WorldWideScience

Sample records for based energy efficient

  1. Energy Efficient Military Mobile Base Station Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Ray

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with an energy efficient network for military mobile base station placement. Theproposed method is based on minimizing the energy loss of military communication networks where thebase station is moving along a preset path and the users are constantly moving in an independent speedand direction. It takes into account the free space loss and the knife edge effect for the energy loss toestablish a path weight for the shortest path model. Then, it evaluates the neighboring points to the basestation for the energy loss of the network in order to find the position at which the minimum energy lossoccurs. The results show a clear energy saving advantage when compared to Lloyd-Max’s method

  2. Topological insulator-based energy efficient devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong P.

    2012-06-01

    Topological insulators (TI) have emerged as a new class of quantum materials with many novel and unusual properties. In this article, we will give a brief review of the key electronic properties of topological insulators, including the signatures for the unusual electronic transport properties of their characteristic topological surface states (TSS). We will then discuss how these novel properties and physics may be utilized for TI-based energy efficient devices, such as lowpower- consumption electronics and high performance thermo-electrics. Furthermore, going beyond conventional singleparticle, charge-based transport, to utilize coherent many-body coherent ground states such as excitonic condensates (EC), new and intriguing functionalities previously unexplored in electronic and energy devices may be realized with the potential to dramatically improve the energy efficiency.

  3. Promoting Behavior-Based Energy Efficiency in Military Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AH McMakin; EL Malone; RE Lundgren

    1999-09-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps agencies reduce the cost of doing business through energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of solar and other renewable energy. As a large energy user, the U.S. military has been one of the government sectors of focus. Several military installations have shown substantial energy savings in past years. Most of these efficiency projects, however, have focused primarily on physical upgrades, technologies, and purchasing habits. Furthermost projects have focused on administrative and operational areas of energy use. Military residential housing, in particular, has received little formal attention for energy efficiency involving behaviors of the residents themselves. Behavior-based change is a challenging, but potentially fruitful area for energy conservation programs. However, behavioral change involves links with values, social networks and organizations, and new ways of thinking about living patterns. This handbook attempts to fill a gap by offering guidance for promoting such efforts.

  4. Energy-efficiency based classification of the manufacturing workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumuşanu, G.; Afteni, C.; Badea, N.; Epureanu, A.

    2017-08-01

    EU Directive 92/75/EC established for the first time an energy consumption labelling scheme, further implemented by several other directives. As consequence, nowadays many products (e.g. home appliances, tyres, light bulbs, houses) have an EU Energy Label when offered for sale or rent. Several energy consumption models of manufacturing equipments have been also developed. This paper proposes an energy efficiency - based classification of the manufacturing workstation, aiming to characterize its energetic behaviour. The concept of energy efficiency of the manufacturing workstation is defined. On this base, a classification methodology has been developed. It refers to specific criteria and their evaluation modalities, together to the definition & delimitation of energy efficiency classes. The energy class position is defined after the amount of energy needed by the workstation in the middle point of its operating domain, while its extension is determined by the value of the first coefficient from the Taylor series that approximates the dependence between the energy consume and the chosen parameter of the working regime. The main domain of interest for this classification looks to be the optimization of the manufacturing activities planning and programming. A case-study regarding an actual lathe classification from energy efficiency point of view, based on two different approaches (analytical and numerical) is also included.

  5. Energy Efficient Cluster Based Scheduling Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janani, E Srie Vidhya; Kumar, P Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    The energy utilization of sensor nodes in large scale wireless sensor network points out the crucial need for scalable and energy efficient clustering protocols. Since sensor nodes usually operate on batteries, the maximum utility of network is greatly dependent on ideal usage of energy leftover in these sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose an Energy Efficient Cluster Based Scheduling Scheme for wireless sensor networks that balances the sensor network lifetime and energy efficiency. In the first phase of our proposed scheme, cluster topology is discovered and cluster head is chosen based on remaining energy level. The cluster head monitors the network energy threshold value to identify the energy drain rate of all its cluster members. In the second phase, scheduling algorithm is presented to allocate time slots to cluster member data packets. Here congestion occurrence is totally avoided. In the third phase, energy consumption model is proposed to maintain maximum residual energy level across the network. Moreover, we also propose a new packet format which is given to all cluster member nodes. The simulation results prove that the proposed scheme greatly contributes to maximum network lifetime, high energy, reduced overhead, and maximum delivery ratio.

  6. Energy based Efficient Resource Scheduling in Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Vasumathi,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is an evolving area of efficient utilization of computing resources. Data centers accommodating Cloud applications ingest massive quantities of energy, contributing to high functioning expenditures and carbon footprints to the atmosphere. Hence, Green Cloud computing resolutions are required not only to save energy for the environment but also to decrease operating charges. In this paper, we emphasis on the development of energy based resource scheduling framework and present an algorithm that consider the synergy between various data center infrastructures (i.e., software, hardware, etc., and performance. In specific, this paper proposes (a architectural principles for energy efficient management of Clouds; (b energy efficient resource allocation strategies and scheduling algorithm considering Quality of Service (QoS outlooks. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been evaluated with the existing energy based scheduling algorithms. The experimental results demonstrate that this approach is effective in minimizing the cost and energy consumption of Cloud applications thus moving towards the achievement of Green Clouds.

  7. Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks based on Ant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... energy efficient manner. Ant Colony Optimization, a swarm intelligence based optimization ... to WSNs, many routing schemes using end-to-end devices ..... This task is performed by sending ant k back to its source node from ...

  8. Assessment of Energy Efficient and Model Based Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-15

    and paid a price in energy consumption for it. Likewise, in configuration 14 the choice of the energy-efficient planner simply paid off better...both in energy saved and in avoiding barrel collisions. In either case, the odd choice of path could have been influenced by perceptual errors or by

  9. Nanoscale Magnetic Materials for Energy-Efficient Spin Based Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorvia, Jean Anne Currivan

    In this dissertation, I study the physical behavior of nanoscale magnetic materials and build spin-based transistors that encode information in magnetic domain walls. It can be argued that energy dissipation is the most serious problem in modern electronics, and one that has been resistant to a breakthrough. Wasted heat during computing both wastes energy and hinders further technology scaling. This is an opportunity for physicists and engineers to come up with creative solutions for more energy-efficient computing. I present the device we have designed, called domain wall logic (DW-Logic). Information is stored in the position of a magnetic domain wall in a ferromagnetic wire and read out using a magnetic tunnel junction. This hybrid design uses electrical current as the input and output, keeping the device compatible with charge- based transistors. I build an iterative model to predict both the micromagnetic and circuit behavior of DW- Logic, showing a single device can operate as a universal gate. The model shows we can build complex circuits including an 18-gate Full Adder, and allows us to predict the device switching energy compared to complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistors. Comparing ?15 nm feature nodes, I find DW-Logic made with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy materials, and utilizing both spin torque transfer and the Spin Hall effect, could operate with 1000x reduced switching energy compared to CMOS. I fabricate DW-Logic device prototypes and show in experiment they can act as AND and NAND gates. I demonstrate that one device can drive two subsequent devices, showing gain, which is a necessary requirement for fanout. I also build a clocked ring oscillator circuit to demonstrate successful bit propagation in a DW-Logic circuit and show that properly scaled devices can have improved operation. Through building the devices, I develop a novel fabrication method for patterning sub-25 nm magnetic wires with very low (˜ 2 nm) average edge

  10. Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    2013-01-15

    Energy performance contracts (EPCs) have proven an effective mechanism for increasing energy efficiency in nearly all sectors of the economy since their introduction nearly 30 years ago. In the modern form, activities undertaken as part of an EPC are scoped and implemented by experts with specialized technical knowledge, financed by commercial lenders, and enable a facility owner to limit risk and investment of time and resources while receiving the rewards of improved energy performance. This report provides a review of the experiences of the US with EPCs and discusses the possibilities for the residential sector to utilize EPCs. Notably absent from the EPC market is the residential segment. Historically, research has shown that the residential sector varies in several key ways from markets segments where EPCs have proven successful, including: high degree of heterogeneity of energy use characteristics among and within households, comparatively small quantity of energy consumed per residence, limited access to information about energy consumption and savings potential, and market inefficiencies that constrain the value of efficiency measures. However, the combination of recent technological advances in automated metering infrastructure, flexible financing options, and the expansion of competitive wholesale electricity markets to include energy efficiency as a biddable supply-side resource present an opportunity for EPC-like efforts to successfully engage the residential sector, albeit following a different model than has been used in EPCs traditionally.(Author)

  11. ADAPTIVE GOSSIP BASED PROTOCOL FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rajeswari; Venkataramani, Y.

    2012-01-01

    In Gossip Sleep Protocol, network performance is enhanced based on energy resource. But energy conservation is achieved with the reduced throughput. In this paper, it has been proposed a new Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Network to achieve reliability with energy conservation. Based on the probability (p) values, the value of sleep nodes is fixed initially. The probability value can be adaptively adjusted by Remote Activated Switch during the transmission process. The adaptiveness of gossiping p...

  12. The Energy Efficient Enterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    2010-09-15

    Since rising energy costs have become a crucial factor for the economy of production processes, the optimization of energy efficiency is of essential importance for industrial enterprises. Enterprises establish energy saving programs, specific to their needs. The most important elements of these energy efficiency programs are energy savings, energy controlling, energy optimization, and energy management. This article highlights the industrial enterprise approach to establish sustainable energy management programs based on the above elements. Globally, if organizations follow this approach, they can significantly reduce the overall energy consumption and cost.

  13. Assessment and Decomposition of Total Factor Energy Efficiency: An Evidence Based on Energy Shadow Price in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihao Lai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available By adopting an energy-input based directional distance function, we calculated the shadow price of four types of energy (i.e., coal, oil, gas and electricity among 30 areas in China from 1998 to 2012. Moreover, a macro-energy efficiency index in China was estimated and divided into intra-provincial technical efficiency, allocation efficiency of energy input structure and inter-provincial energy allocation efficiency. It shows that total energy efficiency has decreased in recent years, where intra-provincial energy technical efficiency drops markedly and extensive mode of energy consumption rises. However, energy structure and allocation improves slowly. Meanwhile, lacking an integrated energy market leads to the loss of energy efficiency. Further improvement of market allocation and structure adjustment play a pivotal role in the increase of energy efficiency.

  14. SAVE - energy efficiency in Germany 1990-2000. Report based on the ODYSSEE data base on energy efficiency indicators and the MURE data base on energy efficiency policy measures with the support from SAVE. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Schlomann, B.

    2002-03-01

    This reports presents an analysis of energy efficiency trends in Germany on the basis of energy efficiency indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE data base, maintained and updated in the framework of the SAVE programme. This analysis focuses on the period 1990-2000. The year 1990 could however not be considered for all indicators, because most of the economic and some energy consumption data for Germany are only available since 1991. The analysis also examines the policies and measures implemented in the field of energy efficiency, with a focus on the latest years until February 2002. All these measures are extracted from the MURE data base also updated within the SAVE programme. The report starts with a review on data collection and the recent trends in the general context of energy efficiency, i. e. economic and energy consumption development, energy and environmental policy and energy price trends (Chapter 2). Afterwards, the energy efficiency trends are described both at the level of the whole economy and at sectoral level (Chapter 3). In Chapter 4 the development in one sector - transport - is described more detailed. For the other sectors (industry, residential, tertiary) Annex 2 presents a selection of commented graphs that show the trends for the main indicators. An overview of the most important measures in the field of energy efficiency policy in the end-use sectors in Germany is given in Annex 1. A more detailed description of the most recent measures is presented in Annex 3. (orig.)

  15. Energy efficiency in France (1990-2000). Report based on the ODYSSEE data base on energy efficiency indicators and the MURE data base on energy efficiency policy measures with the support from SAVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This report presents an analysis of energy efficiency trends in France on the basis of energy efficiency indicators extracted from the Odyssee data base, maintained and updated in the framework of the SAVE program. This analysis focuses on the period 1990-2000. It also examines the policies and measures implemented in the field of energy efficiency, with a focus on the years 2000-2001. The full list and description of the policy measures are presented in detail in an annex. They are extracted from the MURE data base updated within the SAVE program. (author)

  16. ADAPTIVE GOSSIP BASED PROTOCOL FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajeswari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Gossip Sleep Protocol, network performance is enhanced based on energy resource. But energy conservation is achieved with the reduced throughput. In this paper, it has been proposed a new Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Network to achieve reliability with energy conservation. Based on the probability (p values, the value of sleep nodes is fixed initially. The probability value can be adaptively adjusted by Remote Activated Switch during the transmission process. The adaptiveness of gossiping probability is determined by the Packet Delivery Ratio. For performance comparison, we have taken Routing overhead, Packet Delivery Ratio, Number of dropped packets and Energy consumption with the increasing number of forwarding nodes. We used UDP based traffic models to analyze the performance of this protocol. We analyzed TCP based traffic models for average end to end delay. We have used the NS-2 simulator.

  17. Introduction to nano- and biotech-based materials for energy building efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal,Fernando Pacheco

    2016-01-01

    This chapter starts with an overview of the unsustainable energy consumption which is due to fast population growth and related greenhouse gas emissions. The case of energy efficiency building is introduced. A short analysis of the ambitious European nearly zero-energy building (NZEB) target is presented. Shortcomings of current materials concerning energy building efficiency are reviewed. Examples of promising nano- and biotech-based materials for energy building efficiency are briefly cover...

  18. FUZZY LOGIC BASED ENERGY EFFICIENT PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Wei Siew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been vastly developed due to the advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS using WSN to study and monitor the environments towards climates changes. In environmental monitoring, sensors are randomly deployed over the interest area to periodically sense the physical environments for a few months or even a year. Therefore, to prolong the network lifetime with limited battery capacity becomes a challenging issue. Low energy adaptive cluster hierarchical (LEACH is the common clustering protocol that aim to reduce the energy consumption by rotating the heavy workload cluster heads (CHs. The CHs election in LEACH is based on probability model which will lead to inefficient in energy consumption due to least desired CHs location in the network. In WSNs, the CHs location can directly influence the network energy consumption and further affect the network lifetime. In this paper, factors which will affect the network lifetime will be presented and the demonstration of fuzzy logic based CH selection conducted in base station (BS will also be carried out. To select suitable CHs that will prolong the network first node dies (FND round and consistent throughput to the BS, energy level and distance to the BS are selected as fuzzy inputs.

  19. Energy Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia; Farrell, Timothy Clifford; Thorsch Krader, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This report was commissioned by REN21 and produced in collaboration with a global network of research partners. Financing was provided by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), the Government...

  20. Queueing Delay and Energy Efficiency Analyses of Sleep Based Power Saving Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Wu, Yiqun; Niu, Zhisheng

    In wireless networks, sleep mode based power saving mechanisms can reduce the energy consumption at the expense of additional packet delay. This letter analyzes its packet queueing delay and wireless terminals' energy efficiency. Based on the analysis, optimal sleep window size can be derived to optimize terminal energy efficiency with delay constraint.

  1. Energy Conversion Efficiency of Mcg-Based Lightning Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernykh, E. V.; Fortov, V. E.; Gorbachev, K. V.; Kujekin, I. P.; Nesterov, E. V.; Stroganov, V. A.; Karpoushin, Yu. A.; Shourupov, A. V.

    2004-11-01

    The problem of HE mass gain minimization is extremely important due to environmental and safety considerations of MCG application to mobile simulators of lightning current (MSLC). There are several methods of increasing the efficiency of MSLC with an electrical explosive opening switch (EEOS) in the circuit of the secondary winding of a conventional transformer (CT) with inductance L2. One may use the battery of fast-run MCGs of a small diameter, or increase both the magnitude of L2 and the energy of power supply bank of capacitors, or use larger diameter wires with solid insulation. Results of experiments using spiral-coaxial MCG, 36 mm in diameter, have produced an acceptable efficiency of 12%. When the wires were insulated with polyethylene, energy absorption was high. Analysis of alternatives to open switches (OS) in the MCG circuit has shown their competitiveness. They allow reduction of the optimum L2 magnitude, use of a modular device design, and shaping of the waveform and of the lightning current pulse duration during its droop by introducing one additional MCG module into the circuit.

  2. Efficiency of Energy Consumption as a Base for Sustainable Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Anicetas Ignotas; Viktorija Stasytytė

    2016-01-01

    Lithuania, as many other EU countries, encounters key challenges in three energy sector fields: energy independence, energy sector competitiveness and sustainable energy sector development. Such situation is determined by historical and political conditions, as well as by limited internal energy resources. In such context an importance of energy consumption efficiency pursuing country energy sector sustainability is highlighted. By implementing the long-term goals and tasks a country may seek...

  3. Nano-based PCMs for building energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Thermal storage using phase change materials (PCMs) is seen as a viable method for improving the energy efficiency of buildings. PCMs have been used in building applications in various forms PCM slurries in heat exchangers, macro- or microencapsulated PCMs in building envelopes, bulk PCM for modulating photovoltaic temperatures, etc. In the last decade a new class of PCMs, called nano-enhanced PCM (or nanoPCM), has been extensively investigated with the goal of improving the heat transfer and thermal storage properties of PCMs. NanoPCMs can primarily be categorized as nano-encapsulated PCMs and nanoparticle-PCM composites. The former are nano-sized capsules in which the PCM forms the core and is surrounded by a high-conductivity membrane or shell. The latter consist of PCM supported within nanostructures or nanoparticles dispersed in PCMs. This article reviews the current state of nanoPCM synthesis and characterization of their heat transfer and thermal storage properties. Further, a critical review of nanoPCM applications and their potential energy benefits is performed. Nano-enhanced PCMs exhibit higher thermal conductivities than regular PCM. However, whether the higher conductivity is desirable in all applications and if the property enhancements are worth the cost and effort needed to create nanoPCMs are questions that still need to be answered.

  4. Efficiency Enhancement of a Cantilever-Based Vibration Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali E. Kubba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracting energy from ambient vibration to power wireless sensor nodes has been an attractive area of research, particularly in the automotive monitoring field. This article reports the design, analysis and testing of a vibration energy harvesting device based on a miniature asymmetric air-spaced cantilever. The developed design offers high power density, and delivers electric power that is sufficient to support most wireless sensor nodes for structural health monitoring (SHM applications. The optimized design underwent three evolutionary steps, starting from a simple cantilever design, going through an air-spaced cantilever, and ending up with an optimized air-spaced geometry with boosted power density level. Finite Element Analysis (FEA was used as an initial tool to compare the three geometries’ stiffness (K, output open-circuit voltage (Vave, and average normal strain in the piezoelectric transducer (εave that directly affect its output voltage. Experimental tests were also carried out in order to examine the energy harvesting level in each of the three designs. The experimental results show how to boost the power output level in a thin air-spaced cantilever beam for energy within the same space envelope. The developed thin air-spaced cantilever (8.37 cm3, has a maximum power output of 2.05 mW (H = 29.29 μJ/cycle.

  5. The evaluation model of the enterprise energy efficiency based on DPSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jin-Yu; Zhao, Xiao-Yu; Sun, Xue-Shan

    2017-05-08

    The reasonable evaluation of the enterprise energy efficiency is an important work in order to reduce the energy consumption. In this paper, an effective energy efficiency evaluation index system is proposed based on DPSR (Driving forces-Pressure-State-Response) with the consideration of the actual situation of enterprises. This index system which covers multi-dimensional indexes of the enterprise energy efficiency can reveal the complete causal chain which includes the "driver forces" and "pressure" of the enterprise energy efficiency "state" caused by the internal and external environment, and the ultimate enterprise energy-saving "response" measures. Furthermore, the ANP (Analytic Network Process) and cloud model are used to calculate the weight of each index and evaluate the energy efficiency level. The analysis of BL Company verifies the feasibility of this index system and also provides an effective way to improve the energy efficiency at last.

  6. Energy Provider: Delivered Energy Efficiency: A global stock-taking based on case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    In 2011 the IEA and the Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP) took on a work programme focused on the role of energy providers in delivering energy efficiency to end-users. This work was part of the IEA’s contribution to the PEPDEE Task Group, which falls under the umbrella of the International Partnership on Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC). In addition to organizing regional dialogues between governments, regulators, and energy providers, the PEPDEE work stream conducted global stock-takings of regulatory mechanisms adopted by governments to obligate or encourage energy providers to delivery energy savings and the energy savings activities of energy providers. For its part the IEA conducted a global review of energy provider-delivered energy savings programmes. The IEA reached out to energy providers to identify the energy savings activities they engaged in. Some 250 energy saving activities were considered, and 41 detailed case studies spanning 18 countries were developed. Geographic balance was a major consideration, and much effort was expended identifying energy provider-delivered energy savings case studies from around the world. Taken together these case studies represent over USD 1 billion in annual spending, or about 8% of estimated energy provider spending on energy efficiency.

  7. Energy Efficiency, Food Consumption Influence on China's Economy based on Energy and Agricultural Food Price Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yantao Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available External shocks have significant effects on China's economy, as energy and agriculture food price. In recent years, the increasing of energy price will promote energy efficiency; also increasing prices of agricultural products will impact on production efficiency and economy. In this study, we make a statistical analysis on the impact of energy and agricultural food prices to domestic economy. The result shows that energy price will influence the energy efficiency in the short time, LnEP at lag 1 period increased one percentage can drive LnEE growth by 0.627 percentage, at the same time, agricultural food price will impact on the production efficiency, LnAFP at lag 1 period and the 2 period increased 1 percentage will drive the LnPE increased by 0.245 and 0.016 percentage respectively. Therefore, agricultural food prices have direct mutual promotion effect. Also, there exist at least one direct co-integration relationship between energy price and energy efficiency, which means that there exist a long-term equilibrium relationship between energy price and energy efficiency.

  8. Optimization of Energy Conversion Efficiency Betavoltaic Element Based on Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Krasnov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It was developed the technology of manufacturing planar betavoltaic converter based on silicon, providing a higher rate of conversion of ionizing radiation into electrical energy by reducing reverse currents. The active region of silicon p-i-n structure is 1 cm2, which is irradiated by the of radionuclide 63Ni with the activity 2,7 mCi/cm2. The results of experimental studies of C-V samples are presented. The values of the open-circuit voltage (Voc 0.111 V are presented and short circuit current density (Jsc 27 nA/cm2. The ma-ximum density of output power (Pmax was 1.52 nW/cm2.

  9. IC-BASED CONTROLS FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT LIGHTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Zhang

    2005-03-01

    A new approach for driving high frequency energy saving ballasts is developed and documented in this report. The developed approach utilizes an IC-based platform that provides the benefits of reduced system cost, reduced ballast size, and universal application to a wide range of lamp technologies, such as linear fluorescent lamps (LFL), compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and high intensity discharge lamps (HID). The control IC chip set developed for the platform includes dual low voltage (LV) IC gate drive that provides gate drive for high and low side power switches in typical ballast circuits, and ballast controller IC that provides control functionalities optimal for different lamps and digital interface for future extension to more sophisticated control and communication.

  10. Energy Efficiency of Laser Driven, Structure Based Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemann, R

    2004-04-21

    The acceleration efficiency of a laser driven linear accelerator is analyzed. The laser power, loss factor and impedances determine the maximum charge that can be accelerated and the efficiency of that acceleration. The accelerator structure can be incorporated into a laser cavity. The equation for the resultant laser pulse is derived and analyzed. A specific example is presented, and the steady-state laser pulse shapes, acceleration efficiency, and average unloaded gradient are calculated.

  11. A method to identify energy efficiency measures for factory systems based on qualitative modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Krones, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Manuela Krones develops a method that supports factory planners in generating energy-efficient planning solutions. The method provides qualitative description concepts for factory planning tasks and energy efficiency knowledge as well as an algorithm-based linkage between these measures and the respective planning tasks. Its application is guided by a procedure model which allows a general applicability in the manufacturing sector. The results contain energy efficiency measures that are suitable for a specific planning task and reveal the roles of various actors for the measures’ implementation. Contents Driving Concerns for and Barriers against Energy Efficiency Approaches to Increase Energy Efficiency in Factories Socio-Technical Description of Factory Planning Tasks Description of Energy Efficiency Measures Case Studies on Welding Processes and Logistics Systems Target Groups Lecturers and Students of Industrial Engineering, Production Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Practi...

  12. Energy Consumption Analysis Based on Energy Efficiency Approach: A Case of Suburban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman K.A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient data about electricity consumption over large periods of time was accumulated and analysed in order to develop appropriate electricity-saving measures. An important first step was to analyse and identify electrical appliances that had energy saving potential. Different behavioural consumption profiles were analysed using information from two sources: 1 technical data about electricity consumption (electricity bill and 2 data about household electrical appliance usage and consumer awareness obtained from a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire consisted of four sections of questions which concerned residents’ backgrounds, residential information, consumers’ awareness about energy efficiency (EE and the energy usage of each house. The results showed that the electricity consumption profile of an individual household could be most related to the EE approach. It indicated that consumers’ behaviour (awareness and practice resulted in one of the important factors related to high electricity consumption. Another important conclusion of our questionnaire-based analysis was that the implementation of the EE approach could help the consumer to reduce their monthly energy consumption.

  13. Energy Efficiency: An Experiential-Based Energy Unit for Youth Ages 13-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorman, Myken D.; Webster, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Not all 16 year olds can buy hybrid cars to help save gas emissions, but they can learn new, easy ways to save energy. Youth are more likely to develop a greater sense of positive impact on the environment if they learn easy and creative ways to use energy more efficiently at a young age. Through the use of practical applications, youth can begin…

  14. Medium-Contention Based Energy-Efficient Distributed Clustering (MEDIC) for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Zhao; Qilian Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we utilize clustering to organize wireless sensors into an energy-efficient hierarchy. We propose a Medium-contention based Energy-efficient DIstributed Clustering (MEDIC) scheme, through which sensors self-organize themselves into energy-efficient clusters by bidding for cluster headship. This scheme is based on a new criterion that can be used by each sensor node to make a distributed decision on whether electing to be a cluster head or a non-head member, which is a fully dis...

  15. Energy Efficient FPGA based Hardware Accelerators for Financial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenn Toft, Jakob; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) based accelerators are very suitable to implement application-specific processors using uncommon operations or number systems. In this work, we design FPGA-based accelerators for two financial computations with different characteristics and we compare...

  16. Energy efficiency; Energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-15

    The Low Energy Panel will halve the consumption in buildings. The Panel has proposed a halving of consumption in the construction within 2040 and 20 percent reduction in the consumption in the industry within 2020. The Panel consider it as possible to gradually reduce consumption in buildings from the current level of 80 TWh with 10 TWh in 2020, 25 TWh in 2030 and 40 TWh in 2040. According the committee one such halving can be reached by significant efforts relating to energy efficiency, by greater rehabilitations, energy efficiency in consisting building stock and stricter requirements for new construction. For the industry field the Panel recommend a political goal to be set at least 20 percent reduction in specific energy consumption in the industry and primary industry beyond general technological development by the end of 2020. This is equivalent to approximately 17 TWh based on current level of activity. The Panel believes that a 5 percent reduction should be achieved by the end of 2012 by carrying out simple measures. The Low Energy Panel has since March 2009 considered possibilities to strengthen the authorities' work with energy efficiency in Norway. The wide complex panel adds up proposals for a comprehensive approach for increased energy efficiency in particular in the building- and industry field. The Panel has looked into the potential for energy efficiency, barriers for energy efficiency, assessment of strengths and weaknesses in the existing policy instruments and members of the Panel's recommendations. In addition the report contains a review of theoretical principles for effects of instruments together with an extensive background. One of the committee members have chosen to take special notes on the main recommendations in the report. (AG)

  17. A Centralized Energy Efficient Distance Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit D. Gawade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN typically consists of a large number of low cost wireless sensor nodes which collect and send various messages to a base station (BS. WSN nodes are small battery powered devices having limited energy resources. Replacement of such energy resources is not easy for thousands of nodes as they are inaccessible to users after their deployment. This generates a requirement of energy efficient routing protocol for increasing network lifetime while minimizing energy consumption. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH is a widely used classic clustering algorithm in WSNs. In this paper, we propose a Centralized Energy Efficient Distance (CEED based routing protocol to evenly distribute energy dissipation among all sensor nodes. We calculate optimum number of cluster heads based on LEACH’s energy dissipation model. We propose a distributed cluster head selection algorithm based on dissipated energy of a node and its distance to BS. Moreover, we extend our protocol by multihop routing scheme to reduce energy dissipated by nodes located far away from base station. The performance of CEED is compared with other protocols such as LEACH and LEACH with Distance Based Thresholds (LEACH-DT. Simulation results show that CEED is more energy efficient as compared to other protocols. Also it improves the network lifetime and stability period over the other protocols.

  18. GDI based full adders for energy efficient arithmetic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Shoba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Addition is a vital arithmetic operation and acts as a building block for synthesizing all other operations. A high-performance adder is one of the key components in the design of application specific integrated circuits. In this paper, three low power full adders are designed with full swing AND, OR and XOR gates to alleviate threshold voltage problem which is commonly encountered in Gate Diffusion Input (GDI logic. This problem usually does not allow the full adder circuits to operate without additional inverters. However, the three full adders are successfully realized using full swing gates with the significant improvement in their performance. The performance of the proposed designs is compared with the other full adder designs, namely CMOS, CPL, hybrid and GDI through SPICE simulations using 45 nm technology models. Simulation results reveal that proposed designs have lower energy consumption among all the conventional designs taken for comparison.

  19. Cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammu, Aboobeker Sidhik Koyamparambil; Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; Sainz, Nekane; de la Iglesia, Idoia

    2015-04-09

    Recent developments in electronics and wireless communications have enabled the improvement of low-power and low-cost wireless sensors networks (WSNs). One of the most important challenges in WSNs is to increase the network lifetime due to the limited energy capacity of the network nodes. Another major challenge in WSNs is the hot spots that emerge as locations under heavy traffic load. Nodes in such areas quickly drain energy resources, leading to disconnection in network services. In such an environment, cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient algorithms (CCBE) can prolong the network lifetime and energy efficiency. CCBE is based on clustering the nodes to different hexagonal structures. A hexagonal cluster consists of cluster members (CMs) and a cluster head (CH). The CHs are selected from the CMs based on nodes near the optimal CH distance and the residual energy of the nodes. Additionally, the optimal CH distance that links to optimal energy consumption is derived. To balance the energy consumption and the traffic load in the network, the CHs are rotated among all CMs. In WSNs, energy is mostly consumed during transmission and reception. Transmission collisions can further decrease the energy efficiency. These collisions can be avoided by using a contention-free protocol during the transmission period. Additionally, the CH allocates slots to the CMs based on their residual energy to increase sleep time. Furthermore, the energy consumption of CH can be further reduced by data aggregation. In this paper, we propose a data aggregation level based on the residual energy of CH and a cost-aware decision scheme for the fusion of data. Performance results show that the CCBE scheme performs better in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption and throughput compared to low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) and hybrid energy-efficient distributed clustering (HEED).

  20. Energy-Efficient Next-Generation Passive Optical Networks Based on Sleep Mode and Heuristic Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulai, Luis G. T.; Durand, Fábio R.; Abrão, Taufik

    2015-05-01

    In this article, an energy-efficiency mechanism for next-generation passive optical networks is investigated through heuristic particle swarm optimization. Ten-gigabit Ethernet-wavelength division multiplexing optical code division multiplexing-passive optical network next-generation passive optical networks are based on the use of a legacy 10-gigabit Ethernet-passive optical network with the advantage of using only an en/decoder pair of optical code division multiplexing technology, thus eliminating the en/decoder at each optical network unit. The proposed joint mechanism is based on the sleep-mode power-saving scheme for a 10-gigabit Ethernet-passive optical network, combined with a power control procedure aiming to adjust the transmitted power of the active optical network units while maximizing the overall energy-efficiency network. The particle swarm optimization based power control algorithm establishes the optimal transmitted power in each optical network unit according to the network pre-defined quality of service requirements. The objective is controlling the power consumption of the optical network unit according to the traffic demand by adjusting its transmitter power in an attempt to maximize the number of transmitted bits with minimum energy consumption, achieving maximal system energy efficiency. Numerical results have revealed that it is possible to save 75% of energy consumption with the proposed particle swarm optimization based sleep-mode energy-efficiency mechanism compared to 55% energy savings when just a sleeping-mode-based mechanism is deployed.

  1. Energy efficiency; Efficacite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the energy efficiency. It presents the energy efficiency and intensity around the world with a particular focus on Europe, the energy efficiency in industry and Total commitment. (A.L.B.)

  2. Energy Efficient Interest Forwarding in NDN-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been a new emerging trend in integrating Named Data Networking (NDN and wireless sensor networks (WSNs together to implement real data-centric Internet of Things (IoT. However, the main solutions in current literature lack energy efficient design to meet the severely limited energy resources in WSNs. In this paper, we propose a dual mode Interest forwarding scheme (called DMIF in short for NDN-based WSNs. The DMIF consists of two combined forwarding modes, in which several energy efficient mechanisms including flexible mode shift, flooding scope control, broadcast storm avoidance, packet suppression, and energy weight factors are designed to save and balance the energy consumption. We extend the ndnSIM to support wireless multihop communication to validate the proposed scheme. Simulation experiments show that the DMIF outperforms the baseline schemes in terms of total energy consumption, energy equilibrium rate, and network lifetime.

  3. Revisiting energy efficiency fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lombard, L.; Velazquez, D. [Grupo de Termotecnia, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville (Spain); Ortiz, J. [Building Research Establishment (BRE), Garston, Watford, WD25 9XX (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Energy efficiency is a central target for energy policy and a keystone to mitigate climate change and to achieve a sustainable development. Although great efforts have been carried out during the last four decades to investigate the issue, focusing into measuring energy efficiency, understanding its trends and impacts on energy consumption and to design effective energy efficiency policies, many energy efficiency-related concepts, some methodological problems for the construction of energy efficiency indicators (EEI) and even some of the energy efficiency potential gains are often ignored or misunderstood, causing no little confusion and controversy not only for laymen but even for specialists. This paper aims to revisit, analyse and discuss some efficiency fundamental topics that could improve understanding and critical judgement of efficiency stakeholders and that could help in avoiding unfounded judgements and misleading statements. Firstly, we address the problem of measuring energy efficiency both in qualitative and quantitative terms. Secondly, main methodological problems standing in the way of the construction of EEI are discussed, and a sequence of actions is proposed to tackle them in an ordered fashion. Finally, two key topics are discussed in detail: the links between energy efficiency and energy savings, and the border between energy efficiency improvement and renewable sources promotion.

  4. A general theory of evolution based on energy efficiency: its implications for diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Anthony J; Lee, Patrick Y; Doux, John D; Conley, Buford R

    2006-01-01

    We propose a general theory of evolution based on energy efficiency. Life represents an emergent property of energy. The earth receives energy from cosmic sources such as the sun. Biologic life can be characterized by the conversion of available energy into complex systems. Direct energy converters such as photosynthetic microorganisms and plants transform light energy into high-energy phosphate bonds that fuel biochemical work. Indirect converters such as herbivores and carnivores predominantly feed off the food chain supplied by these direct converters. Improving energy efficiency confers competitive advantage in the contest among organisms for energy. We introduce a term, return on energy (ROE), as a measure of energy efficiency. We define ROE as a ratio of the amount of energy acquired by a system to the amount of energy consumed to generate that gain. Life-death cycling represents a tactic to sample the environment for innovations that allow increases in ROE to develop over generations rather than an individual lifespan. However, the variation-selection strategem of Darwinian evolution may define a particular tactic rather than an overarching biological paradigm. A theory of evolution based on competition for energy and driven by improvements in ROE both encompasses prior notions of evolution and portends post-Darwinian mechanisms. Such processes may involve the exchange of non-genetic traits that improve ROE, as exemplified by cognitive adaptations or memes. Under these circumstances, indefinite persistence may become favored over life-death cycling, as increases in ROE may then occur more efficiently within a single lifespan rather than over multiple generations. The key to this transition may involve novel methods to address the promotion of health and cognitive plasticity. We describe the implications of this theory for human diseases.

  5. Landscaping for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

  6. Implementation of an energy-efficient scheduling scheme based on pipeline flux leak monitoring networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Peng; YAO JiangHe; PEI JiuLing

    2009-01-01

    Flow against pipeline leakage and the pipe network sudden burst pipe to pipeline leakage flow for the application objects,an energy-efficient real-time scheduling scheme is designed extensively used in pipeline leak monitoring.The proposed scheme can adaptively adjust the network rate in real-time and reduce the cell loss rate,so that it can efficiently avoid the traffic congestion.The recent evolution of wireless sensor networks has yielded a demand to improve energy-efficient scheduling algorithms and energy-efficient medium access protocols.This paper proposes an energy-efficient real-time scheduling scheme that reduces power consumption and network errors on pipeline flux leak monitoring networks.The proposed scheme is based on a dynamic modulation scaling scheme which can scale the number of bits per symbol and a switching scheme which can swap the polling schedule between channels.Built on top of EDF scheduling policy,the proposed scheme enhances the power performance without violating the constraints of real-time streams.The simulation results show that the proposed scheme enhances fault-tolerance and reduces power consumption.Furthermore,that Network congestion avoidance strategy with an energy-efficient real-time scheduling scheme can efficiently improve the bandwidth utilization,TCP friendliness and reduce the packet drop rate in pipeline flux leak monitoring networks.

  7. An Energy Efficient and Secure Clustering Protocol for Military based WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Less contiguous nature of military applications demands for surveillance of widespread areas that are indeed harder to monitor. Unlike traditional Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, a military based large size sensor network possesses unique requirements/challenges in terms of self-configuration, coverage, connectivity and energy dissipation. Taking this aspect into consideration, this paper proposes a novel, efficient and secure clustering method for military based applications. In any clustering based approach, one of the prime concerns is appropriate selection of Cluster Heads and formation of balanced clusters. This paper proposes and analyzes two schemes, Average Energy based Clustering (AEC and Threshold Energy based Clustering (TEC. In AEC, a node is elected as Cluster Head (CH if its residual energy is above the average energy of its cluster whereas in case of TEC, a node is elected as Cluster Head if its residual energy is above the threshold energy. Further, both AEC and TEC choose nodes as CHs if their distance lies within safety zone of the Base Station. In this paper, aim is to come up with a solution that not only conserves energy but balance load while electing safe nodes as CHs. The performance of proposed protocols was critically evaluated in terms of network lifetime, average residual energy of nodes and uniformity in energy dissipation of nodes. Results clearly demonstrated that AEC is successful in incorporating security whilst increasing overall lifetime of network, load balance and uniform energy dissipation.

  8. Energy Efficient Multiresource Allocation of Virtual Machine Based on PSO in Cloud Data Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-ping Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, massive energy consumption in cloud data center tends to be an escalating threat to the environment. To reduce energy consumption in cloud data center, an energy efficient virtual machine allocation algorithm is proposed in this paper based on a proposed energy efficient multiresource allocation model and the particle swarm optimization (PSO method. In this algorithm, the fitness function of PSO is defined as the total Euclidean distance to determine the optimal point between resource utilization and energy consumption. This algorithm can avoid falling into local optima which is common in traditional heuristic algorithms. Compared to traditional heuristic algorithms MBFD and MBFH, our algorithm shows significantly energy savings in cloud data center and also makes the utilization of system resources reasonable at the same time.

  9. Making energy efficiency happen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-04-01

    Improving energy efficiency is the least expensive and most effective way to address simultaneously several national issues. Improving efficiency saves money for consumers, increases economic productivity and international competitiveness, enhances national security by lowering oil imports, and reduces the adverse environmental effects of energy production. This paper discusses some of the many opportunities to improve efficiency, emphasizing the roles of government and utilities.

  10. Energy Efficiency Performance Improvements for Ant-Based Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu Murtala Zungeru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problem for event gathering in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is the restricted communication range for each node. Due to the restricted communication range and high network density, event forwarding in WSNs is very challenging and requires multihop data forwarding. Currently, the energy-efficient ant based routing (EEABR algorithm, based on the ant colony optimization (ACO metaheuristic, is one of the state-of-the-art energy-aware routing protocols. In this paper, we propose three improvements to the EEABR algorithm to further improve its energy efficiency. The improvements to the original EEABR are based on the following: (1 a new scheme to intelligently initialize the routing tables giving priority to neighboring nodes that simultaneously could be the destination, (2 intelligent update of routing tables in case of a node or link failure, and (3 reducing the flooding ability of ants for congestion control. The energy efficiency improvements are significant particularly for dynamic routing environments. Experimental results using the RMASE simulation environment show that the proposed method increases the energy efficiency by up to 9% and 64% in converge-cast and target-tracking scenarios, respectively, over the original EEABR without incurring a significant increase in complexity. The method is also compared and found to also outperform other swarm-based routing protocols such as sensor-driven and cost-aware ant routing (SC and Beesensor.

  11. Energy Efficient TCP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donckers, L.; Smit, G.J.M.; Smit, L.T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an energy-efficient transport protocol for mobile wireless communication. First we describe the metrics used to measure the energy efficiency of transport protocols. We identify several problem areas that prevent TCP/IP from reaching high levels of energy efficienc

  12. Tetrastyryl-BODIPY-based dendritic light harvester and estimation of energy transfer efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostereli, Ziya; Ozdemir, Tugba; Buyukcakir, Onur; Akkaya, Engin U

    2012-07-20

    Versatile BODIPY dyes can be transformed into bright near-IR-emitting fluorophores by quadruple styryl substitutions. When clickable functionalities on the styryl moieties are inserted, an efficient synthesis of a light harvester is possible. In addition, clear spectral evidence is presented showing that, in dendritic light harvesters, calculations commonly based on quantum yield or emission lifetime changes of the donor are bound to yield large overestimations of energy transfer efficiency.

  13. Development of a Framework for a Lean based Water and Energy Efficiency Assessment Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Davies

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing industry of South Africa is the sector consuming the largest portion of the total energy consumption and second largest portion of total water consumption per annum nationally. With a significant increase in electrical energy cost in recent years, together with the reserve energy margin dropping below the minimum level required for sustainable operation of energy utilities, energy efficiency improvement is becoming imperative for organisational success as well as national economical sustainability. This paper explores selected Lean manufacturing principles and its positive effect on energy and water efficiency. Although the implementation of Lean manufacturing techniques naturally leads to the improvement of energy and water intensity, the author believes that there is even greater potential in the development of a Lean based tool which will specifically focus on the improvement of energy and water efficiency. For this purpose the value stream mapping tool was chosen as the foundation. This paper continues to explain the process undergone to develop standardised energy and water specific waste categories to be used in conjunction with the traditional Lean wastes. The study concludes by detailing the development of the tool, together with its framework for implementation and a brief discussion on the forecasting model incorporated.

  14. Conversion efficiency of an energy harvester based on resonant tunneling through quantum dots with heat leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Shinya; Fujii, Minoru

    2017-03-01

    We study the conversion efficiency of an energy harvester based on resonant tunneling through quantum dots with heat leakage. Heat leakage current from a hot electrode to a cold electrode is taken into account in the analysis of the harvester operation. Modeling of electrical output indicates that a maximum heat leakage current is not negligible because it is larger than that of the heat current harvested into electrical power. A reduction of heat leakage is required in this energy harvester in order to obtain efficient heat-to-electrical conversion. Multiple energy levels of a quantum dot can increase the output power of the harvester. Heavily doped colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are a possible candidate for a quantum-dot monolayer in the energy harvester to reduce heat leakage, scaling down device size, and increasing electrical output via multiple discrete energy levels.

  15. Analysis of energy-saving dispatch based on energy efficiency for power system with large scale wind power integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lanqing; Zhou, Peng; Li, Shitong; Lin, Li

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing of wind generators and the scale of wind farm, the utilization rate of wind power decreases continually, it is essential to develop an energy-saving dispatching model for the purpose of energy conservation and emission reduction. Firstly, considering some main factors, such as generator operating costs, start-up unit costs, shutdown unit costs, oil consumption and pollutant emission, establish an energy efficiency model. Then, based on the principle of energy-saving dispatch, a model is established which objective is maximizing the energy efficiency. Moreover, in order to realize the priority dispatching of wind power, another model is established which objective is minimizing the wind power shedding. Finally, under the conditions of different installed wind power capacities being integrated into a real region grid, two models are compared and analyzed from perspectives of the society, thermal power enterprise and wind power enterprise.

  16. Efficiency Evaluation of Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kanoğlu, Mehmet; Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency is one of the most frequently used terms in thermodynamics, and it indicates how well an energy conversion or process is accomplished. Efficiency is also one of the most frequently misused terms in thermodynamics and is often a source of misunderstanding. This is because efficiency is often used without being properly defined first. This book intends to provide a comprehensive evaluation of various efficiencies used for energy transfer and conversion systems including steady-flow energy devices (turbines, compressors, pumps, nozzles, heat exchangers, etc.), various power plants, cogeneration plants, and refrigeration systems. The book will cover first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provide a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book will be particularly useful for a clear ...

  17. Synthesis of Schiff Bases via Environmentally Benign and Energy-Efficient Greener Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshi Naqvi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Non classical methods (water based reaction, microwave and grindstone chemistry were used for the preparation of Schiff bases from 3-chloro-4-fluoro aniline and several benzaldehydes. The key raw materials were allowed to react in water, under microwave irradiation and grindstone. These methodologies constitute an energy-efficient and environmentally benign greener chemistry version of the classical condensation reactions for Schiff bases formation.

  18. Use of GIS-based Site-specific Nitrogen Management for Improving Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    To our knowledge, geographical information system (GIS)-based site-specific nitrogen management (SSNM) techniques have not been used to assess agricultural energy costs and efficiency. This chapter uses SSNM case studies for corn (Zea mays L.) grown in Missouri and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) gro...

  19. Pseudo Open Drain IO Standards Based Energy Efficient Solar Charge Sensor Design on 20nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, K; Pandey, B; Nanda, K

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an approach is made to design Pseudo open drain IO standards Based Energy efficient solar charge sensor design on 20nm and 28nm technology. We have used LVCMOS18, POD10, POD10_DCI and POD12 I/O standard. In this design, we have taken two main parameters for analysis that are frequen...

  20. Cherenkov radiation and dielectric based accelerating structures: Wakefield generation, power extraction and energy transfer efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanareykin, Alexei

    2010-06-01

    We present here our recent results of the Euclid Techlabs LLC/Argonne National Laboratory/St.Petersburg Electrotechnical University "LETI" collaboration on wakefield high energy acceleration of electron bunches in dielectric based accelerating structures. This program concentrates primarily on Cherenkov radiation studies providing efficient high energy generation aimed at a future 1 TeV collider. We report here on recent experiments in high power Cherenkov radiation and corresponding dielectric material developments and characterizations. Progress in diamond, quartz and microwave low-loss ceramic structure development in GHz and THz frequency ranges is presented. Beam Breakup effects and transverse bunch stability are discussed as well. We e report on recent progress on tunable dielectric based structure development. A special subject of our paper is transformer ratio enhancement schemes providing energy transfer efficiency for the dielectric based wakefield acceleration.

  1. gTBS: A green Task-Based Sensing for energy efficient Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alhalafi, Abdullah

    2016-09-08

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are widely used to sense and measure physical conditions for different purposes and within different regions. However due to the limited lifetime of the sensor\\'s energy source, many efforts are made to design energy efficient WSN. As a result, many techniques were presented in the literature such as power adaptation, sleep and wake-up, and scheduling in order to enhance WSN lifetime. These techniques where presented separately and shown to achieve some gain in terms of energy efficiency. In this paper, we present an energy efficient cross layer design for WSN that we named \\'green Task-Based Sensing\\' (gTBS) scheme. The gTBS design is a task based sensing scheme that not only prevents wasting power in unnecessary signaling, but also utilizes several techniques for achieving reliable and energy efficient WSN. The proposed gTBS combines the power adaptation with a sleep and wake-up technique that allows inactive nodes to sleep. Also, it adopts a gradient-oriented unicast approach to overcome the synchronization problem, minimize network traffic hurdles, and significantly reduce the overall power consumption of the network. We implement the gTBS on a testbed and we show that it reduces the power consumption by a factor of 20%-55% compared to traditional TBS. It also reduces the delay by 54%-145% and improves the delivery ratio by 24%-73%. © 2016 IEEE.

  2. Adjacency Matrix Based Energy Efficient Scheduling using S-MAC Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Shweta

    2012-01-01

    Communication is the main motive in any Networks whether it is Wireless Sensor Network, Ad-Hoc networks, Mobile Networks, Wired Networks, Local Area Network, Metropolitan Area Network, Wireless Area Network etc, hence it must be energy efficient. The main parameters for energy efficient communication are maximizing network lifetime, saving energy at the different nodes, sending the packets in minimum time delay, higher throughput etc. This paper focuses mainly on the energy efficient communication with the help of Adjacency Matrix in the Wireless Sensor Networks. The energy efficient scheduling can be done by putting the idle node in to sleep node so energy at the idle node can be saved. The proposed model in this paper first forms the adjacency matrix and broadcasts the information about the total number of existing nodes with depths to the other nodes in the same cluster from controller node. When every node receives the node information about the other nodes for same cluster they communicate based on the s...

  3. An Energy Efficient Unequal Cluster Based Routing Protocol For WSN With Non-Uniform Node Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanoop K Dhanpal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clustering is an efficient method for increasing the lifetime of wireless sensor network systems. The current clustering algorithms generate clusters of almost equal size. This will cause hot spot problem in multi-hop sensor networks. In this paper an energy efficient varying sized clustering algorithm EEVSCA and routing protocol are introduced for non-uniform node distributed wireless sensor network system. EEVSCA helps for the construction of clusters of varying size at the same time unequal cluster based routing algorithm forces each cluster head to choose node with higher energy as their next hop. The unequal size of clusters can balance the energy consumption among clusters. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that EECSVA balance energy consumption well among the cluster heads and increase the network lifetime effectively.

  4. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

    2006-07-31

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  5. Fuzzy-Logic Based Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jun; Han, Dezhi; Wu, Huafeng; Zhou, Rundong

    2017-01-01

    Due to the high-energy efficiency and scalability, the clustering routing algorithm has been widely used in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In order to gather information more efficiently, each sensor node transmits data to its Cluster Head (CH) to which it belongs, by multi-hop communication. However, the multi-hop communication in the cluster brings the problem of excessive energy consumption of the relay nodes which are closer to the CH. These nodes’ energy will be consumed more quickly than the farther nodes, which brings the negative influence on load balance for the whole networks. Therefore, we propose an energy-efficient distributed clustering algorithm based on fuzzy approach with non-uniform distribution (EEDCF). During CHs’ election, we take nodes’ energies, nodes’ degree and neighbor nodes’ residual energies into consideration as the input parameters. In addition, we take advantage of Takagi, Sugeno and Kang (TSK) fuzzy model instead of traditional method as our inference system to guarantee the quantitative analysis more reasonable. In our scheme, each sensor node calculates the probability of being as CH with the help of fuzzy inference system in a distributed way. The experimental results indicate EEDCF algorithm is better than some current representative methods in aspects of data transmission, energy consumption and lifetime of networks. PMID:28671641

  6. Fuzzy-Logic Based Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jun; Han, Dezhi; Wu, Huafeng; Zhou, Rundong

    2017-07-03

    Due to the high-energy efficiency and scalability, the clustering routing algorithm has been widely used in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In order to gather information more efficiently, each sensor node transmits data to its Cluster Head (CH) to which it belongs, by multi-hop communication. However, the multi-hop communication in the cluster brings the problem of excessive energy consumption of the relay nodes which are closer to the CH. These nodes' energy will be consumed more quickly than the farther nodes, which brings the negative influence on load balance for the whole networks. Therefore, we propose an energy-efficient distributed clustering algorithm based on fuzzy approach with non-uniform distribution (EEDCF). During CHs' election, we take nodes' energies, nodes' degree and neighbor nodes' residual energies into consideration as the input parameters. In addition, we take advantage of Takagi, Sugeno and Kang (TSK) fuzzy model instead of traditional method as our inference system to guarantee the quantitative analysis more reasonable. In our scheme, each sensor node calculates the probability of being as CH with the help of fuzzy inference system in a distributed way. The experimental results indicate EEDCF algorithm is better than some current representative methods in aspects of data transmission, energy consumption and lifetime of networks.

  7. Energy Efficiency Collaboratives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Michael [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Bryson, Joe [US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Collaboratives for energy efficiency have a long and successful history and are currently used, in some form, in more than half of the states. Historically, many state utility commissions have used some form of collaborative group process to resolve complex issues that emerge during a rate proceeding. Rather than debate the issues through the formality of a commission proceeding, disagreeing parties are sent to discuss issues in a less-formal setting and bring back resolutions to the commission. Energy efficiency collaboratives take this concept and apply it specifically to energy efficiency programs—often in anticipation of future issues as opposed to reacting to a present disagreement. Energy efficiency collaboratives can operate long term and can address the full suite of issues associated with designing, implementing, and improving energy efficiency programs. Collaboratives can be useful to gather stakeholder input on changing program budgets and program changes in response to performance or market shifts, as well as to provide continuity while regulators come and go, identify additional energy efficiency opportunities and innovations, assess the role of energy efficiency in new regulatory contexts, and draw on lessons learned and best practices from a diverse group. Details about specific collaboratives in the United States are in the appendix to this guide. Collectively, they demonstrate the value of collaborative stakeholder processes in producing successful energy efficiency programs.

  8. An Improved Energy-Efficient BBO-Based PEGASIS Protocol in Wireless Sensors Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipandeep Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency in the WSN is one of the very important Performance Indicator. Sensor network is a distributed event-based system that differs from traditional communication network. Sensor webs consisting of nodes with limited battery power and wireless communications are deployed to collect useful information from the field. PEGASIS (Power-Efficient Gathering in Sensor Information System is chain based protocol which is used to construct chain of sensor nodes. In the proposed work BBO is implemented along with PEGASIS to get the shortest chain for every round. Moreover to construct chain, energy of each sensor has been taken into account to bring a balance of energy consumption between nodes. Compared with PEGASIS, this PEG-BBO gives better results. Simulation results show that proposed protocol significantly prolongs the network lifetime.

  9. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Zaporozhets

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Disparities in the production structure, moral and physical obsolescence and depreciation offixed assets in economics, low-effective use fuel and energy resources (FER and water demands excessiveuse of energy, requiring substantial imports of energy resources (over 50% of needs. The resultingdependence of the basic branches of economy of Ukraine, primarily fuel and energy complex, from theexporting countries of fuel resources and, consequently, increasing the threat to energy safety. Meanwhile,such situation is in contrudiction of the principles of sustainable developments, adopted on the Summit inRio-de-Janeiro (1992. Ukraine needs the more active energy efficient policy.Keywords: energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy intensity of gross domestic product, energysafety state, fuel and energy resources, innovative development, structural changes ineconomy.

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND GDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Gvozdenac-Urošević

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency can be powerful tool for achieving sustainable economic development and most important for reducing energy consumption and environmental pollution on national level. Unfortunately, energy efficiency is difficult to conceptualize and there is no single commonly accepted definition. Because of that, measurement of achieved energy efficiency and its impact on national or regional economy is very complicated. Gross Domestic Product (GDP is often used to assess financial effects of applied energy efficiency measures at the national and regional levels. The growth in energy consumption per capita leads to a similar growth in GDP, but it is desirable to provide for the fall of these values. The paper analyzes some standard indicators and the analysis has been applied to a very large sample ensuring reliability for conclusion purposes. National parameters for 128 countries in the world in 2007 were analyzed. In addition to that, parameters were analyzed in the last years for global regions and Serbia.

  11. An Update based Energy-Efficient Reactive Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirendra Kumar Sharma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Low cost energy-efficient (power based routing protocols of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs increase the lifetime of static networks by using received signal strength (RSS and battery power status (PS. They require GPS service to find the exact location of mobile nodes. The GPS devices themselves consume power because they need excessive updates to find the stationary nodes for efficient routing. To overcome this, RSS is being used as a metric, followed by, residual battery power. The recent protocols, based on these concepts, provide energy efficient routes during the route discovery phase only. Topological changes make these routes weak in due course of time. To update routes, HELLO process can be used, which however creates unnecessary overhead, delay and consumes power. Hence, these protocols do not update the routes. We propose an energy-efficient reactive routing protocol that uses the RSS and PS of mobile nodes. Proposed Link Failure Prediction (LFP algorithm uses the link-layer feedback system to update active routes. We use ns2 for simulation of the proposed algorithm. Comparing the results of proposed scheme and existing scheme, in terms of energy consumption, link failure probability, and retransmission of packets, we observe that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing one.

  12. Genetic algorithm-based fuzzy-PID control methodologies for enhancement of energy efficiency of a dynamic energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahedi, G. [Energy Research Center, Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ardehali, M.M., E-mail: ardehali@aut.ac.i [Energy Research Center, Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The simplicity in coding the heuristic judgment of experienced operator by means of fuzzy logic can be exploited for enhancement of energy efficiency. Fuzzy logic has been used as an effective tool for scheduling conventional PID controllers gain coefficients (F-PID). However, to search for the most desirable fuzzy system characteristics that allow for best performance of the energy system with minimum energy input, optimization techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA) could be utilized and the control methodology is identified as GA-based F-PID (GA-F-PID). The objective of this study is to examine the performance of PID, F-PID, and GA-F-PID controllers for enhancement of energy efficiency of a dynamic energy system. The performance evaluation of the controllers is accomplished by means of two cost functions that are based on the quadratic forms of the energy input and deviation from a setpoint temperature, referred to as energy and comfort costs, respectively. The GA-F-PID controller is examined in two different forms, namely, global form and local form. For the global form, all possible combinations of fuzzy system characteristics in the search domain are explored by GA for finding the fittest chromosome for all discrete time intervals during the entire operation period. For the local form, however, GA is used in each discrete time interval to find the fittest chromosome for implementation. The results show that the global form GA-F-PID and local form GA-F-PID control methodologies, in comparison with PID controller, achieve higher energy efficiency by lowering energy costs by 51.2%, and 67.8%, respectively. Similarly, the comfort costs for deviation from setpoint are enhanced by 54.4%, and 62.4%, respectively. It is determined that GA-F-PID performs better in local from than global form.

  13. A Comfort-Aware Energy Efficient HVAC System Based on the Subspace Identification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Tsakiridis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A proactive heating method is presented aiming at reducing the energy consumption in a HVAC system while maintaining the thermal comfort of the occupants. The proposed technique fuses time predictions for the zones’ temperatures, based on a deterministic subspace identification method, and zones’ occupancy predictions, based on a mobility model, in a decision scheme that is capable of regulating the balance between the total energy consumed and the total discomfort cost. Simulation results for various occupation-mobility models demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed technique.

  14. Financing Energy Efficient Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Existing buildings require over 40% of the world's total final energy consumption, and account for 24% of world CO2 emissions (IEA, 2006). Much of this consumption could be avoided through improved efficiency of building energy systems (IEA, 2006) using current, commercially-viable technology. In most cases, these technologies make economic sense on a life-cycle cost analysis (IEA, 2006b). Moreover, to the extent that they reduce dependence on risk-prone fossil energy sources, energy efficient technologies also address concerns of energy security.

  15. ENERGY EFFICIENT LAUNDRY PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Richter

    2005-04-01

    With the rising cost of energy and increased concerns for pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from power generation, increased focus is being put on energy efficiency. This study looks at several approaches to reducing energy consumption in clothes care appliances by considering the appliances and laundry chemistry as a system, rather than individually.

  16. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  17. An Energy-Efficient Mobile Sink-Based Unequal Clustering Mechanism for WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaei, Niayesh; Abu Bakar, Kamalrulnizam; Mohd Hashim, Siti Zaiton; Hosseingholi Pourasl, Ali; Siraj, Mohammad; Darwish, Tasneem

    2017-08-11

    Network lifetime and energy efficiency are crucial performance metrics used to evaluate wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Decreasing and balancing the energy consumption of nodes can be employed to increase network lifetime. In cluster-based WSNs, one objective of applying clustering is to decrease the energy consumption of the network. In fact, the clustering technique will be considered effective if the energy consumed by sensor nodes decreases after applying clustering, however, this aim will not be achieved if the cluster size is not properly chosen. Therefore, in this paper, the energy consumption of nodes, before clustering, is considered to determine the optimal cluster size. A two-stage Genetic Algorithm (GA) is employed to determine the optimal interval of cluster size and derive the exact value from the interval. Furthermore, the energy hole is an inherent problem which leads to a remarkable decrease in the network's lifespan. This problem stems from the asynchronous energy depletion of nodes located in different layers of the network. For this reason, we propose Circular Motion of Mobile-Sink with Varied Velocity Algorithm (CM2SV2) to balance the energy consumption ratio of cluster heads (CH). According to the results, these strategies could largely increase the network's lifetime by decreasing the energy consumption of sensors and balancing the energy consumption among CHs.

  18. Fuzzy Based Energy Efficient Multiple Cluster Head Selection Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohel Rana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is made up with small batteries powered sensor devices with lim-ited energy resources within it. These sensor nodes are used to monitor physical or environmental conditions and to pass their data through the wireless network to the main location. One of the crucial issues in wireless sensor network is to create a more energy efficient system. Clustering is one kind of mechanism in Wireless Sensor Networks to prolong the network lifetime and to reduce network energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol called Fuzzy Based Energy Effi-cient Multiple Cluster Head Selection Routing Protocol (FEMCHRP for Wireless Sensor Network. The routing process involves the Clustering of nodes and the selection of Cluster Head (CH nodes of these clusters which sends all the information to the Cluster Head Leader (CHL. After that, the cluster head leaders send aggregated data to the Base Station (BS. The selection of cluster heads and cluster head leaders is performed by using fuzzy logic and the data transmission process is performed by shortest energy path which is selected applying Dijkstra Algorithm. The simulation results of this research are compared with other protocols BCDCP, CELRP and ECHERP to evaluate the performance of the proposed routing protocol. The evaluation concludes that the proposed routing protocol is better in prolonging network lifetime and balancing energy consumption.

  19. Energy-Efficient BOP-Based Beacon Transmission Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eui-Jik; Youm, Sungkwan; Choi, Hyo-Hyun

    Many applications in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) require the energy efficiency and scalability. Although IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee which is being considered as general technology for WSNs enables the low duty-cycling with time synchronization of all the nodes in network, it still suffer from its low scalability due to the beacon frame collision. Recently, various algorithms to resolve this problem are proposed. However, their manners to implement are somewhat ambiguous and the degradation of energy/communication efficiency is serious by the additional overhead. This paper describes an Energy-efficient BOP-based Beacon transmission Scheduling (EBBS) algorithm. EBBS is the centralized approach, in which a resource-sufficient node called as Topology Management Center (TMC) allocates the time slots to transmit a beacon frame to the nodes and manages the active/sleep schedules of them. We also propose EBBS with Adaptive BOPL (EBBS-AB), to adjust the duration to transmit beacon frames in every beacon interval, adaptively. Simulation results show that by using the proposed algorithm, the energy efficiency and the throughput of whole network can be significantly improved. EBBS-AB is also more effective for the network performance when the nodes are uniformly deployed on the sensor field rather than the case of random topologies.

  20. TBEE: Tier Based Energy Efficient Protocol Providing Sink and Source Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Chauhan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In resource constrained wireless sensor networks (WSNs it is important to utilize energy efficiently. Data dissemination is mainly responsible for the consumption of energy in sensor nodes (SNs. The data dissemination protocols for WSNs should reduce the energy consumption of the SNs. Sink and source mobility is the major challenge for data dissemination protocols. In this paper, a Tier based Energy Efficient protocol (TBEE providing sink and source mobility in WSNs has been proposed. TBEE protocol has been designed so that fewer SNs located nearer to the dissemination point (DP respond to the sinks message for grid formation thereby reducing message overheads. TBEE exploits an improved approach of communication amongst the SNs so that the collisions are reduced. TBEE efficiently handles the movement of the sinks and sources in the network and reduces the overheads associated with their mobility. TBEEs performance was evaluated in different conditions and scenarios. Simulation results show substantial improvement by TBEE as compared with the other existing grid based approaches for most of the scenarios.

  1. An Energy-Efficient Game-Theory-Based Spectrum Decision Scheme for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Shelly; Moh, Sangman

    2016-06-30

    A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) is a wireless sensor network in which sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radio. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient game-theory-based spectrum decision (EGSD) scheme for CRSNs to prolong the network lifetime. Note that energy efficiency is the most important design consideration in CRSNs because it determines the network lifetime. The central part of the EGSD scheme consists of two spectrum selection algorithms: random selection and game-theory-based selection. The EGSD scheme also includes a clustering algorithm, spectrum characterization with a Markov chain, and cluster member coordination. Our performance study shows that EGSD outperforms the existing popular framework in terms of network lifetime and coordination overhead.

  2. An Energy-Efficient Game-Theory-Based Spectrum Decision Scheme for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Salim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN is a wireless sensor network in which sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radio. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient game-theory-based spectrum decision (EGSD scheme for CRSNs to prolong the network lifetime. Note that energy efficiency is the most important design consideration in CRSNs because it determines the network lifetime. The central part of the EGSD scheme consists of two spectrum selection algorithms: random selection and game-theory-based selection. The EGSD scheme also includes a clustering algorithm, spectrum characterization with a Markov chain, and cluster member coordination. Our performance study shows that EGSD outperforms the existing popular framework in terms of network lifetime and coordination overhead.

  3. Efficient use of energy

    CERN Document Server

    Dryden, IGC

    2013-01-01

    The Efficient Use of Energy, Second Edition is a compendium of papers discussing the efficiency with which energy is used in industry. The collection covers relevant topics in energy handling and describes the more important features of plant and equipment. The book is organized into six parts. Part I presents the various methods of heat production. The second part discusses the use of heat in industry and includes topics in furnace design, industrial heating, boiler plants, and water treatment. Part III deals with the production of mechanical and electrical energy. It tackles the principles o

  4. HSTL IO Standard Based Energy Efficient Multiplier Design using Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madhok, Shivani; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Kaur, Amanpreet

    2015-01-01

    standards. Frequency scaling is one of the best energy efficient techniques for FPGA based VLSI design and is used in this paper. At the end we can conclude that we can conclude that there is 23-40% saving of total power dissipation by using SSTL IO standard at 25 degree Celsius. The main reason for power...... consumption is leakage power at different IO Standards and at different frequencies. In this research work only FPGA work has been performed not ultra scale FPGA....

  5. Energy Efficient Cryogenics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, Barry J.; Notardonato, William; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for the energy-efficient use of cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  6. Energy efficiency assessment methods and tools evaluation. Bolling Air Force Base. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMordie, K.L.; Richman, E.E.; Keller, J.M.; Dixon, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to facilitate energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities. This is accomplished by a balanced program of technology development, facility assessment, and use of cost-sharing procurement mechanisms. Technology development focuses upon the tools, software, and procedures used to identify and evaluate energy-efficiency technologies and improvements. For facility assessment, FEMP provides metering equipment and trained analysts to federal agencies exhibiting a commitment to improve energy use efficiency. To assist in procurement of energy-efficiency measures, FEMP helps federal agencies devise and implement performance contracting and utility demand-side management strategies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) supports the FEMP mission of energy systems modernization. Under this charter, the Laboratory and its contractors work with federal facility energy managers to assess and implement energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities nationwide.

  7. Graphene Based Ultra-Capacitors for Safer, More Efficient Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Mackey, Paul J.; Zide, Carson J.

    2016-01-01

    Current power storage methods must be continuously improved in order to keep up with the increasingly competitive electronics industry. This technological advancement is also essential for the continuation of deep space exploration. Today's energy storage industry relies heavily on the use of dangerous and corrosive chemicals such as lithium and phosphoric acid. These chemicals can prove hazardous to the user if the device is ruptured. Similarly they can damage the environment if they are disposed of improperly. A safer, more efficient alternative is needed across a wide range of NASA missions. One solution would a solid-state carbon based energy storage device. Carbon is a safer, less environmentally hazardous alternative to current energy storage materials. Using the amorphous carbon nanostructure, graphene, this idea of a safer portable energy is possible. Graphene was electrochemically produced in the lab and several coin cell devices were built this summer to create a working prototype of a solid-state graphene battery.

  8. Cooperative Game-Based Energy Efficiency Management over Ultra-Dense Wireless Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-dense wireless cellular networks have been envisioned as a promising technique for handling the explosive increase of wireless traffic volume. With the extensive deployment of small cells in wireless cellular networks, the network spectral efficiency (SE is improved with the use of limited frequency. However, the mutual inter-tier and intra-tier interference between or among small cells and macro cells becomes serious. On the other hand, more chances for potential cooperation among different cells are introduced. Energy efficiency (EE has become one of the most important problems for future wireless networks. This paper proposes a cooperative bargaining game-based method for comprehensive EE management in an ultra-dense wireless cellular network, which highlights the complicated interference influence on energy-saving challenges and the power-coordination process among small cells and macro cells. Especially, a unified EE utility with the consideration of the interference mitigation is proposed to jointly address the SE, the deployment efficiency (DE, and the EE. In particular, closed-form power-coordination solutions for the optimal EE are derived to show the convergence property of the algorithm. Moreover, a simplified algorithm is presented to reduce the complexity of the signaling overhead, which is significant for ultra-dense small cells. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed cooperative bargaining game-based and simplified schemes.

  9. Cooperative Game-Based Energy Efficiency Management over Ultra-Dense Wireless Cellular Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Chen, Pengpeng; Gao, Shouwan

    2016-09-13

    Ultra-dense wireless cellular networks have been envisioned as a promising technique for handling the explosive increase of wireless traffic volume. With the extensive deployment of small cells in wireless cellular networks, the network spectral efficiency (SE) is improved with the use of limited frequency. However, the mutual inter-tier and intra-tier interference between or among small cells and macro cells becomes serious. On the other hand, more chances for potential cooperation among different cells are introduced. Energy efficiency (EE) has become one of the most important problems for future wireless networks. This paper proposes a cooperative bargaining game-based method for comprehensive EE management in an ultra-dense wireless cellular network, which highlights the complicated interference influence on energy-saving challenges and the power-coordination process among small cells and macro cells. Especially, a unified EE utility with the consideration of the interference mitigation is proposed to jointly address the SE, the deployment efficiency (DE), and the EE. In particular, closed-form power-coordination solutions for the optimal EE are derived to show the convergence property of the algorithm. Moreover, a simplified algorithm is presented to reduce the complexity of the signaling overhead, which is significant for ultra-dense small cells. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed cooperative bargaining game-based and simplified schemes.

  10. Cooperative Game-Based Energy Efficiency Management over Ultra-Dense Wireless Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Chen, Pengpeng; Gao, Shouwan

    2016-01-01

    Ultra-dense wireless cellular networks have been envisioned as a promising technique for handling the explosive increase of wireless traffic volume. With the extensive deployment of small cells in wireless cellular networks, the network spectral efficiency (SE) is improved with the use of limited frequency. However, the mutual inter-tier and intra-tier interference between or among small cells and macro cells becomes serious. On the other hand, more chances for potential cooperation among different cells are introduced. Energy efficiency (EE) has become one of the most important problems for future wireless networks. This paper proposes a cooperative bargaining game-based method for comprehensive EE management in an ultra-dense wireless cellular network, which highlights the complicated interference influence on energy-saving challenges and the power-coordination process among small cells and macro cells. Especially, a unified EE utility with the consideration of the interference mitigation is proposed to jointly address the SE, the deployment efficiency (DE), and the EE. In particular, closed-form power-coordination solutions for the optimal EE are derived to show the convergence property of the algorithm. Moreover, a simplified algorithm is presented to reduce the complexity of the signaling overhead, which is significant for ultra-dense small cells. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed cooperative bargaining game-based and simplified schemes. PMID:27649170

  11. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina

    The purpose of Work Package 5 Deliverable 5.1., “Case study reports on energy efficiency and behaviour” is to present examples of behavioral interventions to promote energy efficiency in cities. The case studies were collected in January – June 2014, and they represent behavioural interventions...... factors. The main addressees of D5.1. are city officials, NGO representatives, private sector actors and any other relevant actors who plan and realize behavioural energy efficiency interventions in European cities. The WP5 team will also further apply results from D5.1. with a more general model on how...... to conduct behavioural interventions, to be presented in Deliverable 5.5., the final report. This report will also provide valuable information for the WP6 general model for an Energy-Smart City. Altogether 38 behavioural interventions are analysed in this report. Each collected and analysed case study...

  12. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina

    factors. The main addressees of D5.1. are city officials, NGO representatives, private sector actors and any other relevant actors who plan and realize behavioural energy efficiency interventions in European cities. The WP5 team will also further apply results from D5.1. with a more general model on how...... to conduct behavioural interventions, to be presented in Deliverable 5.5., the final report. This report will also provide valuable information for the WP6 general model for an Energy-Smart City. Altogether 38 behavioural interventions are analysed in this report. Each collected and analysed case study......The purpose of Work Package 5 Deliverable 5.1., “Case study reports on energy efficiency and behaviour” is to present examples of behavioral interventions to promote energy efficiency in cities. The case studies were collected in January – June 2014, and they represent behavioural interventions...

  13. Developing a Rating System for Building Energy Efficiency Based on In Situ Measurement in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Building energy consumption in China recently surpassed the US building consumption, and it is expected to increase significantly in the next decade pushed by the continuous population and urbanization increase. In response to that situation, the Chinese government introduced a series of building energy codes and rating systems to assess and enhance the building energy performance. The purpose of this study is to develop a rating system for the building energy efficiency, based on in situ measurement. The system is intended for office buildings in China’s cold zone. An evaluation framework, graphic dominant point, and principle of data collection and processing are illustrated in this paper. Three existing buildings were rated under the new rating system. The authors believe that the new system will contribute to a more accurate and comprehensive understanding for asset holders and occupants, that report on the extent to which energy efficiency buildings have been reached. Rating results are expected to be a reference for the retrofitting of existing buildings and the design of new buildings. In addition, the outlook for the rating system was also discussed.

  14. Osmotic Ballasts Enhance Faradaic Efficiency in Closed-Loop, Membrane-Based Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Ryan S; Coronell, Orlando

    2017-02-07

    Aqueous processes for energy storage and conversion based on reverse electrodialysis (RED) require a significant concentration difference across ion exchange membranes, creating both an electrochemical potential and an osmotic pressure difference. In closed-loop RED, which we recently demonstrated as a new means of energy storage, the transport of water by osmosis has a very significant negative impact on the faradaic efficiency of the system. In this work, we use neutral, nonpermeating solutes as "osmotic ballasts" in a closed-loop concentration battery based on RED. We present experimental results comparing two proof-of-concept ballast molecules, and show that the ballasts reduce, eliminate, or reverse the net transport of water through the membranes when cycling the battery. By mitigating osmosis, faradaic and round-trip energy efficiency are more than doubled, from 18% to 50%, and 7% to 15%, respectively in this nonoptimized system. However, the presence of the ballasts has a slightly negative impact on the open circuit voltage. Our results suggest that balancing osmotic pressure using noncharged solutes is a promising approach for significantly reducing faradaic energy losses in closed-loop RED systems.

  15. Wind energy efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Badger, J.; Rasmussen, Flemming; Soerensen, Poul

    2012-11-15

    As we have shown above, wind energy can help to secure energy efficiency in power generation, and research results and tools are being developed that will increase the role of wind energy in the global energy supply. An important instrument is the development of wind turbine technology to reduce capital and operational costs. This has not been the emphasis in this chapter, though; instead we have focused on equally important instruments, namely making best use of the wind resource and available sites, adapting wind farm layout and technology to the increased exploitation of wind, and improving the interaction between wind farms and the power system. With these developments we expect that wind energy can become the backbone of the power system globally and play a major role in creating an efficient and sustainable power system. (Author)

  16. Energy efficiency and conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A. [Association for the Conservation of Energy, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The article discusses energy efficiency and conservation in the light of what is termed 'least cost planning'. It is explained how the normal market economy scenario of producing and purchasing in terms of supply and demand are not sufficient to describe the energy market. Seven market imperfections and barriers which hinder optimal investment in energy efficiency are listed. Much of the article is devoted to explaining the meaning of least cost planning and compares energy bills with energy prices. Sub-headings in the article include: (i) Integrated Resource Planning as an Instrument of Strategic Resource Planning; (ii) Accounting for the Environmental Externalities of Electricity Production in the USA; (iii) Monetization Using Damage Costs; (iv) Monetization Using Control Costs; (v) Damage Costs versus Control Costs for Policy Purposes and (vi) Unpriceable Environmental Costs.

  17. Energy efficiency of growing ram lambs fed concentrate-based diets with different roughage sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-01-01

    Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with LQR resulted in a 17% better efficiency of ME use for gain (P efficiency of energy retention as fat (P efficiency, however, should be viewed with caution because it is related to visceral fat deposition, a nonedible tissue.

  18. Energy-Efficient Network Transmission between Satellite Swarms and Earth Stations Based on Lyapunov Optimization Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advent of satellite swarm technologies has enabled space exploration with a massive number of picoclass, low-power, and low-weight spacecraft. However, developing swarm-based satellite systems, from conceptualization to validation, is a complex multidisciplinary activity. One of the primary challenges is how to achieve energy-efficient data transmission between the satellite swarm and terrestrial terminal stations. Employing Lyapunov optimization techniques, we present an online control algorithm to optimally dispatch traffic load among different satellite-ground links for minimizing overall energy consumption over time. Our algorithm is able to independently and simultaneously make control decisions on traffic dispatching over intersatellite-links and up-down-links so as to offer provable energy and delay guarantees, without requiring any statistical information of traffic arrivals and link condition. Rigorous analysis and extensive simulations have demonstrated the performance and robustness of the proposed new algorithm.

  19. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Digital networks are the foundation of the information services, and play an expanding and indispensable role in our lives, via the Internet, email, mobile phones, etc. However, these networks consume energy, both through the direct energy use of the network interfaces and equipment that comprise the network, and in the effect they have on the operating patterns of devices connected to the network. The purpose of this research was to investigate a variety of technology and policy issues related to the energy use caused by digital networks, and to further develop several energy-efficiency technologies targeted at networks.

  20. Design of a Load Torque Based Control Strategy for Improving Electric Tractor Motor Energy Conversion Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengnan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the electrical conversion efficiency of an electric tractor motor, a load torque based control strategy (LTCS is designed in this paper by using a particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO. By mathematically modeling electric-mechanical performance and theoretical energy waste of the electric motor, as well as the transmission characteristics of the drivetrain, the objective function, control relationship, and analytical platform are established. Torque and rotation speed of the motor’s output shaft are defined as manipulated variables. LTCS searches the working points corresponding to the best energy conversion efficiency via PSO to control the running status of the electric motor and uses logic and fuzzy rules to fit the search initialization for load torque fluctuation. After using different plowing forces to imitate all the common tillage forces, the simulation of traction experiment is conducted, which proves that LTCS can make the tractor use electrical power efficiently and maintain agricultural applicability on farmland conditions. It provides a novel method of fabricating a more efficient electric motor used in the traction of an off-road vehicle.

  1. Energy Efficiency Comparison of MIMO-Based and Multihop Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios G. Kanatas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs demand the implementation of energy-aware techniques and low-complexity protocols in all layers. Recently, a MIMO-based structure has been proposed to offer enhanced energy savings in WSNs. In this paper, we examine and compare MIMO-based WSN with a multihop transmission in terms of energy efficiency. The results depend on the network density, the channel conditions, and the distance to the destination node. We reach analytical expressions to calculate threshold values of these parameters, which determine the areas where the MIMO-based structure outperforms multihop transmission. Moreover, we present a detailed analysis of the dissipated power during a sensor node_s operation, to prove that as microelectronics develops, the MIMO-based architecture will outperform the equivalent multihop structure for most of the cases examined. Finally, we implement a simple cooperative node selection algorithm to achieve higher energy gains in the MIMO approach, and we examine how this algorithm affects the calculated thresholds.

  2. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...... was assigned with this task. The evaluation aimed to answer the crucial questions: Is the overall design of the portfolio of instruments appropriate? Does the impact of the instruments justify the costs, so that we reach the national goals in a cost efficient way? Will the current instrument portfolio be able......Ten groups of policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency are actively used in Denmark. Among these are the EU instruments such as the CO2 emissions trading scheme and labelling of appliances, labelling of all buildings, combined with national instruments such as high taxes especially...

  3. Dynamic Hierarchical Energy-Efficient Method Based on Combinatorial Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuchao; Tang, Hongying; Cheng, Yongbo; Zhao, Qin; Yuan, Baoqing Li andXiaobing

    2017-07-19

    Routing protocols based on topology control are significantly important for improving network longevity in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Traditionally, some WSN routing protocols distribute uneven network traffic load to sensor nodes, which is not optimal for improving network longevity. Differently to conventional WSN routing protocols, we propose a dynamic hierarchical protocol based on combinatorial optimization (DHCO) to balance energy consumption of sensor nodes and to improve WSN longevity. For each sensor node, the DHCO algorithm obtains the optimal route by establishing a feasible routing set instead of selecting the cluster head or the next hop node. The process of obtaining the optimal route can be formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem. Specifically, the DHCO algorithm is carried out by the following procedures. It employs a hierarchy-based connection mechanism to construct a hierarchical network structure in which each sensor node is assigned to a special hierarchical subset; it utilizes the combinatorial optimization theory to establish the feasible routing set for each sensor node, and takes advantage of the maximum-minimum criterion to obtain their optimal routes to the base station. Various results of simulation experiments show effectiveness and superiority of the DHCO algorithm in comparison with state-of-the-art WSN routing algorithms, including low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH), hybrid energy-efficient distributed clustering (HEED), genetic protocol-based self-organizing network clustering (GASONeC), and double cost function-based routing (DCFR) algorithms.

  4. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  5. Efficiency enhancement of stationary solar energy based power conversion systems in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharan, Anand M. [Faculty of Engineering, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents the optimum energy conversion conditions of stationary photovoltaic panels used for electrical power generation. The results are arrived at after performing calculations for 180 days in a given year at the latitude of St. John's, Newfoundland. The latitude of this city is close to other Canadian major population centers. Various angular orientations of sun's rays on the earth are considered. On a given day, the incident energy flux of sun is resolved into three components, and the conversion efficiency is based on the flux normal to the panels. The efficiency of conversion of the incident energy is measured with respect to a solar tracking process. The numbers of days in a given year are divided into two groups - one between the winter solstice and the spring equinox, and another between the spring equinox and the summer solstice. The results show the existence of two maxima, one for each of the two periods. By setting the panels at each of these maxima, very significant improvement in energy conversion can be achieved. (author)

  6. An Energy-Efficient Cluster-Based Vehicle Detection on Road Network Using Intention Numeration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Devasenapathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traffic in the road network is progressively increasing at a greater extent. Good knowledge of network traffic can minimize congestions using information pertaining to road network obtained with the aid of communal callers, pavement detectors, and so on. Using these methods, low featured information is generated with respect to the user in the road network. Although the existing schemes obtain urban traffic information, they fail to calculate the energy drain rate of nodes and to locate equilibrium between the overhead and quality of the routing protocol that renders a great challenge. Thus, an energy-efficient cluster-based vehicle detection in road network using the intention numeration method (CVDRN-IN is developed. Initially, sensor nodes that detect a vehicle are grouped into separate clusters. Further, we approximate the strength of the node drain rate for a cluster using polynomial regression function. In addition, the total node energy is estimated by taking the integral over the area. Finally, enhanced data aggregation is performed to reduce the amount of data transmission using digital signature tree. The experimental performance is evaluated with Dodgers loop sensor data set from UCI repository and the performance evaluation outperforms existing work on energy consumption, clustering efficiency, and node drain rate.

  7. Energy efficient model based algorithm for control of building HVAC systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubakaran, V; Sahu, Chinmay; Radhakrishnan, T K; Sivakumaran, N

    2015-11-01

    Energy efficient designs are receiving increasing attention in various fields of engineering. Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) control system designs involve improved energy usage with an acceptable relaxation in thermal comfort. In this paper, real time data from a building HVAC system provided by BuildingLAB is considered. A resistor-capacitor (RC) framework for representing thermal dynamics of the building is estimated using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. With objective costs as thermal comfort (deviation of room temperature from required temperature) and energy measure (Ecm) explicit MPC design for this building model is executed based on its state space representation of the supply water temperature (input)/room temperature (output) dynamics. The controllers are subjected to servo tracking and external disturbance (ambient temperature) is provided from the real time data during closed loop control. The control strategies are ported on a PIC32mx series microcontroller platform. The building model is implemented in MATLAB and hardware in loop (HIL) testing of the strategies is executed over a USB port. Results indicate that compared to traditional proportional integral (PI) controllers, the explicit MPC's improve both energy efficiency and thermal comfort significantly.

  8. Coverage of communication-based sensor nodes deployed location and energy efficient clustering algorithm in WSN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Gao; Yintang Yang; Duan Zhou

    2010-01-01

    An effective algorithm based on signal coverage of effective communication and local energy-consumption saving strategy is proposed for the application in wireless sensor networks.This algorithm consists of two sub-algorithms.One is the multi-hop partition subspaces clustering algorithm for ensuring local energybalanced consumption ascribed to the deployment from another algorithm of distributed locating deployment based on efficient communication coverage probability(DLD-ECCP).DLD-ECCP makes use of the characteristics of Markov chain and probabilistic optimization to obtain the optimum topology and number of sensor nodes.Through simulation,the relative data demonstrate the advantages of the proposed approaches on saving hardware resources and energy consumption of networks.

  9. California Enhances Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    2011-11-01

    This article will discuss how my colleagues and I have promoted energy efficiency over the last 40 years. Our efforts have involved thousands of people from many different areas of expertise. The work has proceeded in several areas: • Investigating the science and engineering of energy end-use, • Assessing the potential and theoretical opportunities for energy efficiency, • Developing analytic and economic models to quantify opportunities, • Researching and developing new equipment and processes to bring these opportunities to fruition, • Participating in the development of California and later federal standards for energy performance in buildings and appliances, • Ensuring that market incentives were aligned with policies, and • Designing clear and convincing graphics to convey opportunities and results to all stakeholders.

  10. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Ten groups of policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency are actively used in Denmark. Among these are the EU instruments such as the CO2 emissions trading scheme and labelling of appliances, labelling of all buildings, combined with national instruments such as high taxes especially...... on households and the public sector, obligations for energy companies (electricity, natural gas, district heating, and oil) to deliver documented savings, strict building codes, special instructions for the public sector, and an Electricity Saving Trust. A political agreement from 2005 states that an evaluation...... of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...

  11. Clock Gating Based Energy Efficient and Thermal Aware Design for Vedic Equation Solver on 28nm and 40nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Bishwajeet; Pandey, Sujeet; Sharma, Shivani

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are integrating clock gating in design of energy efficient equation solver circuits based on Vedic mathematics. Clock gating is one of the best energy efficient techniques. The Sutra 'SunyamSamyasamuccaye' says thatif sum of numerator and sum of denominator is same then we can e...

  12. Energy efficiency analysis for flexible-grid OFDM-based optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizcaíno, Jorge López; Ye, Yabin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    As the Internet traffic grows, the energy efficiency gains more attention as a design factor for the planning and operation of telecommunication networks. This paper is devoted to the study of energy efficiency in optical transport networks, comparing the performance of an innovative flexible-gri...

  13. Model-Based Energy Efficiency Optimization of a Low-Temperature Adsorption Dryer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atuonwu, J.C.; Straten, G. van; Deventer, H.C. van; Boxtel, A.J.B. van

    2011-01-01

    Low-temperature drying is important for heat-sensitive products, but at these temperatures conventional convective dryers have low energy efficiencies. To overcome this challenge, an energy efficiency optimization procedure is applied to a zeolite adsorption dryer subject to product quality. The

  14. High-Efficiency Food Production in a Renewable Energy Based Micro-Grid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David; Meiners, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) systems can be used to produce high-quality, desirable food year round, and the fresh produce can positively contribute to the health and well being of residents in communities with difficult supply logistics. While CEA has many positive outcomes for a remote community, the associated high electric demands have prohibited widespread implementation in what is typically already a fully subscribed power generation and distribution system. Recent advances in CEA technologies as well as renewable power generation, storage, and micro-grid management are increasing system efficiency and expanding the possibilities for enhancing community supporting infrastructure without increasing demands for outside supplied fuels. We will present examples of how new lighting, nutrient delivery, and energy management and control systems can enable significant increases in food production efficiency while maintaining high yields in CEA. Examples from Alaskan communities where initial incorporation of renewable power generation, energy storage and grid management techniques have already reduced diesel fuel consumption for electric generation by more than 40% and expanded grid capacity will be presented. We will discuss how renewable power generation, efficient grid management to extract maximum community service per kW, and novel energy storage approaches can expand the food production, water supply, waste treatment, sanitation and other community support services without traditional increases of consumable fuels supplied from outside the community. These capabilities offer communities with a range of choices to enhance their communities. The examples represent a synergy of technology advancement efforts to develop sustainable community support systems for future space-based human habitats and practical implementation of infrastructure components to increase efficiency and enhance health and well being in remote communities today and tomorrow.

  15. Nuclear energy efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Nonboel, E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nutech, Roskilde (Denmark); Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    Nuclear energy already today plays an important role in decarbonisation of the electricity sector while providing energy security and being economically competitive. Nuclear energy is characterized by its very high energy density and is well suited for large-scale, baseload electricity supply. Similar to renewable energy sources such as wind, solar or biomass, nuclear power is characterized by an abundant supply of its primary energy source, uranium, but is not limited to the same extent as these renewable energy sources from being an intermittent energy supply or imposing severe restrictions on land-use. Improving energy efficiency of nuclear power plants has contributed to a better utilization of the uranium resources and has helped improving the economic performance of nuclear power plants. This is to a large degree accomplished through optimisation of nuclear fuel assemblies as well as renewing turbines and generators. More importantly however, the overall economy of nuclear power has improved though better plant management leading to higher capacity factors and by extending the lifetimes of existing nuclear power plants. Provided that improved safety, economics and successful waste management can be demonstrated nuclear power is likely to grow in the future. Non-electricity applications may further boost the growth of nuclear energy, especially with the development of new reactor systems allowing for cogeneration of electricity and hydrogen or biofuels for transport. (Author)

  16. CONCEPTUAL BASES OF THE ENERGY EFFICIENT SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT OF COMBINED UNITS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Shtepa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical analysis of the shortcomings of the existing water purification systems is conducted. In order to ensure environmental safety and energy savings it is proposed to use the combined units, including physical, chemical, physical-and-chemical and biological methods. The attention is driven to the fact that the most effective way to maintain current water purification is an adaptive control system. The shortcomings of the management of water treatment units were revealed and it was proposed to produce their synthesis based on the mathematical apparatus of artificial intelligence systems. Taking into account the requirements of the environmental safety and the need in the energy savings, the energy efficiency criteria of combined system functioning has been developed. At an industrial plant (slaughterhouse wastewater treatment the compliance of the production conditions of the criterion has been undertaken that confirmed the criterion relevance and usefulness as applied to the synthesis of energy-efficient control systems. A synthetic control system combined the water treatment plants. Having based on the preliminary research and analysis of the current work in the subject area the architecture of a control system of combined water treatment units that use intelligent technology was developed. The key functional of the unit – information-analytical subsystem of the formation control actions including: multilayer perceptrons self-organization Kohonen network, fuzzy cognitive map. The basic difference between the developed design and its analogues is the ability to adjust the settings of equipment adaptively on the basis of processing sensor data, information on the price of consumables, volley discharges of pollutants, a sudden change in the flow and other force majeure. Adjustment of the parameters of the control system is carried out with the use of experimental and analytical data stored in the knowledge base of technological

  17. Simulation based energy-resource efficient manufacturing integrated with in-process virtual management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchasuwanmanee, Kanet; Cheng, Kai; Bateman, Richard

    2016-09-01

    As energy efficiency is one of the key essentials towards sustainability, the development of an energy-resource efficient manufacturing system is among the great challenges facing the current industry. Meanwhile, the availability of advanced technological innovation has created more complex manufacturing systems that involve a large variety of processes and machines serving different functions. To extend the limited knowledge on energy-efficient scheduling, the research presented in this paper attempts to model the production schedule at an operation process by considering the balance of energy consumption reduction in production, production work flow (productivity) and quality. An innovative systematic approach to manufacturing energy-resource efficiency is proposed with the virtual simulation as a predictive modelling enabler, which provides real-time manufacturing monitoring, virtual displays and decision-makings and consequentially an analytical and multidimensional correlation analysis on interdependent relationships among energy consumption, work flow and quality errors. The regression analysis results demonstrate positive relationships between the work flow and quality errors and the work flow and energy consumption. When production scheduling is controlled through optimization of work flow, quality errors and overall energy consumption, the energy-resource efficiency can be achieved in the production. Together, this proposed multidimensional modelling and analysis approach provides optimal conditions for the production scheduling at the manufacturing system by taking account of production quality, energy consumption and resource efficiency, which can lead to the key competitive advantages and sustainability of the system operations in the industry.

  18. Investigation of energy-efficient MRF-based clutches for hybrid powertrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegger, Christian; Maas, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    The requirements for transmission and coupling elements in hybrid powertrains are rising continuously. On this occasion a novel clutch-design is investigated and validated in this contribution. The transmission of power is based on magnetorheological fluids (MRF) including a fluid movement control for enabling a drag torque-free operation for an increased energy efficient operation. Drag losses in powertrains are a serious deficiency for an energy-efficient application. MRFs are highly qualified for the utilization in powertrains considering their particular characteristics of changing their apparent viscosity significantly under influence of a magnetic field by fast switching times and a smooth torque control. The proposed MRF-clutch with three different variations of the fluid movement control is designed based on a numerical model and validated by experimental measurements with a realized prototype. The main aspects during the investigation are focused on the coupling functions under the influence of high rotational speeds up to 6000 min-1 and also the safety behavior of the different variations by the fluid control in case of a system failure. The theoretical and experimental investigation demonstrates the suitability for an integration of clutches based on MRF in electrical or hybrid powertrains as an alternative to conventional coupling elements.

  19. Energy-Efficient Fire Monitoring over Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Young-guk Ha; Heemin Kim; Yung-cheol Byun

    2012-01-01

    Uncontrolled fires occurring in wild areas cause significant damage to natural and human resources. Many countries are looking for ways to fight forest fires at an early stage using sensor networks, by integrating IT technologies. Studies in the fire-related sensor network field are broadly classified into efficient processing of fire data on sensor nodes and energy efficiency during communications among wireless sensor nodes in case of fire. Most studies of sensor network energy efficiency s...

  20. Nested MC-Based Risk Measurement of Complex Portfolios: Acceleration and Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Desmettre

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis and management currently have a strong presence in financial institutions, where high performance and energy efficiency are key requirements for acceleration systems, especially when it comes to intraday analysis. In this regard, we approach the estimation of the widely-employed portfolio risk metrics value-at-risk (VaR and conditional value-at-risk (cVaR by means of nested Monte Carlo (MC simulations. We do so by combining theory and software/hardware implementation. This allows us for the first time to investigate their performance on heterogeneous compute systems and across different compute platforms, namely central processing unit (CPU, many integrated core (MIC architecture XeonPhi, graphics processing unit (GPU, and field-programmable gate array (FPGA. To this end, the OpenCL framework is employed to generate portable code, and the size of the simulations is scaled in order to evaluate variations in performance. Furthermore, we assess different parallelization schemes, and the targeted platforms are evaluated and compared in terms of runtime and energy efficiency. Our implementation also allowed us to derive a new algorithmic optimization regarding the generation of the required random number sequences. Moreover, we provide specific guidelines on how to properly handle these sequences in portable code, and on how to efficiently implement nested MC-based VaR and cVaR simulations on heterogeneous compute systems.

  1. A Carbon Exergy Tax Evaluation Based on the Efficient Use of Energy Resources: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Santarelli

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available

    An instrument to promote the CO2 emission reductions, taking the Kyoto Protocol goal into account, can be the assignment to energy conversion plants of a monetary charge linked to their specific emission intensity. Once the choice of a charge is defined, the next problem is the choice of a strategy to determine the amount of the imposed charge, named Carbon Tax (CT.

    In this paper an analytical procedure for the Carbon Tax evaluation is proposed and applied. This approach is based on the concept of Efficiency Penalty of the energy system, that represents the evaluation of the cost of the exergy destroyed inside the system and the cost of the exergy rejected in the biosphere with the plant wastes; the Efficiency Penalty term is coupled with the evaluation of the Index of CO2 Emission, which connects the amount of the CO2 emitted by the plant with the Second Law efficiency of the plant itself. The evaluated charge on the CO2 emissions is defined as Carbon Exergy Tax (CET. The procedure is applied here to the analysis of a 700 MW combined plant burning fossil fuels in two different configurations: a typical natural gas fired combined plant, and a coal fired combined plant burning coal in a Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustor (PFBC.

  2. Distance Based Energy Efficient Selection Of Nodes To Cluster Head In Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Taruna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN provide the availability of small and low-cost sensor nodes with capability of detecting, observing and monitoring the environment, along with data processing and communication. These sensor nodes have limited transmission range, processing and storage capabilitiesas well as their energy resources. Routing protocols for wireless sensor networks are responsible for maintaining the energy efficient paths in the network and have to ensure extended network lifetime. In this paper, we propose and analyze a new approach of cluster head selection by a homogeneous sensor node (having same initial energy in wireless sensor network, which involves choosing the cluster head which lies closest to the midpoint of the base station and the sensor node. Our proposed routing algorithm is related with energy and distance factors of each nodes. This scheme is then compared with the traditional LEACH protocol which involves selecting the cluster head which is nearest to the particular node. We conclude that the proposed protocol effectively extends the network lifetime with less consumption of energy in the network.

  3. Dielectric Elastomer Generator with Improved Energy Density and Conversion Efficiency Based on Polyurethane Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guoling; Yang, Yu; Song, Feilong; Renard, Christophe; Dang, Zhi-Min; Shi, Chang-Yong; Wang, Dongrui

    2017-02-15

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs), which follow the physics of variable capacitors and harvest electric energy from mechanical work, have attracted intensive attention over the past decade. The lack of ideal dielectric elastomers, after nearly two decades of research, has become the bottleneck for DEGs' practical applications. Here, we fabricated a series of polyurethane-based ternary composites and estimated their potential as DEGs to harvest electric energy for the first time. Thermoplastic polyurethane (PU) with high relative permittivity (∼8) was chosen as the elastic matrix. Barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) plasticizers, which were selected to improve the permittivity and mechanical properties, respectively, were blended into the PU matrix. As compared to pristine PU, the resultant ternary composite films fabricated through a solution casting approach showed enhanced permittivity, remarkably reduced elastic modulus, and relatively good electrical breakdown strength, dielectric loss, and strain at break. Most importantly, the harvested energy density of PU was significantly enhanced when blended with BT and DBP. A composite film containing 25 phr of BT and 60 phr of DBP with the harvested energy density of 1.71 mJ/cm(3) was achieved, which is about 4 times greater than that of pure PU and 8 times greater than that of VHB adhesives. Remarkably improved conversion efficiency of mechano-electric energy was also obtained via cofilling BT and DBP into PU. The results shown in this work strongly suggest compositing is a very promising way to provide better dielectric elastomer candidates for forthcoming practical DEGs.

  4. A decentralized fuzzy C-means-based energy-efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia, Osama Moh'd

    2014-01-01

    Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network's lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols.

  5. Adaptive Energy-Efficient Target Detection Based on Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tengyue; Li, Zhenjia; Li, Shuyuan; Lin, Shouying

    2017-05-04

    Target detection is a widely used application for area surveillance, elder care, and fire alarms; its purpose is to find a particular object or event in a region of interest. Usually, fixed observing stations or static sensor nodes are arranged uniformly in the field. However, each part of the field has a different probability of being intruded upon; if an object suddenly enters an area with few guardian devices, a loss of detection will occur, and the stations in the safe areas will waste their energy for a long time without any discovery. Thus, mobile wireless sensor networks may benefit from adaptation and pertinence in detection. Sensor nodes equipped with wheels are able to move towards the risk area via an adaptive learning procedure based on Bayesian networks. Furthermore, a clustering algorithm based on k-means++ and an energy control mechanism is used to reduce the energy consumption of nodes. The extended Kalman filter and a voting data fusion method are employed to raise the localization accuracy of the target. The simulation and experimental results indicate that this new system with adaptive energy-efficient methods is able to achieve better performance than the traditional ones.

  6. DNA base pair resolution measurements using resonance energy transfer efficiency in lanthanide doped nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Delplanque

    Full Text Available Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles are of considerable interest for biodetection and bioimaging techniques thanks to their unique chemical and optical properties. As a sensitive luminescence material, they can be used as (bio probes in Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET where trivalent lanthanide ions (La3+ act as energy donors. In this paper we present an efficient method to transfer ultrasmall (ca. 8 nm NaYF4 nanoparticles dispersed in organic solvent to an aqueous solution via oxidation of the oleic acid ligand. Nanoparticles were then functionalized with single strand DNA oligomers (ssDNA by inducing covalent bonds between surface carboxylic groups and a 5' amine modified-ssDNA. Hybridization with the 5' fluorophore (Cy5 modified complementary ssDNA strand demonstrated the specificity of binding and allowed the fine control over the distance between Eu3+ ions doped nanoparticle and the fluorophore by varying the number of the dsDNA base pairs. First, our results confirmed nonradiative resonance energy transfer and demonstrate the dependence of its efficiency on the distance between the donor (Eu3+ and the acceptor (Cy5 with sensitivity at a nanometre scale.

  7. Spread Spectrum Based Energy Efficient Collaborative Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Anwar; Naqvi, Husnain; Sher, Muhammad; Khan, Muazzam Ali; Khan, Imran; Irshad, Azeem

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks consist of resource limited devices. Most crucial of these resources is battery life, as in most applications like battle field or volcanic area monitoring, it is often impossible to replace or recharge the power source. This article presents an energy efficient collaborative communication system based on spread spectrum to achieve energy efficiency as well as immunity against jamming, natural interference, noise suppression and universal frequency reuse. Performance of the proposed system is evaluated using the received signal power, bit error rate (BER) and energy consumption. The results show a direct proportionality between the power gain and the number of collaborative nodes as well as BER and signal-to-noise ratio (Eb/N0). The analytical and simulation results of the proposed system are compared with SISO system. The comparison reveals that SISO perform better than collaborative communication in case of small distances whereas collaborative communication performs better than SISO in case of long distances. On the basis of these results it is safe to conclude that collaborative communication in wireless sensor networks using wideband systems improves the life time of nodes in the networks thereby prolonging the network's life time.

  8. OPEX Savings Based on Energy Efficient Strategies in NREN Core Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Kleist, Josva

    2014-01-01

    , introduced in [ 2] ) which are able to tune the symbol - rate of an optical circuit and thus determine a variable consumption for the transponder. Simulations show that when deploying the proposed energy reduction strategies and while taking into account weekly fluctuations and traffic growth, the overall......The common practice for optical network operators today is to deploy optical resources based on overprovisioning towards the maximum expected amount of traffic in the network. This is a safe strategy and it takes into account the currently static nature of the optical network design, where new...... – the overprovisioning deployment strategy becomes less and less efficient. This is a challenging aspect especially in NREN environments where new and state of the art s ervices are being proposed or requested (e.g. Photonic Services) and their requirements are often hard to be predicted. Moreover, in terms of energy...

  9. Computationally Efficient Characterization of Potential Energy Surfaces Based on Fingerprint Distances

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of the network defined by the potential energy minima of multi-atomic systems and their connectivity via reaction pathways that go through transition states allows to understand important characteristics like thermodynamic, dynamic and structural properties. Unfortunately computing the transition states and reaction pathways in addition to the significant energetically low-lying local minima is a computationally demanding task. We here introduce a computationally efficient method that is based on a combination of the minima hopping global optimization method and the insight that uphill barriers tend to increase with increasing structural distances of the educt and product states. This method allows to replace the exact connectivity information and transition state energies with alternative and approximate concepts. Without adding any significant additional cost to the minima hopping global optimization approach, this method allows to generate an approximate network of the minima, their connectivit...

  10. An energy-efficient underground localization system based on heterogeneous wireless networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yazhou; Chen, Cailian; Guan, Xinping; Yang, Qiuling

    2015-05-26

    A precision positioning system with energy efficiency is of great necessity for guaranteeing personnel safety in underground mines. The location information of the miners' should be transmitted to the control center timely and reliably; therefore, a heterogeneous network with the backbone based on high speed Industrial Ethernet is deployed. Since the mobile wireless nodes are working in an irregular tunnel, a specific wireless propagation model cannot fit all situations. In this paper, an underground localization system is designed to enable the adaptation to kinds of harsh tunnel environments, but also to reduce the energy consumption and thus prolong the lifetime of the network. Three key techniques are developed and implemented to improve the system performance, including a step counting algorithm with accelerometers, a power control algorithm and an adaptive packets scheduling scheme. The simulation study and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the implementation.

  11. An Energy-Efficient Underground Localization System Based on Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhou Yuan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A precision positioning system with energy efficiency is of great necessity for guaranteeing personnel safety in underground mines. The location information of the miners’ should be transmitted to the control center timely and reliably; therefore, a heterogeneous network with the backbone based on high speed Industrial Ethernet is deployed. Since the mobile wireless nodes are working in an irregular tunnel, a specific wireless propagation model cannot fit all situations. In this paper, an underground localization system is designed to enable the adaptation to kinds of harsh tunnel environments, but also to reduce the energy consumption and thus prolong the lifetime of the network. Three key techniques are developed and implemented to improve the system performance, including a step counting algorithm with accelerometers, a power control algorithm and an adaptive packets scheduling scheme. The simulation study and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the implementation.

  12. Energy efficiency through model based control and online optimisation; Energieffektivisering gennem modelbaseret regulering og online optimering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandvig, J.

    2009-11-15

    The project's overall objective has been to use methods in model-based control and online optimization to increase industrial energy efficiency. Model-based regulation is a relatively new technology that combines knowledge of processes and systems, theoretical methods and computer processing power in intelligent, advanced control solutions and methods. The methods have so far been successfully applied in some of the largest process industries, but virtually not in small and medium-sized industries. A major reason for this is that no standard solutions have existed, and therefore it has required significant resources to develop and implement. The goal of this project is to contribute to model-based control being disseminated among the SMEs. This can be done by finding out whether it is possible to adjust and standardize the methods so that they are suitable for deployment in these segments. (ln)

  13. Reinforcement learning based sensing policy optimization for energy efficient cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Oksanen, Jan; Koivunen, Visa

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a machine learning based collaborative multi band spectrum sensing policy for cognitive radios. The proposed sensing policy guides secondary users to focus the search of unused radio spectrum to those frequencies that persistently provide them high data rate. The proposed policy is based on machine learning, which makes it adaptive with the temporally and spatially varying radio spectrum. Furthermore, there is no need for dynamic modeling of the primary activity since it is implicitly learned over time. Energy efficiency is achieved by minimizing the number of assigned sensors per each subband under a constraint on miss detection probability. It is important to control the missed detections because they cause collisions with primary transmissions and lead to retransmissions at both the primary and secondary user. The minimization of the number of active sensors is formulated as a binary integer programming problem. Simulations show that the proposed machine learning based sensing policy ...

  14. An Efficient Energy Management Strategy, Unique Power Split & Energy Distribution, Based on Calculated Vehicle Road Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    gearbox with pneumatic shift actuator. The differential connects to the final drives at the front axle. There are wheel end reduction units (WERU) at...regenerative braking or simulated engine braking . AVL Hybrid Control System (HCU) coordinates and controls all system components as laid out in Figure...HMMWV for the current given inputs based on the current vehicle speed, acceleration pedal, and brake pedal. From this driver requested power at the

  15. Energy efficient data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed

  16. Energy Efficiency Evaluation Based on Data Envelopment Analysis Integrated Analytic Hierarchy Process in Ethylene Production☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongming Han; Zhiqiang Geng; Qiyu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency data from ethylene production equipment are of high dimension, dynamic and time sequential, so their evaluation is af ected by many factors. Abnormal data from ethylene production are eliminated through consisten-cy test, making the data consumption uniform to improve the comparability of data. Due to the limit of input and output data of decision making unit in data envelopment analysis (DEA), the energy efficiency data from the same technology in a certain year are disposed monthly using DEA. The DEA data of energy efficiency from the same technology are weighted and fused using analytic hierarchy process. The energy efficiency data from different technologies are evalu-ated by their relative ef ectiveness to find the direction of energy saving and consumption reduction.

  17. Energy Management Strategies based on efficiency map for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feroldi, Diego; Serra, Maria; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    The addition of a fast auxiliary power source like a supercapacitor bank in fuel cell-based vehicles has a great potential because permits a significant reduction of the hydrogen consumption and an improvement of the vehicle efficiency. The Energy Management Strategies, commanding the power split between the power sources in the hybrid arrangement to fulfil the power requirement, perform a fundamental role to achieve this objective. In this work, three strategies based on the knowledge of the fuel cell efficiency map are proposed. These strategies are attractive due to the relative simplicity of the real time implementation and the good performance. The strategies are tested both in a simulation environment and in an experimental setup using a 1.2-kW PEM fuel cell. The results, in terms of hydrogen consumption, are compared with an optimal case, which is assessed trough an advantageous technique also introduced in this work and with a pure fuel cell vehicle as well. This comparative reveals high efficiency and good performance, allowing to save up to 26% of hydrogen in urban scenarios. (author)

  18. An energy efficient stable election-based routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Zhongqi; Xia, Feng; Yuan, Weiwei; Lee, Sungyoung

    2013-10-24

    Sensor nodes usually have limited energy supply and they are impractical to recharge. How to balance traffic load in sensors in order to increase network lifetime is a very challenging research issue. Many clustering algorithms have been proposed recently for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, sensor networks with one fixed sink node often suffer from a hot spots problem since nodes near sinks have more traffic burden to forward during a multi-hop transmission process. The use of mobile sinks has been shown to be an effective technique to enhance network performance features such as latency, energy efficiency, network lifetime, etc. In this paper, a modified Stable Election Protocol (SEP), which employs a mobile sink, has been proposed for WSNs with non-uniform node distribution. The decision of selecting cluster heads by the sink is based on the minimization of the associated additional energy and residual energy at each node. Besides, the cluster head selects the shortest path to reach the sink between the direct approach and the indirect approach with the use of the nearest cluster head. Simulation results demonstrate that our algorithm has better performance than traditional routing algorithms, such as LEACH and SEP.

  19. An Energy Efficient Stable Election-Based Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensor nodes usually have limited energy supply and they are impractical to recharge. How to balance traffic load in sensors in order to increase network lifetime is a very challenging research issue. Many clustering algorithms have been proposed recently for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, sensor networks with one fixed sink node often suffer from a hot spots problem since nodes near sinks have more traffic burden to forward during a multi-hop transmission process. The use of mobile sinks has been shown to be an effective technique to enhance network performance features such as latency, energy efficiency, network lifetime, etc. In this paper, a modified Stable Election Protocol (SEP, which employs a mobile sink, has been proposed for WSNs with non-uniform node distribution. The decision of selecting cluster heads by the sink is based on the minimization of the associated additional energy and residual energy at each node. Besides, the cluster head selects the shortest path to reach the sink between the direct approach and the indirect approach with the use of the nearest cluster head. Simulation results demonstrate that our algorithm has better performance than traditional routing algorithms, such as LEACH and SEP.

  20. 75 FR 30014 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), has experienced historic growth and unprecedented workload...

  1. Energy efficiency evaluation of a natural gas pipeline based on an analytic hierarchy process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xie, Ying; Ma, Xiufen; Ning, Haifeng; Yuan, Zongming; Xie, Ting

    2017-01-01

    A long-distance natural gas pipeline system consists of considerable equipment and many pipe segments, but the conventional energy efficiency index of a natural gas pipeline is considered as a whole...

  2. Constraints on drivers for visible light communications emitters based on energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo-Jimenez, Guillermo; Perez-Jimenez, Rafael; Lopez-Hernandez, Francisco Jose

    2016-05-02

    In this work we analyze the energy efficiency constraints on drivers for Visible light communication (VLC) emitters. This is the main reason why LED is becoming the main source of illumination. We study the effect of the waveform shape and the modulation techniques on the overall energy efficiency of an LED lamp. For a similar level of illumination, we calculate the emitter energy efficiency ratio η (PLED/PTOTAL) for different signals. We compare switched and sinusoidal signals and analyze the effect of both OOK and OFDM modulation techniques depending on the power supply adjustment, level of illumination and signal amplitude distortion. Switched and OOK signals present higher energy efficiency behaviors (0.86≤η≤0.95) than sinusoidal and OFDM signals (0.53≤η≤0.79).

  3. Energy-efficient miniature-scale heat pumping based on shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossmer, Hinnerk; Wendler, Frank; Gueltig, Marcel; Lambrecht, Franziska; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Kohl, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Cooling and thermal management comprise a major part of global energy consumption. The by far most widespread cooling technology today is vapor compression, reaching rather high efficiencies, but promoting global warming due to the use of environmentally harmful refrigerants. For widespread emerging applications using microelectronics and micro-electro-mechanical systems, thermoelectrics is the most advanced technology, which however hardly reaches coefficients of performance (COP) above 2.0. Here, we introduce a new approach for energy-efficient heat pumping using the elastocaloric effect in shape memory alloys. This development is mainly targeted at applications on miniature scales, while larger scales are envisioned by massive parallelization. Base materials are cold-rolled textured Ti49.1Ni50.5Fe0.4 foils of 30 μm thickness showing an adiabatic temperature change of +20/-16 K upon superelastic loading/unloading. Different demonstrator layouts consisting of mechanically coupled bridge structures with large surface-to-volume ratios are developed allowing for control by a single actuator as well as work recovery. Heat transfer times are in the order of 1 s, being orders of magnitude faster than for bulk geometries. Thus, first demonstrators achieve values of specific heating and cooling power of 4.5 and 2.9 W g-1, respectively. A maximum temperature difference of 9.4 K between heat source and sink is reached within 2 min. Corresponding COP on the device level are 4.9 (heating) and 3.1 (cooling).

  4. Energy-efficient VCSEL-based multiGigabit IR-UWB over Fiber with Airlink Transmission System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Pham, Tien Thang; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee;

    2010-01-01

    We propose VCSEL based impulse-radio ultrawideband technology for energy efficient high-speed wireless networks; with full passive signal distribution, from the central office to the home with high-speed wireless connection to the final user.......We propose VCSEL based impulse-radio ultrawideband technology for energy efficient high-speed wireless networks; with full passive signal distribution, from the central office to the home with high-speed wireless connection to the final user....

  5. Energy efficiency fallacies revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, Leonard

    2000-06-01

    A number of governments including that of the UK subscribe to the belief that a national program devoted to raising energy efficiency throughout the economy provides a costless - indeed profitable - route to meeting international environmental obligations. This is a seductive policy. It constitutes the proverbial free lunch - not only avoiding politically unpopular measures like outlawing, taxing or rationing offending fuels or expanding non-carboniferous sources of energy like nuclear power but doing so with economic benefit. The author of this contribution came to doubt the validity of this solution when it was offered as a way of mitigating the effect of the OPEC price hikes of the 1970s, maintaining that economically justified improvement in energy efficiency led to higher levels of energy consumption at the economy-wide level than in the absence of any efficiency response. More fundamentally, he argues that there is no case for preferentially singling out energy, from among all the resources available to us, for efficiency maximisation. The least damaging policy is to determine targets, enact the restrictive measures needed to curb consumption, and then leave it to consumers - intermediate and final - to reallocate all the resources available to them to best effect subject to the new enacted constraints and any others they might be experiencing. There is no reason to suppose that it is right for all the economic adjustment following a new resource constraint to take the form of improvements in the productivity of that resource alone. As many others have argued, any action to impose resource constraint entails an inevitable economic cost in the shape of a reduction in production and consumption possibilities: there would be no free lunch. In the last few years debate about the validity of these contentions has blossomed, especially under the influence of writers on the western side of the Atlantic. In this contribution the author outlines the original arguments

  6. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL BASED THIN FILMS CZTS BY SCAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mebarkiaa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the overall context of the diversification of the use of natural resources, the use of renewable energy including solar photovoltaic has become increasingly indispensable. As such, the development of a new generation of photovoltaic cells based on CuZnSnS4 (CZTS looks promising. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS is a new film absorber, with good physical properties (band gap energy 1.4-1.6 eV [01] with a large absorption coefficient over 104 cm-1. Indeed, the performance of these cells exceeded 30% in recent years.In the present paper, our work based on modeling and numerical simulation, we used SCAPS to study the performance of solar cells based on Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS and thus evaluate the electrical efficiency η for typical structures of ZnO / i- ZnO / CdS / CZTS and ITO / ZnO / CdS / CZTS. Furthermore, the influence of the change of CdS by ZnSe buffer layer was treated in this paper.

  7. ENERGY EFFICIENT IMPROVEMENT GEOCAST FORWARDING IN MANET BASED ON A CLUSTERED STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRASANTH K.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile sinks (MSs are very important in many wireless sensor network (WSN applications for efficient data gathering, restricted sensor reprogramming, and for characteristic and revoking compromised sensors. This paper presents a secure and energy-efficient geocast forwarding for MANET based on a hierarchical clustered structure with reduction of packet dropping from the base station (BS and access Point (AP all nodes placed in one or more geocast regions. Our protocol is composed of two major parts which are protects from attackers and allow over all energy savings. First of all the hierarchical formation based on cliques and a concept of data aggregation allows us to build a robust, fast and secure foundation for routing of information. Next geocast diffusion itself provides data forwarding and reduced a research phase in the network that is a step of sending data(s. Our protocol performs better in terms of less broadcast rounds overhead. For security a three-tier general framework is used, that permit utilize of any pair wise key pre distribution plan as its indispensable component. The innovative framework requires two disconnect key pools, solitary for to access the network, and one for pair wise key establishment between the sensors. To decrease the compensation caused by reproduction attacks we encompass strengthened the authentication device between the sensor nodes and the stationary access node (AP in the planned framework. Through in depth analysis, we show that our security framework has top network flexibility to a mobile sink reproduction attack as compared to the two-tier general frame work. The analysis is done using network simulator 2 (NS2 and it is a packet level simulator with trace level analysis.

  8. Computationally efficient characterization of potential energy surfaces based on fingerprint distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Bastian; Goedecker, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    An analysis of the network defined by the potential energy minima of multi-atomic systems and their connectivity via reaction pathways that go through transition states allows us to understand important characteristics like thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural properties. Unfortunately computing the transition states and reaction pathways in addition to the significant energetically low-lying local minima is a computationally demanding task. We here introduce a computationally efficient method that is based on a combination of the minima hopping global optimization method and the insight that uphill barriers tend to increase with increasing structural distances of the educt and product states. This method allows us to replace the exact connectivity information and transition state energies with alternative and approximate concepts. Without adding any significant additional cost to the minima hopping global optimization approach, this method allows us to generate an approximate network of the minima, their connectivity, and a rough measure for the energy needed for their interconversion. This can be used to obtain a first qualitative idea on important physical and chemical properties by means of a disconnectivity graph analysis. Besides the physical insight obtained by such an analysis, the gained knowledge can be used to make a decision if it is worthwhile or not to invest computational resources for an exact computation of the transition states and the reaction pathways. Furthermore it is demonstrated that the here presented method can be used for finding physically reasonable interconversion pathways that are promising input pathways for methods like transition path sampling or discrete path sampling.

  9. Variable stiffness actuators: A port-based analysis and a comparison of energy efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L.C.; Carloni, R.; Stramigioli, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a metric for comparing different designs of variable stiffness actuators is introduced. For the formulation of this metric, we focus on the energy efficiency of the actuators. In particular, we propose a metric that is a measure of how much energy is used by the actuator for changing

  10. Energy Efficient Routing in Mobile Adhoc Networks based on AODV Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinki Nayak

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs suffer from power exhaustion as many nodes use batteries as their source. Energy consumption is one of the most important system design optimization criterion in MANETs. The conventional routing protocols do not consider energy of nodes while selecting routes. So, using the same route for a longer duration leads to partitioning of the network. Therefore, considering energy of the nodes while selecting a route efficiently utilizes the nodal energy and helps prolong the lifetime of the network. This paper attempts to modify the popular on demand routing protocol AODV to make it energy aware. The proposed algorithm also varies the transmission power between two nodes as per their distance. The protocols are simulated using Network Simulator (NS-2.34. The performance of both the protocols is analyzed under various conditions and the proposed scheme shows efficient energy utilization and increased network lifetime

  11. Cyber physical systems based on cloud computing and internet of things for energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, George; Butca, Cristina; Suciu, Victor; Cretu, Alexandru; Fratu, Octavian

    2016-12-01

    Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) and energy efficiency play a major role in the context of industry expansion. Management practices for improving efficiency in the field of energy consumption became a priority of many major industries who are inefficient in terms of exploitation costs. The effort of adopting energy management means in an organization is quite challenging due to the lack of resources and expertise. One major problem consists in the lack of knowledge for energy management and practices. This paper aims to present authors' concept in creating a Cyber Physical Energy System (CPES) that will change organizations' way of consuming energy, by making them aware of their use. The presented concept will consider the security of the whole system and the easy integration with the existing electric network infrastructure.

  12. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  13. Energy-efficient data gathering scheme based on broadcast transmissions in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soobin; Lee, Howon

    2013-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency is the most important challenge in wireless sensor networks. Because sensing information is correlated in many sensor network applications, some previous works have proposed ideas that reduce the energy consumption of the network by exploiting the spatial correlation between sensed information. In this paper, we propose a distributed data compression framework that exploits the broadcasting characteristic of the wireless medium to improve energy efficiency. We analyze the performance of the proposed framework numerically and compare it with the performance of previous works using simulation. The proposed scheme performs better when the sensing information is correlated.

  14. Advertisement-Based Energy Efficient Medium Access Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Surjya Sarathi

    One of the main challenges that prevents the large-scale deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is providing the applications with the required quality of service (QoS) given the sensor nodes' limited energy supplies. WSNs are an important tool in supporting applications ranging from environmental and industrial monitoring, to battlefield surveillance and traffic control, among others. Most of these applications require sensors to function for long periods of time without human intervention and without battery replacement. Therefore, energy conservation is one of the main goals for protocols for WSNs. Energy conservation can be performed in different layers of the protocol stack. In particular, as the medium access control (MAC) layer can access and control the radio directly, large energy savings is possible through intelligent MAC protocol design. To maximize the network lifetime, MAC protocols for WSNs aim to minimize idle listening of the sensor nodes, packet collisions, and overhearing. Several approaches such as duty cycling and low power listening have been proposed at the MAC layer to achieve energy efficiency. In this thesis, I explore the possibility of further energy savings through the advertisement of data packets in the MAC layer. In the first part of my research, I propose Advertisement-MAC or ADV-MAC, a new MAC protocol for WSNs that utilizes the concept of advertising for data contention. This technique lets nodes listen dynamically to any desired transmission and sleep during transmissions not of interest. This minimizes the energy lost in idle listening and overhearing while maintaining an adaptive duty cycle to handle variable loads. Additionally, ADV-MAC enables energy efficient MAC-level multicasting. An analytical model for the packet delivery ratio and the energy consumption of the protocol is also proposed. The analytical model is verified with simulations and is used to choose an optimal value of the advertisement period

  15. LMEEC: Layered Multi-Hop Energy Efficient Cluster-based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khelifi, Manel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose LMEEC, a cluster-based routing protocol with low energy consumption for wireless sensor networks. Our protocol is based on a strategy which aims to provide a more reasonable exploitation of the selected nodes (cluster-heads) energy. Simulation results show the effectiveness of LMEEC in decreasing the energy consumption, and in prolonging the network lifetime, compared to LEACH.

  16. Energy-Efficient Reservation-Based Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohvakka Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, a robust and energy-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC protocol is required for high energy efficiency in harsh operating conditions, where node and link failures are common. This paper presents the design of a novel MAC protocol for low-power WSNs. The developed MAC protocol minimizes the energy overhead of idle time and collisions by strict frame synchronization and slot reservation. It combines a dynamic bandwidth adjustment mechanism, multi-cluster-tree network topology, and a network channel allowing rapid and low-energy neighbor discoveries. The protocol achieves high scalability by employing frequency and time division between clusters. Performance analysis shows that the MAC protocol outperforms current state-of-the-art protocols in energy efficiency, and the energy overhead compared to an ideal MAC protocol is only 2.85% to 27.1%. The high energy efficiency is achieved in both leaf and router nodes. The models and the feasibility of the protocol were verified by simulations and with a full-scale prototype implementation.

  17. FORMING OF THE SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAINS BASED ON INCREASING OF THEIR INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHVETS V. J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Key challenges and barriers of mining machinery enterprises in the context of forming sustainable supply chains in the mining industry are specified. Methodology. The algorithm of forming the industrial relations, which are carried out by the enterprises of mining machinery in order to increase the sustainable development of a mining industry, is offered. Conclusions.. Modern supply chains are confronted with dynamic trends and developments that are hard to predict. In order to respond to these changes and remain competitive advantage, companies should be able to identify and understand new sustainability issues in their branches. It is established that in the conditions of globalization of the market and the general orientation of Ukraine’s economy to the European principles of development, for mining machinery enterprises a proof of the commitment and observance of requirements of energy efficiency, i.e. energy saving, energy safety and social energy responsibility are very important. Supply channels should increase not only energy efficiency, economic and production stability of the company, but also strengthen the stability of all participants in the production chain, as well as other stakeholders (business partners, customers, investors, local communities, etc.. Originality. The interrelation of an indicator of energy efficiency in forming sustainable supply chain in a mining industry is established. Practical value. Using the principles of sustainable development in the forming of value chains will improve energy efficiency of industry in general; provide a competitive advantage to entry into the global production chains in terms of European integration of Ukraine.

  18. Investigation of energy efficiency for electro-hydraulic composite braking system which is based on the regenerated energy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bin Ma; Muyi Lin; Yong Chen; Lian-xin Wang

    2016-01-01

      A novel structure of the combined braking system based on the regenerative braking energy has been proposed to achieve simplified structure and energy-saving capability simultaneously, which includes...

  19. Investigation of energy efficiency for electro-hydraulic composite braking system which is based on the regenerated energy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Bin; Lin, Muyi; Chen, Yong; Wang, Lian-xin

    2016-01-01

    A novel structure of the combined braking system based on the regenerative braking energy has been proposed to achieve simplified structure and energy-saving capability simultaneously, which includes...

  20. A Novel Scheme for an Energy Efficient Internet of Things Based on Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Shalli; Talwar, Rajneesh; Malhotra, Jyoteesh; Ahmed, Syed Hassan; Sarkar, Mahasweta; Song, Houbing

    2015-11-12

    One of the emerging networking standards that gap between the physical world and the cyber one is the Internet of Things. In the Internet of Things, smart objects communicate with each other, data are gathered and certain requests of users are satisfied by different queried data. The development of energy efficient schemes for the IoT is a challenging issue as the IoT becomes more complex due to its large scale the current techniques of wireless sensor networks cannot be applied directly to the IoT. To achieve the green networked IoT, this paper addresses energy efficiency issues by proposing a novel deployment scheme. This scheme, introduces: (1) a hierarchical network design; (2) a model for the energy efficient IoT; (3) a minimum energy consumption transmission algorithm to implement the optimal model. The simulation results show that the new scheme is more energy efficient and flexible than traditional WSN schemes and consequently it can be implemented for efficient communication in the IoT.

  1. A Novel Scheme for an Energy Efficient Internet of Things Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalli Rani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the emerging networking standards that gap between the physical world and the cyber one is the Internet of Things. In the Internet of Things, smart objects communicate with each other, data are gathered and certain requests of users are satisfied by different queried data. The development of energy efficient schemes for the IoT is a challenging issue as the IoT becomes more complex due to its large scale the current techniques of wireless sensor networks cannot be applied directly to the IoT. To achieve the green networked IoT, this paper addresses energy efficiency issues by proposing a novel deployment scheme. This scheme, introduces: (1 a hierarchical network design; (2 a model for the energy efficient IoT; (3 a minimum energy consumption transmission algorithm to implement the optimal model. The simulation results show that the new scheme is more energy efficient and flexible than traditional WSN schemes and consequently it can be implemented for efficient communication in the IoT.

  2. Low-Cost Energy-Efficient 3-D Nano-Spikes-Based Electric Cell Lysis Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Riaz, Kashif

    2017-05-04

    Electric cell lysis (ECL) is a promising technique to be integrated with portable lab-on-a-chip without lysing agent due to its simplicity and fast processing. ECL is usually limited by the requirements of high power/voltage and costly fabrication. In this paper, we present low-cost 3-D nano-spikes-based ECL (NSP-ECL) chips for efficient cell lysis at low power consumption. Highly ordered High-Aspect-Ratio (HAR). NSP arrays with controllable dimensions were fabricated on commercial aluminum foils through scalable and electrochemical anodization and etching. The optimized multiple pulse protocols with minimized undesirable electrochemical reactions (gas and bubble generation), common on micro parallel-plate ECL chips. Due to the scalability of fabrication process, 3-D NSPs were fabricated on small chips as well as on 4-in wafers. Phase diagram was constructed by defining critical electric field to induce cell lysis and for cell lysis saturation Esat to define non-ECL and ECL regions for different pulse parameters. NSP-ECL chips have achieved excellent cell lysis efficiencies ηlysis (ca 100%) at low applied voltages (2 V), 2~3 orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional systems. The energy consumption of NSP-ECL chips was 0.5-2 mJ/mL, 3~9 orders of magnitude lower as compared with the other methods (5J/mL-540kJ/mL). [2016-0305

  3. Generalized and efficient algorithm for computing multipole energies and gradients based on Cartesian tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dejun

    2015-09-01

    Accurate representation of intermolecular forces has been the central task of classical atomic simulations, known as molecular mechanics. Recent advancements in molecular mechanics models have put forward the explicit representation of permanent and/or induced electric multipole (EMP) moments. The formulas developed so far to calculate EMP interactions tend to have complicated expressions, especially in Cartesian coordinates, which can only be applied to a specific kernel potential function. For example, one needs to develop a new formula each time a new kernel function is encountered. The complication of these formalisms arises from an intriguing and yet obscured mathematical relation between the kernel functions and the gradient operators. Here, I uncover this relation via rigorous derivation and find that the formula to calculate EMP interactions is basically invariant to the potential kernel functions as long as they are of the form f(r), i.e., any Green's function that depends on inter-particle distance. I provide an algorithm for efficient evaluation of EMP interaction energies, forces, and torques for any kernel f(r) up to any arbitrary rank of EMP moments in Cartesian coordinates. The working equations of this algorithm are essentially the same for any kernel f(r). Recently, a few recursive algorithms were proposed to calculate EMP interactions. Depending on the kernel functions, the algorithm here is about 4-16 times faster than these algorithms in terms of the required number of floating point operations and is much more memory efficient. I show that it is even faster than a theoretically ideal recursion scheme, i.e., one that requires 1 floating point multiplication and 1 addition per recursion step. This algorithm has a compact vector-based expression that is optimal for computer programming. The Cartesian nature of this algorithm makes it fit easily into modern molecular simulation packages as compared with spherical coordinate-based algorithms. A

  4. An Energy Efficient Unequal Cluster Based Routing Protocol For WSN With Non-Uniform Node Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanoop K Dhanpal; Ajit Joseph; Asha Panicker

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clustering is an efficient method for increasing the lifetime of wireless sensor network systems. The current clustering algorithms generate clusters of almost equal size. This will cause hot spot problem in multi-hop sensor networks. In this paper an energy efficient varying sized clustering algorithm EEVSCA and routing protocol are introduced for non-uniform node distributed wireless sensor network system. EEVSCA helps for the construction of clusters of varying size at the same ti...

  5. Estimation of Power/Energy Losses in Electric Distribution Systems based on an Efficient Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Grigoras

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the power/energy losses constitutes an important tool for an efficient planning and operation of electric distribution systems, especially in a free energy market environment. For further development of plans of energy loss reduction and for determination of the implementation priorities of different measures and investment projects, analysis of the nature and reasons of losses in the system and in its different parts is needed. In the paper, an efficient method concerning the power flow problem of medium voltage distribution networks, under condition of lack of information about the nodal loads, is presented. Using this method it can obtain the power/energy losses in power transformers and the lines. The test results, obtained for a 20 kV real distribution network from Romania, confirmed the validity of the proposed method.  

  6. A Gossip-based Energy Efficient Protocol for Robust In-network Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauji, Shantanu

    We consider the problem of energy efficient and fault tolerant in--network aggregation for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In-network aggregation is the process of aggregation while collecting data from sensors to the base station. This process should be energy efficient due to the limited energy at the sensors and tolerant to the high failure rates common in sensor networks. Tree based in--network aggregation protocols, although energy efficient, are not robust to network failures. Multipath routing protocols are robust to failures to a certain degree but are not energy efficient due to the overhead in the maintenance of multiple paths. We propose a new protocol for in-network aggregation in WSNs, which is energy efficient, achieves high lifetime, and is robust to the changes in the network topology. Our protocol, gossip--based protocol for in-network aggregation (GPIA) is based on the spreading of information via gossip. GPIA is not only adaptive to failures and changes in the network topology, but is also energy efficient. Energy efficiency of GPIA comes from all the nodes being capable of selective message reception and detecting convergence of the aggregation early. We experimentally show that GPIA provides significant improvement over some other competitors like the Ridesharing, Synopsis Diffusion and the pure version of gossip. GPIA shows ten fold, five fold and two fold improvement over the pure gossip, the synopsis diffusion and Ridesharing protocols in terms of network lifetime, respectively. Further, GPIA retains gossip's robustness to failures and improves upon the accuracy of synopsis diffusion and Ridesharing.

  7. Energy Efficient Microlith-Based Catalytic Reactor and Recuperator for Air Quality Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilekar, Saurabh A.; Hawley, Kyle; Junaedi, Christian; Crowder, Bruce; Prada, Julian; Mastanduno, Richard; Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been developing, characterizing, and optimizing high temperature catalytic oxidizers (HTCO) based on PCI’s patented Microlith technology to meet the requirements of future extended human spaceflight explorations. Previous efforts focused on integrating PCI’s HTCO unit with a compact, simple recuperative heat exchanger to reduce the overall system size and weight. Significant improvement was demonstrated over traditional approaches of integrating the HTCO with an external recuperative heat exchanger. While the critical target performance metrics were achieved, the thermal effectiveness of PCI’s recuperator remained a potential area of improvement to further reduce the energy requirements of the integrated system. Using the same material combinations and an improved recuperator design, the redesigned prototype has experimentally demonstrated 20 – 30% reduction (flow dependent) in steady state power consumption compared to the earlier prototype without compromising the destruction efficiency of methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Moreover, design modifications and improvements allow our redesigned prototype to be more easily manufactured compared to traditional brazed plate-fin recuperator designs. The redesigned prototype was delivered to MSFC for validation testing. Here, we report and discuss the performance of the improved prototype HTCO unit with a high efficiency recuperative heat exchanger based on testing at PCI and MSFC. The device is expected to provide a reliable and robust means of disposing of trace levels of methane and VOCs by oxidizing them into carbon dioxide and water in order to maintain clean air in enclosed spaces, such as crewed spacecraft cabins.

  8. Energy Efficient On-Chip Communications Implementation Based on Power Slacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yu Xia; Wen-Ming Pan; Jia-Chong Kan

    2014-01-01

    ¾The quest for energy efficiency has growing importance in high performance many-core systems. However, in current practices, the power slacks, which are the differences observed between the input power budget and the actual power consumed in the many-core systems, are typically ignored, thus leading to poor energy efficiency. In this paper, we propose a scheme to effectively power the on-chip communications by exploiting the available power slack that is totally wasted in current many-core systems. As so, the demand for extra energy from external power sources (e.g., batteries) is minimized, which helps improve the overall energy efficiency. In essence, the power slack is stored at each node and the proposed routing algorithm uses a dynamic programming network to find the globally optimal path, along which the total energy stored on the nodes is the maximum. Experimental results have confirmed that the proposed scheme, with low hardware overhead, can reduce latency and extra energy consumption by 44% and 48%, respectively, compared with the two competing routing methods.

  9. LMEEC: Layered Multi-Hop Energy Efficient Cluster-based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khelifi, Manel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose LMEEC, a cluster-based rout- ing protocol with low energy consumption for wireless sensor networks. Our protocol is based on a strategy which aims to provide a more equitable exploitation of the selected nodes (cluster-heads) energy. Simulation results show the effective- ness of LMEEC in decreasing the energy consumption, and in prolonging the network lifetime, compared to LEACH.

  10. Ambient Temperature Based Thermal Aware Energy Efficient ROM Design on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saini, Rishita; Bansal, Neha; Bansal, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    Thermal aware design is currently gaining importance in VLSI research domain. In this work, we are going to design thermal aware energy efficient ROM on Virtex-5 FPGA. Ambient Temperature, airflow, and heat sink profile play a significant role in thermal aware hardware design life cycle. Ambient...

  11. LVTTL Based Energy Efficient Watermark Generator Design and Implementation on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Bishwajeet; Kaur, Amanpreet; Kumar, Tanesh

    2014-01-01

    of energy efficient Watermark Generator (WMG) for video frame in order to gain extended life of the battery in the camera because the WMG is embedded into camera. We have assumed that target device is operating under five different frequencies and five different drive strength values. Low voltage Transistor...

  12. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  13. Energy efficiency of building envelope

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    November, 12-13th, in Saint-Petersburg the 7th International congress "Energy efficiency. XXI century" took place. The reports were done in breakuo groups according to the various aspects of energy efficiency challenge: HVAC systems, water supply and sewerage systems, gas supply, energy metering. One of the grourps was devoted to thermophysics of buildings and energy effective design of building envelope.

  14. Efficient synthesis of tension modulation in strings and membranes based on energy estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzini, Federico; Marogna, Riccardo; Bank, Balázs

    2012-01-01

    String and membrane vibrations cannot be considered as linear above a certain amplitude due to the variation in string or membrane tension. A relevant special case is when the tension is spatially constant and varies in time only in dependence of the overall string length or membrane surface. The most apparent perceptual effect of this tension modulation phenomenon is the exponential decay of pitch in time. Pitch glides due to tension modulation are an important timbral characteristic of several musical instruments, including the electric guitar and tom-tom drum, and many ethnic instruments. This paper presents a unified formulation to the tension modulation problem for one-dimensional (1-D) (string) and two-dimensional (2-D) (membrane) cases. In addition, it shows that the short-time average of the tension variation, which is responsible for pitch glides, is approximately proportional to the system energy. This proportionality allows the efficient physics-based sound synthesis of pitch glides. The proposed models require only slightly more computational resources than linear models as opposed to earlier tension-modulated models of higher complexity.

  15. Generalized and efficient algorithm for computing multipole energies and gradients based on Cartesian tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dejun

    2015-01-01

    Accurate representation of intermolecular forces has been the central task of classical atomic simulations, known as molecular mechanics. Recent advancements in molecular mechanics models have put forward the explicit representation of permanent and/or induced electric multipole (EMP) moments. The formulas developed so far to calculate EMP interactions tend to have complicated expressions, especially in Cartesian coordinates, which can only be applied to a specific kernel potential function. For example, one needs to develop a new formula each time a new kernel function is encountered. The complication of these formalisms arises from an intriguing and yet obscured mathematical relation between the kernel functions and the gradient operators. Here, I uncover this relation via rigorous derivation and find that the formula to calculate EMP interactions is basically invariant to the potential kernel functions as long as they are of the form f(r), i.e., any Green’s function that depends on inter-particle distance. I provide an algorithm for efficient evaluation of EMP interaction energies, forces, and torques for any kernel f(r) up to any arbitrary rank of EMP moments in Cartesian coordinates. The working equations of this algorithm are essentially the same for any kernel f(r). Recently, a few recursive algorithms were proposed to calculate EMP interactions. Depending on the kernel functions, the algorithm here is about 4–16 times faster than these algorithms in terms of the required number of floating point operations and is much more memory efficient. I show that it is even faster than a theoretically ideal recursion scheme, i.e., one that requires 1 floating point multiplication and 1 addition per recursion step. This algorithm has a compact vector-based expression that is optimal for computer programming. The Cartesian nature of this algorithm makes it fit easily into modern molecular simulation packages as compared with spherical coordinate-based algorithms. A

  16. Generalized and efficient algorithm for computing multipole energies and gradients based on Cartesian tensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dejun, E-mail: dejun.lin@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    Accurate representation of intermolecular forces has been the central task of classical atomic simulations, known as molecular mechanics. Recent advancements in molecular mechanics models have put forward the explicit representation of permanent and/or induced electric multipole (EMP) moments. The formulas developed so far to calculate EMP interactions tend to have complicated expressions, especially in Cartesian coordinates, which can only be applied to a specific kernel potential function. For example, one needs to develop a new formula each time a new kernel function is encountered. The complication of these formalisms arises from an intriguing and yet obscured mathematical relation between the kernel functions and the gradient operators. Here, I uncover this relation via rigorous derivation and find that the formula to calculate EMP interactions is basically invariant to the potential kernel functions as long as they are of the form f(r), i.e., any Green’s function that depends on inter-particle distance. I provide an algorithm for efficient evaluation of EMP interaction energies, forces, and torques for any kernel f(r) up to any arbitrary rank of EMP moments in Cartesian coordinates. The working equations of this algorithm are essentially the same for any kernel f(r). Recently, a few recursive algorithms were proposed to calculate EMP interactions. Depending on the kernel functions, the algorithm here is about 4–16 times faster than these algorithms in terms of the required number of floating point operations and is much more memory efficient. I show that it is even faster than a theoretically ideal recursion scheme, i.e., one that requires 1 floating point multiplication and 1 addition per recursion step. This algorithm has a compact vector-based expression that is optimal for computer programming. The Cartesian nature of this algorithm makes it fit easily into modern molecular simulation packages as compared with spherical coordinate-based algorithms. A

  17. Industrial energy efficiency policy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan; Yun, Jiang

    2001-05-01

    Chinese industrial sector energy-efficiency policy has gone through a number of distinct phases since the founding of the People s Republic in 1949. An initial period of energy supply growth in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s was followed by implementation of significant energy efficiency programs in the 1980s. Many of these programs were dismantled in the 1990s during the continuing move towards a market-based economy. In an effort to once again strengthen energy efficiency, the Chinese government passes the Energy Conservation Law in 1997 which provides broad guidance for the establishment of energy efficiency policies. Article 20 of the Energy Conservation Law requires substantial improvement in industrial energy efficiency in the key energy-consuming industrial facilities in China. This portion of the Law declares that ''the State will enhance energy conservation management in key energy consuming entities.'' In 1999, the industrial sector consumed nearly 30 EJ, or 76 percent of China's primary energy. Even though primary energy consumption has dropped dramatically in recent years, due mostly to a decline in coal consumption, the Chinese government is still actively developing an overall policy for energy efficiency in the industrial sector modeled after policies in a number of industrialized countries. This paper will describe recent Chinese government activities to develop industrial sector energy-efficiency targets as a ''market-based'' mechanism for improving the energy efficiency of key industrial facilities.

  18. How can We Tackle Energy Efficiency in IoT Based Smart Buildings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M. Victoria; Úbeda, Benito; Skarmeta, Antonio F.; Zamora, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, buildings are increasingly expected to meet higher and more complex performance requirements. Among these requirements, energy efficiency is recognized as an international goal to promote energy sustainability of the planet. Different approaches have been adopted to address this goal, the most recent relating consumption patterns with human occupancy. In this work, we analyze what are the main parameters that should be considered to be included in any building energy management. The goal of this analysis is to help designers to select the most relevant parameters to control the energy consumption of buildings according to their context, selecting them as input data of the management system. Following this approach, we select three reference smart buildings with different contexts, and where our automation platform for energy monitoring is deployed. We carry out some experiments in these buildings to demonstrate the influence of the parameters identified as relevant in the energy consumption of the buildings. Then, in two of these buildings are applied different control strategies to save electrical energy. We describe the experiments performed and analyze the results. The first stages of this evaluation have already resulted in energy savings of about 23% in a real scenario. PMID:24887040

  19. How can We Tackle Energy Efficiency in IoT BasedSmart Buildings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Victoria Moreno

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, buildings are increasingly expected to meet higher and more complex performance requirements. Among these requirements, energy efficiency is recognized as an international goal to promote energy sustainability of the planet. Different approaches have been adopted to address this goal, the most recent relating consumption patterns with human occupancy. In this work, we analyze what are the main parameters that should be considered to be included in any building energy management. The goal of this analysis is to help designers to select the most relevant parameters to control the energy consumption of buildings according to their context, selecting them as input data of the management system. Following this approach, we select three reference smart buildings with different contexts, and where our automation platform for energy monitoring is deployed. We carry out some experiments in these buildings to demonstrate the influence of the parameters identified as relevant in the energy consumption of the buildings. Then, in two of these buildings are applied different control strategies to save electrical energy. We describe the experiments performed and analyze the results. The first stages of this evaluation have already resulted in energy savings of about 23% in a real scenario.

  20. How can we tackle energy efficiency in IoT based smart buildings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M Victoria; Úbeda, Benito; Skarmeta, Antonio F; Zamora, Miguel A

    2014-05-30

    Nowadays, buildings are increasingly expected to meet higher and more complex performance requirements. Among these requirements, energy efficiency is recognized as an international goal to promote energy sustainability of the planet. Different approaches have been adopted to address this goal, the most recent relating consumption patterns with human occupancy. In this work, we analyze what are the main parameters that should be considered to be included in any building energy management. The goal of this analysis is to help designers to select the most relevant parameters to control the energy consumption of buildings according to their context, selecting them as input data of the management system. Following this approach, we select three reference smart buildings with different contexts, and where our automation platform for energy monitoring is deployed. We carry out some experiments in these buildings to demonstrate the influence of the parameters identified as relevant in the energy consumption of the buildings. Then, in two of these buildings are applied different control strategies to save electrical energy. We describe the experiments performed and analyze the results. The first stages of this evaluation have already resulted in energy savings of about 23% in a real scenario.

  1. Energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} mitigation scenarios for French dwellings based on retrofitting and best energy demand technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osso, D.; Bouia, H.; Mandrou, P.; Laurent, M.H. [Electricite de France, Energy in buildings and territories dept. (France)

    2007-07-01

    Two main targets of European and French energy policies are reduction of energy dependency and greenhouse gas mitigation. Energy conservation is unavoidable in order to reach these two goals.The Building sector is the largest end use in Europe, and also the largest CO{sub 2} emitter (if power plant emissions are included in final energy consumption). It is now well admitted that drastic decrease of buildings energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions need an intensive retrofitting of building stock, especially housing.This work evaluates various refurbishment scenarios outlook for 2030 of French dwelling stock: Business As Usual (BaU) or accelerate rates, usual technologies or Best Available Technologies (BATs). Emerging technologies (not yet available but with strong potential) are introduced among 'on the shelf' technologies. Studied scenarios include energy efficiency actions as well as energy substitution. Estimations of technical investment cost of studied scenarios are presented.The calculations are done using the MIeL 'Modeling of the Impact of Energy measures for housing' software, developed by EDF and built following a bottom-up approach.

  2. Optimizing Gas Generator Efficiency in a Forward Operating Base Using an Energy Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    System (EMS) were investigated in this thesis. The EMS provides an interface between power sources, loads, and energy storage elements to form a microgrid ...consumption between the traditional architecture and EMS-enabled microgrid . 14. SUBJECT TERMS Energy management system, forward...operating base (FOB), generators, Microgrid , power electronics 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 99 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT

  3. Efficiency of Event-Based Sampling According to Error Energy Criterion

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Miskowicz

    2010-01-01

    The paper belongs to the studies that deal with the effectiveness of the particular event-based sampling scheme compared to the conventional periodic sampling as a reference. In the present study, the event-based sampling according to a constant energy of sampling error is analyzed. This criterion is suitable for applications where the energy of sampling error should be bounded (i.e., in building automation, or in greenhouse climate monitoring and control). Compared to the integral sampling c...

  4. Model based design of efficient power take-off systems for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2011-01-01

    an essential part of the PTO, being the only technology having the required force densities. The focus of this paper is to show the achievable efficiency of a PTO system based on a conventional hydro-static transmission topology. The design is performed using a model based approach. Generic component models...

  5. Highly efficient greenish-blue platinum-based phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on a high triplet energy platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y. L., E-mail: yilu.chang@mail.utoronto.ca; Gong, S., E-mail: sgong@chem.utoronto.ca; White, R.; Lu, Z. H., E-mail: zhenghong.lu@utoronto.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada); Wang, X.; Wang, S., E-mail: wangs@chem.queensu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Queen' s University, 90 Bader Lane, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Yang, C. [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2014-04-28

    We have demonstrated high-efficiency greenish-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) based on a dimesitylboryl-functionalized C^N chelate Pt(II) phosphor, Pt(m-Bptrz)(t-Bu-pytrz-Me). Using a high triplet energy platform and optimized double emissive zone device architecture results in greenish-blue PHOLEDs that exhibit an external quantum efficiency of 24.0% and a power efficiency of 55.8 lm/W. This record high performance is comparable with that of the state-of-the-art Ir-based sky-blue organic light-emitting diodes.

  6. PLL Based Energy Efficient PV System with Fuzzy Logic Based Power Tracker for Smart Grid Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohini, G; Jamuna, V

    This work aims at improving the dynamic performance of the available photovoltaic (PV) system and maximizing the power obtained from it by the use of cascaded converters with intelligent control techniques. Fuzzy logic based maximum power point technique is embedded on the first conversion stage to obtain the maximum power from the available PV array. The cascading of second converter is needed to maintain the terminal voltage at grid potential. The soft-switching region of three-stage converter is increased with the proposed phase-locked loop based control strategy. The proposed strategy leads to reduction in the ripple content, rating of components, and switching losses. The PV array is mathematically modeled and the system is simulated and the results are analyzed. The performance of the system is compared with the existing maximum power point tracking algorithms. The authors have endeavored to accomplish maximum power and improved reliability for the same insolation of the PV system. Hardware results of the system are also discussed to prove the validity of the simulation results.

  7. PLL Based Energy Efficient PV System with Fuzzy Logic Based Power Tracker for Smart Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at improving the dynamic performance of the available photovoltaic (PV system and maximizing the power obtained from it by the use of cascaded converters with intelligent control techniques. Fuzzy logic based maximum power point technique is embedded on the first conversion stage to obtain the maximum power from the available PV array. The cascading of second converter is needed to maintain the terminal voltage at grid potential. The soft-switching region of three-stage converter is increased with the proposed phase-locked loop based control strategy. The proposed strategy leads to reduction in the ripple content, rating of components, and switching losses. The PV array is mathematically modeled and the system is simulated and the results are analyzed. The performance of the system is compared with the existing maximum power point tracking algorithms. The authors have endeavored to accomplish maximum power and improved reliability for the same insolation of the PV system. Hardware results of the system are also discussed to prove the validity of the simulation results.

  8. A SIEPON based transmitter sleep mode energy-efficient mechanism in EPON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoukar, AliAkbar; Hwang, I.-Shyan; Wang, Chien-Jung; Ab-Rahman, Mohammad Syuhaimi; Liem, Andrew Tanny

    2015-06-01

    The main energy consumption in computer networks is the access networks. The passive optical network (PON) has the least energy consumption among access network technologies. In addition, the time division multiplexing (TDM) Ethernet PON (EPON) is one of the best candidates to improve energy consumption by time utilization. The optical network unit (ONU) can utilize the time and save the energy in the EPON by turning off its transmitter/receiver when there is no upstream/downstream traffic. The ITU-T and IEEE organizations are published standards for energy-saving in the TDM-PON. Although their standards provide the framework to accomplish the energy-saving, the algorithms/criteria to generate events to accommodate various operational policies, time to wake up, parameter values for timers are out of scope of the standards. Many studies have proposed schemes for energy-saving in TDM-PON to achieve maximum energy saving. Even so, these schemes increase the mean packet delay and consequently, reduce the quality of service (QoS). In this paper, first we take a look to the state of the art for PON energy-saving. Additionally, a mechanism based on SIEPON standard in EPON with new components in the ONUs and optical line terminal (OLT) is proposed to save the transmitter energy and guarantee QoS. The proposed mechanism follows the SIEPON standard, considers the QoS first, and then saves the energy as far as possible. The ONU sleep controller unit (OSC) and green dynamic bandwidth allocation (GDBA) are used to calculate the ONU transmitter sleep (Tx) duration and grant the proper time to the ONUs. Simulation results show that the proposed energy-saving mechanism not only promises the QoS performance in terms of mean packet delay, packet loss, throughput, and jitter, but also saves energy in different maximum cycle times.

  9. A New Cooperative MIMO Scheme Based on SM for Energy-Efficiency Improvement in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyang Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks (WSN has attracted considerable attention nowadays. The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO technique has been proved as a good candidate for improving the energy efficiency, but it may not be feasible in WSN which is due to the size limitation of the sensor node. As a solution, the cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO technique overcomes this constraint and shows a dramatically good performance. In this paper, a new CMIMO scheme based on the spatial modulation (SM technique named CMIMO-SM is proposed for energy-efficiency improvement. We first establish the system model of CMIMO-SM. Based on this model, the transmission approach is introduced graphically. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, a detailed analysis in terms of energy consumption per bit of the proposed scheme compared with the conventional CMIMO is presented. Later, under the guide of this new scheme we extend our proposed CMIMO-SM to a multihop clustered WSN for further achieving energy efficiency by finding an optimal hop-length. Equidistant hop as the traditional scheme will be compared in this paper. Results from the simulations and numerical experiments indicate that by the use of the proposed scheme, significant savings in terms of total energy consumption can be achieved. Combining the proposed scheme with monitoring sensor node will provide a good performance in arbitrary deployed WSN such as forest fire detection system.

  10. A new cooperative MIMO scheme based on SM for energy-efficiency improvement in wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuyang; Choi, Jaeho

    2014-01-01

    Improving the energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks (WSN) has attracted considerable attention nowadays. The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has been proved as a good candidate for improving the energy efficiency, but it may not be feasible in WSN which is due to the size limitation of the sensor node. As a solution, the cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO) technique overcomes this constraint and shows a dramatically good performance. In this paper, a new CMIMO scheme based on the spatial modulation (SM) technique named CMIMO-SM is proposed for energy-efficiency improvement. We first establish the system model of CMIMO-SM. Based on this model, the transmission approach is introduced graphically. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, a detailed analysis in terms of energy consumption per bit of the proposed scheme compared with the conventional CMIMO is presented. Later, under the guide of this new scheme we extend our proposed CMIMO-SM to a multihop clustered WSN for further achieving energy efficiency by finding an optimal hop-length. Equidistant hop as the traditional scheme will be compared in this paper. Results from the simulations and numerical experiments indicate that by the use of the proposed scheme, significant savings in terms of total energy consumption can be achieved. Combining the proposed scheme with monitoring sensor node will provide a good performance in arbitrary deployed WSN such as forest fire detection system.

  11. A model-based combinatorial optimisation approach for energy-efficient processing of microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Koetzier, B.J.; Fasaei, F.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    The analyses of algae biorefinery performance are commonly based on fixed performance data for each processing step. In this work, we demonstrate a model-based combinatorial approach to derive the design-specific upstream energy consumption and biodiesel yield in the production of biodiesel from mic

  12. A model-based combinatorial optimisation approach for energy-efficient processing of microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Koetzier, B.J.; Fasaei, F.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    The analyses of algae biorefinery performance are commonly based on fixed performance data for each processing step. In this work, we demonstrate a model-based combinatorial approach to derive the design-specific upstream energy consumption and biodiesel yield in the production of biodiesel from

  13. An Efficient Minimum Free Energy Structure-Based Search Method for Riboswitch Identification Based on Inverse RNA Folding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matan Drory Retwitzer

    Full Text Available Riboswitches are RNA genetic control elements that were originally discovered in bacteria and provide a unique mechanism of gene regulation. They work without the participation of proteins and are believed to represent ancient regulatory systems in the evolutionary timescale. One of the biggest challenges in riboswitch research is to find additional eukaryotic riboswitches since more than 20 riboswitch classes have been found in prokaryotes but only one class has been found in eukaryotes. Moreover, this single known class of eukaryotic riboswitch, namely the TPP riboswitch class, has been found in bacteria, archaea, fungi and plants but not in animals. The few examples of eukaryotic riboswitches were identified using sequence-based bioinformatics search methods such as a combination of BLAST and pattern matching techniques that incorporate base-pairing considerations. None of these approaches perform energy minimization structure predictions. There is a clear motivation to develop new bioinformatics methods, aside of the ongoing advances in covariance models, that will sample the sequence search space more flexibly using structural guidance while retaining the computational efficiency of sequence-based methods. We present a new energy minimization approach that transforms structure-based search into a sequence-based search, thereby enabling the utilization of well established sequence-based search utilities such as BLAST and FASTA. The transformation to sequence space is obtained by using an extended inverse RNA folding problem solver with sequence and structure constraints, available within RNAfbinv. Examples in applying the new method are presented for the purine and preQ1 riboswitches. The method is described in detail along with its findings in prokaryotes. Potential uses in finding novel eukaryotic riboswitches and optimizing pre-designed synthetic riboswitches based on ligand simulations are discussed. The method components are freely

  14. An Efficient Minimum Free Energy Structure-Based Search Method for Riboswitch Identification Based on Inverse RNA Folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drory Retwitzer, Matan; Kifer, Ilona; Sengupta, Supratim; Yakhini, Zohar; Barash, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Riboswitches are RNA genetic control elements that were originally discovered in bacteria and provide a unique mechanism of gene regulation. They work without the participation of proteins and are believed to represent ancient regulatory systems in the evolutionary timescale. One of the biggest challenges in riboswitch research is to find additional eukaryotic riboswitches since more than 20 riboswitch classes have been found in prokaryotes but only one class has been found in eukaryotes. Moreover, this single known class of eukaryotic riboswitch, namely the TPP riboswitch class, has been found in bacteria, archaea, fungi and plants but not in animals. The few examples of eukaryotic riboswitches were identified using sequence-based bioinformatics search methods such as a combination of BLAST and pattern matching techniques that incorporate base-pairing considerations. None of these approaches perform energy minimization structure predictions. There is a clear motivation to develop new bioinformatics methods, aside of the ongoing advances in covariance models, that will sample the sequence search space more flexibly using structural guidance while retaining the computational efficiency of sequence-based methods. We present a new energy minimization approach that transforms structure-based search into a sequence-based search, thereby enabling the utilization of well established sequence-based search utilities such as BLAST and FASTA. The transformation to sequence space is obtained by using an extended inverse RNA folding problem solver with sequence and structure constraints, available within RNAfbinv. Examples in applying the new method are presented for the purine and preQ1 riboswitches. The method is described in detail along with its findings in prokaryotes. Potential uses in finding novel eukaryotic riboswitches and optimizing pre-designed synthetic riboswitches based on ligand simulations are discussed. The method components are freely available for use.

  15. Verification of electricity savings through energy-efficient train management - Energy data base for traction units - Annex 5; Verifizierung der Stromeinsparung durch energieeffizientes Zugsmanagement - Anhang 5: Energiedatenbank Traktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Lerjen, M.; Menth, S. [emkamatik GmbH, Wettingen (Switzerland); Luethi, M. [Swiss Federal Insitute of Technology (ETHZ), Institute for Transport Planning and Systems (IVT), Zuerich (Switzerland); Tuchschmid, M. [SBB AG, BahnUmwelt-Center, 3000 Bern (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    This appendix to a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how various data sources on the energy consumption of the SBB's traction units can be combined into an energy-data basis. In this way, the considerable amount of work previously involved in combining and correlating data can be avoided. The aims being followed in the realisation of the traction data base are examined and discussed. The data base will provide the basis for the manual detail analysis of energy consumption within the framework of the overall efforts to save electricity using efficient train management.

  16. An Efficient Energy based Detection of Malicious Node in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmila, S.; Umamaheswari, G.

    2012-03-01

    Mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSN) are composed of a large number of wireless sensors and they require a careful consumption of available energy to prolong the life of the network. From the security point of view, existing detection schemes consumes node energy and thus reduces the life time of the network. This paper focuses on energy based scheme for detecting the malicious node in the forward routing path. This detection scheme suits any standard routing protocol. The forward route selection path is identified by using dynamic source routing protocol. The proposed scheme is simulated in glomosim and evaluated using packet throughput, percentage of byte overheads, energy consumption, and the accuracy of detection. The network with moderate mobility is used and the proposed scheme consumes 20 % of node energy.

  17. Energy Efficient Textile Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Brunzell, Lena

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, textiles were dried outdoors with the wind and the sun enhancing the drying process. Tumble dryers offer a fast and convenient way of drying textiles independent of weather conditions. Tumble dryers, however, consume large amounts of electrical energy. Over 4 million tumble dryers are sold each year in Europe and a considerable amount of energy is used for drying of clothes. Increasing energy costs and the awareness about environmental problems related to a large energy use has...

  18. Energy-Efficient Neuromorphic Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Daniel; Rigotti, Mattia; Seok, Mingoo; Fusi, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    Neuromorphic engineering combines the architectural and computational principles of systems neuroscience with semiconductor electronics, with the aim of building efficient and compact devices that mimic the synaptic and neural machinery of the brain. The energy consumptions promised by neuromorphic engineering are extremely low, comparable to those of the nervous system. Until now, however, the neuromorphic approach has been restricted to relatively simple circuits and specialized functions, thereby obfuscating a direct comparison of their energy consumption to that used by conventional von Neumann digital machines solving real-world tasks. Here we show that a recent technology developed by IBM can be leveraged to realize neuromorphic circuits that operate as classifiers of complex real-world stimuli. Specifically, we provide a set of general prescriptions to enable the practical implementation of neural architectures that compete with state-of-the-art classifiers. We also show that the energy consumption of these architectures, realized on the IBM chip, is typically two or more orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional digital machines implementing classifiers with comparable performance. Moreover, the spike-based dynamics display a trade-off between integration time and accuracy, which naturally translates into algorithms that can be flexibly deployed for either fast and approximate classifications, or more accurate classifications at the mere expense of longer running times and higher energy costs. This work finally proves that the neuromorphic approach can be efficiently used in real-world applications and has significant advantages over conventional digital devices when energy consumption is considered.

  19. Clock Gating Based Energy Efficient and Thermal Aware Design of Latin Unicode Reader for Natural Language Processing on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ritu; Kalia, Kartik; Minver, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract-In this paper we have aimed to design an energy efficient and thermally aware Latin Unicode Reader. Our design is based on 28nm FPGA (Kintex-7) and 40nm FPGA (Artix-7). In order to test the portability of our design, we are operating our design with respective frequency of different mobi...

  20. Energy efficient building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  1. ENERGY EFFICIENT NETWORK SELECTION USING 802.16G BASED GSM TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Anandakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Handover is the mechanism that transfers information from one terminal to another as a user moves through the coverage area of a cellular system. Here the Network selection is the handover decision process between various network environments. This handover decision will be either mobile or network initiated. In 2G GSM handover decision method especially concentrates on Received frequency signals (RFS. Upcoming technologies (3G/4G the number of available networks increase the selection process should evaluate additional factors such as cost, network services, network terminology, system conditions, user and operators performances and needed energy to work in an exceedingly network. In Future networks (IEEE or 4G standards offer facilities such as network routes, handover routing messages, network and client reports, message exchange with handover triggers and handover negotiation. In this study we have a tendency to discuss the utilization of a cost function to perform associate a network selection exploitation information provided by these standards, such as network coverage or network properties. The efficient function provides flexibility to balance the various factors within the network selection, and our research is focused on rising each seamlessness and energy efficiency of the devices in handovers. We have a tendency to evaluate our approach supported usage scenarios over 2G, 3G and 4G GSM networks. Our results show the optimal networks and handovers were generate appropriate times to increase overall network connectivity as compared to traditional network schemes, at the same time optimizing energy consumption of network devices.

  2. Base station selection for energy efficient network operation with the majorization-minimization algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Pollakis, Emmanuel; Stańczak, Slawomir

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of reducing the energy consumption in a mobile communication network; we select the smallest set of active base stations that can preserve the quality of service (the minimum data rate) required by the users. In more detail, we start by posing this problem as an integer programming problem, the solution of which shows the optimal assignment (in the sense of minimizing the total energy consumption) between base stations and users. In particular, this solution shows which base stations can then be switched off or put in idle mode to save energy. However, solving this problem optimally is intractable in general, so in this study we develop a suboptimal approach that builds upon recent techniques that have been successfully applied to, among other problems, sparse signal reconstruction, portfolio optimization, statistical estimation, and error correction. More precisely, we relax the original integer programming problem as a minimization problem where the objective function is ...

  3. Relay Selection and Subcarrier-Pair Based Energy-Efficient Resource Allocation for Multirelay Cooperative OFDMA Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanming Hao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy-efficient resource allocation is investigated for a relay-based multiuser cooperation orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA uplink system with amplify-and-forward (AF protocol for all relays. The objective is to maximize the total energy efficiency (EE of the uplink system with consideration of some practical limitations, such as the individual power constraint for the users and relays and the quality of service (QoS for every user. We formulate an energy-efficient resource allocation problem that seeks joint optimization of subcarrier pairing, relay selection, subcarrier assignment, and power allocation. Unlike previous optimization throughput models, we transform the considered EE problem in fractional form into an equivalent optimal problem in subtractive form, which is solved by using dual decomposition and subgradient methods. To reduce computation costs, we propose two low-complexity suboptimal schemes. Numerical studies are conducted to evaluate the EE of the proposed algorithms.

  4. T-L Plane Abstraction-Based Energy-Efficient Real-Time Scheduling for Multi-Core Wireless Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmin; Lee, Ki-Seong; Pham, Ngoc-Son; Lee, Sun-Ro; Lee, Chan-Gun

    2016-07-08

    Energy efficiency is considered as a critical requirement for wireless sensor networks. As more wireless sensor nodes are equipped with multi-cores, there are emerging needs for energy-efficient real-time scheduling algorithms. The T-L plane-based scheme is known to be an optimal global scheduling technique for periodic real-time tasks on multi-cores. Unfortunately, there has been a scarcity of studies on extending T-L plane-based scheduling algorithms to exploit energy-saving techniques. In this paper, we propose a new T-L plane-based algorithm enabling energy-efficient real-time scheduling on multi-core sensor nodes with dynamic power management (DPM). Our approach addresses the overhead of processor mode transitions and reduces fragmentations of the idle time, which are inherent in T-L plane-based algorithms. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm compared to other energy-aware scheduling methods on T-L plane abstraction.

  5. An Artificial Measurements-Based Adaptive Filter for Energy-Efficient Target Tracking via Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huayan; Zhang, Senlin; Liu, Meiqin; Zhang, Qunfei

    2017-04-27

    We study the problem of energy-efficient target tracking in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). Since sensors of UWSNs are battery-powered, it is impracticable to replace the batteries when exhausted. This means that the battery life affects the lifetime of the whole network. In order to extend the network lifetime, it is worth reducing the energy consumption on the premise of sufficient tracking accuracy. This paper proposes an energy-efficient filter that implements the tradeoff between communication cost and tracking accuracy. Under the distributed fusion framework, local sensors should not send their weak information to the fusion center if their measurement residuals are smaller than the pre-given threshold. In order to guarantee the target tracking accuracy, artificial measurements are generated to compensate for those unsent real measurements. Then, an adaptive scheme is derived to take full advantages of the artificial measurements-based filter in terms of energy-efficiency. Furthermore, a computationally efficient optimal sensor selection scheme is proposed to improve tracking accuracy on the premise of employing the same number of sensors. Simulation demonstrates that our scheme has superior advantages in the tradeoff between communication cost and tracking accuracy. It saves much energy while loosing little tracking accuracy or improves tracking performance with less additional energy cost.

  6. Feasibility study and energy efficiency estimation of geothermal power station based on medium enthalpy water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borsukiewicz-Gozdur Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work presented are the results of investigations regarding the effectiveness of operation of power plant fed by geothermal water with the flow rate of 100, 150, and 200 m3/h and temperatures of 70, 80, and 90 °C, i. e. geothermal water with the parameters available in some towns of West Pomeranian region as well as in Stargard Szczecinski (86.4 °C, Poland. The results of calculations regard the system of geothermal power plant with possibility of utilization of heat for technological purposes. Analyzed are possibilities of application of different working fluids with respect to the most efficient utilization of geothermal energy. .

  7. Efficiency of event-based sampling according to error energy criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowicz, Marek

    2010-01-01

    The paper belongs to the studies that deal with the effectiveness of the particular event-based sampling scheme compared to the conventional periodic sampling as a reference. In the present study, the event-based sampling according to a constant energy of sampling error is analyzed. This criterion is suitable for applications where the energy of sampling error should be bounded (i.e., in building automation, or in greenhouse climate monitoring and control). Compared to the integral sampling criteria, the error energy criterion gives more weight to extreme sampling error values. The proposed sampling principle extends a range of event-based sampling schemes and makes the choice of particular sampling criterion more flexible to application requirements. In the paper, it is proved analytically that the proposed event-based sampling criterion is more effective than the periodic sampling by a factor defined by the ratio of the maximum to the mean of the cubic root of the signal time-derivative square in the analyzed time interval. Furthermore, it is shown that the sampling according to energy criterion is less effective than the send-on-delta scheme but more effective than the sampling according to integral criterion. On the other hand, it is indicated that higher effectiveness in sampling according to the selected event-based criterion is obtained at the cost of increasing the total sampling error defined as the sum of errors for all the samples taken.

  8. Graphene quantum dot antennas for high efficiency Förster resonance energy transfer based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Alagesan; Pan, Zhenghui; Rong, Genlan; Li, Hongfei; Zhou, Lisha; Li, Wanfei; Qiu, Yongcai; Xu, Yijun; Hou, Yuan; Zheng, Zhaozhao; Zhang, Yuegang

    2017-03-01

    The light harvesting efficiency of an acceptor dye can be enhanced by judicious choice and/or design of donor materials in the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this work, we explore graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as energy relay antennas for the high power conversion efficiency Ru-based N719 acceptor dyes. The absorption, emission, and time decay spectral results evidence the existence of the FRET, the radiative energy transfer (RET), and a synergistic interaction between GQDs and N719 dye. The FRET efficiency is measured to be 27%. The GQDs co-sensitized DSSC achieves an efficiency (ƞ) of 7.96% with a Jsc of 16.54 mAcm-2, which is 30% higher than that of a N719-based DSSC. GQDs also reduce the charge recombination, which results in an increased open-circuit voltage up to 770 mV. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency and UV-Vis absorption measurement reveal that the enhanced absorption of the GQDs antennas is responsible for the improved Jsc in the whole UV-Visible region, while the RET/FRET and the synergistic effect contribute to the significant increase of Jsc in the UV region.

  9. Energy Efficient Multicast through Acknowledgment based TPC in Adhoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANGAVI.S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The existing energy-aware routing algorithms in ad hoc networks, select a path with a large number of small-distance hops. But such a formulation based solely on the energy spent in a single transmission is misleading —the proper scheme should include the total energy (including that expended for any retransmissions necessary spent in reliably delivering the packet to its final destination. Our main idea is to find a new routing scheme which is capable of including delay, energy, as well as link reliability factors to increase the operational lifetime of the network. The proposed analytical model successfully captures the key characteristic of a reliable power saving system: the data delivery procedure starts periodically at the previously negotiated time, but ends at a rather random time with its distribution depending on the end time of data delivery in the last delivery period as well as the arrival rate of incoming traffic

  10. Life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact assessment of bioethanol production from sweet potato based on different production modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Jia, Chunrong; Wu, Yi; Xia, Xunfeng; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun; Zhai, Youlong

    2017-01-01

    The bioethanol is playing an increasingly important role in renewable energy in China. Based on the theory of circular economy, integration of different resources by polygeneration is one of the solutions to improve energy efficiency and to reduce environmental impact. In this study, three modes of bioethanol production were selected to evaluate the life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact of sweet potato-based bioethanol. The results showed that, the net energy ratio was greater than 1 and the value of net energy gain was positive in the three production modes, in which the maximum value appeared in the circular economy mode (CEM). The environment emission mainly occurred to bioethanol conversion unit in the conventional production mode (CPM) and the cogeneration mode (CGM), and eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) were the most significant environmental impact category. While compared with CPM and CGM, the environmental impact of CEM significantly declined due to increasing recycling, and plant cultivation unit mainly contributed to EP and GWP. And the comprehensive evaluation score of environmental impact decreased by 73.46% and 23.36%. This study showed that CEM was effective in improving energy efficiency, especially in reducing the environmental impact, and it provides a new method for bioethanol production.

  11. Energy efficiency in refrigerated transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwen, R.J.M. van; Sluis, S.M. van der; Schiphouwer, H.

    1998-01-01

    In refrigerated road transport, 10 to 40 `)/0 of the total energy consumption is related to refrigeration. However, energy consumption and energy efficiency of refrigerated transport equipment is rarely mentioned in the discussions about energy saving, potentials in road transport. Two main approach

  12. Energy Efficiency and Emissions Intensity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, Harrison; Kaffine, Daniel; Steinberg, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the role of energy efficiency in rate-based emissions intensity standards, a particularly policy-relevant consideration given that the Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan allows crediting of electricity savings as a means of complying with state-specific emissions standards. We show that with perfectly inelastic energy services demand, crediting efficiency measures can recover the first-best allocation. However, when demand for energy services exhibits some elasticity, crediting energy efficiency can no longer recover first-best. While crediting removes the relative distortion between energy generation and energy efficiency, it distorts the absolute level of energy services. Building on these results, we derive the conditions determining the second-best intensity standard and crediting rule. Simulations calibrated to the electricity sector in Texas find that while some form of crediting is generally welfare-improving, the proposed one-for-one crediting of energy savings is unlikely to achieve efficient outcomes.

  13. Advanced energy efficient windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2007-01-01

    energy savings. In terms of energy, windows occupy a special position compared with other thermal envelope structures due to their many functions: 1) windows let daylight into the building and provide occupants with visual contact with their surroundings 2) windows protect against the outdoor climate 3......Windows should be paid special attention as they contribute a significant part of the total heat-loss coefficient of the building. Contrary to other parts of the thermal envelope the windows are not only heat loosers, but may gain heat in the day-time. Therefore there are possibilities for large......) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security...

  14. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren`t always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation.

  15. Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berst, Kara [Chickasaw Nation, Ada, OK (United States); Howeth, Maria [Chickasaw Nation, Ada, OK (United States)

    2013-02-26

    Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year's average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

  16. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL BASED THIN FILMS CZTS BY SCAPS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Mebarkiaa; D. Dib; H. Zerfaoui; R. Belghit

    2016-01-01

    In the overall context of the diversification of the use of natural resources, the use of renewable energy including solar photovoltaic has become increasingly indispensable. As such, the development of a new generation of photovoltaic cells based on CuZnSnS4 (CZTS) looks promising. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a new film absorber, with good physical properties (band gap energy 1.4-1.6 eV [01] with a large absorption coefficient over 104 cm-1). Indeed, the performance of these cells exceeded 30% in re...

  17. An Energy-Efficient Spectrum-Aware Reinforcement Learning-Based Clustering Algorithm for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Ibrahim; Mohd Ali, Borhanuddin; Rasid, Mohd Fadlee A; Sali, Aduwati; Mohamad, Hafizal

    2015-08-13

    It is well-known that clustering partitions network into logical groups of nodes in order to achieve energy efficiency and to enhance dynamic channel access in cognitive radio through cooperative sensing. While the topic of energy efficiency has been well investigated in conventional wireless sensor networks, the latter has not been extensively explored. In this paper, we propose a reinforcement learning-based spectrum-aware clustering algorithm that allows a member node to learn the energy and cooperative sensing costs for neighboring clusters to achieve an optimal solution. Each member node selects an optimal cluster that satisfies pairwise constraints, minimizes network energy consumption and enhances channel sensing performance through an exploration technique. We first model the network energy consumption and then determine the optimal number of clusters for the network. The problem of selecting an optimal cluster is formulated as a Markov Decision Process (MDP) in the algorithm and the obtained simulation results show convergence, learning and adaptability of the algorithm to dynamic environment towards achieving an optimal solution. Performance comparisons of our algorithm with the Groupwise Spectrum Aware (GWSA)-based algorithm in terms of Sum of Square Error (SSE), complexity, network energy consumption and probability of detection indicate improved performance from the proposed approach. The results further reveal that an energy savings of 9% and a significant Primary User (PU) detection improvement can be achieved with the proposed approach.

  18. Energy efficient wireless ATM design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Bos, M.

    1999-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important issue for mobile computers since they must rely on their batteries. We present an architecture for wireless ATM and a novel MAC protocol that achieves a good energy efficiency of the wireless interface of the mobile and provides QoS support for diverse traffic

  19. Energy efficient wireless ATM design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Bos, M.

    2000-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important issue for mobile computers since they must rely on their batteries. We present an energy-efficient highly adaptive architecture of a network interface and novel data link layer protocol for wireless networks that provides Quality of Service (QoS) support for diverse

  20. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  1. Energy Efficient Televisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Dorothea; Remmen, Arne

    The EuP Directive sets the frame for implementing ecodesign requirements for energy-using and energy-related products. The aim of the Directive is to achieve a high level of protection for the environment by reducing the potential environmental impact of energy-related products. The focus of this....... Furthermore, a comparative analysis of best available technology and conventional technologies implies that the standard for the environmental performance of TVs has been driven by technology push rather than a regulatory pull....... of this paper is on the Implementing Measures (IM) for televisions. The ambition level of the IM for televisions is investigated and it is argued that the IM have not succeeded in setting up sufficient ecodesign requirements, as only one life cycle phase and one environmental impact category is addressed...

  2. Energy efficient wireless sensor networks by using a fuzzy-based solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirrito, Salvatore; Nicolosi, Giuseppina

    2016-12-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks are characterized by a distributed architecture realized by a set of autonomous electronic devices able to sense data from the surrounding environment and to communicate among them. These devices are battery powered since they may be used even to monitor hazardous events in inaccessible areas. As a consequence, it is preferable to assure the adoption of energy management solutions in order to extend the WSN lifetime, as far as possible. Moreover, it is crucial to guarantee that the nodes receive the transmitted data correctly. It is clear that trading off power optimization and quality of service has become one the most important concerns when dealing with modern systems based on WSNs. This paper introduces a solution based on a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) focusing on the minimization of energy consumption of wireless sensor nodes. This is made possible because the sleeping time of these nodes is dynamically regulated by a FLC.

  3. A Multi-hop Energy-efficient Sleeping MAC Protocol based on TDMA Scheduling for Wireless Mesh Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Based on Wireless Mesh Network (WMN theory, according to the characteristics of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN clustering topology, WSN and WMN are combined to construct Wireless Mesh Sensor Network (WMSN topology. In order to improve the performance of energy-efficiency, throughput and delay in WMSN, this paper designs a Multi-hop TDMA Energy-efficient Sleeping MAC (MT-MAC protocol and gives the performance simulation with MATLAB. In MT-MAC, a TDMA frame was divided into a number of time slots for sensor nodes in WMSN to send or receive data packets. As the simulation result shows, compared with SMAC protocol, MT-MAC not only saves 25% energy consumption of the network, but also decreases 45% latency of the whole network.

  4. 76 FR 7815 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to hear....S. renewable energy and energy efficiency companies, to review subcommittee reports on...

  5. Energy planning and energy efficiency assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Electrotek is an engineering services company specializing in energy-related programs. Clients are most utilities, large energy users, and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute. Electrotek has directed energy projects for the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of Energy in Poland and other countries of Central Europe. The objective is to assist the host country organizations to identify and implement appropriate energy efficiency and pollution reduction technologies, to transfer technical and organizational knowledge, so that further implementations are market-driven, without needed continuing foreign investment. Electrotek has worked with the Silesian Power Distribution Company to design an energy efficiency program for industrial customers that has proven to be profitable for the company and for its customers. The program has both saved energy and costs, and reduced pollution. The program is expanding to include additional customers, without needing more funding from the U.S. government.

  6. A thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery for efficient harvesting of low-grade thermal energy as electrical power

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Thermal energy was shown to be efficiently converted into electrical power in a thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery (TRAB) using copper-based redox couples [Cu(NH3)4 2+/Cu and Cu(ii)/Cu]. Ammonia addition to the anolyte (2 M ammonia in a copper-nitrate electrolyte) of a single TRAB cell produced a maximum power density of 115 ± 1 W m-2 (based on projected area of a single copper mesh electrode), with an energy density of 453 W h m-3 (normalized to the total electrolyte volume, under maximum power production conditions). Adding a second cell doubled both the voltage and maximum power. Increasing the anolyte ammonia concentration to 3 M further improved the maximum power density to 136 ± 3 W m-2. Volatilization of ammonia from the spent anolyte by heating (simulating distillation), and re-addition of this ammonia to the spent catholyte chamber with subsequent operation of this chamber as the anode (to regenerate copper on the other electrode), produced a maximum power density of 60 ± 3 W m-2, with an average discharge energy efficiency of ∼29% (electrical energy captured versus chemical energy in the starting solutions). Power was restored to 126 ± 5 W m-2 through acid addition to the regenerated catholyte to decrease pH and dissolve Cu(OH)2 precipitates, suggesting that an inexpensive acid or a waste acid could be used to improve performance. These results demonstrated that TRABs using ammonia-based electrolytes and inexpensive copper electrodes can provide a practical method for efficient conversion of low-grade thermal energy into electricity.

  7. Data-based robust multiobjective optimization of interconnected processes: energy efficiency case study in papermaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Puya; Brown, Martin; Maciejowski, Jan; Wang, Hong

    2011-12-01

    Reducing energy consumption is a major challenge for "energy-intensive" industries such as papermaking. A commercially viable energy saving solution is to employ data-based optimization techniques to obtain a set of "optimized" operational settings that satisfy certain performance indices. The difficulties of this are: 1) the problems of this type are inherently multicriteria in the sense that improving one performance index might result in compromising the other important measures; 2) practical systems often exhibit unknown complex dynamics and several interconnections which make the modeling task difficult; and 3) as the models are acquired from the existing historical data, they are valid only locally and extrapolations incorporate risk of increasing process variability. To overcome these difficulties, this paper presents a new decision support system for robust multiobjective optimization of interconnected processes. The plant is first divided into serially connected units to model the process, product quality, energy consumption, and corresponding uncertainty measures. Then multiobjective gradient descent algorithm is used to solve the problem in line with user's preference information. Finally, the optimization results are visualized for analysis and decision making. In practice, if further iterations of the optimization algorithm are considered, validity of the local models must be checked prior to proceeding to further iterations. The method is implemented by a MATLAB-based interactive tool DataExplorer supporting a range of data analysis, modeling, and multiobjective optimization techniques. The proposed approach was tested in two U.K.-based commercial paper mills where the aim was reducing steam consumption and increasing productivity while maintaining the product quality by optimization of vacuum pressures in forming and press sections. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  8. Energy Efficiency in TDMA-Based Next-Generation Passive Optical Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Dhaini, Ahmad R.

    2014-06-01

    Next-generation passive optical network (PON) has been considered in the past few years as a cost-effective broadband access technology. With the ever-increasing power saving concern, energy efficiency has been an important issue in its operations. In this paper, we propose a novel sleep-time sizing and scheduling framework for the implementation of green bandwidth allocation (GBA) in TDMA-PONs. The proposed framework leverages the batch-mode transmission feature of GBA to minimize the overhead due to frequent ONU on-off transitions. The optimal sleeping time sequence of each ONU is determined in every cycle without violating the maximum delay requirement. With multiple ONUs possibly accessing the shared media simultaneously, a collision may occur. To address this problem, we propose a new sleep-time sizing mechanism, namely Sort-And-Shift (SAS), in which the ONUs are sorted according to their expected transmission start times, and their sleep times are shifted to resolve any possible collision while ensuring maximum energy saving. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed framework and highlight the merits of our solutions.

  9. Energy efficiency initiatives: Indian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Dipankar [ICFAI Business School, Kolkata, (IBS-K) (India)

    2007-07-01

    India, with a population of over 1.10 billion is one of the fastest growing economies of the world. As domestic sources of different conventional commercial energy are drying up, dependence on foreign energy sources is increasing. There exists a huge potential for saving energy in India. After the first 'oil shock' (1973), the government of India realized the need for conservation of energy and a 'Petroleum Conservation Action Group' was formed in 1976. Since then many initiatives aiming at energy conservation and improving energy efficiency, have been undertaken (the establishment of Petroleum Conservation Research Association in 1978; the notification of Eco labelling scheme in 1991; the formation of Bureau of Energy Efficiency in 2002). But no such initiative was successful. In this paper an attempt has been made to analyze the changing importance of energy conservation/efficiency measures which have been initiated in India between 1970 and 2005.The present study tries to analyze the limitations and the reasons of failure of those initiatives. The probable reasons are: fuel pricing mechanism (including subsidies), political factors, corruption and unethical practices, influence of oil and related industry lobbies - both internal and external, the economic situation and the prolonged protection of domestic industries. Further, as India is opening its economy, the study explores the opportunities that the globally competitive market would offer to improve the overall energy efficiency of the economy. The study suggests that the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) - the newly formed nodal agency for improving energy efficiency of the economy may be made an autonomous institution where intervention from the politicians would be very low. For proper implementation of different initiatives to improve energy efficiency, BEE should involve more the civil societies (NGO) from the inception to the implementation stage of the programs. The paper also

  10. Investigation of Control Model in a New Series Hybrid Hydraulic/Electric System for Heavy Vehicles Based on Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroosh Mahmoodi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An interesting model which was able to recuperate and reuse braking energy was investigated. It was named series hybrid hydraulic/electric system (SHHES. The innovated model was presented for heavy hybrid vehicles to overcome the existing drawbacks of single energy storage sources. The novelty of this paper was investigation of a new series hybrid vehicle with triple sources, combustion engine, electric motor, and hydraulic sources. It was simulated with MATLAB-Simulink and different operational mode of control system was investigated. The aim was to improve the efficiency of the energy-loading components in the power train system and the transmission system independently. The ability to store and reuse the kinetic energy was added to the system to prevent energy wasting while the vehicle was braking. Control models were also investigated to realize suitable control algorithms to offer the best efficiency in system components for different vehicle conditions. The torque control strategy based on fuzzy logic controller was proposed to achieve better vehicle performance while the fuel consumption was minimized. The results implied efficient storage and usage in the transmission system. A small vehicle model experimentally verified the simulation results.

  11. National report card on energy efficiency : 6. annual report card on government activities based on performance of provinces between January 1 2005 to December 31 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    The sixth annual report card issued by the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance was presented. The report highlighted the progress and inaction of the federal government and provinces to reduce energy demand and consumption in 2005. Grades were based on the performance of jurisdictions between January 1 2005 and December 31 2005. Scoring for each of the 14 Canadian jurisdictions was based on 12 parameters which included the jurisdiction's supporting activities in energy efficiency and public outreach; the existence of public-private partnerships to support energy efficiency; the existence and responsiveness to energy efficiency issues in key legislation; and regulation of the energy market. The report indicated that the federal government's high score reflected a strong commitment towards supporting energy efficiency across the country for 2005. Ontario has supported energy efficiency with major new funding for conservation and demand management (CDM) programs in the electricity sector. Alberta's support for energy efficiency activities was disappointing, particularly when seen in context with the province's high contribution to greenhouse gases (GHGs) in Canada. Manitoba demonstrated success in all energy efficiency initiatives, which was attributed to Manitoba Hydro's excellent job in promoting and supporting energy efficiency. It was concluded that while there is greater need for program reporting and evaluation strategies in several jurisdictions, most jurisdictions have energy efficiency programs in place, as well as support codes and standards. 1 tab.

  12. Study on the energy-efficient scheme based on the interconnection of optical-network-units for next generation optical access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yunxin; Jiang, Ning; Qiu, Kun; Xue, Chenpeng

    2014-12-01

    An energy-efficient scheme based on the interconnection of optical network unit (ONU) is introduced, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption of the low-traffic operation. The energy consumption model for the ONU-interconnected optical access network (OAN) based on the electronic switch (ES) technology is established, and the energy efficiency of the proposed scheme is analyzed and compared with that of the OAN using optical switch (OS). The simulation results demonstrate that the ONU-interconnected scheme can efficiently reduce the energy consumption of OAN, and it shows a good energy consumption performance under daily traffic model.

  13. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  14. FUZZY BASED CLUSTERING AND ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING FOR UNDERWATER WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihem Souiki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN is a particular kind of sensor networks which is characterized by using acoustic channels for communication. UWSN is challenged by great issues specially the energy supply of sensor node which can be wasted rapidly by several factors. The most proposed routing protocols for terrestrial sensor networks are not adequate for UWSN, thus new design of routing protocols must be adapted to this constrain. In this paper we propose two new clustering algorithms based on Fuzzy C-Means mechanisms. In the first proposition, the cluster head is elected initially based on the closeness to the center of the cluster, then the node having the higher residual energy elects itself as a cluster head. All non-cluster head nodes transmit sensed data to the cluster head. This latter performs data aggregation and transmits the data directly to the base station. The second algorithm uses the same principle in forming clusters and electing cluster heads but operates in multi-hop mode to forward data from cluster heads to the underwater sink (uw-sink. Furthermore the two proposed algorithms are tested for static and dynamic deployment. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms resulting in an extension of the network lifetime.

  15. Energy Efficient Housing for Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrollahi, Farshad; Wehage, Philipp; Shahriari, Effatolsadat; Tarkashvand, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Zugleich gedruckt erschienen im Universitätsverlag der Technischen Universität Berlin, 2013. - ISBN 978-3-7983-2528-9, ISSN 2193-6099 This volume introduces a cost-neutral method to reduce the energy demand of residential buildings in the climatic conditions of the Tehran region. "Architectural Energy Efficiency" describes how the energy demand of residential buildings can be lowered through a conscious and intelligent design. It indicates the high energy saving potential that can be achie...

  16. Energy Efficient Housing for Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrollahi, Farshad; Wehage, Philipp; Shahriari, Effatolsadat; Tarkashvand, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Zugleich gedruckt erschienen im Universitätsverlag der Technischen Universität Berlin, 2013. - ISBN 978-3-7983-2528-9, ISSN 2193-6099 This volume introduces a cost-neutral method to reduce the energy demand of residential buildings in the climatic conditions of the Tehran region. "Architectural Energy Efficiency" describes how the energy demand of residential buildings can be lowered through a conscious and intelligent design. It indicates the high energy saving potential that can be achie...

  17. Determination of Optimal Energy Efficient Separation Schemes based on Driving Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek-Pedersen, Erik; Gani, Rafiqul; Levaux, O.

    2000-01-01

    A new integrated approach for synthesis, design and operation of separation schemes is presented. This integrated approach is based on driving forces that promote the desired separation for different separation techniques. A set of algorithms needed by the integrated approach for sequencing...... and design of distillation columns and for generating hybrid separation schemes are presented. The main feature of these algorithms is that they provide a 'visual' solution that also appears to be near optimal in terms of energy consumption. Several illustrative examples highlighting the application...

  18. Energy Efficiency Governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to help EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish the most effective EE governance structures, given their specific country context. It also aims to provide readers with relevant and accessible information to support the development of comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. The International Energy Agency (IEA) conducted a global review of many elements of EE governance,including legal frameworks, institutional frameworks, funding mechanisms, co-ordination mechanisms and accountability arrangements, such as evaluation and oversight. The research tools included a survey of over 500 EE experts in 110 countries, follow-up interviews of over 120 experts in 27 countries and extensive desk study and literature searches on good EE governance.

  19. Energy Efficiency in Future PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reschat, Halfdan; Laustsen, Johannes Russell; Wessing, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    There is a still increasing tendency to give energy efficiency a high priority, even in already low energy demanding systems. This is also the case for Passive Optical Networks (PONs) for which many different methods for saving energy are proposed. This paper uses simulations to evaluate three...... proposed power saving solutions for PONs which use sleep mechanisms for saving power. The discovered advantages and disadvantages of these methods are then used as a basis for proposing a new solution combining different techniques in order to increase the energy efficiency further. This novel solution...

  20. Self-Adaptive and Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol Based on Event-Driven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with WSN MAC layer protocol characteristics and design requirements, according to the characteristic of WSN monitoring application requirements, this paper puts forward a method based on event driven MAC protocol. The agreement algorithm is to solve the problem of network congestion and node energy unnecessary consumption cause by a large number of redundant monitoring data transceiver. It is a kind of adaptive low power consumption of the MAC layer protocol, which is pointed out based on theoretical foundation of S_MAC protocol, made use of the event driven mechanism system theory, combined with event driven mechanism and the characteristics of the WSN. It has the periodic dormancy mechanism of S_MAC protocol, in the premise of the reliability data, to reduce data redundancy and communication delay time, improve the overall network throughput, to ensure the safety and reliability of the network, which can greatly extends  the node of working time.

  1. Artificial Neural Network Based Rotor Capacitive Reactance Control for Energy Efficient Wound Rotor Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Siva Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Rotor reactance control by inclusion of external capacitance in the rotor circuit has been in recent research for improving the performances of Wound Rotor Induction Motor (WRIM. The rotor capacitive reactance is adjusted such that for any desired load torque the efficiency of the WRIM is maximized. The rotor external capacitance can be controlled using a dynamic capacitor in which the duty ratio is varied for emulating the capacitance value. This study presents a novel technique for tracking maximum efficiency point in the entire operating range of WRIM using Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The data for ANN training were obtained on a three phase WRIM with dynamic capacitor control and rotor short circuit at different speed and load torque values. Approach: A novel neural network model based on the back-propagation algorithm has been developed and trained in determining the maximum efficiency of the motor with no prior knowledge of the machine parameters. The input variables to the ANN are stator current (Is, Speed (N and Torque (Tm and the output variable is the duty ratio (D. Results: The target is pre-set and the accuracy of the ANN model is measured using Mean Square Error (MSE and R2 parameters. The result of R2 value of the proposed ANN model is found to be 0.99980. Conclusion: The optimal duty ratio and corresponding optimal rotor capacitance for improving the performances of the motor are predicted for low, medium and full loads by using proposed ANN model.

  2. Robust triboelectric nanogenerator based on rolling electrification and electrostatic induction at an instantaneous energy conversion efficiency of ∼ 55%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Long; Xie, Yannan; Niu, Simiao; Wang, Sihong; Yang, Po-Kang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-01-27

    In comparison to in-pane sliding friction, rolling friction not only is likely to consume less mechanical energy but also presents high robustness with minimized wearing of materials. In this work, we introduce a highly efficient approach for harvesting mechanical energy based on rolling electrification and electrostatic induction, aiming at improving the energy conversion efficiency and device durability. The rolling triboelectric nanogenerator is composed of multiple steel rods sandwiched by two fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) thin films. The rolling motion of the steel rods between the FEP thin films introduces triboelectric charges on both surfaces and leads to the change of potential difference between each pair of electrodes on back of the FEP layer, which drives the electrons to flow in the external load. As power generators, each pair of output terminals works independently and delivers an open-circuit voltage of 425 V, and a short-circuit current density of 5 mA/m(2). The two output terminals can also be integrated to achieve an overall power density of up to 1.6 W/m(2). The impacts of variable structural factors were investigated for optimization of the output performance, and other prototypes based on rolling balls were developed to accommodate different types of mechanical energy sources. Owing to the low frictional coefficient of the rolling motion, an instantaneous energy conversion efficiency of up to 55% was demonstrated and the high durability of the device was confirmed. This work presents a substantial advancement of the triboelectric nanogenerators toward large-scope energy harvesting and self-powered systems.

  3. Increased energy efficiency of hobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the project is to save energy when cooking food on hobs. A great part of the total energy consumption used for cooking is consumed by hobs. The amount of energy depends on the temperature used for cooking and energy used for evaporation of liquid, focussing especially on the latter in this project. CHEC B is a method for controlling the supply of energy to the zone, so that a minimum of energy is used for reaching a set temperature of the food/liquid in the pot and maintaining this temperature. Today the efficiency of hobs is between 50 - 75%. Using CHEC B the energy efficiency is expected to be higher. (au)

  4. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, Bill

    1999-03-15

    On March 15, 1999, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory hosted a workshop focused on energy efficiency in Cleanroom facilities. The workshop was held as part of a multiyear effort sponsored by the California Institute for Energy Efficiency, and the California Energy Commission. It is part of a project that concentrates on improving energy efficiency in Laboratory type facilities including cleanrooms. The project targets the broad market of laboratory and cleanroom facilities, and thus cross-cuts many different industries and institutions. This workshop was intended to raise awareness by sharing case study success stories, providing a forum for industry networking on energy issues, contributing LBNL expertise in research to date, determining barriers to implementation and possible solutions, and soliciting input for further research.

  5. Microalgae based biorefinery: evaluation of oil extraction methods in terms of efficiency, costs, toxicity and energy in lab-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Darío González-Delgado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Several alternatives of microalgal metabolites extraction and transformation are being studied for achieving the total utilization of this energy crop of great interest worldwide. Microalgae oil extraction is a key stage in microalgal biodiesel production chains and their efficiency affects significantly the global process efficiency. In this study, a comparison of five oil extraction methods in lab-scale was made taking as additional parameters, besides extraction efficiency, the costs of method performing, energy requirements, and toxicity of solvents used, in order to elucidate the convenience of their incorporation to a microalgae-based topology of biorefinery. Methods analyzed were Solvent extraction assisted with high speed homogenization (SHE, Continuous reflux solvent extraction (CSE, Hexane based extraction (HBE, Cyclohexane based extraction (CBE and Ethanol-hexane extraction (EHE, for this evaluation were used the microalgae strains Nannochloropsis sp., Guinardia sp., Closterium sp., Amphiprora sp. and Navicula sp., obtained from a Colombian microalgae bioprospecting. In addition, morphological response of strains to oil extraction methods was also evaluated by optic microscopy. Results shows that although there is not a unique oil extraction method which excels in all parameters evaluated, CSE, SHE and HBE appears as promising alternatives, while HBE method is shown as the more convenient for using in lab-scale and potentially scalable for implementation in a microalgae based biorefinery

  6. Input/output Buffer based Vedic Multiplier Design for Thermal Aware Energy Efficient Digital Signal Processing on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kavita; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Multiplier is used for multiplication of a signal and a constant in digital signal processing (DSP). 28nm technology based Vedic multiplier is implemented with use of VHDL HDL, Xilinx ISE, Kintex-7 FPGA and XPower Analyzer. Vedic multiplier gain speed improvements by parallelizing the generation...... Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in order to reduce the development cost. The development cost for Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) are high in compare to FPGA. Selection of the most energy efficient IO standards in place of signal gating is the main design methodology for design of energy...... efficient Vedic multiplier.There is 68.51%, 69.86%, 74.65%, and 78.39% contraction in total power of Vedic multiplier on 28nm Kintex-7 FPGA, when we use HSTL_II in place of HSTL_II_DCI_18 at 56.7oC, 53.5oC, 40oC and 21oC respectively....

  7. Energy efficiency in Germany. Analysis based on the ODYSSEE database from the SAVE project 'Cross-country comparison on energy efficiency indicators'. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Mannsbart, W.; Schlomann, B.

    1998-03-01

    The most important change in the German data situation compared to the last national report in October 1995 was the adjustment of the national statistical system to the unified Germany including eastern Germany (in the following referred to as Germany). Therefore, the existing time series for western Germany (in the following referred to as ex-FRG) had not only to be updated, but German data had to be included in the ODYSSEE database, too. It is intended to improve in the future the quality of the data further and to extend the data through reasonable estimates as far as justified (improvement of the data for the ex-FRG up to 1994, completion and verification of the data for Germany in 1990/1991). It is clear that the re-unification (in combination with the change in 1995 of the national industrial energy consumption statistics to a classification which is compatible with the European NACE Rev. 1 classification) poses considerable difficulties for the Energy Efficiency Indicators (EEI) approach, in which longer time series improve the reliability of the results. The German reunification shows therefore the limitations of the approach which encounters difficulties in periods of rapid changes. It is, however, not a principle argument against the methodology. The difficulty stems rather from the fact that in periods of radical changes, statistical systems simply may break down for some time, and cannot be reconstructed afterwards. Fortunately, the German re-unification is exceptional within the European Union. However, in the case of the inclusion of Eastern European accession countries (PHARE countries) in the EEI approach, the same type of difficulties will occur, though to a lesser degree, because the changes were less radical, and because there was not a complete break in statistics. (orig.)

  8. Energy efficiency opportunities in Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the statistics in Egypt (2013, the number of hotels is 1193, about 407 of them have contracted power greater than 500 kW.Air conditioning, lighting, water heating and refrigeration represent the main activities demanding electrical energy in hotel business.The energy consumption per night spend changes a lot, depending on various factors; facilities provided, category of hotel, occupancy , geographical situation, weather conditions, nationality of clients, design and control of the installations.Energy benchmarking is an internal management tool designed to provide ongoing, reliable and verifiable tracking on the hotels performance. The most useful performance indicator (or Energy Efficiency Benchmarking of hotels are: Lighting Power Density (LPD in W (for lighting/m2, and energy intensity (kWh/m2/ y.There are multiple benefits for improving energy in hotel business; reduces the hotel's operating cost, reduces climate change risks and promotes green tourism.Energy efficiency opportunities are low-cost measures and cost- effective investments.   There are many energy saving opportunities for lighting in hotel's guest rooms as well as the more obvious savings in lobbies and exterior lighting areas. Behavior campaigns can yield substantial energy savings, both through the guests and housekeeper behavior. Encouraging housekeepers to use natural light during room cleaning is a simple first step to implement energy saving program.This paper presents the energy efficiency guidelines and energy benchmarking for hotels. Also a case study showing how the energy efficiency program implemented is presented. 

  9. Evaluation of soy based heavy fuel oil emulsifiers for energy efficiency and environmental improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, P.K.; Szuhaj, B.F. [Central Soya Company, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Diego, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    It is known that the emulsification of water into heavy fuel oil (No. 6) can result in improved atomization of the fuel in a combustion chamber, which results in several benefits. In this study, two soybean lecithin based emulsifiers were evaluated. The emulsifiers were added to the No. 6 fuel at 0.5% and 1 % levels and emulsions of 10% and 15% water were prepared and burned in a pilot scale combustion chamber. The results showed a significant decrease in NO{sub x} emissions, and a reduction in carbon particulates, as well as a decrease in the excess oxygen requirement when the emulsions were burned when compared to fuel oil alone and a fuel oil/water mixture without the emulsifier. It was concluded that the use of a soybean lecithin based emulsifier may be used to increase the burning efficiency of heavy fuel oils, reduce emissions and particulates, and reduce down time for cleaning. This can be very important in utility plants which burn large volumes of heavy fuel oil and are located near urban areas.

  10. Energy-efficient downlink resource management in self-organized OFDMA-based two-tier femtocell networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Adnan; Aslam, Saleem; Kim, Hyung Seok; Lee, Kyung-Geun

    2015-12-01

    Femtocell is a novel technology that is used for escalating indoor coverage as well as the capacity of traditional cellular networks. However, interference is the limiting factor for performance improvement due to co-channel deployment between macrocells and femtocells. The traditional network planning is not feasible because of the random deployment of femtocells. Therefore, self-organization approaches are the key to having successful deployment of femtocells. This study presents the joint resource block (RB) and power allocation task for the two-tier femtocell network in a self-organizing manner, with the concern to minimizing the impact of interference and maximizing the energy efficiency. In this study, we analyze the performance of the system in terms of the energy efficiency, which is composed of both the transmission and circuit power. Most of the previous studies investigate the performance regarding the throughput requirement of the two-tier femtocell network while the energy efficiency aspect is largely ignored. Here, the joint allocation task is modeled as a non-cooperative game which is demonstrated to exhibit pure and unique Nash equilibrium. In order to reduce the complexity of the proposed non-cooperative game, the joint RB and power allocation task is divided into two subproblems: an RB allocation and a particle swarm optimization-based power allocation. The analysis of the proposed game is carried out in terms of not only energy efficiency but also throughput. With practical 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long-Term Evolution (LTE) parameters, the simulation results illustrate the superior performance of the proposed game as compared to the traditional methods. Also, the comparison is carried out with the joint allocation scheme which only considers the throughput as the objective function. The results illustrate that significant performance improvement is achieved in terms of energy efficiency with slight loss in the throughput. The

  11. Mobilising Investment in Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Taxes, loans and grants, trading schemes and white certificates, public procurement and investment in R&D or infrastructure: known collectively as 'economic instruments', these tools can be powerful means of mobilising the finances needed to achieve policy goals by implementing energy efficiency measures. The role of economic instruments is to kick-start the private financial markets and to motivate private investors to fund EE measures. They should reinforce and promote energy performance regulations. This IEA analysis addresses the fact that, to date, relatively little effort has been directed toward evaluating how well economic instruments work. Using the buildings sector to illustrate how such measures can support energy efficiency, this paper can help policy makers better select and design economic instruments appropriate to their policy objectives and national contexts. This report’s three main aims are to: 1) Examine how economic instruments are currently used in energy efficiency policy; 2) Consider how economic instruments can be more effective and efficient in supporting low-energy buildings; and 3) Assess how economic instruments should be funded, where public outlay is needed. Detailed case studies in this report assess examples of economic instruments for energy efficiency in the buildings sector in Canada (grants), France (tax relief and loans), Germany (loans and grants), Ireland (grants) and Italy (white certificates and tax relief).

  12. Green corridor : energy efficiency initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, M.; Strickland, R.; Harding, N. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation discussed environmental sustainability using alternative energy technologies. It discussed Ecohouse, which is a house designed using conventional and inventive products and techniques to represent an eco-efficient model for living, a more sustainable house, demonstrating sustainable technologies in action and setting a new standard for resource efficiency in Windsor. The presentation provided a building analysis and discussed the following: geothermal heating; distributive power; green roof; net metering; grey water plumbing; solar water heating; passive lighting; energy efficient lighting and geothermal heating and cooling. It also discussed opportunities for innovation, namely: greenhouse; composting toilets; alternative insulation; net metering; solar arrays; hydroponics; and expansion of the house. Also discussed were a nature bridge, an underwater electric kite, and a vertically aerodynamic turbine. The benefits of renewable energy, small hydro power potential, and instream energy generation technology were presented. 9 refs., figs.

  13. Analysis of DC/DC Converter Efficiency for Energy Storage System Based on Bidirectional Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are fluctuating depending on the availability of the energy source. For this reason, energy storage is becoming more important and bidirectional fuel cells represent an attractive technology. Fuel cells require highcurrent low-voltage dc-dc or dc-ac converters as power...

  14. Hybrid Energy Storage System Based on Compressed Air and Super-Capacitors with Maximum Efficiency Point Tracking (MEPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemofouet, Sylvain; Rufer, Alfred

    This paper presents a hybrid energy storage system mainly based on Compressed Air, where the storage and withdrawal of energy are done within maximum efficiency conditions. As these maximum efficiency conditions impose the level of converted power, an intermittent time-modulated operation mode is applied to the thermodynamic converter to obtain a variable converted power. A smoothly variable output power is achieved with the help of a supercapacitive auxiliary storage device used as a filter. The paper describes the concept of the system, the power-electronic interfaces and especially the Maximum Efficiency Point Tracking (MEPT) algorithm and the strategy used to vary the output power. In addition, the paper introduces more efficient hybrid storage systems where the volumetric air machine is replaced by an oil-hydraulics and pneumatics converter, used under isothermal conditions. Practical results are also presented, recorded from a low-power air motor coupled to a small DC generator, as well as from a first prototype of the hydro-pneumatic system. Some economical considerations are also made, through a comparative cost evaluation of the presented hydro-pneumatic systems and a lead acid batteries system, in the context of a stand alone photovoltaic home application. This evaluation confirms the cost effectiveness of the presented hybrid storage systems.

  15. Design and Implementation of Energy Efficiency in HVAC Systems Based on Robust PID Control for Industrial Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Muharrem Imal

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency in heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is a primary concern in process projects, since the energy consumption has the highest percentage in HVAC for all processes. Without sacrifice of thermal comfort, to reset the suitable operating parameters, such as the humidity and air temperature, would have energy saving with immediate effect. In this paper, the simulation-optimization approach described the effective energy efficiency for HVAC systems which are ...

  16. Development of a strategy for energy efficiency improvement in a Kraft process based on systems interactions analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Espejel, Enrique

    The objective of this thesis is to develop, validate, and apply a unified methodology for the energy efficiency improvement of a Kraft process that addresses globally the interactions of the various process systems that affect its energy performance. An implementation strategy is the final result. An operating Kraft pulping mill situated in Eastern Canada with a production of 700 adt/d of high-grade bleached pulp was the case study. The Pulp and Paper industry is Canada's premier industry. It is characterized by large thermal energy and water consumption. Rising energy costs and more stringent environmental regulations have led the industry to refocus its efforts toward identifying ways to improve energy and water conservation. Energy and water aspects are usually analyzed independently, but in reality they are strongly interconnected. Therefore, there is a need for an integrated methodology, which considers energy and water aspects, as well as the optimal utilization and production of the utilities. The methodology consists of four successive stages. The first stage is the base case definition. The development of a focused, reliable and representative model of an operating process is a prerequisite to the optimization and fine tuning of its energy performance. A four-pronged procedure has been developed: data gathering, master diagram, utilities systems analysis, and simulation. The computer simulation has been focused on the energy and water systems. The second stage corresponds to the benchmarking analysis. The benchmarking of the base case has the objectives of identifying the process inefficiencies and to establish guidelines for the development of effective enhancement measures. The studied process is evaluated by a comparison of its efficiency to the current practice of the industry and by the application of new energy and exergy content indicators. The minimum energy and water requirements of the process are also determined in this step. The third stage is

  17. Energy Efficient Cluster-Based Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abdullah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are network type where sensors are used to collect physical measurements. It has many application areas such as healthcare, weather monitoring and even military applications. Security in this kind of networks is a big concern especially in the applications that required confidentiality and privacy. Therefore, providing a WSN with an intrusion detection system is essential to protect its security from different types of intrusions, cyber-attacks and random faults. Clustering has proven its efficiency in prolong the node as well as the whole WSN lifetime. In this paper we have designed an Intrusion Detection (ID system based on Stable Election Protocol (SEP for clustered heterogeneous WSNs. The benefit of using SEP is that it is a heterogeneous-aware protocol to prolong the time interval before the death of the first node. KDD Cup’99 data set is used as the training data and test data. After normalizing our dataset, we trained the system to detect four types of attacks which are Probe, Dos, U2R and R2L, using 18 features out of the 42 features available in KDD Cup'99 dataset. The research used the K-nearest neighbour (KNN classifier for anomaly detection. The experiments determine K = 5 for best classification and this reveals recognition rate of attacks as 75%. Results are compared with KNN classifier for anomaly detection without using a clustering algorithm.

  18. Energy Crop-Based Biogas as Vehicle Fuel—The Impact of Crop Selection on Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Börjesson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of biogas from six agricultural crops was analysed regarding energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG performance for vehicle fuel from a field-to-tank perspective, with focus on critical parameters and on calculation methods. The energy efficiency varied from 35% to 44%, expressed as primary energy input per energy unit vehicle gas produced. The GHG reduction varied from 70% to 120%, compared with fossil liquid fuels, when the GHG credit of the digestate produced was included through system expansion according to the calculation methodology in the ISO 14044 standard of life cycle assessment. Ley crop-based biogas systems led to the highest GHG reduction, due to the significant soil carbon accumulation, followed by maize, wheat, hemp, triticale and sugar beet. Critical parameters are biogenic nitrous oxide emissions from crop cultivation, for which specific emission factors for digestate are missing today, and methane leakage from biogas production. The GHG benefits were reduced and the interrelation between the crops changed, when the GHG calculations were instead based on the methodology stated in the EU Renewable Energy Directive, where crop contribution to soil carbon accumulation is disregarded. All systems could still reach a 60% GHG reduction, due to the improved agricultural management when digestate replaces mineral fertilisers.

  19. Design of energy-efficient MRF-based clutches with defined fail-safe behavior for integration in hybrid powertrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbis, Vadim; Hegger, Christian; Güth, Dirk; Maas, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Drag losses in the powertrain are a serious deficiency for any energy-efficient application, especially for hybrid electrical vehicles. A promising approach for fulfilling requirements like efficiency, wear, safety and dynamics is the use of an innovative MRF-based clutch design for the transmission of power that is based on magnetorheological fluids (MRF). MRF are smart fluids with the particular characteristics of changing their apparent viscosity significantly under influence of the magnetic field. Their characteristics are fast switching times and a smooth torque control in the powertrain. In this paper, a novel clutch concept is investigated that facilitates the controlled movement of the MRF from an active torque-transmitting region into an inactive region of the shear gap. This concept enables a complete disengagement of the fluid engaging surfaces in a way that viscous drag torque can be eliminated. Therefore, a simulation based design for such MRF-based clutches is used to design the required magnetic excitation systems for enabling a well-defined safety behavior by the fluid control. Based on this approach, an MRF-based clutch is developed in detail which provides a loss-reduced alternative to conventional disengagement devices in the powertrain. The presented MRF-based clutch enables a investigation of different systems in one design by changing the magnetic excitation. Especially, different possibilities for the fail-safe behavior of the MRF-based clutch are considered to ensure a well-defined condition in electrical or hybrid powertrains in case of a system failure.

  20. Energy-efficient ZigBee-based wireless sensor network for track bicycle performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharghan, Sadik K; Nordin, Rosdiadee; Ismail, Mahamod

    2014-08-22

    In a wireless sensor network (WSN), saving power is a vital requirement. In this paper, a simple point-to-point bike WSN was considered. The data of bike parameters, speed and cadence, were monitored and transmitted via a wireless communication based on the ZigBee protocol. Since the bike parameters are monitored and transmitted on every bike wheel rotation, this means the sensor node does not sleep for a long time, causing power consumption to rise. Therefore, a newly proposed algorithm, known as the Redundancy and Converged Data (RCD) algorithm, was implemented for this application to put the sensor node into sleep mode while maintaining the performance measurements. This is achieved by minimizing the data packets transmitted as much as possible and fusing the data of speed and cadence by utilizing the correlation measurements between them to minimize the number of sensor nodes in the network to one node, which results in reduced power consumption, cost, and size, in addition to simpler hardware implementation. Execution of the proposed RCD algorithm shows that this approach can reduce the current consumption to 1.69 mA, and save 95% of the sensor node energy. Also, the comparison results with different wireless standard technologies demonstrate minimal current consumption in the sensor node.

  1. Energy-Efficient ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Network for Track Bicycle Performance Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik K. Gharghan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a wireless sensor network (WSN, saving power is a vital requirement. In this paper, a simple point-to-point bike WSN was considered. The data of bike parameters, speed and cadence, were monitored and transmitted via a wireless communication based on the ZigBee protocol. Since the bike parameters are monitored and transmitted on every bike wheel rotation, this means the sensor node does not sleep for a long time, causing power consumption to rise. Therefore, a newly proposed algorithm, known as the Redundancy and Converged Data (RCD algorithm, was implemented for this application to put the sensor node into sleep mode while maintaining the performance measurements. This is achieved by minimizing the data packets transmitted as much as possible and fusing the data of speed and cadence by utilizing the correlation measurements between them to minimize the number of sensor nodes in the network to one node, which results in reduced power consumption, cost, and size, in addition to simpler hardware implementation. Execution of the proposed RCD algorithm shows that this approach can reduce the current consumption to 1.69 mA, and save 95% of the sensor node energy. Also, the comparison results with different wireless standard technologies demonstrate minimal current consumption in the sensor node.

  2. Energy Efficiency Gain of Cellular Base Stations with Large-Scale Antenna Systems for Green Information and Communication Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Moo Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ever-increasing data demand of end users, the number of information and communication technology (ICT-related devices and equipment continues to increase. This induces large amounts of heat emissions, which can cause serious environmental pollution. In recent times, signal transmission systems such as cellular base stations (BSs have been constructed everywhere and these emit a large carbon footprint. Large-scale antenna systems (LSASs that use a large amount of transmission antennas to serve a limited number of users can increase energy efficiency (EE of BSs based on the beamforming effect, and thus can be a promising candidate to reduce the carbon footprint of the ICT field. In this paper, we discuss the necessary schemes to realize LSASs and show the expected EE gain of the LSAS with enough practicality. There are many obstacles to realize the high EE LSAS, and even though several studies have shown separate schemes to increase the EE and/or throughput (TP of LSASs, few have shown combinations of schemes, and presented how much EE gain can be achieved by the schemes in the overall system. Based on the analysis in this paper, we believe more detailed work for the realization of high energy efficient BSs with LSASs is possible because this paper shows the necessary schemes and the maximum achievable energy efficiency gain as a reference. Extensive analysis and simulation results show that with proper implementation of the power amplifier/RF module and a robust channel estimation scheme, LSASs with 600 transmitter (TX antennas can achieve 99.4 times more EE gain compared to the current systems, thereby resulting in significant reduction of carbon footprints.

  3. Energy efficient drivepower: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ula, Sadrul; Birnbaum, Larry E.; Jordan, Don

    Energy efficiency is a major concern to industry for a variety of reasons. Operating expenses and public relations are just two of these. While a lot of effort has been expended in the area of electrical energy efficiency, the area of concern in the report, most papers use a limited approach when examining the opportunities for efficiency improvement. However, use of a systems approach--examining the entire power train system from when electrical power first enters a facility to the final output is presented. This type of approach to electrical energy efficiency can improve the overall efficiency by a significant amount. There are many methods of driving mechanical loads such as waste steam (steam turbine), centralized hydraulic systems, and compressed air. Only electric-drive systems were analyzed. Depending on the application and facilities, these other methods may be a viable alternative to electric drivepower systems. The document assumes that the reader has an understanding of the basic concepts, practices, and terminology used in electrical and mechanical engineering. The reader should be familiar with terms such as voltage, current, dc power, ac power, power factor, horse power, torque, angular velocity, kilowatt-hours, efficiency, harmonics, and gear ratio.

  4. An energy efficient platform for mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sonali; Tiwari, Ritu; Shukla, Anupam

    2012-11-01

    Exploration of an unknown environment by autonomous mobile robot is a fundamental concern in mobile robotics. Today most of the mobile robots are powered by batteries so their energy and operation times are limited. Therefore, how to minimize energy consumption and obstacle avoidance becomes an important problem. Frontier-based method is known to be most efficient for robot exploration system. In this paper, we propose a novel energy efficient platform based on the notion of frontiers for mobile robot. The robot selects the next frontier to visit based on the robot's current direction and relative location of frontier cells. Our frontier selection method can reduce duplicate coverage and thus save energy and reduce the distance also. Distance to frontier are computed using energy efficient A* algorithm. We estimate the energy consumption and choose the most energy-efficient route to move to that frontier considering energy of stop and turnings. We tested the algorithm on various types of environment maps. The experiments were conducted assuming equal velocity for the robot during whole exploration. All paths generated were optimal in terms of energy consumption and turns. The robot was easily able to escape a variety of obstacles and reach the goal in an optimal manner.

  5. Energy efficiency standards and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Van Buskirk et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 114010) demonstrate that the purchase price, lifecycle cost and price of improving efficiency (i.e. the incremental price of efficiency gain) decline at an accelerated rate following the adoption of the first energy efficiency standards for five consumer products. The authors show these trends using an experience curve framework (i.e. price/cost versus cumulative production). While the paper does not draw a causal link between standards and declining prices, they provide suggestive evidence using markets in the US and Europe. Below, I discuss the potential implications of the work.

  6. Effects of fishing effort allocation scenarios on energy efficiency and profitability: an individual-based model applied to Danish fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard

    2010-01-01

    engine specifications, and fish and fuel prices. The outcomes of scenarios A and B indicate a trade-off between fuel savings and energy efficiency improvements when effort is displaced closer to the harbour compared to reductions in total landing amounts and profit. Scenario C indicates that historic...... efficiency (quantity of fish caught per litre of fuel used), and profitability are factors that we simulated in developing a spatially explicit individual-based model (IBM) for fishing vessel movements. The observed spatial and seasonal patterns of fishing effort for each fishing activity are evaluated...... to the harbour, and (C) allocating effort towards optimising the expected area-specific profit per trip. The model is informed by data from each Danish fishing vessel >15 m after coupling its high resolution spatial and temporal effort data (VMS) with data from logbook landing declarations, sales slips, vessel...

  7. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological ...... of renewable energy and especially wind power will increase the rate of efficiency improvement. A technologically based model in this case indirectly makes the energy efficiency endogenous in the aggregate energy-economy model.......This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological...... development are one of the main causes for the very diverging results which have been obtained using bottom-up and top-down models for analysing the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation. One of the objectives for studies comparing model results have been to create comparable model assumptions regarding...

  8. A PSFI-based analysis on the energy efficiency potential of China’s domestic passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Ren, Huanhuan; Zhao, Dongchang

    2017-01-01

    In this article, China’s domestic passenger vehicles (excluding new energy vehicles) are categorized into two groups: local brand vehicles and vehicles manufactured by joint ventures. Performance-Size-Fuel economy Index (PSFI) will be applied to analyse the speed of technical progress and the future trends of these vehicles. In addition, a forecast on energy efficiency potential of domestic passenger vehicles from 2016 to 2020 will be made based on different Emphasis on Reducing Fuel Consumption (ERFC) scenarios. According to the study, if the process of technical progress continues at its current speed, domestic ICE passenger vehicles will hardly meet Phase IV requirements by 2020 even though companies contribute as much technical progress to fuel consumption reduction as possible.

  9. Science-based design of stable quantum dots for energy-efficient lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rohwer, Lauren E. S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Swol, Frank B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zhou, Xiaowang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lu, Ping [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    II-VI quantum dots, such as CdSe and CdTe, are attractive as downconversion materials for solid-state lighting, because of their narrow linewidth, tunable emission. However, for these materials to have acceptable quantum yields (QYs) requires that they be coated with a II-VI shell material whose valence band offset serves to confine the hole to the core. Confinement prevents the hole from accessing surface traps that lead to nonradiative decay of the exciton. Examples of such hole-confined core/shell QDs include CdTe/CdSe and CdSe/CdS. Unfortunately, the shell can also cause problems due to lattice mismatch, which ranges from 4-6% for systems of interest. This lattice mismatch can create significant interface energies at the heterojunction and places the core under radial compression and the shell under tangential tension. At elevated temperatures (~240°C) interfacial diffusion can relax these stresses, as can surface reconstruction, which can expose the core, creating hole traps. But such high temperatures favor the hexagonal Wurtzite structure, which has lower QY than the cubic zinc blende structure, which can be synthesized at lower temperatures, ~140°C. In the absence of alloying the core/shell structure can become metastable, or even unstable, if the shell is too thick. This can cause result in an irregular shell or even island growth. But if the shell is too thin thermallyactivated transport of the hole to surface traps can occur. In our LDRD we have developed a fundamental atomistic modeling capability, based on Stillinger-Weber and Bond-Order potentials we developed for the entire II-VI class. These pseudo-potentials have enabled us to conduct large-scale atomistic simulations that have led to the computation of phase diagrams of II-VI QDs. These phase diagrams demonstrate that at elevated temperatures the zinc blende phase of CdTe with CdSe grown on it epitaxially becomes thermodynamically unstable due to alloying. This is accompanied by a loss of hole

  10. An Energy Efficient Adaptive Wireless Link for Farms based on IoT technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaszczyk, Tomasz; Lynggaard, P.

    2015-01-01

    There is a huge demand for automation infrastructures that increase the efficiency and the commercial potential for the agricultural sector. One approach to achieve these objectives is deploying Internet of Things including its embedded wireless sensor network platform. However, deploying wireles...

  11. An Energy Efficient Adaptive Wireless Link for Farms based on IoT technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaszczyk, tomasz; Lynggaard, Per

    2016-01-01

    There is a huge demand for automation infrastructures that increase the efficiency and the commercial potential for the agricultural sector. One approach to achieve these objectives is deploying Internet of Things including its embedded wireless sensor network platform. However, deploying wireles...

  12. Energy-Efficient Wireless Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, L.T.; Smit, Lodewijk Theodoor

    2003-01-01

    This thesis provides a general framework to build an energy-efficient wireless link. The central idea is to determine the exact amount of effort that is necessary to obtain the required quality given a current wireless medium. So the key is to be effective, only doing the work that is really

  13. Efficient, LON-based energy information management system; Effektives Energie-Informations-Management-System auf LON-Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althaus, A.; Kalla, H. [Weidmueller GmbH, Paderborn (Germany)

    1999-08-01

    In these days of globalisation and increasing competition, intelligent concepts have become indispensable. The decentralized energy information management system offered by Weidmueller stores consumption data in a database that makes consumption transparent both to the utility and its customers. [Deutsch] Die Maerkte werden globaler, der Wettbewerb immer haerter. Wer hier als Energielieferant `im Rennen` bleiben will, muss intelligente, zukunftsweisende Konzepte zusammen mit seinen Kunden erarbeiten. Das dezentrale Energie-Informations-Management-System von Weidmueller erfasst dazu die Verbrauchsdaten, die wiederum die Datenbasis mit entsprechender Verbrauchstransparenz sowohl fuer den Energieversorger als auch fuer den Kunden bilden. (orig.)

  14. Implementation of Energy Efficiency Based on Time Scheduling to Improve Network Lifetime in Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subono .

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ZigBee applications of IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Network (WSN with Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LR-WPAN can be integrated with e-health technology Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN. WBAN are small size and can communicate quickly making it easier for people to obtain information accurately.WBAN has a variety of functions that can help human life. It can be used in the e-health, military and sports. WBAN has the potential to be the future of wireless communication solutions. WBAN use battery as its primary power source. WBAN has limited energy and must be able to save energy consumption in order to operate for a long time. In this study, we propose a method of time scheduling called cycle sleep period (CSP as WBAN solutions to save energy and improve energy efficiency. The CSP method is implemented in the real hardware testbed using sensor e-health includes temperature body and current sensor. We compared the performance of CSP method with duty cycle management (DCM time scheduling-based and without using time scheduling.From the measurement results, our proposed idea has decreasingenergy consumption. Keywords: WSN, LR-WPAN, WBAN, e-health, Time Scheduling

  15. Energy-efficient STDP-based learning circuits with memristor synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinyu; Saxena, Vishal; Campbell, Kristy A.

    2014-05-01

    It is now accepted that the traditional von Neumann architecture, with processor and memory separation, is ill suited to process parallel data streams which a mammalian brain can efficiently handle. Moreover, researchers now envision computing architectures which enable cognitive processing of massive amounts of data by identifying spatio-temporal relationships in real-time and solving complex pattern recognition problems. Memristor cross-point arrays, integrated with standard CMOS technology, are expected to result in massively parallel and low-power Neuromorphic computing architectures. Recently, significant progress has been made in spiking neural networks (SNN) which emulate data processing in the cortical brain. These architectures comprise of a dense network of neurons and the synapses formed between the axons and dendrites. Further, unsupervised or supervised competitive learning schemes are being investigated for global training of the network. In contrast to a software implementation, hardware realization of these networks requires massive circuit overhead for addressing and individually updating network weights. Instead, we employ bio-inspired learning rules such as the spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) to efficiently update the network weights locally. To realize SNNs on a chip, we propose to use densely integrating mixed-signal integrate-andfire neurons (IFNs) and cross-point arrays of memristors in back-end-of-the-line (BEOL) of CMOS chips. Novel IFN circuits have been designed to drive memristive synapses in parallel while maintaining overall power efficiency (<1 pJ/spike/synapse), even at spike rate greater than 10 MHz. We present circuit design details and simulation results of the IFN with memristor synapses, its response to incoming spike trains and STDP learning characterization.

  16. COST-EFFICIENT RESIDENTIAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT SCHEME FOR INFORMATION-CENTRIC NETWORKING BASED HOME NETWORK IN SMART GRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keping Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Home network (HOMENET performs multiple important functions such as energy management, multimedia sharing, lighting and climate control in smart grid (SG. In HOMENET there are numerous challenges among which mobility and security are the basic requirements that need to be addressed with priority. The information-centric networking (ICN is regarded as the future Internet that subscribes data in a content-centric manner irrespective of its location. Furthermore, it has pecial merit in mobility and security since ICN supports in-network caching and self-contained security, these make ICN a potential solution for home communication fabric. This paper aims to apply the ICN approach on HOMENET system, which we called ICN-HOMENET. Then, a proof-of-concept evaluation is employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed ICN-HOMENET approach in data security, device mobility and efficient content distribution for developing HOMENET system in SG. In addition, we proposed a cost-efficient residential energy management (REM scheme called ICN-REM scheme for ICN-HOMENET system which encourages consumers to shift the start time of appliances from peak hours to off-peak hours to reduce the energy bills. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to propose an ICN-based REM scheme for HOMENET system. In this proposal, we not only consider the conflicting requests from appliances and domestic power generation, but also think the energy management unit (EMU should cooperate with measurement sensors to control some specific appliances in some specific conditions. Moreover, the corresponding performance evaluation validates its correctness and effectiveness.

  17. 77 FR 64112 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Categorical Waivers of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE... CONTACT: Christine Platt-Patrick, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), (202)...

  18. Potential for energy efficiency in the Norwegian land-based industry; Potensial for energieffektivisering i norsk landbasert industri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Process Industry Association (PIL, now the Federation of Norwegian Industries) conducted in collaboration with Enova SF, Kjelforeningen - Norwegian Energy and Institute for Energy Technology, in 2002 a study to determine the potential for more environmentally efficient energy use and production in the Norwegian process industry. It was in 2007 conducted a review of the 2002-study, and this work showed that large parts of the potential identified in 2002 were not realized, and that in addition there was further potential. Enova therefore took the initiative in 2009 to do a new review of the potential for energy efficiency in the Norwegian industry. (AG)

  19. Analysis of Total Factor Efficiency of Water Resource and Energy in China: A Study Based on DEA-SBM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixin Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the serious issues that China faces during its fast economic development is the low input–output efficiency of water and energy resources and growing water pollution. With the current economic development model of China, economic growth still requires large input of water resource and energy resource. This paper has focused on the total factor efficiency of water resource and energy resource by each province in China. We treat the undesirable outputs as outputs in the DEA-SBM Model instead of as inputs in previous studies, and design a new MATLAB programming to achieve optimization solutions of multi-variable constrained nonlinear functions to evaluate the Total Factor Efficiency of Water resource (TFEW and the Total Factor Efficiency of Energy (TFEE in China accurately. By using the method, this paper has analyzed the TFEW and TFEE in China from 2003 to 2014 by economic zones and typical provinces and provided corresponding policy recommendations.

  20. Scaled Free-Energy Based Reinforcement Learning for Robust and Efficient Learning in High-Dimensional State Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eElfwing

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Free-energy based reinforcement learning was proposed for learning in high-dimensional state- and action spaces, which cannot be handled by standard function approximation methods. In this study, we propose a scaled version of free-energy based reinforcement learning to achieve more robust and more efficient learning performance. The action-value function is approximated by the negative free energy of a restricted Boltzmann machine, divided by a constant scaling factor that is related to the size of the Boltzmann machine (the square root of the number of state nodes in this study. Our first task is a digit floor gridworld task, where the states are represented by images of handwritten digits from the MNIST data set. The purpose of the task is to investigate the proposed method's ability, through the extraction of task-relevant features in the hidden layer, to cluster images of the same digitand to cluster images of different digits that corresponds to states with the same optimal action. We also test the method's robustness with respect to different exploration schedules, i.e., different settings of the initial temperature and the temperature discount rate in softmax action selection. Our second task is a robot visual navigation task, where the robot can learn its position by the different colors of the lower part of four landmarks and it can infer the correct corner goal area by the color of the upper part of the landmarks. The state space consists of binarized camera images with, at most, nine different colors, which is equal to 6642 binary states. For both tasks, the learning performance is compared with standard free-energy based reinforcement learning and with function approximation where the action-value function is approximated by a two-layered feedforward neural network.

  1. Revisiting Morrison and Osterle 1965: the efficiency of membrane-based electrokinetic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, J.; Hamelers, H. V. M.; Bentien, A.; Biesheuvel, P. M.

    2016-08-01

    We revisit Morrison and Osterle (1965) who derived a phenomenological expression for the ‘figure-of-merit’ {β\\text{EK}} of the electrokinetic energy conversion (EKEC) of a pressure difference into electric energy (and vice versa) using charged nanotubes, nanopores or ion-exchange membranes. We show the equivalence with Morrison and Osterle of a novel expression of {β\\text{EK}} derived by Bentien et al (2013). We analyze two physical models for ionic and solvent flow which directly relate {β\\text{EK}} to nanopore characteristics such as pore size and wall charge density. For the uniform potential model, we derive an analytical expression as a function of pore size, viscosity, ion diffusion coefficients and membrane charge density, and compare results with the full space-charge model by Osterle and co-workers as a function of pore size and ion diffusion coefficient. We present a novel expression for {β\\text{EK}} for salt solutions with ions with unequal diffusion coefficients (mobilities) and show that to increase {β\\text{EK}} the counterion mobility must be low and the coion mobility high.

  2. Energy conservation and energy efficiency; Energiebesparing en energie-efficientie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossevoort, H.

    2013-07-15

    The author discusses the important role of the concepts of energy conservation and energy efficiency in the design and construction of buildings [Dutch] De auteur bespreekt hoe belangrijk de rol is van de begrippen energiebesparing en energie efficientie bij het ontwerpen en bouwen van gebouwen.

  3. Energy efficient TDMA-based MAC protocol associated with GAF for wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Xiao; ZHENG Bao-yu; YAN Zhen-ya; CHEN Chao

    2007-01-01

    The design of media access control (MAC) protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with the idea of cross layer attracts more and more attention. People can improve the MAC protocol by obtaining certain information regarding the network layer and physical layer. This article synthesizes and optimizes certain cross-layer protocols which have existed. On the basis of the routing, topology information in the network layer, and transmission power information in the physical layer, the time slot assignment algorithm has been improved in the MAC layer.By using geographical adaptive fidelity algorithm (GAF) to divide the grids, controlling of transmission power and scheduling the work/sleep duty cycle for sensor nodes, a new MAC protocol has been proposed to decrease energy consumption and enlarge the lifetime of WSNs. Simulation results show that the MAC protocol functions well.

  4. Microalgae based biorefinery: evaluation of oil extraction methods in terms of efficiency, costs, toxicity and energy in lab-scale

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Darío González-Delgado; Viatcheslav Kafarov

    2013-01-01

    Several alternatives of microalgal metabolites extraction and transformation are being studied for achieving the total utilization of this energy crop of great interest worldwide. Microalgae oil extraction is a key stage in microalgal biodiesel production chains and their efficiency affects significantly the global process efficiency. In this study, a comparison of five oil extraction methods in lab-scale was made taking as additional parameters, besides extraction efficiency, the costs of me...

  5. Energy efficiency in membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillon, B; Martin Ruel, S; Langlais, C; Lazarova, V

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption remains the key factor for the optimisation of the performance of membrane bioreactors (MBRs). This paper presents the results of the detailed energy audits of six full-scale MBRs operated by Suez Environnement in France, Spain and the USA based on on-site energy measurement and analysis of plant operation parameters and treatment performance. Specific energy consumption is compared for two different MBR configurations (flat sheet and hollow fibre membranes) and for plants with different design, loads and operation parameters. The aim of this project was to understand how the energy is consumed in MBR facilities and under which operating conditions, in order to finally provide guidelines and recommended practices for optimisation of MBR operation and design to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts.

  6. Role of Appraisals in Energy Efficiency Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, V.; Bhargava, A.

    2012-05-01

    This research identifies barriers and challenges and current industry status including several key appraisal industry developments for identifying and valuing energy efficiency, critical obstacles to documenting and assessing the potential added value from energy efficiency improvements, current opportunities to support and standardize reporting on energy efficiency and to ensure proper valuation, and next steps towards enabling energy efficiency financing market transformation.

  7. Systematic screening methodology and energy efficient design of ionic liquid-based separation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulajanpeng, Kusuma; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    A systematic methodology for the screening of ionic liquids (ILs) as entrainers and for the design of ILs-based separation processes in various homogeneous binary azeotropic mixtures has been developed. The methodology focuses on the homogeneous binary aqueous azeotropic systems (for example, wat...

  8. Labview based testing system for the aim of construction of energy efficient magnetic cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pluta Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an example of an application for testing the system based on Labview platform for quality checking of large magnetic cores in the order of 1000 kg. Example of testing data for one and three phase core are presented.

  9. Efficiently computing pathway free energies: New approaches based on chain-of-replica and Non-Boltzmann Bennett reweighting schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Phillip S; White, Justin K; Kearns, Fiona L; Hodoscek, Milan; Boresch, Stefan; Lee Woodcock, H

    2015-05-01

    Accurately modeling condensed phase processes is one of computation's most difficult challenges. Include the possibility that conformational dynamics may be coupled to chemical reactions, where multiscale (i.e., QM/MM) methods are needed, and this task becomes even more daunting. Free energy simulations (i.e., molecular dynamics), multiscale modeling, and reweighting schemes. Herein, we present two new approaches for mitigating the aforementioned challenges. The first is a new chain-of-replica method (off-path simulations, OPS) for computing potentials of mean force (PMFs) along an easily defined reaction coordinate. This development is coupled with a new distributed, highly-parallel replica framework (REPDstr) within the CHARMM package. Validation of these new schemes is carried out on two processes that undergo conformational changes. First is the simple torsional rotation of butane, while a much more challenging glycosidic rotation (in vacuo and solvated) is the second. Additionally, a new approach that greatly improves (i.e., possibly an order of magnitude) the efficiency of computing QM/MM PMFs is introduced and compared to standard schemes. Our efforts are grounded in the recently developed method for efficiently computing QM-based free energies (i.e., QM-Non-Boltzmann Bennett, QM-NBB). Again, we validate this new technique by computing the QM/MM PMF of butane's torsional rotation. The OPS-REPDstr method is a promising new approach that overcomes many limitations of standard pathway simulations in CHARMM. The combination of QM-NBB with pathway techniques is very promising as it offers significant advantages over current procedures. Efficiently computing potentials of mean force is a major, unresolved, area of interest. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Recent developments of molecular dynamics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Energy Efficient Green Building Based on Geo Cooling System in Sustainable Construction of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rabiul Alam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused to utilize geo energy in cooling of building in tropical country like Malaysia where temperature rises in daytime and goes beyond to a comfortable limit. In daytime inside temperature of the room is considered to be reduced by adding thermal conductivity media inside the room elements such as walls through its connectivity to the underground where temperature is less than the ambient room temperature. Due to the ground connectivity of thermal conductivity media a flow of heat creates from the room to the ground and tries to produce a thermal balance between these two medias and therefore, room temperature drops to a temperature close to the underground soil temperature. Aluminium pipes are considered as high thermal conductivity material. The entire study is done numerically using ANSYS 11 finite element software to determine the role of underground soil and thermal conductivity pipes. In numerical investigation heat flow between two systems (building rooms equipped with thermal conductivity pipe and underground soil is studied and the performance of the conductivity materials is examined. The room temperature in the presence of thermal conductivity media as well as mechanical cooling system is also investigated in this study. It is seen that high thermal conductivity media plays a role in transferring heat from room to the ground and makes cooling of the building effectively. It acts also effectively when it uses with other mechanical cooling system of building.

  11. Improving Catalyst Efficiency in Bio-Based Hydrocarbon Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This article investigates upgrading biomass pyrolysis vapors to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals using catalysts with different concentrations of acid sites. It shows that greater separation of acid sites makes catalysts more efficient at producing hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. The conversion of biomass into liquid transportation fuels has attracted significant attention because of depleting fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Biomass is a renewable resource, which is abundant worldwide and can potentially be exploited to produce transportation fuels that are less damaging to the environment. This renewable resource consists of cellulose (40–50%), hemicellulose (25–35%), and lignin (16–33%) biopolymers in addition to smaller quantities of inorganic materials such as silica and alkali and alkaline earth metals (calcium and potassium). Fast pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical technology for converting biomass into precursors for hydrocarbon fuels because it produces up to 75 wt% bio-oil,1 which can be upgraded to feedstocks and/or blendstocks for further refining to finished fuels. Bio-oil that has not been upgraded has limited applications because of the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups, derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which gives rise to high acidity, high viscosity, low heating value, immiscibility with hydrocarbons and aging during storage. Ex situ catalytic vapor phase upgrading is a promising approach for improving the properties of bio-oil. The goal of this process is to reject oxygen and produce a bio-oil with improved properties for subsequent downstream conversion to hydrocarbons.

  12. Analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage : a Rayleigh-based method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schout, Gilian; Drijver, Benno; Gutierrez-Neri, Mariene; Schotting, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) is an important technique for energy conservation. A controlling factor for the economic feasibility of HT-ATES is the recovery efficiency. Due to the effects of density-driven flow (free convection), HTATES systems applied in permeable aquif

  13. IMPROVEMENT OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY, RELIABILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF POWER PLANTS BASED ON ASSOCIATED PETROLEUM GAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Borisovich Shonin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with one of the important ecological problems – utilization of associated petroleum gas (APG at oil fields. An example of APG usage as a fuel for gas turbine power plants is examined. Among possible topologies of power plants the focus is put on the structure based on turbines with combined diesel-gas supplying for increasing in reliability of power generation in case of failures in the system of preparation of APG. In order to ensure correct transition of turbines from gas to diesel supplying it is important to know responds of the system to the interruption of gas supplying. Based on the fundamental principles of thermodynamics and fluid dynamics gas-turbine power plant simulation model has been developed utilizing MATLAB/Simulink environment. Using the model has allowed revealing the influence of load-sharing among the turbines of different types on the transition to an additional source of turbine fuel. Based on simulation results, recommendations have been worked out for the improvement of the reliability of gas turbine power plant.

  14. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, Ali [Argonne National Laboratory

    2013-09-26

    This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne's research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse

  15. Energy efficient thermal management of data centers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Energy Efficient Thermal Management of Data Centers examines energy flow in today's data centers. Particular focus is given to the state-of-the-art thermal management and thermal design approaches now being implemented across the multiple length scales involved. The impact of future trends in information technology hardware, and emerging software paradigms such as cloud computing and virtualization, on thermal management are also addressed. The book explores computational and experimental characterization approaches for determining temperature and air flow patterns within data centers. Thermodynamic analyses using the second law to improve energy efficiency are introduced and used in proposing improvements in cooling methodologies. Reduced-order modeling and robust multi-objective design of next generation data centers are discussed. This book also: Provides in-depth treatment of energy efficiency ideas based on  fundamental heat transfer, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, controls, and computer science Focus...

  16. Human-centered sensor-based Bayesian control: Increased energy efficiency and user satisfaction in commercial lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granderson, Jessica Ann

    2007-12-01

    The need for sustainable, efficient energy systems is the motivation that drove this research, which targeted the design of an intelligent commercial lighting system. Lighting in commercial buildings consumes approximately 13% of all the electricity generated in the US. Advanced lighting controls1 intended for use in commercial office spaces have proven to save up to 45% in electricity consumption. However, they currently comprise only a fraction of the market share, resulting in a missed opportunity to conserve energy. The research goals driving this dissertation relate directly to barriers hindering widespread adoption---increase user satisfaction, and provide increased energy savings through more sophisticated control. To satisfy these goals an influence diagram was developed to perform daylighting actuation. This algorithm was designed to balance the potentially conflicting lighting preferences of building occupants, with the efficiency desires of building facilities management. A supervisory control policy was designed to implement load shedding under a demand response tariff. Such tariffs offer incentives for customers to reduce their consumption during periods of peak demand, trough price reductions. In developing the value function occupant user testing was conducted to determine that computer and paper tasks require different illuminance levels, and that user preferences are sufficiently consistent to attain statistical significance. Approximately ten facilities managers were also interviewed and surveyed to isolate their lighting preferences with respect to measures of lighting quality and energy savings. Results from both simulation and physical implementation and user testing indicate that the intelligent controller can increase occupant satisfaction, efficiency, cost savings, and management satisfaction, with respect to existing commercial daylighting systems. Several important contributions were realized by satisfying the research goals. A general

  17. Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiede, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require  balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology – with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element – is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

  18. Energy efficiency in manufacturing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiede, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigungstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology - with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element - is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

  19. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda [Advertising Council, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  20. 78 FR 20896 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting on May 1, 2013. The... the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries....

  1. 78 FR 69370 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting on December 3, 2013... the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries....

  2. 78 FR 78340 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call on January... renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE&EE) products and services. DATES: January 23, 2014, from 2:00...

  3. 76 FR 44576 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call to... expand the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries,...

  4. Energy and area efficient hierarchy multiplier architecture based on Vedic mathematics and GDI logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Shoba

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchy multiplier is attractive because of its ability to carry the multiplication operation within one clock cycle. The existing hierarchical multipliers occupy more area and also results in more delay. Therefore, in this paper, a method to reduce the computation delay of hierarchy multiplier by employing CslA and Binary to Excess 1 Converter (BEC is proposed. The use of BEC eliminates the n/4 number of adders, existing in the conventional addition scheme, where n denotes the multiplier input width. As the area of the hierarchy multiplier is determined by its base multiplier, the base multiplier is realized with the proposed Vedic multiplier, which has small area and operates with less delay than the conventional multipliers. In addition, the reduction of power consumption in the hierarchy multiplier can be ensured by implementing the designed multiplier with full swing Gate Diffusion Input (GDI logic. The performances of the proposed and the existing multipliers are evaluated by Cadence SPICE simulator using 45 nm technology model. From the simulation results, the performance parameters namely, delay and power consumption are calculated. Further, the area is measured from the corresponding layout for the same technology model. It is examined from the results that the proposed multiplier operates with 17% lesser power delay product than the recently reported hierarchy multiplier. The Monte Carlo simulation is performed to understand the robustness of the proposed hierarchy multiplier.

  5. Autonomy-oriented mechanisms for efficient energy distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiming; Shi, Benyun

    2010-09-15

    Due to the uneven geographical availability of energy resources, it is essential for the energy suppliers and consumers in different countries/regions to most efficiently, economically, as well as reliably distribute energy resources. In this paper, starting from a specific energy distribution problem, we present a decentralized behavior-based paradigm that draws on the methodology of autonomy-oriented computing. The goal is twofold: (i) to characterize the underlying mechanism of the energy distribution systems, (ii) to provide scalable solutions for efficient energy distribution. We conjecture that efficient energy trading markets can emerge from appropriate behavior-based mechanisms, which can autonomously improve energy distribution efficiency.

  6. An Energy-Efficient and High-Quality Video Transmission Architecture in Wireless Video-Based Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdasi, Hadi S.; Abbaspour, Maghsoud; Moghadam, Mohsen Ebrahimi; Samei, Yasaman

    2008-01-01

    Technological progress in the fields of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and wireless communications and also the availability of CMOS cameras, microphones and small-scale array sensors, which may ubiquitously capture multimedia content from the field, have fostered the development of low-cost limited resources Wireless Video-based Sensor Networks (WVSN). With regards to the constraints of video-based sensor nodes and wireless sensor networks, a supporting video stream is not easy to implement with the present sensor network protocols. In this paper, a thorough architecture is presented for video transmission over WVSN called Energy-efficient and high-Quality Video transmission Architecture (EQV-Architecture). This architecture influences three layers of communication protocol stack and considers wireless video sensor nodes constraints like limited process and energy resources while video quality is preserved in the receiver side. Application, transport, and network layers are the layers in which the compression protocol, transport protocol, and routing protocol are proposed respectively, also a dropping scheme is presented in network layer. Simulation results over various environments with dissimilar conditions revealed the effectiveness of the architecture in improving the lifetime of the network as well as preserving the video quality.

  7. Membrane-based energy efficient dewatering of microalgae in biofuels production and recovery of value added co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Ramesh; Kuritz, Tanya; Powell, Lawrence; Adcock, Dale

    2012-05-15

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of membranes for energy efficient biomass harvesting and dewatering. The dewatering of Nannochloropsis sp. was evaluated with polymeric hollow fiber and tubular inorganic membranes to demonstrate the capabilities of a membrane-based system to achieve microalgal biomass of >150 g/L (dry wt.) and ∼99% volume reduction through dewatering. The particle free filtrate containing the growth media is suitable for recycle and reuse. For cost-effective processing, hollow fiber membranes can be utilized to recover 90-95% media for recycle. Tubular membranes can provide additional media and water recovery to achieve target final concentrations. Based on the operating conditions used in this study and taking into scale-up considerations, an integrated hollow fiber-tubular membrane system can process microalgal biomass with at least 80% lower energy requirement compared to traditional processes. Backpulsing was found to be an effective flux maintenance strategy to minimize flux decline at high biomass concentration. An effective chemical cleaning protocol was developed for regeneration of fouled membranes.

  8. Energy efficiency opportunities in the brewery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan

    2002-06-28

    Breweries in the United States spend annually over $200 Million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 3-8% of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that there may still be opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively for breweries. Major brewing companies have and will continue to spend capital on cost effective measures that do not impact the quality of the beer. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual breweries.

  9. Energy Efficiency Perspectives of PMR Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dolfi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the concern about energy efficiency in wireless communications has been growing rapidly. Manufacturers and researchers have developed innovative solutions, highlighting the benefits in reducing operational expenditures (OPEX and carbon footprint. Professional Mobile Radio (PMR systems, like Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA, have been designed to provide voice and data services to professional users. The energy consumption is one of the critical aspects of PMR broadband solutions and a major constraint for PMR services. The future convergence of PMR to the LTE system introduces a new topic in the research discussion about the energy efficiency of wireless systems. This paper focuses on the feasibility of energy efficient solutions for current and potentially future PMR networks, by providing a mathematical formulation of power consumption in TETRA base stations and assessing possible business models and energy saving solutions for enhanced mission-critical operations. The energy efficiency evaluation has been performed by taking into account the traffic load of a deployed TETRA regional network: in the considered network scenario with 150 base stations, significant OPEX savings up to 70 thousand Euros per year of operation are achieved. Moreover, the proposed solutions allow for saving more than 1 ton of CO 2 per year.

  10. Energy-efficient cooking methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Dilip K. [Department of Physics, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Plateau State (Nigeria); Muwa Shawhatsu, N. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Yola, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State (Nigeria); De, N.N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ikechukwu Ajaeroh, M. [Department of Physics, University of Abuja, Abuja (Nigeria)

    2013-02-15

    Energy-efficient new cooking techniques have been developed in this research. Using a stove with 649{+-}20 W of power, the minimum heat, specific heat of transformation, and on-stove time required to completely cook 1 kg of dry beans (with water and other ingredients) and 1 kg of raw potato are found to be: 710 {+-}kJ, 613 {+-}kJ, and 1,144{+-}10 s, respectively, for beans and 287{+-}12 kJ, 200{+-}9 kJ, and 466{+-}10 s for Irish potato. Extensive researches show that these figures are, to date, the lowest amount of heat ever used to cook beans and potato and less than half the energy used in conventional cooking with a pressure cooker. The efficiency of the stove was estimated to be 52.5{+-}2 %. Discussion is made to further improve the efficiency in cooking with normal stove and solar cooker and to save food nutrients further. Our method of cooking when applied globally is expected to contribute to the clean development management (CDM) potential. The approximate values of the minimum and maximum CDM potentials are estimated to be 7.5 x 10{sup 11} and 2.2 x 10{sup 13} kg of carbon credit annually. The precise estimation CDM potential of our cooking method will be reported later.

  11. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, Ali [Argonne National Laboratory

    2013-09-26

    This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne's research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse

  12. Fact sheets energy efficiency. Meat processing industry; Factsheets energie-efficiency. Vleesverwerkende industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    To support the activities of the Dutch industry, carried out within the framework of the long-range agreements between the Dutch government and the industry to improve the energy efficiency by 20% in the year 2000, energy efficiency fact sheets have been drafted. Based on the information in the fact sheets specific industries can gain insight into and learn about energy saving options. The information in the fact sheets concerns data about a specific industrial sector, schematic presentation of processes and energy carriers, and technical and economical aspects of energy saving options and how they can be realized. This fact sheet concerns the meat processing industry. 28 refs.

  13. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  14. Energy efficiency in wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jumira, Oswald

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented development and growth in global wireless communications systems, technologies and network "traffic" generated over network infrastructures.This book presents state-of-the-art energy-efficient techniques, designs and implementations that pertain to wireless communication networks such as cellular networks, wireless local area networks (WLANs) and wireless ad hoc networks (WAHNs) including mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) as they are deployed across the world to facilitate "always on" reliable high-speed

  15. Energy Efficiency in Cloud Software Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Procaccianti, G.; Bevini, S.; Lago, P.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud-based software is often considered as providing a greener, more energy-efficient solution. At the same time, it introduces more complexity and demands for new investments in cloud services, technologies, and competencies for migration, maintenance, and evolution of the underlying software arch

  16. Energy efficient sensor network implementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Janette R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raby, Eric Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brennan, Sean M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kulathumani, Vinod [WEST VIRGINIA UNIV.; Rosten, Ed [CAMBRIDGE UNIV.; Wolinski, Christophe [IRISA; Wagner, Charles [IRISA; Charot, Francois [IRISA

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a low power embedded sensor node architecture we are developing for distributed sensor network systems deployed in a natural environment. In particular, we examine the sensor node for energy efficient processing-at-the-sensor. We analyze the following modes of operation; event detection, sleep(wake-up), data acquisition, data processing modes using low power, high performance embedded technology such as specialized embedded DSP processors and a low power FPGAs at the sensing node. We use compute intensive sensor node applications: an acoustic vehicle classifier (frequency domain analysis) and a video license plate identification application (learning algorithm) as a case study. We report performance and total energy usage for our system implementations and discuss the system architecture design trade offs.

  17. Energy Efficient Design for Body Sensor Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqing Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the hardware requirements and design constraints that derive from unique features of body sensor networks (BSNs. Based on the BSN requirements, we examine the tradeoff between custom hardware and commercial off the shelf (COTS designs for BSNs. The broad range of BSN applications includes situations where either custom chips or COTS design is optimal. For both types of nodes, we survey key techniques to improve energy efficiency in BSNs and identify general approaches to energy efficiency in this space.

  18. An Energy-Efficient and High-Quality Video Transmission Architecture in Wireless Video-Based Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Samei

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress in the fields of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS and wireless communications and also the availability of CMOS cameras, microphones and small-scale array sensors, which may ubiquitously capture multimedia content from the field, have fostered the development of low-cost limited resources Wireless Video-based Sensor Networks (WVSN. With regards to the constraints of videobased sensor nodes and wireless sensor networks, a supporting video stream is not easy to implement with the present sensor network protocols. In this paper, a thorough architecture is presented for video transmission over WVSN called Energy-efficient and high-Quality Video transmission Architecture (EQV-Architecture. This architecture influences three layers of communication protocol stack and considers wireless video sensor nodes constraints like limited process and energy resources while video quality is preserved in the receiver side. Application, transport, and network layers are the layers in which the compression protocol, transport protocol, and routing protocol are proposed respectively, also a dropping scheme is presented in network layer. Simulation results over various environments with dissimilar conditions revealed the effectiveness of the architecture in improving the lifetime of the network as well as preserving the video quality.

  19. Energy-efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based passive optical network based on adaptive sleep-mode control and dynamic bandwidth allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Xiao, Nengwu; Chen, Chen; Yuan, Weicheng; Qiu, Kun

    2016-02-01

    We propose an energy-efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) using adaptive sleep-mode control and dynamic bandwidth allocation. In this scheme, a bidirectional-centralized algorithm named the receiver and transmitter accurate sleep control and dynamic bandwidth allocation (RTASC-DBA), which has an overall bandwidth scheduling policy, is employed to enhance the energy efficiency of the OFDM-PON. The RTASC-DBA algorithm is used in an optical line terminal (OLT) to control the sleep mode of an optical network unit (ONU) sleep and guarantee the quality of service of different services of the OFDM-PON. The obtained results show that, by using the proposed scheme, the average power consumption of the ONU is reduced by ˜40% when the normalized ONU load is less than 80%, compared with the average power consumption without using the proposed scheme.

  20. Energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem based on life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxin; Chen, Yahui; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Jun; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-07-01

    Life cycle analysis method was used to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem in China. The scope covers three units, including plant cultivation, feedstock transport, and bioethanol conversion. Results show that the net energy ratio was 1.56 and the net energy gain was 8.37 MJ/L. Human toxicity was identified as the most significant negative environmental impact, followed by eutrophication and acidification. Steam generation in the bioethanol conversion unit contributed 82.28% and 48.26% to total human toxicity and acidification potential, respectively. Fertilizers loss from farmland represented 67.23% of total eutrophication potential. The results were significantly affected by the inventory allocation methods, vinasse reusing approaches, and feedstock yields. Reusing vinasse as fuel for steam generation and better cultivation practice to control fertilizer loss could significantly contribute to enhance the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem.

  1. Li3PO4 Matrix Enables a Long Cycle Life and High Energy Efficiency Bismuth-Based Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuan-Fu; Hu, Junkai; Wang, Peng; Cheng, Xi-Yuan; Lee, Sang Bok; Wang, YuHuang

    2016-09-14

    Bismuth is a lithium-ion battery anode material that can operate at an equilibrium potential higher than graphite and provide a capacity twice as high as that of Li4Ti5O12, making it intrinsically free from lithium plating that may cause catastrophic battery failure. However, the potential of bismuth is hampered by its inferior cyclability (limited to tens of cycles). Here, we propose an "ion conductive solid-state matrix" approach to address this issue. By homogeneously confining bismuth nanoparticles in a solid-state γ-Li3PO4 matrix that is electrochemically formed in situ, the resulting composite anode exhibits a reversible capacity of 280 mA hours per gram (mA h/g) at a rate of 100 mA/g and a record cyclability among bismuth-based anodes up to 500 cycles with a capacity decay rate of merely 0.071% per cycle. We further show that full-cell batteries fabricated from this composite anode and commercial LiFePO4 cathode deliver a stable cell voltage of ∼2.5 V and remarkable energy efficiency up to 86.3%, on par with practical batteries (80-90%). This work paves a way for harnessing bismuth-based battery chemistry for the design of high capacity, safer lithium-ion batteries to meet demanding applications such as electric vehicles.

  2. Formation of the Integral Ecological Quality Index of the Technological Processes in Machine Building Based on Their Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Sergey B.; Kapitanov, Alexey V.; Mitrofanov, Vladimir G.; Shvartsburg, Leonid E.; Ivanova, Natalia A.; Ryabov, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of article is to provide development of a unified assessment methodology in relation to various technological processes and the actual conditions of their implementation. To carry the energy efficiency analysis of the technological processes through comparison of the established power and the power consumed by the actual technological…

  3. All air treatments are realisable energy efficiently. Room air conditioning based on membranes; Alle Luftbehandlungen energiesparend realisierbar. Membranbasierte Raumklimatisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, Hannes [ILK Dresden gGmbH, Dresden (Germany). Hauptbereich Luft- und Klimatechnik

    2011-12-15

    Membrane elements for indirect liquid sorption processes enable a decentralized air conditioning. A suitable design of the heat transmitting and substance transmitting components needs to be developed yet. Then, membrane heat exchangers perform a hygienic, condensate-free dehumidification energy efficiently.

  4. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  5. Software Cuts Homebuilding Costs, Increases Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To sort out the best combinations of technologies for a crewed mission to Mars, NASA Headquarters awarded grants to MIT's Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics to develop an algorithm-based software tool that highlights the most reliable and cost-effective options. Utilizing the software, Professor Edward Crawley founded Cambridge, Massachussetts-based Ekotrope, which helps homebuilders choose cost- and energy-efficient floor plans and materials.

  6. Design and Implementation of Energy Efficiency in HVAC Systems Based on Robust PID Control for Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Imal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency in heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC systems is a primary concern in process projects, since the energy consumption has the highest percentage in HVAC for all processes. Without sacrifice of thermal comfort, to reset the suitable operating parameters, such as the humidity and air temperature, would have energy saving with immediate effect. In this paper, the simulation-optimization approach described the effective energy efficiency for HVAC systems which are used in industrial process. Due to the complex relationship of the HVAC system parameters, it is necessary to suggest optimum settings for different operations in response to the dynamic cooling loads and changing weather conditions during a year. Proportional-integral-derivative (PID programming was developed which can effectively handle the discrete, nonlinear and highly constrained optimization problems. Energy efficiency process has been made by controlling of alternative current (AC drivers for ventilation and exhaust fans, according to supplied air flow capacity and differential air pressure between supplied and exhaust air. Supervisory controller software was developed by using programmable controllers and human machine interface (HMI units. The new designed HVAC control system would have a saving potential of about 40% as compared to the existing operational settings, without any extra cost.

  7. Analysis of building energy efficiency in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDeying; FANYun; HAOBin

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the matter of building energy efficiency and heating system, and puts forward the measure of heating innovation, aiming at the improvement of Chinese building energy efficiency and heating innovation, which exceeds some possible advice for future development.

  8. USE Efficiency -- Universities and Students for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melandri, Daniela

    2010-09-15

    Universities and Student for Energy Efficiency is a European Project within the Intelligent Energy Programme. It intends to create a common stream for energy efficiency systems in university buildings. Universities and students are proposed as shining examples for energy efficiency solutions and behaviour. The Project involves 10 countries and has the aim to improve energy efficiency in university buildings. Students are the main actors of the project together with professors and technicians. To act on students means to act on direct future market players in diffusion of public opinions. A strong communication action supports the succeeding of the action.

  9. Energy Efficient Resource Management in Mobile Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient computing has recently become hot research area. Many works have been carried out on conserving energy, but considering energy efficiency in grid computing is few. This paper proposes energy efficient resource management in mobile grid. The objective of energy efficient resource management in mobile grid is to maximize the utility of the mobile grid which is denoted as the sum of grid application utility. The utility function models benefits of application and system. By using nonlinear optimization theory, energy efficient resource management in mobile grid can be formulated as multi objective optimization problem. In order to derive a distributed algorithm to solve global optimization problem in mobile grid, we decompose the problem into the sub problems. The proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm decomposes the optimization problem via iterative method. To test the performance of the proposed algorithm, the simulations are conducted to compare proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm with other energy aware scheduling algorithm.

  10. Using Leaf Chlorophyll to Parameterize Light-Use-Efficiency Within a Thermal-Based Carbon, Water and Energy Exchange Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlborg, Rasmus; Anderson, Martha C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Kustas, W. P.; Rodell, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Chlorophylls absorb photosynthetically active radiation and thus function as vital pigments for photosynthesis, which makes leaf chlorophyll content (C(sub ab) useful for monitoring vegetation productivity and an important indicator of the overall plant physiological condition. This study investigates the utility of integrating remotely sensed estimates of C(sub ab) into a thermal-based Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model that estimates land-surface CO2 and energy fluxes using an analytical, light-use-efficiency (LUE) based model of canopy resistance. The LUE model component computes canopy-scale carbon assimilation and transpiration fluxes and incorporates LUE modifications from a nominal (species-dependent) value (LUE(sub n)) in response to short term variations in environmental conditions, However LUE(sub n) may need adjustment on a daily timescale to accommodate changes in plant phenology, physiological condition and nutrient status. Day to day variations in LUE(sub n) were assessed for a heterogeneous corn crop field in Maryland, U,S.A. through model calibration with eddy covariance CO2 flux tower observations. The optimized daily LUE(sub n) values were then compared to estimates of C(sub ab) integrated from gridded maps of chlorophyll content weighted over the tower flux source area. The time continuous maps of daily C(sub ab) over the study field were generated by focusing in-situ measurements with retrievals generated with an integrated radiative transfer modeling tool (accurate to within +/-10%) using at-sensor radiances in green, red and near-infrared wavelengths acquired with an aircraft imaging system. The resultant daily changes in C(sub ab) within the tower flux source area generally correlated well with corresponding changes in daily calibrated LUE(sub n) derived from the tower flux data, and hourly water, energy and carbon flux estimation accuracies from TSEB were significantly improved when using C(sub ab) for delineating spatio

  11. How much do incentives affect car purchase? Agent-based microsimulation of consumer choice of new cars. Part 2. Forecasting effects of feebates based on energy-efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haan, Peter de; Mueller, Michel G.; Scholz, Roland W. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstr. 22, CHN J73.2, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    In this paper, we simulate the car market in order to forecast the effects of feebate systems based on an energy-labeling scheme using categories A to G. Very fuel-efficient (A) cars receive a cash incentive, highly inefficient (G) cars pay additional fees. Consumers have different price elasticities and behavioral options to react to feebates. They can switch to a smaller sized car, but as energy-efficiency varies widely within size segments, they can also stick to the preferred size class and choose a more efficient (smaller) engine. In addition, previously owned cars influence the next car to be chosen. We use an agent-based microsimulation approach particularly suited to predict environmental and market effects of feebates. Heteorogeneous agents choose from a choice set drawn from a detailed fleet of new cars. Incentives of EUR2000 for A-labeled cars induce an additional rated CO{sub 2} emission decrease of new car registrations between 3.4% and 4.3%, with CO{sub 2} abatement costs between EUR6 and EUR13 per ton, and otherwise little undesired market disturbance. The risk of rebound effects is estimated to be low. After adopting the frequencies of consumer segments to a given country, the model presented is applicable to all European car markets. (author)

  12. Energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting for elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanlin; Yin, Yarui; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    In order to address the problem of optimizing the spectrum resources and power consumption in elastic optical networks (EONs), we investigate the potential gains by jointly employing the light-tree splitting and traffic grooming for multicast requests. An energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting (EED-MTGS-LS) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we design a traffic pre-processing mechanism to decide the multicast requests' routing order, which considers the request's bandwidth requirement and physical hops synthetically. Then, by dividing a light-tree to some sub-light-trees and grooming the request to these sub-light-trees, the light-tree sharing ratios of multicast requests can be improved. What's more, a priority scheduling vector is constructed, which aims to improve the success rate of spectrum assignment for grooming requests. Finally, a grooming strategy is designed to optimize the total power consumption by reducing the use of transponders and IP routers during routing. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the spectrum utilization and save the power consumption.

  13. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  14. Energy and bandwidth-efficient wireless transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces key modulation and predistortion techniques for approaching energy and spectrum-efficient transmission for wireless communication systems. The book presents a combination of theoretical principles, practical implementations, and actual tests. It focuses on spectrum-efficient modulation and energy-efficient transmission techniques in the portable wireless communication systems, and introduces currently developed and designed RF transceivers in the latest wireless markets. Most materials, design examples, and design strategies used are based on the author’s two decades of work in the digital communication fields, especially in the areas of the digital modulations, demodulations, digital signal processing, and linearization of power amplifiers. The applications of these practical products and equipment cover the satellite communications on earth station systems, microwave communication systems, 2G GSM and 3G WCDMA mobile communication systems, and 802.11 WLAN systems.

  15. Highly Efficient Deep Blue Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Imidazole: Significantly Enhanced Performance by Effective Energy Transfer with Negligible Efficiency Roll-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Tong; Liu, Yulong; Tang, Xiangyang; Bai, Qing; Gao, Yu; Gao, Zhao; Li, Jinyu; Deng, Jian; Yang, Bing; Lu, Ping; Ma, Yuguang

    2016-10-10

    Great efforts have been devoted to develop efficient deep blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) materials meeting the standards of European Broadcasting Union (EBU) standard with Commission International de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.15, 0.06) for flat-panel displays and solid-state lightings. However, high-performanced deep blue OLEDs are still rare for applications. Herein, two efficient deep blue emitters, PIMNA and PyINA, are designed and synthesized by coupling naphthalene with phenanthreneimidazole and pyreneimidazole, respectively. The balanced ambipolar transporting natures of them are demonstrated by single-carrier devices. Their non-doped OLEDs show deep blue emissions with extremely small CIEy of 0.034 for PIMNA and 0.084 for PyINA, with negligible efficiency roll-off. To take advantage of high photoluminescence quantum efficiency of PIMNA and large fraction of singlet exciton formation of PyINA, doped devices are fabricated by dispersing PyINA into PIMNA, a significantly improved maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 5.05% is obtained through very effective energy transfer with CIE coordinates of (0.156, 0.060), and the EQE remains 4.67% at 1000 cd m-2, which is among the best of deep blue OLEDs reported matching stringent EBU standard well.

  16. Comparison of growth and efficiency of dietary energy utilization by growing pigs offered feeding programs based on the metabolizable energy or the net energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, J; Patience, J F; Boyd, R D

    2016-04-01

    . Finally, ME intake and ME per kilogram of BW gain were not different among treatments ( = 0.112), but ME per kilogram of carcass gain was different among treatments ( = 0.048). In conclusion, the sequential addition of coproducts in diets formulated on an NE or ME basis can result in similar growth performance, but carcass parameters may be affected independently of the energy system used. However, formulating diets based on NE tended to improve predictability of growth, especially carcass parameters.

  17. To Implement Energy Efficient of Integer Unit by Higher Voltage Flip Flop Based on Minimum operating Dual Supply Voltage Techinque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Subhashini,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the most energy-efficient operation, this brief presents a circuit design technique for separating the power supply voltage (VDD of flip-flops (FFs from that of combinational circuits, called the higher voltage FF (HVFF. Although VDD scaling can reduce the energy, the minimum operating voltage (VDDmin of FFs prevents the operation at the optimum supply voltage that minimizes the energy, because the VDDmin of FFs is higher than the optimum supply voltage. In HVFF, the VDD of combinational logic gates is reduced below the VDDmin of FFs while keeping the VDD of FFs at their VDDmin. This makes it possible to minimize the energy without power and delay penalties at the nominal supply voltage (1.2 V as well as without FF topological difications. A four bit alu is designed in these paper by using dual supply voltage usig DSCH.

  18. Energy efficiency in Serbia national energy efficiency program: Strategy and priorities for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oka Simeon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy system in Serbia, in the whole energy chain, from exploitation of primary energy sources, transformations in electric power plants and district heating plants, energy (electric and heat transmission and distribution to final users, and up to final energy consumption, is faced with a number of irrational and inefficient behavior and processes. In order to fight with such situation National Energy Efficiency Program, financed by the Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection has been founded in 2001. Basic facts about status of energy sector in Serbia, with special emphasis on the energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources have been given in the review paper published in the issue No. 2, 2006 of this journal. In present paper new strategy and priorities of the National Energy Efficiency Program for the future period from 2006 to 2008, and beyond, is presented. This strategy and priorities are mainly based on the same concept and principles as previous, but new reality and new and more simulative economic and financial environment in energy sector made by the Energy low (accepted by Parliament in 2004 and Strategy of Development of Energy Sector in Republic Serbia up to 2015 (accepted by the Parliament in May 2005, have been taken into account. Also, responsibilities that are formulated in the Energy Community Treaty signed by the South-East European countries, and also coming from documents and directives of the European Community and Kyoto Protocol are included in new strategy. Once again necessity of legislative framework and influence of regulations and standards, as well as of the governmental support, has been pointed out if increased energy efficiency and increased use of renewable energy sources are expected. .

  19. Improving Energy Efficiency in CNC Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanaskar, Sushrut S.

    We present our work on analyzing and improving the energy efficiency of multi-axis CNC milling process. Due to the differences in energy consumption behavior, we treat 3- and 5-axis CNC machines separately in our work. For 3-axis CNC machines, we first propose an energy model that estimates the energy requirement for machining a component on a specified 3-axis CNC milling machine. Our model makes machine-specific predictions of energy requirements while also considering the geometric aspects of the machining toolpath. Our model - and the associated software tool - facilitate direct comparison of various alternative toolpath strategies based on their energy-consumption performance. Further, we identify key factors in toolpath planning that affect energy consumption in CNC machining. We then use this knowledge to propose and demonstrate a novel toolpath planning strategy that may be used to generate new toolpaths that are inherently energy-efficient, inspired by research on digital micrography -- a form of computational art. For 5-axis CNC machines, the process planning problem consists of several sub-problems that researchers have traditionally solved separately to obtain an approximate solution. After illustrating the need to solve all sub-problems simultaneously for a truly optimal solution, we propose a unified formulation based on configuration space theory. We apply our formulation to solve a problem variant that retains key characteristics of the full problem but has lower dimensionality, allowing visualization in 2D. Given the complexity of the full 5-axis toolpath planning problem, our unified formulation represents an important step towards obtaining a truly optimal solution. With this work on the two types of CNC machines, we demonstrate that without changing the current infrastructure or business practices, machine-specific, geometry-based, customized toolpath planning can save energy in CNC machining.

  20. 77 FR 23224 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call on May 2... Trade Subcommittees that address issues affecting U.S. competitiveness in exporting renewable energy...

  1. 76 FR 26695 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet to hear briefings on the state of renewable energy finance and to discuss the development of recommendations on increasing...

  2. 76 FR 54431 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to deliver 11... administration of programs and policies to enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and...

  3. 75 FR 70214 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold its inaugural meeting to... programs and policies to expand the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and...

  4. 77 FR 32531 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to deliver a letter... administration of programs and policies to enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and...

  5. 78 FR 2952 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold its inaugural meeting under... expected to develop recommendations on improving the competitiveness of U.S. renewable energy and...

  6. Indoor environment and energy efficiency in schools

    CERN Document Server

    Bellia, Laura; Boerstra, Atze; Dijken, Froukje van; Ianniello, Elvira; Lopardo, Gino; Minichiello, Francesco; Romagnoni, Piercarlo; Gameiro da Silva, Manuel Carlos

    2010-01-01

    School buildings represent a significant part of the building stock and also a noteworthy part of the total energy use. Indoor and Energy Efficiency in Schools Guidebook describes the optimal design and operation of schools with respect to low energy cost and performance of the students. It focuses particularly on energy efficient systems for a healthy indoor environment.

  7. Guide to Energy-Efficient Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-01

    A fact sheet from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Lighting accounts for about 15% of an average home’s electricity use, so it pays to make energy-efficient choices.

  8. Green energy and efficiency an economic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Ansuategi, Alberto; Galarraga, Ibon

    2014-01-01

    Directed toward informing and assisting academics and policymakers with a general interest in energy, climate change and environmental economics, this book discusses and analyzes the major issues surrounding regarding green energy and energy efficiency.

  9. Energy efficiency evaluation of hospital building office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriani, Indah; Sangadji, Senot; Kristiawan, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the strategy employed in building design is reducing energy consumption while maintaining the best comfort zone in building indoor climate. The first step to improve office buildings energy performance by evaluating its existing energy usage using energy consumption intensity (Intensitas Konsumsi Energi, IKE) index. Energy evaluation of office building for hospital dr. Sayidiman at Kabupaten Magetan has been carried out in the initial investigation. The office building is operated with active cooling (air conditioning, AC) and use limited daylighting which consumes 14.61 kWh/m2/month. This IKE value is attributed into a slightly inefficient category. Further investigation was carried out by modeling and simulating thermal energy load and room lighting in every building zone using of Ecotect from Autodesk. Three scenarios of building energy and lighting retrofit have been performed simulating representing energy efficiency using cross ventilation, room openings, and passive cooling. The results of the numerical simulation indicate that the third scenario by employing additional windows, reflector media and skylight exhibit the best result and in accordance with SNI 03-6575-2001 lighting standard. Total thermal load of the existing building which includes fabric gains, indirect solar gains, direct solar gains, ventilation fans, internal gains, inter-zonal gains and cooling load were 162,145.40 kWh. Based on the three scenarios, the thermal load value (kWh) obtained was lowest achieved scenario 2 with the thermal value of 117,539.08 kWh.The final results are interpreted from the total energy emissions evaluated using the Ecotect software, the heating and cooling demand value and specific design of the windows are important factors to determine the energy efficiency of the buildings.

  10. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  11. Energy-efficient optical line terminal for WDM-OFDM-PON based on two-dimensional subcarrier and layer allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Cao, Pan; Zhuang, Zhiming; Zhang, Liang; Yang, Qi; Su, Yikai

    2012-11-05

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to reduce the energy consumption of optical line terminal (OLT) in wavelength division multiplexing - orthogonal frequency division multiplexing - passive optical networks (WDM-OFDM-PONs). In our scheme, a wireless communication technique, termed layered modulation, is introduced to maximize the transmission capacity of OFDM modulation module in the OLT by multiplexing data from different ONU groups with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) margins onto the same subcarriers. With adaptive and dynamic subcarrier and layer allocation, several ONU groups with low traffic demands can share one OFDM modulation module to deliver their data during non-peak hours of a day, thus greatly reducing the number of running devices and minimizing the energy consumption of the OLT. Numerical calculation shows that an energy efficiency improvement of 28.3% in the OLT can be achieved by using proposed scheme compared to the conventional WDM-OFDM-PON.

  12. Industrial electricity demand and energy efficiency policy

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation consists of an introduction and five self-contained papers addressing the issues of industrial electricity demand and the role of energy efficiency policy. An important context for the study is the increased interest in so-called voluntary energy efficiency programs in which different types of tax exemptions are granted if the participating firms carry out energy efficiency measures following an energy audit. Paper 1 conceptually analyses the cost-effectiveness of voluntary ...

  13. Energy efficiency vs. performance of the numerical solution of PDEs: An application study on a low-power ARM-based cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göddeke, Dominik; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Geveler, Markus; Ribbrock, Dirk; Rajovic, Nikola; Puzovic, Nikola; Ramirez, Alex

    2013-03-01

    Power consumption and energy efficiency are becoming critical aspects in the design and operation of large scale HPC facilities, and it is unanimously recognised that future exascale supercomputers will be strongly constrained by their power requirements. At current electricity costs, operating an HPC system over its lifetime can already be on par with the initial deployment cost. These power consumption constraints, and the benefits a more energy-efficient HPC platform may have on other societal areas, have motivated the HPC research community to investigate the use of energy-efficient technologies originally developed for the embedded and especially mobile markets. However, lower power does not always mean lower energy consumption, since execution time often also increases. In order to achieve competitive performance, applications then need to efficiently exploit a larger number of processors. In this article, we discuss how applications can efficiently exploit this new class of low-power architectures to achieve competitive performance. We evaluate if they can benefit from the increased energy efficiency that the architecture is supposed to achieve. The applications that we consider cover three different classes of numerical solution methods for partial differential equations, namely a low-order finite element multigrid solver for huge sparse linear systems of equations, a Lattice-Boltzmann code for fluid simulation, and a high-order spectral element method for acoustic or seismic wave propagation modelling. We evaluate weak and strong scalability on a cluster of 96 ARM Cortex-A9 dual-core processors and demonstrate that the ARM-based cluster can be more efficient in terms of energy to solution when executing the three applications compared to an x86-based reference machine.

  14. The energy efficiency directive; Die Energieeffizienzrichtlinie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Benedicte [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klimaschutz, Energie und Mobilitaet - Recht, Oekonomie und Politik e.V. (IKEM)

    2012-12-13

    The present article gives an overview of the recently adopted European Energy Efficiency Directive. The Directive is to take effect in early December 2012 and will supersede the Energy Services Directive and the Cogeneration Directive. The Energy Efficiency Directive is dedicated to current European energy saving goals. To this end it contains regulations that are to lead to savings in primary energy as well as final energy use. One that deserves particular mention is Art. 7, which provides a framework for the introduction of energy saving engagement systems, on the strength of which transmission system operators and/or energy suppliers can be obligated to encourage final customers to implement energy saving measures.

  15. International industrial sector energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2000-01-01

    Over 40 percent of the energy consumed globally is used in the industrial sector. In China, this sector consumes an even larger proportion, reaching nearly 70 percent in 1997. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been instituted in both industrialized and developing countries in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of the industrial sector. There are very few comprehensive evaluations of these industrial sector energy efficiency policies; however a number of recent workshops and conferences have included a focus on these policies. Three important meetings were the International Energy Agency's Industrial Energy Efficiency: Policies and Programs Conference in 1994, Industrial Energy Efficiency Policies: Understanding Success and Failure - A Workshop Organized by the International Network for Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector in 1998, and the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy's 1999 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry. Man y articles from these meetings are included as attachments to this memo. This paper provides a brief description of each of seven categories of individual industrial energy efficiency policies and programs, discuss which industrial sectors or types of equipment they apply to, and provide references for articles and reports that discuss each policy or program in more detail. We begin with mandatory-type policies and move to more voluntary-type policies. We then provide a brief description of four integrated industrial energy efficiency policies and provide references for articles and reports that describe these policies in greater detail.

  16. 78 FR 48855 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a... administration of programs and policies to enhance the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable...

  17. 77 FR 6783 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to hear... of Commerce on efforts to address issues that affect the competitiveness of U.S. renewable ]...

  18. Energy Efficiency Approach to Intelligent Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali Birangal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency has nowadays become one of the most challenging tasks and this has boosted research on fresh fields, such as Ambient Intelligence. Energy consumption in the housing and tertiary sectors is especially high in developed countries. There is a great potential for energy savings in these sectors. Energy conservation measures are developed for newly constructed buildings and for buildings under restoration. However, to achieve a significant diminution in energy consumption apart from the standard energy-efficiency methods, pioneering technologies should be implemented, including renewable energy. Now, buildings are increasingly anticipated to meet higher and more complex performance requirements. Among these requirements, energy efficiency is renowned as an international goal to promote energy sustainability. Different approaches have been adapted to concentrate on this goal, the most up to date relating consumption patterns with human occupancy. Energy efficiency is keywords that can be originate these days in all domains in which energy demand exists. A significant aspect that can improve the energy efficiency in buildings is the use of building automation systems. Alternatively, building automation systems are usually not considered for energy conservation, as they are mostly used for comfort and safety. This consistently causes immense problems due to an fruitless use of these systems and unawareness of energy consumption. It is therefore essential that the existing system solutions are adapted to focus on energy conservation. Our research approach in developing an intelligent system to improve energy efficiency in intelligent buildings, which takes into account the different technical infrastructures of building

  19. Strategies for Energy Efficient Remodeling: SEER 2003 Case Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    The goal of the Strategies for Energy Efficiency in Remodeling (SEER) project is to provide information, based on research and case studies, to remodelers and consumers about opportunities to increase home energy performance.

  20. Strategies for Energy Efficient Remodeling: SEER 2003 Case Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    The goal of the Strategies for Energy Efficiency in Remodeling (SEER) project is to provide information, based on research and case studies, to remodelers and consumers about opportunities to increase home energy performance.

  1. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  2. CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy requirement analysis of power plant using modified calcium-based sorbent looping cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.J.; Zhao, C.S.; Chen, H.C.; Ren, Q.Q.; Duan, L.B. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment

    2011-03-15

    This paper examines the average carbonation conversion, CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy requirement for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture system during the modified calcium-based sorbent looping cycle. The limestone modified with acetic acid solution, i.e. calcium acetate is taken as an example of the modified calcium-based sorbents. The modified limestone exhibits much higher average carbonation conversion than the natural sorbent under the same condition. The CO{sub 2} capture efficiency increases with the sorbent flow ratios. Compared with the natural limestone, much less makeup mass flow of the recycled and the fresh sorbent is needed for the system when using the modified limestone at the same CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. Achieving 0.95 of CO{sub 2} capture efficiency without sulfation, 272 kJ/mol CO{sub 2} is required in the calciner for the natural limestone, whereas only 223 kJ/mol CO{sub 2} for the modified sorbent. The modified limestone possesses greater advantages in CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy consumption than the natural sorbent. When the sulfation and carbonation of the sorbents take place simultaneously, more energy is required. It is significantly necessary to remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas before it enters the carbonator in order to reduce energy consumption in the calciner.

  3. Energy-Efficient Capacitive-Sensor Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the theory, design and realization of energy-efficient capacitive-sensor interfaces that are dedicated to energy-constrained applications. The goal of this work is to explore energy-efficient capacitive-sensor interface design techniques both at the system and the circuit level

  4. Energy-efficient wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntlatlapa, N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available ­deficient areas such as rural areas in  Africa.  Index   Terms—Energy   efficient   design,   Wireless  Mesh networks, Network Protocols I. INTRODUCTION The  objectives  of   this   research  group   are   the  application   and   adaptation   of   existing   wireless  local   area...   networks,   especially   those   based   on  802.11 standard, for   the energy­efficient  wireless  mesh network (EE­WMN) architectures, protocols  and   controls.   In   addition   to   the   WMN   regular  features   of   self...

  5. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  6. Transition Towards Energy Efficient Machine Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zein, André

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency represents a cost-effective and immediate strategy of a sustainable development. Due to substantial environmental and economic implications, a strong emphasis is put on the electrical energy requirements of machine tools for metalworking processes. The improvement of energy efficiency is however confronted with diverse barriers, which sustain an energy efficiency gap of unexploited potential. The deficiencies lie in the lack of information about the actual energy requirements of machine tools, a minimum energy reference to quantify improvement potential and the possible actions to improve the energy demand. Therefore, a comprehensive concept for energy performance management of machine tools is developed which guides the transition towards energy efficient machine tools. It is structured in four innovative concept modules, which are embedded into step-by-step workflow models. The capability of the performance management concept is demonstrated in an automotive manufacturing environment. The ...

  7. Promotion of Efficient Use of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Misuriello; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-01-25

    The Department of Energy funded the Alliance to Save Energy to promote the efficient use of energy under a multiyear cooperative agreement. This funding allowed the Alliance to be innovative and flexible in its program development, and to initiate and enhance projects it would otherwise not have been able to pursue. The program period was 1999 through 2004. The mission of the Alliance to Save Energy is to promote energy efficiency domestically and worldwide. The Alliance followed this mission by working closely with consumers, government, policy makers, and energy efficient product and service providers. The projects that were initiated by the Alliance included communication and consumer education, policy analysis and research, the promotion of interaction among the energy efficiency industry, and international energy efficiency programs. The funding from the Department of Energy allowed the Alliance to study new issues in energy efficiency, draw public attention to those issues, and create targeted programs, such as the Efficient Windows Collaborative or the Green Schools program, which now function on their own to promote energy efficiency in important areas.

  8. Analysis of the determinative factors for energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vanderley Herrero Sola

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study energy efficiency in productive sector. The main objective is to analyze determinative factors to Energy Efficiency, identifying how external forces influence those factors as weel as energy efficiency, in order to subsidize a future scenery planning in energy management. The result of this analysis, based on scientific works, case study in universities, research in companies, studies by Brazilian Federal Government and studies by specialists, shows that energy efficiency depends on: effectiveness governmental actions for the technological development; technological development; initiative by universities for technology transfer to the companies; the relationship between individuals and small companies to create a corporative structure.

  9. An efficient algorithm for multipole energies and derivatives based on spherical harmonics and extensions to particle mesh Ewald

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonett, Andrew C.; Pickard, Frank C.; Schaefer, Henry F.; Brooks, Bernard R.

    2014-05-01

    Next-generation molecular force fields deliver accurate descriptions of non-covalent interactions by employing more elaborate functional forms than their predecessors. Much work has been dedicated to improving the description of the electrostatic potential (ESP) generated by these force fields. A common approach to improving the ESP is by augmenting the point charges on each center with higher-order multipole moments. The resulting anisotropy greatly improves the directionality of the non-covalent bonding, with a concomitant increase in computational cost. In this work, we develop an efficient strategy for enumerating multipole interactions, by casting an efficient spherical harmonic based approach within a particle mesh Ewald (PME) framework. Although the derivation involves lengthy algebra, the final expressions are relatively compact, yielding an approach that can efficiently handle both finite and periodic systems without imposing any approximations beyond PME. Forces and torques are readily obtained, making our method well suited to modern molecular dynamics simulations.

  10. Barriers to electric energy efficiency in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berko, Joseph Kofi, Jr.

    Development advocates argue that sustainable development strategies are the best means to permanently improve living standards in developing countries. Advocates' arguments are based on the technical, financial, and environmental advantages of sustainable development. However, they have not addressed the organizational and administrative decision-making issues which are key to successful implementation of sustainable development in developing countries. Using the Ghanaian electricity industry as a case study, this dissertation identifies and analyzes organizational structures, administrative mechanisms, and decision-maker viewpoints that critically affect the success of adoption and implementation of energy efficiency within a sustainable development framework. Utilizing semi-structured interviews in field research, decision-makers' perceptions of the pattern of the industry's development, causes of the electricity supply shortfall, and barriers to electricity-use efficiency were identified. Based on the initial findings, the study formulated a set of policy initiatives to establish support for energy use efficiency. In a second set of interviews, these policy suggestions were presented to some of the top decision-makers to elicit their reactions. According to the decision-makers, the electricity supply shortfall is due to rapid urbanization and increased industrial consumption as a result of the structural adjustment program, rural electrification, and the sudden release of suppressed loads. The study found a lack of initiative and collaboration among industry decision-makers, and a related divergence in decision-makers' concerns and viewpoints. Also, lacking are institutional support systems and knowledge of proven energy efficiency strategies and technologies. As a result, planning, and even the range of perceived solutions to choose from are supply-side oriented. The final chapter of the study presents implications of its findings and proposes that any

  11. Energy efficiency in future wireless broadband networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available , and will require unique energy efficient solutions. For instance, an MS may be battery-powered, and the relevant energy efficient solution would include switching-off the display and minimizing signalling overhead (e.g. sleep mode). Meanwhile energy efficient... solution for the BS may include the intelligent sleep mode policies when the number of users and the traffic load decreases [3]. Due to the growing demand for advanced broadband wireless technologies and services, research in green radio solutions...

  12. Household transitions to energy efficient lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    New energy efficient lighting technologies have the potential to significantly reduce household electricity consumption. But adoption of many technologies has been slow. This paper employs a unique dataset of German households to examine the factors associated with the replacement of old incandescent lamps (ILs) with new energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The 'rebound' effect of increased light luminosity during the transition to energy efficie...

  13. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described.

  14. Monitoring tools for energy efficiency in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document brings together the different definitions of the indicators used in the European Odyssee project on energy efficiency indicators. This project was initiated in 1990. It benefits from the combined support of the SAVE programme of the European Commission, of Ademe and of 15 national Efficiency Agencies within the European network of energy efficiency agencies. The objective of the project is to develop and maintain indicators that enable to review progress in energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions abatement, by sector, end-use, etc.. for each country and the EU as a whole. To reach this objective, all data and indicators are stored in a common database called ODYSSEE that is regularly updated. A common methodology is used to produce comparative energy efficiency indicators from the database. The definitions presented in this document concern: 1) the general points (energy intensity, consumption, savings, efficiency, the unit consumption effect and index, the technological effect or savings, the substitution effect and the behavioural/management effect); 2) the macro-indicators (primary and final energy intensities at constant structure, at purchasing power parities, at reference economic structure); 3) industry (energy intensity of industry/manufacturing, of industry at constant structure and at reference structure, unit consumption of steel, cement etc.., process effect); 4) transports (energy intensity, unit consumption of vehicles, average specific consumption, test specific consumption, unit consumption, specific consumption, behavioural energy savings; 5) households and services (unit consumption, specific consumption, energy intensity of households, appliances); 6) transformations (apparent efficiency of energy sector or transformations, efficiency at constant fuel mix, efficiency of electricity sector). The same work is made for the 'key energy efficiency indicators', for the 'aggregate energy efficiency indicators' for

  15. Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes, Energy Efficiency Policies for New Buildings. IEA Information Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laustsen, Jens

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse current approaches to encourage energy efficiency in building codes for new buildings. Based on this analysis the paper enumerates policy recommendations for enhancing how energy efficiency is addressed in building codes and other policies for new buildings. This paper forms part of the IEA work for the G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action. These recommendations reflect the study of different policy options for increasing energy efficiency in new buildings and examination of other energy efficiency requirements in standards or building codes, such as energy efficiency requirements by major renovation or refurbishment. In many countries, energy efficiency of buildings falls under the jurisdiction of the federal states. Different standards cover different regions or climatic conditions and different types of buildings, such as residential or simple buildings, commercial buildings and more complicated high-rise buildings. There are many different building codes in the world and the intention of this paper is not to cover all codes on each level in all countries. Instead, the paper details different regions of the world and different ways of standards. In this paper we also evaluate good practices based on local traditions. This project does not seek to identify one best practice amongst the building codes and standards. Instead, different types of codes and different parts of the regulation have been illustrated together with examples on how they have been successfully addressed. To complement this discussion of efficiency standards, this study illustrates how energy efficiency can be improved through such initiatives as efficiency labelling or certification, very best practice buildings with extremely low- or no-energy consumption and other policies to raise buildings' energy efficiency beyond minimum requirements. When referring to the energy saving potentials for buildings, this study uses the analysis of recent IEA

  16. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

    2006-07-01

    Summarizes recommendations, key barriers, and methods for energy efficiency in utility ratemaking as well as revenue requirements, resource planning processes, rate design, and program best practices.

  17. Energy efficiency buildings program, FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A separate abstract was prepared on research progress in each group at LBL in the energy efficient buildings program. Two separate abstracts were prepared for the Windows and Lighting Program. Abstracts prepared on other programs are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program; DOE-21 Building Energy Analysis; and Building Energy Data Compilation, Analysis, and Demonstration. (MCW)

  18. A study on electric bicycle energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan EVTIMOV

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a construction of an experimental electric bicycle for evaluation of the energy efficiency. The bicycle is equipped with onboard computer which can store the information about motion and energy consumption. The result concerning power, energy consumption, recharging during brake process, etc. are given. Energy consumption for 3 typical city routes is studied.

  19. Advanced, Energy Efficient Shelter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    Development Analysis, M&S Thermal Barriers Large Shelter Efficiency System Integration Follow-On Demonstrations Lessons Learned from Initial...UNCLASSIFIED 13 Technology Development: Thermal Barriers Objective: Address the enduring challenge of developing a thermal insulation for shelter systems

  20. DTU International Energy Report 2012: Energy efficiency improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Increased energy efficiency can reduce global CO2 emissions over the period to 2050 with up to 25%. On the top of that large profits can be gained for very little investment. Energy efficiency improvements can save investment in new energy infrastructure, cut fuel costs, increase competitiveness...

  1. About energy saving and increase of energy efficiency in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the article the analysis of National law №261 "Energy saving and increase of energy efficiency..." from the point of view of building systems is given. The recommendations for modernization of heat, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems taking into account energy efficiency requirements are given.

  2. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, V.; Becchis, F.; Steg, L.; Russolillo, D.

    2009-01-01

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between en

  3. About energy saving and increase of energy efficiency in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    L.L. Goshka

    2010-01-01

    In the article the analysis of National law №261 "Energy saving and increase of energy efficiency..." from the point of view of building systems is given. The recommendations for modernization of heat, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems taking into account energy efficiency requirements are given.

  4. Energy-efficient optical network units for OFDM PON based on time-domain interleaved OFDM technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Cao, Pan; Zhang, Liang; Jiang, Lipeng; Su, Yikai

    2014-06-02

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new scheme to reduce the energy consumption of optical network units (ONUs) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical networks (OFDM PONs) by using time-domain interleaved OFDM (TI-OFDM) technique. In a conventional OFDM PON, each ONU has to process the complete downstream broadcast OFDM signal with a high sampling rate and a large FFT size to retrieve its required data, even if it employs a portion of OFDM subcarriers. However, in our scheme, the ONU only needs to sample and process one data group from the downlink TI-OFDM signal, effectively reducing the sampling rate and the FFT size of the ONU. Thus, the energy efficiency of ONUs in OFDM PONs can be greatly improved. A proof-of-concept experiment is conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme. Compared to the conventional OFDM PON, our proposal can save 17.1% and 26.7% energy consumption of ONUs by halving and quartering the sampling rate and the FFT size of ONUs with the use of the TI-OFDM technology.

  5. Industrial energy-efficiency-improvement program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Progress made by industry toward attaining the voluntary 1980 energy efficiency improvement targets is reported. The mandatory reporting population has been expanded from ten original industries to include ten additional non-targeted industries and all corporations using over one trillion Btu's annually in any manufacturing industry. The ten most energy intensive industries have been involved in the reporting program since the signing of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and as industrial energy efficiency improvement overview, based primarily on information from these industries (chemicals and allied products; primary metal industry; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass products; paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metal products; transportation equipment; machinery, except electrical; and textile mill products), is presented. Reports from industries, now required to report, are included for rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products. Additional data from voluntary submissions are included for American Gas Association; American Hotel and Motel Association; General Telephone and Electronics Corporation; and American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (MCW)

  6. Progress towards energy efficient cities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    the energy situation in cities, compiling 50 energy-related indicators. In this paper we discuss the progress towards more energy efficient cities in Denmark, by analysing selected key-indicators across all 98 municipalities and their development in the recent 10 years. This allows a unique perspective...... on the state of energy use in an advanced economy as well as its transition towards more sustainable energy patterns. An important question in this context is how cities (i.e. municipalities) actually can work towards being more energy efficient. Many municipalities have an increasing focus on sustainable...... and efficient use of resources and energy as well as renewable energy production. However, the role and potential contribution of municipalities to this transition is still unclear as many aspects of energy generation, distribution and use are going far beyond municipal competences (Rutherford & Coutard 2014...

  7. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumpy, T. [International Legal Counsel, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  8. Energy efficiency potentials and energy management practices in Swedish firms

    OpenAIRE

    Backlund, Sandra; Broberg, Sarah; Ottosson, Mikael; Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve energy efficiency and reach the EU:s 20-20-20 primary energy saving target, focus has mainly been on diffusion of technology. Previous studies have illustrated large untapped energy saving potentials from implementing energy management practices in firms. Energy management practices have large effects on energy utilization and also a short pay-back time. According to these studies, energy management practices also effect investment decisions and the outcome of investments ...

  9. The energy efficiency of onboard hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Qingfeng; Bjerrum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Global warming resulting from the use of fossil fuels is threatening the environment and energy efficiency is one of the most important ways to reduce this threat. Industry, transport and buildings are all high energy-using sectors in the world and even in the most technologically optimistic...... perspectives energy use is projected to increase in the next 50 years. How and when energy is used determines society's ability to create long-term sustainable energy systems. This is why this book, focusing on energy efficiency in these sectors and from different perspectives, is sharp and also important...

  10. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  11. Towards energy efficient mobile communications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available to the power saving class (PSC) of Type I in IEEE 802.16. Our numerical results show that more energy can be saved if the listening interval is considered under non-sleep or awake mode....

  12. Jcpenney Buying into Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-03-01

    Jcpenney partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build new, low-energy buildings that are at least 50% below Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air- Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  13. ENERGY EFFICIENCY POLICY IN MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina GRIBINCEA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is the dominant factor that determines the country’s welfare and influences all activity segments of society.To achieve continuous and sustainable economic development, energy sources must be adequate and safe, reasonably priced and ensure economic competitiveness of the country. This article will examine the essence ofenergy policy, stages of development and perspective directions for Moldova, oriented towards joining the European Union and cooperation with the CIS countries.

  14. Risk Assessment of Energy-Efficient Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This multi-year project aims to provide the residential construction industry with energy-efficient wall designs that are moisture durable. The present work focused on the initial step of this project, which is to develop a moisture durability protocol that identifies energy efficient wall designs that have a low probability of experiencing moisture problems.

  15. The benefits of energy efficiency - why wait?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, K.; Breevoort, P. van

    2012-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency globally leads to many benefits. First and foremost, improved energy efficiency of equipment, buildings, vehicles and industrial processes will lead to a reduction of the use of electricity, heat and fuels. This will save large amounts of money. Moreover,

  16. Energy Efficiency Policy and Carbon Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The main message of this paper is that while carbon pricing is a prerequisite for least-cost carbon mitigation strategies, carbon pricing is not enough to overcome all the barriers to cost-effective energy efficiency actions. Energy efficiency policy should be designed carefully for each sector to ensure optimal outcomes for a combination of economic, social and climate change goals. This paper aims to examine the justification for specific energy efficiency policies in economies with carbon pricing in place. The paper begins with an inventory of existing market failures that attempt to explain the limited uptake of energy efficiency. These market failures are investigated to see which can be overcome by carbon pricing in two subsectors -- electricity use in residential appliances and heating energy use in buildings. This analysis finds that carbon pricing addresses energy efficiency market failures such as externalities and imperfect energy markets. However, several market and behavioural failures in the two subsectors are identified that appear not to be addressed by carbon pricing. These include: imperfect information; principal-agent problems; and behavioural failures. In this analysis, the policies that address these market failures are identified as complementary to carbon pricing and their level of interaction with carbon pricing policies is relatively positive. These policies should be implemented when they can improve energy efficiency effectively and efficiently (and achieve other national goals such as improving socio-economic efficiency).

  17. Enhancing Energy Efficient TCP by Partial Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donckers, L.; Smit, G.J.M.; Smit, L.T.

    2002-01-01

    We present a study on the effects on a mobile system's energy efficiency of enhancing, with partial reliability, our energy efficient TCP variant (E/sup 2/TCP) (see Donckers, L. et al., Proc. 2nd Asian Int. Mobile Computing Conf. - AMOC2002, p.18-28, 2002). Partial reliability is beneficial for mult

  18. Energy-efficient adaptive wireless network design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Bos, M.

    Energy efficiency is an important issue for mobile computers since they must rely on their batteries. We present an energy-efficient highly adaptive architecture of a network interface and novel data link layer protocol for wireless networks that provides quality of service (QoS) support for diverse

  19. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  20. Tribal Energy Program, Assisting Tribes to Realize Their Energy Visions (Brochure), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This 12-page brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Tribal Energy Program and describes the financial, technical, and educational assistance it provides to help tribes develop their renewable energy resources and reduce their energy consumption.

  1. Energy efficiency and conservation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, O.M.; Yunez Naude, A.; Wionczek, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Comparing the degree of efficiency in energy production and the uses to which energy resources are allocated in Mexico with that in other countries, this book addresses three basic questions: What are the major reasons for differences in energy efficiency between industrial economies and a newly industrializing country like Mexico. To what extent is energy conservation possible in the Mexican economy. And what are the social and economic benefits of more efficient use and conservation of energy in comparison with their costs. Using the history and operations of two state-owned energy agencies, PEMEX and the Federal Electricity Commission, as case studies, the contributors explore the patterns of energy use in all major sectors of the economy and discuss the prospects for energy-saving policies between the mid-1980s and the end of the century.

  2. The Study on Energy Efficiency in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinduo

    This paper is dedicated to explore the dynamic performance of energy efficiency in Africa, with panel data in country level, taking energy yield, power consumption, electricity transmission and distribution losses into account, the paper employ stochastic frontier mode,highlighting a dummy variable in energy output in terms of net imports of energy and power, which minify the deviation of estimated variables. The results show that returns of scale did not appear in energy and power industry in Africa, electricity transmission and distribution losses contribute most to GDP per unit of energy. In country level, Republic of Congo and Botswana suggest an obvious energy efficiency advantage. Energy efficiency in Mozambique and Democratic Republic of Congo are not very satisfying during the studying year

  3. Energy Efficiency of Ultra-Low-Power Bicycle Wireless Sensor Networks Based on a Combination of Power Reduction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik Kamel Gharghan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In most wireless sensor network (WSN applications, the sensor nodes (SNs are battery powered and the amount of energy consumed by the nodes in the network determines the network lifespan. For future Internet of Things (IoT applications, reducing energy consumption of SNs has become mandatory. In this paper, an ultra-low-power nRF24L01 wireless protocol is considered for a bicycle WSN. The power consumption of the mobile node on the cycle track was modified by combining adjustable data rate, sleep/wake, and transmission power control (TPC based on two algorithms. The first algorithm was a TPC-based distance estimation, which adopted a novel hybrid particle swarm optimization-artificial neural network (PSO-ANN using the received signal strength indicator (RSSI, while the second algorithm was a novel TPC-based accelerometer using inclination angle of the bicycle on the cycle track. Based on the second algorithm, the power consumption of the mobile and master nodes can be improved compared with the first algorithm and constant transmitted power level. In addition, an analytical model is derived to correlate the power consumption and data rate of the mobile node. The results indicate that the power savings based on the two algorithms outperformed the conventional operation (i.e., without power reduction algorithm by 78%.

  4. Municipalities as promoters of energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten

    Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since...... the authorities fail to mobilise the stakeholders to implement energy efficient technologies in local building practices. This points towards a need to reframe policy initiatives in order to take the complexity of the challenge of dissemination of energy efficient technologies in practice into account......; acknowledging that singular instruments are seldom sufficient to boost a wider transition in building practices, since no simple cause or driver for change exists. The municipal level is essential in facilitating change within energy efficient technologies, since municipals have strong interrelations...

  5. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in SIPs and TIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tools and guides to encourage state, tribal and local agencies to consider incorporating Energy Efficiency (EE) and Renewable Energy (RE) policies and programs in their State and Tribal Implementation Plans (SIPs/TIPs).

  6. Energy efficient circuit design using nanoelectromechanical relays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ramakrishnan

    Nano-electromechanical (NEM) relays are a promising class of emerging devices that offer zero off-state leakage and behave like an ideal switch. Recent advances in planar fabrication technology have demonstrated that microelectromechanical (MEMS) scale miniature relays could be manufactured reliably and could be used to build fully functional, complex integrated circuits. The zero leakage operation of relays has renewed the interest in relay based low power logic design. This dissertation explores circuit architectures using NEM relays and NEMS-CMOS heterogeneous integration. Novel circuit topologies for sequential logic, memory, and power management circuits have been proposed taking into consideration the NEM relay device properties and optimizing for energy efficiency and area. In nanoscale electromechanical devices, dispersion forces like Van der Waals' force (vdW) affect the pull-in stability of the relay devices significantly. Verilog-A electromechanical model of the suspended gate relay operating at 1V with a nominal air gap of 5 - 10nm has been developed taking into account all the electrical, mechanical and dispersion effects. This dissertation explores different relay based latch and flip-flop topologies. It has been shown that as few as 4 relay cells could be used to build flip-flops. An integrated voltage doubler based flip flop that improves the performance by 2X by overdriving Vgb has been proposed. Three NEM relay based parallel readout memory bitcell architectures have been proposed that have faster access time, and remove the reliability issues associated with previously reported serial readout architectures. A paradigm shift in design of power switches using NEM relays is proposed. An interesting property of the relay device is that the ON state resistance (Ron) of the NEM relay switch is constant and is insensitive to the gate slew rate. This coupled with infinite OFF state resistance (Roff ) offers significant area and power advantages over CMOS

  7. Secure and Energy-Efficient Data Transmission System Based on Chaotic Compressive Sensing in Body-to-Body Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haipeng; Tian, Ye; Kurths, Jurgen; Li, Lixiang; Yang, Yixian; Wang, Daoshun

    2017-06-01

    Applications of wireless body area networks (WBANs) are extended from remote health care to military, sports, disaster relief, etc. With the network scale expanding, nodes increasing, and links complicated, a WBAN evolves to a body-to-body network. Along with the development, energy saving and data security problems are highlighted. In this paper, chaotic compressive sensing (CCS) is proposed to solve these two crucial problems, simultaneously. Compared with the traditional compressive sensing, CCS can save vast storage space by only storing the matrix generation parameters. Additionally, the sensitivity of chaos can improve the security of data transmission. Aimed at image transmission, modified CCS is proposed, which uses two encryption mechanisms, confusion and mask, and performs a much better encryption quality. Simulation is conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods. The results show that the energy efficiency and security are strongly improved, while the storage space is saved. And the secret key is extremely sensitive, [Formula: see text] perturbation of the secret key could lead to a total different decoding, the relative error is larger than 100%. Particularly for image encryption, the performance of the modified method is excellent. The adjacent pixel correlation is smaller than 0.04 in different directions including horizontal, vertical, and diagonal; the entropy of the cipher image with a 256-level gray value is larger than 7.98.

  8. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

  9. Energy Efficiency Vital for Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The world is hoping the Chinese economy will continue to be the engine of global growth after growing by about 9 percent in 2011. This relentless economic expansion comes at a high price, and China finds itself well short of immediate solutions on how to rein in its vast energy consumption and, consequently, the environmental pollution that threatens its progress. In 2010 China's electricity consumption grew 13.7 percent, outstripping its GDP growth of 10.4 percent. It used 3.2 trillion tons of coal equivalent, or about 20 percent of the world's energy consumption, overtaking the US to become the world's largest energy consumer.

  10. Energy efficiency: a recipe for success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Produced in cooperation with ADEME and Enerdata, this report presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies and trends in about 90 countries around the world. It reviews the impact of energy efficiency measures and highlights the trends and results of their implementation. Energy efficiency is ''a low hanging fruit'' on the ''energy tree'' which can help address a number of objectives at the same time and at a low or negative cost: security of supply, environmental impacts, competitiveness, balance of trade, investment requirements, social aspects and others. Despite its significant potential for energy savings, energy efficiency is still far from realising this potential. Why? There is no single answer to this question. A meaningful response requires major research and an analytical effort.

  11. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizi GOSCHIN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  12. ESTIMATION OF LONG-TERM INVESTMENT PROJECTS WITH ENERGY-EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS BASED ON LIFE CYCLE COSTS INDICATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Viktor Ivanovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The starting stage of the tender procedures in Russia with the participation of foreign suppliers dictates the feasibility of the developments for economical methods directed to comparison of technical solutions on the construction field. The article describes the example of practical Life Cycle Cost (LCC evaluations under respect of Present Value (PV determination. These create a possibility for investor to estimate long-term projects (indicated as 25 years as commercially profitable, taking into account inflation rate, interest rate, real discount rate (indicated as 5 %. For economic analysis air-blower station of WWTP was selected as a significant energy consumer. Technical variants for the comparison of blower types are: 1 - multistage without control, 2 - multistage with VFD control, 3 - single stage double vane control. The result of LCC estimation shows the last variant as most attractive or cost-effective for investments with economy of 17,2 % (variant 1 and 21,0 % (variant 2 under adopted duty conditions and evaluations of capital costs (Cic + Cin with annual expenditure related (Ce+Co+Cm. The adopted duty conditions include daily and seasonal fluctuations of air flow. This was the reason for the adopted energy consumption as, kW∙h: 2158 (variant 1,1743...2201 (variant 2, 1058...1951 (variant 3. The article refers to Europump guide tables in order to simplify sophisticated factors search (Cp /Cn, df, which can be useful for economical analyses in Russia. Example of evaluations connected with energy-efficient solutions is given, but this reference involves the use of materials for the cases with resource savings, such as all types of fuel. In conclusion follows the assent to use LCC indicator jointly with the method of determining discounted cash flows, that will satisfy the investor’s need for interest source due to technical and economical comparisons.

  13. Transaction costs of raising energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, K.

    2003-07-01

    Part of the debate evolves around the existence and importance of energy saving potentials to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions that may be available at negative net costs, implying that the energy cost savings of one specific technology can actually more than offset the costs of investing into this technology and of using it. This so called ''no-regret'' potential would comprise measures that from a pure economic efficiency point of view would be ''worth undertaking whether or not there are climate-related reasons for doing so''. The existence of the no-regret potential is often denied by arguing, that the economic evaluation of the energy saving potentials did not take into account transaction costs. This paper will re-examine in more detail the concept of transaction costs as it is used in the current debate on no-regret potentials (section 1). Four practical examples are presented to illustrate how transaction costs and their determinants can be identified, measured and possibly influenced (section 2). In order to link the presented cases to modelling based evaluation approaches the implications for cost evaluations of energy saving measures, especially in the context of energy system modelling, will be shown (section 3). (author)

  14. The g-C3 N4 /C2 N Nanocomposite: A g-C3 N4 -Based Water-Splitting Photocatalyst with Enhanced Energy Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin; Li, Xingxing; Yang, Jinlong

    2016-07-01

    Water-splitting photocatalysts with good energy efficiency are highly desirable, among which metal-free graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) is considered to be very promising and has been intensively studied in recent years. However, its practical application is hindered by the relatively low efficiencies of visible-light absorption and electron-hole separation. Herein, based on first-principles calculations, it is predicted that, by forming nanocomposites with another carbon nitride (C2 N), the energy efficiency of g-C3 N4 can be significantly improved. On one hand, C2 N has a wide, strong optical absorption in the visible-light region, which acts as a photosensitizer and enhances the photoabsorption efficiency of the composite photocatalyst. On the other hand, C2 N forms a type II heterojunction with g-C3 N4 , which leads to efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs through the chemical potential difference between the two components. These results provide a potential route to achieve highly efficient metal-free photocatalysts for water splitting.

  15. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANDI, J.T.; PLIVELICH, R.F.

    2006-04-30

    Electro Energy, Inc. conducted a research project to develop an energy efficient and environmentally friendly bipolar Ni-MH battery for distributed energy storage applications. Rechargeable batteries with long life and low cost potentially play a significant role by reducing electricity cost and pollution. A rechargeable battery functions as a reservoir for storage for electrical energy, carries energy for portable applications, or can provide peaking energy when a demand for electrical power exceeds primary generating capabilities.

  16. Improving Energy Efficiency Cable Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iashutina Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the energy calculation is made at different temperatures of the heating surface. The influence of the speed of pulling on the cost of the finished products of cable products. The interrelation of speed broaching and temperature of the heating surface.

  17. Energy-efficient MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li De-liang; Peng Fei

    2009-01-01

    Designing energy-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols has a significant influence on the energy performance of wireless sensor network (WSN). In this paper we present a survey of the recent typical MAC protocols regarding energy efficiency for WSN. According to channel access policies, we classify these protocols into four categories: contention-based, TDMA-based, hybrid, and cross layer protocols, in which the advantages and disadvantages in each class of MAC protocols are discussed. Finally, we point out open research issues that need to carry on to achieve high energy efficiency for the design of MAC protocols in WSN.

  18. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  19. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  20. A paradigm for viewing biologic systems as scale-free networks based on energy efficiency: implications for present therapies and the future of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Anthony J; Lee, Patrick Y; Doux, John D

    2006-01-01

    A network constitutes an abstract description of the relationships among entities, respectively termed links and nodes. If a power law describes the probability distribution of the number of links per node, the network is said to be scale-free. Scale-free networks feature link clustering around certain hubs based on preferential attachments that emerge due either to merit or legacy. Biologic systems ranging from sub-atomic to ecosystems represent scale-free networks in which energy efficiency forms the basis of preferential attachments. This paradigm engenders a novel scale-free network theory of evolution based on energy efficiency. As environmental flux induces fitness dislocations and compels a new meritocracy, new merit-based hubs emerge, previously merit-based hubs become legacy hubs, and network recalibration occurs to achieve system optimization. To date, Darwinian evolution, characterized by innovation sampling, variation, and selection through filtered termination, has enabled biologic progress through optimization of energy efficiency. However, as humans remodel their environment, increasing the level of unanticipated fitness dislocations and inducing evolutionary stress, the tendency of networks to exhibit inertia and retain legacy hubs engender maladaptations. Many modern diseases may fundamentally derive from these evolutionary displacements. Death itself may constitute a programmed adaptation, terminating individuals who represent legacy hubs and recalibrating the network. As memes replace genes as the basis of innovation, death itself has become a legacy hub. Post-Darwinian evolution may favor indefinite persistence to optimize energy efficiency. We describe strategies to reprogram or decommission legacy hubs that participate in human disease and death.

  1. LEAN and energy efficiency; Lean og energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jespersen, Per T.; Vesterager Christensen, D.; Andersen, Hans (Teknologisk Institut, Energi og Klima, Taastrup (Denmark)); Dam Wied, M.; Dam, M. (NRGi Raadgivning, Aarhus (Denmark)); Thorndahl, M. (Horsens Kommune, Horsens (Denmark)); Weldingh, P. (Lokal Energi, Viby J. (Denmark)); Maagoee, P.; Kristensen, Kenneth T. (Viegand og Maagoee, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Kirketerp Friis, A. (Novozymes, Bagsvaerd (Denmark))

    2010-03-15

    By means of theoretical reports and three specific cases, the project showed how Lean principles can improve energy consulting efficiency, thus making it easier for end-users and energy consultants to record and document energy savings achieved. The three cases documented various types of extra benefits of integrating energy efficiency improvement in Lean processes. As a result of process optimisation, one manufacturing company successfully reduced both staffing and energy consumption, thus making production in Denmark competitive with out-sourced production in Asia. (LN)

  2. The Next Frontier in Industiral Energy Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.

    2010-01-01

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. In the near future, energy efficiency is pot

  3. Energy-efficient quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonen, Joni; Salmilehto, Juha; Möttönen, Mikko

    2017-04-01

    In the near future, one of the major challenges in the realization of large-scale quantum computers operating at low temperatures is the management of harmful heat loads owing to thermal conduction of cabling and dissipation at cryogenic components. This naturally raises the question that what are the fundamental limitations of energy consumption in scalable quantum computing. In this work, we derive the greatest lower bound for the gate error induced by a single application of a bosonic drive mode of given energy. Previously, such an error type has been considered to be inversely proportional to the total driving power, but we show that this limitation can be circumvented by introducing a qubit driving scheme which reuses and corrects drive pulses. Specifically, our method serves to reduce the average energy consumption per gate operation without increasing the average gate error. Thus our work shows that precise, scalable control of quantum systems can, in principle, be implemented without the introduction of excessive heat or decoherence.

  4. Towards Energy Efficient Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman

    2016-07-14

    Cognitive radio (CR) is a cutting-edge wireless communication technology that adopts several existing communication concepts in order to efficiently utilize the spectrum and meet the users demands of high throughput and real-time systems. Conventionally, high throughput demands are met through adopting broadband and multi-antenna technologies such as, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO). Whereas, real-time application demands are met by analyzing metrics which characterize the delay limited channels, such as, outage probability over block-fading channels. Being an environmental friendly technology, energy efficiency metrics should be considered in the design of a CR application. This thesis tackles the energy efficiency of CR system from different aspects, utilizing different measuring metrics and constrains. Under the single-input single-output (SISO) OFDM we minimized the energy per goodbit (EPG) metric subject to several power and Quality of Service (QoS) constraints. In this approach, the minimum EPG metric is optimized via proposing two optimal and sub-optimal resource allocation schemes. We consider several parameters as optimization variables, such as, power policy, sensing threshold, and channel quality threshold. We also captured the impact of involving the media access control (MAC) layers parameters, such as, frame length, in the minimization of a modified EPG metric. Also, a MAC protocol, i.e., hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ), and the associated power consumption of the retransmission mechanism is considered in the formulation of the problem. In this context, the optimal power and frame length are derived to minimize the modified EPG while considering several spectrum-sharing scenarios, which depend on sensing information. In MIMO based CR system, we maximized capacity to power ratio (CPR) (as an energy efficiency (EE) metric) subject to several power and QoS constraints. In this context, the

  5. Municipalities as promoters of energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten

    Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since the author......Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since...... with practitioners in the building sector at the local level. The aim of this report is to look into municipal efforts to promote energy efficient buildings to learn from their experiences: What types of challenges are municipalities facing, when attempting to disseminate energy efficient technologies in local...... understanding of and involvement in local building processes. Through such planning approaches with a strong local contex-tual rooting, the municipalities are capable of facilitating changes in local building practices, leading to the implementation of energy efficient technologies in local building projects...

  6. Data base for the evaluation of energy efficiency measures 2008 (Exploitation for the year 2008); Datenbasis zur Bewertung von Energieeffizienzmassnahmen 2008 (Auswertung fuer das Jahr 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuensch, Marco; Seefeldt, Friedrich [Prognos AG, Berlin (Germany); Schlomann, Barbara; Fleiter, Tobias; Gerspacher, Andreas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Rohde, Clemens [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik; Geiger, Bernd; Kleeberger, Heinrich [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik

    2012-03-15

    The investigation under consideration provides a detailed data base regarding a final and useful energy demand in Germany. It serves as a basis for a future assessment of energy efficiency developments in separate sectors, applications and purposes. The project was conducted with data for the reference year 2007. The project focused on three final consumption sectors 'Private Household', 'Trade, commerce and services' and 'industry'. It did not cover the transport sector. The first chapter presents a calculation of the energy demand for the year 2008. Especially, it addresses the issue of changes in the procedure in comparison to the previous year. The second chapter presents the results of a differentiated final energy consumption for the year 2008 in the case of the three final consumption sectors. The results for the year 2008 are very good loadable.

  7. Moving around efficiently: Energy and transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans L. J. F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, transportation takes almost 20% of the total energy use, and more than half of the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The reason is simple: oil and gasoline are ideal energy carriers for transportation, since their energy density is extremely high. However, in terms of energy efficiency the internal combustion engine has a poor performance: about 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we will analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships, aircraft and zeppelins. Also the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. Special attention is given to future mobile energy carriers like hydrogen, batteries and super capacitors.

  8. Moving around efficiently: Energy and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, L. J. F.

    2013-06-01

    Worldwide, transportation takes almost 20% of the total energy use, and more than half of the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The reason is simple: oil and gasoline are ideal energy carriers for transportation, since their energy density is extremely high. However, in terms of energy efficiency the internal combustion engine has a poor performance: about 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we will analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships, aircraft and zeppelins. Also the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. Special attention is given to future mobile energy carriers like hydrogen, batteries and super capacitors.

  9. Energy Saving: Scaling Network Energy Efficiency Faster than Traffic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Blume, O.; Gati, A.; Capone, A.; Wu, C.-E.; Barth, U.; Marzetta, T.; Zhang, H.; Xu, S.

    2013-01-01

    As the mobile traffic is expected to continue its exponential growth in the near future, energy efficiency has gradually become a must criterion for wireless network design. Three fundamental questions need to be answered before the detailed design could be carried out, namely what energy efficiency

  10. Promoting the energy efficiency advantages of distributed generation/cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, P. [Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The economic and environmental benefits of energy efficiency were discussed with reference to district energy and distributed generation/cogeneration. The Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance is a leading independent organization which promotes energy efficiency and its benefits to the economy and the environment. Members include utilities, manufacturers, energy consultants, consumers and environmental groups across Canada. The Alliance mobilizes support for government policies, programs and standards. It also monitors and reports on government activities to raise a public profile of energy efficiency. This presentation includes a report card of the environmental performance of the provincial and federal governments in Canada which provides an indication of the level of their commitment to incorporate energy efficiency measures in their policy processes. Quebec and the Yukon share top honours for their initiatives on energy efficiency. The direct benefits of energy efficiency include reduced energy bills for customers, reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and greater efficiency of the supply system. Indirect benefits include job creation, the advancement of new technologies and enhanced energy security. Between 1990 and 1999 energy efficiency initiatives in Canada resulted in an 8 per cent reduction. Overall energy usage increased 12 per cent. Distributed generation consists of small-scale, modular power generation units located in proximity to where the energy is used. Cogeneration is the combined production of heat (usually as steam) and electricity, where both products are used. Since district energy often makes use of steam or hot water it can be part of a cogeneration system and a cogeneration-based district energy qualifies as distributed generation. Cogeneration produces about one third of the carbon dioxide emissions compared to power produced from coal and heat from natural gas. Distributed generation results in reduced electricity transmission and

  11. Energy efficient distributed computing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young-Choon

    2012-01-01

    The energy consumption issue in distributed computing systems raises various monetary, environmental and system performance concerns. Electricity consumption in the US doubled from 2000 to 2005.  From a financial and environmental standpoint, reducing the consumption of electricity is important, yet these reforms must not lead to performance degradation of the computing systems.  These contradicting constraints create a suite of complex problems that need to be resolved in order to lead to 'greener' distributed computing systems.  This book brings together a group of outsta

  12. Data base for the evaluation of energy efficiency measures 2008 (Exploitation for 2007); Datenbasis zur Bewertung von Energieeffizienzmassnahmen 2008 (Auswertung fuer 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seefeldt, Friedrich; Wuensch, Marco [Prognos AG, Berlin (Germany); Schlomann, Barbara; Fleiter, Tobias; Gerspacher, Andreas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Geiger, Bernd; Kleeberger, Heinrich; Ziesing, Hans-Joachim [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik

    2012-03-15

    The investigation under consideration provides a detailed data base regarding a final and useful energy demand in Germany. It serves as a basis for a future assessment of energy efficiency developments in separate sectors, applications and purposes. The project was conducted with data for the reference year 2007. The project focused on three final consumption sectors 'Private Household', 'Trade, commerce and services' and 'industry'. It did not cover the transport sector. With respect to the differentiation of energy demand, the main purpose was to provide results that are as transparent and comprehensible as possible by making estimates or calculations based on publicly available sources. The main approach was to derive results from primary statistical data. In some cases, where no published data were available, models or expert estimates had to be used, and the associated assumptions were disclosed.

  13. Financial Crisis and Energy Efficiency. Information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de T' Serclaes, Philippine; Gasc, Emilien; Saussay, Aurelien

    2009-10-15

    Governments have understood the importance of financing energy efficiency now. This realisation is exemplified through the central role occupied by energy efficiency in most stimulus packages. The purpose of this memo is to identify the impact of the financial and economic crisis on the evolution of public sector investments, energy efficiency policy development, and private sector investments. The paper will first identify trends which have emerged from the implementation of IEA government stimulus packages. Most relevant case studies are then provided along with lessons and challenges.

  14. A Novel Energy Efficient Topology Control Scheme Based on a Coverage-Preserving and Sleep Scheduling Model for Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Binbin; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yihuai; Shu, Wanneng

    2016-10-14

    In high-density sensor networks, scheduling some sensor nodes to be in the sleep mode while other sensor nodes remain active for monitoring or forwarding packets is an effective control scheme to conserve energy. In this paper, a Coverage-Preserving Control Scheduling Scheme (CPCSS) based on a cloud model and redundancy degree in sensor networks is proposed. Firstly, the normal cloud model is adopted for calculating the similarity degree between the sensor nodes in terms of their historical data, and then all nodes in each grid of the target area can be classified into several categories. Secondly, the redundancy degree of a node is calculated according to its sensing area being covered by the neighboring sensors. Finally, a centralized approximation algorithm based on the partition of the target area is designed to obtain the approximate minimum set of nodes, which can retain the sufficient coverage of the target region and ensure the connectivity of the network at the same time. The simulation results show that the proposed CPCSS can balance the energy consumption and optimize the coverage performance of the sensor network.

  15. Progress towards energy efficient cities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    Energy is a key issue for sustainable urban development. Despite agendas set on national and international level, local authorities are the key actors in this transformation (Lewis et al. 2013). European initiatives as the Covenant of Mayors or Energy Cities are closely following this development...... the energy situation in cities, compiling 50 energy-related indicators. In this paper we discuss the progress towards more energy efficient cities in Denmark, by analysing selected key-indicators across all 98 municipalities and their development in the recent 10 years. This allows a unique perspective...... on the state of energy use in an advanced economy as well as its transition towards more sustainable energy patterns. An important question in this context is how cities (i.e. municipalities) actually can work towards being more energy efficient. Many municipalities have an increasing focus on sustainable...

  16. Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve O' Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

    2012-02-17

    Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

  17. Energy efficiency of adiabatic superconductor logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Adiabatic superconductor logic (ASL), including adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic, exhibits high energy efficiency because its bit energy can be decreased below the thermal energy through adiabatic switching operations. In the present paper, we present the general scaling laws of ASL and compare the energy efficiency of ASL with those of other energy-efficient logics. Also, we discuss the minimum energy-delay product (EDP) of ASL at finite temperature. Our study shows that there is a maximum temperature at which the EDP can reach the quantum limit given by ħ/2, which is dependent on the superconductor material and the Josephson junction quality, and that it is reasonable to operate ASL at cryogenic temperatures in order to achieve an EDP that approaches ħ/2.

  18. Markov Decision Process Based Energy-Efficient On-Line Scheduling for Slice-Parallel Video Decoders on Multicore Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mastronarde, Nicholas; Atienza, David; Frossard, Pascal; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of energy-efficient on-line scheduling for slice-parallel video decoders on multicore systems. We assume that each of the processors are Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling (DVFS) enabled such that they can independently trade off performance for power, while taking the video decoding workload into account. In the past, scheduling and DVFS policies in multi-core systems have been formulated heuristically due to the inherent complexity of the on-line multicore scheduling problem. The key contribution of this report is that we rigorously formulate the problem as a Markov decision process (MDP), which simultaneously takes into account the on-line scheduling and per-core DVFS capabilities; the separate power consumption of the processor cores and caches; and the loss tolerant and dynamic nature of the video decoder's traffic. In particular, we model the video traffic using a Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG) to capture the precedence constraints among frames in a Group of Pictures (GOP) structure, ...

  19. Interactive Visualization of Heterogeneous Data for Energy Efficiency of Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Nancy; Lange, Benoit; Puech, William

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Since 1997, Kyoto protocol has highlighted the importance of a rational usage of energy. France and the EU have fixed several objectives concerning reduction of energy consumption and of greenhouse gas emission, and use of renewable energies. The main goal of the RIDER project (Research for IT Driven EneRgy Efficiency), is to develop an ICT-­‐based smart plataform for multiscale and multistandard energy management of buildings. In particular, the visualization componen...

  20. Energy Efficient Evolution of Mobile Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert

    costs, which, based on increasing energy prices and necessary network upgrades are likely to increase. Since base station sites make up for about 75% of the power consumption in mobile networks, studies are focused on this specific network element. A number of factors believed to play a role...... the v impact of replacing old equipment. Results show that an aggressive replacement strategy and the upgrade of sites to remote radio head can restrain the increase in power consumption of the network to just 17%. In addition to upgrading equipment, mobile network operators can further reduce power...... network capacity evolution path, replacing old and less efficient equipment, and enabling power saving features, can all considerably reduce the power consumption of future mobile broadband networks. Studies and recommendations presented within this thesis demonstrate that it is realistic for mobile...

  1. Energy Efficiency Plan 2009-2012; Energie Efficiency Plan 2009-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulen, M.M.W. (ed.)

    2009-02-15

    The aim of the Energy Efficiency Plan is to give an overview of the energy conservation plans of the Eindhoven University of Technology in Eindhoven, Netherlands, which must result in efficient use of energy conform the long-range agreements between businesses, industry and organizations and the Dutch government to improve energy efficiency (MJA3) [Dutch] Het doel van het EEP (Energie Efficiency Plan) is het in beeld brengen van de energiebesparingsplannen die leiden tot een efficienter gebruik van energie conform de MJA-3 afspraak (de derde Meerjaren Afspraak)

  2. Energy efficiency in existing detached housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This memo is written as an input to the German project Enef-haus on energy- efficient restoration of single-family houses in Germany. The memo contains a summary of the Danish experiences divided into three main sections: first is a short historic overview of the Danish energy policy indicating...... when different relevant instruments have been introduced to increase the energy efficiency of privately owned single-family houses. Second is a short introduction to the Danish housing sector and its energy supplies. The third and main part of the report is an examination of the most recent...

  3. The energy efficiency of lead selfsputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Henrik

    1968-01-01

    The sputtering efficiency (i.e. ratio between sputtered energy and impinging ion energy) has been measured for 30–75‐keV lead ions impinging on polycrystalline lead. The results are in good agreement with recent theoretical estimates. © 1968 The American Institute of Physics......The sputtering efficiency (i.e. ratio between sputtered energy and impinging ion energy) has been measured for 30–75‐keV lead ions impinging on polycrystalline lead. The results are in good agreement with recent theoretical estimates. © 1968 The American Institute of Physics...

  4. Relighting for energy efficiency and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Purcell, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of the process and approach of the Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI). It describes the major steps in relighting Federal buildings for energy efficiency and increased productivity.

  5. Relighting for energy efficiency and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, L. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Purcell, C.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the process and approach of the Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI). It describes the major steps in relighting Federal buildings for energy efficiency and increased productivity.

  6. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, V. [SOM, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Becchis, F. [POLIS Department, University of East Piedmont, via Duomo, 6-13100 Vercelli (Italy); Steg, L. [Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 72 9700 AB (Netherlands); Russolillo, D. [Fondazione per l' Ambiente ' T. Fenoglio' , Via Gaudenzio Ferrari 1, I-10124 Torino (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between energy input and output services that can be modified with technical improvements (e.g. technology substitution). Changing behaviour from one side and technology from the other are key issues for public energy policy. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effects of parameters that determine energy saving behaviour with the use of the microeconomic theory. The role of these parameters is crucial and can determine the outcome of energy efficiency policies; therefore policymakers should properly address them when designing policies. (author)

  7. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  8. Energy efficient perlite expansion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, K.L.

    1982-08-31

    A thermally efficient process for the expansion of perlite ore is described. The inlet port and burner of a perlite expansion chamber (Preferably a vertical expander) are enclosed such that no ambient air can enter the chamber. Air and fuel are metered to the burner with the amount of air being controlled such that the fuel/air premix contains at least enough air to start and maintain minimum combustion, but not enough to provide stoichiometric combustion. At a point immediately above the burner, additional air is metered into an insulated enclosure surrounding the expansion chamber where it is preheated by the heat passing through the chamber walls. This preheated additional air is then circulated back to the burner where it provides the remainder of the air needed for combustion, normally full combustion. Flow of the burner fuel/air premix and the preheated additional air is controlled so as to maintain a long luminous flame throughout a substantial portion of the expansion chamber and also to form a moving laminar layer of air on the inner surface of the expansion chamber. Preferably the burner is a delayed mixing gas burner which materially aids in the generation of the long luminous flame. The long luminous flame and the laminar layer of air at the chamber wall eliminate hot spots in the expansion chamber, result in relatively low and uniform temperature gradients across the chamber, significantly reduce the amount of fuel consumed per unit of perlite expanded, increase the yield of expanded perlite and prevent the formation of a layer of perlite sinter on the walls of the chamber.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENERGY- EFFICIENT, SECURE AND RELIABLE WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS ROUTING PROTOCOL BASED ON DATA AGGREGATION AND USER AUTHENTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gopi Saminathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data aggregation protocols are required in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs to improve the data accuracy and extend the network lifetime by reducing the energy consumption. The existing Data Aggregation-Optimal LEACH (DAO-LEACH protocol for WSN is enhanced in terms of security and fault-tolerance based on Gracefully Degraded Data Aggregation (GDDA to ensure the integrity of the aggregated data and Hybrid Layer User Authentication (HLUA to ensure the confidentiality of the aggregated data. This data aggregation scheme rejects the false data from compromised and malfunctioning Sensor Nodes (SNs. HLUA consists of a combination of Secret Key Cryptography (SKC method such as Message Authentication Code (MAC algorithm and Public Key Cryptography (PKC method such as Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC. MAC algorithm is used between the Cluster Heads (CHs and SNs to fulfill lower power demand, while ECC is applied for User Authentication (UA between CHs and users. The enhanced DAO-LEACH protocol is resistant to security attacks such as, replay attacks, node compromising attacks and impersonation attacks. It performs better in terms of energy consumption, number of nodes alive, End-to-End Delay (EED, false data detection and aggregation accuracy.

  10. Energy Efficient Evolution of Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert; Mogensen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    in understanding the impact that different options can have on the energy consumption of their networks. This paper investigates the possible energy gains of evolving a mobile network through a joint pico deployment and macro upgrade solution over a period of 8 years. Besides the network energy consumption, energy...... efficiency in Mbps/kWh is also analyzed. Furthermore, a cost analysis is carried out, to give a more complete picture of the different options being considered. Focusing on the last year of the evolution analysis, results show that deploying more pico sites reduces the energy consumption of the network......, by a maximum of 30%. With regards to the energy efficiency, high deployment of pico sites allowed the network to carry 16% more traffic for the same amount of energy. This, however, results in an increase in cost, specifically operational costs....

  11. Effect of driving cycles on energy efficiency of electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI FenZhu; XU LiCong; WU ZhiXin

    2009-01-01

    Based on several typical domestic and foreign driving cycles, the energy usage efficiency of the EVs-XL 2000 type electric vehicle (EV) is analyzed.The energy usage efficiency of EVs and the evaluation index of electromotor efficiency are studied.The concepts of "interval usage percentage of energy efficiency" and "exertion degree of energy efficiency" of electromotor are presented.The effects of driving cycles on the distribution of the running status of electromotor and the efficiency are investi-gated.The efficiency of electromotor and the trend of average driving force at different driving cycles are discussed.The exertion degree of energy efficiency and the total power train efficiency of the EVs-XL 2000 type electric vehicle at typical driving cycles are analyzed and calculated.The result in-dicates that the driving cycle engenders a big influence on the exertion degree of electromotor energy efficiency at different driving cycles.Dissimilar driving cycles result in different efficiency distributions of electromotor, the control system as well as the average driving force and driving range are variable.

  12. Effect of driving cycles on energy efficiency of electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on several typical domestic and foreign driving cycles, the energy usage efficiency of the EVs-XL 2000 type electric vehicle (EV) is analyzed. The energy usage efficiency of EVs and the evaluation index of electromotor efficiency are studied. The concepts of "interval usage percentage of energy efficiency" and "exertion degree of energy efficiency" of electromotor are presented. The effects of driving cycles on the distribution of the running status of electromotor and the efficiency are investi-gated. The efficiency of electromotor and the trend of average driving force at different driving cycles are discussed. The exertion degree of energy efficiency and the total power train efficiency of the EVs-XL 2000 type electric vehicle at typical driving cycles are analyzed and calculated. The result indicates that the driving cycle engenders a big influence on the exertion degree of electromotor energy efficiency at different driving cycles. Dissimilar driving cycles result in different efficiency distributions of electromotor, the control system as well as the average driving force and driving range are variable.

  13. Evaluating energy efficiency policies with energy-economy models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mundaca, L.; Neij, L.; Worrell, E.; McNeil, M.

    2010-01-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems, and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyz

  14. Energy Efficiency in Grocery Distribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)......Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)...

  15. Energy-efficient fault-tolerant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, Jimson; Pradhan, Dhiraj K

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the state-of-the-art in energy efficient, fault-tolerant embedded systems. It covers the entire product lifecycle of electronic systems design, analysis and testing and includes discussion of both circuit and system-level approaches. Readers will be enabled to meet the conflicting design objectives of energy efficiency and fault-tolerance for reliability, given the up-to-date techniques presented.

  16. Energy efficient outdoor lighting: an implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Farahat, Ahmed; Florea, Anna; Martínez Lastra, José Luis; Brañas Reyes, Christian; Azcondo Sánchez, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Lighting strongly influences human daily activities. Smart lighting emerged as new generation of lighting system, able to precisely address the specific needs. Under conditions of shortage in fossil fuels and high prices for energy, smart lighting enables design of lighting systems, which can efficiently use power resources without compromising the user experience. The paper describes implementation of outdoor lighting solution targeting energy efficiency. The proposed approach takes holistic...

  17. Technology for energy efficient passenger cars; Teknik foer energieffektiva personbilar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahman, M. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. for the Built Environment

    1999-11-01

    Passenger cars can be more effective and decrease their fuel consumption by switching to alternative drivetrains or by improvements in the conventional drivetrain. The aim of the report is to investigate and compare new energy efficient drivetrains in order to make a strategic assessment on which alternative have the highest potential for energy efficiency in the future. By way of a literature review the energy efficiency is investigated and compared for the electric vehicle, hybrid vehicle with either an otto-engine, diesel-engine or a fuel cell as a primary engine, and improvements in the conventional drivetrain. Each crucial component is investigated and assessed independently. The energy efficiency is calculated as primary energy efficiency all the way from the original energy source. The energy sources is divided into three different resource bases with different prospects for the future. The division is between fossil based energy, bioenergy and renewable electricity as solar, wind or hydropower. The result shows us that the highest efficiency is by using a pure electric drivetrain for all three different resource bases. However, questions can be raised regarding the market potential for the electric vehicle considering the range of an electric vehicle. The fuel cell vehicle have a high potential for energy efficiency but unfortunately the efficiency is strongly linked to using hydrogen as an energy carrier. This commands large investments in infrastructure for hydrogen. At the moment the car industry is focusing on hybrid vehicles with otto- or diesel engines. A reasonable potential for these drivetrains is a doubling of the energy efficiency compared to todays conventional drivetrain. No outstanding winner in the future can be seen today from present knowledge. Future investments in new drivetrains should allow flexibility in order not to lock in the development in a doubtful choice.

  18. Efficiencies of thermodynamics when temperature-dependent energy levels exist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Takuya

    2016-03-14

    Based on a generalized form of the second law of thermodynamics, in which the temperature-dependent energy levels of a system are appropriately included in entropy generation, we show that the effect reasonably appears in efficiencies of thermodynamic processes.

  19. Energy Efficient Iterative Waterfilling for the MIMO Broadcasting Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jie; Zhang, Shunqing

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing energy efficiency (EE) for the MIMO broadcasting channels (BC) is considered in this paper, where a practical power model is taken into account. Although the EE of the MIMO BC is non-concave, we reformulate it as a quasiconcave function based on the uplink-downlink duality. After that, an energy efficient iterative waterfilling scheme is proposed based on the block-coordinate ascent algorithm to obtain the optimal transmission policy efficiently, and the solution is proved to be convergent. Through simulations, we validate the efficiency of the proposed scheme and discuss the system parameters' effect on the EE.

  20. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems an interdisciplinary perspective on barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discuss

  1. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  2. An energy efficient building for the Arctic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vladyková, Petra

    of a super energy efficient house in which the normal hydronic heating system can be omitted. The savings in investment for a traditional hydronic heating system are spent on energy conserving components such as increased insulation in a super airtight building shell, super efficient windows to produce...... usage of an extreme energy efficient building in the Arctic. The purpose of this Ph.D. study is to determine the optimal use of an energy efficient house in the Arctic derived from the fundamental definition of a passive house, investigations of building parameters including the building envelope...... in the Arctic needs to take into account also different socioeconomic conditions, building traditions and use of buildings, survival issue, sustainability and power supply, among others. In the Arctic, the energy efficient house based on a passive house concept offers a sustainable solution to the operation...

  3. Modeling and design of energy efficient variable stiffness actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L.C.; Carloni, Raffaella; Ünal, Ramazan; Stramigioli, Stefano

    In this paper, we provide a port-based mathematical framework for analyzing and modeling variable stiffness actuators. The framework provides important insights in the energy requirements and, therefore, it is an important tool for the design of energy efficient variable stiffness actuators. Based

  4. Energy-Efficient Routing in GMPLS Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a GMPLS controlled core network model that takes energy efficiency into account is built using OPNET MODELER. By extending the standard GMPLS routing protocol -- OSPF-TE, we are able to spread desired energy related information over the local area, and subsequently use RSVP...

  5. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  6. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert H.-P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  7. The Energy Efficiency of Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Vestbø, Andreas Peter; Li, Qingfeng

    2007-01-01

    A number of the most common ways of storing hydrogen are reviewed in terms of energy efficiency. Distinction is made between energy losses during regeneration and during hydrogen liberation. In the latter case, the energy might have to be provided by part of the released hydrogen, and the true st...... storage density is then equivalently smaller. Systems covered include compressed and liquid hydrogen, reversible and irreversible metal hydrides, and methanol and ammonia.......A number of the most common ways of storing hydrogen are reviewed in terms of energy efficiency. Distinction is made between energy losses during regeneration and during hydrogen liberation. In the latter case, the energy might have to be provided by part of the released hydrogen, and the true...

  8. Efficient Use of Energy: as a Life Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omneya Sabry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the Early Eighties of the last Century, the Egyptian Government considered Energy Conservation as one of the main pillars of Energy Planning in Egypt, based on the fact that investing in Energy Efficiency is more cost effective than in constructing new Power Plants.Energy Efficiency (EE Programs financed by International Financing Institutions focused at that time, on Energy Audits in Industrial Buildings, Power Plants, Electricity Transmission and in some other Governmental Buildings. Recommendations for Efficient Use of Energy and reducing energy consumption at those entities were implemented by the Use of Efficient Lamps, Improving Power Factor, Waste Heat Recovery, Thermal Insulation, Efficient Firing in Boilers…. Consequently, High Quality Energy Efficient Products were competing in the market with others not having the same advantage.Although the above mentioned EE Programs included Awareness Campaigns for all sectors but the consumption in Residential Sector remained high and increased more and more ,exceeding even the consumption in Industrial Sector specially that the prices of electricity were highly subsidized.For that reason, more awareness campaigns (Lectures, Brochures, Audio and visual advertisement and more incentives were offered by Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy (MoERE to consumers in the Residential Sector. Meanwhile, a Program to reduce gradually subsidies on electricity prices started aiming to push consumers to follow energy efficiency instructions and buy efficient appliances especially while they were suffering from electricity cut for about two years.To prepare for Market Transformation to efficient appliances the Government, issued the Standard Specifications and Labeling for Energy Efficient Appliances (lamps, refrigerators, freezers, washing machines, air conditioners, dish washers and others. Meanwhile, these Standards are supported with Accredited Testing Labs in National Entities (NREA

  9. Energy efficiency: The Italian situation and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, Alessandro; Beccarello, Massimo; Gallanti, Massimo

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports the results of a study led by Confindustria (Italian Federation of Industrial Associations) on the Italian situation with respect to energy efficiency policies and their effective implementations. The study is being continuously updated with the contributions of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) and ERSE (previously CESI Ricerca) and highlights the obtainable savings through efficient technologies now already available for applications in the final uses of energy for both the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors.

  10. Electrical energy efficiency technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sumper, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of electrical energy efficiency is fast becoming one of the most essential areas of sustainability development, backed by political initiatives to control and reduce energy demand. Now a major topic in industry and the electrical engineering research community, engineers have started to focus on analysis, diagnosis and possible solutions. Owing to the complexity and cross-disciplinary nature of electrical energy efficiency issues, the optimal solution is often multi-faceted with a critical solutions evaluation component to ensure cost effectiveness. This single-source refer

  11. Renewable energy in energy efficient, low-pollution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Bengt

    1997-03-01

    Energy use accounts for the dominating fraction of total sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. In this thesis, different strategies for reducing these emissions are evaluated, using a bottom-up approach. CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity and heat production in western Scania, Sweden, can be reduced by 25% and the emissions of acidifying gases (SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}) by 50% by the year 2010, compared with 1988 levels, using energy systems based on efficient end-use technologies, cogeneration of heat and electricity, renewable energy sources and low-pollution energy conversion technologies. Exhaust-pipe NO{sub x} emissions from the Swedish transportation sector can be reduced by 50 percent by the year 2015, compared with 1991, by implementing the best available vehicle technologies. Exhaust-pipe emissions of CO{sub 2} can be stabilized at the 1991 level. With further technical development and the use of fuels from renewable sources of energy, NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced by 75 percent and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80 percent compared with 1991 levels. Swedish biomass resources are large, and, assuming production conditions around 2015, about 200 TWh/year could be utilised for energy. Major reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions could be achieved by substituting biomass for fossil fuels in heat, electricity and transportation fuel production. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass are likely to be less expensive than transportation fuels from conventional biomass feedstocks such as oil plants, sugar-beet and cereals. 90 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs

  12. Residential energy use in Lithuania: The prospects for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Kazakevicius, E. [Kazakevicius (Eduardas), Vilnius (Lithuania)

    1998-06-01

    While the potential for saving energy in Lithuania`s residential sector (especially, space heating in apartment buildings) is large, significant barriers (financial, administration, etc.) to energy efficiency remain. Removing or ameliorating these barriers will be difficult since these are systematic barriers that require societal change. Furthermore, solutions to these problems will require the cooperation and, in some cases, active participation of households and homeowner associations. Therefore, prior to proposing and implementing energy-efficiency solutions, one must understand the energy situation from a household perspective.

  13. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2011-07-01

    The SEAD initiative aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD is a government initiative whose activities and projects engage the private sector to realize the large global energy savings potential from improved appliance and equipment efficiency. SEAD seeks to enable high-level global action by informing the Clean Energy Ministerial dialogue as one of the initiatives in the Global Energy Efficiency Challenge. In keeping with its goal of achieving global energy savings through efficiency, SEAD was approved as a task within the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) in January 2010. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) ?raise the efficiency ceiling? by pulling super-efficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) ?raise the efficiency floor? by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) ?strengthen the efficiency foundations? of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities. Although not all SEAD partners may decide to participate in every SEAD activity, SEAD partners have agreed to engage actively in their particular areas of interest through commitment of financing, staff, consultant experts, and other resources. In addition, all SEAD partners are committed to share information, e.g., on implementation schedules for and the technical detail of minimum efficiency standards and other efficiency programs. Information collected and created through SEAD activities will be shared among all SEAD partners and, to the extent appropriate, with the global public.As of April 2011, the governments participating in SEAD are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Sweden

  14. Energy efficiency in the industrial sector. Model based analysis of the efficient use of energy in the EU-27 with focus on the industrial sector; Energieeffizienz in der Industrie. Modellgestuetzte Analyse des effizienten Energieeinsatzes in der EU-27 mit Fokus auf den Industriesektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuder, Ralf

    2014-01-09

    Energy efficiency is a highly important topic and currently omnipresent in the energy political discussion. Despite this high importance there's no common understanding even concerning the definition of the term energy efficiency. In addition, there are plenty so called energy efficiency targets and several indicators. Therefore this study should provide a deepened understanding of the efficient use of energy. The inconsistent definition of energy efficiency is related to the use of this term for a specific as well as an absolute reduction of energy consumption. Furthermore both static views on efficiency as a status and also dynamic views on efficiency as an improvement of a value compared to a reference number are used. Additional differences occur in the evaluation of the energy use and in the selection of a reference value in a key figure to assess energy efficiency. Moreover the focus of the current general understanding is mainly only on the consumption of energy. All other resources next to the energy input which are needed to provide energy services are not considered even though there are strong interactions and substitution possibilities among these resources. Hence the understanding of energy efficiency is extended in this study by these additional resources which were not considered yet. Based on this extension the efficient use of the resource energy is a result of an optimisation of the relation of these total costs of all resources to the related benefit. To determine the efficient use of energy in the industrial sector, a deeper understanding of the sector and its characteristics is necessary. The industrial sector is the largest consumer of electricity within the EU. Also a quarter of the final energy consumption and about 20 % of the CO{sub 2} emissions are related to this sector. Typical for this sector are the heterogeneous and high temperature level of the heat demand and the process emissions which accrue in transformation processes. The

  15. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, N.; Worrell, E.; Ruth, M.; Price, L.; Elliott, R.N.; Shipley, A.M.; Thorne, J.

    2000-10-01

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of the nation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly, industry is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, more sustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing global competitiveness. Technology will be essential for meeting these challenges. At some point, businesses are faced with investment in new capital stock. At this decision point, new and emerging technologies compete for capital investment alongside more established or mature technologies. Understanding the dynamics of the decision-making process is important to perceive what drives technology change and the overall effect on industrial energy use. The assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies can be useful for: (1) identifying R&D projects; (2) identifying potential technologies for market transformation activities; (3) providing common information on technologies to a broad audience of policy-makers; and (4) offering new insights into technology development and energy efficiency potentials. With the support of PG&E Co., NYSERDA, DOE, EPA, NEEA, and the Iowa Energy Center, staff from LBNL and ACEEE produced this assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies. The goal was to collect information on a broad array of potentially significant emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies and carefully characterize a sub-group of approximately 50 key technologies. Our use of the term ''emerging'' denotes technologies that are both pre-commercial but near commercialization, and technologies that have already entered the market but have less than 5 percent of current market share. We also have chosen technologies that are energy-efficient (i.e., use less energy than existing technologies and practices to produce the same product), and may have additional ''non-energy benefits.'' These benefits are as important (if

  16. 75 FR 35450 - Establishment of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee and Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Establishment of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee and Request for Member Nominations AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... Renewable Energy Advisory Committee and request member nominations. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section...

  17. 75 FR 35766 - Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and Solicitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... International Trade Administration Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory.... ACTION: Notice of establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and... establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (the Committee) by the...

  18. Enhancemenent of the energy efficiency by means of the energy efficiency commitment system. Brief: Energy efficiency commitment system (EnEffVSYS); Steigerung der Energieeffizienz mit Hilfe von Energieeffizienz-Verpflichtungssystemen. Kurz: Energieeffizienz-Verpflichtungssysteme (EnEffVSys)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agricola, Annegret C.; Joest, Steffen; Czernie, Marc; Heuke, Reemt; Kalinowska, Dominika; Peters, Sebastian [Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Perner, Jens; Bothe, David [Frontier Economics Ltd., Koeln (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The origin of the contribution under consideration is the new EU energy efficiency regulation (EU-EnEff-RL) which is valid since 4th December 2012. This regulation emphasizes the increase of the energy efficiency in Europe. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on (a) the framework conditions for energy efficiency and energy consumption in Europe; (b) the development of the energy consumption and energy efficiency in the past; (c) the economic potentials of energy efficiency in Germany up to the year 2020; (d) whether the advancement of the German, market based approach or the implementation of the energy efficiency commitment system in Germany would be the better way in order to reach the energy efficiency targets derived from the EU energy efficiency regulation.

  19. ROOT: Energy Efficient Routing through Optimized Tree in Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Mitra, Swarup Kumar; Naskar, Mrinal Kanti

    2011-01-01

    Due to limitation of battery power, wireless sensor nodes are highly energy constrained. So, to enhance the network lifetime, the protocols which are used in wireless sensor network should be energy efficient. The LEACH and PEGASIS protocols which are elegant solutions to this problem try to minimize the overall energy dissipation by the nodes in the network. While the LEACH protocol randomizes cluster heads to achieve equal energy dissemination, the PEGASIS protocol forms a chain of cluster heads taking rounds in transmitting to the base station. In this paper we propose an energy efficient protocol which combines and thus enhances the performance of LEACH and PEGASIS. Here the base station is located at variable distances from each node due to the random deployment of the sensor nodes. So, each node actually dissipates a different amount of energy during its turn of transmission to the base station. This energy difference between the various nodes keeps on increasing with resulting in poorer network perform...

  20. On Complexity, Energy- and Implementation-Efficiency of Channel Decoders

    CERN Document Server

    Kienle, Frank; Meyr, Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    Future wireless communication systems require efficient and flexible baseband receivers. Meaningful efficiency metrics are key for design space exploration to quantify the algorithmic and the implementation complexity of a receiver. Most of the current established efficiency metrics are based on counting operations, thus neglecting important issues like data and storage complexity. In this paper we introduce suitable energy and area efficiency metrics which resolve the afore-mentioned disadvantages. These are decoded information bit per energy and throughput per area unit. Efficiency metrics are assessed by various implementations of turbo decoders, LDPC decoders and convolutional decoders. New exploration methodologies are presented, which permit an appropriate benchmarking of implementation efficiency, communications performance, and flexibility trade-offs. These exploration methodologies are based on efficiency trajectories rather than a single snapshot metric as done in state-of-the-art approaches.

  1. Energy Saving and Efficient Energy Use By Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    , such as in the applications of adjustable speed drives and solid-state lighting systems. Power electronics gives also a high flexibility when renewable power production is introduced to electrical energy systems. Future research opportunities and challenges will finally be discussed.......In the development of the modern society, one of the key factors is to save energy in order to become more independent of other energy resources. Two important approaches can be taken—one is to change behavior and thereby save energy—the second one is to develop new technology which is able to save...... energy in different applications. This chapter will give an overview of challenges and possibilities in terms of energy saving and also energy efficient use. This includes a discussion on high efficiency power electronics devices and the systems they are used for energy loss reduction. The key enabling...

  2. Reliability and energy efficiency of zero energy homes (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2016-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules and systems are being installed increasingly on residential homes to increase the proportion of renewable energy in the energy mix. The ultimate goal is to attain sustainability without subsidy. The prices of PV modules and systems have declined substantially during the recent years. They will be reduced further to reach grid parity. Additionally the total consumed energy must be reduced by making the homes more energy efficient. FSEC/UCF Researchers have carried out research on development of PV cells and systems and on reducing the energy consumption in homes and by small businesses. Additionally, they have provided guidance on PV module and system installation and to make the homes energy efficient. The produced energy is fed into the utility grid and the consumed energy is obtained from the utility grid, thus the grid is assisting in the storage. Currently the State of Florida permits net metering leading to equal charge for the produced and consumed electricity. This paper describes the installation of 5.29 KW crystalline silicon PV system on a south-facing tilt at approximately latitude tilt on a single-story, three-bedroom house. It also describes the computer program on Building Energy Efficiency and the processes that were employed for reducing the energy consumption of the house by improving the insulation, air circulation and windows, etc. Finally it describes actual consumption and production of electricity and the installation of additional crystalline silicon PV modules and balance of system to make it a zero energy home.

  3. Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Ian; Fuller, Merrian C.; Billingsley, Megan A.

    2011-02-25

    Since the spring of 2009, billions of federal dollars have been allocated to state and local governments as grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and programs. The scale of this American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding, focused on 'shovel-ready' projects to create and retain jobs, is unprecedented. Thousands of newly funded players - cities, counties, states, and tribes - and thousands of programs and projects are entering the existing landscape of energy efficiency programs for the first time or expanding their reach. The nation's experience base with energy efficiency is growing enormously, fed by federal dollars and driven by broader objectives than saving energy alone. State and local officials made countless choices in developing portfolios of ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs and deciding how their programs would relate to existing efficiency programs funded by utility customers. Those choices are worth examining as bellwethers of a future world where there may be multiple program administrators and funding sources in many states. What are the opportunities and challenges of this new environment? What short- and long-term impacts will this large, infusion of funds have on utility customer-funded programs; for example, on infrastructure for delivering energy efficiency services or on customer willingness to invest in energy efficiency? To what extent has the attribution of energy savings been a critical issue, especially where administrators of utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs have performance or shareholder incentives? Do the new ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs provide insights on roles or activities that are particularly well-suited to state and local program administrators vs. administrators or implementers of utility customer-funded programs? The answers could have important implications for the future of U.S. energy efficiency. This report focuses on a selected set of ARRA

  4. Implications of Energy Efficiency and Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    It is essential that society shift toward more efficient energy consumption patterns. A sector basis analysis of energy consumption provides some suggestions regarding this view. In the residential sector, energy resources change with the advancement of development stages. The industrial sector is characterized by a diverse range of energy intensity in each subsector. Relevant policies and measures are considered based on the relevant sector information.

  5. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  6. Learning energy literacy concepts from energy-efficient homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Frederick Eugene

    The purpose of this study is to understand ways that occupants' and visitors' interaction with energy efficient home design affects Energy Literacy. Using a case study approach including interviews, surveys, and observations, I examined the potential for affordable energy efficient homes in the Greenville South Carolina area to "teach" concepts from an Energy Literacy framework developed by dozens of educational partners and federal agencies that comprise the U.S. Global Change Research Program Partners. I paid particular attention to concepts from the framework that are transferable to energy decisions beyond a home's walls. My research reveals ways that interaction with high efficiency homes can effect understanding of the following Energy Literacy concepts: human use of energy is subject to limits and constraints, conservation is one way to manage energy resources, electricity is generated in multiple ways, social and technological innovations effect the amount of energy used by society, and energy use can be calculated and monitored. Examples from my case studies show how the at-home examples can make lessons on energy more personally relevant, easy to understand, and applicable. Specifically, I found that: • Home occupants learn the limits of energy in relation to the concrete and constricting costs associated with their consumption. • Heating and cooling techniques showcase the limits and constraints on different sources of energy. • Relatable systems make it easier to understand energy's limits and constraints. • Indistinct and distant power utilities allow consumers to overlook the root of electricity sources. • Visible examples of electricity generation systems make it clear that electricity is generated in multiple ways. • Small and interactive may mean inefficient electricity generation, but efficient energy education. • Perceptions of expense and complexity create a disconnect between residential energy consumers and renewable electricity

  7. TR-MAC: an energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks exploiting noise-based transmitted reference modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, S.; Dimitrova, D.C.; Brogle, M.; Braun, T.; Heijenk, Gerhard J.

    Energy-constrained behavior of sensor nodes is one of the most important criteria for successful deployment of wireless sensor net- works. The medium access control (MAC) protocol determines the time a sensor node transceiver spends listening or transmitting, and hence the energy consumption of the

  8. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency: Metrics and Benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative; Mathew, Paul A.; Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Beasley, James

    2010-07-07

    Cleanrooms are among the most energy-intensive types of facilities. This is primarily due to the cleanliness requirements that result in high airflow rates and system static pressures, as well as process requirements that result in high cooling loads. Various studies have shown that there is a wide range of cleanroom energy efficiencies and that facility managers may not be aware of how energy efficient their cleanroom facility can be relative to other cleanroom facilities with the same cleanliness requirements. Metrics and benchmarks are an effective way to compare one facility to another and to track the performance of a given facility over time. This article presents the key metrics and benchmarks that facility managers can use to assess, track, and manage their cleanroom energy efficiency or to set energy efficiency targets for new construction. These include system-level metrics such as air change rates, air handling W/cfm, and filter pressure drops. Operational data are presented from over 20 different cleanrooms that were benchmarked with these metrics and that are part of the cleanroom benchmark dataset maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Overall production efficiency metrics for cleanrooms in 28 semiconductor manufacturing facilities in the United States and recorded in the Fabs21 database are also presented.

  9. Geospatial Technologies to Improve Urban Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharanidharan Hemachandran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The HEAT (Home Energy Assessment Technologies pilot project is a FREE Geoweb mapping service, designed to empower the urban energy efficiency movement by allowing residents to visualize the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT incorporates Geospatial solutions for residential waste heat monitoring using Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA and Canadian built Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager technology (TABI-320 to provide users with timely, in-depth, easy to use, location-specific waste-heat information; as well as opportunities to save their money and reduce their green-house-gas emissions. We first report on the HEAT Phase I pilot project which evaluates 368 residences in the Brentwood community of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and describe the development and implementation of interactive waste heat maps, energy use models, a Hot Spot tool able to view the 6+ hottest locations on each home and a new HEAT Score for inter-city waste heat comparisons. We then describe current challenges, lessons learned and new solutions as we begin Phase II and scale from 368 to 300,000+ homes with the newly developed TABI-1800. Specifically, we introduce a new object-based mosaicing strategy, an adaptation of Emissivity Modulation to correct for emissivity differences, a new Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN technique to correct for scene-wide microclimatic variation. We also describe a new Carbon Score and opportunities to update city cadastral errors with automatically defined thermal house objects.

  10. G20 Clean Energy, and Energy Efficiency Deployment and Policy Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    G-20 Clean Energy, and Energy Efficiency Deployment and Policy Progress, a report prepared by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in collaboration with the G-20 Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Working Group, provides an overview of clean energy and energy efficiency technology deployment and summarises support policies in place across G-20 countries. The report highlights that while clean energy technology deployment has made steady progress and energy efficiency improvements have been made, continued reliance on fossil fuels to meet growth in global energy demand presents a significant challenge. Scaling-up the deployment of renewable energy, in addition to improving end-use efficiency, enhancing the efficiency of fossil fuel based power generation, and supporting the widespread deployment of CCS will, therefore, also be crucial aspects of the transition to a cleaner energy future. Because the G-20 group of countries represent close to 80% of energy-related CO2 emissions, by developing and deploying energy efficiency and clean energy technologies, they are presented with a unique opportunity to make collective progress in transitioning the global energy system. IEA Deputy Executive Director Richard Jones emphasised the importance of G-20 efforts, saying, 'The IEA welcomes this important collaboration with the G-20. Enhanced deployment of clean energy technologies and of energy efficiency improvements offers energy security and environmental benefits. It will also enable cost savings over the medium and long term -- an aspect that is particularly relevant at a time of economic uncertainty. We believe that enhanced policy assessment and analysis, building on this initial report, will enable governments to take more cost effective and efficient policy decisions.' This report was issued on the authority of the IEA Executive Director, it does not necessarily represent the views of IEA Member countries or the G20.

  11. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...... operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties.......Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...

  12. Energy Efficient Power Allocation for Cognitive MIMO Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2016-01-06

    Two major issues are facing today s wireless communications evolution: -Spectrum scarcity: Need for more bandwidth. As a solution, the Cognitive Radio (CR) paradigm, where secondary users (unlicensed) share the spectrum with licensed users, was introduced. -Energy consumption and CO2 emission: The ICT produces 2% of global CO2 emission (equivalent to the aviation industry emission). The cellular networks produces 0.2%. As solution energy efficient systems should be designed rather than traditional spectral efficient systems. In this work, an energy efficient power allocation framework based on maximizing the average EE per parallel channel is presented.

  13. Management of projects for energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Miodrag M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to lower operating costs and improve competitiveness, many organizations today are preparing projects in the field of energy saving. On the other hand, companies that provide energy services and implement these projects, need to build competences in this area to well manage the projects which are subject to energy savings and by this to justify the confidence of investors. This paper presents research that shows the most important factors for the development of local capacity in project management in the field of energy efficiency.

  14. Mobile Energy Laboratory energy-efficiency testing programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, G.B.; Currie, J.W.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the first and second quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1991. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee is composed of one representative each of the US Department of Energy, US Army, US Air Force, US Navy, and other federal agencies.

  15. Energy efficiency analysis and implementation of AES on an FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, David

    The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) was developed by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rjimen and endorsed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in 2001. It was designed to replace the aging Data Encryption Standard (DES) and be useful for a wide range of applications with varying throughput, area, power dissipation and energy consumption requirements. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are flexible and reconfigurable integrated circuits that are useful for many different applications including the implementation of AES. Though they are highly flexible, FPGAs are often less efficient than Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs); they tend to operate slower, take up more space and dissipate more power. There have been many FPGA AES implementations that focus on obtaining high throughput or low area usage, but very little research done in the area of low power or energy efficient FPGA based AES; in fact, it is rare for estimates on power dissipation to be made at all. This thesis presents a methodology to evaluate the energy efficiency of FPGA based AES designs and proposes a novel FPGA AES implementation which is highly flexible and energy efficient. The proposed methodology is implemented as part of a novel scripting tool, the AES Energy Analyzer, which is able to fully characterize the power dissipation and energy efficiency of FPGA based AES designs. Additionally, this thesis introduces a new FPGA power reduction technique called Opportunistic Combinational Operand Gating (OCOG) which is used in the proposed energy efficient implementation. The AES Energy Analyzer was able to estimate the power dissipation and energy efficiency of the proposed AES design during its most commonly performed operations. It was found that the proposed implementation consumes less energy per operation than any previous FPGA based AES implementations that included power estimations. Finally, the use of Opportunistic Combinational Operand Gating on an AES cipher

  16. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide is designed to help state and local governments connect with EPA programs that can help them expand or develop their own energy efficiency/renewable energy (EE/RE) and climate initiatives in ways that benefit low-income communities.

  17. ENERGY EFFICIENT RENOVATION OF SOCIAL HOUSING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blyt, Henrik; Christiansen, Michael; Bech-Nielsen, Grith

    2013-01-01

    . Secondly we present follow up methods for developing an overall future energy efficient renovation housing sector strategy. All in all, our project contributes to the building sector by testing new methods and suggesting methods for meeting challenges concerning energy efficient renovation. It also......This paper presents a case study which investigates a strategic and methodological approach to future proofed renovations of social housing in an environmental, economically and socially sustainable way. In years to come the social housing sector must undergo major renovation. The housing sector...... and socially sustainable objective, which seeks towards energy efficient renovation as an overall, systemic and interdisciplinary collaboration, the construction industry needs to focus on developing, testing, evaluating and implementing tools and methods to optimize and improve processes in a value...

  18. Energy Efficient and Compact RF High-Power Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvillo Cortés, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are to improve the energy efficiency and physical form-factor of high-power amplifiers in base station applications. As such, the focus of this dissertation is placed on the outphasing amplifier concept, which can offer high-efficiency, good linearity and excellent

  19. Principle design of an energy efficient transfemoral prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ünal, R.; Hekman, E.E.G.; Carloni, R.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.; Stramigioli, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the pursuit of realizing an energy efficient transfemoral prosthetic, in this paper we present a preliminary study on a principle design. In particular, the design is based on the idea that the efficiency of the system can be realized by energetically coupling the knee and the ankle joints. In or

  20. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the IEE-project {sup M}onitoring of EU and national energy efficiency targets (ODYSSEE-MURE 2010)'. The Norwegian part of the project is co-funded by Enova. The report presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. The database contains information on energy use in a detailed level of the industry, transport, household and service sectors and other energy use. lt also contains information on energy drivers like heated square meters in the households and services sectors, transported passenger-km and ton-km of gods, value added, production index, production volumes etc. Final energy consumption has increased from 195 TWh in 1990 lo 229 TWh in 2010 The last ten years the energy consumption has varied between 212I Wh (2009) and 229 TWh (2010) with an annual average of 221TfUh. The sector using most energy is the industry, but the share has decreased from 40 % in 1990 to 31 % in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 the growth rate has been highest in the transport sector. Half of the energy end-use was electricity in 20,10, 42 % was fossil fuels and 6 % was biomass. The electricity use has an annual increase of 0.8 % since 1990, but the last decade the annual increase is reduced to 0.14 %. The consumption of oil products has decreased in stationary end-use (heating) and increased in the transport sector. In ODYSSEE, an aggregate bottom-up energy efficiency index, ODEX, is calculated. This energy efficiency index aggregates the trends in the detailed bottom-up indicators in one single indicator. This ODEX has improved by 26 o/o from 1990 to 2010 or by 1.3 o/o per year. This means that energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to a decrease in the energy use of 2010 of approximately 59 TWh. (Author)