formaldehyde resin. The changes of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the OPS nanoparticles impregnated OPTL as a result of natural weathering was investigated. The OPS fibres were ground with a ball-mill for producing nanoparticles before being mixed with the phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at a concentration of 1, 3, 5 and 10% w/w basis and...

  17. Ultra-wetting graphene-based PES ultrafiltration membrane - A novel approach for successful oil-water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, J A; Bhuvana, S; Anbharasi, V; Ayyanar, N; Boodhoo, K V K; Singh, G

    2016-10-15

    Oil pollution in water and separation of oil from water are receiving much attention in recent years due to the growing environmental concerns. Membrane technology is one of the emerging solutions for oil-water separation. However, there is a limitation in using polymeric membrane for oil water separation due to its surface properties (wetting behaviour), thermal and mechanical properties. Here, we have shown a simple method to increase the hydrophilicity of the polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fibre ultrafiltration (UF) membrane by using carboxyl, hydroxyl and amine modified graphene attached poly acrylonitrile-co-maleimide (G-PANCMI). The prepared membranes were characterized for its morphology, water and oil contact angle, liquid entry pressure of oil (LEPoil), water permeability and finally subjected to a continuous 8 h filtration test of oil emulsion in water. The experimental data indicates that the G-PANCMI play an important role in enhancing the hydrophilicity, permeability and selectivity of the PES membrane. The water contact angle (CAw) of the PES membrane is reduced from 63.7 ± 3.8° to 22.6 ± 2.5° which is 64.5% reduction while, the oil contact angle was increased from 43.6 ± 3.5° to 112.5 ± 3.2° which is 158% higher compared to that of the PES membrane. Similarly, the LEPoil increased 350% from 50 ± 10 kPa of the control PES membrane to 175 ± 25 kPa of PES-G-PANCMI membrane. More importantly, the water permeability increased by 43% with >99% selectivity. Based on our findings we believe that the development of PES-G-PANCMI membrane will open up a solution for successful oil-water separation.

  18. Determination of Component Contents of Blend Oil Based on Characteristics Peak Value Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Pei-guo; Wang, Yu-tian; Pan, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Edible blend oil market is confused at present. It has some problems such as confusing concepts, randomly named, shoddy and especially the fuzzy standard of compositions and ratios in blend oil. The national standard fails to come on time after eight years. The basic reason is the lack of qualitative and quantitative detection of vegetable oils in blend oil. Edible blend oil is mixed by different vegetable oils according to a certain proportion. Its nutrition is rich. Blend oil is eaten frequently in daily life. Different vegetable oil contains a certain components. The mixed vegetable oil can make full use of their nutrients and make the nutrients more balanced in blend oil. It is conducive to people's health. It is an effectively way to monitor blend oil market by the accurate determination of single vegetable oil content in blend oil. The types of blend oil are known, so we only need for accurate determination of its content. Three dimensional fluorescence spectra are used for the contents in blend oil. A new method of data processing is proposed with calculation of characteristics peak value integration in chosen characteristic area based on Quasi-Monte Carlo method, combined with Neural network method to solve nonlinear equations to obtain single vegetable oil content in blend oil. Peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil are used as research object to reconcile into edible blend oil, with single oil regarded whole, not considered each oil's components. Recovery rates of 10 configurations of edible harmonic oil is measured to verify the validity of the method of characteristics peak value integration. An effective method is provided to detect components content of complex mixture in high sensitivity. Accuracy of recovery rats is increased, compared the common method of solution of linear equations used to detect components content of mixture. It can be used in the testing of kinds and content of edible vegetable oil in blend oil for the food quality detection

  19. Determination of Component Contents of Blend Oil Based on Characteristics Peak Value Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Pei-guo; Wang, Yu-tian; Pan, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Edible blend oil market is confused at present. It has some problems such as confusing concepts, randomly named, shoddy and especially the fuzzy standard of compositions and ratios in blend oil. The national standard fails to come on time after eight years. The basic reason is the lack of qualitative and quantitative detection of vegetable oils in blend oil. Edible blend oil is mixed by different vegetable oils according to a certain proportion. Its nutrition is rich. Blend oil is eaten frequently in daily life. Different vegetable oil contains a certain components. The mixed vegetable oil can make full use of their nutrients and make the nutrients more balanced in blend oil. It is conducive to people's health. It is an effectively way to monitor blend oil market by the accurate determination of single vegetable oil content in blend oil. The types of blend oil are known, so we only need for accurate determination of its content. Three dimensional fluorescence spectra are used for the contents in blend oil. A new method of data processing is proposed with calculation of characteristics peak value integration in chosen characteristic area based on Quasi-Monte Carlo method, combined with Neural network method to solve nonlinear equations to obtain single vegetable oil content in blend oil. Peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil are used as research object to reconcile into edible blend oil, with single oil regarded whole, not considered each oil's components. Recovery rates of 10 configurations of edible harmonic oil is measured to verify the validity of the method of characteristics peak value integration. An effective method is provided to detect components content of complex mixture in high sensitivity. Accuracy of recovery rats is increased, compared the common method of solution of linear equations used to detect components content of mixture. It can be used in the testing of kinds and content of edible vegetable oil in blend oil for the food quality detection

  20. The Effect of Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion and Soybean Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion on Cholestasis Associated with Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leilei; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Jiejin; Qian, Yan; Ling, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To retrospectively study the effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsion and soybean oil-based lipid emulsion on cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. Methods. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsion and fish oil-based lipid emulsion had been applied in our neonatology department clinically between 2010 and 2014. There were 61 qualified premature infants included in this study and divided into two groups. Soybean oil group was made up of 32 premature infants, while fish oil group was made up of 29 premature infants. Analysis was made on the gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, age at which feeding began, usage of lipid emulsions, and incidence of cholestasis between the two groups. Results. There were no statistical differences in terms of gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, and age at which feeding began. Besides, total incidence of cholestasis was 21.3%, and the days of life of occurrence of cholestasis were 53 ± 5.0 days. Incidence of cholestasis had no statistical difference in the two groups. Conclusion. This study did not find the different role of fish oil-based lipid emulsions and soybean oil-based lipid emulsions in cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. PMID:27110237

  1. The Effect of Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion and Soybean Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion on Cholestasis Associated with Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To retrospectively study the effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsion and soybean oil-based lipid emulsion on cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. Methods. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsion and fish oil-based lipid emulsion had been applied in our neonatology department clinically between 2010 and 2014. There were 61 qualified premature infants included in this study and divided into two groups. Soybean oil group was made up of 32 premature infants, while fish oil group was made up of 29 premature infants. Analysis was made on the gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, age at which feeding began, usage of lipid emulsions, and incidence of cholestasis between the two groups. Results. There were no statistical differences in terms of gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, and age at which feeding began. Besides, total incidence of cholestasis was 21.3%, and the days of life of occurrence of cholestasis were 53±5.0 days. Incidence of cholestasis had no statistical difference in the two groups. Conclusion. This study did not find the different role of fish oil-based lipid emulsions and soybean oil-based lipid emulsions in cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants.

  2. The Effect of Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion and Soybean Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion on Cholestasis Associated with Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition in Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leilei; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Jiejin; Qian, Yan; Ling, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To retrospectively study the effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsion and soybean oil-based lipid emulsion on cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. Methods. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsion and fish oil-based lipid emulsion had been applied in our neonatology department clinically between 2010 and 2014. There were 61 qualified premature infants included in this study and divided into two groups. Soybean oil group was made up of 32 premature infants, while fish oil group was made up of 29 premature infants. Analysis was made on the gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, age at which feeding began, usage of lipid emulsions, and incidence of cholestasis between the two groups. Results. There were no statistical differences in terms of gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, and age at which feeding began. Besides, total incidence of cholestasis was 21.3%, and the days of life of occurrence of cholestasis were 53 ± 5.0 days. Incidence of cholestasis had no statistical difference in the two groups. Conclusion. This study did not find the different role of fish oil-based lipid emulsions and soybean oil-based lipid emulsions in cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants.

  3. Gas inflow in oil base fluids; Influxo de gas em fluidos a base de oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, Welmar [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Perfuracao. Div. de Fluidos de Perfuracao; Boas, Mario Barbosa V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao

    1989-12-31

    One of the major problems related to the use of oil base fluids is the dissolution of the natural gas in the fluid. This paper attempts initially at making a bibliographical review of all that was written on the subject of drilling fluids up to now. It also mentions some theoretical aspects regarding the process of gas dissolution in diesel oils, in order to produce an understanding of how the dissolution mechanism is processed. For a same increase in measured volume on the surface, the amount of gas incorporated into the fluid is significantly larger if the gas is dissolved in the oil phase than if it is emulsified in the fluid, as occurs when the fluid is water base. A rig team used to working with water-base fluids may be surprised with the fact that an increase of 20 bbl of fluid on the surface of a 5000 m well can mean the incorporation of about 1800 m{sup 3} of gas, if the fluid is oil-base and all the gas is in solution instead of the incorporation of 900 m{sup 3} if the fluid is water base. This paper has the goal of warning drilling engineers and technicians about this problem, as well as presenting charts and equations that allow for a more realistic evaluation of the amount of gas incorporated into oil fluids. (author) 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Robust Hydrocarbon Degradation and Dynamics of Bacterial Communities during Nutrient-Enhanced Oil Spill Bioremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Milner, Michael G.; Jones, D. Martin; Lee, Kenneth; Daniel, Fabien; Swannell, Richard J. P.; Head, Ian M.

    2002-01-01

    Degradation of oil on beaches is, in general, limited by the supply of inorganic nutrients. In order to obtain a more systematic understanding of the effects of nutrient addition on oil spill bioremediation, beach sediment microcosms contaminated with oil were treated with different levels of inorganic nutrients. Oil biodegradation was assessed respirometrically and on the basis of changes in oil composition. Bacterial communities were compared by numerical analysis of denaturing gradient gel...

  5. Acid base catalyzed transesterification kinetics of waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P.; Rajvanshi, Shalini [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2011-01-15

    The present study reports the results of kinetics study of acid base catalyzed two step transesterification process of waste cooking oil, carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 C and 50 C for esterification and transesterification process respectively under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1%(w/w) for H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The optimum temperature was determined based on the yield of ME at different temperature. Simply, the optimum concentration of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH was determined with respect to ME Yield. The results indicated that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order rate reaction with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min{sup -1} and 0.0078 min{sup -1} respectively showing that the former is a slower process than the later. The maximum yield of 21.50% of ME during esterification and 90.6% from transesterification of pretreated WCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind which deals with simplified kinetics of two step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried under the above optimum conditions and took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME with least amount of activation energy. Also various parameters related to experiments are optimized with respect to ME yield. (author)

  6. Local and Global Impacts of Carbon Capture and Storage Combined with Enhanced Oil Recovery in Four Depleted Oil Fields, Kern County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, J.; Jordan, P. D.; Goodell, J. A.; Harrington, K.; Jameson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Depleted oil reservoirs are attractive targets for geologic carbon storage (GCS) because they possess proven trapping mechanisms and large amounts of data pertaining to production and reservoir geometry. In addition, CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) can improve recovery of the remaining oil at recovery factors of 6 to 20% of original oil in place in appropriate reservoirs. CO2 EOR increases the attractiveness of depleted oil and gas reservoirs as a starting point for CCS because the CO2 becomes a commodity that can be purchased by field operators for EOR purposes thereby offsetting the costs of CO2 capture at the power plant. In California, Kern County contains the largest oil reservoirs and produces 76% of California's oil. Most of the production at depths suitable for CCS combined with CO2 EOR comes from three reservoirs: the Vedder and Temblor formations and the Stevens Sandstone of the Monterey Formation. These formations were evaluated for GCS and CO2 EOR potential at the North and South Coles Levee (Stevens Sandstone), Greeley (Vedder) and McKittrick (Temblor) fields. CO2 EOR could be expected to produce an additional 150 million bbls of oil. The total storage space created by pre- and post-EOR fluid production for all three reservoirs is approximately 104 million metric tons (MMT). Large fixed sources in California produce 156 MMT/yr of CO2, and sources in Kern County produce 26 MMT/yr (WESTCARB, 2012). Therefore, the fields could store about four years of local large fixed source emissions and about two thirds of statewide emissions. However, from a global perspective, burning the additional oil produced by CO2 EOR would generate an additional 65 MMT of CO2 if not captured. This would result in a net reduction of greenhouse gas of only 39 MMT rather than the full 104 MMT. If the water produced along with the oil recovered during CO2 EOR operations is not reinjected into the reservoir, the storage space could be much higher.

  7. Interaction of Chloroprene and Nitrile- Butadiene Rubber with Lubricating Greases and Base Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The present communication addresses compatibility of two synthetic rubber types, chloroprene and nitrilebutadiene ones, with a number of base oils of petroleum origin and lubricating greases produced thereof. Four base oils,including three naphthenic products with varying degrees of refining and one paraffinic product,were compared with each other in terms of their effect on the rubbers. Degenerative changes occurring in the rubbers on contact with the oils and greases were studied using accelerated ageing tests. Alterations in rubber parameters, such as hardness, weight and glass transition temperature, caused by interaction with oil were monitored. The main physicochemical mechanisms standing behind the changes observed in the rubber properties were found to be (i) migration of plasticizer from rubber into the oil phase, (ii) absorption of oil by rubber,and (iii) oxidation of rubber. An increase in glass transition temperature (Tg) of rubber aged in a base oil or grease was considered as an indirect indication that the plasticizer had migrated out of rubber;the plasticizer accumulation in the oil phase being directly confirmed by gas chromatography. In order to suppress the plasticizer migration, oil additivation with dioctyl adipate (DOA), a common plasticizer used in rubber formulations, was attempted. However, the BOA-additivated oils, while reducing plasticizer migration, were found to cause more swelling than the original oils in the case of chloroprene rubber. As an alternative, replacement of BOA by an alkylated aryl phosphate in nitrile- butadiene rubber formulations was considered, but it did not solve the problem either.The results of this study suggest conclusively that the type of rubber, the plasticizer, and the base oil are all the crucial parameters that should be considered when matching rubber with oil in real- life applications. Interaction of rubber with base oils and with greases produced thereof is largely controlled by (i) solvency of the

  8. Potential for use of methylene blue index testing to enhance geotechnical characterization of oil sands ores and tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxill, Lois [SRK Consulting (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    At the CONRAD conference held in Edmonton in 2011, clay scientist expressed their concern over the variability of clay structures and its impact both on oil sands ores and on tailings. This paper discusses the potential for using methylene blue index testing to enhance geotechnical understanding of the impact of the cation exchange capacity of clay present in oil sands ores and both solid and fluid components of the tailings stream. A description of the methylene blue index test procedure is provided. This process is most commonly used for characterization in the oil sands industry. The requirements for obtaining consistency in the test results are discussed. The test is often used to enhance geotechnical characterization of clays in other areas. The potential for developing correlations between methylene blue index test results and other geotechnical parameters is also discussed. It can be concluded from the study that geotechnical data on soil indicate the effect of clay minerals on the overall plasticity of the soil.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH A LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses results from sampling flue gas from an enhanced oil recovery steam generator (EOR steamer) equipped with an MHI PM low-NOx burner. The tests included burner performance/emission mapping tests, comparative testing of an identical steamer equipped with a conven...

  10. EVALUATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF LOW-NOX BURNER SYSTEMS FOR TEOR (THERMALLY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY) STEAM GENERATORS: DESIGN PHASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents the detailed scale-up and design phase of a program to develop a low-NOx burner system that can be retrofitted to an existing thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) steam generator. The emission design goal for the 16 MW commercial grade burner system is to m...

  11. Options for Environmental Sustainability of the Crude Palm Oil Industry in Thailand through Enhancement of Industrial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.; Rulkens, W.H.; Mol, A.P.J.; Khaodhair, S.

    2006-01-01

    The crude palm oil industry plays an important role in the economic development of Thailand and in enhancing the economic welfare of the population. Despite obvious benefits of this industrial development, it also significantly contributes to environmental degradation, both at the input and the outp

  12. Development of young oil palm tree recognition using Haar- based rectangular windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliman, S.; Abu-Bakar, S. A. R.; Nor Azam, S. H. Md

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents development of Haar-based rectangular windows for recognition of young oil palm tree based on WorldView-2 imagery data. Haar-based rectangular windows or also known as Haar-like rectangular features have been popular in face recognition as used in Viola-Jones object detection framework. Similar to face recognition, the oil palm tree recognition would also need a suitable Haar-based rectangular windows that best suit to the characteristics of oil palm tree. A set of seven Haar-based rectangular windows have been designed to better match specifically the young oil palm tree as the crown size is much smaller compared to the matured ones. Determination of features for oil palm tree is an essential task to ensure a high successful rate of correct oil palm tree detection. Furthermore, features that reflects the identification of oil palm tree indicate distinctiveness between an oil palm tree and other objects in the image such as buildings, roads and drainage. These features will be trained using support vector machine (SVM) to model the oil palm tree for classifying the testing set and subimages of WorldView-2 imagery data. The resulting classification of young oil palm tree with sensitivity of 98.58% and accuracy of 92.73% shows a promising result that it can be used for intention of developing automatic young oil palm tree counting.

  13. EFFICIENCY ENHANCEMENT BASED ON ALLOCATING BIZARRE PEAKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. J. Hamarsheh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A new work has been proposed in this paper in order to overcome one of the main drawbacks that found in the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM systems, namely Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR. Furthermore, this work will be compared with a previously published work that uses the neural network (NN as a solution to remedy this deficiency. The proposed work could be considered as a special averaging technique (SAT, which consists of wavelet transformation in its first stage, a globally statistical adaptive detecting algorithm as a second stage; and in the third stage it replaces the affected peaks by making use of moving average filter process. In the NN work, the learning process makes use of a previously published work that is based on three linear coding techniques. In order to check the proposed work validity, a MATLAB simulation has been run and has two main variables to compare with; namely BER and CCDF curves. This is true under the same bandwidth occupancy and channel characteristics. Two types of tested data have been used; randomly generated data and a practical data that have been extracted from a funded project entitled by ECEM. From the achieved simulation results, the work that is based on SAT shows promising results in reducing the PAPR effect reached up to 80% over the work in the literature and our previously published work. This means that this work gives an extra reduction up to 15% of our previously published work. However, this achievement will be under the cost of complexity. This penalty could be optimized by imposing the NN to the SAT work in order to enhance the wireless systems performance.

  14. Characterization of Novel Castor Oil-Based Polyurethane Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmiah Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor oil-based polyurethane as a renewable resource polymer has been synthesized for application as a host in polymer electrolyte for electrochemical devices. The polyurethane was added with LiI and NaI in different wt% to form a film of polymer electrolytes. The films were characterized by using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry and transference number measurement. The highest conductivity of 1.42 × 10−6 S cm−1 was achieved with the addition of 30 wt% LiI and 4.28 × 10−7 S·cm−1 upon addition of 30 wt% NaI at room temperature. The temperature dependence conductivity plot indicated that both systems obeyed Arrhenius law. The activation energy for the PU-LiI and PU-NaI systems were 0.13 and 0.22 eV. Glass transition temperature of the synthesized polyurethane decreased from −15.8 °C to ~ −26 to −28 °C upon salts addition. These characterizations exhibited the castor oil-based polyurethane polymer electrolytes have potential to be used as alternative membrane for electrochemical devices.

  15. Zein based oil-in-glycerol emulgels enriched with β-carotene as margarine alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Fu, Shi-Yao; Hou, Jun-Jie; Guo, Jian; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-11-15

    Structuring edible oils into solid lipids without saturated and trans fats has attracted increasing interest due to the benefits for human health and promises potential as novel delivery systems for lipophilic bioactive ingredients. The study shows that a zein stabilized high (ϕ=0.6) oil-in-glycerol (O/G) emulgels enriched with β-carotene was performed, by a facile one-step homogenization. Rheological measurements and morphologies observations indicated that increasing β-carotene resulted in a progressive strengthening of gel-like network and improving their spreadability in the O/G emulgels stabilized by zein, which was closely related to the hydrophobic interaction of zein and β-carotene. The formation of emulgels significantly enhanced the UV photo-stability of β-carotene, and more than 88% of β-carotene was retained in 64h storage under UV exposure, and consequently retarded oil oxidation while storage. Further, cakes prepared using zein-based O/G emulgels as a margarine alternative showed comparable functionalities (texture and sensory attributes) to the standard cake. PMID:27283703

  16. Forensic profiling of sassafras oils based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffer, M; Gröger, T; Pütz, M; Zimmermann, R

    2013-06-10

    Safrole, the main compound in the essential oil of several plants of the Laurel family (Lauraceae), and its secondary product piperonylmethylketone are the predominantly used precursors for the illicit synthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) which is, in turn, the most common active ingredient in Ecstasy tablets. Analytical methods with adequate capacity to identify links and origin of precursors, such as safrole, provide valuable information for drug-related police intelligence. Authentic sassafras oil samples from police seizures were subjected to comparative analysis based on their chemical profiles obtained by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS). The enhanced separation power and increased sensitivity of GC × GC allowed for the detection of minor compounds present in the essential oils which were of particular interest in case of very pure samples whose impurity profiles were not very pronounced. Discrimination of such samples was still possible even in the absence of characteristic main compounds.

  17. Influence of Viscosity of Base Oil on Effect of Additive in Cutting Oil for Hobbing : 3rd Report, Combination Effect of the Additives

    OpenAIRE

    松岡, 寛憲; 小野, 肇; 甲木, 昭; 津田, 吉広

    1996-01-01

    In the previous paper, the authors investigated the effects of viscosity of the base oil of cutting oil for hobbing on the synergism of EP additive and rape-seed oil. It was revealed that a mixture of 1% chlorine in the form of chlorinated fatty acid ester and 30% rape-seed oil added to a machine oil 68 with high viscosity showed the best performance in terms of reducing hob wear and improving finished surface roughness. The effects of viscosity of the base oil on the synergism of several kin...

  18. Enhanced oil recovery under laboratory conditions using biosurfactant-producing microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, Jorge F. B.; L. R. Rodrigues; Coutinho, J.A.P.; J.A. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Oil recovery comprises a primary phase, which produces oil using the natural pressure drive of the reservoir, and a secondary phase, which includes the injection of water to improve the flow of oil to the wellhead [1,2]. While primary recovery produces 5-10% of the original oil in place, recovery efficiencies in the secondary stage vary from 10% to 40% [1]. Most of the unrecovered oil (up to two-thirds of the total oil reserves) is trapped in the reservoir pores by high capillary forces [2]. ...

  19. Development of Microorganisms with Improved Transport and Biosurfactant Activity for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; K.E. Duncan; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; Randy R. Simpson; N.Ravi; D. Nagle

    2005-08-15

    growth at elevated salt concentrations to obtain candidates most suitable for microbial oil recovery. Seventy percent of the 205 strains tested, mostly strains of Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus sonorensis, produced biosurfactants aerobically and 41% of the strains had biosurfactant activity greater than Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, the current candidate for oil recovery. Biosurfactant activity varied with the percentage of the 3-hydroxy-tetradecanoate isomers in the fatty acid portion of the biosurfactant. Changing the medium composition by incorporation of different precursors of 3-hydroxy tetradecanoate increased the activity of biosurfactant. The surface tension and critical micelle concentration of 15 different, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains was determined individually and in combination with other biosurfactants. Some biosurfactant mixtures were found to have synergistic effect on surface tension (e.g. surface tension was lowered from 41 to 31 mN/m in some cases) while others had a synergistic effect on CMD-1 values. We compared the transport abilities of spores from three Bacillus strains using a model porous system to study spore recovery and transport. Sand-packed columns were used to select for spores or cells with the best transport abilities through brine-saturated sand. Spores of Bacillus mojavensis strains JF-2 and ROB-2 and a natural recombinant, strain C-9, transported through sand at very high efficiencies. The earliest cells/spores that emerged from the column were regrown, allowed to sporulate, and applied to a second column. This procedure greatly enhanced the transport of strain C-9. Spores with enhanced transport abilities can be easily obtained and that the preparation of inocula for use in MEOR is feasible. We conducted a push-pull test to study in-situ biosurfactant production by exogenous biosurfactant producers to aid in oil recovery from depleted reservoirs. Five wells from the same

  20. Gabor filter based fingerprint image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Xiang

    2013-03-01

    Fingerprint recognition technology has become the most reliable biometric technology due to its uniqueness and invariance, which has been most convenient and most reliable technique for personal authentication. The development of Automated Fingerprint Identification System is an urgent need for modern information security. Meanwhile, fingerprint preprocessing algorithm of fingerprint recognition technology has played an important part in Automatic Fingerprint Identification System. This article introduces the general steps in the fingerprint recognition technology, namely the image input, preprocessing, feature recognition, and fingerprint image enhancement. As the key to fingerprint identification technology, fingerprint image enhancement affects the accuracy of the system. It focuses on the characteristics of the fingerprint image, Gabor filters algorithm for fingerprint image enhancement, the theoretical basis of Gabor filters, and demonstration of the filter. The enhancement algorithm for fingerprint image is in the windows XP platform with matlab.65 as a development tool for the demonstration. The result shows that the Gabor filter is effective in fingerprint image enhancement technology.

  1. Biodegradation of petroleum-based oil wastes through composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchmann, H; Ewnetu, W

    1998-01-01

    Composting of horse manure was used as a means of degradation of two oil wastes, oil sludge from petrol stations and petroleum residues from a refinery. Paraffin oil was chosen as a reference. Oil wastes decomposed to 78-93% during 4.5 months of composting. The degradation of the waste oils was higher than that of the reference paraffin oil and no difference was found between the two types of oil wastes concerning their decomposition. At the end of the experiment, most of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons had been degraded except pyrene, chrysene and dibenz(ah)anthracene. Gaseous losses of oil compounds through volatilisation from composts were found not to be significant.

  2. Delivery of Vegetable Oil Suspensions in a Shear Thinning Fluid for Enhanced Bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lirong; Truex, Michael J.; Kananizadeh, Negin; Li, Yusong; Lea, Alan S.; Yan, Xiulan

    2015-04-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Vegetable oils are a promising substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and good longevity. Distribution of vegetable oil in the subsurface, because it is a non-aqueous phase material, has typically been addressed by creating emulsified oil solutions. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were suspended in a xanthan gum solution, a shear-thinning fluid, as an alternative oil delivery mechanism. The stability, oil droplet size and distribution, and rheological behavior of the oil suspensions that are created in the xanthan solutions were studied in batch experiments. The injectability of the suspensions and oil distribution in porous medium were evaluated in column tests. Numerical modeling of the oil droplet transport and distribution in porous media was conducted to help interpret the column-test data. Batch studies showed that simple mixing of vegetable oil and xanthan solution produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-size droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Column tests demonstrated successful injection of the vegetable oil suspension into porous medium. This study provided evidence that vegetable oil suspensions in xanthan are a potential substrate to support in situ anaerobic bioremediation with favorable injection properties.

  3. Processing and Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianqing; Men Cungui

    1995-01-01

    @@ Recently China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has gradually set up its own down stream industry in response to the development of oil fields, the demand of domestic market and the unique characteristics of crude oil resources.The capacity of crude oil processing has reached 21million tons per year approximately and 14 million tons of crude oil was processed in 1994,making up one-tenth of CNPC's total output.

  4. Solvent extraction of base oil from used lubricant oil: a study on the performance of zeolite adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solvent extraction is known as one of the potential techniques for recycling used lubricant oil. The recovered oil is identical to the virgin oil, but the oil maintains its darkish color and some odor. This paper is to study the performance of zeolite in removing color and odor. A part from the study, factorial design analysis indicated that the concentration of zeolite exerts to be the most influenced on the adsorption process in which the increase of zeolite concentration resulted in an average increase of 2.22% adsorption response. The number of contact stage appeared to be the second most influential effects, which brought an average increase of 1.38% adsorption response. Further more, it was found that the interaction between the concentration of zeolite and the number of contact stage was the most significant of all interactions under study, at 2.71%. Thus, the additions of 10 g zeolite in 50 ml base oil of 3rd stage color removal produces the best color removal from the recovered base oil. (Author)

  5. Monitoring exogenous and indigenous bacteria by PCR-DGGE technology during the process of microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ma, Ting; Zhao, Lingxia; Lv, Jinghua; Li, Guoqiang; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Ben; Liang, Fenglai; Liu, Rulin

    2008-06-01

    A field experiment was performed to monitor changes in exogenous bacteria and to investigate the diversity of indigenous bacteria during a field trial of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Two wells (26-195 and 27-221) were injected with three exogenous strains and then closed to allow for microbial growth and metabolism. After a waiting period, the pumps were restarted and the samples were collected. The bacterial populations of these samples were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) with PCR-amplified 16S rRNA fragments. DGGE profiles indicated that the exogenous strains were retrieved in the production water samples and indigenous strains could also be detected. After the pumps were restarted, average oil yield increased to 1.58 and 4.52 tons per day in wells 26-195 and 27-221, respectively, compared with almost no oil output before the injection of exogenous bacteria. Exogenous bacteria and indigenous bacteria contributed together to the increased oil output. Sequence analysis of the DGGE bands revealed that Proteobacteria were a major component of the predominant bacteria in both wells. Changes in the bacteria population in the reservoirs during MEOR process were monitored by molecular analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. DGGE analysis was a successful approach to investigate the changes in microorganisms used for enhancing oil recovery. The feasibility of MEOR technology in the petroleum industry was also demonstrated. PMID:18273653

  6. Dynamic interfacial tension of finite reactive systems related to enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiwetelu, C.I.

    1988-01-01

    In enhanced oil recovery by caustic flooding, carboxylic acids in the crude oil react with the caustic reagents to form active soap species, which form at the interface and desorb to the bulk oleic and aqueous phases. Such reactive systems exhibit the dynamic interfacial tension phenomenon. In order to understand the mechanisms of carboxylic acid/caustic reagent interaction, a novel experimental scheme called photo-micropendography has been developed to measure dynamic interfacial tension. This method has been shown to give more reliable and consistent results than those obtained by spinning drop and ring tensiometries. An equilibrium model is proposed for interaction of single acids with various caustic solutions to enable important ionization properties to be determined with the aid of regression analysis. A diffusive kinetic model is also proposed to explain the dynamic interfacial behavior associated with single acids reacting with a range of aqueous caustic solutions. Good estimates of the adsorption rate constants which were the model parameters were obtained by correlating the experimental interfacial tension data with the aid of a sensitivity analysis of the problem. A generalized dynamic model has been advanced in order to rationalize the interaction of a multicomponent acid mixture contacting a spectrum of NaOH solutions. A detailed analysis for binary oleic/lauric acid mixtures was carried out to demonstrate the model's validity. Using parameter values for each acid determined from separate single-component studies, it was possible to obtain theoretical values for dynamic interfacial tension of the mixture. Generally satisfactory agreement was obtained between model predictions and experimental data. 115 refs., 89 figs., 91 tabs.

  7. Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Thiam Leng; Bhatia, Subhash

    2008-11-01

    In Malaysia, there has been interest in the utilization of palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of environmental friendly biofuels. A biorefinery based on palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of biofuels has been proposed. The catalytic technology plays major role in the different processing stages in a biorefinery for the production of liquid as well as gaseous biofuels. There are number of challenges to find suitable catalytic technology to be used in a typical biorefinery. These challenges include (1) economic barriers, (2) catalysts that facilitate highly selective conversion of substrate to desired products and (3) the issues related to design, operation and control of catalytic reactor. Therefore, the catalytic technology is one of the critical factors that control the successful operation of biorefinery. There are number of catalytic processes in a biorefinery which convert the renewable feedstocks into the desired biofuels. These include biodiesel production from palm oil, catalytic cracking of palm oil for the production of biofuels, the production of hydrogen as well as syngas from biomass gasification, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) for the conversion of syngas into liquid fuels and upgrading of liquid/gas fuels obtained from liquefaction/pyrolysis of biomass. The selection of catalysts for these processes is essential in determining the product distribution (olefins, paraffins and oxygenated products). The integration of catalytic technology with compatible separation processes is a key challenge for biorefinery operation from the economic point of view. This paper focuses on different types of catalysts and their role in the catalytic processes for the production of biofuels in a typical palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery. PMID:18434141

  8. 40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent...

  9. Oil spill detection from SAR image using SVM based classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Matkan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the potential of fully polarimetric L-band SAR data for detecting sea oil spills is investigated using polarimetric decompositions and texture analysis based on SVM classifier. First, power and magnitude measurements of HH and VV polarization modes and, Pauli, Freeman and Krogager decompositions are computed and applied in SVM classifier. Texture analysis is used for identification using SVM method. The texture features i.e. Mean, Variance, Contrast and Dissimilarity from them are then extracted. Experiments are conducted on full polarimetric SAR data acquired from PALSAR sensor of ALOS satellite on August 25, 2006. An accuracy assessment indicated overall accuracy of 78.92% and 96.46% for the power measurement of the VV polarization and the Krogager decomposition respectively in first step. But by use of texture analysis the results are improved to 96.44% and 96.65% quality for mean of power and magnitude measurements of HH and VV polarizations and the Krogager decomposition. Results show that the Krogager polarimetric decomposition method has the satisfying result for detection of sea oil spill on the sea surface and the texture analysis presents the good results.

  10. Study on the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids in surfactant flooding with additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caili Dai

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of α-olefin sulfonate (AOS for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10(-3 mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical.

  11. BIOREMEDIATION TREATABILITY TRIALS USING NUTRIENT APPLICATION TO ENHANCE CLEANUP OF OIL-CONTAMINATED SHORELINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    On March 24, 1989, the supertanker Exxon Valdez went aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, releasing approximately 11 million gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. he spilled oil spread over, an estimated 350 miles of shoreline. he oil settled into the beach gravel and on rock sur...

  12. Fine Formation During Brine-Crude Oil-Calcite Interaction in Smart Water Enhanced Oil Recovery for Caspian Carbonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    Modified sea water has been shown to affect the oil recovery fraction considerably during secondary and tertiary waterfloods. Available soluble potential ions (i.e. Ca2+, Mg2+ & SO42-) in the interacting waterflood (ITW) are suggested to play a key role in increasing the displacement efficiency...

  13. Life-cycle Assessment of Carbon Dioxide Capture for Enhanced Oil Recovery%为强化石油回采捕集CO2的全周期评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.G Hertwich; M.Aaberg; B.Singh; A.H.Strφmman

    2008-01-01

    The development and deployment of Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) technology is a cornerstone of the Norwegian government's climate strategy. A number of projects are currently evaluated/planned along the Norwegian West Coast, one at Tjeldbergodden. CO2 from this project will be utilized in part for enhanced oil recovery in the Halten oil field, in the Norwegian Sea. We study a potential design of such a system. A combined cycle power plant with a gross power output of 832 MW is combined with CO2 capture plant based on a post-combustion capture using amines as a solvent. The captured CO2 is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). We employ a hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA) method to assess the environmental impacts of the system. The study focuses on the modifications and operations of the platform during EOR. We allocate the impacts connected to the capture of CO2 to electricity production, and the impacts connected to the transport and storage of CO2 to the oil produced. Our study shows a substantial reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions from power production by 80% to 75g·(kW·h)-1. It also indicates a reduction of the emissions associated with oil production per unit oil produced, mostly due to the increased oil production. Reductions are especially significant if the additional power demand due to EOR leads to power supply from the land.

  14. Improved Mobility Control for Carbon Dioxide (CO{sub 2}) Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Silica-Polymer-Initiator (SPI) Gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oglesby, Kenneth

    2014-01-31

    SPI gels are multi-component silicate based gels for improving (areal and vertical) conformance in oilfield enhanced recovery operations, including water-floods and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) floods, as well as other applications. SPI mixtures are like-water when pumped, but form light up to very thick, paste-like gels in contact with CO{sub 2}. When formed they are 3 to 10 times stronger than any gelled polyacrylamide gel now available, however, they are not as strong as cement or epoxy, allowing them to be washed / jetted out of the wellbore without drilling. This DOE funded project allowed 8 SPI field treatments to be performed in 6 wells (5 injection wells and 1 production well) in 2 different fields with different operators, in 2 different basins (Gulf Coast and Permian) and in 2 different rock types (sandstone and dolomite). Field A was in a central Mississippi sandstone that injected CO{sub 2} as an immiscible process. Field B was in the west Texas San Andres dolomite formation with a mature water-alternating-gas miscible CO{sub 2} flood. Field A treatments are now over 1 year old while Field B treatments have only 4 months data available under variable WAG conditions. Both fields had other operational events and well work occurring before/ during / after the treatments making definitive evaluation difficult. Laboratory static beaker and dynamic sand pack tests were performed with Ottawa sand and both fields’ core material, brines and crude oils to improve SPI chemistry, optimize SPI formulations, ensure SPI mix compatibility with field rocks and fluids, optimize SPI treatment field treatment volumes and methods, and ensure that strong gels set in the reservoir. Field quality control procedures were designed and utilized. Pre-treatment well (surface) injectivities ranged from 0.39 to 7.9 MMCF/psi. The SPI treatment volumes ranged from 20.7 cubic meters (m{sup 3}, 5460 gallons/ 130 bbls) to 691 m{sup 3} (182,658 gallons/ 4349 bbls). Various size and types

  15. Enhancing Jatropha oil extraction yield from the kernels assisted by a xylan-degrading bacterium to preserve protein structure

    OpenAIRE

    Marasabessy, Ahmad; Moeis, Maelita R; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the use of bacterial cells isolated from paddy crab for the extraction of oil from Jatropha seed kernels in aqueous media while simultaneously preserving the protein structures of this protein-rich endosperm. A bacterial strain—which was marked as MB4 and identified by means of 16S rDNA sequencing and physiological characterization as either Bacillus pumilus or Bacillus altitudinis—enhanced the extraction yield of Jatropha oil. The incubation of an MB4 starter culture with pre...

  16. Safety enhancement of oil trunk pipeline crossing active faults on Sakhalin Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishkina, E.; Antropova, N.; Korotchenko, T.

    2015-11-01

    The article explores the issues concerning safety enhancement of pipeline active fault crossing on Sakhalin Island. Based on the complexity and analysis results, all the faults crossed by pipeline system are classified into five categories - from very simple faults to extremely complex ones. The pipeline fault crossing design is developed in accordance with the fault category. To enhance pipeline safety at fault crossing, a set of methods should be applied: use of pipes of different safety classes and special trench design in accordance with soil permeability characteristics.

  17. A Survey on Statistical Based Single Channel Speech Enhancement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunnydayal. V

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech enhancement is a long standing problem with various applications like hearing aids, automatic recognition and coding of speech signals. Single channel speech enhancement technique is used for enhancement of the speech degraded by additive background noises. The background noise can have an adverse impact on our ability to converse without hindrance or smoothly in very noisy environments, such as busy streets, in a car or cockpit of an airplane. Such type of noises can affect quality and intelligibility of speech. This is a survey paper and its object is to provide an overview of speech enhancement algorithms so that enhance the noisy speech signal which is corrupted by additive noise. The algorithms are mainly based on statistical based approaches. Different estimators are compared. Challenges and Opportunities of speech enhancement are also discussed. This paper helps in choosing the best statistical based technique for speech enhancement

  18. Finding the multipath propagation of multivariable crude oil prices using a wavelet-based network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoliang; An, Haizhong; Sun, Xiaoqi; Huang, Xuan; Gao, Xiangyun

    2016-04-01

    The globalization and regionalization of crude oil trade inevitably give rise to the difference of crude oil prices. The understanding of the pattern of the crude oil prices' mutual propagation is essential for analyzing the development of global oil trade. Previous research has focused mainly on the fuzzy long- or short-term one-to-one propagation of bivariate oil prices, generally ignoring various patterns of periodical multivariate propagation. This study presents a wavelet-based network approach to help uncover the multipath propagation of multivariable crude oil prices in a joint time-frequency period. The weekly oil spot prices of the OPEC member states from June 1999 to March 2011 are adopted as the sample data. First, we used wavelet analysis to find different subseries based on an optimal decomposing scale to describe the periodical feature of the original oil price time series. Second, a complex network model was constructed based on an optimal threshold selection to describe the structural feature of multivariable oil prices. Third, Bayesian network analysis (BNA) was conducted to find the probability causal relationship based on periodical structural features to describe the various patterns of periodical multivariable propagation. Finally, the significance of the leading and intermediary oil prices is discussed. These findings are beneficial for the implementation of periodical target-oriented pricing policies and investment strategies.

  19. The Improvement of Screening the Significant Factors of Oil Blends as Bio lubricant Base Stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new formulation bio lubricant base stock was developed by blending of waste cooking oil (WCO) with Jatropha curcas oil (JCO). The objective of this research is to evaluate significant factors contributing to the production of oil blends for bio lubricant application. The significant factors used in this study were oil ratio (WCO:JCO), agitation times (min) and agitation speed (rpm). The blended oil bio based lubricant was used to determine the saponification, acid, peroxide and iodine values. The experimental design used in this study was the 2 level-factorial design. In this experiment, it was found that the effect of oil ratio and interaction of oil ratio and agitation speed gave the most significant effect in oil blends as bio lubricant base stock. The highest ratio of oil blend 80 %:20 % WCO:JCO, with low agitation speed of 300 rpm and low agitation time of 30 minutes gave the optimum results. The acid, saponification, peroxide and iodine values obtained were 0.517±0.08 mg KOH/ g, 126.23±1.62 mg/ g, 7.5±2.0 m eq/ kg and 50.42±2.85 mg/ g respectively. A higher ratio of waste cooking oil blends was found to be favourable as bio lubricant base stock. (author)

  20. Design of Multiple Metal Doped Ni Based Catalyst for Hydrogen Generation from Bio-oil Reforming at Mild-temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-xia Yuan; Fang Ding; Jian-ming Yao; Xiang-song Chen; Wei-wei Liu; Jin-yong Wu; Fei-yan Gong

    2013-01-01

    A new kind of multiple metal (Cu,Mg,Ce) doped Ni based mixed oxide catalyst,synthesized by the co-precipitation method,was used for efficient production of hydrogen from bio-oil reforming at 250-500 ℃.Two reforming processes,the conventional steam reforming (CSR) and the electrochemical catalytic reforming (ECR),were performed for the bio-oil reforming.The catalyst with an atomic mol ratio of Ni∶Cu∶Mg∶Ce∶Al=5.6∶1.1∶1.9∶1.0∶9.9 exhibited very high reforming activity both in CSR and ECR processes,reaching 82.8% hydrogen yield at 500 ℃ in the CSR,yield of 91.1% at 400 ℃ and 3.1 A in the ECR,respectively.The influences of reforming temperature and the current through the catalyst in the ECR were investigated.It was observed that the reforming and decomposition of the bio-oil were significantly enhanced by the current.The promoting effects of current on the decomposition and reforming processes of bio-oil were further studied by using the model compounds of biooil (acetic acid and ethanol) under 101 kPa or low pressure (0.1 Pa) through the time of flight analysis.The catalyst also shows high water gas shift activity in the range of 300-600 ℃.The catalyst features and alterations in the bio-oil reforming were characterized by the ICP,XRD,XPS and BET measurements.The mechanism of bio-oil reforming was discussed based on the study of the elemental reactions and catalyst characterizations.The research catalyst,potentially,may be a practical catalyst for high efficient production of hydrogen from reforning of bio-oil at mild-temperature.

  1. Antibacterial and immunity enhancement properties of anaesthetic doses of thyme (Thymus vulgaris oil and three other anaesthetics in Sparidentax hasta and Acanthopagrus latus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Azad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An effective alternative was discovered in the form of thyme oil for use as a fish anaesthetic (patent pending approval. The thyme oil along with a common aquaculture-grade commercial anaesthetic (AQUI-S, clove oil and quinaldine were investigated for their antimicrobial properties and its effect on the immune parameters of two important maricultured fish species, bluefin bream (Sparidentax hasta and yellowfin bream (Acanthopagrus latus. In vivo studies indicated that both the fish species had highly reduced bacterial load after the treatments and the in vitro antibacterial activity of the of the thyme oil was superior to that of the other treatments. The effects of anaesthetic dose of thyme oil, clove oil, quinaldine and AQUI-S were evaluated and compared. The reduction in the total viable vibrio counts in the anesthetized fish indicated that the vibrio were sensitive to the thyme oil. Also thyme oil produced higher non-specific immune enhancements.

  2. Solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin-based geopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantarel, V.; Nouaille, F.; Rooses, A.; Lambertin, D., E-mail: david.lambertin@cea.fr; Poulesquen, A.; Frizon, F.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Formulation with 20 vol.% of oil in a geopolymer have been successful tested. • Oil waste is encapsulated as oil droplets in metakaolin-based geopolymer. • Oil/geopolymer composite present good mechanical performance. • Carbon lixiviation of oil/geopolymer composite is very low. - Abstract: The solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin based geopolymer was studied in the present work. The process consists of obtaining a stabilised emulsion of oil in a water-glass solution and then adding metakaolin to engage the setting of a geopolymer block with an oil emulsion stabilised in the material. Geopolymer/oil composites have been made with various oil fraction (7, 14 and 20 vol.%). The rigidity and the good mechanical properties have been demonstrated with compressive strength tests. Leaching tests evidenced the release of oil from the composite material is very limited whereas the constitutive components of the geopolymer (Na, Si and OH{sup −}) are involved into diffusion process.

  3. Synthesis and Performance Evaluation of a New Deoiling Agent for Treatment of Waste Oil-Based Drilling Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Pingting Liu; Zhiyu Huang; Hao Deng; Rongsha Wang; Shuixiang Xie

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by am...

  4. A CUDA based parallel multi-phase oil reservoir simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaza, Ayham; Awotunde, Abeeb A.; Fairag, Faisal A.; Al-Mouhamed, Mayez A.

    2016-09-01

    Forward Reservoir Simulation (FRS) is a challenging process that models fluid flow and mass transfer in porous media to draw conclusions about the behavior of certain flow variables and well responses. Besides the operational cost associated with matrix assembly, FRS repeatedly solves huge and computationally expensive sparse, ill-conditioned and unsymmetrical linear system. Moreover, as the computation for practical reservoir dimensions lasts for long times, speeding up the process by taking advantage of parallel platforms is indispensable. By considering the state of art advances in massively parallel computing and the accompanying parallel architecture, this work aims primarily at developing a CUDA-based parallel simulator for oil reservoir. In addition to the initial reported 33 times speed gain compared to the serial version, running experiments showed that BiCGSTAB is a stable and fast solver which could be incorporated in such simulations instead of the more expensive, storage demanding and usually utilized GMRES.

  5. Piecewise Linear Model-Based Image Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Russo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel technique for the sharpening of noisy images is presented. The proposed enhancement system adopts a simple piecewise linear (PWL function in order to sharpen the image edges and to reduce the noise. Such effects can easily be controlled by varying two parameters only. The noise sensitivity of the operator is further decreased by means of an additional filtering step, which resorts to a nonlinear model too. Results of computer simulations show that the proposed sharpening system is simple and effective. The application of the method to contrast enhancement of color images is also discussed.

  6. Bio-based thermosetting copolymers of eugenol and tung oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoko, Harris

    There has been an increasing demand for novel synthetic polymers made of components derived from renewable sources to cope with the depletion of petroleum sources. In fact, monomers derived vegetable oils and plant sources have shown promising results in forming polymers with good properties. The following is a study of two highly viable renewable sources, eugenol and tung oil (TO) to be copolymerized into fully bio-based thermosets. Polymerization of eugenol required initial methacrylate-functionalization through Steglich esterification and the synthesized methacrylated eugenol (ME) was confirmed by 1H-NMR. Rheological studies showed ideal Newtonian behavior in ME and five other blended ME resins containing 10 -- 50 wt% TO. Free-radical copolymerization using 5 mol% of tert-butyl peroxybenzoate (crosslinking catalyst) and curing at elevated temperatures (90 -- 160 °C) formed a series of soft to rigid highly-crosslinked thermosets. Crosslinked material (89 -- 98 %) in the thermosets were determined by Soxhlet extraction to decrease with increase of TO content (0 -- 30%). Thermosets containing 0 -- 30 wt% TO possessed ultimate flexural (3-point bending) strength of 32.2 -- 97.2 MPa and flexural moduli of 0.6 -- 3.5 GPa, with 3.2 -- 8.8 % strain-to-failure ratio. Those containing 10 -- 40 wt% TO exhibited ultimate tensile strength of 3.3 -- 45.0 MPa and tensile moduli of 0.02 GPa to 1.12 GPa, with 8.5 -- 76.7 % strain-to-failure ratio. Glass transition temperatures ranged from 52 -- 152 °C as determined by DMA in 3-point bending. SEM analysis on fractured tensile test specimens detected a small degree of heterogeneity. All the thermosets are thermally stable up to approximately 300 °C based on 5% weight loss.

  7. Contrast Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gap Adjustment for Histogram Equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Ting, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Image enhancement methods have been widely used to improve the visual effects of images. Owing to its simplicity and effectiveness histogram equalization (HE) is one of the methods used for enhancing image contrast. However, HE may result in over-enhancement and feature loss problems that lead to unnatural look and loss of details in the processed images. Researchers have proposed various HE-based methods to solve the over-enhancement problem; however, they have largely ignored the feature loss problem. Therefore, a contrast enhancement algorithm based on gap adjustment for histogram equalization (CegaHE) is proposed. It refers to a visual contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (VCEA), which generates visually pleasing enhanced images, and improves the enhancement effects of VCEA. CegaHE adjusts the gaps between two gray values based on the adjustment equation, which takes the properties of human visual perception into consideration, to solve the over-enhancement problem. Besides, it also alleviates the feature loss problem and further enhances the textures in the dark regions of the images to improve the quality of the processed images for human visual perception. Experimental results demonstrate that CegaHE is a reliable method for contrast enhancement and that it significantly outperforms VCEA and other methods. PMID:27338412

  8. Fish Oil-Based Fat Emulsion Reduces Acute Kidney Injury and Inflammatory Response in Antibiotic-Treated Polymicrobial Septic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juey-Ming Shih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common complication in sepsis. This study compared the effects of a fish oil-based with a mixed oil fat emulsion on remote renal injury in an antibiotic-treated septic murine model. Mice were randomly assigned to a normal control (NC group and three septic groups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. The antibiotic was injected intraperitoneally (IP after CLP and then daily till the time of sacrifice. Three hours after antibiotic treatment, one of the septic groups was injected IP with a fish oil-based emulsion (FO, while the other two groups were given either a mixed oil emulsion (MO or saline (SC. The septic groups were further divided into two separate time groups, with blood and kidneys samples collected at 24 h or 72 h post-CLP. The results showed that sepsis leads to the activation of neutrophils, T helper (Th1/Th-2/Th-17 and Treg cells (p < 0.05. Plasma NGAL and mRNA expressions of renal MyD88 and TLR4 were also enhanced (p < 0.05. Compared to the SC group, the group given the fish oil-based emulsion had decreased plasma NGAL by 22% and Treg by 33%. Furthermore, renal gene expressions of MyD88 and TLR4 reduced by 46% and 62%, respectively, whereas heat shock protein 70 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ increased by 158% and 69%, respectively (p < 0.05, at Day 3 after CLP. These results suggest that administration of a fish oil-based emulsion has favorable effects, maintaining blood T cell percentage, downregulating Treg expression, attenuating systemic and local inflammation and offering renal protection under conditions of antibiotic-treated polymicrobial sepsis.

  9. Study of wettability of calcite surfaces using oil-brine-enzyme systems for enhanced oil recovery applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Alsu; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Pedersen, Hanne Høst;

    2015-01-01

    .1% of the enzyme product (corresponding to 0.002-0.005% protein). Likewise, proteases could also improve wettability, although the effect was not consistent and was dependent on impurities. Other enzymes had no effect on the wettability of calcite at the concentration studied. The main mechanism of enzymatic...... experimentally investigated the effect of enzymes on the wettability of calcite mineral surfaces with oil-brine systems. The action of various enzymes, including esterases/lipases, carbohydrases, proteases and oxidoreductases (along with two commercial mixtures) was studied by contact angle measurements...... and adhesion behaviour tests. Comparative studies with a surfactant, protein, purified enzyme, enzyme stabiliser using n-decane (as a model for the oil) have also been carried out in order to verify experimental results. The enzymes that have the highest effect on the wettability have been identified. Those...

  10. INEEL Biotechnology for Oilfield Application--Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery FY-03 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. A. Bala; D. F. Bruhn; S. L. Fox; K. S. Noah; K. D. Schaller; E. P. Robertson; X. Xie

    2003-11-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Biotechnology for Oilfield Operations program supports development, engineering, and application of biotechnology for exploration and production. This continuing INEEL program also supports mitigation of detrimental field conditions. The program is consistent with the United States Department of Energy mission to ¡§promote activities and policies through its oil technology and natural gas supply programs to enhance the efficiency and environmental quality of domestic oil and natural gas exploration, recovery, processing, transport, and storage.¡¨ In addition, the program directly supports the focus areas of Reservoir Life Extension; Advanced Drilling, Completion and Stimulation Systems; Effective Environmental Protection; and Cross Cutting Areas. The program is enhanced by collaborative relationships with industry and academia. For fiscal year 2003, the program focused on production and characterization of biological surfactants from agricultural residuals and the production and application of reactive microbial polymers. This report specifically details: 1. Use of a chemostat reactor operated in batch mode for producing surfactin, with concomitant use of an antifoam to prevent surfactant loss. The program achieved production and recovery of 0.6 g/L of surfactin per 12 hr. 2. Characterization of surfactin produced from agricultural residuals with respect to its ability to mediate changes in surface tension. Conditions evaluated were salt (as NaCl) from 0 to 10% (w/v), pH from 3 to 10, temperature from 21 to 70¢XC, and combinations of these conditions. When evaluated singularly, pH below 6 and salt concentrations above 30 g/L were found to have an adverse impact on surfactin. Temperatures of 70¢XC for 95 days had no effect. When the effect of temperature was added to the pH experiment, there were no significant changes, and, again, surface tension, at any temperature, increased at pH below 6

  11. Investigation of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Dimensionless Groups in Wettability Modified Chalk and Sandstone Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Alipour Tabrizy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses enhanced oil recovery in chalk and sandstone rocks by CO2 injection, with different wettability, porosity, and permeability as well as injection rate and flooding conditions. Results indicate that an increase in Bond number has a positive effect on oil recovery whereas for capillary number, there is a limit in which recovery is improving. This limit is estimated when the pressure drop by viscous force is approximately equal to the threshold balance between capillary and gravity forces. A dimensionless group is proposed that combines the effect of capillarity, injection rate, permeability, and CO2 diffusion on the oil recovery. Recovery from all experiments in this study and reported data in the literature shows a satisfactory relationship with the proposed group.

  12. Petrophysical and rock-mechanics effects of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Hjuler, Morten Leth; Christensen, Helle Foged;

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced oil recovery by CO2 injection (CO2-EOR) is a tertiary oil recovery process which has a prospective for being used, at the same time, as an effective technique for carbon dioxide storage. There is a huge potential for additional oil production and CO2 storage in the North Sea depleted chalk...... reservoirs. North Sea chalk is characterized by high porosity but also high specific surface causing low permeability. A high porosity provides room for CO2 storage, while a high specific surface causes a high risk for chemical reaction and consequently for mechanical weakening. In order to address...... to the injection of CO2 at supercritical state. We analyzed these changes with respect to the differences in porosity, specific surface, pore stiffness, wettability, mineralogy and mechanical strength. We observed a 2–3% increase in porosity, a minor decrease of specific surface and consequently a small increase...

  13. Large scale carbon dioxide production from coal-fired power stations for enhanced oil recovery : a new economic feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to investigate the economics of capturing carbon dioxide from coal-fired power plants to be subsequently used as a flooding agent for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technologies. It was shown that the production of CO2 for EOR projects can be technically and economically feasible, particularly when the concepts of cogeneration and optimization are used to reduce steam and electricity expenditures. This is done by using low-pressure steam and waste heat from various sections of the power generation process. It was shown that recovery costs could range between $0.50 to $2.00 per mscf. This translates to a recovered oil price of in the range of $17.39 to $19.95 per bbl., suggesting that even at today's low oil prices there is room for CO2 flooding with flue gas extracted CO2. Practical implications for Saskatchewan were examined. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  14. Simple techniques to increase the production yield and enhance the quality of organic rice bran oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikaeo, Khongsak; Pradit, Maythawinee

    2011-01-01

    This study develops simple techniques for increasing production yield and refining of crude RBO (CRBO). It was found that pre-heating of rice bran by hot air oven to reach 60°C before being extracted by screw press machine increased the yield from 4.8 to 8.3%w/w. This paper suggested three simple steps for refining of organic CRBO: (1) filtering using filter papers (2) sedimentation by adding 4%w/v fuller's earth and (3) bleaching by running through a packed column of activated carbon. These steps significantly enhanced the qualities of RBO when compared to CRBO before treatment. It was found that the lightness of oil as indicated by color value (L*) increased from 22.8 to 28.7, gum and wax decreased from 3.6 to 1.3%w/w. However, the simple refining method had no effect on peroxide value and free fatty acid content. Moreover, it slightly induced the loss of oryzanol content from 2.8 to 2.2%w/w. PMID:21178310

  15. Enhancement of Fat Oxidation by Licorice Flavonoid Oil in Healthy Humans during Light Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Noriyuki; Nakanishi, Saki; Shiomi, Seiko; Kiyokawa, Shoko; Kakimoto, Sachie; Nakagawa, Kaku; Hosoe, Kazunori; Minami, Kazuhiro; Nadamoto, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Licorice flavonoid oil (LFO) is a new functional food ingredient consisting of hydrophobic licorice polyphenols in medium-chain triglycerides. Recent studies reported that LFO prevented and ameliorated diet-induced obesity via the regulation of lipid metabolism-related gene expression in the livers of mice and rats, while it reduced body weight in overweight human subjects by reducing total body fat. However, the direct effects of LFO on energy metabolism have not been studied in human subjects. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ingestion of LFO on energy metabolism, including fat oxidation, by measuring body surface temperature under resting conditions and respiratory gas analysis under exercise conditions in healthy humans. We showed that ingestion of a single 600 mg dose of LFO elevated body trunk skin temperature when measured in a slightly cooled air-conditioned room, and increased oxygen consumption and decreased the respiratory exchange ratio as measured by respiratory gas analysis during 40% Vo2max exercise with a cycle ergometer. Furthermore, repeated ingestion of 300 mg of LFO for 8 d decreased respiratory exchange during the recovery period following 40 min of 30% Vo2max exercise on a treadmill. These results suggest that LFO enhances fat oxidation in humans during light exercise. PMID:26639849

  16. Enhanced oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs in mexico, technical challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia H, Francisco; Meza P, Edgar; Moran O, Oscar [PEMEX - Petroleos Mexicanos, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    Unlike single porosity reservoirs, naturally fractured reservoirs have several problems to implant any additional recovery processes (secondary or enhanced) due to a great amount of oil is trapped in the matrix and the injected fluids bypass matrix through fractures because of they have a greater capacity to allow flow. So far there, there is not a complete knowledge of improved recovery processes that can be applied to naturally fractured reservoirs, there are some laboratory tests, tests pilot in fields and very few projects in execution. All this make an opportunity area to develop more investigation. Taking into account the previous limitations is possible to begin to evaluate several processes for naturally fractured reservoirs as: gas injection, chemical treatments and thermal processes, but a common process to all of them is gravity drainage which implies new considerations in operation to extract hydrocarbons of the fractured reservoirs. There are many challenges to implant additional recovery processes in naturally fractured reservoirs and we mentioned in this work, moreover we show Mexican experience in EOR processes in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, too. (author)

  17. Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery-EOR Thermal Processes Report IV-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izequeido, Alexandor

    2001-04-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eight, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1! 987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  18. Oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched mayonnaise-based salads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched mayonnaise-based salads and the influence of different vegetables in shrimp and tuna salads were evaluated. Moreover, the lipid oxidation in the presence of 1% oregano, rosemary, or thyme in fish oil-enriched tuna salad was assessed. The results obtained...... showed that the mayonnaise itself was more oxidatively stable without vegetables and tuna or shrimp, in spite of the higher oil content in mayonnaise (63 and 6.3% fish oil, respectively) compared to salads (∼24 and 2.4% fish oil, respectively). Surprisingly, the fish oil-enriched mayonnaise was only...... significantly different from the standard mayonnaise in the volatile concentration during the end of storage. In fish oil-enriched shrimp salad, asparagus had an anti-oxidative effect and shrimp a pro-oxidative effect, where the anti-oxidative effect of asparagus was strong enough to prevent the pro...

  19. Enhanced Student Learning with Problem Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, James

    2008-01-01

    Science educators define a learning environment in which the problem drives the learning as problem based learning (PBL). Problem based learning can be a learning methodology/process or a curriculum based on its application by the teacher. This paper discusses the basic premise of Problem base learning and successful applications of such learning.…

  20. China to Launch Its Strategic Oil Reserve Bases Year-end

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zongsheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Wang Jiming, the vice president of Sinopec,disclosed on September 8th in Beijing that the national strategic oil reserve bases began to prepare and build in 2003 has made important progress at present. The first base is predicted to be put into service and store crude oil at the end of this year.

  1. Construction Starts for China's First Production Line of Coal-based Synthetic Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ On Feb. 22, the foundation-laying ceremony for the Lu'an Coal-based Synthetic Oil Plant, a major component of China's first coal-based synthetic oil demonstration project,was held at Tunliu Coal Mine of the Lu'an Coal Mine Group in north China's Shanxi Province, marking the start of the first such production line in this country.

  2. Comparison of Expansion During Fermentation on Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols Oil-Based and Butter Fat-Based Doughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Toyosaki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Expansion during fermentation on Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols (MCT oil-based doughs compared to butter fat-based doughs were studied, and the mechanism of fermentation accelerator of MCT oilbased in dough was also investigated. The results obtained as follows; the concentration of MCT oil-based accelerator on the fermentation of dough was confirmed maximum at 6.0%. The rate of expansion became the maximum a 60% of gluten contents at the dough with MCT oil-based. Mechanism of expansion of fermentation on MCT oil-based doughs was discussed. Gluten is formed of gliadin and glutenin. Gluten was denatured by MCT oil-based, which gluten molecule grows large. Fermentation is promoted by this phenomenon. This fact can provide new information to the bread-making industry.

  3. Significance of oil droplets in chemically enhanced water-accommodated fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Environmental Studies; Hodson, P.V.; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2003-07-01

    This presentation described the controversial use of chemical dispersions to treat oil spills on water. Dispersants break up the spill in order to reduce shoreline impacts, but the dispersant drives the oil into the water column in the form of droplets, thereby temporarily increasing hydrocarbon concentrations and causing negative impacts on aquatic organisms. Exposure experiments have been conducted on rainbow trout exposed to Mesa and Scotian Light Crude Oil, with and without oil droplets. The studies showed that the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was higher in the trout exposed to Corexit water-accommodated fractions, compared to water-accommodated fractions. The results suggest that dispersing crude oil sustains hydrocarbon concentrations in a larger volume of water than if it were not dispersed. The oil droplets increase the partitioning of PAH into the water solution. They adhere to the gills of the fish, thereby facilitating direct uptake.

  4. Engineering Behavior and Characteristics of Water-Soluble Polymers: Implication on Soil Remediation and Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Cindy Cao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers have shown a great effect in enhanced oil recovery because of the improvement of water-flood performance by mobility control, as well as having been considered for oil contaminated-soil remediation thanks to their mobility control and water-flood performance. This study focused on the wettability analysis of biopolymers such as chitosan (85% deacetylated power, PEO (polyethylene oxide, Xanthan (xanthan gum, SA (Alginic Acid Sodium Salt, and PAA (polyacrylic acid, including the measurements of contact angles, interfacial tension, and viscosity. Furthermore, a micromodel study was conducted to explore pore-scale displacement phenomena during biopolymer injection into the pores. The contact angles of biopolymer solutions are higher on silica surfaces submerged in decane than at atmospheric conditions. While interfacial tensions of the biopolymer solutions have a relatively small range of 25 to 39 mN/m, the viscosities of biopolymer solutions have a wide range, 0.002 to 0.4 Pa·s, that dramatically affect both the capillary number and viscosity number. Both contact angles and interfacial tension have effects on the capillary entry pressure that increases along with an applied effective stress by overburden pressure in sediments. Additionally, a high injection rate of biopolymer solutions into the pores illustrates a high level of displacement ratio. Thus, oil-contaminated soil remediation and enhanced oil recovery should be operated in cost-efficient ways considering the injection rates and capillary entry pressure.

  5. Experimental investigations on the fluid flow mechanism in porous media of enhanced oil recovery by alkli/surfactant/polymer flooding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jialu; SHEN Pingping; CHEN Yongzhong; ZHANG Zubo; JIA Xu; TIAN Yuling

    2005-01-01

    The fluid flow mechanism in porous media of enhanced oil recovery by Alkli/ Surfactant/ Polymer (ASP) flooding is investigated by measuring production performance, pressure distribution and saturation distribution through installing differential pressure transducers and saturation measuring probes in a physical model of vertical heterogeneous reservoir. The fluid flow variation in porous media is the main reason of enhanced oil recovery of ASP flooding. The pressure field and saturation field are nonlinearly coupled together and the interaction between them results in the fluid flow variation in the reservoir. In a vertical heterogeneous reservoir, the ASP agents initially flow in the high permeability layer, and fluid changes the flow direction toward the low and the middle permeability layers because the resistance in the high permeability layer is increased under the physical and chemical action of adsorption, retention and emulsion. ASP flooding displaces out not only the residual oil in the high permeability layer, but also the remaining oil in the low and the middle permeability layers by increasing swept volume and displacing efficiency.

  6. Gradient-based methods for production optimization of oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwartadi, Eka

    2012-07-01

    Production optimization for water flooding in the secondary phase of oil recovery is the main topic in this thesis. The emphasis has been on numerical optimization algorithms, tested on case examples using simple hypothetical oil reservoirs. Gradientbased optimization, which utilizes adjoint-based gradient computation, is used to solve the optimization problems. The first contribution of this thesis is to address output constraint problems. These kinds of constraints are natural in production optimization. Limiting total water production and water cut at producer wells are examples of such constraints. To maintain the feasibility of an optimization solution, a Lagrangian barrier method is proposed to handle the output constraints. This method incorporates the output constraints into the objective function, thus avoiding additional computations for the constraints gradient (Jacobian) which may be detrimental to the efficiency of the adjoint method. The second contribution is the study of the use of second-order adjoint-gradient information for production optimization. In order to speedup convergence rate in the optimization, one usually uses quasi-Newton approaches such as BFGS and SR1 methods. These methods compute an approximation of the inverse of the Hessian matrix given the first-order gradient from the adjoint method. The methods may not give significant speedup if the Hessian is ill-conditioned. We have developed and implemented the Hessian matrix computation using the adjoint method. Due to high computational cost of the Newton method itself, we instead compute the Hessian-timesvector product which is used in a conjugate gradient algorithm. Finally, the last contribution of this thesis is on surrogate optimization for water flooding in the presence of the output constraints. Two kinds of model order reduction techniques are applied to build surrogate models. These are proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM

  7. Does Discovery-Based Instruction Enhance Learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Alfieri, L.; Brooks, PJ; Aldrich, NJ; Tenenbaum, HR

    2011-01-01

    Discovery learning approaches to education have recently come under scrutiny (Tobias & Duffy, 2009), with many studies indicating limitations to discovery learning practices. Therefore, 2 meta-analyses were conducted using a sample of 164 studies: The 1st examined the effects of unassisted discovery learning versus explicit instruction, and the 2nd examined the effects of enhanced and/or assisted discovery versus other types of instruction (e.g., explicit, unassisted discovery). Random effect...

  8. Mechanisms behind injecting the combination of nano-clay particles and polymer solution for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili Nezhad, Seyyed Shahram; Cheraghian, Goshtasp

    2015-09-01

    Laboratory investigations and field applications have proved injection of polymer solution to be an effective means to improve oil recovery for reservoirs of medium oil viscosity. The incremental oil produced in this case is the result of an increase in areal and vertical sweep efficiencies. Biopolymers and synthetic polymers are the major categories used in the petroleum industry for specific reasons. Biopolymers like xanthan are limited in their application as they are more susceptible to biodegradation. Synthetic polymers like Hydrolyzed PolyAcrylaMide (HPAM) have a much wider application as they are less susceptible to biodegradation. Furthermore, development of nanotechnology has successfully provided technical and economical viable alternatives for present materials. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of combining clay nanoparticles with polymer solution on oil recovery. This paper includes a history match of both one-dimensional and two-dimensional polymer floods using a three-dimensional numerical model for fluid flow and mass transport. Results indicated that the amount of polymer adsorption decreased when clay nanoparticles were added to the PolyAcrylaMide solution; however, mobility ratio improvement is believed to be the main contributor for the proposed method in order to enhance much oil recovery compared to xanthan flood and HPAM flood.

  9. Mechanisms behind injecting the combination of nano-clay particles and polymer solution for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili Nezhad, Seyyed Shahram; Cheraghian, Goshtasp

    2016-08-01

    Laboratory investigations and field applications have proved injection of polymer solution to be an effective means to improve oil recovery for reservoirs of medium oil viscosity. The incremental oil produced in this case is the result of an increase in areal and vertical sweep efficiencies. Biopolymers and synthetic polymers are the major categories used in the petroleum industry for specific reasons. Biopolymers like xanthan are limited in their application as they are more susceptible to biodegradation. Synthetic polymers like Hydrolyzed PolyAcrylaMide (HPAM) have a much wider application as they are less susceptible to biodegradation. Furthermore, development of nanotechnology has successfully provided technical and economical viable alternatives for present materials. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of combining clay nanoparticles with polymer solution on oil recovery. This paper includes a history match of both one-dimensional and two-dimensional polymer floods using a three-dimensional numerical model for fluid flow and mass transport. Results indicated that the amount of polymer adsorption decreased when clay nanoparticles were added to the PolyAcrylaMide solution; however, mobility ratio improvement is believed to be the main contributor for the proposed method in order to enhance much oil recovery compared to xanthan flood and HPAM flood.

  10. Remediation of hydrocarbon contaminants in cold environments : electrokinetically enhanced bioremediation and biodegradable oil sorbents

    OpenAIRE

    Suni, Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Owing to the vast amounts of oil in the world, oil spills are common on land as well as at sea. In addition to oil products, other industrially used hydrocarbons, such as creosote, also contaminate soils. Most hydrocarbons are biodegradable. Hence, bioremediation is an attractive alternative for cleaning up hydrocarbon spills. In cold climate areas, however, biodegradation is often a slow process. The aim of this thesis was to develop efficient, cost-effective, and ecologically sound techniqu...

  11. Enhancement of the Norfloxacin Antibiotic Activity by Gaseous Contact with the Essential Oil of Croton zehntneri

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, HDM; Matias, EFF; Santos, KKA; Tintino, SR; Souza, CES; Guedes, GMM; Santos, FAD; Costa, JGM; Falcão-Silva, VS; Siqueira-Júnior, JP

    2010-01-01

    This is the first on the modulation of norfloxacin antibiotic activity by the volatile compounds of an essential oil. We report the chemical composition and antibiotic modifying activity of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (variety estragole), using the minimal inhibitory dose method and gaseous contact. The leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (Euphorbiaceae) were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with ...

  12. Coated carbide drill performance under soluble coconut oil lubricant and nanoparticle enhanced MQL in drilling AISI P20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, N. A. M.; Azmi, A. I.; Fairuz, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    This research experimentally investigates the performance of a TiAlN coated carbide drill bit in drilling AISI P20 through two different kinds of lubricants, namely; soluble coconut oil (SCO) and nanoparticle-enhanced coconut oil (NECO) under minimum quantity lubrication system. The tool life and tool wear mechanism were studied using various cutting speeds of 50, 100 and 150 m/min with a constant feed of 0.01 mm/rev. Since the flank wear land was not regular along the cutting edge, the average flank wear (VB) was measured at several points using image analysis software. The drills were inspected using a scanning electron microscope to further elucidate the wear mechanism. The result indicates that drilling with the nanoparticle- enhanced lubricant was better in resisting the wear and improving the drill life to some extent

  13. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery/Advanced Recovery Concepts Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M.J.; Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; Nagle, Jr., D.P.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    2002-05-28

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  14. Enhanced biological degradation of crude oil in a Spitsbergen tundra site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of oil-contaminated tundra plots on Spitsbergen was treated with combinations of five different fertilizer additives. Both organic and mineral nutrient sources were used, alone or in combination. Biological degradation of oil was recorded in all of the plots. The extent of degradation depended on the type of fertilizer added. The local conditions influence oil degradation significantly, as well as the effect of the fertilizer. Urea, SkogAN (a slow releasing fertilizer), and a blend of fish meals all give high degrees of oil degradation. Both the microbial parameters and the total heterotrophic respiration are influenced by the addition of fertilizers. 6 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Dielectric breakdown strength of magnetic nanofluid based on insulation oil after impulse test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, M.; Rasoulifard, M. H.; Hosseini, H.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the dielectric breakdown strength of magnetic nanofluids based on transformer mineral oil for use in power systems is reviewed. Nano oil samples are obtained from dispersion of the magnetic nanofluid within uninhibited transformer mineral oil NYTRO LIBRA as the base fluid. AC dielectric breakdown voltage measurement was carried out according to IEC 60156 standard and the lightning impulse breakdown voltage was obtained by using the sphere-sphere electrodes in an experimental setup for nano oil in volume concentration of 0.1-0.6%. Results indicate improved AC and lightning impulse breakdown voltage of nano oil compared to the base oil. AC test was performed again after applying impulse current and result showed that nano oil unlike the base oil retains its dielectric properties. Increase the dielectric strength of the nano oil is mainly due to dielectric and magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles that act as free electrons snapper, and reduce the rate of free electrons in the ionization process.

  16. Persistence of Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) SFP-198 conidia in corn oil-based suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Su; Je, Yeon Ho; Woo, En Ok; Park, Jong Sung

    2011-01-01

    Long-term persistence of entomopathogenic fungi as biopesticides is a major requirement for successful industrialization. Corn oil carrier was superior in maintaining germination rates of Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 conidia during exposure to 50°C for 2 h, when compared with other oils, such as soybean oil, cottonseed oil, paraffin oil, and methyl oleate. The corn oil-based conidial suspension (91.6% germination) was also better in this regard than conidial powder (28.4% germination) after 50°C for 8 h. Long-term storage stabilities of corn oil-based conidial suspension and conidial powder at 4 and 25°C for 24 months were investigated, based on the correlation of germination rate with insecticidal activity against greenhouse whiteflies, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Viability of conidia in corn oil was more than 98.4% for up to 9 months of storage at 25°C, and followed by 23% at 21 months. However, conidial powder had only 34% viability after 3 months of storage at 25°C, after which its viability rapidly decreased. The two conidial preparations stored at 4°C had better viabilities than those at 25°C, showing the same pattern as above. These results indicate that corn oil-based conidial suspension can be used to improve conidial persistence in long-term storage and be further applied to the formulation of other thermo-susceptible biological control agents.

  17. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 86, quarter ending March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Summaries are presented for 37 enhanced oil recovery contracts being supported by the Department of Energy. The projects are grouped into gas displacement methods, thermal recovery methods, geoscience technology, reservoir characterization, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Each summary includes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress, as well as information on contract dates, size of award, principal investigator, and company or facility doing the research.

  18. Oil base fluids without tensoactive additives; Fluidos a base de oleo sem tensoativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Jose Carlos V.; Aragao, Atila Fernando L. [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento de Recursos Humanos Norte e Nordeste

    1989-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to define an ideal oil base fluid composition without tensoactive additives, since these may cause damage to producing formation during drilling or well completion. We investigated the rheological, filtrating and phase separation properties of the systems composed of diesel oil, organophilic clay and a polar agent (water or ethyl alcohol). In order to to that, we used the 286 Baroid digital rotating viscometer, filtrating cells standardized according to the American Petroleum Institute (AP) for temperatures of 25 deg C to 149 deg C and pressures of 6,89 x 10{sup 5} Pa (100 psig) to 3,44 x 10{sup 6} (500 psig), and the setting method, according to the determinations of respectively rheological, filtrating and phase separation parameters. Results proved that the composition: diesel oil-94% v/v, Na Cl saturated solution - 6% v/v and bentone - 17,1 to 22,8 kg/m{sup 3} (6 to 8 lb/bbl), is ideal to meet the properties required for drilling and well completion operations for low densities, that is 0,84% to 1,02 (6,9 to 8,5 ib/gal). In order to obtain densities in the interval of 1,02 to 1,14 (8,5 to 9,5 ib/gal) the system should be condensed with calcite (Ca CO{sub 3}) and the base fluid composition should be : diesel oil-94 to 98% v/v, Na Cl saturated solution - 2 to 6% v/v and bentone 17,1 to 22,8 kg/m{sup 3} (6 to 8 ib/bbl). The average cost per barrel for the systems studied here is of the same order of conventional oil base fluids (with tensoactive additives). (author) 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Evaporation-based microfluidic production of oil-free cell-containing hydrogel particles

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Rong; Naqvi, Kubra; Patel, Krishna; Sun, Jun; Wan, Jiandi

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an evaporation-based microfluidic strategy to produce oil-free cell containing hydrogel particles. Perfluoro-n-pentane, which is used as the continuous oil phase to generate cell-containing hydrogel (Extracel) particles, is removed at an elevated temperature. Human colon cancer cells (HCT116) encapsulated in the hydrogel particles show higher viability than cells encapsulated in particles that are produced via a non-evaporative oil phase. In addition, single HCT116 cells can be...

  20. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY WITH DOWNHOLE VIBRATION STIMULATION IN OSAGE COUNTY OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Westermark; J. Ford Brett

    2003-11-01

    This Final Report covers the entire project from July 13, 2000 to June 30, 2003. The report summarizes the details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma'' under DOE Contract Number DE-FG26-00BC15191. The project was divided into nine separate tasks. This report is written in an effort to document the lessons learned during the completion of each task. Therefore each task will be discussed as the work evolved for that task throughout the duration of the project. Most of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, but certain tasks were dependent on earlier tasks being completed. During the three years of project activities, twelve quarterly technical reports were submitted for the project. Many individual topic and task specific reports were included as appendices in the quarterly reports. Ten of these reports have been included as appendices to this final report. Two technical papers, which were written and accepted by the Society of Petroleum Engineers, have also been included as appendices. The three primary goals of the project were to build a downhole vibration tool (DHVT) to be installed in seven inch casing, conduct a field test of vibration stimulation in a mature waterflooded field and evaluate the effects of the vibration on both the produced fluid characteristics and injection well performance. The field test results are as follows: In Phase I of the field test the DHVT performed exceeding well, generating strong clean signals on command and as designed. During this phase Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory had installed downhole geophones and hydrophones to monitor the signal generated by the downhole vibrator. The signals recorded were strong and clear. Phase II was planned to be ninety-day reservoir stimulation field test. This portion of the field tests was abruptly ended after one week of operations, when the DHVT became stuck in the well