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Sample records for based embedded system

  1. Model-based testing for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zander, Justyna; Mosterman, Pieter J

    2011-01-01

    What the experts have to say about Model-Based Testing for Embedded Systems: "This book is exactly what is needed at the exact right time in this fast-growing area. From its beginnings over 10 years ago of deriving tests from UML statecharts, model-based testing has matured into a topic with both breadth and depth. Testing embedded systems is a natural application of MBT, and this book hits the nail exactly on the head. Numerous topics are presented clearly, thoroughly, and concisely in this cutting-edge book. The authors are world-class leading experts in this area and teach us well-used

  2. Feature-based component model for design of embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Xuan Fang; Sriram, Ram D.

    2004-11-01

    An embedded system is a hybrid of hardware and software, which combines software's flexibility and hardware real-time performance. Embedded systems can be considered as assemblies of hardware and software components. An Open Embedded System Model (OESM) is currently being developed at NIST to provide a standard representation and exchange protocol for embedded systems and system-level design, simulation, and testing information. This paper proposes an approach to representing an embedded system feature-based model in OESM, i.e., Open Embedded System Feature Model (OESFM), addressing models of embedded system artifacts, embedded system components, embedded system features, and embedded system configuration/assembly. The approach provides an object-oriented UML (Unified Modeling Language) representation for the embedded system feature model and defines an extension to the NIST Core Product Model. The model provides a feature-based component framework allowing the designer to develop a virtual embedded system prototype through assembling virtual components. The framework not only provides a formal precise model of the embedded system prototype but also offers the possibility of designing variation of prototypes whose members are derived by changing certain virtual components with different features. A case study example is discussed to illustrate the embedded system model.

  3. Embedded Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Embedded system, micro-con- troller ... Embedded systems differ from general purpose computers in many ... Low cost: As embedded systems are extensively used in con- .... operating systems for the desktop computers where scheduling.

  4. SPECT detector system design based on embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weizheng; Zhao Shujun; Zhang Lei; Sun Yuanling

    2007-01-01

    A single-photon emission computed tomography detector system based on embedded Linux designed. This system is composed of detector module, data acquisition module, ARM MPU module, network interface communication module and human machine interface module. Its software uses multithreading technology based on embedded Linux. It can achieve high speed data acquisition, real-time data correction and network data communication. It can accelerate the data acquisition and decrease the dead time. The accuracy and the stability of the system can be improved. (authors)

  5. Heartbeat-based error diagnosis framework for distributed embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Swagat; Khilar, Pabitra Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Embedded Systems have significant applications in automobile industry as steer-by-wire, fly-by-wire and brake-by-wire systems. In this paper, we provide a general framework for fault detection in a distributed embedded real time system. We use heartbeat monitoring, check pointing and model based redundancy to design a scalable framework that takes care of task scheduling, temperature control and diagnosis of faulty nodes in a distributed embedded system. This helps in diagnosis and shutting down of faulty actuators before the system becomes unsafe. The framework is designed and tested using a new simulation model consisting of virtual nodes working on a message passing system.

  6. A embedded Linux system based on PowerPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Mei; Zhao Jingwei; Chu Yuanping

    2006-01-01

    The authors will introduce a Embedded Linux System based on PowerPC as well as the base method on how to establish the system. The goal of the system is to build a test system of VMEbus device. It also can be used to setup the small data acquisition and control system. Two types of compiler are provided by the developer system according to the features of the system and the Power PC. At the top of the article some typical embedded Operation system will be introduced and the features of different system will be provided. And then the method on how to build a embedded Linux system as well as the key technique will be discussed in detail. Finally a successful read-write example will be given based on the test system. (authors)

  7. A real-time photogrammetry system based on embedded architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Zheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the demand of real-time spatial data processing and improve the online processing capability of photogrammetric system, a kind of real-time photogrammetry method is proposed in this paper. According to the proposed method, system based on embedded architecture is then designed: using FPGA, ARM+DSP and other embedded computing technology to build specialized hardware operating environment, transplanting and optimizing the existing photogrammetric algorithm to the embedded system, and finally real-time photogrammetric data processing is realized. At last, aerial photogrammetric experiment shows that the method can achieve high-speed and stable on-line processing of photogrammetric data. And the experiment also verifies the feasibility of the proposed real-time photogrammetric system based on embedded architecture. It is the first time to realize real-time aerial photogrammetric system, which can improve the online processing efficiency of photogrammetry to a higher level and broaden the application field of photogrammetry.

  8. Formal Specification Based Automatic Test Generation for Embedded Network Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hye Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems have become increasingly connected and communicate with each other, forming large-scaled and complicated network systems. To make their design and testing more reliable and robust, this paper proposes a formal specification language called SENS and a SENS-based automatic test generation tool called TGSENS. Our approach is summarized as follows: (1 A user describes requirements of target embedded network systems by logical property-based constraints using SENS. (2 Given SENS specifications, test cases are automatically generated using a SAT-based solver. Filtering mechanisms to select efficient test cases are also available in our tool. (3 In addition, given a testing goal by the user, test sequences are automatically extracted from exhaustive test cases. We’ve implemented our approach and conducted several experiments on practical case studies. Through the experiments, we confirmed the efficiency of our approach in design and test generation of real embedded air-conditioning network systems.

  9. ETHERNET BASED EMBEDDED SYSTEM FOR FEL DIAGNOSTICS AND CONTROLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianxun Yan; Daniel Sexton; Steven Moore; Albert Grippo; Kevin Jordan

    2006-01-01

    An Ethernet based embedded system has been developed to upgrade the Beam Viewer and Beam Position Monitor (BPM) systems within the free-electron laser (FEL) project at Jefferson Lab. The embedded microcontroller was mounted on the front-end I/O cards with software packages such as Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) and Real Time Executive for Multiprocessor System (RTEMS) running as an Input/Output Controller (IOC). By cross compiling with the EPICS, the RTEMS kernel, IOC device supports, and databases all of these can be downloaded into the microcontroller. The first version of the BPM electronics based on the embedded controller was built and is currently running in our FEL system. The new version of BPM that will use a Single Board IOC (SBIOC), which integrates with an Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA) and a ColdFire embedded microcontroller, is presently under development. The new system has the features of a low cost IOC, an open source real-time operating system, plug and play-like ease of installation and flexibility, and provides a much more localized solution

  10. Research on Face Recognition Based on Embedded System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because a number of image feature data to store, complex calculation to execute during the face recognition, therefore the face recognition process was realized only by PCs with high performance. In this paper, the OpenCV facial Haar-like features were used to identify face region; the Principal Component Analysis (PCA was employed in quick extraction of face features and the Euclidean Distance was also adopted in face recognition; as thus, data amount and computational complexity would be reduced effectively in face recognition, and the face recognition could be carried out on embedded platform. Finally, based on Tiny6410 embedded platform, a set of embedded face recognition systems was constructed. The test results showed that the system has stable operation and high recognition rate can be used in portable and mobile identification and authentication.

  11. Model-based design of adaptive embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hamberg, Roelof; Reckers, Frans; Verriet, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Today’s embedded systems have to operate in a wide variety of dynamically changing environmental circumstances. Adaptivity, the ability of a system to autonomously adapt itself, is a means to optimise a system’s behaviour to accommodate changes in its environment. It involves making in-product trade-offs between system qualities at system level. The main challenge in the development of adaptive systems is keeping control of the intrinsic complexity of such systems while working with multi-disciplinary teams to create different parts of the system. Model-Based Development of Adaptive Embedded Systems focuses on the development of adaptive embedded systems both from an architectural and methodological point of view. It describes architectural solution patterns for adaptive systems and state-of-the-art model-based methods and techniques to support adaptive system development. In particular, the book describes the outcome of the Octopus project, a cooperation of a multi-disciplinary team of academic and indus...

  12. Embedded system of image storage based on fiber channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Su, Wanxin; Xing, Zhongbao; Wang, Hualong

    2008-03-01

    In domains of aerospace, aviation, aiming, and optic measure etc., the embedded system of imaging, processing and recording is absolutely necessary, which has small volume, high processing speed and high resolution. But the embedded storage technology becomes system bottleneck because of developing slowly. It is used to use RAID to promote storage speed, but it is unsuitable for the embedded system because of its big volume. Fiber channel (FC) technology offers a new method to develop the high-speed, portable storage system. In order to make storage subsystem meet the needs of high storage rate, make use of powerful Virtex-4 FPGA and high speed fiber channel, advance a project of embedded system of digital image storage based on Xilinx Fiber Channel Arbitrated Loop LogiCORE. This project utilizes Virtex- 4 RocketIO MGT transceivers to transmit the data serially, and connects many Fiber Channel hard drivers by using of Arbitrated Loop optionally. It can achieve 400MBps storage rate, breaks through the bottleneck of PCI interface, and has excellences of high-speed, real-time, portable and massive capacity.

  13. ARM Processor Based Embedded System for Remote Data Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Kumar Tiwari; Santosh Kumar Agrahari

    2014-01-01

    The embedded systems are widely used for the data acquisition. The data acquired may be used for monitoring various activity of the system or it can be used to control the parts of the system. Accessing various signals with remote location has greater advantage for multisite operation or unmanned systems. The remote data acquisition used in this paper is based on ARM processor. The Cortex M3 processor used in this system has in-built Ethernet controller which facilitate to acquire the remote ...

  14. Secure wireless embedded systems via component-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, T.; Torbensen, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the method secure-by-design as a way of constructing wireless embedded systems using component-based modeling frameworks. This facilitates design of secure applications through verified, reusable software. Following this method we propose a security framework with a secure c......, with full support for confidentiality, authentication, and integrity using keypairs. The approach has been demonstrated in a multi-platform home automation prototype that can remotely unlock a door using a PDA over the Internet....

  15. Scheduling of network access for feedback-based embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Vincenzo

    2002-07-01

    nd communication capabilities. Examples range from smart dust embedded in building materials to networks of appliances in the home. Embedded devices will be deployed in unprecedented numbers, will enable pervasive distributed computing, and will radically change the way people interact with the surrounding environment [EGH00a]. The paper targets embedded systems and their real-time (RT) communication requirements. RT requirements arise from the

  16. Embedded system in FPGA-based LLRF controller for FLASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewinski, Jaroslaw; Pucyk, Piotr; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Fafara, Przemyslaw; Pieciukiewicz, Marcin; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2006-10-01

    FPGA devices are often used in High Energy Physics and accelerator technology experiments, where the highest technologies are needed. To make FPGA based systems more flexible, common technique is to provide SoC (System on a Chip) solution in the FPGA, which is in most cases a CPU unit. Such a combination gives possibility to balance between hardware and software implementation of particular task. SoC solution on FPGA can be very flexible, because in simplest cases no additional hardware is needed to run programs on CPU, and when system has such devices like UART, SDRAM memory, mass storage and network interface, it can handle full featured operating system such as Linux or VxWorks. Embedded process can be set up in different configurations, depending on the available resources on board, so every user can adjust system to his own needs. Embedded systems can be also used to perform partial self-reconfiguration of FPGA logic of the chip, on which the system is running. This paper will also present some results on SoC implementations in a Low Level RF system under design for the VUV Free Electron Laser, FLASH, DESY, Hamburg.

  17. EMBEDDED LINUX BASED ALBUM BROWSER SYSTEM AT MUSIC STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryadiputra Liawatimena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is the creation of an album browser system at a music store based on embedded Linux. It is expected with this system; it will help the promotion of said music store and make the customers activity at the store simpler and easier. This system uses NFS for networking, database system, ripping software, and GUI development. The research method used are and laboratory experiments to test the system’s hardware using TPC-57 (Touch Panel Computer 5.7" SA2410 ARM-9 Medallion CPU Module and software using QtopiaCore. The result of the research are; 1. The database query process is working properly; 2. The audio data buffering process is working properly. With those experiment results, it can be concluded that the summary of this research is that the system is ready to be implemented and used in the music stores.

  18. Deep learning-based Diabetic Retinopathy assessment on embedded system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiyanto, Igi; Nugroho, Hanung Adi; Buana, Ratna Lestari Budiani

    2017-07-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a disease which affect the vision ability. The observation by an ophthalmologist usually conducted by analyzing the retinal images of the patient which are marked by some DR features. However some misdiagnosis are usually found due to human error. Here, a deep learning-based low-cost embedded system is established to assist the doctor for grading the severity of the DR from the retinal images. A compact deep learning algorithm named Deep-DR-Net which fits on a small embedded board is afterwards proposed for such purposes. In the heart of Deep-DR-Net, a cascaded encoder-classifier network is arranged using residual style for ensuring the small model size. The usage of different types of convolutional layers subsequently guarantees the features richness of the network for differentiating the grade of the DR. Experimental results show the capability of the proposed system for detecting the existence as well as grading the severity of the DR symptomps.

  19. Embedded Control System Design A Model Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Forrai, Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    Control system design is a challenging task for practicing engineers. It requires knowledge of different engineering fields, a good understanding of technical specifications and good communication skills. The current book introduces the reader into practical control system design, bridging  the gap between theory and practice.  The control design techniques presented in the book are all model based., considering the needs and possibilities of practicing engineers. Classical control design techniques are reviewed and methods are presented how to verify the robustness of the design. It is how the designed control algorithm can be implemented in real-time and tested, fulfilling different safety requirements. Good design practices and the systematic software development process are emphasized in the book according to the generic standard IEC61508. The book is mainly addressed to practicing control and embedded software engineers - working in research and development – as well as graduate students who are face...

  20. Model-Based Design of Adaptive Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.; Hamberg, R.; Reckers, F.; Verriet, J.

    2013-01-01

    Today’s embedded systems have to operate in a wide variety of dynamically changing environmental circumstances. Adaptivity, the ability of a system to autonomously adapt itself, is a means to optimise a system’s behaviour to accommodate changes in its environment. It involves making in-product

  1. Project-Based Learning to Enhance Teaching Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sababha, Belal H.; Alqudah, Yazan A.; Abualbasal, Abdelraheem; AlQaralleh, Esam A.

    2016-01-01

    Exposing engineering students during their education to real-world problems and giving them the chance to apply what they learn in the classroom is a vital element of engineering education. The Embedded Systems course at Princess Sumaya University for Technology (PSUT) is one of the main courses that bridge the gap between theoretical electrical…

  2. Implementation of Bluetooth serial port based profiles in embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanglei; Qiu, Zhengding; Wang, Quanping; Gao, Qiang

    2001-10-01

    Bluetooth is a new short-range wireless communication technology developing rapidly in recent years. Bluetooth software architecture consists of stack and profiles. Serial Port Profile (SPP) is an underlying profile that emulates RS232 serial cable connections between two peer devices. Based on SPP, Dial-up Networking (DUN) Profile establishes PPP connection with remote dial-up server, Fax Profile realizes document facsimile function and LAN Access Profile (LAP) provides local area network access service. When it comes to their implementation in embedded systems, there are several challenges such as memory consumption, code efficiency, code reliability, and code portability onto different OS and hardware platforms to be attacked. In this paper, we propose integrated software architecture after discussing the great similarities shared among the three SPP based profiles. Then implementation of the architecture is given, in which OS-dependent and OS-independent parts are clearly separated. Profile interfaces with stack and OS are specified respectively so that the three profiles as a whole can be ported onto various software and hardware platforms easily. As a result, policy of transplanting our implementation onto different platforms is addressed at the end of the paper.

  3. Application of instrument platform based embedded Linux system on intelligent scaler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jikun; Yang Run'an; Xia Minjian; Yang Zhijun; Li Lianfang; Yang Binhua

    2011-01-01

    It designs a instrument platform based on embedded Linux system and peripheral circuit, by designing Linux device driver and application program based on QT Embedded, various functions of the intelligent scaler are realized. The system architecture is very reasonable, so the stability and the expansibility and the integration level are increased, the development cycle is shorten greatly. (authors)

  4. A Project-Based Laboratory for Learning Embedded System Design with Industry Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chyi-Shyong; Su, Juing-Huei; Lin, Kuo-En; Chang, Jia-Hao; Lin, Gu-Hong

    2010-01-01

    A project-based laboratory for learning embedded system design with support from industry is presented in this paper. The aim of this laboratory is to motivate students to learn the building blocks of embedded systems and practical control algorithms by constructing a line-following robot using the quadratic interpolation technique to predict the…

  5. Promise of a low power mobile CPU based embedded system in artificial leg control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Robert; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiaorong; Huang, He; Yang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a low power embedded system using mobile processor technology (Intel Atom™ Z530 Processor) specifically tailored for a neural-machine interface (NMI) for artificial limbs. This embedded system effectively performs our previously developed NMI algorithm based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion and phase-dependent pattern classification. The analysis shows that NMI embedded system can meet real-time constraints with high accuracies for recognizing the user's locomotion mode. Our implementation utilizes the mobile processor efficiently to allow a power consumption of 2.2 watts and low CPU utilization (less than 4.3%) while executing the complex NMI algorithm. Our experiments have shown that the highly optimized C program implementation on the embedded system has superb advantages over existing PC implementations on MATLAB. The study results suggest that mobile-CPU-based embedded system is promising for implementing advanced control for powered lower limb prostheses.

  6. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  7. Embedded systems handbook networked embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zurawski, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Considered a standard industry resource, the Embedded Systems Handbook provided researchers and technicians with the authoritative information needed to launch a wealth of diverse applications, including those in automotive electronics, industrial automated systems, and building automation and control. Now a new resource is required to report on current developments and provide a technical reference for those looking to move the field forward yet again. Divided into two volumes to accommodate this growth, the Embedded Systems Handbook, Second Edition presents a comprehensive view on this area

  8. Embedded Active Vision System Based on an FPGA Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalimbaud Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In computer vision and more particularly in vision processing, the impressive evolution of algorithms and the emergence of new techniques dramatically increase algorithm complexity. In this paper, a novel FPGA-based architecture dedicated to active vision (and more precisely early vision is proposed. Active vision appears as an alternative approach to deal with artificial vision problems. The central idea is to take into account the perceptual aspects of visual tasks, inspired by biological vision systems. For this reason, we propose an original approach based on a system on programmable chip implemented in an FPGA connected to a CMOS imager and an inertial set. With such a structure based on reprogrammable devices, this system admits a high degree of versatility and allows the implementation of parallel image processing algorithms.

  9. Embedded Active Vision System Based on an FPGA Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Chalimbaud

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In computer vision and more particularly in vision processing, the impressive evolution of algorithms and the emergence of new techniques dramatically increase algorithm complexity. In this paper, a novel FPGA-based architecture dedicated to active vision (and more precisely early vision is proposed. Active vision appears as an alternative approach to deal with artificial vision problems. The central idea is to take into account the perceptual aspects of visual tasks, inspired by biological vision systems. For this reason, we propose an original approach based on a system on programmable chip implemented in an FPGA connected to a CMOS imager and an inertial set. With such a structure based on reprogrammable devices, this system admits a high degree of versatility and allows the implementation of parallel image processing algorithms.

  10. Embedded systems handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Zurawski, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Embedded systems are nearly ubiquitous, and books on individual topics or components of embedded systems are equally abundant. Unfortunately, for those designers who thirst for knowledge of the big picture of embedded systems there is not a drop to drink. Until now. The Embedded Systems Handbook is an oasis of information, offering a mix of basic and advanced topics, new solutions and technologies arising from the most recent research efforts, and emerging trends to help you stay current in this ever-changing field.With preeminent contributors from leading industrial and academic institutions

  11. Design of multi-channel analyzer's monitoring system based on embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tao; Wei Yixiang

    2007-01-01

    A new Multi-Channel Analyzer's Monitoring system based on ARM9 Embedded system is introduced in this paper. Some solutions to problem are also discussed during the procedure of design, installation and debugging on Linux system. The Monitoring system is developed by using MiniGUI and Linux software system API, with the functions of collecting, displaying and I/O data controlling 1024 channels datum. They are all realized in real time, with the merits of low cost, small size and portability. All these lay the foundation of developing homemade Digital and Portable nuclear spectrometers. (authors)

  12. Web Server Embedded System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adharul Muttaqin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Embedded sistem saat ini menjadi perhatian khusus pada teknologi komputer, beberapa sistem operasi linux dan web server yang beraneka ragam juga sudah dipersiapkan untuk mendukung sistem embedded, salah satu aplikasi yang dapat digunakan dalam operasi pada sistem embedded adalah web server. Pemilihan web server pada lingkungan embedded saat ini masih jarang dilakukan, oleh karena itu penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menitik beratkan pada dua buah aplikasi web server yang tergolong memiliki fitur utama yang menawarkan “keringanan” pada konsumsi CPU maupun memori seperti Light HTTPD dan Tiny HTTPD. Dengan menggunakan parameter thread (users, ramp-up periods, dan loop count pada stress test embedded system, penelitian ini menawarkan solusi web server manakah diantara Light HTTPD dan Tiny HTTPD yang memiliki kecocokan fitur dalam penggunaan embedded sistem menggunakan beagleboard ditinjau dari konsumsi CPU dan memori. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dalam hal konsumsi CPU pada beagleboard embedded system lebih disarankan penggunaan Light HTTPD dibandingkan dengan tiny HTTPD dikarenakan terdapat perbedaan CPU load yang sangat signifikan antar kedua layanan web tersebut Kata kunci: embedded system, web server Abstract Embedded systems are currently of particular concern in computer technology, some of the linux operating system and web server variegated also prepared to support the embedded system, one of the applications that can be used in embedded systems are operating on the web server. Selection of embedded web server on the environment is still rarely done, therefore this study was conducted with a focus on two web application servers belonging to the main features that offer a "lightness" to the CPU and memory consumption as Light HTTPD and Tiny HTTPD. By using the parameters of the thread (users, ramp-up periods, and loop count on a stress test embedded systems, this study offers a solution of web server which between the Light

  13. Smart Multicore Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book provides a single-source reference to the state-of-the-art of high-level programming models and compilation tool-chains for embedded system platforms. The authors address challenges faced by programmers developing software to implement parallel applications in embedded systems, where ve...

  14. A Trusted Computing Architecture of Embedded System Based on Improved TPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaosheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Trusted Platform Module (TPM currently used by PCs is not suitable for embedded systems, it is necessary to improve existing TPM. The paper proposes a trusted computing architecture with new TPM and the cryptographic system developed by China for the embedded system. The improved TPM consists of the Embedded System Trusted Cryptography Module (eTCM and the Embedded System Trusted Platform Control Module (eTPCM, which are combined and implemented the TPM’s autonomous control, active defense, high-speed encryption/decryption and other function through its internal bus arbitration module and symmetric and asymmetric cryptographic engines to effectively protect the security of embedded system. In our improved TPM, a trusted measurement method with chain model and star type model is used. Finally, the improved TPM is designed by FPGA, and it is used to a trusted PDA to carry out experimental verification. Experiments show that the trusted architecture of the embedded system based on the improved TPM is efficient, reliable and secure.

  15. Verifying Embedded Systems using Component-based Runtime Observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Wei; Marian, Nicolae; Angelov, Christo K.

    against formally specified properties. This paper presents a component-based design method for runtime observers, which are configured from instances of prefabricated reusable components---Predicate Evaluator (PE) and Temporal Evaluator (TE). The PE computes atomic propositions for the TE; the latter...... is a reconfigurable component processing a data structure, representing the state transition diagram of a non-deterministic state machine, i.e. a Buchi automaton derived from a system property specified in Linear Temporal Logic (LTL). Observer components have been implemented using design models and design patterns...

  16. System-Platforms-Based SystemC TLM Design of Image Processing Chains for Embedded Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Hammami

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent vehicle design is a complex task which requires multidomains modeling and abstraction. Transaction-level modeling (TLM and component-based software development approaches accelerate the process of an embedded system design and simulation and hence improve the overall productivity. On the other hand, system-level design languages facilitate the fast hardware synthesis at behavioral level of abstraction. In this paper, we introduce an approach for hardware/software codesign of image processing applications targeted towards intelligent vehicle that uses platform-based SystemC TLM and component-based software design approaches along with HW synthesis using SystemC to accelerate system design and verification process. Our experiments show the effectiveness of our methodology.

  17. System-Platforms-Based SystemC TLM Design of Image Processing Chains for Embedded Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacassagne Lionel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent vehicle design is a complex task which requires multidomains modeling and abstraction. Transaction-level modeling (TLM and component-based software development approaches accelerate the process of an embedded system design and simulation and hence improve the overall productivity. On the other hand, system-level design languages facilitate the fast hardware synthesis at behavioral level of abstraction. In this paper, we introduce an approach for hardware/software codesign of image processing applications targeted towards intelligent vehicle that uses platform-based SystemC TLM and component-based software design approaches along with HW synthesis using SystemC to accelerate system design and verification process. Our experiments show the effectiveness of our methodology.

  18. [Design of an embedded stroke rehabilitation apparatus system based on Linux computer engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Pengfei; Tian, XueLong; Zhu, Lin

    2014-04-01

    A realizaton project of electrical stimulator aimed at motor dysfunction of stroke is proposed in this paper. Based on neurophysiological biofeedback, this system, using an ARM9 S3C2440 as the core processor, integrates collection and display of surface electromyography (sEMG) signal, as well as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) into one system. By embedding Linux system, the project is able to use Qt/Embedded as a graphical interface design tool to accomplish the design of stroke rehabilitation apparatus. Experiments showed that this system worked well.

  19. Model-based engineering of runtime reconfigurable networked embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, C. van; Rieter-Barrell, Y.; Papp, Z.; Pruteanu, A.; Vogel, T.

    2016-01-01

    Today’s societal challenges, such as sustainable urban living and public safety and security require monitoring and control solutions for large-scale complex and dynamical systems. The distinguishing features of these systems are serious resource constraints, demanding non-functional requirements

  20. Development and Implementation of Production Area of Agricultural Product Data Collection System Based on Embedded System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Lei; Guo, Wei; Che, Yinchao; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xinming

    To solve problems in detecting the origin of agricultural products, this paper brings about an embedded data-based terminal, applies middleware thinking, and provides reusable long-range two-way data exchange module between business equipment and data acquisition systems. The system is constructed by data collection node and data center nodes. Data collection nodes taking embedded data terminal NetBoxII as the core, consisting of data acquisition interface layer, controlling information layer and data exchange layer, completing the data reading of different front-end acquisition equipments, and packing the data TCP to realize the data exchange between data center nodes according to the physical link (GPRS / CDMA / Ethernet). Data center node consists of the data exchange layer, the data persistence layer, and the business interface layer, which make the data collecting durable, and provide standardized data for business systems based on mapping relationship of collected data and business data. Relying on public communications networks, application of the system could establish the road of flow of information between the scene of origin certification and management center, and could realize the real-time collection, storage and processing between data of origin certification scene and databases of certification organization, and could achieve needs of long-range detection of agricultural origin.

  1. Electronics for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bindal, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    This book provides semester-length coverage of electronics for embedded systems, covering most common analog and digital circuit-related issues encountered while designing embedded system hardware. It is written for students and young professionals who have basic circuit theory background and want to learn more about passive circuits, diode and bipolar transistor circuits, the state-of-the-art CMOS logic family and its interface with older logic families such as TTL, sensors and sensor physics, operational amplifier circuits to condition sensor signals, data converters and various circuits used in electro-mechanical device control in embedded systems. The book also provides numerous hardware design examples by integrating the topics learned in earlier chapters. The last chapter extensively reviews the combinational and sequential logic design principles to be able to design the digital part of embedded system hardware.

  2. Smart Multicore Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book provides a single-source reference to the state-of-the-art of high-level programming models and compilation tool-chains for embedded system platforms. The authors address challenges faced by programmers developing software to implement parallel applications in embedded systems, where very...... specificities of various embedded systems from different industries. Parallel programming tool-chains are described that take as input parameters both the application and the platform model, then determine relevant transformations and mapping decisions on the concrete platform, minimizing user intervention...... and hiding the difficulties related to the correct and efficient use of memory hierarchy and low level code generation. Describes tools and programming models for multicore embedded systems Emphasizes throughout performance per watt scalability Discusses realistic limits of software parallelization Enables...

  3. Embedded active vision system based on an FPGA architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Chalimbaud , Pierre; Berry , François

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In computer vision and more particularly in vision processing, the impressive evolution of algorithms and the emergence of new techniques dramatically increase algorithm complexity. In this paper, a novel FPGA-based architecture dedicated to active vision (and more precisely early vision) is proposed. Active vision appears as an alternative approach to deal with artificial vision problems. The central idea is to take into account the perceptual aspects of visual tasks,...

  4. Embedded sensor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Dharma Prakash

    2017-01-01

    This inspiring textbook provides an introduction to wireless technologies for sensors, explores potential use of sensors for numerous applications, and utilizes probability theory and mathematical methods as a means of embedding sensors in system design. It discusses the need for synchronization and underlying limitations, inter-relation between given coverage and connectivity to number of sensors needed, and the use of geometrical distance to determine location of the base station for data collection and explore use of anchor nodes for relative position determination of sensors. The book explores energy conservation, communication using TCP, the need for clustering and data aggregation, and residual energy determination and energy harvesting. It covers key topics of sensor communication like mobile base stations and relay nodes, delay-tolerant sensor networks, and remote sensing and possible applications. The book defines routing methods and do performance evaluation for random and regular sensor topology an...

  5. Smart multicore embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bertels, Koen; Karlsson, Sven; Pacull, François

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to the state-of-the-art of high-level programming models and compilation tool-chains for embedded system platforms. The authors address challenges faced by programmers developing software to implement parallel applications in embedded systems, where very often they are forced to rewrite sequential programs into parallel software, taking into account all the low level features and peculiarities of the underlying platforms. Readers will benefit from these authors’ approach, which takes into account both the application requirements and the platform specificities of various embedded systems from different industries. Parallel programming tool-chains are described that take as input parameters both the application and the platform model, then determine relevant transformations and mapping decisions on the concrete platform, minimizing user intervention and hiding the difficulties related to the correct and efficient use of memory hierarchy and low level code generati...

  6. Hard real-time multibody simulations using ARM-based embedded systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastorino, Roland, E-mail: roland.pastorino@kuleuven.be, E-mail: rpastorino@udc.es; Cosco, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.cosco@kuleuven.be; Naets, Frank, E-mail: frank.naets@kuleuven.be; Desmet, Wim, E-mail: wim.desmet@kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, PMA division, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Belgium); Cuadrado, Javier, E-mail: javicuad@cdf.udc.es [Universidad de La Coruña, Laboratorio de Ingeniería Mecánica (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    The real-time simulation of multibody models on embedded systems is of particular interest for controllers and observers such as model predictive controllers and state observers, which rely on a dynamic model of the process and are customarily executed in electronic control units. This work first identifies the software techniques and tools required to easily write efficient code for multibody models to be simulated on ARM-based embedded systems. Automatic Programming and Source Code Translation are the two techniques that were chosen to generate source code for multibody models in different programming languages. Automatic Programming is used to generate procedural code in an intermediate representation from an object-oriented library and Source Code Translation is used to translate the intermediate representation automatically to an interpreted language or to a compiled language for efficiency purposes. An implementation of these techniques is proposed. It is based on a Python template engine and AST tree walkers for Source Code Generation and on a model-driven translator for the Source Code Translation. The code is translated from a metalanguage to any of the following four programming languages: Python-Numpy, Matlab, C++-Armadillo, C++-Eigen. Two examples of multibody models were simulated: a four-bar linkage with multiple loops and a 3D vehicle steering system. The code for these examples has been generated and executed on two ARM-based single-board computers. Using compiled languages, both models could be simulated faster than real-time despite the low resources and performance of these embedded systems. Finally, the real-time performance of both models was evaluated when executed in hard real-time on Xenomai for both embedded systems. This work shows through measurements that Automatic Programming and Source Code Translation are valuable techniques to develop real-time multibody models to be used in embedded observers and controllers.

  7. Hard real-time multibody simulations using ARM-based embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorino, Roland; Cosco, Francesco; Naets, Frank; Desmet, Wim; Cuadrado, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The real-time simulation of multibody models on embedded systems is of particular interest for controllers and observers such as model predictive controllers and state observers, which rely on a dynamic model of the process and are customarily executed in electronic control units. This work first identifies the software techniques and tools required to easily write efficient code for multibody models to be simulated on ARM-based embedded systems. Automatic Programming and Source Code Translation are the two techniques that were chosen to generate source code for multibody models in different programming languages. Automatic Programming is used to generate procedural code in an intermediate representation from an object-oriented library and Source Code Translation is used to translate the intermediate representation automatically to an interpreted language or to a compiled language for efficiency purposes. An implementation of these techniques is proposed. It is based on a Python template engine and AST tree walkers for Source Code Generation and on a model-driven translator for the Source Code Translation. The code is translated from a metalanguage to any of the following four programming languages: Python-Numpy, Matlab, C++-Armadillo, C++-Eigen. Two examples of multibody models were simulated: a four-bar linkage with multiple loops and a 3D vehicle steering system. The code for these examples has been generated and executed on two ARM-based single-board computers. Using compiled languages, both models could be simulated faster than real-time despite the low resources and performance of these embedded systems. Finally, the real-time performance of both models was evaluated when executed in hard real-time on Xenomai for both embedded systems. This work shows through measurements that Automatic Programming and Source Code Translation are valuable techniques to develop real-time multibody models to be used in embedded observers and controllers.

  8. Embedded Systems Design: Optimization Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Summary form only given. Embedded systems are everywhere: from alarm clocks to PDAs, from mobile phones to cars, almost all the devices we use are controlled by embedded systems. Over 99% of the microprocessors produced today are used in embedded systems, and recently the number of embedded systems...

  9. Vision-based Nano Robotic System for High-throughput Non-embedded Cell Cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wanfeng; Lu, Haojian; Wan, Wenfeng; Fukuda, Toshio; Shen, Yajing

    2016-03-04

    Cell cutting is a significant task in biology study, but the highly productive non-embedded cell cutting is still a big challenge for current techniques. This paper proposes a vision-based nano robotic system and then realizes automatic non-embedded cell cutting with this system. First, the nano robotic system is developed and integrated with a nanoknife inside an environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Then, the positions of the nanoknife and the single cell are recognized, and the distance between them is calculated dynamically based on image processing. To guarantee the positioning accuracy and the working efficiency, we propose a distance-regulated speed adapting strategy, in which the moving speed is adjusted intelligently based on the distance between the nanoknife and the target cell. The results indicate that the automatic non-embedded cutting is able to be achieved within 1-2 mins with low invasion benefiting from the high precise nanorobot system and the sharp edge of nanoknife. This research paves a way for the high-throughput cell cutting at cell's natural condition, which is expected to make significant impact on the biology studies, especially for the in-situ analysis at cellular and subcellular scale, such as cell interaction investigation, neural signal transduction and low invasive cell surgery.

  10. Vision-based Nano Robotic System for High-throughput Non-embedded Cell Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wanfeng; Lu, Haojian; Wan, Wenfeng; Fukuda, Toshio; Shen, Yajing

    2016-03-01

    Cell cutting is a significant task in biology study, but the highly productive non-embedded cell cutting is still a big challenge for current techniques. This paper proposes a vision-based nano robotic system and then realizes automatic non-embedded cell cutting with this system. First, the nano robotic system is developed and integrated with a nanoknife inside an environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Then, the positions of the nanoknife and the single cell are recognized, and the distance between them is calculated dynamically based on image processing. To guarantee the positioning accuracy and the working efficiency, we propose a distance-regulated speed adapting strategy, in which the moving speed is adjusted intelligently based on the distance between the nanoknife and the target cell. The results indicate that the automatic non-embedded cutting is able to be achieved within 1-2 mins with low invasion benefiting from the high precise nanorobot system and the sharp edge of nanoknife. This research paves a way for the high-throughput cell cutting at cell’s natural condition, which is expected to make significant impact on the biology studies, especially for the in-situ analysis at cellular and subcellular scale, such as cell interaction investigation, neural signal transduction and low invasive cell surgery.

  11. SystemCSP: A graphical language for designing concurrent component-based embedded control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.

    2007-01-01

    Realization of embedded control systems is a complex task. Increasing part of this complexity is nowadays located in the design and implementation of software that runs them. A major source of difficulties is the limitation of the average software developer to understand and design complex

  12. Arduino-Based embedded systems interfacing, simulation, and LabVIEW GUI

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Rajesh; Singh, Bhupendra; Choudhury, Sushabhan

    2018-01-01

    Arduino is an open-source electronics platform based on easy-to-use hardware and software while LabVIEW is a graphical programming telling how to connect functions and work with a variety of datatypes when constructing applications.This book will help beginners to get started with Arduino-based embedded systems including essential know-how of the programming and interfacing of the devices. Book includes programming and simulation of Arduino-based projects and interfacing with LabVIEW, based on practical case studies. The book comprises of total twenty five chapters with description, working model of LabVIEW and programming with Arduino IDE.

  13. FPGA-Based Communications Receivers for Smart Antenna Array Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millar James

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs are drawing ever increasing interest from designers of embedded wireless communications systems. They outpace digital signal processors (DSPs, through hardware execution of a wide range of parallelizable communications transceiver algorithms, at a fraction of the design and implementation effort and cost required for application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs. In our study, we employ an Altera Stratix FPGA development board, along with the DSP Builder software tool which acts as a high-level interface to the powerful Quartus II environment. We compare single- and multibranch FPGA-based receiver designs in terms of error rate performance and power consumption. We exploit FPGA operational flexibility and algorithm parallelism to design eigenmode-monitoring receivers that can adapt to variations in wireless channel statistics, for high-performing, inexpensive, smart antenna array embedded systems.

  14. FPGA-Based Communications Receivers for Smart Antenna Array Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Millar

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs are drawing ever increasing interest from designers of embedded wireless communications systems. They outpace digital signal processors (DSPs, through hardware execution of a wide range of parallelizable communications transceiver algorithms, at a fraction of the design and implementation effort and cost required for application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs. In our study, we employ an Altera Stratix FPGA development board, along with the DSP Builder software tool which acts as a high-level interface to the powerful Quartus II environment. We compare single- and multibranch FPGA-based receiver designs in terms of error rate performance and power consumption. We exploit FPGA operational flexibility and algorithm parallelism to design eigenmode-monitoring receivers that can adapt to variations in wireless channel statistics, for high-performing, inexpensive, smart antenna array embedded systems.

  15. Test-Access Planning and Test Scheduling for Embedded Core-Based System Chips

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Sandeep Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Advances in the semiconductor process technology enable the creation of a complete system on one single die, the so-called system chip or SOC. To reduce time-to-market for large SOCs, reuse of pre-designed and pre-veried blocks called cores is employed. Like the design style, testing of SOCs can be best approached in a core-based fashion. In order to enable core-based test development, an embedded core should be isolated from its surrounding circuitry and electrical test access from chip pins...

  16. Design and implementation of embedded un-interruptible power supply system (EUPSS) for web-based mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De-gan; Zhang, Xiao-dan

    2012-11-01

    With the growth of the amount of information manipulated by embedded application systems, which are embedded into devices and offer access to the devices on the internet, the requirements of saving the information systemically is necessary so as to fulfil access from the client and the local processing more efficiently. For supporting mobile applications, a design and implementation solution of embedded un-interruptible power supply (UPS) system (in brief, EUPSS) is brought forward for long-distance monitoring and controlling of UPS based on Web. The implementation of system is based on ATmega161, RTL8019AS and Arm chips with TCP/IP protocol suite for communication. In the embedded UPS system, an embedded file system is designed and implemented which saves the data and index information on a serial EEPROM chip in a structured way and communicates with a microcontroller unit through I2C bus. By embedding the file system into UPS system or other information appliances, users can access and manipulate local data on the web client side. Embedded file system on chips will play a major role in the growth of IP networking. Based on our experiment tests, the mobile users can easily monitor and control UPS in different places of long-distance. The performance of EUPSS has satisfied the requirements of all kinds of Web-based mobile applications.

  17. Certifiable Java for Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Dalsgaard, Andreas Engelbredt; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2014-01-01

    The Certifiable Java for Embedded Systems (CJ4ES) project aimed to develop a prototype development environment and platform for safety-critical software for embedded applications. There are three core constituents: A profile of the Java programming language that is tailored for safety......-critical applications, a predictable Java processor built with FPGA technology, and an Eclipse based application development environment that binds the profile and the platform together and provides analyses that help to provide evidence that can be used as part of a safety case. This paper summarizes key contributions...

  18. An embedded EEG analyzing system based on muC/os-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boqiang; Zhang, Yanyan; Liu, Zhongguo; Yin, Cong

    2007-01-01

    An EEG analyzing system based on Advanced RISC Machines (ARM) and muC/os-II real time operating system is discussed in this paper. The detailed system design including the producing of event signals and the synchronization between event signals and EEG signals is described. The details of data acquisition, data preprocessing, data transmitting through USB and system configurations are also contained in the system design. In this paper the design of high capability amplifier and the software of embedded subsystem are discussed. Also the design of realizing multi-task system in muC/os-II, the definition of communicating protocols between PC and the equipment and the detail configurations of USB are given out. The final test shows that the filter behaviors of this equipment are feasible.

  19. The embedded operating system project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    This progress report describes research towards the design and construction of embedded operating systems for real-time advanced aerospace applications. The applications concerned require reliable operating system support that must accommodate networks of computers. The report addresses the problems of constructing such operating systems, the communications media, reconfiguration, consistency and recovery in a distributed system, and the issues of realtime processing. A discussion is included on suitable theoretical foundations for the use of atomic actions to support fault tolerance and data consistency in real-time object-based systems. In particular, this report addresses: atomic actions, fault tolerance, operating system structure, program development, reliability and availability, and networking issues. This document reports the status of various experiments designed and conducted to investigate embedded operating system design issues.

  20. Development and application of remote video monitoring system for combine harvester based on embedded Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; Wang, Yifan; Wang, Xuelei; Wang, Yuehong; Hu, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Combine harvester usually works in sparsely populated areas with harsh environment. In order to achieve the remote real-time video monitoring of the working state of combine harvester. A remote video monitoring system based on ARM11 and embedded Linux is developed. The system uses USB camera for capturing working state video data of the main parts of combine harvester, including the granary, threshing drum, cab and cut table. Using JPEG image compression standard to compress video data then transferring monitoring screen to remote monitoring center over the network for long-range monitoring and management. At the beginning of this paper it describes the necessity of the design of the system. Then it introduces realization methods of hardware and software briefly. And then it describes detailedly the configuration and compilation of embedded Linux operating system and the compiling and transplanting of video server program are elaborated. At the end of the paper, we carried out equipment installation and commissioning on combine harvester and then tested the system and showed the test results. In the experiment testing, the remote video monitoring system for combine harvester can achieve 30fps with the resolution of 800x600, and the response delay in the public network is about 40ms.

  1. A vision-based driver nighttime assistance and surveillance system based on intelligent image sensing techniques and a heterogamous dual-core embedded system architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Chiang, Hsin-Han; Chiang, Chuan-Yen; Liu, Chuan-Ming; Yuan, Shyan-Ming; Wang, Jenq-Haur

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a vision-based intelligent nighttime driver assistance and surveillance system (VIDASS system) implemented by a set of embedded software components and modules, and integrates these modules to accomplish a component-based system framework on an embedded heterogamous dual-core platform. Therefore, this study develops and implements computer vision and sensing techniques of nighttime vehicle detection, collision warning determination, and traffic event recording. The proposed system processes the road-scene frames in front of the host car captured from CCD sensors mounted on the host vehicle. These vision-based sensing and processing technologies are integrated and implemented on an ARM-DSP heterogamous dual-core embedded platform. Peripheral devices, including image grabbing devices, communication modules, and other in-vehicle control devices, are also integrated to form an in-vehicle-embedded vision-based nighttime driver assistance and surveillance system.

  2. Embedded algorithms within an FPGA-based system to process nonlinear time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jonathan D.; Pei, Jin-Song; Tull, Monte P.

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents some preliminary results of an ongoing project. A pattern classification algorithm is being developed and embedded into a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and microprocessor-based data processing core in this project. The goal is to enable and optimize the functionality of onboard data processing of nonlinear, nonstationary data for smart wireless sensing in structural health monitoring. Compared with traditional microprocessor-based systems, fast growing FPGA technology offers a more powerful, efficient, and flexible hardware platform including on-site (field-programmable) reconfiguration capability of hardware. An existing nonlinear identification algorithm is used as the baseline in this study. The implementation within a hardware-based system is presented in this paper, detailing the design requirements, validation, tradeoffs, optimization, and challenges in embedding this algorithm. An off-the-shelf high-level abstraction tool along with the Matlab/Simulink environment is utilized to program the FPGA, rather than coding the hardware description language (HDL) manually. The implementation is validated by comparing the simulation results with those from Matlab. In particular, the Hilbert Transform is embedded into the FPGA hardware and applied to the baseline algorithm as the centerpiece in processing nonlinear time histories and extracting instantaneous features of nonstationary dynamic data. The selection of proper numerical methods for the hardware execution of the selected identification algorithm and consideration of the fixed-point representation are elaborated. Other challenges include the issues of the timing in the hardware execution cycle of the design, resource consumption, approximation accuracy, and user flexibility of input data types limited by the simplicity of this preliminary design. Future work includes making an FPGA and microprocessor operate together to embed a further developed algorithm that yields better

  3. Embedded system based on PWM control of hydrogen generator with SEPIC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Cheikh; Setiawan, Eko; Habibi, Muhammad Afnan; Hodaka, Ichijo

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to design and to produce a micro electrical plant system based on fuel cell for teaching material-embedded systems in technical vocational training center. Based on this, the student can experience generating hydrogen by fuel cells, controlling the rate of hydrogen generation by the duty ration of single-ended primary-inductor converter(SEPIC), drawing the curve rate of hydrogen to duty ratio, generating electrical power by using hydrogen, and calculating the fuel cell efficiency when it is used as electrical energy generator. This project is of great importance insofar as students will need to acquire several skills to be able to realize it such as continuous DC DC conversion and the scientific concept behind the converter, the regulation of systems with integral proportional controllers, the installation of photovoltaic cells, the use of high-tech sensors, microcontroller programming, object-oriented programming, mastery of the fuel cell syste

  4. Design of hand held RID's monitoring system based on embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongwei; Wei Yixiang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the design of monitoring system for the hand held radionuclide identification device (RID), constructed under the embedded operating system of WinCE. At first, we introduce the design of hardware and software platform, and following is the major part of technical view of the software system, including the driver development, P/Invoke mechanism to call the C/C++ subroutines, multi-thread technology. In the experimental hardware platform, we have developed a front-end monitoring system for portable device targeted nuclide identification and orientation. It's a full-featured and flexible system, with the functions of data acquisition, radioactivity locating, data import and export, etc. (authors)

  5. An embedded implementation based on adaptive filter bank for brain-computer interface systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwafi, Kais; Romain, Olivier; Gannouni, Sofien; Ghaffari, Fakhreddine; Djemal, Ridha; Ouni, Bouraoui

    2018-07-15

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a new communication pathway for users with neurological deficiencies. The implementation of a BCI system requires complex electroencephalography (EEG) signal processing including filtering, feature extraction and classification algorithms. Most of current BCI systems are implemented on personal computers. Therefore, there is a great interest in implementing BCI on embedded platforms to meet system specifications in terms of time response, cost effectiveness, power consumption, and accuracy. This article presents an embedded-BCI (EBCI) system based on a Stratix-IV field programmable gate array. The proposed system relays on the weighted overlap-add (WOLA) algorithm to perform dynamic filtering of EEG-signals by analyzing the event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS). The EEG-signals are classified, using the linear discriminant analysis algorithm, based on their spatial features. The proposed system performs fast classification within a time delay of 0.430 s/trial, achieving an average accuracy of 76.80% according to an offline approach and 80.25% using our own recording. The estimated power consumption of the prototype is approximately 0.7 W. Results show that the proposed EBCI system reduces the overall classification error rate for the three datasets of the BCI-competition by 5% compared to other similar implementations. Moreover, experiment shows that the proposed system maintains a high accuracy rate with a short processing time, a low power consumption, and a low cost. Performing dynamic filtering of EEG-signals using WOLA increases the recognition rate of ERD/ERS patterns of motor imagery brain activity. This approach allows to develop a complete prototype of a EBCI system that achieves excellent accuracy rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Embedded Systems Design with FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Pnevmatikatos, Dionisios; Sklavos, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This book presents methodologies for modern applications of embedded systems design, using field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices.  Coverage includes state-of-the-art research from academia and industry on a wide range of topics, including advanced electronic design automation (EDA), novel system architectures, embedded processors, arithmetic, dynamic reconfiguration and applications. Describes a variety of methodologies for modern embedded systems design;  Implements methodologies presented on FPGAs; Covers a wide variety of applications for reconfigurable embedded systems, including Bioinformatics, Communications and networking, Application acceleration, Medical solutions, Experiments for high energy physics, Astronomy, Aerospace, Biologically inspired systems and Computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

  7. The Embedded Smart Home Control System Based on GPRS and Zigbee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wanli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the Internet of Things and mobile Internet, smart home appeared a new opportunity, the development of wireless communication, ad-hoc network technique, high reliable connection, large scale networking, repair itself as a new developing direction of smart home. This paper discussed hardware and software design of the embedded smart home control system based on GPRS transmission network and Zigbee technology. This paper also expounds the composition structure and working principle of the system. Through the Zigbee technology to realize the ad-hoc network among the main controller and Zigbee terminal nodes, realizes the branch node information acquisition and command transmission. Through the GPRS network mobile client can realize information collection and remote monitoring of household facilities.

  8. Communicating embedded systems networks applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krief, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Embedded systems become more and more complex and require having some knowledge in various disciplines such as electronics, data processing, telecommunications and networks. Without detailing all the aspects related to the design of embedded systems, this book, which was written by specialists in electronics, data processing and telecommunications and networks, gives an interesting point of view of communication techniques and problems in embedded systems. This choice is easily justified by the fact that embedded systems are today massively communicating and that telecommunications and network

  9. Embedded DSP-based telehealth radar system for remote in-door fall detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garripoli, Carmine; Mercuri, Marco; Karsmakers, Peter; Jack Soh, Ping; Crupi, Giovanni; Vandenbosch, Guy A E; Pace, Calogero; Leroux, Paul; Schreurs, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Telehealth systems and applications are extensively investigated nowadays to enhance the quality-of-care and, in particular, to detect emergency situations and to monitor the well-being of elderly people, allowing them to stay at home independently as long as possible. In this paper, an embedded telehealth system for continuous, automatic, and remote monitoring of real-time fall emergencies is presented and discussed. The system, consisting of a radar sensor and base station, represents a cost-effective and efficient healthcare solution. The implementation of the fall detection data processing technique, based on the least-square support vector machines, through a digital signal processor and the management of the communication between radar sensor and base station are detailed. Experimental tests, for a total of 65 mimicked fall incidents, recorded with 16 human subjects (14 men and two women) that have been monitored for 320 min, have been used to validate the proposed system under real circumstances. The subjects' weight is between 55 and 90 kg with heights between 1.65 and 1.82 m, while their age is between 25 and 39 years. The experimental results have shown a sensitivity to detect the fall events in real time of 100% without reporting false positives. The tests have been performed in an area where the radar's operation was not limited by practical situations, namely, signal power, coverage of the antennas, and presence of obstacles between the subject and the antennas.

  10. A SOA-Based Embedded Systems Development Environment for Industrial Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thramboulidis KC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently available toolsets for the development of embedded systems adopt traditional architectural styles and do not cover the whole requirements of the development process, with extensibility being the major drawback. In this paper, a service-oriented architectural framework that exploits semantic web is defined. Features required in the development process are defined as web services and published into the public domain, so as to be used on demand by developers to construct their projects' specific integrated development environments (IDEs. The infrastructure required to build a web service-based IDE is presented. Specific web services are defined and the way these services affect the development process is discussed. Special focus is given on the device model and the means that such a modelling can significantly improve the development process. A prototype implementation demonstrates the applicability and usefulness of the proposed demand-led development process in the industrial automation domain.

  11. A SOA-Based Embedded Systems Development Environment for Industrial Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Doukas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently available toolsets for the development of embedded systems adopt traditional architectural styles and do not cover the whole requirements of the development process, with extensibility being the major drawback. In this paper, a service-oriented architectural framework that exploits semantic web is defined. Features required in the development process are defined as web services and published into the public domain, so as to be used on demand by developers to construct their projects' specific integrated development environments (IDEs. The infrastructure required to build a web service-based IDE is presented. Specific web services are defined and the way these services affect the development process is discussed. Special focus is given on the device model and the means that such a modelling can significantly improve the development process. A prototype implementation demonstrates the applicability and usefulness of the proposed demand-led development process in the industrial automation domain.

  12. Design of remote weather monitor system based on embedded web database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jiugang; Zhuang Along

    2010-01-01

    The remote weather monitoring system is designed by employing the embedded Web database technology and the S3C2410 microprocessor as the core. The monitoring system can simultaneously monitor the multi-channel sensor signals, and can give a dynamic Web pages display of various types of meteorological information on the remote computer. It gives a elaborated introduction of the construction and application of the Web database under the embedded Linux. Test results show that the client access the Web page via the GPRS or the Internet, acquires data and uses an intuitive graphical way to display the value of various types of meteorological information. (authors)

  13. Design and implementation of real-time wireless projection system based on ARM embedded system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhaohua; Tang, Hao; Huang, Junhua

    2018-04-01

    Aiming at the shortage of existing real-time screen sharing system, a real-time wireless projection system is proposed in this paper. Based on the proposed system, a weight-based frame deletion strategy combined sampling time period and data variation is proposed. By implementing the system on the hardware platform, the results show that the system can achieve good results. The weight-based strategy can improve the service quality, reduce the delay and optimize the real-time customer service system [1].

  14. Design and Development of Embedded Based System for the Measurement of Dielectric Constant Spectroscopy for Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ramana C. H.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An embedded based system for the measurement of dielectric constant spectroscopy (for frequencies 1 kHz, 10 kHz, 100 kHz, 1 MHz and 10 MHz for liquids has been designed and developed. It is based on the principle that the change in frequency of an MAX 038 function generator, when the liquid forms the dielectric medium of the dielectric cell, is measured with a microcontroller. Atmel’s AT89LP6440 microcontroller is used in the present study. Further, an LCD module is interfaced with the microcontroller in 4-bit mode, which reduces the hardware complexity. Software is developed in C using Keil’s C-cross compiler. The instrument system covers a wide range of dielectric constants for various liquids at various frequencies and at different temperatures. The system is quite successful in the measurement of dielectric constant in liquids with an accuracy of ± 0.01 %. The dielectric constant is very dependent on the frequency of their measurement. No one-measurement technique is available, however, that will give the frequency range needed to characterize the liquid sample. The paper deals with the hardware and software details.

  15. The embedded operating system project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The design and construction of embedded operating systems for real-time advanced aerospace applications was investigated. The applications require reliable operating system support that must accommodate computer networks. Problems that arise in the construction of such operating systems, reconfiguration, consistency and recovery in a distributed system, and the issues of real-time processing are reported. A thesis that provides theoretical foundations for the use of atomic actions to support fault tolerance and data consistency in real-time object-based system is included. The following items are addressed: (1) atomic actions and fault-tolerance issues; (2) operating system structure; (3) program development; (4) a reliable compiler for path Pascal; and (5) mediators, a mechanism for scheduling distributed system processes.

  16. Design for the power-supply controller base on embedded operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yuhui; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Wang Yanyu; Qiao Weimin; Huang Jijiang; Lin Feiyu

    2008-01-01

    In order to realize the power-supply equipment long-distance monitor, adopts embedded RTOS (NutOS) and the TCP/1P protocol power-supply controller. Independently designs partially the software and hardware, through socket programming system long-distance control is realized. (authors)

  17. Modeling of Embedded Human Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ISAT study [7] for DARPA in 20051 concretized the notion of an embedded human, who is a necessary component of the system. The proposed work integrates...Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 229–244, March 2008. [7] C. J. Tomlin and S. S. Sastry, “Embedded humans,” tech. rep., DARPA ISAT

  18. Research of real-time performance based on VxWorks embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Daming; Li Haiming

    2011-01-01

    In the research of mechanism and heating efficiency of Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, data acquisition system with high real-time performance needed. By the means of system logic analyzer, SPY and other relevant software on VxWorks embedded operating system for real-time testing gives real-time data of the system. Real-time level to achieve balances used time and processor idle time, real-time data acquisition, and minimize the interference of external to the system, ensure the system work in its own set of scheduling trajectory. Interrupt switching time and task context switching time meet the system requirements. (authors)

  19. Embedded Platforms for Computer Vision-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems: a Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Velez, Gorka; Otaegui, Oihana

    2015-01-01

    Computer Vision, either alone or combined with other technologies such as radar or Lidar, is one of the key technologies used in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Its role understanding and analysing the driving scene is of great importance as it can be noted by the number of ADAS applications that use this technology. However, porting a vision algorithm to an embedded automotive system is still very challenging, as there must be a trade-off between several design requisites. Further...

  20. Message Embedded Chaotic Masking Synchronization Scheme Based on the Generalized Lorenz System and Its Security Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čelikovský, Sergej; Lynnyk, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2016), 1650140-1-1650140-15 ISSN 0218-1274 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20433S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Chaotic masking * generalized Lorenz system * message embedded synchronization Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.329, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/TR/celikovsky-0461536.pdf

  1. Using infrared HOG-based pedestrian detection for outdoor autonomous searching UAV with embedded system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yanhua; Mei, Yanying; Chu, Hongyu; Chang, Zhiyuan; He, Yuxuan; Zhan, Huayi

    2018-04-01

    Pedestrian detection (PD) is an important application domain in computer vision and pattern recognition. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have become a major field of research in recent years. In this paper, an algorithm for a robust pedestrian detection method based on the combination of the infrared HOG (IR-HOG) feature and SVM is proposed for highly complex outdoor scenarios on the basis of airborne IR image sequences from UAV. The basic flow of our application operation is as follows. Firstly, the thermal infrared imager (TAU2-336), which was installed on our Outdoor Autonomous Searching (OAS) UAV, is used for taking pictures of the designated outdoor area. Secondly, image sequences collecting and processing were accomplished by using high-performance embedded system with Samsung ODROID-XU4 and Ubuntu as the core and operating system respectively, and IR-HOG features were extracted. Finally, the SVM is used to train the pedestrian classifier. Experiment show that, our method shows promising results under complex conditions including strong noise corruption, partial occlusion etc.

  2. Magnetic stimulus responsive vancomycin drug delivery system based on chitosan microbeads embedded with magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Ankita; Harris, Michael A; LeVine, David; Ghimire, Madhav; Jennings, Jessica A; Morshed, Bashir I; Haggard, Warren O; Bumgardner, Joel D; Mishra, Sanjay R; Fujiwara, Tomoko

    2017-10-20

    Local antibiotic delivery can overcome some of the shortcomings of systemic therapy, such as low local concentrations and delivery to avascular sites. A localized drug delivery system (DDS), ideally, could also use external stimuli to modulate the normal drug release profile from the DDS to provide efficacious drug administration and flexibility to healthcare providers. To achieve this objective, chitosan microbeads embedded with magnetic nanoparticles were loaded with the antibiotic vancomycin and stimulated by a high frequency alternating magnetic field. Three such stimulation sessions separated by 1.5 h were applied to each test sample. The chromatographic analysis of the supernatant from these stimulated samples showed more than approximately 200% higher release of vancomycin from the DDS after the stimulation periods compared to nonstimulated samples. A 16-day long term elution study was also conducted where the DDS was allowed to elute drug through normal diffusion over a period of 11 days and stimulated on day 12 and day 15, when vancomycin level had dropped below therapeutic levels. Magnetic stimulation boosted elution of test groups above minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), as compared to control groups (with no stimulation) which remained below MIC. The drug release from test groups in the intervals where no stimulation was given showed similar elution behavior to control groups. These results indicate promising possibilities of controlled drug release using magnetic excitation from a biopolymer-based DDS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Agent-Oriented Embedded Control System Design and Development of a Vision-Based Automated Guided Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xing

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control system design and development approach for a vision-based automated guided vehicle (AGV based on the multi-agent system (MAS methodology and embedded system resources. A three-phase agent-oriented design methodology Prometheus is used to analyse system functions, construct operation scenarios, define agent types and design the MAS coordination mechanism. The control system is then developed in an embedded implementation containing a digital signal processor (DSP and an advanced RISC machine (ARM by using the multitasking processing capacity of multiple microprocessors and system services of a real-time operating system (RTOS. As a paradigm, an onboard embedded controller is designed and developed for the AGV with a camera detecting guiding landmarks, and the entire procedure has a high efficiency and a clear hierarchy. A vision guidance experiment for our AGV is carried out in a space-limited laboratory environment to verify the perception capacity and the onboard intelligence of the agent-oriented embedded control system.

  4. Embedded System for Biometric Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Rosli, Ahmad Nasir Che

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes the design and implementation of an Embedded System for Biometric Identification from hardware and software perspectives. The first part of the chapter describes the idea of biometric identification. This includes the definition of

  5. An Embedded Multi-Agent Systems Based Industrial Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboun, Mohammed S; Brennan, Robert W

    2017-09-14

    With the emergence of cyber-physical systems, there has been a growing interest in network-connected devices. One of the key requirements of a cyber-physical device is the ability to sense its environment. Wireless sensor networks are a widely-accepted solution for this requirement. In this study, an embedded multi-agent systems-managed wireless sensor network is presented. A novel architecture is proposed, along with a novel wireless sensor network architecture. Active and passive wireless sensor node types are defined, along with their communication protocols, and two application-specific examples are presented. A series of three experiments is conducted to evaluate the performance of the agent-embedded wireless sensor network.

  6. An Embedded Multi-Agent Systems Based Industrial Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of cyber-physical systems, there has been a growing interest in network-connected devices. One of the key requirements of a cyber-physical device is the ability to sense its environment. Wireless sensor networks are a widely-accepted solution for this requirement. In this study, an embedded multi-agent systems-managed wireless sensor network is presented. A novel architecture is proposed, along with a novel wireless sensor network architecture. Active and passive wireless sensor node types are defined, along with their communication protocols, and two application-specific examples are presented. A series of three experiments is conducted to evaluate the performance of the agent-embedded wireless sensor network. PMID:28906452

  7. Quality-Driven Model-Based Design of MultiProcessor Embedded Systems for Highlydemanding Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozwiak, Lech; Madsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The recent spectacular progress in modern nano-dimension semiconductor technology enabled implementation of a complete complex multi-processor system on a single chip (MPSoC), global networking and mobile wire-less communication, and facilitated a fast progress in these areas. New important...... accessible or distant) objects, installations, machines or devices, or even implanted in human or animal body can serve as examples. However, many of the modern embedded application impose very stringent functional and parametric demands. Moreover, the spectacular advances in microelectronics introduced...

  8. Morphware - Fremtidens Embedded System Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    FPGA'er bliver i stigende grad brugt som komponenter i embedded systemer. Faldende priser, større kapacitet og en større felksibilitet har gjort FPGA'en til en attraktiv og konkurrencedygtig teknologi der tillader en stadig stigende grad af system integration, hvor traditionel hardware og software...... kombineres og rekonfigureres. Muligheden for at rekonfigurere systemet, og specielt rekonfigurerer det medens det kører, giver nogle helt nye muligheder for at designe og programmere embedded systemer. Dette foredrag vil give et indblik i disse nye og fremtidige muligheder....

  9. Design and Implementation of an Embedded Digital Throwing System Based on MEMS Multiaxial Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen GAO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel embedded digital throwing system for synchronously sensing the throwing force of shot-put athletes in real time. The three axes integrated accelerometer, as a crucial device in the force sensing system, can acquire the kinetics data along three orthogonal directions with reasonably high accuracy. The digital shot with almost the same size and weight as the standard shot for open female has been designed, fabricated and implemented. The mechanical structure, signal processing system, and human-machine interface are illuminated in detail. In this manner, the force sensing system serves as a powerful tool for coaches and sports scientists to make scientific researches on professional throwing techniques. It also provides an intuitive and reliable guidance for the throwing athletes to improve their skills.

  10. An embedded real-time red peach detection system based on an OV7670 camera, ARM Cortex-M4 processor and 3D Look-Up Tables

    OpenAIRE

    Teixidó Cairol, Mercè; Font Calafell, Davinia; Pallejà Cabrè, Tomàs; Tresánchez Ribes, Marcel; Nogués Aymamí, Miquel; Palacín Roca, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes the development of an embedded real-time fruit detection system for future automatic fruit harvesting. The proposed embedded system is based on an ARM Cortex-M4 (STM32F407VGT6) processor and an Omnivision OV7670 color camera. The future goal of this embedded vision system will be to control a robotized arm to automatically select and pick some fruit directly from the tree. The complete embedded system has been designed to be placed directly in the gripper tool of the future...

  11. Embedded 3D shape measurement system based on a novel spatio-temporal coding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Tian, Jindong; Tian, Yong; Li, Dong

    2016-11-01

    Structured light measurement has been wildly used since 1970s in industrial component detection, reverse engineering, 3D molding, robot navigation, medical and many other fields. In order to satisfy the demand for high speed, high precision and high resolution 3-D measurement for embedded system, a new patterns combining binary and gray coding principle in space are designed and projected onto the object surface orderly. Each pixel corresponds to the designed sequence of gray values in time - domain, which is treated as a feature vector. The unique gray vector is then dimensionally reduced to a scalar which could be used as characteristic information for binocular matching. In this method, the number of projected structured light patterns is reduced, and the time-consuming phase unwrapping in traditional phase shift methods is avoided. This algorithm is eventually implemented on DM3730 embedded system for 3-D measuring, which consists of an ARM and a DSP core and has a strong capability of digital signal processing. Experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method.

  12. A new paradigm on battery powered embedded system design based on User-Experience-Oriented method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhuoran; Wu, Yue

    2014-01-01

    The battery sustainable time has been an active research topic recently for the development of battery powered embedded products such as tablets and smart phones, which are determined by the battery capacity and power consumption. Despite numerous efforts on the improvement of battery capacity in the field of material engineering, the power consumption also plays an important role and easier to ameliorate in delivering a desirable user-experience, especially considering the moderate advancement on batteries for decades. In this study, a new Top-Down modelling method, User-Experience-Oriented Battery Powered Embedded System Design Paradigm, is proposed to estimate the target average power consumption, to guide the hardware and software design, and eventually to approach the theoretical lowest power consumption that the application is still able to provide the full functionality. Starting from the 10-hour sustainable time standard, average working current is defined with battery design capacity and set as a target. Then an implementation is illustrated from both hardware perspective, which is summarized as Auto-Gating power management, and from software perspective, which introduces a new algorithm, SleepVote, to guide the system task design and scheduling

  13. A new paradigm on battery powered embedded system design based on User-Experience-Oriented method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuoran; Wu, Yue

    2014-03-01

    The battery sustainable time has been an active research topic recently for the development of battery powered embedded products such as tablets and smart phones, which are determined by the battery capacity and power consumption. Despite numerous efforts on the improvement of battery capacity in the field of material engineering, the power consumption also plays an important role and easier to ameliorate in delivering a desirable user-experience, especially considering the moderate advancement on batteries for decades. In this study, a new Top-Down modelling method, User-Experience-Oriented Battery Powered Embedded System Design Paradigm, is proposed to estimate the target average power consumption, to guide the hardware and software design, and eventually to approach the theoretical lowest power consumption that the application is still able to provide the full functionality. Starting from the 10-hour sustainable time standard, average working current is defined with battery design capacity and set as a target. Then an implementation is illustrated from both hardware perspective, which is summarized as Auto-Gating power management, and from software perspective, which introduces a new algorithm, SleepVote, to guide the system task design and scheduling.

  14. Copilot: Monitoring Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Lee; Wegmann, Nis; Niller, Sebastian; Goodloe, Alwyn

    2012-01-01

    Runtime verification (RV) is a natural fit for ultra-critical systems, where correctness is imperative. In ultra-critical systems, even if the software is fault-free, because of the inherent unreliability of commodity hardware and the adversity of operational environments, processing units (and their hosted software) are replicated, and fault-tolerant algorithms are used to compare the outputs. We investigate both software monitoring in distributed fault-tolerant systems, as well as implementing fault-tolerance mechanisms using RV techniques. We describe the Copilot language and compiler, specifically designed for generating monitors for distributed, hard real-time systems. We also describe two case-studies in which we generated Copilot monitors in avionics systems.

  15. Trusted computing for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Soudris, Dimitrios; Anagnostopoulos, Iraklis

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the state-of-the-art in trusted computing for embedded systems. It shows how a variety of security and trusted computing problems are addressed currently and what solutions are expected to emerge in the coming years. The discussion focuses on attacks aimed at hardware and software for embedded systems, and the authors describe specific solutions to create security features. Case studies are used to present new techniques designed as industrial security solutions. Coverage includes development of tamper resistant hardware and firmware mechanisms for lightweight embedded devices, as well as those serving as security anchors for embedded platforms required by applications such as smart power grids, smart networked and home appliances, environmental and infrastructure sensor networks, etc. ·         Enables readers to address a variety of security threats to embedded hardware and software; ·         Describes design of secure wireless sensor networks, to address secure authen...

  16. Communicating embedded systems software and design

    CERN Document Server

    Jard, Claude

    2013-01-01

    The increased complexity of embedded systems coupled with quick design cycles to accommodate faster time-to-market requires increased system design productivity that involves both model-based design and tool-supported methodologies. Formal methods are mathematically-based techniques and provide a clean framework in which to express requirements and models of the systems, taking into account discrete, stochastic and continuous (timed or hybrid) parameters with increasingly efficient tools. This book deals with these formal methods applied to communicating embedded systems by presenting the

  17. Hardware standardization for embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M.K.; Kalra, Mohit; Patil, M.B.; Mohanty, Ashutos; Ganesh, G.; Biswas, B.B.

    2010-01-01

    Reactor Control Division (RCnD) has been one of the main designers of safety and safety related systems for power reactors. These systems have been built using in-house developed hardware. Since the present set of hardware was designed long ago, a need was felt to design a new family of hardware boards. A Working Group on Electronics Hardware Standardization (WG-EHS) was formed with an objective to develop a family of boards, which is general purpose enough to meet the requirements of the system designers/end users. RCnD undertook the responsibility of design, fabrication and testing of boards for embedded systems. VME and a proprietary I/O bus were selected as the two system buses. The boards have been designed based on present day technology and components. The intelligence of these boards has been implemented on FPGA/CPLD using VHDL. This paper outlines the various boards that have been developed with a brief description. (author)

  18. Design Methodologies for Secure Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Biedermann, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Embedded systems have been almost invisibly pervading our daily lives for several decades. They facilitate smooth operations in avionics, automotive electronics, or telecommunication. New problems arise by the increasing employment, interconnection, and communication of embedded systems in heterogeneous environments: How secure are these embedded systems against attacks or breakdowns? Therefore, how can embedded systems be designed to be more secure? And how can embedded systems autonomically react to threats? Facing these questions, Sorin A. Huss is significantly involved in the exploration o

  19. An IPC-based Prolog design pattern for integrating backward chaining inference into applications or embedded systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guoqi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prolog is one of the most important candidates to build expert systems and AI-related programs and has potential applications in embedded systems. However, Prolog is not suitable to develop many kinds of components, such as data acquisition and task scheduling, which are also crucial. To make the best use of the advantages and bypass the disadvantages, it is attractive to integrate Prolog with programs developed by other languages. In this paper, an IPC-based method is used to integrate backward chaining inference implemented by Prolog into applications or embedded systems. A Prolog design pattern is derived from the method for reuse, whose principle and definition are provided in detail. Additionally, the design pattern is applied to a target system, which is free software, to verify its feasibility. The detailed implementation of the application is given to clarify the design pattern. The design pattern can be further applied to wide range applications and embedded systems and the method described in this paper can also be adopted for other logic programming languages.

  20. FPGA-based real-time embedded system for RISS/GPS integrated navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfatah, Walid Farid; Georgy, Jacques; Iqbal, Umar; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2012-01-01

    Navigation algorithms integrating measurements from multi-sensor systems overcome the problems that arise from using GPS navigation systems in standalone mode. Algorithms which integrate the data from 2D low-cost reduced inertial sensor system (RISS), consisting of a gyroscope and an odometer or wheel encoders, along with a GPS receiver via a Kalman filter has proved to be worthy in providing a consistent and more reliable navigation solution compared to standalone GPS receivers. It has been also shown to be beneficial, especially in GPS-denied environments such as urban canyons and tunnels. The main objective of this paper is to narrow the idea-to-implementation gap that follows the algorithm development by realizing a low-cost real-time embedded navigation system capable of computing the data-fused positioning solution. The role of the developed system is to synchronize the measurements from the three sensors, relative to the pulse per second signal generated from the GPS, after which the navigation algorithm is applied to the synchronized measurements to compute the navigation solution in real-time. Employing a customizable soft-core processor on an FPGA in the kernel of the navigation system, provided the flexibility for communicating with the various sensors and the computation capability required by the Kalman filter integration algorithm.

  1. Applications of scenarios in early embedded system design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stralen, P.

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges during embedded system design is the application driven design. Due to the application driven design, the objectives that are steering the design of an embedded system are mainly based on the needs of the application(s). Examples of embedded system objectives are performance,

  2. Embedded parallel processing based ground control systems for small satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michael L.; Hazra, Tushar K.; Troendly, Gregory M.; Nickum, William G.

    1994-01-01

    The use of networked terminals which utilize embedded processing techniques results in totally integrated, flexible, high speed, reliable, and scalable systems suitable for telemetry and data processing applications such as mission operations centers (MOC). Synergies of these terminals, coupled with the capability of terminal to receive incoming data, allow the viewing of any defined display by any terminal from the start of data acquisition. There is no single point of failure (other than with network input) such as exists with configurations where all input data goes through a single front end processor and then to a serial string of workstations. Missions dedicated to NASA's ozone measurements program utilize the methodologies which are discussed, and result in a multimission configuration of low cost, scalable hardware and software which can be run by one flight operations team with low risk.

  3. Efficient and Fast Implementation of Embedded Time-of-Flight Ranging System Based on FPGAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Weiguo; Lyu, Congyi; Jiang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Time-of-flight cameras perceive depth information about the surrounding environment with an amplitude-modulated near-infrared light source. The distance between the sensor and objects is calculated through measuring the time the light needs to travel. To be used in fast and embedded applications......, such as 3-D reconstruction, visual SLAM, human-robot interactions, and object detection, the 3-D imaging must be performed at high frame rates and accuracy. Thus, this paper presents a real-time field programmable gate arrays platform that calculates the phase shift and then the distance. Experimental...... results shown that the platform can acquire ranging images at the maximum frame rate of 131fps with a fine measurement precision (appropriately 5.1mm range error at 1.2m distance with the proper integration time). Low resource utilization and power consumption of the proposed system make it very suitable...

  4. Design of an FPGA-based embedded system for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics test-bench

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Moreno, P; Reed, R; Sandrock, C; Shalyugin, A; Schettino, V; Solans, C; Souza, J; Usai, G; Valero, A

    2013-01-01

    The portable test bench (VME based) used for the certification of the Tile calorimeter front-end electronics has been redesigned for the LHC Long Shutdown (2013-2014) improving its portability. The new version is based on a Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA that implements an embedded system using a hard core PowerPC 440 microprocessor and custom IP cores. The PowerPC microprocessor runs a light Linux version and handles the IP cores written in VHDL that implement the different functionalities (TTC, G-Link, CAN-Bus) Description of the system and performance measurements of the different components will be shown.

  5. A REST-ful interpretation for embedded modular systems based on open architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyke, James

    2016-05-01

    The much-anticipated revolution of the "Internet of things" (IoT) is expected to generate one trillion internet devices within the next 15 years, mostly in the form of simple wireless sensor devices. While this revolution promises to transform silicon markets and drive a number of disruptive changes in society, it is also the case that the protocols, complexity, and security issues of extremely large dynamic, co-mingled networks is still poorly understood. Furthermore, embedded system developers, to include military and aerospace users, have largely ignored the potential (good and bound) of the cloudlike, possibly intermingling networks having variable structure to how future systems might be engineered. In this paper, we consider a new interpretation of IoT inspired modular architecture strategies involving the representational state transfer (REST) model, in which dynamic networks with variable structure employ stateless application programming interface (API) concepts. The power of the method, which extends concepts originally developed for space plug-and-play avionics, is that it allows for the fluid co-mingling of hardware and software in networks whose structure can overlap and evolve. Paradoxically, these systems may have the most stringent determinism and fault-tolerant needs. In this paper we review how RESTful APIs can potentially be used to design, create, test, and deploy systems rapidly while addressing security and referential integrity even when the nodes of many systems might physically co-mingle. We will also explore ways to take advantage of the RESTful paradigm for fault tolerance and what extensions might be necessary to deal with high-performance and determinism.

  6. A Resource-Aware Component Model for Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vulgarakis, Aneta

    2009-01-01

    Embedded systems are microprocessor-based systems that cover a large range of computer systems from ultra small computer-based devices to large systems monitoring and controlling complex processes. The particular constraints that must be met by embedded systems, such as timeliness, resource-use efficiency, short time-to-market and low cost, coupled with the increasing complexity of embedded system software, demand technologies and processes that will tackle these issues. An attractive approac...

  7. Techniques and implementation of the embedded rule-based expert system using Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Eugene M.; Jones, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with its portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assured a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability and expertise for computer systems. The integration of expert system technology with Ada programming language, specifically a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell is discussed. The NASA Lewis Research Center was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-base power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert system, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  8. Dynamic memory management for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Atienza Alonso, David; Poucet, Christophe; Peón-Quirós, Miguel; Bartzas, Alexandros; Catthoor, Francky; Soudris, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and unified methodology, including basic principles and reusable processes, for dynamic memory management (DMM) in embedded systems.  The authors describe in detail how to design and optimize the use of dynamic memory in modern, multimedia and network applications, targeting the latest generation of portable embedded systems, such as smartphones. Coverage includes a variety of design and optimization topics in electronic design automation of DMM, from high-level software optimization to microarchitecture-level hardware support. The authors describe the design of multi-layer dynamic data structures for the final memory hierarchy layers of the target portable embedded systems and how to create a low-fragmentation, cost-efficient, dynamic memory management subsystem out of configurable components for the particular memory allocation and de-allocation patterns for each type of application.  The design methodology described in this book is based on propagating constraints among de...

  9. Integrated Design Tools for Embedded Control Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanovic, D.S.; Hilderink, G.H.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Karelse, F.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, computer-based control systems are still being implemented using the same techniques as 10 years ago. The purpose of this project is the development of a design framework, consisting of tools and libraries, which allows the designer to build high reliable heterogeneous real-time embedded

  10. Reusing knowledge in embedded system modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marincic, J.; Mader, Angelika H.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Lucas, Yan

    Model-based design is a promising technique to improve the quality of software and the efficiency of the software development process. We are investigating how to efficiently model embedded software and its environment to verify the requirements for the system controlled by the software. The

  11. Development of a new instrument for the measurement of the milk constituents based on the embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhen; Wu Juan; Su Lijun; Li Zhonggang; Zhao Hong

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new way for measuring milk constituents. The new technology utilizes the scattered light to transmitted light ratio of laser light to determine the amount of protein and fat in milk. Fundamental theories of this new technology are discussed in detail and the design blueprint of an embedded system built based on this technology is outlined. Furthermore, the protein concentrations measured by the newly developed instrument are fit well with the authentic results from Dairy Quality Supervision and Inspection Center of the Country, indicating the instrument is feasible and has great potential for the application in dairy industry

  12. Embedded 3D Graphics Core for FPGA-based System-on-Chip Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Lund, Hans Erik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a 3D graphics accelerator core for an FPGA based system, and illustrates how to build a System-on-Chip containing a Xilinx MicroBlaze soft-core CPU and our 3D graphics accelerator core. The system is capable of running uClinux and hardware accelerated 3D graphics applications......, and the video display which periodically reads from memory to display the final rendered graphics. The graphics core uses internal scratch-pad memory to reduce its external bandwidth requirement, this is achieved by implementing a tile-based rendering algorithm. Reduced external bandwidth means that the power...

  13. Integrated Design Tools for Embedded Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovic, D.S.; Hilderink, G.H.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Karelse, F.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, computer-based control systems are still being implemented using the same techniques as 10 years ago. The purpose of this project is the development of a design framework, consisting of tools and libraries, which allows the designer to build high reliable heterogeneous real-time embedded systems in a very short time at a fraction of the present day costs. The ultimate focus of current research is on transformation control laws to efficient concurrent algorithms, with concerns about...

  14. Delivering spacecraft control centers with embedded knowledge-based systems: The methodology issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayache, S.; Haziza, M.; Cayrac, D.

    1994-01-01

    Matra Marconi Space (MMS) occupies a leading place in Europe in the domain of satellite and space data processing systems. The maturity of the knowledge-based systems (KBS) technology, the theoretical and practical experience acquired in the development of prototype, pre-operational and operational applications, make it possible today to consider the wide operational deployment of KBS's in space applications. In this perspective, MMS has to prepare the introduction of the new methods and support tools that will form the basis of the development of such systems. This paper introduces elements of the MMS methodology initiatives in the domain and the main rationale that motivated the approach. These initiatives develop along two main axes: knowledge engineering methods and tools, and a hybrid method approach for coexisting knowledge-based and conventional developments.

  15. Modern system architectures in embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, T.

    2012-01-01

    Several new technologies are making their way also in embedded systems. In addition to the FPGA technology which has become commonplace, multi-core CPUs and I/O virtualization (the implementation of the tasks of a software hyper-visor in hardware to improve the efficiency) are being introduced to the embedded systems. In this paper we review the trends and discuss how to take advantage of these features in control systems. Some potential application examples like parallelization, data streaming, high-speed data acquisition and virtualization are discussed

  16. Modelling and Analyses of Embedded Systems Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekling, Aske Wiid

    We present the MoVES languages: a language with which embedded systems can be specified at a stage in the development process where an application is identified and should be mapped to an execution platform (potentially multi- core). We give a formal model for MoVES that captures and gives......-based verification is a promising approach for assisting developers of embedded systems. We provide examples of system verifications that, in size and complexity, point in the direction of industrially-interesting systems....... semantics to the elements of specifications in the MoVES language. We show that even for seem- ingly simple systems, the complexity of verifying real-time constraints can be overwhelming - but we give an upper limit to the size of the search-space that needs examining. Furthermore, the formal model exposes...

  17. Embedded systems design with special arithmetic and number systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa, Leonel; Chang, Chip-Hong

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to alternative approaches to designing efficient embedded systems using unconventional number systems. The authors describe various systems that can be used for designing efficient embedded and application-specific processors, such as Residue Number System, Logarithmic Number System, Redundant Binary Number System Double-Base Number System, Decimal Floating Point Number System and Continuous Valued Number System. Readers will learn the strategies and trade-offs of using unconventional number systems in application-specific processors and be able to apply and design appropriate arithmetic operations from these number systems to boost the performance of digital systems. • Serves as a single-source reference to designing embedded systems with unconventional number systems • Covers theory as well as implementation on application-specific processors • Explains mathematical concepts in a manner accessible to readers with diverse backgrounds.

  18. Design of a VME bus controller based on ARM7 with embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanyu; Qiao Weimin; Guo Yuhui; Li Xiaoqiang; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the solution of a VME-like bus Controller briefly. Samsung's S3C4510B 16/32-bit RISC microcontroller with ARM7 core is a high-performance microcontroller support Ethernet-based systems. The authors use S3C4510B, VIC-068A and CPLD devices built a high speed data route from VME-like Bus to network, the fast link between background computer data-base and front-end target module is achieved over network. (authors)

  19. Development of an FPGA Based Embedded System for High Speed Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar MATHAM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development and implementation of system on chip (SOC for object tracking using histograms. To acquire the distance and velocity information of moving vehicles such as military tanks, to identify the type of target within the range from 100 m to 3 km and to estimate the movements of the vehicle. The VHDL code is written for the above objectives and implemented using Xilinx’s VERTEX-4 based PCI card family.

  20. Embedded Linux platform for data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Jigneshkumar J.; Reddy, Nagaraj; Kumari, Praveena; Rajpal, Rachana; Pujara, Harshad; Jha, R.; Kalappurakkal, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The design and the development of data acquisition system on FPGA based reconfigurable hardware platform. • Embedded Linux configuration and compilation for FPGA based systems. • Hardware logic IP core and its Linux device driver development for the external peripheral to interface it with the FPGA based system. - Abstract: This scalable hardware–software system is designed and developed to explore the emerging open standards for data acquisition requirement of Tokamak experiments. To address the future need for a scalable data acquisition and control system for fusion experiments, we have explored the capability of software platform using Open Source Embedded Linux Operating System on a programmable hardware platform such as FPGA. The idea was to identify the platform which can be customizable, flexible and scalable to support the data acquisition system requirements. To do this, we have selected FPGA based reconfigurable and scalable hardware platform to design the system with Embedded Linux based operating system for flexibility in software development and Gigabit Ethernet interface for high speed data transactions. The proposed hardware–software platform using FPGA and Embedded Linux OS offers a single chip solution with processor, peripherals such ADC interface controller, Gigabit Ethernet controller, memory controller amongst other peripherals. The Embedded Linux platform for data acquisition is implemented and tested on a Virtex-5 FXT FPGA ML507 which has PowerPC 440 (PPC440) [2] hard block on FPGA. For this work, we have used the Linux Kernel version 2.6.34 with BSP support for the ML507 platform. It is downloaded from the Xilinx [1] GIT server. Cross-compiler tool chain is created using the Buildroot scripts. The Linux Kernel and Root File System are configured and compiled using the cross-tools to support the hardware platform. The Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) IO module is designed and interfaced with the ML507 through Xilinx

  1. Embedded Linux platform for data acquisition systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Jigneshkumar J., E-mail: jjp@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Reddy, Nagaraj, E-mail: nagaraj.reddy@coreel.com [Sandeepani School of Embedded System Design, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Kumari, Praveena, E-mail: praveena@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Rajpal, Rachana, E-mail: rachana@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Pujara, Harshad, E-mail: pujara@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Jha, R., E-mail: rjha@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Kalappurakkal, Praveen, E-mail: praveen.k@coreel.com [Sandeepani School of Embedded System Design, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • The design and the development of data acquisition system on FPGA based reconfigurable hardware platform. • Embedded Linux configuration and compilation for FPGA based systems. • Hardware logic IP core and its Linux device driver development for the external peripheral to interface it with the FPGA based system. - Abstract: This scalable hardware–software system is designed and developed to explore the emerging open standards for data acquisition requirement of Tokamak experiments. To address the future need for a scalable data acquisition and control system for fusion experiments, we have explored the capability of software platform using Open Source Embedded Linux Operating System on a programmable hardware platform such as FPGA. The idea was to identify the platform which can be customizable, flexible and scalable to support the data acquisition system requirements. To do this, we have selected FPGA based reconfigurable and scalable hardware platform to design the system with Embedded Linux based operating system for flexibility in software development and Gigabit Ethernet interface for high speed data transactions. The proposed hardware–software platform using FPGA and Embedded Linux OS offers a single chip solution with processor, peripherals such ADC interface controller, Gigabit Ethernet controller, memory controller amongst other peripherals. The Embedded Linux platform for data acquisition is implemented and tested on a Virtex-5 FXT FPGA ML507 which has PowerPC 440 (PPC440) [2] hard block on FPGA. For this work, we have used the Linux Kernel version 2.6.34 with BSP support for the ML507 platform. It is downloaded from the Xilinx [1] GIT server. Cross-compiler tool chain is created using the Buildroot scripts. The Linux Kernel and Root File System are configured and compiled using the cross-tools to support the hardware platform. The Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) IO module is designed and interfaced with the ML507 through Xilinx

  2. Research and application of embedded real-time operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, based on the analysis of existing embedded real-time operating system, the architecture of an operating system is designed and implemented. The experimental results show that the design fully complies with the requirements of embedded real-time operating system, can achieve the purposes of reducing the complexity of embedded software design and improving the maintainability, reliability, flexibility. Therefore, this design program has high practical value.

  3. Reconfiguration Management in the Context of RTOS-Based HW/SW Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eustache Yvan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a safe and efficient solution to manage asynchronous configurations of dynamically reconfigurable systems-on-chip. We first define our unified RTOS-based framework for HW/SW task communication and configuration management. Then three issues are discussed and solutions are given: the formalization of configuration space modeling including its different dimensions, the synchronization of configuration that mainly addresses the question of task configuration ordering, and the configuration coherency that solves the way a task accepts a new configuration. Finally, we present the global method and give some implementation figures from a smart camera case study.

  4. Reconfiguration Management in the Context of RTOS-Based HW/SW Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvan Eustache

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a safe and efficient solution to manage asynchronous configurations of dynamically reconfigurable systems-on-chip. We first define our unified RTOS-based framework for HW/SW task communication and configuration management. Then three issues are discussed and solutions are given: the formalization of configuration space modeling including its different dimensions, the synchronization of configuration that mainly addresses the question of task configuration ordering, and the configuration coherency that solves the way a task accepts a new configuration. Finally, we present the global method and give some implementation figures from a smart camera case study.

  5. Exact vibration analysis of a double-nanobeam-systems embedded in an elastic medium by a Hamiltonian-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenhuan; Li, Yuejie; Fan, Junhai; Rong, Dalun; Sui, Guohao; Xu, Chenghui

    2018-05-01

    A new Hamiltonian-based approach is presented for finding exact solutions for transverse vibrations of double-nanobeam-systems embedded in an elastic medium. The continuum model is established within the frameworks of the symplectic methodology and the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam beams. The symplectic eigenfunctions are obtained after expressing the governing equations in a Hamiltonian form. Exact frequency equations, vibration modes and displacement amplitudes are obtained by using symplectic eigenfunctions and end conditions. Comparisons with previously published work are presented to illustrate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method. The comprehensive results for arbitrary boundary conditions could serve as benchmark results for verifying numerically obtained solutions. In addition, a study on the difference between the nonlocal beam and the nonlocal plate is also included.

  6. Experiences with Ada in an embedded system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaugh, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent experiences with using Ada in a real time environment are described. The application was the control system for an experimental robotic arm. The objectives of the effort were to experiment with developing embedded applications in Ada, evaluating the suitability of the language for the application, and determining the performance of the system. Additional objectives were to develop a control system based on the NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM) in Ada, and to experiment with the control laws and how to incorporate them into the NASREM architecture.

  7. FPGA-based multimodal embedded sensor system integrating low- and mid-level vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Guillermo; Martín H, José Antonio; Santos, Matilde; Meyer-Baese, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Motion estimation is a low-level vision task that is especially relevant due to its wide range of applications in the real world. Many of the best motion estimation algorithms include some of the features that are found in mammalians, which would demand huge computational resources and therefore are not usually available in real-time. In this paper we present a novel bioinspired sensor based on the synergy between optical flow and orthogonal variant moments. The bioinspired sensor has been designed for Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) using properties of the mammalian cortical motion pathway. This sensor combines low-level primitives (optical flow and image moments) in order to produce a mid-level vision abstraction layer. The results are described trough experiments showing the validity of the proposed system and an analysis of the computational resources and performance of the applied algorithms.

  8. Embedded system based on a real time fuzzy motor speed controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Abd El-Hamid Mohamed Ramadan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an implementation of a fuzzy logic control (FLC system and a/the conventional proportional-integral (PI controller for speed control of DC motor, based on field programmable gate array (FPGA circuit. The proposed scheme is aimed to improve the tracking performance and to eliminate the load disturbance in the speed control of DC motors. The proposed fuzzy system has been applied to a permanent magnet DC motor, via a configuration of H-bridge. The fuzzy control algorithm is designed and verified with a nonlinear model, using the MATLAB® tools. Both FLC and conventional PI controller hardware are synthesized, functionally verified and implemented using Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE Version 11.1i. The real time implementation of these controllers is made on Spartan-3E FPGA starter kit (XC3S500E. The practical results showed that the proposed FLC scheme has better tracking performance than the conventional PI controller for the speed control of DC motors.

  9. On-Road Driver Monitoring System Based on a Solar-Powered In-Vehicle Embedded Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Lin Chen; Chao-Wei Yu; Zi-Jie Chien; Chin-Hsuan Liu; Hsin-Han Chiang

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an on-road driver monitoring system, which is implemented on a stand-alone in-vehicle embedded system and driven by effective solar cells. The driver monitoring function is performed by an efficient eye detection technique. Through the driver’s eye movements captured from the camera, the attention states of the driver can be determined and any fatigue states can be avoided. This driver monitoring technique is implemented on a low-power embedded in-vehicle platform. Besides...

  10. Cross functional organisational embedded system development

    OpenAIRE

    Lennon, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed Embedded system development is continuing to grow. Medical, automotive and Internet of Things are just some of the market segments. There is a tight coupling between hardware and software when developing an embedded system, often needing to meet strict performance targets, standards requirements and aggressive schedules. Embedded software developers need to consider hardware requirements in far greater detail as they can have a significant impact on the quality and value of t...

  11. An Embedded Real-Time Red Peach Detection System Based on an OV7670 Camera, ARM Cortex-M4 Processor and 3D Look-Up Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Tresanchez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the development of an embedded real-time fruit detection system for future automatic fruit harvesting. The proposed embedded system is based on an ARM Cortex-M4 (STM32F407VGT6 processor and an Omnivision OV7670 color camera. The future goal of this embedded vision system will be to control a robotized arm to automatically select and pick some fruit directly from the tree. The complete embedded system has been designed to be placed directly in the gripper tool of the future robotized harvesting arm. The embedded system will be able to perform real-time fruit detection and tracking by using a three-dimensional look-up-table (LUT defined in the RGB color space and optimized for fruit picking. Additionally, two different methodologies for creating optimized 3D LUTs based on existing linear color models and fruit histograms were implemented in this work and compared for the case of red peaches. The resulting system is able to acquire general and zoomed orchard images and to update the relative tracking information of a red peach in the tree ten times per second.

  12. An embedded real-time red peach detection system based on an OV7670 camera, ARM cortex-M4 processor and 3D look-up tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidó, Mercè; Font, Davinia; Pallejà, Tomàs; Tresanchez, Marcel; Nogués, Miquel; Palacín, Jordi

    2012-10-22

    This work proposes the development of an embedded real-time fruit detection system for future automatic fruit harvesting. The proposed embedded system is based on an ARM Cortex-M4 (STM32F407VGT6) processor and an Omnivision OV7670 color camera. The future goal of this embedded vision system will be to control a robotized arm to automatically select and pick some fruit directly from the tree. The complete embedded system has been designed to be placed directly in the gripper tool of the future robotized harvesting arm. The embedded system will be able to perform real-time fruit detection and tracking by using a three-dimensional look-up-table (LUT) defined in the RGB color space and optimized for fruit picking. Additionally, two different methodologies for creating optimized 3D LUTs based on existing linear color models and fruit histograms were implemented in this work and compared for the case of red peaches. The resulting system is able to acquire general and zoomed orchard images and to update the relative tracking information of a red peach in the tree ten times per second.

  13. Graphical Model Debugger Framework for Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Kebin

    2010-01-01

    Model Driven Software Development has offered a faster way to design and implement embedded real-time software by moving the design to a model level, and by transforming models to code. However, the testing of embedded systems has remained at the code level. This paper presents a Graphical Model...... Debugger Framework, providing an auxiliary avenue of analysis of system models at runtime by executing generated code and updating models synchronously, which allows embedded developers to focus on the model level. With the model debugger, embedded developers can graphically test their design model...

  14. The Research about Embedded Soft PLC Running System Based on ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ding

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the overall construction and operational principle of soft PLC. Considering the real time request of the system, we use Linux+RTAI dual core system as software platform. In this platform, the implementation method of soft PLC operational system is introduced. Especially, the design of instruction analysis module is emphasized. On the basis of energy flow concept, the logic algorithm is established, aligning to the left bus. Finally, the system is tested to evaluate the desired control behavior.

  15. Multithreading for Embedded Reconfigurable Multicore Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaykov, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, we address the problem of performance efficient multithreading execution on heterogeneous multicore embedded systems. By heterogeneous multicore embedded systems we refer to those, which have real-time requirements and consist of processor tiles with General Purpose Processor

  16. Multithreading for embedded reconfigurable multicore systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaykov, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, we address the problem of performance efficient multithreading execution on heterogeneous multicore embedded systems. By heterogeneous multicore embedded systems we refer to those, which have real-time requirements and consist of processor tiles with General Purpose Processor

  17. Verification and Performance Analysis for Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2009-01-01

    This talk provides a thorough tutorial of the UPPAAL tool suite for, modeling, simulation, verification, optimal scheduling, synthesis, testing and performance analysis of embedded and real-time systems.......This talk provides a thorough tutorial of the UPPAAL tool suite for, modeling, simulation, verification, optimal scheduling, synthesis, testing and performance analysis of embedded and real-time systems....

  18. Teaching Embedded System Concepts for Technological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzker, M.; Schwandt, A.

    2011-01-01

    A basic understanding of technology is recognized as important knowledge even for students not connected with engineering and computer science. This paper shows that embedded system concepts can be taught in a technological literacy course. An embedded system teaching block that has been used in an electronics module for non-engineers is…

  19. Heterogeneous Embedded Real-Time Systems Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2003-290 Final Technical Report December 2003 HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT Integrated...HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT 6. AUTHOR(S) Cosmo Castellano and James Graham 5. FUNDING NUMBERS C - F30602-97-C-0259

  20. Cloud-based design and virtual prototypin environment for embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, S.; Lauber, A.; Koedam, M.L.P.J.; Becker, J.; Sax, E.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2016-01-01

    The design and test of Multi-Processor Systemon- Chips (MPSoCs) and development of distributed applications and/or operating systems executed on those hardware platforms is one of the biggest challenges in today's system design. This applies in particular when short time-tomarket constraints impose

  1. Analysis, Design and Implementation of an Embedded Realtime Sound Source Localization System Based on Beamforming Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arko Djajadi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This project is intended to analyze, design and implement a realtime sound source localization system by using a mobile robot as the media. The implementated system uses 2 microphones as the sensors, Arduino Duemilanove microcontroller system with ATMega328p as the microprocessor, two permanent magnet DC motors as the actuators for the mobile robot and a servo motor as the actuator to rotate the webcam directing to the location of the sound source, and a laptop/PC as the simulation and display media. In order to achieve the objective of finding the position of a specific sound source, beamforming theory is applied to the system. Once the location of the sound source is detected and determined, the choice is either the mobile robot will adjust its position according to the direction of the sound source or only webcam will rotate in the direction of the incoming sound simulating the use of this system in a video conference. The integrated system has been tested and the results show the system could localize in realtime a sound source placed randomly on a half circle area (0 - 1800 with a radius of 0.3m - 3m, assuming the system is the center point of the circle. Due to low ADC and processor speed, achievable best angular resolution is still limited to 25o.

  2. Bus Access Optimisation for FlexRay-based Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2007-01-01

    -real time communication in a deterministic manner. In this paper, we propose techniques for optimising the FlexRay bus access mechanism of a distributed system, so that the hard real-time deadlines are met for all the tasks and messages in the system. We have evaluated the proposed techniques using...

  3. Test-Access Planning and Test Scheduling for Embedded Core-Based System Chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goel, Sandeep Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Advances in the semiconductor process technology enable the creation of a complete system on one single die, the so-called system chip or SOC. To reduce time-to-market for large SOCs, reuse of pre-designed and pre-veried blocks called cores is employed. Like the design style, testing of SOCs can be

  4. Front end embedded microprocessors in the JET computer-based control system, past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steed, C.A.; VanderBeken, H.; Browne, M.L.; Fullard, K.; Reed, K.; Tilley, M.; Schmidt, V.

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of the use of Front End Microprocessors in the JET Control and Data Acquisition System (CODAS) is presented. The present expansion in their use from 2 or 3 in 1983 to 27 now, is covered along with the reasoning behind their present usage. Finally, their future planned use in the area of remote handling is discussed and the authors present views on the use of front end processing in future large distributed control systems are presented

  5. Incubator embedded cell culture imaging system (EmSight) based on Fourier ptychographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; Lester, Henry A; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-08-01

    Multi-day tracking of cells in culture systems can provide valuable information in bioscience experiments. We report the development of a cell culture imaging system, named EmSight, which incorporates multiple compact Fourier ptychographic microscopes with a standard multiwell imaging plate. The system is housed in an incubator and presently incorporates six microscopes. By using the same low magnification objective lenses as the objective and the tube lens, the EmSight is configured as a 1:1 imaging system that, providing large field-of-view (FOV) imaging onto a low-cost CMOS imaging sensor. The EmSight improves the image resolution by capturing a series of images of the sample at varying illumination angles; the instrument reconstructs a higher-resolution image by using the iterative Fourier ptychographic algorithm. In addition to providing high-resolution brightfield and phase imaging, the EmSight is also capable of fluorescence imaging at the native resolution of the objectives. We characterized the system using a phase Siemens star target, and show four-fold improved coherent resolution (synthetic NA of 0.42) and a depth of field of 0.2 mm. To conduct live, long-term dopaminergic neuron imaging, we cultured ventral midbrain from mice driving eGFP from the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. The EmSight system tracks movements of dopaminergic neurons over a 21 day period.

  6. ESSAA: Embedded system safety analysis assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Peter; Holzer, Joseph; Guarro, Sergio; Hyatt, Larry

    1987-01-01

    The Embedded System Safety Analysis Assistant (ESSAA) is a knowledge-based tool that can assist in identifying disaster scenarios. Imbedded software issues hazardous control commands to the surrounding hardware. ESSAA is intended to work from outputs to inputs, as a complement to simulation and verification methods. Rather than treating the software in isolation, it examines the context in which the software is to be deployed. Given a specified disasterous outcome, ESSAA works from a qualitative, abstract model of the complete system to infer sets of environmental conditions and/or failures that could cause a disasterous outcome. The scenarios can then be examined in depth for plausibility using existing techniques.

  7. Embedded, everywhere: a research agenda for networked systems of embedded computers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Networked Systems of Embedded Computers; National Research Council Staff; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Computer Science and Telecommunications Board; National Academy of Sciences

    2001-01-01

    .... Embedded, Everywhere explores the potential of networked systems of embedded computers and the research challenges arising from embedding computation and communications technology into a wide variety of applicationsâ...

  8. Software for Embedded Control Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, Johannes F.; Hilderink, G.H.; Jovanovic, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    The research of our team deals with the realization of control schemes on digital computers. As such the emphasis is on embedded control software implementation. Applications are in the field of mechatronic devices, using a mechatronic design approach (the integrated and optimal design of a

  9. TTCN-3 for distributed testing embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, S.C.C.; Deiß, T.; Ioustinova, N.; Kontio, A.; Pol, van de J.C.; Rennoch, A.; Sidorova, N.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. TTCN-3 is a standardized language for specifying and executing test suites that is particularly popular for testing embedded systems. Prior to testing embedded software in a target environment, the software is usually tested in the host environment. Executing in the host environment often

  10. Analysis of Security Protocols in Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Alessandro

    Embedded real-time systems have been adopted in a wide range of safety-critical applications—including automotive, avionics, and train control systems—where the focus has long been on safety (i.e., protecting the external world from the potential damage caused by the system) rather than security (i.......e., protecting the system from the external world). With increased connectivity of these systems to external networks the attack surface has grown, and consequently there is a need for securing the system from external attacks. Introducing security protocols in safety critical systems requires careful...... in this direction is to extend saturation-based techniques so that enough state information can be modelled and analysed. Finally, we present a methodology for proving the same security properties in the computational model, by means of typing protocol implementations....

  11. Introduction to embedded system design using field programmable gate arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Dubey, Rahul

    2009-01-01

    Offers information on the use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) in the design of embedded systems. This text considers a hypothetical robot controller as an embedded application and weaves around it related concepts of FPGA-based digital design. It is suitable for both students and designers who have worked with microprocessors.

  12. Operating system concepts for embedded multicores

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, Oliver; Schmidt, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    Currently we can see an increasing adoption of multi-core platforms in the area of embedded systems. While these new hardware platforms offer the potential to satisfy the ever increasing demand for computational power, they pose considerable challenges with regard to software development. This affects the application software itself, but also the system design and architecture. Here, we address the consequences for operating system architecture in embedded systems. After dis-cussing current a...

  13. Development of multichannel system for nuclear radiation spectrometry based on an embedded control and acquisition device Myrio-1900

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez D, S.

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the design a multichannel analyzer system 4096 channels (Mca) for gamma radiation spectrometry. The multichannel analyzer has as its main component an embedded company National Instruments model NI (Myrio-1900) module, which is integrated by a step of converting analog to digital signals (A / D) and digital-to-analog (D / A) a programmable gate array, and a processor real time (Rt). Through this module the pulses generated by the detector to be processed and subsequently forming the multichannel analyzer are acquired. In addition, a graphical user interface designed to make more use friendly system from a personal computer (Pc), embedded programming module and the user interface was done with the LabVIEW programming environment. tests with different sources of radiation ("6"0Co, "2"2"6Ra, "1"3"7Cs) and semiconductor detectors (Ge) and scintillation (Na) were made. Getting results satisfactory. (Author)

  14. Making embedded systems design patterns for great software

    CERN Document Server

    White, Elecia

    2011-01-01

    Interested in developing embedded systems? Since they don't tolerate inefficiency, these systems require a disciplined approach to programming. This easy-to-read guide helps you cultivate a host of good development practices, based on classic software design patterns and new patterns unique to embedded programming. Learn how to build system architecture for processors, not operating systems, and discover specific techniques for dealing with hardware difficulties and manufacturing requirements. Written by an expert who's created embedded systems ranging from urban surveillance and DNA scanner

  15. The art of designing embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ganssle, Jack G

    2000-01-01

    Art of Designing Embedded Systems is apart primer and part reference, aimed at practicing embedded engineers, whether working on the code or the hardware design. Embedded systems suffer from a chaotic, ad hoc development process. This books lays out a very simple seven-step plan to get firmware development under control. There are no formal methodologies to master; the ideas are immediately useful. Most designers are unaware that code complexity grows faster than code size. This book shows a number of ways to linearize the complexity/size curve and get products out faster

  16. Research on application of VME based embedded linux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiaolu; Ye Mei; Zhu Kejun; Li Xiaonan; Wang Yifang

    2010-01-01

    It describes the feasibility and realization of using embedded Linux in DAQ readout system of high energy physics experiment. The first part, the hardware and software framework is introduced. And then emphasis is placed on the key technologies during the system realization. The development is based on the VME bus and vme u niverse driver. Finally, the test result is presented: the readout system can work well in Embedded Linux OS. (authors)

  17. Embedded High Performance Scalable Computing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ngo, David

    2003-01-01

    The Embedded High Performance Scalable Computing Systems (EHPSCS) program is a cooperative agreement between Sanders, A Lockheed Martin Company and DARPA that ran for three years, from Apr 1995 - Apr 1998...

  18. On-Road Driver Monitoring System Based on a Solar-Powered In-Vehicle Embedded Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Lin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an on-road driver monitoring system, which is implemented on a stand-alone in-vehicle embedded system and driven by effective solar cells. The driver monitoring function is performed by an efficient eye detection technique. Through the driver’s eye movements captured from the camera, the attention states of the driver can be determined and any fatigue states can be avoided. This driver monitoring technique is implemented on a low-power embedded in-vehicle platform. Besides, this study also proposed monitoring machinery that can detect the brightness around the car to effectively determine whether this in-vehicle system is driven by the solar cells or by the vehicle battery. On sunny days, the in-vehicle system can be powered by solar cell in places without the vehicle battery. While in the evenings or on rainy days, the ambient solar brightness is insufficient, and the system is powered by the vehicle battery. The proposed system was tested under the conditions that the solar irradiance is 10 to 113 W/m2 and solar energy and brightness at 10 to 170. From the testing results, when the outside solar radiation is high, the brightness of the inside of the car is increased, and the eye detection accuracy can also increase as well. Therefore, this solar powered driver monitoring system can be efficiently applied to electric cars to save energy consumption and promote the driving safety.

  19. Development, implementation, and characterization of a standalone embedded viscosity measurement system based on the impedance spectroscopy of a vibrating wire sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José; Janeiro, Fernando M.; Ramos, Pedro M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an embedded liquid viscosity measurement system based on a vibrating wire sensor. Although multiple viscometers based on different working principles are commercially available, there is still a market demand for a dedicated measurement system capable of performing accurate, fast measurements and requiring little or no operator training for simple systems and solution monitoring. The developed embedded system is based on a vibrating wire sensor that works by measuring the impedance response of the sensor, which depends on the viscosity and density of the liquid in which the sensor is immersed. The core of the embedded system is a digital signal processor (DSP) which controls the waveform generation and acquisitions for the measurement of the impedance frequency response. The DSP also processes the acquired waveforms and estimates the liquid viscosity. The user can interact with the measurement system through a keypad and an LCD or through a computer with a USB connection for data logging and processing. The presented system is tested on a set of viscosity standards and the estimated values are compared with the standard manufacturer specified viscosity values. A stability study of the measurement system is also performed.

  20. Development, implementation, and characterization of a standalone embedded viscosity measurement system based on the impedance spectroscopy of a vibrating wire sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, José; Ramos, Pedro M; Janeiro, Fernando M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an embedded liquid viscosity measurement system based on a vibrating wire sensor. Although multiple viscometers based on different working principles are commercially available, there is still a market demand for a dedicated measurement system capable of performing accurate, fast measurements and requiring little or no operator training for simple systems and solution monitoring. The developed embedded system is based on a vibrating wire sensor that works by measuring the impedance response of the sensor, which depends on the viscosity and density of the liquid in which the sensor is immersed. The core of the embedded system is a digital signal processor (DSP) which controls the waveform generation and acquisitions for the measurement of the impedance frequency response. The DSP also processes the acquired waveforms and estimates the liquid viscosity. The user can interact with the measurement system through a keypad and an LCD or through a computer with a USB connection for data logging and processing. The presented system is tested on a set of viscosity standards and the estimated values are compared with the standard manufacturer specified viscosity values. A stability study of the measurement system is also performed. (paper)

  1. EMBEDDED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE ROBOTS WITH DIFFERENTIAL DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal KOPČÍK

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with design and implementation of control system for mobile robots with differential drive using embedded system. This designed embedded system consists of single control board featuring ARM based microcontroller which control the peripherals in real time and perform all low-level motion control. Designed embedded system can be easily expanded with additional sensors, actuators or control units to enhance applicability of mobile robot. Designed embedded system also features build-in communication module, which can be used for data for data acquisition and control of the mobile robot. Control board was implemented on two different types of mobile robots with differential drive, one of which was wheeled and other was tracked. These mobile robots serve as testing platform for Fault Detection and Isolation using hardware and analytical redundancy using Multisensor Data Fusion based on Kalman filters.

  2. Measuring the efficacy of flunixin meglumine and meloxicam for lame sows using a GAITFour pressure mat and an embedded microcomputer-based force plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairis-Garcia, M D; Johnson, A K; Abell, C A; Coetzee, J F; Karriker, L A; Millman, S T; Stalder, K J

    2015-05-01

    Pain associated with lameness on farm is a negative affective state and has a detrimental impact on individual farm animal welfare. Animal pain can be managed utilizing husbandry tools and through pharmacological approaches. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including meloxicam and flunixin meglumine are compounds used in many species for pain management because they are easy to administer, long lasting, and cost-effective. Assessing an animal's biomechanical parameters using such tools as the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system and GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system provides an objective, sensitive, and precise means to detect animals in lame states. The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of meloxicam and flunixin meglumine for pain mitigation in lame sows using the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system and GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system. Lameness was induced in 24 mature mixed-parity sows using a chemical synovitis model and compared 3 treatments: meloxicam (1.0 mg/kg per os), flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg intramuscular) and sterile saline (intramuscular). Weight distribution (kg) for each foot was collected twice per second for a total of 5 min for each time point using the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system. Stride time, stride length, maximum pressure, activated sensors, and stance time were collected using 3 quality walks (readings) for each time point using the GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system. Sows administered flunixin meglumine or meloxicam tolerated more weight on their lame leg compared with saline sows (P embedded microcomputer-based force plate system and GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system. Analgesic drugs may be a key tool to manage negative pain affective states associated with lameness.

  3. Embedded and real-time operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, K C

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the basic concepts and principles of operating systems, showing how to apply them to the design and implementation of complete operating systems for embedded and real-time systems. It includes all the foundational and background information on ARM architecture, ARM instructions and programming, toolchain for developing programs, virtual machines for software implementation and testing, program execution image, function call conventions, run-time stack usage and link C programs with assembly code. It describes the design and implementation of a complete OS for embedded systems in incremental steps, explaining the design principles and implementation techniques. For Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) embedded systems, the author examines the ARM MPcore processors, which include the SCU and GIC for interrupts routing and interprocessor communication and synchronization by Software Generated Interrupts (SGIs). Throughout the book, complete working sample systems demonstrate the design principles and...

  4. Apparatuses And Systems For Embedded Thermoelectric Generators

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2013-08-08

    An apparatus and a system for embedded thermoelectric generators are disclosed. In one embodiment, the apparatus is embedded in an interface where the ambient temperatures on two sides of the interface are different. In one embodiment, the apparatus is fabricated with the interface in integrity as a unitary piece. In one embodiment, the apparatus includes a first thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The apparatus further includes a second thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The first thermoelectric material is electrically coupled to the second thermoelectric material. In one embodiment, the apparatus further includes an output structure coupled to the first thermoelectric material and the second thermoelectric material and configured to output a voltage.

  5. Apparatuses And Systems For Embedded Thermoelectric Generators

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad M.; Inayat, Salman Bin; Smith, Casey Eben

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus and a system for embedded thermoelectric generators are disclosed. In one embodiment, the apparatus is embedded in an interface where the ambient temperatures on two sides of the interface are different. In one embodiment, the apparatus is fabricated with the interface in integrity as a unitary piece. In one embodiment, the apparatus includes a first thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The apparatus further includes a second thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The first thermoelectric material is electrically coupled to the second thermoelectric material. In one embodiment, the apparatus further includes an output structure coupled to the first thermoelectric material and the second thermoelectric material and configured to output a voltage.

  6. Design Technology for Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connor, Ian; Piguet, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Designing technology to address the problem of heterogeneous embedded systems, while remaining compatible with standard “More Moore” flows, i.e. capable of handling simultaneously both silicon complexity and system complexity, represents one of the most important challenges facing the semiconductor industry today. While the micro-electronics industry has built its own specific design methods to focus mainly on the management of complexity through the establishment of abstraction levels, the emergence of device heterogeneity requires new approaches enabling the satisfactory design of physically heterogeneous embedded systems for the widespread deployment of such systems. This book, compiled largely from a set of contributions from participants of past editions of the Winter School on Heterogeneous Embedded Systems Design Technology (FETCH), proposes a broad and holistic overview of design techniques used to tackle the various facets of heterogeneity in terms of technology and opportunities at the physical ...

  7. Enabling Self-Organization in Embedded Systems with Reconfigurable Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bobda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology based on self-organization to manage resources in networked embedded systems based on reconfigurable hardware. Two points are detailed in this paper, the monitoring system used to analyse the system and the Local Marketplaces Global Symbiosis (LMGS concept defined for self-organization of dynamically reconfigurable nodes.

  8. The art of programming embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ganssle, Jack

    1992-01-01

    Embedded systems are products such as microwave ovens, cars, and toys that rely on an internal microprocessor. This book is oriented toward the design engineer or programmer who writes the computer code for such a system. There are a number of problems specific to the embedded systems designer, and this book addresses them and offers practical solutions.Key Features* Offers cookbook routines, algorithms, and design techniques* Includes tips for handling debugging management and testing* Explores the philosophy of tightly coupling software and hardware in programming and dev

  9. Flexible Architecture for FPGAs in Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Duane I.; Lim, Chester N.

    2012-01-01

    Commonly, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) being developed in cPCI embedded systems include the bus interface in the FPGA. This complicates the development because the interface is complicated and requires a lot of development time and FPGA resources. In addition, flight qualification requires a substantial amount of time be devoted to just this interface. Another complication of putting the cPCI interface into the FPGA being developed is that configuration information loaded into the device by the cPCI microprocessor is lost when a new bit file is loaded, requiring cumbersome operations to return the system to an operational state. Finally, SRAM-based FPGAs are typically programmed via specialized cables and software, with programming files being loaded either directly into the FPGA, or into PROM devices. This can be cumbersome when doing FPGA development in an embedded environment, and does not have an easy path to flight. Currently, FPGAs used in space applications are usually programmed via multiple space-qualified PROM devices that are physically large and require extra circuitry (typically including a separate one-time programmable FPGA) to enable them to be used for this application. This technology adds a cPCI interface device with a simple, flexible, high-performance backend interface supporting multiple backend FPGAs. It includes a mechanism for programming the FPGAs directly via the microprocessor in the embedded system, eliminating specialized hardware, software, and PROM devices and their associated circuitry. It has a direct path to flight, and no extra hardware and minimal software are required to support reprogramming in flight. The device added is currently a small FPGA, but an advantage of this technology is that the design of the device does not change, regardless of the application in which it is being used. This means that it needs to be qualified for flight only once, and is suitable for one-time programmable devices or an application

  10. Views on Evolvability of Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, P. van de; Punter, T.

    2011-01-01

    Evolvability, the ability to respond effectively to change, represents a major challenge to today's high-end embedded systems, such as those developed in the medical domain by Philips Healthcare. These systems are typically developed by multi-disciplinary teams, located around the world, and are in

  11. Views on evolvability of embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van de P.J.L.J.; Punter, H.T.

    2011-01-01

    Evolvability, the ability to respond effectively to change, represents a major challenge to today's high-end embedded systems, such as those developed in the medical domain by Philips Healthcare. These systems are typically developed by multi-disciplinary teams, located around the world, and are in

  12. Dealing with dynamism in embedded system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gheorghita, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade, real-time embedded systems became more and more complex and pervasive. From the user perspective, these systems have stringent requirements regarding size, performance and energy consumption, and due to business competition, their time-to-market is a crucial factor. Besides these

  13. On Verification Modelling of Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Hendrik; Mader, Angelika H.

    Computer-aided verification of embedded systems hinges on the availability of good verification models of the systems at hand. Such models must be much simpler than full design models or specifications to be of practical value, because of the unavoidable combinatorial complexities in the

  14. Embedded computer systems for control applications in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.B.; Start, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the embedded computer systems approach taken at Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) for non-safety related systems. The hardware and software structures for typical embedded systems are presented The embedded systems development process is described. Three examples are given which illustrate typical embedded computer applications in EBR-II

  15. Tools for Embedded Computing Systems Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A workshop was held to assess the state of tools for embedded systems software and to determine directions for tool development. A synopsis of the talk and the key figures of each workshop presentation, together with chairmen summaries, are presented. The presentations covered four major areas: (1) tools and the software environment (development and testing); (2) tools and software requirements, design, and specification; (3) tools and language processors; and (4) tools and verification and validation (analysis and testing). The utility and contribution of existing tools and research results for the development and testing of embedded computing systems software are described and assessed.

  16. Real-Time Operating Systems for Multicore Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Honda, Shinya; Takada, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    Multicore systems-on-chip have become popular inthe design of embedded systems in order to simultaneously achieve high performance and low power consumption. On the software side, real-time operating systems are necessary in orderto handle growing complexity of embedded software. This paper describes requirements, design principles and implementation techniques for real-time operating systems to be used inasymmetric multicore systems.

  17. Development of An Embedded FPGA-Based Data Acquisition System Dedicated to Zero Power Reactor Noise Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkani Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An embedded time interval data acquisition system (DAS is developed for zero power reactor (ZPR noise experiments. The system is capable of measuring the correlation or probability distribution of a random process. The design is totally implemented on a single Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. The architecture is tested on different FPGA platforms with different speed grades and hardware resources. Generic experimental values for time resolution and inter-event dead time of the system are 2.22 ns and 6.67 ns respectively. The DAS can record around 48-bit x 790 kS/s utilizing its built-in fast memory. The system can measure very long time intervals due to its 48-bit timing structure design. As the architecture can work on a typical FPGA, this is a low cost experimental tool and needs little time to be established. In addition, revisions are easily possible through its reprogramming capability. The performance of the system is checked and verified experimentally.

  18. Scheduling Driven Partitioning of Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for system level hardware/software partitioning of heterogeneous embedded systems. The system is represented as an abstract graph which captures both data-flow and the flow of control. Given an architecture consisting of several processors, ASICs and shared...... busses, our partitioning algorithm finds the partitioning with the smallest hardware cost and is able to predict and guarantee the performance of the system in terms of worst case delay....

  19. Constraint Embedding for Multibody System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a constraint embedding approach for the handling of local closure constraints in multibody system dynamics. The approach uses spatial operator techniques to eliminate local-loop constraints from the system and effectively convert the system into tree-topology systems. This approach allows the direct derivation of recursive O(N) techniques for solving the system dynamics and avoiding the expensive steps that would otherwise be required for handling the closedchain dynamics. The approach is very effective for systems where the constraints are confined to small-subgraphs within the system topology. The paper provides background on the spatial operator O(N) algorithms, the extensions for handling embedded constraints, and concludes with some examples of such constraints.

  20. Y2K Embedded Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoonemore, L. Joe

    1999-01-01

    Discusses facility managers' preparedness for dealing with the Y2K bug and ways to systematically assess and avoid its impact. Tips for reducing computerized system failure as facility managers make their transition into the next century conclude the article. (GR)

  1. Design of embedded control systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamski, M; Karatkevich, Andrei; Węgrzyn, M

    2005-01-01

    ... using some concrete technological base; efficient methods of logic synthesis, test, and verification should be developed for that. Fourth, the task of the communication between the control device and controlled objects (and maybe between different control devices) waits for its solution. All these problems are hard enough and cannot be successfull...

  2. Embedded system file transfer USB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaoua, Mehdi

    2008-01-01

    The development of the communication series A emphasized new aspects of data exchange. The transfer of data, subject of my project of end of studies, consists in transferring from the files of a support of mass towards another via port USB. In first phase, I had like stain the realization of an embarked system allowing the communication between a key USB and final of communication such as a Pc. For this fact, I had to include/understand the operation of protocol USB and thus I could programmed a Peak to manage this communication. The second phase, will consist in extending this project towards a transmission de< donnees between two keys USB without intervention of a powerful machine equipped with an operating system pour rant to manage this transaction. (Author)

  3. Proposal of Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Embedded System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Wei; Kageyama, Makoto; Kanemoto, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    To do risk analysis and risk evaluation for complicated safety critical embedded systems, there are three things should be paid a good attention: 1) an efficient and integrated model expression of embedded systems: 2) systematic risk analysis based on integrated system model: 3) quantitative risk evaluation for software and hardware integrated system. In this paper, taken electric water boiler as a target system, a proposal of risk analysis and risk evaluation for the embedded system is presented to meet these three purposes. In risk analysis, MFM is used and FT is generated automatically from MFM following some rules: And in risk evaluation, GO-FLOW is used to evaluate the reliability of sensors. And furthermore, FIT is applied to evaluate the safety software logic based on the diversity design concept. Although the electric water boiler is a simple example, it includes the key components of the embedded system like sensors, actuators, and software component. So, the process of modeling, analysis, and evaluation could be applied to other kinds of complicated embedded systems

  4. A State-Based Modeling Approach for Efficient Performance Evaluation of Embedded System Architectures at Transaction Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Barreteau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract models are necessary to assist system architects in the evaluation process of hardware/software architectures and to cope with the still increasing complexity of embedded systems. Efficient methods are required to create reliable models of system architectures and to allow early performance evaluation and fast exploration of the design space. In this paper, we present a specific transaction level modeling approach for performance evaluation of hardware/software architectures. This approach relies on a generic execution model that exhibits light modeling effort. Created models are used to evaluate by simulation expected processing and memory resources according to various architectures. The proposed execution model relies on a specific computation method defined to improve the simulation speed of transaction level models. The benefits of the proposed approach are highlighted through two case studies. The first case study is a didactic example illustrating the modeling approach. In this example, a simulation speed-up by a factor of 7,62 is achieved by using the proposed computation method. The second case study concerns the analysis of a communication receiver supporting part of the physical layer of the LTE protocol. In this case study, architecture exploration is led in order to improve the allocation of processing functions.

  5. EMBEDDED SYSTEMS FOR VIBRATION MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Milovančević

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research presented in this paper is the development of the optimal micro configuration for vibration monitoring of pumping aggregate, based on Microchip’s microcontroller (MC. Hardware used is 10-bit MC, upgraded with 12/bit A/D converter. Software for acquisition and data analysis is optimized for testing turbo pumps with rotation speed up to 2000 rpm. This software limitation is set for automatic diagnostics and for individual and manual vibro-diagnostic; the only limitation is set by accelerometer performance. The authors have performed numerous measurements on a wide range of turbo aggregates for establishing the operational condition of pumping aggregates.

  6. An integrated compact airborne multispectral imaging system using embedded computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuedong; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xuguo

    2015-08-01

    An integrated compact airborne multispectral imaging system using embedded computer based control system was developed for small aircraft multispectral imaging application. The multispectral imaging system integrates CMOS camera, filter wheel with eight filters, two-axis stabilized platform, miniature POS (position and orientation system) and embedded computer. The embedded computer has excellent universality and expansibility, and has advantages in volume and weight for airborne platform, so it can meet the requirements of control system of the integrated airborne multispectral imaging system. The embedded computer controls the camera parameters setting, filter wheel and stabilized platform working, image and POS data acquisition, and stores the image and data. The airborne multispectral imaging system can connect peripheral device use the ports of the embedded computer, so the system operation and the stored image data management are easy. This airborne multispectral imaging system has advantages of small volume, multi-function, and good expansibility. The imaging experiment results show that this system has potential for multispectral remote sensing in applications such as resource investigation and environmental monitoring.

  7. Executable UML Modeling For Automotive Embedded Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, Sebastien

    2000-01-01

    Engineers are more and more faced to the hard problem of sophisticated real-time System whereas time to market becomes always smaller. Object oriented modeling supported by UML standard brings effective solutions to such problems. However the possibility to specify real-time aspects of an application are not yet fully satisfactory Indeed, existing industrial proposals supply good answers to concurrency specification problem but they are yet limited regarding to real-time quantitative properties specification of an application. This work aims to construct a complete and consistent UML methodology based on a profile dedicated to automotive embedded Systems modeling and prototyping. This profile contains ail needed extensions to express easily the real-time quantitative properties of an application. Moreover, thanks to the formalization of UML protocol state machines, real-time concepts have been well-integrated in the object oriented paradigm. The main result of this deep integration is that a user is now able to model real-time Systems through the classical object oriented view i.e. without needing any specific knowing in real-time area. In order to answer to an industrial requirement, Systems prototyping (key point for car industry) the ACCORD/UML approach allows also to build executable models of an application. For that purpose, the method supplies a set of rules allow.ng to remove UML ambiguous semantics points, to complete semantics variation points and then to obtain a complete and coherent global model of an application being executable. The work of UML extension and its using formalization realized all along this thesis supplied also a complete and non-ambiguous modeling framework for automotive electronics Systems development. This is also a base particularly well-suited to tackle other facets of the Systems development as automatic and optimized code generation, validation, simulation or tests. (author) [fr

  8. Modular control system for embedded applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dostálek Petr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with hardware design of a modular control system intended for embedded applications demanding high computational power while maintaining low cost. The control system central unit is based on 32bit microcontroller MK60DN512 with ARM Cortex-M4 core manufactured by NXP Semiconductor. Module provides all the necessary signals on the two 2-row 40 pin headers and Ethernet communication interface in the form of a small daughter board. It is connected to the mainboard which must always contain 5 V stabilized power supply; other circuits are application specific. In our application the mainboard is equipped with SD card slot, RS232 and RS485 interface which is used for high speed interconnection with up to 15 expansion peripheral modules. This concept enables high flexibility to specific application demands without necessity of redesigning the control system. Controller is freely programmable in C language using any compatible integrated development environment – NXP Kinetis Design Studio, for example. Software development and debugging is simplified by our support program libraries including necessary routines for control and monitoring tasks.

  9. On Model Based Synthesis of Embedded Control Software

    OpenAIRE

    Alimguzhin, Vadim; Mari, Federico; Melatti, Igor; Salvo, Ivano; Tronci, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Many Embedded Systems are indeed Software Based Control Systems (SBCSs), that is control systems whose controller consists of control software running on a microcontroller device. This motivates investigation on Formal Model Based Design approaches for control software. Given the formal model of a plant as a Discrete Time Linear Hybrid System and the implementation specifications (that is, number of bits in the Analog-to-Digital (AD) conversion) correct-by-construction control software can be...

  10. Improving RF Transmit Power and Received Signal Strength in 2.4 GHz ZigBee Based Active RFID System with Embedded Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po'ad, F. A.; Ismail, W.; Jusoh, J. F.

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the experiments and analysis conducted on 2.4 GHz embedded active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) - Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) based system that has been developed for the purposes of location tracking and monitoring in indoor and outdoor environments. Several experiments are conducted to test the effectiveness and performance of the developed system and two of them is by measuring the Radio Frequency (RF) transmitting power and Received Signal Strength (RSS) to prove that the embedded active RFID tag is capable to generate higher transmit power during data transmission and able to provide better RSS reading compared to standalone RFID tag. Experiments are carried out on two RFID tags which are active RFID tag embedded with GPS and GSM (ER2G); and standalone RFID tag communicating with the same active RFID reader. The developed ER2G contributes 12.26 % transmit power and 6.47 % RSS reading higher than standalone RFID tag. The results conclude that the ER2G gives better performance compared to standalone RFID tag and can be used as guidelines for future design improvements.

  11. System Description: Embedding Verification into Microsoft Excel

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Graham; Dennis, Louise Abigail

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the PROSPER project is to allow the embedding of existing verification technology into applications in such a way that the theorem proving is hidden, or presented to the end user in a natural way. This paper describes a system built to test whether the PROSPER toolkit satisfied this aim. The system combines the toolkit with Microsoft Excel, a popular commercial spreadsheet application.

  12. Light-erasable embedded charge-trapping memory based on MoS2 for system-on-panel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Long-Fei; Zhu, Hao; Xu, Jing; Liu, Hao; Nie, Xin-Ran; Chen, Lin; Sun, Qing-Qing; Xia, Yang; Wei Zhang, David

    2017-11-01

    The continuous scaling and challenges in device integrations in modern portable electronic products have aroused many scientific interests, and a great deal of effort has been made in seeking solutions towards a more microminiaturized package assembled with smaller and more powerful components. In this study, an embedded light-erasable charge-trapping memory with a high-k dielectric stack (Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3) and an atomically thin MoS2 channel has been fabricated and fully characterized. The memory exhibits a sufficient memory window, fast programming and erasing (P/E) speed, and high On/Off current ratio up to 107. Less than 25% memory window degradation is observed after projected 10-year retention, and the device functions perfectly after 8000 P/E operation cycles. Furthermore, the programmed device can be fully erased by incident light without electrical assistance. Such excellent memory performance originates from the intrinsic properties of two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 and the engineered back-gate dielectric stack. Our integration of 2D semiconductors in the infrastructure of light-erasable charge-trapping memory is very promising for future system-on-panel applications like storage of metadata and flexible imaging arrays.

  13. Java simulations of embedded control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Gonzalo; Cervin, Anton; Arzén, Karl-Erik; Dormido, Sebastián; Esquembre, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new Open Source Java library suited for the simulation of embedded control systems. The library is based on the ideas and architecture of TrueTime, a toolbox of Matlab devoted to this topic, and allows Java programmers to simulate the performance of control processes which run in a real time environment. Such simulations can improve considerably the learning and design of multitasking real-time systems. The choice of Java increases considerably the usability of our library, because many educators program already in this language. But also because the library can be easily used by Easy Java Simulations (EJS), a popular modeling and authoring tool that is increasingly used in the field of Control Education. EJS allows instructors, students, and researchers with less programming capabilities to create advanced interactive simulations in Java. The paper describes the ideas, implementation, and sample use of the new library both for pure Java programmers and for EJS users. The JTT library and some examples are online available on http://lab.dia.uned.es/jtt.

  14. Scheduling with Optimized Communication for Time-Triggered Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    1999-01-01

    We present an approach to process scheduling for synthesis of safety-critical distributed embedded systems.Our system model captures both the flow of data and that of control. The communication model is based on a time-triggered protocol. We take into consideration overheads due to communication...

  15. Engineering embedded systems physics, programs, circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Hintenaus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook for graduate and final-year-undergraduate computer-science and electrical-engineering students interested in the hardware and software aspects of embedded and cyberphysical systems design. It is comprehensive and self-contained, covering everything from the basics to case-study implementation. Emphasis is placed on the physical nature of the problem domain and of the devices used. The reader is assumed to be familiar on a theoretical level with mathematical tools like ordinary differential equation and Fourier transforms. In this book these tools will be put to practical use. Engineering Embedded Systems begins by addressing basic material on signals and systems, before introducing to electronics. Treatment of digital electronics accentuating synchronous circuits and including high-speed effects proceeds to micro-controllers, digital signal processors and programmable logic. Peripheral units and decentralized networks are given due weight. The properties of analog circuits and devices like ...

  16. Embedded real-time operating system micro kernel design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-hui; Li, Ming-qiang; Wang, Xin-zheng

    2005-12-01

    Embedded systems usually require a real-time character. Base on an 8051 microcontroller, an embedded real-time operating system micro kernel is proposed consisting of six parts, including a critical section process, task scheduling, interruption handle, semaphore and message mailbox communication, clock managent and memory managent. Distributed CPU and other resources are among tasks rationally according to the importance and urgency. The design proposed here provides the position, definition, function and principle of micro kernel. The kernel runs on the platform of an ATMEL AT89C51 microcontroller. Simulation results prove that the designed micro kernel is stable and reliable and has quick response while operating in an application system.

  17. An Embedded System Dedicated to Intervehicle Communication Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Haiying

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome system latency and network delay is essential for intervehicle communication (IVC applications such as hazard alarming and cooperative driving. This paper proposes a low-cost embedded software system dedicated to such applications. It consists of two basic component layers: an operating system, named HEROS (hybrid event-driven and real-time multitasking operating system, and a communication protocol, named CIVIC (Communication Inter Véhicule Intelligente et Coopérative. HEROS is originally designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. It contains a component-based resource-aware kernel and a low-latency tuple-based communication system. Moreover, it provides a configurable event-driven and/or real-time multitasking mechanism for various embedded applications. The CIVIC is an autoconfiguration cooperative IVC protocol. It merges proactive and reactive approaches to speed up and optimize location-based routing discovery with high-mobility nodes. Currently, this embedded system has been implemented and tested. The experiment results show that the new embedded system has low system latency and network delay under the principle of small resource consumption.

  18. Introduction to embedded systems using microcontrollers and the MSP430

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Manuel; Couvertier, Isidoro

    2014-01-01

    This textbook serves as an introduction to the subject of embedded systems design, using microcontrollers as core components.  It develops concepts from the ground up, covering the development of embedded systems technology, architectural and organizational aspects of controllers and systems, processor models, and peripheral devices. Since microprocessor-based embedded systems tightly blend hardware and software components in a single application, the book also introduces the subjects of data representation formats, data operations, and programming styles. The practical component of the book is tailored around the architecture of a widely used Texas Instrument’s microcontroller, the MSP430. Instructor’s supplemental materials available through the book web site include solutions to selected problems and exercises and power point slides for lectures. The site also includes materials for students that include links to application examples and to sites elsewhere in the web with application notes, downloadab...

  19. Intelligence for embedded systems a methodological approach

    CERN Document Server

    Alippi, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Addressing current issues of which any engineer or computer scientist should be aware, this monograph is a response to the need to adopt a new computational paradigm as the methodological basis for designing pervasive embedded systems with sensor capabilities. The requirements of this paradigm are to control complexity, to limit cost and energy consumption, and to provide adaptation and cognition abilities allowing the embedded system to interact proactively with the real world. The quest for such intelligence requires the formalization of a new generation of intelligent systems able to exploit advances in digital architectures and in sensing technologies. The book sheds light on the theory behind intelligence for embedded systems with specific focus on: ·        robustness (the robustness of a computational flow and its evaluation); ·        intelligence (how to mimic the adaptation and cognition abilities of the human brain), ·        the capacity to learn in non-stationary and evolv...

  20. Embedded palmprint recognition system using OMAP 3530.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Linlin; Wu, Shipei; Zheng, Songhao; Ji, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed in this paper an embedded palmprint recognition system using the dual-core OMAP 3530 platform. An improved algorithm based on palm code was proposed first. In this method, a Gabor wavelet is first convolved with the palmprint image to produce a response image, where local binary patterns are then applied to code the relation among the magnitude of wavelet response at the central pixel with that of its neighbors. The method is fully tested using the public PolyU palmprint database. While palm code achieves only about 89% accuracy, over 96% accuracy is achieved by the proposed G-LBP approach. The proposed algorithm was then deployed to the DSP processor of OMAP 3530 and work together with the ARM processor for feature extraction. When complicated algorithms run on the DSP processor, the ARM processor can focus on image capture, user interface and peripheral control. Integrated with an image sensing module and central processing board, the designed device can achieve accurate and real time performance.

  1. Distributed, Embedded and Real-time Java Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wellings, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Research on real-time Java technology has been prolific over the past decade, leading to a large number of corresponding hardware and software solutions, and frameworks for distributed and embedded real-time Java systems.  This book is aimed primarily at researchers in real-time embedded systems, particularly those who wish to understand the current state of the art in using Java in this domain.  Much of the work in real-time distributed, embedded and real-time Java has focused on the Real-time Specification for Java (RTSJ) as the underlying base technology, and consequently many of the Chapters in this book address issues with, or solve problems using, this framework. Describes innovative techniques in: scheduling, memory management, quality of service and communication systems supporting real-time Java applications; Includes coverage of multiprocessor embedded systems and parallel programming; Discusses state-of-the-art resource management for embedded systems, including Java’s real-time garbage collect...

  2. Embedded Design Research of Iris Information Acquisition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In view of the limitation of traditional identification, it is easy to lose and copy keys, cards or ID cards, and it is easy to forget the password, so we designed an embedded application system based on the iris identification technology, which can realize the functions of gathering, inputting, and registering the iris information and identification. The hardware circuit was designed by using advanced RISC machines (ARM embedded microprocessor as the core. The iris sensor was used to gather the iris information, and the development of software was accomplished with the embedded OS Windows CE. The system can be used on the company entrance guard system, customs security of airport and criminal identification.

  3. Fast and effective embedded systems design applying the ARM mbed

    CERN Document Server

    Toulson, Rob

    2012-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to the field of embedded systems; A focus on fast prototyping of embedded systems; All key embedded system concepts covered through simple and effective experimentation; An understanding of ARM technology, one of the world's leaders; A practical introduction to embedded C; Applies possibly the most accessible set of tools available in the embedded world.  This book is an introduction to embedded systems design, using the ARM mbed and C programming language as development tools. The mbed provides a compact, self-contained and low-cost hardware core, and the

  4. Embedded Systems Development Tools: A MODUS-oriented Market Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loupis Michalis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The embedded systems technology has perhaps been the most dominating technology in high-tech industries, in the past decade. The industry has correctly identified the potential of this technology and has put its efforts into exploring its full potential. Objectives: The goal of the paper is to explore the versatility of the application in the embedded system development based on one FP7-SME project. Methods/Approach: Embedded applications normally demand high resilience and quality, as well as conformity to quality standards and rigid performance. As a result embedded system developers have adopted software methods that yield high quality. The qualitative approach to examining embedded systems development tools has been applied in this work. Results: This paper presents a MODUS-oriented market analysis in the domains of Formal Verification tools, HW/SW co-simulation tools, Software Performance Optimization tools and Code Generation tools. Conclusions: The versatility of applications this technology serves is amazing. With all this performance potential, the technology has carried with itself a large number of issues which the industry essentially needs to resolve to be able to harness the full potential contained. The MODUS project toolset addressed four discrete domains of the ESD Software Market, in which corresponding open tools were developed

  5. Java Source Code Analysis for API Migration to Embedded Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Victor [Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States); McCoy, James A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guerrero, Jonathan [Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States); Reinke, Carl Werner [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perry, James Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Embedded systems form an integral part of our technological infrastructure and oftentimes play a complex and critical role within larger systems. From the perspective of reliability, security, and safety, strong arguments can be made favoring the use of Java over C in such systems. In part, this argument is based on the assumption that suitable subsets of Java’s APIs and extension libraries are available to embedded software developers. In practice, a number of Java-based embedded processors do not support the full features of the JVM. For such processors, source code migration is a mechanism by which key abstractions offered by APIs and extension libraries can made available to embedded software developers. The analysis required for Java source code-level library migration is based on the ability to correctly resolve element references to their corresponding element declarations. A key challenge in this setting is how to perform analysis for incomplete source-code bases (e.g., subsets of libraries) from which types and packages have been omitted. This article formalizes an approach that can be used to extend code bases targeted for migration in such a manner that the threats associated the analysis of incomplete code bases are eliminated.

  6. Checkpointing for graceful degradation in distributed embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sababha, Belal Hussein

    Graceful degradation is an approach to developing dependable safety-critical embedded applications, where redundant active or standby resources are used to cope with faults through a system reconfiguration at run-time. Compared to traditional hardware and software redundancy, it is a promising technique that may achieve dependability with a significant reduction in cost, size, weight, and power requirements. Reconfiguration at run-time necessitates using proper checkpointing protocols to support state reservation to ensure correct task restarts after a system reconfiguration. One of the most common checkpointing protocols are communication induced checkpointing (CIC) protocols, which are well developed and understood for large parallel and information systems, but not much has been done for resource limited embedded systems. This work implements and evaluates some of the most common CIC protocols in a periodic resource constrained distributed embedded system for graceful degradation purposes. A test-bed has been developed and used for the evaluation of the various protocols. The implemented protocols are thoroughly studied and performances are contrasted. Specifically the periodicity property and how it benefits checkpointing in embedded systems is investigated. This work introduces a unique effort of CIC protocol implementation and evaluation in the field of distributed embedded systems. Other than providing a test-bed for graceful degradation support, this work shows that some checkpointing protocols that are not efficient in large information systems and supercomputers perform well in embedded systems. We show that a simple index-based CIC protocol, such as the BCS protocol, is more appropriate in embedded system applications compared to other protocols that piggyback a significant amount of information to reduce the number of forced checkpoints. Finally, this work proposes a whole graceful degradation approach to achieve fault tolerance in resource constrained

  7. Extending density functional embedding theory for covalently bonded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuang; Carter, Emily A

    2017-12-19

    Quantum embedding theory aims to provide an efficient solution to obtain accurate electronic energies for systems too large for full-scale, high-level quantum calculations. It adopts a hierarchical approach that divides the total system into a small embedded region and a larger environment, using different levels of theory to describe each part. Previously, we developed a density-based quantum embedding theory called density functional embedding theory (DFET), which achieved considerable success in metals and semiconductors. In this work, we extend DFET into a density-matrix-based nonlocal form, enabling DFET to study the stronger quantum couplings between covalently bonded subsystems. We name this theory density-matrix functional embedding theory (DMFET), and we demonstrate its performance in several test examples that resemble various real applications in both chemistry and biochemistry. DMFET gives excellent results in all cases tested thus far, including predicting isomerization energies, proton transfer energies, and highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gaps for local chromophores. Here, we show that DMFET systematically improves the quality of the results compared with the widely used state-of-the-art methods, such as the simple capped cluster model or the widely used ONIOM method.

  8. Safety-critical Java for embedded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Dalsgaard, Andreas Engelbredt; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the motivation for and outcomes of an engineering research project on certifiable Javafor embedded systems. The project supports the upcoming standard for safety-critical Java, which defines asubset of Java and libraries aiming for development of high criticality systems....... The outcome of this projectinclude prototype safety-critical Java implementations, a time-predictable Java processor, analysis tools formemory safety, and example applications to explore the usability of safety-critical Java for this applicationarea. The text summarizes developments and key contributions...

  9. Microheater based on magnetic nanoparticle embedded PDMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Tai Hyun; Park, Hongsuk; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2010-01-01

    A microheater was established by embedding magnetic nanoparticles into PDMS (MNP-PDMS). MNP-PDMS generated heat under an AC magnetic field and the temperature was controlled by varying the magnetic particle content and the magnetic field intensity. In this study, the MNP-PDMS chip was demonstrated to amplify the target DNA (732 bp) with > 90% efficiency compared to the conventional PCR thermocycler, and exhibited good performance in regards to temperature control. This system holds great promise for reliably controlling the temperature of thermal processes on an integrated microchip platform for biochemical applications.

  10. Microheater based on magnetic nanoparticle embedded PDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Tai Hyun [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hongsuk [Interdisciplinary Program of Bioengineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo, E-mail: thpark@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-23

    A microheater was established by embedding magnetic nanoparticles into PDMS (MNP-PDMS). MNP-PDMS generated heat under an AC magnetic field and the temperature was controlled by varying the magnetic particle content and the magnetic field intensity. In this study, the MNP-PDMS chip was demonstrated to amplify the target DNA (732 bp) with > 90% efficiency compared to the conventional PCR thermocycler, and exhibited good performance in regards to temperature control. This system holds great promise for reliably controlling the temperature of thermal processes on an integrated microchip platform for biochemical applications.

  11. Trends in languages for embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasson, M.

    1986-01-01

    Characteristics of embedded systems are discussed. In particular, the role of the computer in such systems is highlighted. Special emphasis is placed on the different requirements different kinds of systems may place on program execution. From such requirements necessary programming constructs are derived and in an overview of currently used languages it is shown how evolution led to modern languages like Ada and CHILL. With the advent of cheap, fast and small processing units, exploitation of parallelism for enhancing system performance is becoming increasingly tempting. However, few languages support the design of such multi-processor systems. Some methods for dealing with this problem are discussed. Finally, systems architectures and associated languages for the use of techniques originally developed for AI research are adumbrated. (Auth.)

  12. Enlarging the angle of view in Michelson-interferometer-based shearography by embedding a 4f system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sijin; He, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Lianxiang

    2011-07-20

    Digital shearography based on Michelson interferometers suffers from the disadvantage of a small angle of view due to the structure. We demonstrate a novel digital shearography system with a large angle of view. In the optical arrangement, the imaging lens is in front of the Michelson interferometer rather than behind it as in traditional digital shearography. Thus, the angle of view is no longer limited by the Michelson interferometer. The images transmitting between the separate lens and camera are accomplished by a 4f system in the new style of shearography. The influences of the 4f system on shearography are also discussed. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  13. Embedded Web Technology: Applying World Wide Web Standards to Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponyik, Joseph G.; York, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Embedded Systems have traditionally been developed in a highly customized manner. The user interface hardware and software along with the interface to the embedded system are typically unique to the system for which they are built, resulting in extra cost to the system in terms of development time and maintenance effort. World Wide Web standards have been developed in the passed ten years with the goal of allowing servers and clients to intemperate seamlessly. The client and server systems can consist of differing hardware and software platforms but the World Wide Web standards allow them to interface without knowing about the details of system at the other end of the interface. Embedded Web Technology is the merging of Embedded Systems with the World Wide Web. Embedded Web Technology decreases the cost of developing and maintaining the user interface by allowing the user to interface to the embedded system through a web browser running on a standard personal computer. Embedded Web Technology can also be used to simplify an Embedded System's internal network.

  14. Research on embedded automobile collision avoidance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAO Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking ARM embedded Linux operating system as the development platform,combined with AVR microcontroller,while optimizing the ranging algorithm and using air ultrasonic transducer,the measurement range of which can be up to 50 meter,this paper designs a high-precision,range far,low price,various models suitable automobile collision avoidance warning system.The system adopts Forlinx OK6410 development board for the master.AVR microcontroller is responsible for taking the data of traveling distance between vehicles,and with the ARM development board via RS232 communication transfers vehicle′s distance and speed information to the ARM development boards.The system uses the established collision avoidance model to get alarm information.Experiments show that the system can accurately send out alarm information within a certain range.It is innovative and practical.

  15. FAILSAFE Health Management for Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Gregory A.; Wagner, David A.; Wen, Hui Ying; Barry, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The FAILSAFE project is developing concepts and prototype implementations for software health management in mission- critical, real-time embedded systems. The project unites features of the industry-standard ARINC 653 Avionics Application Software Standard Interface and JPL s Mission Data System (MDS) technology (see figure). The ARINC 653 standard establishes requirements for the services provided by partitioned, real-time operating systems. The MDS technology provides a state analysis method, canonical architecture, and software framework that facilitates the design and implementation of software-intensive complex systems. The MDS technology has been used to provide the health management function for an ARINC 653 application implementation. In particular, the focus is on showing how this combination enables reasoning about, and recovering from, application software problems.

  16. Optimization of Hierarchically Scheduled Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2005-01-01

    We present an approach to the analysis and optimization of heterogeneous distributed embedded systems. The systems are heterogeneous not only in terms of hardware components, but also in terms of communication protocols and scheduling policies. When several scheduling policies share a resource......, they are organized in a hierarchy. In this paper, we address design problems that are characteristic to such hierarchically scheduled systems: assignment of scheduling policies to tasks, mapping of tasks to hardware components, and the scheduling of the activities. We present algorithms for solving these problems....... Our heuristics are able to find schedulable implementations under limited resources, achieving an efficient utilization of the system. The developed algorithms are evaluated using extensive experiments and a real-life example....

  17. Embedded data acquisition system with MDSPlus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajpal, Rachana; Patel, Jigneshkumar; Kumari, Praveena; Panchal, Vipul; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Pujara, Harshad; Saxena, Y.C.

    2012-01-01

    This data acquisition system (DAS) is designed and developed to cater the increasing demand of Plasma Diagnostics for Aditya Tokamak as well as to support the basic physics research going on at Institute for Plasma Research. The main design criteria were to design a system with minimum resources and flexible to cater the needs of slow and fast diagnostic channels and can be easily integrated with the existing data acquisition system of Aditya Tokamak. The DAS is designed on embedded PC/104 platform. This is a multi channel system which supports standard features of commercially available DAS. The control and bus interface logic are implemented using Very High Speed Hardware Description Language (VHDL) on Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD). For Aditya Tokamak pulse experiment, the software application is designed such that the data is directly integrated to the MDSplus tree of Aditya DAS. The detailed hardware and software design, development and testing results will be discussed in the paper.

  18. Research on applications of ARM-LINUX embedded systems in manufacturing the nuclear equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Sy; Phan Luong Tuan; Nguyen Xuan Vinh; Dang Quang Bao

    2016-01-01

    A new microprocessor system that is ARM processor with open source Linux operating system is studied with the objective to apply ARM-Linux embedded systems in manufacturing the nuclear equipment. We use the development board of the company to learn and to build the workflow for an embedded system, then basing on the knowledge we design a motherboard embedded systems interface with the peripherals is buttons, LEDs through GPIO interface and connected with GM counting system via RS232 interface. The results of this study are: i) The procedures for working with embedded systems: process customization, installation embedded operating system and installation process, configure the development tools on the host computer; ii) ARM-Linux motherboard embedded systems interface with the peripherals and GM counting system, indicating the counts from GM counting system on the touch screen. (author)

  19. Thin-plate-type embedded ultrasonic transducer based on magnetostriction for the thickness monitoring of the secondary piping system of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Tae Hoon; Cho, Seung Hyun [Center for Safety Measurement, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Pipe wall thinning in the secondary piping system of a nuclear power plant is currently a major problem that typically affects the safety and reliability of the nuclear power plant directly. Regular in-service inspections are carried out to manage the piping system only during the overhaul. Online thickness monitoring is necessary to avoid abrupt breakage due to wall thinning. To this end, a transducer that can withstand a high-temperature environment and should be installed under the insulation layer. We propose a thin plate type of embedded ultrasonic transducer based on magnetostriction. The transducer was designed and fabricated to measure the thickness of a pipe under a high-temperature condition. A number of experimental results confirmed the validity of the present transducer.

  20. Methodology and Supporting Toolset Advancing Embedded Systems Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert; Soler, José; Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Software quality is of primary importance in the development of embedded systems that are often used in safety-critical applications. Moreover, as the life cycle of embedded products becomes increasingly tighter, productivity and quality are simultaneously required and closely interrelated towards...... delivering competitive products. In this context, the MODUS (Methodology and supporting toolset advancing embedded systems quality) project aims to provide a pragmatic and viable solution that will allow SMEs to substantially improve their positioning in the embedded-systems development market. This paper...... will describe the MODUS project with focus on the technical methodologies that will be developed advancing embedded system quality....

  1. A Depth Video-based Human Detection and Activity Recognition using Multi-features and Embedded Hidden Markov Models for Health Care Monitoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jalal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increase in number of elderly people who are living independently needs especial care in the form of healthcare monitoring systems. Recent advancements in depth video technologies have made human activity recognition (HAR realizable for elderly healthcare applications. In this paper, a depth video-based novel method for HAR is presented using robust multi-features and embedded Hidden Markov Models (HMMs to recognize daily life activities of elderly people living alone in indoor environment such as smart homes. In the proposed HAR framework, initially, depth maps are analyzed by temporal motion identification method to segment human silhouettes from noisy background and compute depth silhouette area for each activity to track human movements in a scene. Several representative features, including invariant, multi-view differentiation and spatiotemporal body joints features were fused together to explore gradient orientation change, intensity differentiation, temporal variation and local motion of specific body parts. Then, these features are processed by the dynamics of their respective class and learned, modeled, trained and recognized with specific embedded HMM having active feature values. Furthermore, we construct a new online human activity dataset by a depth sensor to evaluate the proposed features. Our experiments on three depth datasets demonstrated that the proposed multi-features are efficient and robust over the state of the art features for human action and activity recognition.

  2. Constraint Embedding Technique for Multibody System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Simon S.; Cheng, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    Multibody dynamics play a critical role in simulation testbeds for space missions. There has been a considerable interest in the development of efficient computational algorithms for solving the dynamics of multibody systems. Mass matrix factorization and inversion techniques and the O(N) class of forward dynamics algorithms developed using a spatial operator algebra stand out as important breakthrough on this front. Techniques such as these provide the efficient algorithms and methods for the application and implementation of such multibody dynamics models. However, these methods are limited only to tree-topology multibody systems. Closed-chain topology systems require different techniques that are not as efficient or as broad as those for tree-topology systems. The closed-chain forward dynamics approach consists of treating the closed-chain topology as a tree-topology system subject to additional closure constraints. The resulting forward dynamics solution consists of: (a) ignoring the closure constraints and using the O(N) algorithm to solve for the free unconstrained accelerations for the system; (b) using the tree-topology solution to compute a correction force to enforce the closure constraints; and (c) correcting the unconstrained accelerations with correction accelerations resulting from the correction forces. This constraint-embedding technique shows how to use direct embedding to eliminate local closure-loops in the system and effectively convert the system back to a tree-topology system. At this point, standard tree-topology techniques can be brought to bear on the problem. The approach uses a spatial operator algebra approach to formulating the equations of motion. The operators are block-partitioned around the local body subgroups to convert them into aggregate bodies. Mass matrix operator factorization and inversion techniques are applied to the reformulated tree-topology system. Thus in essence, the new technique allows conversion of a system with

  3. Error detection and prevention in Embedded Systems Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamel, Hani Fouad

    1996-01-01

    Despite many efforts to structure the development and design processes of embedded systems, errors are discovered at the final stages of production and sometimes after the delivery of the products. The cost of such errors can be prohibitive.Different design techniques to detect such errors...... systems, a formal model for such systems is introduced. The main characteristics of embedded systems design and the interaction of these properties are described. A taxonomy for the structure of the software developed for such systems based on the amount of processes and processors involved is presented.......The second part includes methods and techniques to detect software design errors.The third part deals with error prevention. It starts with a presentation of different models of the development processes used in industry and taught at universities. This leads us to deduce the major causes of errors...

  4. Modern Embedded Computing Designing Connected, Pervasive, Media-Rich Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Modern embedded systems are used for connected, media-rich, and highly integrated handheld devices such as mobile phones, digital cameras, and MP3 players. All of these embedded systems require networking, graphic user interfaces, and integration with PCs, as opposed to traditional embedded processors that can perform only limited functions for industrial applications. While most books focus on these controllers, Modern Embedded Computing provides a thorough understanding of the platform architecture of modern embedded computing systems that drive mobile devices. The book offers a comprehen

  5. Programming Embedded Systems With C and GNU Development Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Whether you're writing your first embedded program, designing the latest generation of hand-held whatchamacalits, or managing the people who do, this book is for you. Programming Embedded Systems will help you develop the knowledge and skills you need to achieve proficiency with embedded software.

  6. Integrated Optical Interconnect Architectures for Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolescu, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a broad overview of current research in optical interconnect technologies and architectures. Introductory chapters on high-performance computing and the associated issues in conventional interconnect architectures, and on the fundamental building blocks for integrated optical interconnect, provide the foundations for the bulk of the book which brings together leading experts in the field of optical interconnect architectures for data communication. Particular emphasis is given to the ways in which the photonic components are assembled into architectures to address the needs of data-intensive on-chip communication, and to the performance evaluation of such architectures for specific applications.   Provides state-of-the-art research on the use of optical interconnects in Embedded Systems; Begins with coverage of the basics for high-performance computing and optical interconnect; Includes a variety of on-chip optical communication topologies; Features coverage of system integration and opti...

  7. Development of an Erlang System Adaopted to Embedded Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Fredrik; Bergström, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    Erlang is a powerful and robust language for writing massively parallel and distributed applications. With the introduction of multi-core ARM processors, the embedded market will be looking for ways of taking advantage of the newfound opportunities for parallelism. To support the development of embedded applications using Erlang we want to provide Erlang and Embedded developers with a run-time system suited for embedded devices. We have managed to shrink the disk size of the Erlang runtime sy...

  8. Computers as components principles of embedded computing system design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Computers as Components: Principles of Embedded Computing System Design, 3e, presents essential knowledge on embedded systems technology and techniques. Updated for today's embedded systems design methods, this edition features new examples including digital signal processing, multimedia, and cyber-physical systems. Author Marilyn Wolf covers the latest processors from Texas Instruments, ARM, and Microchip Technology plus software, operating systems, networks, consumer devices, and more. Like the previous editions, this textbook: Uses real processors to demonstrate both technology and tec

  9. Computer-assisted machine-to-human protocols for authentication of a RAM-based embedded system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrissa, Abdourhamane; Aubert, Alain; Fournel, Thierry

    2012-06-01

    Mobile readers used for optical identification of manufactured products can be tampered in different ways: with hardware Trojan or by powering up with fake configuration data. How a human verifier can authenticate the reader to be handled for goods verification? In this paper, two cryptographic protocols are proposed to achieve the verification of a RAM-based system through a trusted auxiliary machine. Such a system is assumed to be composed of a RAM memory and a secure block (in practice a FPGA or a configurable microcontroller). The system is connected to an input/output interface and contains a Non Volatile Memory where the configuration data are stored. Here, except the secure block, all the blocks are exposed to attacks. At the registration stage of the first protocol, the MAC of both the secret and the configuration data, denoted M0 is computed by the mobile device without saving it then transmitted to the user in a secure environment. At the verification stage, the reader which is challenged with nonces sendsMACs / HMACs of both nonces and MAC M0 (to be recomputed), keyed with the secret. These responses are verified by the user through a trusted auxiliary MAC computer unit. Here the verifier does not need to tract a (long) list of challenge / response pairs. This makes the protocol tractable for a human verifier as its participation in the authentication process is increased. In counterpart the secret has to be shared with the auxiliary unit. This constraint is relaxed in a second protocol directly derived from Fiat-Shamir's scheme.

  10. Efficient Design Methods for Embedded Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holzer M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, design of embedded systems is confronted with complex signal processing algorithms and a multitude of computational intensive multimedia applications, while time to product launch has been extremely reduced. Especially in the wireless domain, those challenges are stacked with tough requirements on power consumption and chip size. Unfortunately, design productivity did not undergo a similar progression, and therefore fails to cope with the heterogeneity of modern architectures. Electronic design automation tools exhibit deep gaps in the design flow like high-level characterization of algorithms, floating-point to fixed-point conversion, hardware/software partitioning, and virtual prototyping. This tutorial paper surveys several promising approaches to solve the widespread design problems in this field. An overview over consistent design methodologies that establish a framework for connecting the different design tasks is given. This is followed by a discussion of solutions for the integrated automation of specific design tasks.

  11. The embodied embedded character of system 1 processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini-Leite, Samuel de Castro

    2013-01-01

    In the last thirty years, a relatively large group of cognitive scientists have begun characterising the mind in terms of two distinct, relatively autonomous systems. To account for paradoxes in empirical results of studies mainly on reasoning, Dual Process Theories were developed. Such Dual Process Theories generally agree that System 1 is rapid, automatic, parallel, and heuristic-based and System 2 is slow, capacity-demanding, sequential, and related to consciousness. While System 2 can still be decently understood from a traditional cognitivist approach, I will argue that it is essential for System 1 processing to be comprehended in an Embodied Embedded approach to Cognition.

  12. Schedulability-Driven Communication Synthesis for Time Triggered Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    1999-01-01

    We present an approach to static priority preemptive process scheduling for the synthesis of hard real-time distributed embedded systems where communication plays an important role. The communication model is based on a time-triggered protocol. We have developed an analysis for the communication...... delays proposing four different message scheduling policies over a time-triggered communication channel. Optimization strategies for the synthesis of communication are developed, and the four approaches to message scheduling are compared using extensive experiments....

  13. Schedulability-Driven Communication Synthesis for Time Triggered Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2004-01-01

    We present an approach to static priority preemptive process scheduling for the synthesis of hard real-time distributed embedded systems where communication plays an important role. The communication model is based on a time-triggered protocol. We have developed an analysis for the communication...... delays with four different message scheduling policies over a time-triggered communication channel. Optimization strategies for the synthesis of communication are developed, and the four approaches to message scheduling are compared using extensive experiments....

  14. Schedulability-Driven Communication Synthesis for Time Triggered Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach to static priority preemptive process scheduling for the synthesis of hard real-time distributed embedded systems where communication plays an important role. The communication model is based on a time-triggered protocol. We have developed an analysis for the communication...... delays proposing four different message scheduling policies over a time-triggered communication channel. Optimization strategies for the synthesis of communication are developed, and the four approaches to message scheduling are compared using extensive experiments...

  15. Comparison of Component Frameworks for Real-Time Embedded Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pop, T.; Hnětynka, P.; Hošek, P.; Malohlava, M.; Bureš, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2014), s. 127-170 ISSN 0219-1377 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) GAP202/11/0312; GA UK(CZ) Project 378111; UK(CZ) SVV-2013- 267312 Keywords : component-based development * component frameworks * real-time and embedded systems Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 1.782, year: 2014

  16. Exact density functional and wave function embedding schemes based on orbital localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hégely, Bence; Nagy, Péter R.; Kállay, Mihály; Ferenczy, György G.

    2016-01-01

    Exact schemes for the embedding of density functional theory (DFT) and wave function theory (WFT) methods into lower-level DFT or WFT approaches are introduced utilizing orbital localization. First, a simple modification of the projector-based embedding scheme of Manby and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A507 (2014)] is proposed. We also use localized orbitals to partition the system, but instead of augmenting the Fock operator with a somewhat arbitrary level-shift projector we solve the Huzinaga-equation, which strictly enforces the Pauli exclusion principle. Second, the embedding of WFT methods in local correlation approaches is studied. Since the latter methods split up the system into local domains, very simple embedding theories can be defined if the domains of the active subsystem and the environment are treated at a different level. The considered embedding schemes are benchmarked for reaction energies and compared to quantum mechanics (QM)/molecular mechanics (MM) and vacuum embedding. We conclude that for DFT-in-DFT embedding, the Huzinaga-equation-based scheme is more efficient than the other approaches, but QM/MM or even simple vacuum embedding is still competitive in particular cases. Concerning the embedding of wave function methods, the clear winner is the embedding of WFT into low-level local correlation approaches, and WFT-in-DFT embedding can only be more advantageous if a non-hybrid density functional is employed.

  17. Exact density functional and wave function embedding schemes based on orbital localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hégely, Bence; Nagy, Péter R.; Ferenczy, György G.; Kállay, Mihály

    2016-08-01

    Exact schemes for the embedding of density functional theory (DFT) and wave function theory (WFT) methods into lower-level DFT or WFT approaches are introduced utilizing orbital localization. First, a simple modification of the projector-based embedding scheme of Manby and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A507 (2014)] is proposed. We also use localized orbitals to partition the system, but instead of augmenting the Fock operator with a somewhat arbitrary level-shift projector we solve the Huzinaga-equation, which strictly enforces the Pauli exclusion principle. Second, the embedding of WFT methods in local correlation approaches is studied. Since the latter methods split up the system into local domains, very simple embedding theories can be defined if the domains of the active subsystem and the environment are treated at a different level. The considered embedding schemes are benchmarked for reaction energies and compared to quantum mechanics (QM)/molecular mechanics (MM) and vacuum embedding. We conclude that for DFT-in-DFT embedding, the Huzinaga-equation-based scheme is more efficient than the other approaches, but QM/MM or even simple vacuum embedding is still competitive in particular cases. Concerning the embedding of wave function methods, the clear winner is the embedding of WFT into low-level local correlation approaches, and WFT-in-DFT embedding can only be more advantageous if a non-hybrid density functional is employed.

  18. Exact density functional and wave function embedding schemes based on orbital localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hégely, Bence; Nagy, Péter R.; Kállay, Mihály, E-mail: kallay@mail.bme.hu [MTA-BME Lendület Quantum Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, P.O. Box 91, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Ferenczy, György G. [Medicinal Chemistry Research Group, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar tudósok körútja 2, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Biophysics and Radiation Biology, Semmelweis University, Tűzoltó u. 37-47, H-1094 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-08-14

    Exact schemes for the embedding of density functional theory (DFT) and wave function theory (WFT) methods into lower-level DFT or WFT approaches are introduced utilizing orbital localization. First, a simple modification of the projector-based embedding scheme of Manby and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A507 (2014)] is proposed. We also use localized orbitals to partition the system, but instead of augmenting the Fock operator with a somewhat arbitrary level-shift projector we solve the Huzinaga-equation, which strictly enforces the Pauli exclusion principle. Second, the embedding of WFT methods in local correlation approaches is studied. Since the latter methods split up the system into local domains, very simple embedding theories can be defined if the domains of the active subsystem and the environment are treated at a different level. The considered embedding schemes are benchmarked for reaction energies and compared to quantum mechanics (QM)/molecular mechanics (MM) and vacuum embedding. We conclude that for DFT-in-DFT embedding, the Huzinaga-equation-based scheme is more efficient than the other approaches, but QM/MM or even simple vacuum embedding is still competitive in particular cases. Concerning the embedding of wave function methods, the clear winner is the embedding of WFT into low-level local correlation approaches, and WFT-in-DFT embedding can only be more advantageous if a non-hybrid density functional is employed.

  19. Embedded Systems Design with 8051 Microcontrollers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakahayov, Zdravko; Winther, Ole; Christensen, Knud Smed

    Textbook on embedded microcontrollers. Example microcontroller family: Intel 8051 with special emphasis on Philips 80C552. Structure, design examples and programming in C and assembler. Hardware - software codesign. EProm emulator.......Textbook on embedded microcontrollers. Example microcontroller family: Intel 8051 with special emphasis on Philips 80C552. Structure, design examples and programming in C and assembler. Hardware - software codesign. EProm emulator....

  20. Energy Efficiency of Task Allocation for Embedded JPEG Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Hsin Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded system works everywhere for repeatedly performing a few particular functionalities. Well-known products include consumer electronics, smart home applications, and telematics device, and so forth. Recently, developing methodology of embedded systems is applied to conduct the design of cloud embedded system resulting in the applications of embedded system being more diverse. However, the more energy consumes result from the more embedded system works. This study presents hyperrectangle technology (HT to embedded system for obtaining energy saving. The HT adopts drift effect to construct embedded systems with more hardware circuits than software components or vice versa. It can fast construct embedded system with a set of hardware circuits and software components. Moreover, it has a great benefit to fast explore energy consumption for various embedded systems. The effects are presented by assessing a JPEG benchmarks. Experimental results demonstrate that the HT, respectively, achieves the energy saving by 29.84%, 2.07%, and 68.80% on average to GA, GHO, and Lin.

  1. Energy efficiency of task allocation for embedded JPEG systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Hsin; Wu, Jan-Ou; Wang, San-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Embedded system works everywhere for repeatedly performing a few particular functionalities. Well-known products include consumer electronics, smart home applications, and telematics device, and so forth. Recently, developing methodology of embedded systems is applied to conduct the design of cloud embedded system resulting in the applications of embedded system being more diverse. However, the more energy consumes result from the more embedded system works. This study presents hyperrectangle technology (HT) to embedded system for obtaining energy saving. The HT adopts drift effect to construct embedded systems with more hardware circuits than software components or vice versa. It can fast construct embedded system with a set of hardware circuits and software components. Moreover, it has a great benefit to fast explore energy consumption for various embedded systems. The effects are presented by assessing a JPEG benchmarks. Experimental results demonstrate that the HT, respectively, achieves the energy saving by 29.84%, 2.07%, and 68.80% on average to GA, GHO, and Lin.

  2. Embedded systems for supporting computer accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulfari, Davide; Celesti, Antonio; Fazio, Maria; Villari, Massimo; Puliafito, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, customized AT software solutions allow their users to interact with various kinds of computer systems. Such tools are generally available on personal devices (e.g., smartphones, laptops and so on) commonly used by a person with a disability. In this paper, we investigate a way of using the aforementioned AT equipments in order to access many different devices without assistive preferences. The solution takes advantage of open source hardware and its core component consists of an affordable Linux embedded system: it grabs data coming from the assistive software, which runs on the user's personal device, then, after processing, it generates native keyboard and mouse HID commands for the target computing device controlled by the end user. This process supports any operating system available on the target machine and it requires no specialized software installation; therefore the user with a disability can rely on a single assistive tool to control a wide range of computing platforms, including conventional computers and many kinds of mobile devices, which receive input commands through the USB HID protocol.

  3. Integrated Design and Implementation of Embedded Control Systems with Scilab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Longhua; Xia, Feng; Peng, Zhe

    2008-09-05

    Embedded systems are playing an increasingly important role in control engineering. Despite their popularity, embedded systems are generally subject to resource constraints and it is therefore difficult to build complex control systems on embedded platforms. Traditionally, the design and implementation of control systems are often separated, which causes the development of embedded control systems to be highly timeconsuming and costly. To address these problems, this paper presents a low-cost, reusable, reconfigurable platform that enables integrated design and implementation of embedded control systems. To minimize the cost, free and open source software packages such as Linux and Scilab are used. Scilab is ported to the embedded ARM-Linux system. The drivers for interfacing Scilab with several communication protocols including serial, Ethernet, and Modbus are developed. Experiments are conducted to test the developed embedded platform. The use of Scilab enables implementation of complex control algorithms on embedded platforms. With the developed platform, it is possible to perform all phases of the development cycle of embedded control systems in a unified environment, thus facilitating the reduction of development time and cost.

  4. Integrated Design and Implementation of Embedded Control Systems with Scilab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Peng

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems are playing an increasingly important role in control engineering. Despite their popularity, embedded systems are generally subject to resource constraints and it is therefore difficult to build complex control systems on embedded platforms. Traditionally, the design and implementation of control systems are often separated, which causes the development of embedded control systems to be highly timeconsuming and costly. To address these problems, this paper presents a low-cost, reusable, reconfigurable platform that enables integrated design and implementation of embedded control systems. To minimize the cost, free and open source software packages such as Linux and Scilab are used. Scilab is ported to the embedded ARM-Linux system. The drivers for interfacing Scilab with several communication protocols including serial, Ethernet, and Modbus are developed. Experiments are conducted to test the developed embedded platform. The use of Scilab enables implementation of complex control algorithms on embedded platforms. With the developed platform, it is possible to perform all phases of the development cycle of embedded control systems in a unified environment, thus facilitating the reduction of development time and cost.

  5. Design of embedded control system for high-power tetrode modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Rui; Yao Lieying; Xuan Weimin

    2010-01-01

    The design of embedded control system for the high-power tetrode modulator and its test results are given. This control system is a closed-loop feedback system based on the DSP and embedded into the high-voltage modulator. A new modified method of VF fiber transmission is used in the embedded control system. The new method improves the speed of the transmission of feedback system. The results of the experiment demonstrate that the embedded feedback control system greatly increases the response speed of the whole system and improves the performance of the high-power tetrode on the HL-2A tokamak. This embedded feedback control system greatly simplifies the complexity of the original centralized control system. The operation of the control system is reliable. (authors)

  6. Composable Virtual Platforms for Mixed-Criticality Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyranvand Nejad, A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends show a steady increase towards concurrently executing more and more applications on a single embedded system. Multi-Processor System-on-Chip (MPSoC) architectures are proposed to allow complex design of embedded systems. This is achieved by integrating as many processing resources as

  7. Composable virtual platforms for mixed-criticality embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nejad, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends show a steady increase towards concurrently executing more and more applications on a single embedded system. Multi-Processor System-on-Chip (MPSoC) architectures are proposed to allow complex design of embedded systems. This is achieved by integrating as many processing resources as

  8. Clicking to Learn: A Case Study of Embedding Radio-Frequency Based Clickers in an Introductory Management Information Systems Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew L.; Hauck, Roslin V.

    2008-01-01

    The challenges associated with teaching a core introductory management information systems (MIS) course are well known (large class sizes serving a majority of non-MIS majors, sustaining student interests, encouraging class participation, etc.). This study offers a mechanism towards managing these challenges through the use of a simple and…

  9. RESLanjut: The learning media for improve students understanding in embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrianto, Susanti, Meilia Nur Indah; Karina, Djunaidi

    2017-08-01

    The use of network in embedded system can be done with many kinds of network, with the use of mobile phones, bluetooths, modems, ethernet cards, wireless technology and so on. Using network in embedded system could help people to do remote controlling. On previous research, researchers found that many students have the ability to comprehend the basic concept of embedded system. They could also make embedded system tools but without network integration. And for that, a development is needed for the embedded system module. The embedded system practicum module design needs a prototype method in order to achieve the desired goal. The prototype method is often used in the real world. Or even, a prototype method is a part of products that consist of logic expression or external physical interface. The embedded system practicum module is meant to increase student comprehension of embedded system course, and also to encourage students to innovate on technology based tools. It is also meant to help teachers to teach the embedded system concept on the course. The student comprehension is hoped to increase with the use of practicum course.

  10. Design of embedded system to determine liquid refractive index based on ultrasonic sensor using an ATMega328

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiyonoa, Y.; Surantoro, S.; Pujayanto, P.; Budiharti, R.; Respati, Y. S.; Saputro, D. E.

    2018-05-01

    The occurrence of the broken pencil shadow into a glass of water becomes an interesting matter to be learned. The students of senior high school still find difficulty in determining liquid refractive index. To overcome this problem, it needs to develop an experimental tool to determine liquid refractive index by utilizing the newest technology. It is expected to be useful for students. This study is aimed to (1) make the design of physics learning experimental tool determinant of a liquid refractive index assisted by microcontroller based on ultrasonic sensors ATMega328 (2) explain the working principle and experimental result of liquid refractive indexing instrument assisted with ATMega328 microcontroller based ultrasonic sensor. This research used the experimental method. The result of the research shows design of physics learning experimental tool determinant of a liquid refractive index assisted by microcontroller based on ultrasonic sensors ATMega328 that has relative counting mistake of 0.36% on the measurement of aquades liquid refractive index, relative mistake of 0.18% on the 5% NaCl measurement, 0.24% on 5% glucose, and relative mistake of 0.50% on the measurement of 5 % fructose liquid refractive index. It has been created a proper device to be used in determining liquid refractive index.

  11. Biopsy Diagnosis of Oral Carcinoma by the Combination of Morphological and Spectral Methods Based on Embedded Relay Lens Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Mang; Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    Cytopathological examination through biopsy is very important for carcinoma detection. The embedded relay lens microscopic hyperspectral imaging system (ERL-MHIS) provides a morphological image of a biopsy sample and the spectrum of each pixel in the image simultaneously. Based on the ERL-MHIS, this work develops morphological and spectral methods to diagnose oral carcinoma biopsy. In morphological discrimination, the fractal dimension method is applied to differentiate between normal and abnormal tissues. In spectral identification, normal and cancerous cells are distinguished using five methods. However, the spectra of normal and cancerous cells vary with patient. The diagnostic performances of the five methods are thus not ideal. Hence, the proposed cocktail approach is used to determine the effectiveness of the spectral methods in correlating with the sampling conditions. And then we use a combination of effective spectral methods according to the sample conditions for diagnosing a sample. A total of 68 biopsies from 34 patients are analyzed using the ERL-MHIS. The results demonstrate a sensitivity of 90 ± 4.53 % and a specificity of 87.8 ± 5.21 %. Furthermore, in our survey, this system is the first time utilized to study oral carcinoma biopsies.

  12. An embedded system based computer controlled process automation for recovery and purification of 99mTc from (n,γ)99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, Anirban; Pal, S.S.; Bhaskar, P.; Kumari, S.; Khare, V.K.; Duttaroy, A.; Garai, M.; Thakur, S.K.; Saha, S.; Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Barua, Luna; Das, Sujata Saha; Kumar, U.; Das, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    99 Mo produced 99 mTc (t 1/2 = 6 hr, 140 KeV γ-ray) is the most useful radioisotope for nuclear diagnostics. High specific activity 99 Mo is supplied globally mainly by five old reactors whose routine or unscheduled maintenance shutdown causes supply irregularities that adversely affects patient management in nuclear medicine centres. 99m Tc may also be produced via 98 Mo(n,γ) in a natural MoO 3 target in reactor or by 100 Mo(n,2n) 99 Mo or 100 Mo(p,2n) 99 mTc reaction in cyclotron. To meet the crisis proposals are there to produce 99 Mo by 100 Mo(n,2n) 99 Mo or 99m Tc directly by 100 Mo(p,2n) 99m Tc in a cyclotron. Of the several separation methods of 99 mTc from molybdenum, the most common are adsorption column chromatography, sublimation and liquid-liquid solvent extraction. The conventional methods besides being cumbersome are often hazardous, polluting, require skilled manpower and facilities like fume hood and so are not always practically feasible for hospitals. To address these, VECC and BRIT, Kolkata have collaborated to develop an embedded system based automated 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator from low specific activity 99 Mo using solvent extraction technique, supervised by a PC based GUI. (author)

  13. A robust embedded vision system feasible white balance algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Yu, Feihong

    2018-01-01

    White balance is a very important part of the color image processing pipeline. In order to meet the need of efficiency and accuracy in embedded machine vision processing system, an efficient and robust white balance algorithm combining several classical ones is proposed. The proposed algorithm mainly has three parts. Firstly, in order to guarantee higher efficiency, an initial parameter calculated from the statistics of R, G and B components from raw data is used to initialize the following iterative method. After that, the bilinear interpolation algorithm is utilized to implement demosaicing procedure. Finally, an adaptive step adjustable scheme is introduced to ensure the controllability and robustness of the algorithm. In order to verify the proposed algorithm's performance on embedded vision system, a smart camera based on IMX6 DualLite, IMX291 and XC6130 is designed. Extensive experiments on a large amount of images under different color temperatures and exposure conditions illustrate that the proposed white balance algorithm avoids color deviation problem effectively, achieves a good balance between efficiency and quality, and is suitable for embedded machine vision processing system.

  14. Visible tunable lighting system based on polymer composites embedding ZnO and metallic clusters: from colloids to thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Thai Giang; Dierre, Benjamin; Grasset, Fabien; Saito, Noriko; Saito, Norio; Nguyen, Thi Kim Ngan; Takahashi, Kohsei; Uchikoshi, Tetsuo; Amela-Cortes, Marian; Molard, Yann; Cordier, Stéphane; Ohashi, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The development of phosphor devices free of heavy metal or rare earth elements is an important issue for environmental reasons and energy efficiency. Different mixtures of ZnO nanocrystals with Cs2Mo6I8(OOC2F5)6 cluster compound (CMIF) dispersed into polyvinylpyrrolidone matrix have been prepared by very simple and low cost solution chemistry. The resulting solutions have been used to fabricate highly transparent and luminescent films by dip coating free of heavy metal or rare earth elements. The luminescence properties of solution and dip-coated films were investigated. The luminescence of such a system is strongly dependent on the ratios between ZnO and CMIF amounts, the excitation wavelength and the nature of the system. By varying these two parameters (ratio and wavelength), a large variety of colors, from blue to red as well as white, can be achieved. In addition, differences in the luminescence properties have been observed between solutions and thin films as well as changes of CMIF emission band maximum wavelength. This may suggest some possible interactions between the different luminophore centers, such as energy transfer or ligands exchange on the Mo6 clusters.

  15. DAEDALUS: System-Level Design Methodology for Streaming Multiprocessor Embedded Systems on Chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefanov, T.; Pimentel, A.; Nikolov, H.; Ha, S.; Teich, J.

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of modern embedded systems, which are increasingly based on heterogeneous multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC) architectures, has led to the emergence of system-level design. To cope with this design complexity, system-level design aims at raising the abstraction level of the design

  16. An Overview of Reconfigurable Hardware in Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyin Fu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, the realm of embedded systems has expanded to include a wide variety of products, ranging from digital cameras, to sensor networks, to medical imaging systems. Consequently, engineers strive to create ever smaller and faster products, many of which have stringent power requirements. Coupled with increasing pressure to decrease costs and time-to-market, the design constraints of embedded systems pose a serious challenge to embedded systems designers. Reconfigurable hardware can provide a flexible and efficient platform for satisfying the area, performance, cost, and power requirements of many embedded systems. This article presents an overview of reconfigurable computing in embedded systems, in terms of benefits it can provide, how it has already been used, design issues, and hurdles that have slowed its adoption.

  17. Simulation of embedded systems for energy consumption estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafond, S.

    2009-07-01

    Technology developments in semiconductor fabrication along with a rapid expansion of the market for portable devices, such as PDAs and mobile phones, make the energy consumption of embedded systems a major problem. Indeed the need to provide an increasing number of computational intensive applications and at the same time to maximize the battery life of portable devices can be seen as incompatible trends. System simulation is a flexible and convenient method for analyzinging and exploring the performance of a system or sub-system. At the same time, the increasing use of computational intensive applications strengthens the need to maximize the battery life of portable devices. As a consequence, the simulation of embedded systems for energy consumption estimation is becoming essential in order to study and explore the influence of system design choices on the system energy consumption. The original publications presented in the second part of this thesis propose several frameworks for evaluating the effects of particular system and software architectures on the system energy consumption. From a software point of view Java and C based applications are studied, and from a hardware perspective systems using general purpose processor and heterogeneous platforms with dedicated hardware accelerators are analyzed. Papers 1 and 2 present a framework for estimating the energy consumption of an embedded Java Virtual Machine and show how an accurate energy consumption model of Java opcodes can be obtained. Paper 3 evaluates the cost-effectiveness of Forward Error Correction algorithms in terms of energy consumption and demonstrates that a substantial energy saving is achievable in a DVB-H receiver when a FEC algorithm is used for file downloading scenarios. Paper 4 and 5 present the simulation of heterogeneous platforms and point out the drawback of different mechanisms used to synchronize a hardware accelerator used as a peripheral device. Paper 6 shows that the use of a multi

  18. Designing flexible engineering systems utilizing embedded architecture options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jeff G.

    This dissertation develops and applies an integrated framework for embedding flexibility in an engineered system architecture. Systems are constantly faced with unpredictability in the operational environment, threats from competing systems, obsolescence of technology, and general uncertainty in future system demands. Current systems engineering and risk management practices have focused almost exclusively on mitigating or preventing the negative consequences of uncertainty. This research recognizes that high uncertainty also presents an opportunity to design systems that can flexibly respond to changing requirements and capture additional value throughout the design life. There does not exist however a formalized approach to designing appropriately flexible systems. This research develops a three stage integrated flexibility framework based on the concept of architecture options embedded in the system design. Stage One defines an eight step systems engineering process to identify candidate architecture options. This process encapsulates the operational uncertainty though scenario development, traces new functional requirements to the affected design variables, and clusters the variables most sensitive to change. The resulting clusters can generate insight into the most promising regions in the architecture to embed flexibility in the form of architecture options. Stage Two develops a quantitative option valuation technique, grounded in real options theory, which is able to value embedded architecture options that exhibit variable expiration behavior. Stage Three proposes a portfolio optimization algorithm, for both discrete and continuous options, to select the optimal subset of architecture options, subject to budget and risk constraints. Finally, the feasibility, extensibility and limitations of the framework are assessed by its application to a reconnaissance satellite system development problem. Detailed technical data, performance models, and cost estimates

  19. Improving emotion recognition systems by embedding cardiorespiratory coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Lanatá, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at showing improved performances of an emotion recognition system embedding information gathered from cardiorespiratory (CR) coupling. Here, we propose a novel methodology able to robustly identify up to 25 regions of a two-dimensional space model, namely the well-known circumplex model of affect (CMA). The novelty of embedding CR coupling information in an autonomic nervous system-based feature space better reveals the sympathetic activations upon emotional stimuli. A CR synchrogram analysis was used to quantify such a coupling in terms of number of heartbeats per respiratory period. Physiological data were gathered from 35 healthy subjects emotionally elicited by means of affective pictures of the international affective picture system database. In this study, we finely detected five levels of arousal and five levels of valence as well as the neutral state, whose combinations were used for identifying 25 different affective states in the CMA plane. We show that the inclusion of the bivariate CR measures in a previously developed system based only on monovariate measures of heart rate variability, respiration dynamics and electrodermal response dramatically increases the recognition accuracy of a quadratic discriminant classifier, obtaining more than 90% of correct classification per class. Finally, we propose a comprehensive description of the CR coupling during sympathetic elicitation adapting an existing theoretical nonlinear model with external driving. The theoretical idea behind this model is that the CR system is comprised of weakly coupled self-sustained oscillators that, when exposed to an external perturbation (i.e. sympathetic activity), becomes synchronized and less sensible to input variations. Given the demonstrated role of the CR coupling, this model can constitute a general tool which is easily embedded in other model-based emotion recognition systems. (paper)

  20. A Wireless Fiber Photometry System Based on a High-Precision CMOS Biosensor With Embedded Continuous-Time Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiarak, Mehdi Noormohammadi; Martianova, Ekaterina; Bories, Cyril; Martel, Sylvain; Proulx, Christophe D; De Koninck, Yves; Gosselin, Benoit

    2018-06-01

    Fluorescence biophotometry measurements require wide dynamic range (DR) and high-sensitivity laboratory apparatus. Indeed, it is often very challenging to accurately resolve the small fluorescence variations in presence of noise and high-background tissue autofluorescence. There is a great need for smaller detectors combining high linearity, high sensitivity, and high-energy efficiency. This paper presents a new biophotometry sensor merging two individual building blocks, namely a low-noise sensing front-end and a order continuous-time modulator (CTSDM), into a single module for enabling high-sensitivity and high energy-efficiency photo-sensing. In particular, a differential CMOS photodetector associated with a differential capacitive transimpedance amplifier-based sensing front-end is merged with an incremental order 1-bit CTSDM to achieve a large DR, low hardware complexity, and high-energy efficiency. The sensor leverages a hardware sharing strategy to simplify the implementation and reduce power consumption. The proposed CMOS biosensor is integrated within a miniature wireless head mountable prototype for enabling biophotometry with a single implantable fiber in the brain of live mice. The proposed biophotometry sensor is implemented in a 0.18- CMOS technology, consuming from a 1.8- supply voltage, while achieving a peak dynamic range of over a 50- input bandwidth, a sensitivity of 24 mV/nW, and a minimum detectable current of 2.46- at a 20- sampling rate.

  1. Validation of Embedded System Verification Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marincic, J.; Mader, Angelika H.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    The result of a model-based requirements verification shows that the model of a system satisfies (or not) formalised system requirements. The verification result is correct only if the model represents the system adequately. No matter what modelling technique we use, what precedes the model

  2. Embedded Control System for Smart Walking Assistance Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnak, Matevz; Skrjanc, Igor

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a unique control system for a smart hoist, a therapeutic device that is used in rehabilitation of walking. The control system features a unique human-machine interface that allows the human to intuitively control the system just by moving or rotating its body. The paper contains an overview of the complete system, including the design and implementation of custom sensors, dc servo motor controllers, communication interfaces and embedded-system based central control system. The prototype of the complete system was tested by conducting a 6-runs experiment on 11 subjects and results are showing that the proposed control system interface is indeed intuitive and simple to adopt by the user.

  3. Scheduling with Bus Access Optimization for Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eles, Petru; Doboli, Alex; Pop, Paul

    2000-01-01

    of control. Our goal is to derive a worst case delay by which the system completes execution, such that this delay is as small as possible; to generate a logically and temporally deterministic schedule; and to optimize parameters of the communication protocol such that this delay is guaranteed. We have......In this paper, we concentrate on aspects related to the synthesis of distributed embedded systems consisting of programmable processors and application-specific hardware components. The approach is based on an abstract graph representation that captures, at process level, both dataflow and the flow......, generates an efficient bus access scheme as well as the schedule tables for activation of processes and communications....

  4. Optimal design of distributed control and embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Çela, Arben; Li, Xu-Guang; Niculescu, Silviu-Iulian

    2014-01-01

    Optimal Design of Distributed Control and Embedded Systems focuses on the design of special control and scheduling algorithms based on system structural properties as well as on analysis of the influence of induced time-delay on systems performances. It treats the optimal design of distributed and embedded control systems (DCESs) with respect to communication and calculation-resource constraints, quantization aspects, and potential time-delays induced by the associated  communication and calculation model. Particular emphasis is put on optimal control signal scheduling based on the system state. In order to render  this complex optimization problem feasible in real time, a time decomposition is based on periodicity induced by the static scheduling is operated. The authors present a co-design approach which subsumes the synthesis of the optimal control laws and the generation of an optimal schedule of control signals on real-time networks as well as the execution of control tasks on a single processor. The a...

  5. Using scenario based programming to develop embedded control software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettiol, F.

    2015-01-01

    A new paradigm to develop embedded software is waking up the interest of companies. Its name is Scenario Based Programming and it claims to be a good approach to develop embedded software. Live Sequence Charts (LSC), a visual language supporting the paradigm, enables the developers to specify a

  6. Evaluation of real-time operating system for small-scale embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayang Norhayati Abang Jawawi; Rosbi Mamat

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of some real-time operating systems for small-scale embedded systems are evaluated based on some criteria. The evaluation is performed qualitatively and quantitatively. The evaluation results based on a case study on an engineering application will be presented. (author)

  7. A Simulation Approach for Performance Validation during Embedded Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhonglei; Haberl, Wolfgang; Herkersdorf, Andreas; Wechs, Martin

    Due to the time-to-market pressure, it is highly desirable to design hardware and software of embedded systems in parallel. However, hardware and software are developed mostly using very different methods, so that performance evaluation and validation of the whole system is not an easy task. In this paper, we propose a simulation approach to bridge the gap between model-driven software development and simulation based hardware design, by merging hardware and software models into a SystemC based simulation environment. An automated procedure has been established to generate software simulation models from formal models, while the hardware design is originally modeled in SystemC. As the simulation models are annotated with timing information, performance issues are tackled in the same pass as system functionality, rather than in a dedicated approach.

  8. Runtime reconfiguration in networked embedded systems design and testing practices

    CERN Document Server

    Exarchakos, George

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the design and testing of large-scale, distributed signal processing systems, with a special emphasis on systems architecture, tooling and best practices. Architecture modeling, model checking, model-based evaluation and model-based design optimization occupy central roles. Target systems with resource constraints on processing, communication or energy supply require non-trivial methodologies to model their non-functional requirements, such as timeliness, robustness, lifetime and “evolution” capacity. Besides the theoretical foundations of the methodology, an engineering process and toolchain are described. Real-world cases illustrate the theory and practice tested by the authors in the course of the European project ARTEMIS DEMANES. The book can be used as a “cookbook” for designers and practitioners working with complex embedded systems like sensor networks for the structural integrity monitoring of steel bridges, and distributed micro-climate control systems for greenhouses and...

  9. A Real-Time Embedded Control System for Electro-Fused Magnesia Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since smelting process of electro-fused magnesia furnace is a complicated process which has characteristics like complex operation conditions, strong nonlinearities, and strong couplings, traditional linear controller cannot control it very well. Advanced intelligent control strategy is a good solution to this kind of industrial process. However, advanced intelligent control strategy always involves huge programming task and hard debugging and maintaining problems. In this paper, a real-time embedded control system is proposed for the process control of electro-fused magnesia furnace based on intelligent control strategy and model-based design technology. As for hardware, an embedded controller based on an industrial Single Board Computer (SBC is developed to meet industrial field environment demands. As for software, a Linux based on Real-Time Application Interface (RTAI is used as the real-time kernel of the controller to improve its real-time performance. The embedded software platform is also modified to support generating embedded code automatically from Simulink/Stateflow models. Based on the proposed embedded control system, the intelligent embedded control software of electro-fused magnesium furnace can be directly generated from Simulink/Stateflow models. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed embedded control system, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL and industrial field experiments are both implemented. Experiments results show that the embedded control system works very well in both laboratory and industry environments.

  10. Cluster Computing for Embedded/Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, D.; Kepner, J.

    1999-01-01

    Embedded and real-time systems, like other computing systems, seek to maximize computing power for a given price, and thus can significantly benefit from the advancing capabilities of cluster computing.

  11. STFTP: Secure TFTP Protocol for Embedded Multi-Agent Systems Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAGAR, D.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Today's embedded systems have evolved into multipurpose devices moving towards an embedded multi-agent system (MAS infrastructure. With the involvement of MAS in embedded systems, one remaining issues is establishing communication between agents in low computational power and low memory embedded systems without present Embedded Operating System (EOS. One solution is the extension of an outdated Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP. The main advantage of using TFTP in embedded systems is the easy implementation. However, the problem at hand is the overall lack of security mechanisms in TFTP. This paper proposes an extension to the existing TFTP in a form of added security mechanisms: STFTP. The authentication is proposed using Digest Access Authentication process whereas the data encryption can be performed by various cryptographic algorithms. The proposal is experimentally tested using two embedded systems based on micro-controller architecture. Communication is analyzed for authentication, data rate and transfer time versus various data encryption ciphers and files sizes. STFTP results in an expected drop in performance, which is in the range of similar encryption algorithms. The system could be improved by using embedded systems of higher computational power or by the use of hardware encryption modules.

  12. Embedded Visual System and its Applications on Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, De

    2010-01-01

    Embedded vision systems such as smart cameras have been rapidly developed recently. Vision systems have become smaller and lighter, but their performance has improved. The algorithms in embedded vision systems have their specifications limited by frequency of CPU, memory size, and architecture. The goal of this e-book is to provide a an advanced reference work for engineers, researchers and scholars in the field of robotics, machine vision, and automation and to facilitate the exchange of their ideas, experiences and views on embedded vision system models. The effectiveness for all methods is

  13. Static Schedulers for Embedded Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Because of the need for having efficient scheduling algorithms in large scale real time systems , software engineers put a lot of effort on developing...provide static schedulers for he Embedded Real Time Systems with single processor using Ada programming language. The independent nonpreemptable...support the Computer Aided Rapid Prototyping for Embedded Real Time Systems so that we determine whether the system, as designed, meets the required

  14. High Performance Embedded System for Real-Time Pattern Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; The ATLAS collaboration; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Citraro, Saverio; Giannetti, Paola; Dell'Orso, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics (HEP) and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton-proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturised version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain. The pattern matching can be executed by a custom designed Associative Memory (AM) chip. The reference patterns are chosen by a complex training algorithm implemented on an FPGA device. Post processing algorithms (e.g. pixel clustering...

  15. High Performance Embedded System for Real-Time Pattern Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; The ATLAS collaboration; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Citraro, Saverio; Giannetti, Paola; Dell'Orso, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    We present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics (HEP) and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton-proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturized version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The design uses the flexibility of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and the powerful Associative Memory Chip (ASIC) to achieve real-time performance. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain.

  16. An Embedded Real-Time System on ATLAS ROBIN

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Maoyuan

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest particle detector at the Large Hadron Collider for high energy physics experiments that produces over 40 TB/s event data. The ATLAS Readout Buffer INput(ROBIN) subsystem is an essential device to buffer and reduce the data, which has a IBM PowerPC core for the control functionalities. This dissertation addresses the software design of an embedded real-time system centering on the PowerPC micro-controller, as the management core of the ROBIN. A page-based solution is pr...

  17. Transmission embedded cost allocation methodology with consideration of system reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, D.; Park, J.-K.; Yoo, C.-I.; Kim, B.H.

    2004-01-01

    In a vertically integrated utility industry, the cost of reliability, as a separate service, has not received much rigorous analysis. However, as a cornerstone of restructuring the industry, the transmission service pricing must change to be consistent with, and supportive of, competitive wholesale electricity markets. This paper focuses on the equitable allocation of transmission network embedded costs including the transmission reliability cost based on the contributions of each generator to branch flows under normal conditions as well as the line outage impact factor under a variety of load levels. A numerical example on a six-bus system is given to illustrate the applications of the proposed methodology. (author)

  18. Wireless embedded control system for atomically precise manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser; Randall, John N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper will explore the possibilities of implementing a wireless embedded control system for atomically precise manufacturing. The manufacturing process, similar to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, takes place within an Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) chamber at a pressure of 10-10 torr. In order to create vibration isolation, and to keep internal noise to a minimum, a wireless link inside the UHV chamber becomes essential. We present a MATLAB simulation of the problem, and then demonstrate a hardware scheme between a Gumstix computer and a Linux based laptop for controlling nano-manipulators with three degrees of freedom. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. Wireless embedded control system for atomically precise manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser

    2011-04-01

    This paper will explore the possibilities of implementing a wireless embedded control system for atomically precise manufacturing. The manufacturing process, similar to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, takes place within an Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) chamber at a pressure of 10-10 torr. In order to create vibration isolation, and to keep internal noise to a minimum, a wireless link inside the UHV chamber becomes essential. We present a MATLAB simulation of the problem, and then demonstrate a hardware scheme between a Gumstix computer and a Linux based laptop for controlling nano-manipulators with three degrees of freedom. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Bootstrap embedding: An internally consistent fragment-based method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welborn, Matthew; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Van Voorhis, Troy [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    Strong correlation poses a difficult problem for electronic structure theory, with computational cost scaling quickly with system size. Fragment embedding is an attractive approach to this problem. By dividing a large complicated system into smaller manageable fragments “embedded” in an approximate description of the rest of the system, we can hope to ameliorate the steep cost of correlated calculations. While appealing, these methods often converge slowly with fragment size because of small errors at the boundary between fragment and bath. We describe a new electronic embedding method, dubbed “Bootstrap Embedding,” a self-consistent wavefunction-in-wavefunction embedding theory that uses overlapping fragments to improve the description of fragment edges. We apply this method to the one dimensional Hubbard model and a translationally asymmetric variant, and find that it performs very well for energies and populations. We find Bootstrap Embedding converges rapidly with embedded fragment size, overcoming the surface-area-to-volume-ratio error typical of many embedding methods. We anticipate that this method may lead to a low-scaling, high accuracy treatment of electron correlation in large molecular systems.

  1. Source Code Verification for Embedded Systems using Prolog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Flederer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available System relevant embedded software needs to be reliable and, therefore, well tested, especially for aerospace systems. A common technique to verify programs is the analysis of their abstract syntax tree (AST. Tree structures can be elegantly analyzed with the logic programming language Prolog. Moreover, Prolog offers further advantages for a thorough analysis: On the one hand, it natively provides versatile options to efficiently process tree or graph data structures. On the other hand, Prolog's non-determinism and backtracking eases tests of different variations of the program flow without big effort. A rule-based approach with Prolog allows to characterize the verification goals in a concise and declarative way. In this paper, we describe our approach to verify the source code of a flash file system with the help of Prolog. The flash file system is written in C++ and has been developed particularly for the use in satellites. We transform a given abstract syntax tree of C++ source code into Prolog facts and derive the call graph and the execution sequence (tree, which then are further tested against verification goals. The different program flow branching due to control structures is derived by backtracking as subtrees of the full execution sequence. Finally, these subtrees are verified in Prolog. We illustrate our approach with a case study, where we search for incorrect applications of semaphores in embedded software using the real-time operating system RODOS. We rely on computation tree logic (CTL and have designed an embedded domain specific language (DSL in Prolog to express the verification goals.

  2. Self-Organization in Embedded Real-Time Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brinkschulte, Uwe; Rettberg, Achim

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the emerging field of self-organizing, multicore, distributed and real-time embedded systems.  Self-organization of both hardware and software can be a key technique to handle the growing complexity of modern computing systems. Distributed systems running hundreds of tasks on dozens of processors, each equipped with multiple cores, requires self-organization principles to ensure efficient and reliable operation. This book addresses various, so-called Self-X features such as self-configuration, self-optimization, self-adaptation, self-healing and self-protection. Presents open components for embedded real-time adaptive and self-organizing applications; Describes innovative techniques in: scheduling, memory management, quality of service, communications supporting organic real-time applications; Covers multi-/many-core embedded systems supporting real-time adaptive systems and power-aware, adaptive hardware and software systems; Includes case studies of open embedded real-time self-organizi...

  3. Using Software Architectures for Designing Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    In this paper, we outline an on-going project of designing distributed embedded systems for closed-loop process control. The project is a joint effort between software architecture researchers and developers from two companies that produce commercial embedded process control systems. The project...... has a strong emphasis on software architectural issues and terminology in order to envision, design and analyze design alternatives. We present two results. First, we outline how focusing on software architecture, architectural issues and qualities are beneficial in designing distributed, embedded......, systems. Second, we present two different architectures for closed-loop process control and discuss benefits and reliabilities....

  4. Test-driven modeling of embedded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Allan; Madsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To benefit maximally from model-based systems engineering (MBSE) trustworthy high quality models are required. From the software disciplines it is known that test-driven development (TDD) can significantly increase the quality of the products. Using a test-driven approach with MBSE may have...... a similar positive effect on the quality of the system models and the resulting products and may therefore be desirable. To define a test-driven model-based systems engineering (TD-MBSE) approach, we must define this approach for numerous sub disciplines such as modeling of requirements, use cases...... suggest that our method provides a sound foundation for rapid development of high quality system models....

  5. Mobile monitoring and embedded control system for factory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Kuang-Yow; Hsiao, Sung-Jung; Sung, Wen-Tsai

    2013-12-17

    This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones.

  6. Mobile Monitoring and Embedded Control System for Factory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Kuang-Yow; Hsiao, Sung-Jung; Sung, Wen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones. PMID:24351642

  7. Mobile Monitoring and Embedded Control System for Factory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Yow Lian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones.

  8. Network Multifunctional Substation with Embedded System in Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Fan-rong; HUO Yan; ZHOU Yong

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of mining monitor and control systems during the construction process of digital mining combined with network and embedded technologies, the kernel access equipment of a mining monitor and control system was proposed and designed. It is the architecture of a mining embedded network multifunctional substation. This paper presents the design of hardware and software of the substation in detail. Finally, the system's efficiency was validated through experimentation.

  9. Design concepts for a virtualizable embedded MPSoC architecture enabling virtualization in embedded multi-processor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Biedermann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Alexander Biedermann presents a generic hardware-based virtualization approach, which may transform an array of any off-the-shelf embedded processors into a multi-processor system with high execution dynamism. Based on this approach, he highlights concepts for the design of energy aware systems, self-healing systems as well as parallelized systems. For the latter, the novel so-called Agile Processing scheme is introduced by the author, which enables a seamless transition between sequential and parallel execution schemes. The design of such virtualizable systems is further aided by introduction

  10. Planning and Building Qualifiable Embedded Systems: Safety and Risk Properties Assessment for a Large and Complex System with Embedded Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N.; Lopes, R.; Barbosa, R.

    2012-01-01

    Systems based on embedded components and applications are today used in all markets. They are planned and developed by all types of institutions with different types of background experience, multidisciplinary teams and all types of capability and maturity levels. Organisational/engineering maturity has an impact on all aspects of the engineering of large and complex systems. An embedded system is a specific computer system designed to perform one or more dedicated functions, usually with real-time constraints. It is generally integrated as part of a more complex device typically composed of specific hardware such as sensors and actuators. This article presents an experimented technique to evaluate the organisation, processes, system and software engineering practices, methods, tools and the planned/produced artefacts themselves, leading towards certification/qualification. The safety and risk assessment of such core and complex systems is explained, described on a step-by- step manner, while presenting the main results and conclusions of the application of the technique to a real case study.

  11. Embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    systems, in particular place-value and quasi place-value systems. 2. The development of algebraic symbolisms. 3. The discussion whether “scientific revolutions” ever take place in mathematics, or new conceptualizations always include what preceded them. A final section investigates the relation between...

  12. High performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiropoulou, C.-L.; Luciano, P.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Citraro, S.; Giannetti, P.; Dell'Orso, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton–proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturized version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain. The pattern matching can be executed by a custom designed Associative Memory chip. The reference patterns are chosen by a complex training algorithm implemented on an FPGA device. Post processing algorithms (e.g. pixel clustering) are also implemented on the FPGA. The pattern matching can be executed on a 2D or 3D space, on black and white or grayscale images, depending on the application and thus increasing exponentially the processing requirements of the system. We present the firmware implementation of the training and pattern matching algorithm, performance and results on a latest generation Xilinx Kintex Ultrascale FPGA device. - Highlights: • A high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching is proposed. • It is based on a system developed for High Energy Physics experiment triggers. • It mimics the operation of the human brain (cognitive image processing). • The process can be executed on 2D and 3D, black and white or grayscale images. • The implementation uses FPGAs and custom designed associative memory (AM) chips.

  13. High performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotiropoulou, C.-L., E-mail: c.sotiropoulou@cern.ch [University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Luciano, P. [University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Gaetano di Biasio 43, Cassino 03043 (Italy); INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Gkaitatzis, S. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Citraro, S. [University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Giannetti, P. [INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dell' Orso, M. [University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2017-02-11

    In this paper we present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton–proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturized version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain. The pattern matching can be executed by a custom designed Associative Memory chip. The reference patterns are chosen by a complex training algorithm implemented on an FPGA device. Post processing algorithms (e.g. pixel clustering) are also implemented on the FPGA. The pattern matching can be executed on a 2D or 3D space, on black and white or grayscale images, depending on the application and thus increasing exponentially the processing requirements of the system. We present the firmware implementation of the training and pattern matching algorithm, performance and results on a latest generation Xilinx Kintex Ultrascale FPGA device. - Highlights: • A high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching is proposed. • It is based on a system developed for High Energy Physics experiment triggers. • It mimics the operation of the human brain (cognitive image processing). • The process can be executed on 2D and 3D, black and white or grayscale images. • The implementation uses FPGAs and custom designed associative memory (AM) chips.

  14. Building Tailorable Hypermedia Systems: The embedded-interpreter approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Malhotra, Jawahar

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach for developing dynamically tailorable hypermedia systems in an object-oriented environment. The approach is aimed at making applications developed in compiled languages like Beta and C++ tailorable at run-time. The approach is based on use of: 1) a hypermedia...... application framework (DEVISE Hyper-media), and 2) an embeddable interpreter for the framework language. A specific hypermedia system is instantiated from the framework with the interpreter embedded in the executable. The specific hypermedia system has a number of “open points” which can be filled via......-type. The paper describes the framework and illustrates how the interpreter is integrated. It describes steps involved in tailoring a specific hypermedia system with a new drawing media-type, where graphical objects can be endpoints for links. Since the hypermedia framework uses a persistent object...

  15. Electric distribution systems and embedded generation capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderaro, V.; Galdi, V.; Piccolo, A.; Siano, P.

    2006-01-01

    The main policy issues of European States are sustainable energy supply promotion and liberalization of energy markets, which introduced market competition in electricity production and created support mechanisms to encourage renewable electricity production and consumption. As a result of liberalization, any generator, including small-scale and renewable energy based units, can sell electricity on the free market. In order to meet future sustainability targets, connection of a higher number of Distributed Generation (DG) units to the electrical power system is expected, requiring changes in the design and operation of distribution electricity systems, as well as changes in electricity network regulation. In order to assist distribution system operators in planning and managing DG connections and in maximizing DG penetration and renewable sources exploitation, this paper proposed a reconfiguration methodology based on a Genetic Algorithm (GA), that was tested on a 70-bus system with DG units. The simulation results confirmed that the methodology represents a suitable tool for distribution system operators when dealing with DG capacity expansion and power loss issues, providing information regarding the potential penetration network-wide and allowing maximum exploitation of renewable generation. 35 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  16. SPARQL for Networks of Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Boldt, Dennis; Hasemann, Henning; Kröller, Alexander; Karnstedt, Marcel; von der Weth, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web (or Web of Data) represents the successful efforts towards linking and sharing data over the Web. The cornerstones of the Web of Data are RDF as data format and SPARQL as de-facto standard query language. Recent trends show the evolution of the Web of Data towards the Web of Things, integrating embedded devices and smart objects. Data stemming from such devices do not share a common format, making the integration and querying impossible. To overcome this problem, we present o...

  17. Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eles, Petru; Izosimov, Viacheslav; Pop, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses the issue of design optimization for fault- tolerant hard real-time systems. In particular, our focus is on the handling of transient faults using both checkpointing with rollback recovery and active replication. Fault tolerant schedules are generated based on a conditional...... process graph representation. The formulated system synthesis approaches decide the assignment of fault-tolerance policies to processes, the optimal placement of checkpoints and the mapping of processes to processors, such that multiple transient faults are tolerated, transparency requirements...

  18. Evaluation of guardrail embedded lighting system in Trinidad, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report provides information on the design considerations of the embedded highway lighting : design on Interstate-25 in Trinidad, Colorado, in terms of visibility. The information is based on : visibility characterizations of small targets using ...

  19. Six transformer based asymmetrical embedded Z-source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mo; Poh Chiang, Loh; Chi, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Embedded/Asymmetrical embedded Z-source inverters were proposed to maintain smooth input current/voltage across the dc source and within the impedance network, remain the shoot-through feature used to boost up the dc-link voltage without adding bulky filter at input side. This paper introduces a ...... a class of transformer based asymmetrical embedded Z-source inverters which keep the smooth input current and voltage while achieving enhanced voltage boost capability. The presented inverters are verified by laboratory prototypes experimentally....

  20. A novel chemotherapeutic sensitivity-testing system based on collagen gel droplet embedded 3D-culture methods for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jun; Hong, Zhixian; Feng, Fan; Chai, Yantao; Zhang, Yunkai; Jiang, Qiyu; Hu, Yan; Wu, Shunquan; Wu, Yingsong; Gao, Xunian; Chen, Qiong; Wan, Yong; Bi, Jingfeng; Zhang, Zheng

    2017-11-08

    Patients suffering from advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) often exhibit a poor prognosis or dismal clinical outcomes due to ineffective chemotherapy or a multi-drug resistance (MDR) process. Thus, it is urgent to develop a new chemotherapeutic sensitivity testing system for HCC treatment. The presence study investigated the potential application of a novel chemotherapeutic sensitivity-testing system based on a collagen gel droplet embedded 3D-culture system (CD-DST). Primary cells were separating from surgical resection specimens and then tested by CD-DST. To identify whether HCC cell lines or cells separating from clinical specimens contain MDR features, the cells were treated with an IC 50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) or IC max (maximal inhibitory concentration) concentration of antitumor agents, e.g., 5-furuolouracil (5-FU), paclitaxel (PAC), cisplatin (CDDP), epirubicin (EPI), or oxaliplatin (L-OHP), and the inhibitory rates (IRs) were calculated. HepG2 cells were sensitive to 5-FU, PAC, CDDP, EPI, or L-OHP; the IC 50 value is 0.83 ± 0.45 μg/ml, 0.03 ± 0.02 μg/ml, 1.15 ± 0.75 μg/ml, 0.09 ± 0.03 μg/ml, or 1.76 ± 0.44 μg/ml, respectively. Only eight (8/26), nine (9/26), or five (5/26) patients were sensitive to the IC max concentration of CDDP, EPI, or L-OHP; whereas only three (3/26), four (4/26), or two (2/26) patients were sensitive to the IC 50 concentration of CDDP, EPI, or L-OHP. No patients were sensitive to 5-FU or PAC. The in vitro drug sensitivity exanimation revealed the MDR features of HCC and examined the sensitivity of HCC cells from clinical specimens to anti-tumor agents. CD-DST may be a useful method to predict the potential clinical benefits of anticancer agents for HCC patients.

  1. Embedded systems development from functional models to implementations

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Haibo; Natale, Marco; Marwedel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This book offers readers broad coverage of techniques to model, verify and validate the behavior and performance of complex distributed embedded systems.  The authors attempt to bridge the gap between the three disciplines of model-based design, real-time analysis and model-driven development, for a better understanding of the ways in which new development flows can be constructed, going from system-level modeling to the correct and predictable generation of a distributed implementation, leveraging current and future research results.     Describes integration of heterogeneous models; Discusses synthesis of task model implementations and code implementations; Compares model-based design vs. model-driven approaches; Explains how to enforce correctness by construction in the functional and time domains; Includes optimization techniques for control performance.

  2. Testing methodology of embedded software in digital plant protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Ah Young; Choi, Bong Joo; Lee, Na Young; Hwang, Il Soon

    2001-01-01

    It is necessary to assure the reliability of software in order to digitalize RPS(Reactor Protection System). Since RPS causes fatal damage on accidental cases, it is classified as Safety 1E class. Therefore we propose the effective testing methodology to assure the reliability of embedded software in the DPPS(Digital Plant Protection System). To test the embedded software effectively in DPPS, our methodology consists of two steps. The first is the re-engineering step that extracts classes from structural source program, and the second is the level of testing step which is composed of unit testing, Integration Testing and System Testing. On each testing step we test the embedded software with selected test cases after the test item identification step. If we use this testing methodology, we can test the embedded software effectively by reducing the cost and the time

  3. Real time polarization sensor image processing on an embedded FPGA/multi-core DSP system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednara, Marcus; Chuchacz-Kowalczyk, Katarzyna

    2015-05-01

    Most embedded image processing SoCs available on the market are highly optimized for typical consumer applications like video encoding/decoding, motion estimation or several image enhancement processes as used in DSLR or digital video cameras. For non-consumer applications, on the other hand, optimized embedded hardware is rarely available, so often PC based image processing systems are used. We show how a real time capable image processing system for a non-consumer application - namely polarization image data processing - can be efficiently implemented on an FPGA and multi-core DSP based embedded hardware platform.

  4. The Exchange Value Embedded in a Transport System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Qinglan; Xu Shaofeng

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows that a well designed transport system has an embedded exchange value by serving as a market for potential exchange between consumers. Under suitable conditions, one can improve the welfare of consumers in the system simply by allowing some exchange of goods between consumers during transportation without incurring additional transportation cost. We propose an explicit valuation formula to measure this exchange value for a given compatible transport system. This value is always nonnegative and bounded from above. Criteria based on transport structures, preferences and prices are provided to determine the existence of a positive exchange value. Finally, we study a new optimal transport problem with an objective taking into account of both transportation cost and exchange value.

  5. Applying Distributed Object Technology to Distributed Embedded Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Dalgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our Java RMI inspired Object Request Broker architecture MicroRMI for use with networked embedded devices. MicroRMI relieves the software developer from the tedious and error-prone job of writing communication protocols for interacting with such embedded devices. MicroR...... in developing control systems for distributed embedded platforms possessing severe resource restrictions.......RMI supports easy integration of high-level application specific control logic with low-level device specific control logic. Our experience from applying MicroRMI in the context of a distributed robotics control application, clearly demonstrates that it is feasible to use distributed object technology...

  6. FPGA-Based Embedded Motion Estimation Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyi Wei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate real-time motion estimation is very critical to many computer vision tasks. However, because of its computational power and processing speed requirements, it is rarely used for real-time applications, especially for micro unmanned vehicles. In our previous work, a FPGA system was built to process optical flow vectors of 64 frames of 640×480 image per second. Compared to software-based algorithms, this system achieved much higher frame rate but marginal accuracy. In this paper, a more accurate optical flow algorithm is proposed. Temporal smoothing is incorporated in the hardware structure which significantly improves the algorithm accuracy. To accommodate temporal smoothing, the hardware structure is composed of two parts: the derivative (DER module produces intermediate results and the optical flow computation (OFC module calculates the final optical flow vectors. Software running on a built-in processor on the FPGA chip is used in the design to direct the data flow and manage hardware components. This new design has been implemented on a compact, low power, high performance hardware platform for micro UV applications. It is able to process 15 frames of 640×480 image per second and with much improved accuracy. Higher frame rate can be achieved with further optimization and additional memory space.

  7. Safety-Critical Java for Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rios Rivas, Juan Ricardo

    for Java aims at providing a reduced set of the Java programming language that can be used for systems that need to be certified at the highest levels of criticality. Safety-critical Java (SCJ) restricts how a developer can structure an application by providing a specific programming model...... and by restricting the set of methods and libraries that can be used. Furthermore, its memory model do not use a garbage-collected heap but scoped memories. In this thesis we examine the use of the SCJ specification through an implementation in a time-predictable, FPGA-based Java processor. The specification is now...

  8. Design and Implementation of an Embedded Smart Intruder Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Naseer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote and scattered valuable and sensitive locations such as labs and offices inside university campus need efficient monitoring and warning system. As well as scattered area and belonging. This research presents a Real-Time intruder Surveillance System based on a single board computer (SBC. Thus the design and development of a cost effective surveillance management system based SBC that can be deployed efficiently in remote and scattered locations such as universities belonging. The fusion of embedded Python codes with SBC that attached to cameras, Long distance sensors, alerting circuitry and wireless module presents a novel integration based effective cost solution and enhances SBC of much flexibility of improvement and development for pervasive remote locations. The system proves the high integrity of smooth working with web application, it’s cost effective and thus can be deployed as many of units to seize and concisely covered remote and scattered area as well as university belonging and departments. The system can be administrated by a remote user sparsely or geographically away from any networked workstation. The proposed solution offers efficient stand alone, flexibility to upgrade and cheap development and installation as well as cost effective ubiquitous surveillance solution. In conclusion, the system acceptable boundaries of successful intruder recognition and warning alert are computed between 1m and 3m distance of intruder from system camera. Recognition rate of 95% and 83% are achieved and the successful warning alert were in the range of 86-97%.

  9. An Approach to Incremental Design of Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Pop, Traian

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to incremental design of distributed embedded systems for hard real-time applications. We start from an already existing system running a set of applications and the design problem is to implement new functionality on this system. Thus, we propose mapping...... strategies of functionality so that the already running functionality is not disturbed and there is a good chance that, later, new functionality can easily be mapped on the resulted system. The mapping and scheduling for hard real-time embedded systems are considered the context of a realistic communication...

  10. Embedded control system for high power RF amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Deepak Kumar; Gupta, Alok Kumar; Jain, Akhilesh; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    RF power devices are usually very sensitive to overheat and reflected RF power; hence a protective interlock system is required to be embedded with high power solid state RF amplifiers. The solid state RF amplifiers have salient features of graceful degradation and very low mean time to repair (MTTR). In order to exploit these features in favour of lowest system downtime, a real-time control system is embedded with high power RF amplifiers. The control system is developed with the features of monitoring, measurement and network publishing of various parameters, historical data logging, alarm generation, displaying data to the operator and tripping the system in case of any interlock failure. This paper discusses the design philosophy, features, functions and implementation details of the embedded control system. (author)

  11. Introduction to Embedded Systems Using ANSI C and the Arduino Development Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David

    2010-01-01

    Many electrical and computer engineering projects involve some kind of embedded system in which a microcontroller sits at the center as the primary source of control. The recently-developed Arduino development platform includes an inexpensive hardware development board hosting an eight-bit ATMEL ATmega-family processor and a Java-based software-development environment. These features allow an embedded systems beginner the ability to focus their attention on learning how to write embedded software instead of wasting time overcoming the engineering CAD tools learning curve. The goal of this text

  12. The art of software thermal management for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces Software Thermal Management (STM) as a means of reducing power consumption in a computing system, in order to manage heat, improve component reliability, and increase system safety.  Readers will benefit from this pragmatic guide to the field of STM for embedded systems and its catalog of software power management techniques.  Since thermal management is a key bottleneck in embedded systems design, this book focuses on power as the root cause of heat. Since software has an enormous impact on power consumption in an embedded system, this book guides readers to manage heat effectively by understanding, categorizing, and developing new ways to reduce dynamic power. Whereas most books on thermal management describe mechanisms to remove heat, this book focuses on ways to avoid generating heat in the first place.   • Explains fundamentals of software thermal management, application techniques and advanced optimization strategies; • Describes a novel method for managing dynamic power, e...

  13. Embedded expert system for space shuttle main engine maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, J.; Thompson, W.; Homsley, T.; Teoh, W.; Jones, J.; Lewallen, P.

    1987-01-01

    The SPARTA Embedded Expert System (SEES) is an intelligent health monitoring system that directs analysis by placing confidence factors on possible engine status and then recommends a course of action to an engineer or engine controller. The technique can prevent catastropic failures or costly rocket engine down time because of false alarms. Further, the SEES has potential as an on-board flight monitor for reusable rocket engine systems. The SEES methodology synergistically integrates vibration analysis, pattern recognition and communications theory techniques with an artificial intelligence technique - the Embedded Expert System (EES).

  14. Modeling and optimization of parallel and distributed embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Munir, Arslan; Ranka, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the state-of-the-art in research in parallel and distributed embedded systems, which have been enabled by developments in silicon technology, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), wireless communications, computer networking, and digital electronics. These systems have diverse applications in domains including military and defense, medical, automotive, and unmanned autonomous vehicles. The emphasis of the book is on the modeling and optimization of emerging parallel and distributed embedded systems in relation to the three key design metrics of performance, power and dependability.

  15. Embedded design based virtual instrument program for positron beam automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayapandian, J.; Gururaj, K.; Abhaya, S.; Parimala, J.; Amarendra, G.

    2008-01-01

    Automation of positron beam experiment with a single chip embedded design using a programmable system on chip (PSoC) which provides easy interfacing of the high-voltage DC power supply is reported. Virtual Instrument (VI) control program written in Visual Basic 6.0 ensures the following functions (i) adjusting of sample high voltage by interacting with the programmed PSoC hardware, (ii) control of personal computer (PC) based multi channel analyzer (MCA) card for energy spectroscopy, (iii) analysis of the obtained spectrum to extract the relevant line shape parameters, (iv) plotting of relevant parameters and (v) saving the file in the appropriate format. The present study highlights the hardware features of the PSoC hardware module as well as the control of MCA and other units through programming in Visual Basic

  16. Design of signal reception and processing system of embedded ultrasonic endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Yu, Feng; Zhang, Ruiqiang; Li, Yan; Chen, Xiaodong; Yu, Daoyin

    2009-11-01

    Embedded Ultrasonic Endoscope, based on embedded microprocessor and embedded real-time operating system, sends a micro ultrasonic probe into coelom through the biopsy channel of the Electronic Endoscope to get the fault histology features of digestive organs by rotary scanning, and acquires the pictures of the alimentary canal mucosal surface. At the same time, ultrasonic signals are processed by signal reception and processing system, forming images of the full histology of the digestive organs. Signal Reception and Processing System is an important component of Embedded Ultrasonic Endoscope. However, the traditional design, using multi-level amplifiers and special digital processing circuits to implement signal reception and processing, is no longer satisfying the standards of high-performance, miniaturization and low power requirements that embedded system requires, and as a result of the high noise that multi-level amplifier brought, the extraction of small signal becomes hard. Therefore, this paper presents a method of signal reception and processing based on double variable gain amplifier and FPGA, increasing the flexibility and dynamic range of the Signal Reception and Processing System, improving system noise level, and reducing power consumption. Finally, we set up the embedded experiment system, using a transducer with the center frequency of 8MHz to scan membrane samples, and display the image of ultrasonic echo reflected by each layer of membrane, with a frame rate of 5Hz, verifying the correctness of the system.

  17. An Architecture Design Method for Critical Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feitosa, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Critical embedded systems (CES) have become ubiquitous in the modern society, like in cars and energy appliances. However, besides their popularity, engineering of these systems is still particularly challenging. One of the greatest challenges in the development of such systems is their expected

  18. Reliability analysis of wind embedded power generation system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a method for Reliability Analysis of wind energy embedded in power generation system for Indian scenario. This is done by evaluating the reliability index, loss of load expectation, for the power generation system with and without integration of wind energy sources in the overall electric power system.

  19. Indirect adaptive soft computing based wavelet-embedded control paradigms for WT/PV/SOFC in a grid/charging station connected hybrid power system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Mumtaz

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the indirect adaptive tracking control of renewable energy sources in a grid-connected hybrid power system. The renewable energy systems have low efficiency and intermittent nature due to unpredictable meteorological conditions. The domestic load and the conventional charging stations behave in an uncertain manner. To operate the renewable energy sources efficiently for harvesting maximum power, instantaneous nonlinear dynamics should be captured online. A Chebyshev-wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking control paradigm is proposed for variable speed wind turbine-permanent synchronous generator (VSWT-PMSG. A Hermite-wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT control strategy for photovoltaic (PV system to extract maximum power and indirect adaptive tracking control scheme for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC is developed. A comprehensive simulation test-bed for a grid-connected hybrid power system is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness of the suggested indirect adaptive control paradigms are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system test-bed by comparison with conventional and intelligent control techniques. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigms.

  20. Indirect adaptive soft computing based wavelet-embedded control paradigms for WT/PV/SOFC in a grid/charging station connected hybrid power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sidra; Khan, Laiq; Ahmed, Saghir; Bader, Rabiah

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the indirect adaptive tracking control of renewable energy sources in a grid-connected hybrid power system. The renewable energy systems have low efficiency and intermittent nature due to unpredictable meteorological conditions. The domestic load and the conventional charging stations behave in an uncertain manner. To operate the renewable energy sources efficiently for harvesting maximum power, instantaneous nonlinear dynamics should be captured online. A Chebyshev-wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control paradigm is proposed for variable speed wind turbine-permanent synchronous generator (VSWT-PMSG). A Hermite-wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT control strategy for photovoltaic (PV) system to extract maximum power and indirect adaptive tracking control scheme for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is developed. A comprehensive simulation test-bed for a grid-connected hybrid power system is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness of the suggested indirect adaptive control paradigms are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system test-bed by comparison with conventional and intelligent control techniques. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigms.

  1. Indirect adaptive soft computing based wavelet-embedded control paradigms for WT/PV/SOFC in a grid/charging station connected hybrid power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Laiq; Ahmed, Saghir; Bader, Rabiah

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the indirect adaptive tracking control of renewable energy sources in a grid-connected hybrid power system. The renewable energy systems have low efficiency and intermittent nature due to unpredictable meteorological conditions. The domestic load and the conventional charging stations behave in an uncertain manner. To operate the renewable energy sources efficiently for harvesting maximum power, instantaneous nonlinear dynamics should be captured online. A Chebyshev-wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control paradigm is proposed for variable speed wind turbine-permanent synchronous generator (VSWT-PMSG). A Hermite-wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT control strategy for photovoltaic (PV) system to extract maximum power and indirect adaptive tracking control scheme for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is developed. A comprehensive simulation test-bed for a grid-connected hybrid power system is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness of the suggested indirect adaptive control paradigms are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system test-bed by comparison with conventional and intelligent control techniques. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigms. PMID:28877191

  2. Real-time embedded systems design principles and engineering practices

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Xiaocong

    2015-01-01

    This book integrates new ideas and topics from real time systems, embedded systems, and software engineering to give a complete picture of the whole process of developing software for real-time embedded applications. You will not only gain a thorough understanding of concepts related to microprocessors, interrupts, and system boot process, appreciating the importance of real-time modeling and scheduling, but you will also learn software engineering practices such as model documentation, model analysis, design patterns, and standard conformance. This book is split into four parts to help you

  3. Embedded mechatronic systems 1 analysis of failures, predictive reliability

    CERN Document Server

    El Hami, Abdelkhalak

    2015-01-01

    In operation, mechatronics embedded systems are stressed by loads of different causes: climate (temperature, humidity), vibration, electrical and electromagnetic. These stresses in components which induce failure mechanisms should be identified and modeled for better control. AUDACE is a collaborative project of the cluster Mov'eo that address issues specific to mechatronic reliability embedded systems. AUDACE means analyzing the causes of failure of components of mechatronic systems onboard. The goal of the project is to optimize the design of mechatronic devices by reliability. The projec

  4. System Level Modelling and Performance Estimation of Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg-Hansen, Anders Sejer

    The advances seen in the semiconductor industry within the last decade have brought the possibility of integrating evermore functionality onto a single chip forming functionally highly advanced embedded systems. These integration possibilities also imply that as the design complexity increases, so...... does the design time and eort. This challenge is widely recognized throughout academia and the industry and in order to address this, novel frameworks and methods, which will automate design steps as well as raise the level of abstraction used to design systems, are being called upon. To support...... is carried out in collaboration with the Danish company and DaNES partner, Bang & Olufsen ICEpower. Bang & Olufsen ICEpower provides industrial case studies which will allow the proposed modelling framework to be exercised and assessed in terms of ease of use, production speed, accuracy and efficiency...

  5. Logic flowgraph methodology - A tool for modeling embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, C. T.; Guarro, S. B.; Apostolakis, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    The logic flowgraph methodology (LFM), a method for modeling hardware in terms of its process parameters, has been extended to form an analytical tool for the analysis of integrated (hardware/software) embedded systems. In the software part of a given embedded system model, timing and the control flow among different software components are modeled by augmenting LFM with modified Petrinet structures. The objective of the use of such an augmented LFM model is to uncover possible errors and the potential for unanticipated software/hardware interactions. This is done by backtracking through the augmented LFM mode according to established procedures which allow the semiautomated construction of fault trees for any chosen state of the embedded system (top event). These fault trees, in turn, produce the possible combinations of lower-level states (events) that may lead to the top event.

  6. Embedded Systems for Smart Appliances and Energy Management

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Peter; Mahlknecht, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to embedded systems for smart appliances and energy management, bringing together for the first time a multidisciplinary blend of topics from embedded systems, information technology and power engineering.  Coverage includes challenges for future resource distribution grids, energy management in smart appliances, micro energy generation, demand response management, ultra-low power stand by, smart standby and communication networks in home and building automation.   Provides a comprehensive, multidisciplinary introduction to embedded systems for smart appliances and energy management; Equips researchers and engineers with information required to succeed in designing energy management for smart appliances; Includes coverage of resource distribution grids, energy management in smart appliances, micro energy generation, demand response management, ultra-low power stand by, smart standby and communication networks in home and building automation.  

  7. An open and configurable embedded system for EMG pattern recognition implementation for artificial arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun Liu; Fan Zhang; Huang, He Helen

    2014-01-01

    Pattern recognition (PR) based on electromyographic (EMG) signals has been developed for multifunctional artificial arms for decades. However, assessment of EMG PR control for daily prosthesis use is still limited. One of the major barriers is the lack of a portable and configurable embedded system to implement the EMG PR control. This paper aimed to design an open and configurable embedded system for EMG PR implementation so that researchers can easily modify and optimize the control algorithms upon our designed platform and test the EMG PR control outside of the lab environments. The open platform was built on an open source embedded Linux Operating System running a high-performance Gumstix board. Both the hardware and software system framework were openly designed. The system was highly flexible in terms of number of inputs/outputs and calibration interfaces used. Such flexibility enabled easy integration of our embedded system with different types of commercialized or prototypic artificial arms. Thus far, our system was portable for take-home use. Additionally, compared with previously reported embedded systems for EMG PR implementation, our system demonstrated improved processing efficiency and high system precision. Our long-term goals are (1) to develop a wearable and practical EMG PR-based control for multifunctional artificial arms, and (2) to quantify the benefits of EMG PR-based control over conventional myoelectric prosthesis control in a home setting.

  8. Embedded Systems - Missile Detection/Interception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cintron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Missile defense systems are often related to major military resources aimed at shielding a specific region from incoming attacks. They are intended to detect, track, intercept, and destruct incoming enemy missiles. These systems vary in cost, efficiency, dependability, and technology. In present times, the possession of these types of systems is associated with large capacity military countries. Demonstrated here are the mathematical techniques behind missile systems which calculate trajectories of incoming missiles and potential intercept positions after initial missile detection. This procedure involved the use of vector-valued functions, systems of equations, and knowledge of projectile motion concepts.

  9. MOVES - A tool for Modeling and Verification of Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebæk, Jens; Knudsen, Kristian S.; Brekling, Aske Wiid

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate MOVES, a tool which allows designers of embedded systems to explore possible implementations early in the design process. The demonstration of MOVES will show how designers can explore different designs by changing the mapping of tasks on processing elements, the number and/or spee...... of processing elements, the size of local memories, and the operating systems (scheduling algorithm)....

  10. Multi-domain transformational design flow for embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, K.C.; van de Burgwal, M.D.; Kuper, Jan; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2011-01-01

    Current tools for embedded system design have limited support for modelling the interaction of the system with its physical environment. Furthermore, the natural representation of (streaming, real-time) applications with dataflow models is not supported by most tools. However, integrating multiple

  11. Modeling and validating distributed embedded real-time control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, M.H.G.

    2009-01-01

    The development of complex embedded control systems can be improved significantly by applying formal techniques from control engineering and software engineering. It is shown how these approaches can be combined to improve the design and analysis of high-tech systems, both in theory and practice.

  12. Sharing Real-Time Objects in Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erland Ketil; Havn, Ib

    2015-01-01

    microcontrollers connected by a RS-485 bus. The demo system shows that it is relatively simple to implement a distributed embedded system with the provided API, and the latency of the communication service is predictable. A low coupling to hardware makes it easy to port to another platform and/or another network...

  13. Embedded System Synthesis under Memory Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Bjørn-Jørgensen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a genetic algorithm to solve the system synthesis problem of mapping a time constrained single-rate system specification onto a given heterogeneous architecture which may contain irregular interconnection structures. The synthesis is performed under memory constraints, that is......, the algorithm takes into account the memory size of processors and the size of interface buffers of communication links, and in particular the complicated interplay of these. The presented algorithm is implemented as part of the LY-COS cosynthesis system....

  14. Aspect Suite Automation for Embedded Mission Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellis, Brian J; Stankovic, John A

    2005-01-01

    .... The VEST toolkit can substantially improve the development, implementation and evaluation of systems built from components which must interoperate, satisfy various dependencies, and meet non-functional requirements...

  15. Embedded data acquisition system for neutron monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Población, Ó G; Tejedor, I G; Sánchez, S; Blanco, J J; Gómez-Herrero, R; Medina, J; Steigies, C T

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the design and implementation of a new data acquisition system to be used as replacement for the old ones that have been in use with neutron monitors for the last decades and, which are eventually becoming obsolete. This new system is also intended to be used in new installations, enabling these scientific instruments to use today's communication networks to send data and receive commands from the operators. This system is currently running in two stations: KIEL2, in the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany, and CALMA, in the Castilla-La Mancha Neutron Monitor, Guadalajara, Spain

  16. Composable processor virtualization for embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molnos, A.M.; Milutinovic, A.; She, D.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2010-01-01

    Processor virtualization divides a physical processor's time among a set of virual machines, enabling efficient hardware utilization, application security and allowing co-existence of different operating systems on the same processor. Through initially intended for the server domain, virtualization

  17. Automatic SIMD parallelization of embedded applications based on pattern recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manniesing, R.; Karkowski, I.P.; Corporaal, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential for automatic mapping of typical embedded applications to architectures with multimedia instruction set extensions. For this purpose a (pattern matching based) code transformation engine is used, which involves a three-step process of matching, condition

  18. Physically Embedded Minimal Self-Replicating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    Self-replication is a fundamental property of all living organisms, yet has only been accomplished to limited extend in manmade systems. This thesis is part of the ongoing research endeavor to bridge the two sides of this gap. In particular, we present simulation results of a minimal life...... for any model above the atomistic scale. This is achieved by deriving an alternative scaling procedure for interaction parameters in the model. We perform system-level simulations of the design which attempt to account for theoretical, and experimental knowledge, as well as results from other...

  19. Some Architecture for Embedded-Assessment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.; Tannenbaum, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    It is one thing to produce an innovative, construct-based assessment task; it's another to produce 10 a year that are comparable in difficulty, measure the same competencies, are free of differential item functioning, and can be scaled and equated. These challenges contributed to the failure of the performance (or authentic) assessment movement of…

  20. Critical care nursing: Embedded complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinier, Ruth; Liske, Lori; Nenadovic, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Variability in parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure defines healthy physiology and the ability of the person to adequately respond to stressors. Critically ill patients have lost this variability and require highly specialized nursing care to support life and monitor changes in condition. The critical care environment is a dynamic system through which information flows. The critical care unit is typically designed as a tree structure with generally one attending physician and multiple nurses and allied health care professionals. Information flow through the system allows for identification of deteriorating patient status and timely interventionfor rescue from further deleterious effects. Nurses provide the majority of direct patient care in the critical care setting in 2:1, 1:1 or 1:2 nurse-to-patient ratios. The bedside nurse-critically ill patient relationship represents the primary, real-time feedback loop of information exchange, monitoring and treatment. Variables that enhance information flow through this loop and support timely nursing intervention can improve patient outcomes, while barriers can lead to errors and adverse events. Examining patient information flow in the critical care environment from a dynamic systems perspective provides insights into how nurses deliver effective patient care and prevent adverse events.

  1. Biased discriminant euclidean embedding for content-based image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Wei; Tao, Dacheng

    2010-02-01

    With many potential multimedia applications, content-based image retrieval (CBIR) has recently gained more attention for image management and web search. A wide variety of relevance feedback (RF) algorithms have been developed in recent years to improve the performance of CBIR systems. These RF algorithms capture user's preferences and bridge the semantic gap. However, there is still a big room to further the RF performance, because the popular RF algorithms ignore the manifold structure of image low-level visual features. In this paper, we propose the biased discriminative Euclidean embedding (BDEE) which parameterises samples in the original high-dimensional ambient space to discover the intrinsic coordinate of image low-level visual features. BDEE precisely models both the intraclass geometry and interclass discrimination and never meets the undersampled problem. To consider unlabelled samples, a manifold regularization-based item is introduced and combined with BDEE to form the semi-supervised BDEE, or semi-BDEE for short. To justify the effectiveness of the proposed BDEE and semi-BDEE, we compare them against the conventional RF algorithms and show a significant improvement in terms of accuracy and stability based on a subset of the Corel image gallery.

  2. Embedding Ethics in System Administration Education

    OpenAIRE

    van der Ham, J.

    2015-01-01

    Computer and network security cases continue to rise each year, playing an important role within our society. With a growing job market in this field, there remains little formal education at the high school level to become familiar with this profession. We proposed to develop an interactive computer and network security game which differs from other security-based games previously created, as it does not focus only on computer science security. Our development focuses on a wide range of topi...

  3. Integrating an embedded system in a microwave moisture meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conversion of a PC- or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter measures the attenuation and phase shift of low power microwaves traversing the sample, from which the dielectric properties are calculated. T...

  4. Integrating an Embedded System within a Microwave Moisture Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter uses low-power microwaves to measure the attenuation and phase shift of the sample, from which the dielectric properties are cal...

  5. Introduction for Freshmen to Embedded Systems Using LEGO Mindstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Han; Jeon, Jae Wook

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the course presented here is to introduce freshmen to embedded systems using LEGO Mindstorms, under an ANSI-C programming environment. The students build their own LEGO robots, make programs for them using ANSI-C, and operate them. By creating these LEGO robots, the students become more motivated, learning the basic concepts of…

  6. Embedded wavelet-based face recognition under variable position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotret, Pascal; Chevobbe, Stéphane; Darouich, Mehdi

    2015-02-01

    For several years, face recognition has been a hot topic in the image processing field: this technique is applied in several domains such as CCTV, electronic devices delocking and so on. In this context, this work studies the efficiency of a wavelet-based face recognition method in terms of subject position robustness and performance on various systems. The use of wavelet transform has a limited impact on the position robustness of PCA-based face recognition. This work shows, for a well-known database (Yale face database B*), that subject position in a 3D space can vary up to 10% of the original ROI size without decreasing recognition rates. Face recognition is performed on approximation coefficients of the image wavelet transform: results are still satisfying after 3 levels of decomposition. Furthermore, face database size can be divided by a factor 64 (22K with K = 3). In the context of ultra-embedded vision systems, memory footprint is one of the key points to be addressed; that is the reason why compression techniques such as wavelet transform are interesting. Furthermore, it leads to a low-complexity face detection stage compliant with limited computation resources available on such systems. The approach described in this work is tested on three platforms from a standard x86-based computer towards nanocomputers such as RaspberryPi and SECO boards. For K = 3 and a database with 40 faces, the execution mean time for one frame is 0.64 ms on a x86-based computer, 9 ms on a SECO board and 26 ms on a RaspberryPi (B model).

  7. Analysis and optimisation of heterogeneous real-time embedded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2005-01-01

    . The success of such new design methods depends on the availability of analysis and optimisation techniques. Analysis and optimisation techniques for heterogeneous real-time embedded systems are presented in the paper. The authors address in more detail a particular class of such systems called multi...... of application messages to frames. Optimisation heuristics for frame packing aimed at producing a schedulable system are presented. Extensive experiments and a real-life example show the efficiency of the frame-packing approach....

  8. Analysis and optimisation of heterogeneous real-time embedded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2006-01-01

    . The success of such new design methods depends on the availability of analysis and optimisation techniques. Analysis and optimisation techniques for heterogeneous real-time embedded systems are presented in the paper. The authors address in more detail a particular class of such systems called multi...... of application messages to frames. Optimisation heuristics for frame packing aimed at producing a schedulable system are presented. Extensive experiments and a real-life example show the efficiency of the frame-packing approach....

  9. Analysis and Optimization of Heterogeneous Real-Time Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2005-01-01

    . The success of such new design methods depends on the availability of analysis and optimization techniques. In this paper, we present analysis and optimization techniques for heterogeneous real-time embedded systems. We address in more detail a particular class of such systems called multi-clusters, composed...... to frames. Optimization heuristics for frame packing aiming at producing a schedulable system are presented. Extensive experiments and a real-life example show the efficiency of the frame-packing approach....

  10. Generation of embedded Hardware/Software from SystemC

    OpenAIRE

    Houzet , Dominique; Ouadjaout , Salim

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Designers increasingly rely on reusing intellectual property (IP) and on raising the level of abstraction to respect system-on-chip (SoC) market characteristics. However, most hardware and embedded software codes are recoded manually from system level. This recoding step often results in new coding errors that must be identified and debugged. Thus, shorter time-to-market requires automation of the system synthesis from high-level specifications. In this paper, we propo...

  11. Soft Systems Methodology Embedded in Organizational Knowledge-Creating Process

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Taketoshi

    2005-01-01

    We clarify the role of tacit knowing in the soft systems methodology. For the purpose we investigate the basic structure of its seven-stage model, while embedding the soft systems methodology in organizational knowledge-creating process. This leads to the introduction of concept creation to the methodology. This changes the basic shape of the soft systems methodology from learning cycle to organizational knowledge-creating spiral where concept creation is the key point.

  12. Topological Embedding Feature Based Resource Allocation in Network Virtualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Cui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization provides a powerful way to run multiple virtual networks on a shared substrate network, which needs accurate and efficient mathematical models. Virtual network embedding is a challenge in network virtualization. In this paper, considering the degree of convergence when mapping a virtual network onto substrate network, we propose a new embedding algorithm based on topology mapping convergence-degree. Convergence-degree means the adjacent degree of virtual network’s nodes when they are mapped onto a substrate network. The contributions of our method are as below. Firstly, we map virtual nodes onto the substrate nodes with the maximum convergence-degree. The simulation results show that our proposed algorithm largely enhances the network utilization efficiency and decreases the complexity of the embedding problem. Secondly, we define the load balance rate to reflect the load balance of substrate links. The simulation results show our proposed algorithm achieves better load balance. Finally, based on the feature of star topology, we further improve our embedding algorithm and make it suitable for application in the star topology. The test result shows it gets better performance than previous works.

  13. Low-Power Embedded DSP Core for Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Ya-Lan; Chen, Wei-Hao; Tan, Ming Hsuan; Lin, Maw-Ching; Jou, Shyh-Jye

    2003-12-01

    This paper proposes a parameterized digital signal processor (DSP) core for an embedded digital signal processing system designed to achieve demodulation/synchronization with better performance and flexibility. The features of this DSP core include parameterized data path, dual MAC unit, subword MAC, and optional function-specific blocks for accelerating communication system modulation operations. This DSP core also has a low-power structure, which includes the gray-code addressing mode, pipeline sharing, and advanced hardware looping. Users can select the parameters and special functional blocks based on the character of their applications and then generating a DSP core. The DSP core has been implemented via a cell-based design method using a synthesizable Verilog code with TSMC 0.35[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]m SPQM and 0.25[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]m 1P5M library. The equivalent gate count of the core area without memory is approximately 50 k. Moreover, the maximum operating frequency of a[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] version is 100 MHz (0.35[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]m) and 140 MHz (0.25[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]m).

  14. Analyzing Software Requirements Errors in Safety-Critical, Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the root causes of safety-related software errors in safety-critical, embedded systems. The results show that software errors identified as potentially hazardous to the system tend to be produced by different error mechanisms than non- safety-related software errors. Safety-related software errors are shown to arise most commonly from (1) discrepancies between the documented requirements specifications and the requirements needed for correct functioning of the system and (2) misunderstandings of the software's interface with the rest of the system. The paper uses these results to identify methods by which requirements errors can be prevented. The goal is to reduce safety-related software errors and to enhance the safety of complex, embedded systems.

  15. Modelling Field Bus Communications in Mixed-Signal Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alassir Mohamad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a modelling platform using the SystemC-AMS language to simulate field bus communications for embedded systems. Our platform includes the model of an I/O controller IP (in this specific case an C controller that interfaces a master microprocessor with its peripherals on the field bus. Our platform shows the execution of the embedded software and its analog response on the lines of the bus. Moreover, it also takes into account the influence of the circuits's I/O by including their IBIS models in the SystemC-AMS description, as well as the bus lines imperfections. Finally, we present simulation results to validate our platform and measure the overhead introduced by SystemC-AMS over a pure digital SystemC simulation.

  16. Modelling Field Bus Communications in Mixed-Signal Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Garda

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a modelling platform using the SystemC-AMS language to simulate field bus communications for embedded systems. Our platform includes the model of an I/O controller IP (in this specific case an I2C controller that interfaces a master microprocessor with its peripherals on the field bus. Our platform shows the execution of the embedded software and its analog response on the lines of the bus. Moreover, it also takes into account the influence of the circuits's I/O by including their IBIS models in the SystemC-AMS description, as well as the bus lines imperfections. Finally, we present simulation results to validate our platform and measure the overhead introduced by SystemC-AMS over a pure digital SystemC simulation.

  17. A Spiral Step-by-Step Educational Method for Cultivating Competent Embedded System Engineers to Meet Industry Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing,Lei; Cheng, Zixue; Wang, Junbo; Zhou, Yinghui

    2011-01-01

    Embedded system technologies are undergoing dramatic change. Competent embedded system engineers are becoming a scarce resource in the industry. Given this, universities should revise their specialist education to meet industry demands. In this paper, a spirally tight-coupled step-by-step educational method, based on an analysis of industry…

  18. An innovative ultra-capacitor driven shape memory alloy actuator with an embedded control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peng; Song, Gangbing

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an innovative ultra-capacitor driven shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator with an embedded control system is proposed targeting high power high-duty cycle SMA applications. The ultra-capacitor, which is capable of delivering massive amounts of instantaneous current in a compact dimension for high power applications, is chosen as the main component of the power supply. A specialized embedded system is designed from the ground up to control the ultra-capacitor driven SMA system. The control of the ultra-capacitor driven SMA is different from that of a regular constant voltage powered SMA system in that the energy and the voltage of the ultra-capacitor decrease as the system load increases. The embedded control system is also different from a computer-based control system in that it has limited computational power, and the control algorithm has to be designed to be simple while effective so that it can fit into the embedded system environment. The problem of a variable voltage power source induced by the use of the ultra-capacitor is solved by using a fuzzy PID (proportional integral and derivative) control. The method of using an ultra-capacitor to drive SMA actuators enabled SMA as a good candidate for high power high-duty cycle applications. The proposed embedded control system provides a good and ready-to-use solution for SMA high power applications. (paper)

  19. Embedded Sensor Systems for Health - A Step Towards Personalized Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, Maria; Björkman, Mats

    2018-01-01

    The demography is changing towards older people, and the challenge to provide an appropriate care is well known. Sensor systems, combined with IT solutions are recognized as one of the major tools to handle this situation. Embedded Sensor Systems for Health (ESS-H) is a research profile at Mälardalen University in Sweden, focusing on embedded sensor systems for health technology applications. The research addresses several important issues: to provide sensor systems for health monitoring at home, to provide sensor systems for health monitoring at work, to provide safe and secure infrastructure and software testing methods for physiological data management. The user perspective is important in order to solve real problems and to develop systems that are easy and intuitive to use. One of the overall aims is to enable health trend monitoring in home environments, thus being able to detect early deterioration of a patient. Sensor systems, signal processing algorithms, and decision support algorithms have been developed. Work on development of safe and secure infrastructure and software testing methods are important for an embedded sensor system aimed for health monitoring, both in home and in work applications. Patient data must be sent and received in a safe and secure manner, also fulfilling the integrity criteria.

  20. A Rapid Prototyping Environment for Wireless Communication Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan A. Jones

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a rapid prototyping methodology which overcomes important barriers in the design and implementation of digital signal processing (DSP algorithms and systems on embedded hardware platforms, such as cellular phones. This paper describes rapid prototyping in terms of a simulation/prototype bridge and in terms of appropriate language design. The simulation/prototype bridge combines the strengths of simulation and of prototyping, allowing the designer to develop and evaluate next-generation communications systems, partly in simulation on a host computer and partly as a prototype on embedded hardware. Appropriate language design allows designers to express a communications system as a block diagram, in which each block represents an algorithm specified by a set of equations. Software tools developed for this paper implement both concepts, and have been successfully used in the development of a next-generation code division multiple access (CDMA cellular wireless communications system.

  1. Integrating Security in Real-Time Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-26

    Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arl ington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that... operate without impacting the tinting and safety constraints of the control logic. Besides, the embedded nature of these systems limits the...only during slack times when no other real-time tasks are rwming. We propose to measure the security of the system by means of the achievable periodic

  2. Production of CNT-taxol-embedded PCL microspheres using an ammonium-based room temperature ionic liquid: as a sustained drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Yeol; Hwang, Ji-Young; Seo, Jae-Won; Shin, Ueon Sang

    2015-03-15

    We describe a one-pot method for the mass production of polymeric microspheres containing water-soluble carbon-nanotube (w-CNT)-taxol complexes using an ammonium-based room temperature ionic liquid. Polycaprolactone (PCL), trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC; liquid state from -20 to 240°C), and taxol were used, respectively, as a model polymer, room temperature ionic liquid, and drug. Large quantities of white colored PCL powder without w-CNT-taxol complexes and gray colored PCL powders containing w-CNT-taxol (1:1 or 1:2 wt/wt) complexes were produced by phase separation between the hydrophilic TOMAC and the hydrophobic PCL. Both microsphere types had a uniform, spherical structure of average diameter 3-5μm. The amount of taxol embedded in PCL microspheres was determined by HPLC and (1)H NMR to be 8-12μg per 1.0mg of PCL (loading capacity (LC): 0.8-1.2%; entrapment efficiency (EE): 16-24%). An in vitro HPLC release assay showed sustain release of taxol without an initial burst over 60days at an average rate of 0.003-0.0073mg per day. The viability patterns of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) for PCTx-1 and -2 showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects. In the presence of PCTx-1 and -2, the MCF-7 cells showed high viability in the concentration level of, respectably, <70 and <5μg/mL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. CESAR cost-efficient methods and processes for safety-relevant embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The book summarizes the findings and contributions of the European ARTEMIS project, CESAR, for improving and enabling interoperability of methods, tools, and processes to meet the demands in embedded systems development across four domains - avionics, automotive, automation, and rail. The contributions give insight to an improved engineering and safety process life-cycle for the development of safety critical systems. They present new concept of engineering tools integration platform to improve the development of safety critical embedded systems and illustrate capacity of this framework for end-user instantiation to specific domain needs and processes. They also advance state-of-the-art in component-based development as well as component and system validation and verification, with tool support. And finally they describe industry relevant evaluated processes and methods especially designed for the embedded systems sector as well as easy adoptable common interoperability principles for software tool integratio...

  4. Data Error Detection and Recovery in Embedded Systems: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu Babu Thati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review on data flow error detection and recovery techniques in embedded systems. In recent years, embedded systems are being used more and more in an enormous number of applications from small mobile device to big medical devices. At the same time, it is becoming important for embedded developers to make embedded systems fault-tolerant. To make embedded systems fault-tolerant, error detection and recovery mechanisms are effective techniques to take into consideration. Fault tolerance can be achieved by using both hardware and software techniques. This literature review focuses on software-based techniques since hardware-based techniques need extra hardware and are an extra investment in cost per product. Whereas, software-based techniques needed no or limited hardware. A review on various existing data flow error detection and error recovery techniques is given along with their strengths and weaknesses. Such an information is useful to identify the better techniques among the others.

  5. VHDL vs. Bluespec system verilog: a case study on a Java embedded architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruian, Flavius; Westmijze, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares two hardware design flows, based on the classic VHDL on one side and the relatively new Blue-spec System Verilog (BSV) on the other side. The comparison is based on a case study of a Java embedded architecture, comprising a Java native processor and a memory management unit. The

  6. Cosimulation of embedded system using RTOS software simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shihao; Duan, Zhigang; Liu, Mingye

    2003-09-01

    Embedded system design often employs co-simulation to verify system's function; one efficient verification tool of software is Instruction Set Simulator (ISS). As a full functional model of target CPU, ISS interprets instruction of embedded software step by step, which usually is time-consuming since it simulates at low-level. Hence ISS often becomes the bottleneck of co-simulation in a complicated system. In this paper, a new software verification tools, the RTOS software simulator (RSS) was presented. The mechanism of its operation was described in a full details. In RSS method, RTOS API is extended and hardware simulator driver is adopted to deal with data-exchange and synchronism between the two simulators.

  7. Wavelet-based audio embedding and audio/video compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Michael J.; Claypoole, Roger L., Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Watermarking, traditionally used for copyright protection, is used in a new and exciting way. An efficient wavelet-based watermarking technique embeds audio information into a video signal. Several effective compression techniques are applied to compress the resulting audio/video signal in an embedded fashion. This wavelet-based compression algorithm incorporates bit-plane coding, index coding, and Huffman coding. To demonstrate the potential of this audio embedding and audio/video compression algorithm, we embed an audio signal into a video signal and then compress. Results show that overall compression rates of 15:1 can be achieved. The video signal is reconstructed with a median PSNR of nearly 33 dB. Finally, the audio signal is extracted from the compressed audio/video signal without error.

  8. Product-based Safety Certification for Medical Devices Embedded Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, José Augusto; Figueiredo Damásio, Jemerson; Monthaler, Paul; Morais, Misael

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide medical device embedded software certification practices are currently focused on manufacturing best practices. In Brazil, the national regulatory agency does not hold a local certification process for software-intensive medical devices and admits international certification (e.g. FDA and CE) from local and international industry to operate in the Brazilian health care market. We present here a product-based certification process as a candidate process to support the Brazilian regulatory agency ANVISA in medical device software regulation. Center of Strategic Technology for Healthcare (NUTES) medical device embedded software certification is based on a solid safety quality model and has been tested with reasonable success against the Class I risk device Generic Infusion Pump (GIP).

  9. Embedded Processor Based Automatic Temperature Control of VLSI Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimha Murthy Yayavaram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents embedded processor based automatic temperature control of VLSI chips, using temperature sensor LM35 and ARM processor LPC2378. Due to the very high packing density, VLSI chips get heated very soon and if not cooled properly, the performance is very much affected. In the present work, the sensor which is kept very near proximity to the IC will sense the temperature and the speed of the fan arranged near to the IC is controlled based on the PWM signal generated by the ARM processor. A buzzer is also provided with the hardware, to indicate either the failure of the fan or overheating of the IC. The entire process is achieved by developing a suitable embedded C program.

  10. Evaluation of Embedded System Component Utilized in Delivery Integrated Design Project Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Hussaini, Yusnira; Nazmie Osman, Fairul; Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Idros, Mohd Faizul Md; Karimi Halim, Abdul

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the evaluation of the embedded system component utilized in delivering the integrated electronic engineering design project course. The evaluation is conducted based on the report project submitted as to fulfil the assessment criteria for the integrated electronic engineering design project course named; engineering system design. Six projects were assessed in this evaluation. The evaluation covers the type of controller, programming language and the number of embedded component utilization as well. From the evaluation, the C-programming based language is the best solution preferred by the students which provide them flexibility in the programming. Moreover, the Analog to Digital converter is intensively used in the projects which include sensors in their proposed design. As a conclusion, in delivering the integrated design project course, the knowledge over the embedded system solution is very important since the high density of the knowledge acquired in accomplishing the project assigned.

  11. An embedded system developed for hand held assay used in water monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Wang, Jianwei; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Hsueh, Mingkai; Liu, Jonathan; Wu, Qufei; Wu, Chao-Cheng; Cao, Mang; Chang, Chein-I.; Jensen, Janet L.; Jensen, James O.; Knapp, Harlan; Daniel, Robert; Yin, Ray

    2005-11-01

    The US Army Joint Service Agent Water Monitor (JSAWM) program is currently interested in an approach that can implement a hardware- designed device in ticket-based hand-held assay (currently being developed) used for chemical/biological agent detection. This paper presents a preliminary investigation of the proof of concept. Three components are envisioned to accomplish the task. One is the ticket development which has been undertaken by the ANP, Inc. Another component is the software development which has been carried out by the Remote Sensing Signal and Image Processing Laboratory (RSSIPL) at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). A third component is an embedded system development which can be used to drive the UMBC-developed software to analyze the ANP-developed HHA tickets on a small pocket-size device like a PDA. The main focus of this paper is to investigate the third component that is viable and is yet to be explored. In order to facilitate to prove the concept, a flatbed scanner is used to replace a ticket reader to serve as an input device. The Stargate processor board is used as the embedded System with Embedded Linux installed. It is connected to an input device such as scanner as well as output devices such as LCD display or laptop etc. It executes the C-Coded processing program developed for this embedded system and outputs its findings on a display device. The embedded system to be developed and investigated in this paper is the core of a future hardware device. Several issues arising in such an embedded system will be addressed. Finally, the proof-of-concept pilot embedded system will be demonstrated.

  12. Analysis for Embedded Systems: Experiments with Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovatman, Tolga; Brekling, Aske Wiid; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2010-01-01

    costs of those models. In order to achieve this, a basic model is built using priced timed automata and some resource consumption scenarios are verified. Even though the experiments are performed on small and basic models, we believe we have taken a basis step in showing that it is promising to use...... priced timed automata and Uppaal Cora as a model checking tool in reasoning about resource consumption of embedded systems....

  13. TaPT: Temperature-Aware Dynamic Cache Optimization for Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosiron Adegbija

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems have stringent design constraints, which has necessitated much prior research focus on optimizing energy consumption and/or performance. Since embedded systems typically have fewer cooling options, rising temperature, and thus temperature optimization, is an emergent concern. Most embedded systems only dissipate heat by passive convection, due to the absence of dedicated thermal management hardware mechanisms. The embedded system’s temperature not only affects the system’s reliability, but can also affect the performance, power, and cost. Thus, embedded systems require efficient thermal management techniques. However, thermal management can conflict with other optimization objectives, such as execution time and energy consumption. In this paper, we focus on managing the temperature using a synergy of cache optimization and dynamic frequency scaling, while also optimizing the execution time and energy consumption. This paper provides new insights on the impact of cache parameters on efficient temperature-aware cache tuning heuristics. In addition, we present temperature-aware phase-based tuning, TaPT, which determines Pareto optimal clock frequency and cache configurations for fine-grained execution time, energy, and temperature tradeoffs. TaPT enables autonomous system optimization and also allows designers to specify temperature constraints and optimization priorities. Experiments show that TaPT can effectively reduce execution time, energy, and temperature, while imposing minimal hardware overhead.

  14. Dynamics of nonholonomic systems from variational principles embedded variation identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongxin; Liu Shixing; Liu Chang; Chang Peng

    2009-01-01

    Nondeterminacy of dynamics, i.e., the nonholonomic or the vakonomic, fundamental variational principles, e.g., the Lagrange-d'Alembert or Hamiltonian, and variational operators, etc., of nonholonomic mechanical systems can be attributed to the non-uniqueness of ways how to realize nonholonomic constraints. Making use of a variation identity of nonholonomic constraints embedded into the Hamilton's principle with the method of Lagrange undetermined multipliers, three kinds of dynamics for the nonholonomic systems including the vakonomic and nonholonomic ones and a new one are obtained if the variation is respectively reduced to three conditional variations: vakonomic variation, Hoelder's variation and Suslov's variation, defined by the identity. Therefore, different dynamics of nonholonomic systems can be derived from an integral variational principle, utilizing one way of embedding constraints into the principle, with different variations. It is verified that the similar embedding of the identity into the Lagrange-d'Alembert principle gives rise to the nonholonomic dynamics but fails to give the vakonomic one unless the constraints are integrable.

  15. Dynamics of nonholonomic systems from variational principles embedded variation identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Yongxin, E-mail: yxguo@lnu.edu.c [College of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Liu Shixing [College of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Liu Chang; Chang Peng [Department of Applied Mechanics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2009-10-19

    Nondeterminacy of dynamics, i.e., the nonholonomic or the vakonomic, fundamental variational principles, e.g., the Lagrange-d'Alembert or Hamiltonian, and variational operators, etc., of nonholonomic mechanical systems can be attributed to the non-uniqueness of ways how to realize nonholonomic constraints. Making use of a variation identity of nonholonomic constraints embedded into the Hamilton's principle with the method of Lagrange undetermined multipliers, three kinds of dynamics for the nonholonomic systems including the vakonomic and nonholonomic ones and a new one are obtained if the variation is respectively reduced to three conditional variations: vakonomic variation, Hoelder's variation and Suslov's variation, defined by the identity. Therefore, different dynamics of nonholonomic systems can be derived from an integral variational principle, utilizing one way of embedding constraints into the principle, with different variations. It is verified that the similar embedding of the identity into the Lagrange-d'Alembert principle gives rise to the nonholonomic dynamics but fails to give the vakonomic one unless the constraints are integrable.

  16. An Investigation into the Cost of Unit Testing on an Embedded System

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Wensi

    2011-01-01

    The quality of embedded software is important, especially for life-critical and mission-critical embedded systems. And software testing is a key activity to ensure the quality of embedded software. Both system testing and unit testing are vital to test embedded software. Unit testing is probably more important to ensure there are no latent faults. System testing is almost invariably done on a target system, but unit testing is normally done on a host system, as standard test frame...

  17. Compact Embedded Wireless Sensor-Based Monitoring of Concrete Curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Joaquín; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Trinidad; Gómez-Galán, Juan Antonio; Cifuentes, Héctor; González Carvajal, Ramón

    2018-03-15

    This work presents the design, construction and testing of a new embedded sensor system for monitoring concrete curing. A specific mote has been implemented to withstand the aggressive environment without affecting the measured variables. The system also includes a real-time monitoring application operating from a remote computer placed in a central location. The testing was done in two phases: the first in the laboratory, to validate the functional requirements of the developed devices; and the second on civil works to evaluate the functional features of the devices, such as range, robustness and flexibility. The devices were successfully implemented resulting in a low cost, highly reliable, compact and non-destructive solution.

  18. Applied research of embedded WiFi technology in the motion capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Haixia

    2012-04-01

    Embedded wireless WiFi technology is one of the current wireless hot spots in network applications. This paper firstly introduces the definition and characteristics of WiFi. With the advantages of WiFi such as using no wiring, simple operation and stable transmission, this paper then gives a system design for the application of embedded wireless WiFi technology in the motion capture system. Also, it verifies the effectiveness of design in the WiFi-based wireless sensor hardware and software program.

  19. Computers as Components Principles of Embedded Computing System Design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This book was the first to bring essential knowledge on embedded systems technology and techniques under a single cover. This second edition has been updated to the state-of-the-art by reworking and expanding performance analysis with more examples and exercises, and coverage of electronic systems now focuses on the latest applications. Researchers, students, and savvy professionals schooled in hardware or software design, will value Wayne Wolf's integrated engineering design approach.The second edition gives a more comprehensive view of multiprocessors including VLIW and superscalar archite

  20. Goal Selection for Embedded Systems with Oversubscribed Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; McLaren, David

    2010-01-01

    We describe an efficient, online goal selection algorithm and its use for selecting goals at runtime. Our focus is on the re-planning that must be performed in a timely manner on the embedded system where computational resources are limited. In particular, our algorithm generates near optimal solutions to problems with fully specified goal requests that oversubscribe available resources but have no temporal flexibility. By using a fast, incremental algorithm, goal selection can be postponed in a "just-in-time" fashion allowing requests to be changed or added at the last minute. This enables shorter response cycles and greater autonomy for the system under control.

  1. An Improved Scheduling Technique for Time-Triggered Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    1999-01-01

    clock synchronization and mode changes. We have improved the quality of the schedules by introducing a new priority function that takes into consideration the communication protocol. Communication has been optimized through packaging messages into slots with a properly selected order and lengths......In this paper we present an improved scheduling technique for the synthesis of time-triggered embedded systems. Our system model captures both the flow of data and that of control. We have considered communication of data and conditions for a time-triggered protocol implementation that supports...

  2. The Use of Video-Gaming Devices as a Motivation for Learning Embedded Systems Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J.; Pomares, H.; Damas, M.; Garcia-Sanchez,P.; Rodriguez-Alvarez, M.; Palomares, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    As embedded systems are becoming prevalent in everyday life, many universities are incorporating embedded systems-related courses in their undergraduate curricula. However, it is not easy to motivate students in such courses since they conceive of embedded systems as bizarre computing elements, different from the personal computers with which they…

  3. Automated real-time testing (ARTT) for embedded control systems (ECS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, J; Howard, R; Nguyen, H.

    2001-01-01

    Many of today's automated real-time testing systems for embedded systems were developed using expensive custom hardware and software. In this article they describe how to use commercially available off-the-shelf hardware and software to design and develop an automated real-time test systems for Embedded Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Based Control Systems. The system development began with the implementation of the VALI/TEST Pro testing methodology as a means for structuring the testing. Using this methodology, they were able to decompose system requirement documents for a Personnel Safety System (PSS) into its high, intermediate and detail level requirements. next, the validation procedures for the PSS system were decomposed into testing units called builds, test runs and test cases. To measure the PSS system's test coverage three levels of system requirements were mapped to their respective unit level of test using a specially constructed validation matrix that was designed to handle over 150 test cases and requirements. All of the above work led to the development of an Automated Real-Time Test System (ARTTS) that is capable of performing complete black box testing in real-time for Embedded PLC Based Control Systems. Also note, that the PSS system under test and mentioned in this paper is located at the Advance Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory Basic Energy Science Facility in Argonne, Illinois

  4. SAFCM: A Security-Aware Feedback Control Mechanism for Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Yue; Jiang, Wei; Sang, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Real-time Embedded (DRE) systems are facing great challenges in networked, unpredictable and especially unsecured environments. In such systems, there is a strong need to enforce security on distributed computing nodes in order to guard against potential threats, while satisfying......-time systems, a multi-input multi-output feedback loop is designed and a model predictive controller is deployed based on an equation model that describes the dynamic behavior of the DRE systems. This control loop uses security level scaling to globally control the CPU utilization and security performance...... for the whole system. We propose a "security level" metric based on an evolution of cryptography algorithms used in embedded systems. Experimental results demonstrate that SAFCM not only has the excellent adaptivity compared to open-loop mechanism, but also has a better overall performance than PID control...

  5. Implementation of a Simplified State Estimator for Wind Turbine Monitoring on an Embedded System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Theis Bo; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2017-01-01

    system, including individual DER, is time consuming and numerically challenging. This paper presents the approach and results of implementing a simplified state estimator onto an embedded system for improving DER monitoring. The implemented state estimator is based on numerically robust orthogonal......The transition towards a cyber-physical energy system (CPES) entails an increased dependency on valid data. Simultaneously, an increasing implementation of renewable generation leads to possible control actions at individual distributed energy resources (DERs). A state estimation covering the whole...

  6. Embedded DAQ System Design for Temperature and Humidity Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarique Rafique Memon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have proposed a cost effective DAQ (Data Acquisition system design useful for local industries by using user friendly LABVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Electronic Workbench. The proposed system can measure and control different industrial parameters which can be presented in graphical icon format. The system design is proposed for 8-channels, whereas tested and recorded for two parameters i.e. temperature and RH (Relative Humidity. Both parameters are set as per upper and lower limits and controlled using relays. Embedded system is developed using standard microcontroller to acquire and process the analog data and plug-in for further processing using serial interface with PC using LABVIEW. The designed system is capable of monitoring and recording the corresponding linkage between temperature and humidity in industrial unit's and indicates the abnormalities within the process and control those abnormalities through relays

  7. Analysis and Optimisation of Hierarchically Scheduled Multiprocessor Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2008-01-01

    We present an approach to the analysis and optimisation of heterogeneous multiprocessor embedded systems. The systems are heterogeneous not only in terms of hardware components, but also in terms of communication protocols and scheduling policies. When several scheduling policies share a resource......, they are organised in a hierarchy. In this paper, we first develop a holistic scheduling and schedulability analysis that determines the timing properties of a hierarchically scheduled system. Second, we address design problems that are characteristic to such hierarchically scheduled systems: assignment...... of scheduling policies to tasks, mapping of tasks to hardware components, and the scheduling of the activities. We also present several algorithms for solving these problems. Our heuristics are able to find schedulable implementations under limited resources, achieving an efficient utilisation of the system...

  8. Embedded DAQ System Design for Temperature and Humidity Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, T.R.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we have proposed a cost effective DAQ (Data Acquisition) system design useful for local industries by using user friendly LABVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Electronic Workbench). The proposed system can measure and control different industrial parameters which can be presented in graphical icon format. The system design is proposed for 8-channels, whereas tested and recorded for two parameters i.e. temperature and RH (Relative Humidity). Both parameters are set as per upper and lower limits and controlled using relays. Embedded system is developed using standard microcontroller to acquire and process the analog data and plug-in for further processing using serial interface with PC using LABVIEW. The designed system is capable of monitoring and recording the corresponding linkage between temperature and humidity in industrial unit's and indicates the abnormalities within the process and control those abnormalities through relays. (author)

  9. A reaserch and implementation of embedded remote video monitoring system based on Boa web server%基于boa的嵌入式视频监控系统的研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁彬彬; 徐塞虹

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design and implementation of an embedded video monitoring system based on BOA web server, first expounds the overall structure and the work flow of the system,and the main function modules which will be realized, then respectively introduce the module of BOA web server and the module of PTZ control and presetmo-dule in detail, introduces the realization principle and working process of Boa web server, and how to transplant into the embedded system; introduces the design and the working process of PTZ control and preset module. The design scheme of the system integrate of the embedded technology and network technology, and it has reliable performance and perfect function, compared with the traditional video monitoring system has many advantages. It can be very good application in video monitoring and has important practical application value.%本文介绍了一种基于BOA网络服务器的嵌入式视频监控系统设计与实现,首先主要阐述了该系统的整体结构及工作流程,及其主要将要实现的功能模块,然后针对系统下两大模块BOA web 服务器模块和云台控制与预置位模块分别进行了较为详细的介绍,分别介绍了BOA网络服务器实现原理、工作流程,以及移植到嵌入式系统;云台控制与预置位模块的设计及其工作流程实现。该系统设计方案融合了嵌入式技术网络技术,功能可靠完善,性能与传统视频监控系统相比具有较大的优势,能够很好的应用在视频监控中,具有重要的实际应用价值。

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RTOS AND PRIMITIVE INTERRUPT IN EMBEDDED SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Purnomo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multitasking is one of the most challenging issues in the automation industry which is highly depended on the embedded system. There are two methods to perform multitasking in embedded system: RTOS and primitive interrupt. The main purpose of this research is to compare the performance of R¬TOS with primitive method while concurrently undertaking multiple tasks. The system, which is able to perform various tasks, has been built to evaluate the performance of both methods. There are four tasks introduced in the system: servo task, sensor task, LED task, and LCD task. The performance of each method is indicated by the success rate of the sensor task detection. Sensor task detection will be compared with the true value which is calculated and measured manually during observation time. Observation time was varied after several iterations and the data of the iteration are recorded for both RTOS and primitive interrupt methods. The results of the conducted experiments have shown that, RTOS is more accurate than interrupt method. However, the data variance of the primitive interrupt method is narrower than RTOS. Therefore, to choose a better method, an optimization is needed to be done and each product has its own standard.

  11. Designing Embedded Systems with PIC Microcontrollers Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wilmshurst, Tim

    2009-01-01

    PIC microcontrollers are used worldwide in commercial and industrial devices. The 8-bit PIC which this book focuses on is a versatile work horse that completes many designs. An engineer working with applications that include a microcontroller will no doubt come across the PIC sooner rather than later. It is a must to have a working knowledge of this 8-bit technology. This book takes the novice from introduction of embedded systems through to advanced development techniques for utilizing and optimizing the PIC family of microcontrollers in your device. To truly understand the PIC, assembly and

  12. Arrow-bot: A Teaching Tool for Real-Time Embedded System Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Mohamad Fauzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a line following Arduino-based mobile robot for Real-Time Embedded System course at Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. The real-time system (RTS concept was implementing is based on rate monotonic scheduling (RMS on an ATmega328P microcontroller. Three infrared line sensors were used as input for controlling two direct current (DC motors. A RTS software was programmed in Arduino IDE which relied on a real-time operating system (RTOS of ChibiOS/RT library. Three independent tasks of software functions were created for testing real-time scheduling capability and the result of temporal scope was collected. The microcontroller succeeded to handle multiple tasks without missed their dateline. This implementation of the RTOS in embedded system for mobile robotics system is hoped to increase students understanding and learning capability.

  13. Programming Models and Tools for Intelligent Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Verner Bojsen

    Design automation and analysis tools targeting embedded platforms, developed using a component-based design approach, must be able to reason about the capabilities of the platforms. In the general case where nothing is assumed about the components comprising a platform or the platform topology...... is used for checking the consistency of a design with respect to the availablity of services and resources. In the second application, a tool for automatically implementing the communication infrastructure of a process network application, the Service Relation Model is used for analyzing the capabilities...

  14. Optical Fiber Sensors Based on Nanoparticle-Embedded Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Urrutia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanoparticles (NPs in scientific applications has attracted the attention of many researchers in the last few years. The use of NPs can help researchers to tune the physical characteristics of the sensing coating (thickness, roughness, specific area, refractive index, etc. leading to enhanced sensors with response time or sensitivity better than traditional sensing coatings. Additionally, NPs also offer other special properties that depend on their nanometric size, and this is also a source of new sensing applications. This review focuses on the current status of research in the use of NPs within coatings in optical fiber sensing. Most used sensing principles in fiber optics are briefly described and classified into several groups: absorbance-based sensors, interferometric sensors, fluorescence-based sensors, fiber grating sensors, and resonance-based sensors, among others. For each sensor group, specific examples of the utilization of NP-embedded coatings in their sensing structure are reported.

  15. Moving Object Detection in Heterogeneous Conditions in Embedded Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbo, Alessandro; Quer, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a system for moving object exposure, focusing on pedestrian detection, in external, unfriendly, and heterogeneous environments. The system manipulates and accurately merges information coming from subsequent video frames, making small computational efforts in each single frame. Its main characterizing feature is to combine several well-known movement detection and tracking techniques, and to orchestrate them in a smart way to obtain good results in diversified scenarios. It uses dynamically adjusted thresholds to characterize different regions of interest, and it also adopts techniques to efficiently track movements, and detect and correct false positives. Accuracy and reliability mainly depend on the overall receipt, i.e., on how the software system is designed and implemented, on how the different algorithmic phases communicate information and collaborate with each other, and on how concurrency is organized. The application is specifically designed to work with inexpensive hardware devices, such as off-the-shelf video cameras and small embedded computational units, eventually forming an intelligent urban grid. As a matter of fact, the major contribution of the paper is the presentation of a tool for real-time applications in embedded devices with finite computational (time and memory) resources. We run experimental results on several video sequences (both home-made and publicly available), showing the robustness and accuracy of the overall detection strategy. Comparisons with state-of-the-art strategies show that our application has similar tracking accuracy but much higher frame-per-second rates.

  16. An embedded control and acquisition system for multichannel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, L.; Tommasini, R.; Cautero, G.; Giuressi, D.; Barnaba, M.; Accardo, A.; Carrato, S.; Paolucci, G.

    1999-01-01

    We present a pulse counting multichannel data acquisition system, characterized by the high number of high speed acquisition channels, and by the modular, embedded system architecture. The former leads to very fast acquisitions and allows to obtain sequences of snapshots, for the study of time dependent phenomena. The latter, thanks to the integration of a CPU into the system, provides high computational capabilities, so that the interfacing with the user computer is very simple and user friendly. Moreover, the user computer is free from control and acquisition tasks. The system has been developed for one of the beamlines of the third generation synchrotron radiation sources ELETTRA, and because of the modular architecture can be useful in various other kinds of experiments, where parallel acquisition, high data rates, and user friendliness are required. First experimental results on a double pass hemispherical electron analyser provided with a 96 channel detector confirm the validity of the approach. (author)

  17. Modeling and Design of Fault-Tolerant and Self-Adaptive Reconfigurable Networked Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Teich

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Automotive, avionic, or body-area networks are systems that consist of several communicating control units specialized for certain purposes. Typically, different constraints regarding fault tolerance, availability and also flexibility are imposed on these systems. In this article, we will present a novel framework for increasing fault tolerance and flexibility by solving the problem of hardware/software codesign online. Based on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs in combination with CPUs, we allow migrating tasks implemented in hardware or software from one node to another. Moreover, if not enough hardware/software resources are available, the migration of functionality from hardware to software or vice versa is provided. Supporting such flexibility through services integrated in a distributed operating system for networked embedded systems is a substantial step towards self-adaptive systems. Beside the formal definition of methods and concepts, we describe in detail a first implementation of a reconfigurable networked embedded system running automotive applications.

  18. The architecture of a reliable software monitoring system for embedded software systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, J.; Krings, A.; Hiromoto, R.

    2006-01-01

    We develop the notion of a measurement-based methodology for embedded software systems to ensure properties of reliability, survivability and security, not only under benign faults but under malicious and hazardous conditions as well. The driving force is the need to develop a dynamic run-time monitoring system for use in these embedded mission critical systems. These systems must run reliably, must be secure and they must fail gracefully. That is, they must continue operating in the face of the departures from their nominal operating scenarios, the failure of one or more system components due to normal hardware and software faults, as well as malicious acts. To insure the integrity of embedded software systems, the activity of these systems must be monitored as they operate. For each of these systems, it is possible to establish a very succinct representation of nominal system activity. Furthermore, it is possible to detect departures from the nominal operating scenario in a timely fashion. Such departure may be due to various circumstances, e.g., an assault from an outside agent, thus forcing the system to operate in an off-nominal environment for which it was neither tested nor certified, or a hardware/software component that has ceased to operate in a nominal fashion. A well-designed system will have the property of graceful degradation. It must continue to run even though some of the functionality may have been lost. This involves the intelligent re-mapping of system functions. Those functions that are impacted by the failure of a system component must be identified and isolated. Thus, a system must be designed so that its basic operations may be re-mapped onto system components still operational. That is, the mission objectives of the software must be reassessed in terms of the current operational capabilities of the software system. By integrating the mechanisms to support observation and detection directly into the design methodology, we propose to shift

  19. Compact Embedded Wireless Sensor-Based Monitoring of Concrete Curing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Joaquín; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Trinidad; González Carvajal, Ramón

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the design, construction and testing of a new embedded sensor system for monitoring concrete curing. A specific mote has been implemented to withstand the aggressive environment without affecting the measured variables. The system also includes a real-time monitoring application operating from a remote computer placed in a central location. The testing was done in two phases: the first in the laboratory, to validate the functional requirements of the developed devices; and the second on civil works to evaluate the functional features of the devices, such as range, robustness and flexibility. The devices were successfully implemented resulting in a low cost, highly reliable, compact and non-destructive solution. PMID:29543765

  20. Sensor Selection method for IoT systems – focusing on embedded system requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirayama Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various types of sensors have been developed. Using these sensors, IoT systems have become hot topics in embedded system domain. However, sensor selections for embedded systems are not well discussed up to now. This paper focuses on embedded system’s features and architecture, and proposes a sensor selection method which is composed seven steps. In addition, we applied the proposed method to a simple example – a sensor selection for computer scored answer sheet reader unit. From this case study, an idea to use FTA in sensor selection is also discussed.

  1. Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Statistical Locally Linear Embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Zheng, Yuan; Zhao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Jinping

    2015-07-06

    Fault diagnosis is essentially a kind of pattern recognition. The measured signal samples usually distribute on nonlinear low-dimensional manifolds embedded in the high-dimensional signal space, so how to implement feature extraction, dimensionality reduction and improve recognition performance is a crucial task. In this paper a novel machinery fault diagnosis approach based on a statistical locally linear embedding (S-LLE) algorithm which is an extension of LLE by exploiting the fault class label information is proposed. The fault diagnosis approach first extracts the intrinsic manifold features from the high-dimensional feature vectors which are obtained from vibration signals that feature extraction by time-domain, frequency-domain and empirical mode decomposition (EMD), and then translates the complex mode space into a salient low-dimensional feature space by the manifold learning algorithm S-LLE, which outperforms other feature reduction methods such as PCA, LDA and LLE. Finally in the feature reduction space pattern classification and fault diagnosis by classifier are carried out easily and rapidly. Rolling bearing fault signals are used to validate the proposed fault diagnosis approach. The results indicate that the proposed approach obviously improves the classification performance of fault pattern recognition and outperforms the other traditional approaches.

  2. Rapid Detection of Ascorbic Acid Based on a Dual-Electrode Sensor System Using a Powder Microelectrode Embedded with Carboxyl Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bao-Shan; Zhang, Jun-Xia

    2017-07-02

    In this paper, carboxyl groups were introduced by liquid oxidation methods onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to improve the MWCNTs' electrocatalytic properties. A platinum wire microelectrode (ME) was corroded using aqua regia and subsequently embedded with MWCNTs to achieve more active sites, producing a so-called powder microelectrode (PME). Compared with conventional MEs, the PME has a larger specific surface area and more active sites. When PME was used to detect ascorbic acid (AA), the AA oxidation potential shifted negatively and current peak was visibly increased. The calibration curve obtained for AA was in a range of 5.00 × 10 -6 ~9.50 × 10 -4 mol·L -1 : I pa (μA) = 3.259 × 10 -2 + 1.801 × 10² C (mol·L -1 ) under the optimum testing conditions. Moreover, the detection and quantitation limits were confirmed at 4.89 × 10 -7 mol·L -1 and 1.63 × 10 -7 mol·L -1 , respectively. When the fabricated PME was practically applied to detect AA, it was shown a recovery rate of 94~107% with relative standard deviation (RSD) <5%. The proposed strategy thus offers a promising, rapid, selective and low-cost approach to effective analysis of AA.

  3. Generation of Embedded Hardware/Software from SystemC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Houzet

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Designers increasingly rely on reusing intellectual property (IP and on raising the level of abstraction to respect system-on-chip (SoC market characteristics. However, most hardware and embedded software codes are recoded manually from system level. This recoding step often results in new coding errors that must be identified and debugged. Thus, shorter time-to-market requires automation of the system synthesis from high-level specifications. In this paper, we propose a design flow intended to reduce the SoC design cost. This design flow unifies hardware and software using a single high-level language. It integrates hardware/software (HW/SW generation tools and an automatic interface synthesis through a custom library of adapters. We have validated our interface synthesis approach on a hardware producer/consumer case study and on the design of a given software radiocommunication application.

  4. Generation of Embedded Hardware/Software from SystemC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouadjaout Salim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Designers increasingly rely on reusing intellectual property (IP and on raising the level of abstraction to respect system-on-chip (SoC market characteristics. However, most hardware and embedded software codes are recoded manually from system level. This recoding step often results in new coding errors that must be identified and debugged. Thus, shorter time-to-market requires automation of the system synthesis from high-level specifications. In this paper, we propose a design flow intended to reduce the SoC design cost. This design flow unifies hardware and software using a single high-level language. It integrates hardware/software (HW/SW generation tools and an automatic interface synthesis through a custom library of adapters. We have validated our interface synthesis approach on a hardware producer/consumer case study and on the design of a given software radiocommunication application.

  5. Embedded and real time system development a software engineering perspective concepts, methods and principles

    CERN Document Server

    Saeed, Saqib; Darwish, Ashraf; Abraham, Ajith

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays embedded and real-time systems contain complex software. The complexity of embedded systems is increasing, and the amount and variety of software in the embedded products are growing. This creates a big challenge for embedded and real-time software development processes and there is a need to develop separate metrics and benchmarks. “Embedded and Real Time System Development: A Software Engineering Perspective: Concepts, Methods and Principles” presents practical as well as conceptual knowledge of the latest tools, techniques and methodologies of embedded software engineering and real-time systems. Each chapter includes an in-depth investigation regarding the actual or potential role of software engineering tools in the context of the embedded system and real-time system. The book presents state-of-the art and future perspectives with industry experts, researchers, and academicians sharing ideas and experiences including surrounding frontier technologies, breakthroughs, innovative solutions and...

  6. Typical equilibrium state of an embedded quantum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithier, Grégoire; Ascroft, Saeed; Benaych-Georges, Florent

    2017-12-01

    We consider an arbitrary quantum system coupled nonperturbatively to a large arbitrary and fully quantum environment. In the work by Ithier and Benaych-Georges [Phys. Rev. A 96, 012108 (2017)2469-992610.1103/PhysRevA.96.012108] the typicality of the dynamics of such an embedded quantum system was established for several classes of random interactions. In other words, the time evolution of its quantum state does not depend on the microscopic details of the interaction. Focusing on the long-time regime, we use this property to calculate analytically a partition function characterizing the stationary state and involving the overlaps between eigenvectors of a bare and a dressed Hamiltonian. This partition function provides a thermodynamical ensemble which includes the microcanonical and canonical ensembles as particular cases. We check our predictions with numerical simulations.

  7. Hard Real-Time Performances in Multiprocessor-Embedded Systems Using ASMP-Linux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pierre Bovet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiprocessor systems, especially those based on multicore or multithreaded processors, and new operating system architectures can satisfy the ever increasing computational requirements of embedded systems. ASMP-LINUX is a modified, high responsiveness, open-source hard real-time operating system for multiprocessor systems capable of providing high real-time performance while maintaining the code simple and not impacting on the performances of the rest of the system. Moreover, ASMP-LINUX does not require code changing or application recompiling/relinking. In order to assess the performances of ASMP-LINUX, benchmarks have been performed on several hardware platforms and configurations.

  8. Hard Real-Time Performances in Multiprocessor-Embedded Systems Using ASMP-Linux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betti Emiliano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiprocessor systems, especially those based on multicore or multithreaded processors, and new operating system architectures can satisfy the ever increasing computational requirements of embedded systems. ASMP-LINUX is a modified, high responsiveness, open-source hard real-time operating system for multiprocessor systems capable of providing high real-time performance while maintaining the code simple and not impacting on the performances of the rest of the system. Moreover, ASMP-LINUX does not require code changing or application recompiling/relinking. In order to assess the performances of ASMP-LINUX, benchmarks have been performed on several hardware platforms and configurations.

  9. Type-based homeomorphic embedding for online termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Elvira; Gallagher, John Patrick; Gómez-Zamalloa, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    that the computations supervised are performed over a finite signature, i.e., the number of constants and function symbols involved is finite. However, there are many situations, for example numeric computations, which involve an infinite signature and thus HEm does not guarantee termination. Some extensions to HEm...... for the case of infinite signatures have been proposed which guarantee termination. However, the existing techniques either do not provide systematic means for generating such extensions or the extensions are too simplistic and do not produce the expected results in practice. We propose Type-based Homeomorphic...... Embedding (TbHEm) as an extension of the standard, untyped, HEm. By taking static information about the behavior of the computation into account, expressed as types, TbHEm allows obtaining more precise results than those of the previous extensions to HEm for the case of infinite signatures. We show...

  10. Huffman-based code compression techniques for embedded processors

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2010-09-01

    The size of embedded software is increasing at a rapid pace. It is often challenging and time consuming to fit an amount of required software functionality within a given hardware resource budget. Code compression is a means to alleviate the problem by providing substantial savings in terms of code size. In this article we introduce a novel and efficient hardware-supported compression technique that is based on Huffman Coding. Our technique reduces the size of the generated decoding table, which takes a large portion of the memory. It combines our previous techniques, Instruction Splitting Technique and Instruction Re-encoding Technique into new one called Combined Compression Technique to improve the final compression ratio by taking advantage of both previous techniques. The instruction Splitting Technique is instruction set architecture (ISA)-independent. It splits the instructions into portions of varying size (called patterns) before Huffman coding is applied. This technique improves the final compression ratio by more than 20% compared to other known schemes based on Huffman Coding. The average compression ratios achieved using this technique are 48% and 50% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. The Instruction Re-encoding Technique is ISA-dependent. It investigates the benefits of reencoding unused bits (we call them reencodable bits) in the instruction format for a specific application to improve the compression ratio. Reencoding those bits can reduce the size of decoding tables by up to 40%. Using this technique, we improve the final compression ratios in comparison to the first technique to 46% and 45% for ARM and MIPS, respectively (including all overhead that incurs). The Combined Compression Technique improves the compression ratio to 45% and 42% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. In our compression technique, we have conducted evaluations using a representative set of applications and we have applied each technique to two major embedded processor architectures

  11. Design and development of embedded control system for high power RF test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nageswara Rao, J.; Badapanda, M.K.; Upadhyay, Rinki; Tripathi, Akhilesh; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    Design and development of an embedded control system for the control, interlock and operation of 1MW, 352.2 MHz TH2089 klystron based RF test facility. The key components of the control system are NI compact Re configurable Input Output (cRIO) system and Windows based PC. The cRIO system's rugged hardware architecture includes a 1.06 GHz Dual-Core embedded controller with Real Time (RT) Operating System, a reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chassis for custom I/O timing, control and processing; and I/O modules. Windows based Graphical User Interface (GUI) has been developed to guide the user through start-up procedure, to set the operating parameters and also to display the status information of all the signals. The application software for data logging and publishing of the acquired data namely set, read back and status signals of auxiliary power supplies and machine safety interlocks has been developed in LabVIEW RT module and is running on embedded controller. Machine safety interlock logic has been implemented in FPGA to meet the time criticality. (author)

  12. Applying formal method to design of nuclear power plant embedded protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Kim, Il Gon; Sung, Chang Hoon; Choi, Jin Young; Lee, Na Young

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power embedded protection systems is a typical safety-critical system, which detects its failure and shutdowns its operation of nuclear reactor. These systems are very dangerous so that it absolutely requires safety and reliability. Therefore nuclear power embedded protection system should fulfill verification and validation completely from the design stage. To develop embedded system, various V and V method have been provided and especially its design using Formal Method is studied in other advanced country. In this paper, we introduce design method of nuclear power embedded protection systems using various Formal-Method in various respect following nuclear power plant software development guideline

  13. A heart disease recognition embedded system with fuzzy cluster algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Helton Hugo; Moreno, Robson Luiz; Pimenta, Tales Cleber; Crepaldi, Paulo C; Cintra, Evaldo

    2013-06-01

    This article presents the viability analysis and the development of heart disease identification embedded system. It offers a time reduction on electrocardiogram - ECG signal processing by reducing the amount of data samples, without any significant loss. The goal of the developed system is the analysis of heart signals. The ECG signals are applied into the system that performs an initial filtering, and then uses a Gustafson-Kessel fuzzy clustering algorithm for the signal classification and correlation. The classification indicated common heart diseases such as angina, myocardial infarction and coronary artery diseases. The system uses the European electrocardiogram ST-T Database (EDB) as a reference for tests and evaluation. The results prove the system can perform the heart disease detection on a data set reduced from 213 to just 20 samples, thus providing a reduction to just 9.4% of the original set, while maintaining the same effectiveness. This system is validated in a Xilinx Spartan(®)-3A FPGA. The field programmable gate array (FPGA) implemented a Xilinx Microblaze(®) Soft-Core Processor running at a 50MHz clock rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Design of Embedded Real-time Systems: Developing a Method for Practical Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik; Ravn, Anders P.; Rischel, Hans

    1990-01-01

    The methodological issues and practical problems in development and industrial use of a theory-based design method for embedded, real-time systems are discussed. The method has been used for several years in a number of smaller industries that develop both electronics and software for a professio......The methodological issues and practical problems in development and industrial use of a theory-based design method for embedded, real-time systems are discussed. The method has been used for several years in a number of smaller industries that develop both electronics and software...... for a professional market. The design is expressed in a notation for communicating sequential processes, while data types and operations are expressed in a notation built on mathematical set theory. The authors present an order in which to use the notations, a technique for deriving states and operations...

  15. Optimized design of embedded DSP system hardware supporting complex algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhua; Wang, Xiangjun; Zhou, Xinling

    2003-09-01

    The paper presents an optimized design method for a flexible and economical embedded DSP system that can implement complex processing algorithms as biometric recognition, real-time image processing, etc. It consists of a floating-point DSP, 512 Kbytes data RAM, 1 Mbytes FLASH program memory, a CPLD for achieving flexible logic control of input channel and a RS-485 transceiver for local network communication. Because of employing a high performance-price ratio DSP TMS320C6712 and a large FLASH in the design, this system permits loading and performing complex algorithms with little algorithm optimization and code reduction. The CPLD provides flexible logic control for the whole DSP board, especially in input channel, and allows convenient interface between different sensors and DSP system. The transceiver circuit can transfer data between DSP and host computer. In the paper, some key technologies are also introduced which make the whole system work efficiently. Because of the characters referred above, the hardware is a perfect flat for multi-channel data collection, image processing, and other signal processing with high performance and adaptability. The application section of this paper presents how this hardware is adapted for the biometric identification system with high identification precision. The result reveals that this hardware is easy to interface with a CMOS imager and is capable of carrying out complex biometric identification algorithms, which require real-time process.

  16. The Frequency and Damping of Soil-Structure Systems with Embedded Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghannad, M. Ali; Rahmani, Mohammad T.; Jahankhah, Hossein

    2008-01-01

    The effect of foundation embedment on fundamental period and damping of buildings has been the title of several researches in three past decades. A review of the literature reveals some discrepancies between proposed formulations for dynamic characteristics of soil-embedded foundation-structure systems that raise the necessity of more investigation on this issue. Here, first a set of approximate polynomial equations for soil impedances, based on numerical data calculated from well known cone models, are presented. Then a simplified approach is suggested to calculate period and damping of the whole system considering soil medium as a viscoelastic half space. The procedure includes both material and radiation damping while frequency dependency of soil impedance functions is not ignored. Results show that soil-structure interaction can highly affect dynamic properties of system. Finally the results are compared with one of the commonly referred researches

  17. Bacterial concentration detection using a portable embedded sensor system for environmental monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Grossi , Marco; Riccò , Bruno; Parolin , Carola; Vitali , Beatrice

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The detection of bacterial concentration is important in different fields since high microbial contamination or the presence of particular pathogens can seriously endanger human health. The reference technique to measure bacterial concentration is Standard Plate Count (SPC) that, however, has long response times (24 to 72 hours) and is not suitable for automatic implementation. This paper presents a portable embedded system for bacterial concentration measurement based...

  18. A NEW PROCESS MODEL FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEMS CONTROL FOR TELECOM INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjai Gupta; Mohammed Hussain

    2012-01-01

    This research deals with important issue for the embedded system in telecom industry. The rapid increase of a software and software based functionality brings various challenges for the telecom industry. As we all know for any given software product the most important thing is its cost, reliability, schedule and quality, these all can be achieve by following good software process models. And hence mostorganization and businesses put more emphasis on software processes by asking their software...

  19. Embedded System Implementation on FPGA System With μCLinux OS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Ahmad Fairuz Muhd; Aris, Ishak; Abdullah, Raja Syamsul Azmir Raja; Sahbudin, Ratna Kalos Zakiah

    2011-01-01

    Embedded systems are taking on more complicated tasks as the processors involved become more powerful. The embedded systems have been widely used in many areas such as in industries, automotives, medical imaging, communications, speech recognition and computer vision. The complexity requirements in hardware and software nowadays need a flexibility system for further enhancement in any design without adding new hardware. Therefore, any changes in the design system will affect the processor that need to be changed. To overcome this problem, a System On Programmable Chip (SOPC) has been designed and developed using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). A softcore processor, NIOS II 32-bit RISC, which is the microprocessor core was utilized in FPGA system together with the embedded operating system(OS), μClinux. In this paper, an example of web server is explained and demonstrated

  20. Embedded System Implementation on FPGA System With μCLinux OS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairuz Muhd Amin, Ahmad; Aris, Ishak; Syamsul Azmir Raja Abdullah, Raja; Kalos Zakiah Sahbudin, Ratna

    2011-02-01

    Embedded systems are taking on more complicated tasks as the processors involved become more powerful. The embedded systems have been widely used in many areas such as in industries, automotives, medical imaging, communications, speech recognition and computer vision. The complexity requirements in hardware and software nowadays need a flexibility system for further enhancement in any design without adding new hardware. Therefore, any changes in the design system will affect the processor that need to be changed. To overcome this problem, a System On Programmable Chip (SOPC) has been designed and developed using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). A softcore processor, NIOS II 32-bit RISC, which is the microprocessor core was utilized in FPGA system together with the embedded operating system(OS), μClinux. In this paper, an example of web server is explained and demonstrated

  1. Embedded System Implementation on FPGA System With {mu}CLinux OS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Ahmad Fairuz Muhd [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Aris, Ishak [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdullah, Raja Syamsul Azmir Raja; Sahbudin, Ratna Kalos Zakiah, E-mail: gs20613@mutiara.upm.edu.my, E-mail: ishak@eng.upm.edu.my, E-mail: rsa@eng.upm.edu.my [Department of Computer and Communication Systems Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Embedded systems are taking on more complicated tasks as the processors involved become more powerful. The embedded systems have been widely used in many areas such as in industries, automotives, medical imaging, communications, speech recognition and computer vision. The complexity requirements in hardware and software nowadays need a flexibility system for further enhancement in any design without adding new hardware. Therefore, any changes in the design system will affect the processor that need to be changed. To overcome this problem, a System On Programmable Chip (SOPC) has been designed and developed using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). A softcore processor, NIOS II 32-bit RISC, which is the microprocessor core was utilized in FPGA system together with the embedded operating system(OS), {mu}Clinux. In this paper, an example of web server is explained and demonstrated

  2. Design of an elliptic spot illumination system in LED-based color filter-liquid-crystal-on-silicon pico projectors for mobile embedded projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Enguo; Yu, Feihong

    2012-06-01

    We present an elliptic spot illumination system for a color filter-liquid-crystal-on-silicon (CF-LCoS) pico projector employing a specifically designed free-form lens and a cylindrical lens to improve on previous designs in terms of optical efficiency while yielding an ultracompact and low-cost optical architecture. The detailed design description of the optical system is thoroughly investigated. Simulation results coincide well with the theoretical calculation. The single 1  mm×1  mm LED chip-powered optical engine, which employs a CF-LCoS panel with a diagonal of 0.28 in and an aspect ratio of 4:3, has an estimated output efficiency over 9.8% (11.8 lm@1 W) and an ANSI 9-point uniformity over 88.5%, with the ultrasmall volume 24  mm×19  mm×7  mm. Compared to the circular spot-illuminated projection system, a total increment of about 23% of system efficiency is available with this improved optical engine. It is believed that there would be a huge market potential to commercialize our design.

  3. An Architectural Style for Optimizing System Qualities in Adaptive Embedded Systems using Multi-Objective Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roo, Arjan; Sözer, Hasan; Aksit, Mehmet

    Customers of today's complex embedded systems demand the optimization of multiple system qualities under varying operational conditions. To be able to influence the system qualities, the system must have parameters that can be adapted. Constraints may be defined on the value of these parameters.

  4. TINY TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEMS WITH 32 BIT MICROCONTROLLER

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Praful M. Godhankar; Mr. Maske Vishnu Dattatraya; Prof. Shahzia Sayyad

    2015-01-01

    The scope of embedded devices is increasing day by day and the demand will be further more when networking technology is incorporated into these devices. Many embedded systems not only communicate with each other, but also with computers using a network. All systems connected to the Internet, wireless networks such as WLAN and GPRS, and many local area networks communicate using the standard TCP/IP protocol suite. An embedded system may have as little memory, the memory constraints make progr...

  5. Embedded Memory Hierarchy Exploration Based on Magnetic Random Access Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Vitório Cargnini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Static random access memory (SRAM is the most commonly employed semiconductor in the design of on-chip processor memory. However, it is unlikely that the SRAM technology will have a cell size that will continue to scale below 45 nm, due to the leakage current that is caused by the quantum tunneling effect. Magnetic random access memory (MRAM is a candidate technology to replace SRAM, assuming appropriate dimensioning given an operating threshold voltage. The write current of spin transfer torque (STT-MRAM is a known limitation; however, this has been recently mitigated by leveraging perpendicular magnetic tunneling junctions. In this article, we present a comprehensive comparison of spin transfer torque-MRAM (STT-MRAM and SRAM cache set banks. The non-volatility of STT-MRAM allows the definition of new instant on/off policies and leakage current optimizations. Through our experiments, we demonstrate that STT-MRAM is a candidate for the memory hierarchy of embedded systems, due to the higher densities and reduced leakage of MRAM.We demonstrate that adopting STT-MRAM in L1 and L2 caches mitigates the impact of higher write latencies and increased current draw due to the use of MRAM. With the correct system-on-chip (SoC design, we believe that STT-MRAM is a viable alternative to SRAM, which minimizes leakage current and the total power consumed by the SoC.

  6. An Efficient Connected Component Labeling Architecture for Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Spagnolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Connected component analysis is one of the most fundamental steps used in several image processing systems. This technique allows for distinguishing and detecting different objects in images by assigning a unique label to all pixels that refer to the same object. Most of the previous published algorithms have been designed for implementation by software. However, due to the large number of memory accesses and compare, lookup, and control operations when executed on a general-purpose processor, they do not satisfy the speed performance required by the next generation high performance computer vision systems. In this paper, we present the design of a new Connected Component Labeling hardware architecture suitable for high performance heterogeneous image processing of embedded designs. When implemented on a Zynq All Programmable-System on Chip (AP-SOC 7045 chip, the proposed design allows a throughput rate higher of 220 Mpixels/s to be reached using less than 18,000 LUTs and 5000 FFs, dissipating about 620 μJ.

  7. Design and implementation of embedded ion mobility spectrometry instrument based on SOPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Genwei; Zhao, Jiang; Yang, Liu; Liu, Bo; Jiang, Yanwei; Yang, Jie

    2015-02-01

    On the hardware platform with single CYCLONE IV FPGA Chip based on SOPC technology, the control functions of IP cores of a Ion Mobility Spectrometry instrument was tested, including 32 bit Nios II soft-core processor, high-voltage module, ion gate switch, gas flow, temperature and pressure sensors, signal acquisition and communication protocol. Embedded operating system μCLinux was successfully transplanted to the hardware platform, used to schedule all the tasks, such as system initialization, parameter setting, signal processing, recognition algorithm and results display. The system was validated using the IMS diagram of Acetone reagent, and the instrument was proved to have a strong signal resolution.

  8. Huffman-based code compression techniques for embedded processors

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal; Henkel, Jö rg

    2010-01-01

    % for ARM and MIPS, respectively. In our compression technique, we have conducted evaluations using a representative set of applications and we have applied each technique to two major embedded processor architectures, namely ARM and MIPS. © 2010 ACM.

  9. EVE: Explainable Vector Based Embedding Technique Using Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, M. Atif; Greene, Derek

    2017-01-01

    We present an unsupervised explainable word embedding technique, called EVE, which is built upon the structure of Wikipedia. The proposed model defines the dimensions of a semantic vector representing a word using human-readable labels, thereby it readily interpretable. Specifically, each vector is constructed using the Wikipedia category graph structure together with the Wikipedia article link structure. To test the effectiveness of the proposed word embedding model, we consider its usefulne...

  10. Review of battery powered embedded systems design for mission-critical low-power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malewski, Matthew; Cowell, David M. J.; Freear, Steven

    2018-06-01

    The applications and uses of embedded systems is increasingly pervasive. Mission and safety critical systems relying on embedded systems pose specific challenges. Embedded systems is a multi-disciplinary domain, involving both hardware and software. Systems need to be designed in a holistic manner so that they are able to provide the desired reliability and minimise unnecessary complexity. The large problem landscape means that there is no one solution that fits all applications of embedded systems. With the primary focus of these mission and safety critical systems being functionality and reliability, there can be conflicts with business needs, and this can introduce pressures to reduce cost at the expense of reliability and functionality. This paper examines the challenges faced by battery powered systems, and then explores at more general problems, and several real-world embedded systems.

  11. MoVES - A Framework for Modelling and Verifying Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekling, Aske Wiid; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Madsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The MoVES framework is being developed to assist in the early phases of embedded systems design. A system is modelled as an application running on an execution platform. The application is modelled through the individual tasks, and the execution platform is modelled through the processing elements...... examples, how MoVES can be used to model and analyze embedded systems....

  12. Runtime verification of embedded real-time systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbacher, Thomas; Függer, Matthias; Brauer, Jörg

    We present a runtime verification framework that allows on-line monitoring of past-time Metric Temporal Logic (ptMTL) specifications in a discrete time setting. We design observer algorithms for the time-bounded modalities of ptMTL, which take advantage of the highly parallel nature of hardware designs. The algorithms can be translated into efficient hardware blocks, which are designed for reconfigurability, thus, facilitate applications of the framework in both a prototyping and a post-deployment phase of embedded real-time systems. We provide formal correctness proofs for all presented observer algorithms and analyze their time and space complexity. For example, for the most general operator considered, the time-bounded Since operator, we obtain a time complexity that is doubly logarithmic both in the point in time the operator is executed and the operator's time bounds. This result is promising with respect to a self-contained, non-interfering monitoring approach that evaluates real-time specifications in parallel to the system-under-test. We implement our framework on a Field Programmable Gate Array platform and use extensive simulation and logic synthesis runs to assess the benefits of the approach in terms of resource usage and operating frequency.

  13. MatLab script to C code converter for embedded processors of FLASH LLRF control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujnowski, K.; Siemionczyk, A.; Pucyk, P.; Szewiński, J.; Pożniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    The low level RF control system (LLRF) of FEL serves for stabilization of the electromagnetic (EM) field in the superconducting niobium, resonant, microwave cavities and for controlling high power (MW) klystron. LLRF system of FLASH accelerator bases on FPGA technology and embedded microprocessors. Basic and auxiliary functions of the systems are listed as well as used algorithms for superconductive cavity parameters identification. These algorithms were prepared originally in Matlab. The main part of the paper presents implementation of the cavity parameters identification algorithm in a PowerPC processor embedded in the FPGA circuit VirtexIIPro. A construction of a very compact Matlab script converter to C code was presented, referred to as M2C. The application is designed specifically for embedded systems of very confined resources. The generated code is optimized for the weight. The code should be transferable between different hardware platforms. The converter generates a code for Linux and for stand-alone applications. Functional structure of the program was described and the way it is acting. FLEX and BIZON tools were used for construction of the converter. The paper concludes with an example of the M2C application to convert a complex identification algorithm for superconductive cavities in FLASH laser.

  14. Development of multichannel system for nuclear radiation spectrometry based on an embedded control and acquisition device Myrio-1900; Desarrollo de sistema multicanal para espectrometria de radiacion nuclear basado en un dispositivo embebido de control y adquisicion MyRIO-1900

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez D, S.

    2016-07-01

    This work describes the design a multichannel analyzer system 4096 channels (Mca) for gamma radiation spectrometry. The multichannel analyzer has as its main component an embedded company National Instruments model NI (Myrio-1900) module, which is integrated by a step of converting analog to digital signals (A / D) and digital-to-analog (D / A) a programmable gate array, and a processor real time (Rt). Through this module the pulses generated by the detector to be processed and subsequently forming the multichannel analyzer are acquired. In addition, a graphical user interface designed to make more use friendly system from a personal computer (Pc), embedded programming module and the user interface was done with the LabVIEW programming environment. tests with different sources of radiation ({sup 60}Co, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 137}Cs) and semiconductor detectors (Ge) and scintillation (Na) were made. Getting results satisfactory. (Author)

  15. Image-based environmental monitoring sensor application using an embedded wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Jeongyeup; Hicks, John; Coe, Sharon; Govindan, Ramesh

    2014-08-28

    This article discusses the experiences from the development and deployment of two image-based environmental monitoring sensor applications using an embedded wireless sensor network. Our system uses low-power image sensors and the Tenet general purpose sensing system for tiered embedded wireless sensor networks. It leverages Tenet's built-in support for reliable delivery of high rate sensing data, scalability and its flexible scripting language, which enables mote-side image compression and the ease of deployment. Our first deployment of a pitfall trap monitoring application at the James San Cannot Mountain Reserve provided us with insights and lessons learned into the deployment of and compression schemes for these embedded wireless imaging systems. Our three month-long deployment of a bird nest monitoring application resulted in over 100,000 images collected from a 19-camera node network deployed over an area of 0.05 square miles, despite highly variable environmental conditions. Our biologists found the on-line, near-real-time access to images to be useful for obtaining data on answering their biological questions.

  16. Image-Based Environmental Monitoring Sensor Application Using an Embedded Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyeup Paek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the experiences from the development and deployment of two image-based environmental monitoring sensor applications using an embedded wireless sensor network. Our system uses low-power image sensors and the Tenet general purpose sensing system for tiered embedded wireless sensor networks. It leverages Tenet’s built-in support for reliable delivery of high rate sensing data, scalability and its flexible scripting language, which enables mote-side image compression and the ease of deployment. Our first deployment of a pitfall trap monitoring application at the James San Jacinto Mountain Reserve provided us with insights and lessons learned into the deployment of and compression schemes for these embedded wireless imaging systems. Our three month-long deployment of a bird nest monitoring application resulted in over 100,000 images collected from a 19-camera node network deployed over an area of 0.05 square miles, despite highly variable environmental conditions. Our biologists found the on-line, near-real-time access to images to be useful for obtaining data on answering their biological questions.

  17. The inverse method parametric verification of real-time embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    André , Etienne

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces state-of-the-art verification techniques for real-time embedded systems, based on the inverse method for parametric timed automata. It reviews popular formalisms for the specification and verification of timed concurrent systems and, in particular, timed automata as well as several extensions such as timed automata equipped with stopwatches, linear hybrid automata and affine hybrid automata.The inverse method is introduced, and its benefits for guaranteeing robustness in real-time systems are shown. Then, it is shown how an iteration of the inverse method can solv

  18. A Hybrid Hardware and Software Component Architecture for Embedded System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Hugo; Fröhlich, Antônio Augusto

    Embedded systems are increasing in complexity, while several metrics such as time-to-market, reliability, safety and performance should be considered during the design of such systems. A component-based design which enables the migration of its components between hardware and software can cope to achieve such metrics. To enable that, we define hybrid hardware and software components as a development artifact that can be deployed by different combinations of hardware and software elements. In this paper, we present an architecture for developing such components in order to construct a repository of components that can migrate between the hardware and software domains to meet the design system requirements.

  19. A real-time spike sorting method based on the embedded GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelan Yang; Kedi Xu; Xiang Tian; Shaomin Zhang; Xiaoxiang Zheng

    2017-07-01

    Microelectrode arrays with hundreds of channels have been widely used to acquire neuron population signals in neuroscience studies. Online spike sorting is becoming one of the most important challenges for high-throughput neural signal acquisition systems. Graphic processing unit (GPU) with high parallel computing capability might provide an alternative solution for increasing real-time computational demands on spike sorting. This study reported a method of real-time spike sorting through computing unified device architecture (CUDA) which was implemented on an embedded GPU (NVIDIA JETSON Tegra K1, TK1). The sorting approach is based on the principal component analysis (PCA) and K-means. By analyzing the parallelism of each process, the method was further optimized in the thread memory model of GPU. Our results showed that the GPU-based classifier on TK1 is 37.92 times faster than the MATLAB-based classifier on PC while their accuracies were the same with each other. The high-performance computing features of embedded GPU demonstrated in our studies suggested that the embedded GPU provide a promising platform for the real-time neural signal processing.

  20. Nonlinear seismic response analysis of embedded reactor buildings based on the substructure approach in time domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Nakai, S.; Watanabe, T.

    1985-01-01

    A practical method for elasto-plastic seismic response analysis is described under considerations of nonlinear material law of a structure and dynamic soil-structure interaction. The method is essentially based on the substructure approach of time domain analysis. Verification of the present method is carried out for typical BWR-MARK II type reactor building which is embedded in a soil, and the results are compared with those of the frequency response analysis which gives good accuracy for linear system. As a result, the present method exhibits sufficient accuracy. Furthermore, elasto-plastic analyses considering the soil-structure interaction are made as an application of the present method, and nonlinear behaviors of the structure and embedment effects are discussed. (orig.)

  1. High-risk Human Papillomavirus Determination in Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded Cervical Tissue Using the Roche Cobas 4800 System: A Comparative Study With Liquid-based Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardío, Juan C; Cambero, Olivia; Sánchez-Estévez, Carolina; Sánchez-García, Ana B; Angulo, Fernando; Moreno, Amalia

    2017-11-14

    Roche cobas 4800 human papillomavirus (HPV) test is an automated real-time polymerase chain reaction-based system that allows the simultaneous detection of 14 human papillomavirus high-risk (HR-HPV) genotypes. This test is Food and Drug Administration approved since 2011 for HPV determination in liquid-based cytologic samples, but a clinically validated technique for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens is presently not commercially available. In our laboratory, we have developed an HPV detection procedure in FFPE tissue by cobas 4800 HPV test. In order to validate our method, we retrospectively studied 165 FFPE cervical biopsy and conization specimens with varied diagnoses from our files. In 50 of them, we contrasted the results with those obtained from simultaneous liquid-based cytologies from the same patients. Finally, seeking the possible complementary clinical usefulness of the procedure, we compared the HPV genotypes detected in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1)-diagnosed biopsies from 20 patients with a subsequent high-grade CIN (CIN2+) diagnosis with those from another group of 20 patients without a posterior CIN2+ diagnosis. Eighty-seven percent of the assays provided informative results. HR-HPV was detected in 28 of 32 (88%) invasive cervical squamous carcinomas. Coincidental HR-HPV genotypes were obtained in 32 of 50 (64%) cases with simultaneous cervical biopsy and liquid-based cytologic samples. A significant higher risk of progression to CIN2+ was found when HPV16 (P=0.022) or any HR-HPV genotype (P=0.037) was detected in CIN1 biopsies. The reported procedure provides an automated, technically time-saving, easy to integrate into laboratory routine, and reliable method of HR-HPV determination in FFPE specimens.

  2. System and method for embedding emotion in logic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system, method, and computer readable-media for creating a stable synthetic neural system. The method includes training an intellectual choice-driven synthetic neural system (SNS), training an emotional rule-driven SNS by generating emotions from rules, incorporating the rule-driven SNS into the choice-driven SNS through an evolvable interface, and balancing the emotional SNS and the intellectual SNS to achieve stability in a nontrivial autonomous environment with a Stability Algorithm for Neural Entities (SANE). Generating emotions from rules can include coding the rules into the rule-driven SNS in a self-consistent way. Training the emotional rule-driven SNS can occur during a training stage in parallel with training the choice-driven SNS. The training stage can include a self assessment loop which measures performance characteristics of the rule-driven SNS against core genetic code. The method uses a stability threshold to measure stability of the incorporated rule-driven SNS and choice-driven SNS using SANE.

  3. Design and implementation of embedded Bluetooth software system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhijian; Zhou, Shujie; Xu, Huimin

    2001-10-01

    This thesis introduces the background knowledge and characteristics of Bluetooth technology. Then it summarizes the architecture and working principle of Bluetooth software. After carefully studying the characteristics of embedded operating system and Bluetooth software, this thesis declared two sets of module about Bluetooth software. Corresponding to these module's characteristics, this thesis introduces the design and implementation of LAN Access and Bluetooth headset. The Headset part introduces a developing method corresponding to the particularity of Bluetooth control software. Although these control software are application entity, the control signaling exchanged between them are regulations according to former definitions and they functions through the interaction of data and control information. These data and control information construct the protocol data unit (PDU), and the former definition can be seen as protocol in fact. This thesis uses the advanced development flow on communication protocol development as reference, a formal method - SDL (Specification and Description Language) - describing, validating and coding manually to C. This method not only reserved the efficiency of manually coded code, but also it ensures the quality of codes. The introduction also involves finite state machine theory while introduces the practical developing method on protocol development with the aid of SDL.

  4. Integral Images: Efficient Algorithms for Their Computation and Storage in Resource-Constrained Embedded Vision Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Shoaib; Clark, Adrian F; Naveed ur Rehman; McDonald-Maier, Klaus D

    2015-07-10

    The integral image, an intermediate image representation, has found extensive use in multi-scale local feature detection algorithms, such as Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF), allowing fast computation of rectangular features at constant speed, independent of filter size. For resource-constrained real-time embedded vision systems, computation and storage of integral image presents several design challenges due to strict timing and hardware limitations. Although calculation of the integral image only consists of simple addition operations, the total number of operations is large owing to the generally large size of image data. Recursive equations allow substantial decrease in the number of operations but require calculation in a serial fashion. This paper presents two new hardware algorithms that are based on the decomposition of these recursive equations, allowing calculation of up to four integral image values in a row-parallel way without significantly increasing the number of operations. An efficient design strategy is also proposed for a parallel integral image computation unit to reduce the size of the required internal memory (nearly 35% for common HD video). Addressing the storage problem of integral image in embedded vision systems, the paper presents two algorithms which allow substantial decrease (at least 44.44%) in the memory requirements. Finally, the paper provides a case study that highlights the utility of the proposed architectures in embedded vision systems.

  5. Integral Images: Efficient Algorithms for Their Computation and Storage in Resource-Constrained Embedded Vision Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Ehsan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The integral image, an intermediate image representation, has found extensive use in multi-scale local feature detection algorithms, such as Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF, allowing fast computation of rectangular features at constant speed, independent of filter size. For resource-constrained real-time embedded vision systems, computation and storage of integral image presents several design challenges due to strict timing and hardware limitations. Although calculation of the integral image only consists of simple addition operations, the total number of operations is large owing to the generally large size of image data. Recursive equations allow substantial decrease in the number of operations but require calculation in a serial fashion. This paper presents two new hardware algorithms that are based on the decomposition of these recursive equations, allowing calculation of up to four integral image values in a row-parallel way without significantly increasing the number of operations. An efficient design strategy is also proposed for a parallel integral image computation unit to reduce the size of the required internal memory (nearly 35% for common HD video. Addressing the storage problem of integral image in embedded vision systems, the paper presents two algorithms which allow substantial decrease (at least 44.44% in the memory requirements. Finally, the paper provides a case study that highlights the utility of the proposed architectures in embedded vision systems.

  6. Smart device definition and application on embedded system: performance and optimi-zation on a RGBD sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose-Luis JIMÉNEZ-GARCÍA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Embedded control systems usually are characterized by its limitations in terms of computational power and memory. Although this systems must deal with perpection and actuation signal adaptation and calculate control actions ensuring its reliability and providing a certain degree of fault tolerance. The allocation of these tasks between some different embedded nodes conforming a distributed control system allows to solve many of these issues. For that reason is proposed the application of smart devices aims to perform the data processing tasks related with the perception and actuation and offer a simple interface to be configured by other nodes in order to share processed information and raise QoS based alarms. In this work is introduced the procedure of implementing a smart device as a sensor as an embedded node in a distributed control system. In order to analyze its benefits an application based on a RGBD sensor implemented as an smart device is proposed.

  7. The Artemis workbench for system-level performance evaluation of embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pimentel, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an overview of the Artemis workbench, which provides modelling and simulation methods and tools for efficient performance evaluation and exploration of heterogeneous embedded multimedia systems. More specifically, we describe the Artemis system-level modelling methodology,

  8. Integrating Embedded Computing Systems into High School and Early Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, B.; Arfaee, A.; Choon Kim; Kastner, R.; Gupta, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Early exposure to embedded computing systems is crucial for students to be prepared for the embedded computing demands of today's world. However, exposure to systems knowledge often comes too late in the curriculum to stimulate students' interests and to provide a meaningful difference in how they direct their choice of electives for future…

  9. A Prototype Embedding of Bluespec System Verilog in the PVS Theorem Prover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Dominic; Lester, David

    2010-01-01

    Bluespec SystemVerilog (BSV) is a Hardware Description Language based on the guarded action model of concurrency. It has an elegant semantics, which makes it well suited for formal reasoning. To date, a number of BSV designs have been verified with hand proofs, but little work has been conducted on the application of automated reasoning. We present a prototype shallow embedding of BSV in the PVS theorem prover. Our embedding is compatible with the PVS model checker, which can automatically prove an important class of theorems, and can also be used in conjunction with the powerful proof strategies of PVS to verify a broader class of properties than can be achieved with model checking alone.

  10. Modelling Energy Consumption in Embedded Systems with VDM-RT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esparza Isasa, Jose Antonio; Jørgensen, Peter Würtz Vinther; Nielsen, Claus Ballegård

    2014-01-01

    Indoor positioning systems are increasingly being deployed to enable indoor navigation and other indoor location-based services. Systems based on Wi-Fi and video cameras rely on different technologies and techniques and have so far been developed independently by different research communities; we...... show that integrating information provided by a video system into a Wi-Fi based system increases its maintainability and avoid drops in accuracy over time. Specifically, we consider a Wi-Fi system that uses fingerprints measurements collected in the space for positioning. We improve the system's room......-level accuracy by means of automatic, video-driven collection of fingerprints. Our method is able to relate a Wi-Fi user to unidentified movements detected by cameras by exploiting the existing Wi-Fi system, thus generating fingerprints automatically. This use of video for fingerprint collection reduces the need...

  11. Self-Learning Embedded System for Object Identification in Intelligent Infrastructure Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Villaverde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of new horizons in the field of travel assistant management leads to the development of cutting-edge systems focused on improving the existing ones. Moreover, new opportunities are being also presented since systems trend to be more reliable and autonomous. In this paper, a self-learning embedded system for object identification based on adaptive-cooperative dynamic approaches is presented for intelligent sensor’s infrastructures. The proposed system is able to detect and identify moving objects using a dynamic decision tree. Consequently, it combines machine learning algorithms and cooperative strategies in order to make the system more adaptive to changing environments. Therefore, the proposed system may be very useful for many applications like shadow tolls since several types of vehicles may be distinguished, parking optimization systems, improved traffic conditions systems, etc.

  12. Self-Learning Embedded System for Object Identification in Intelligent Infrastructure Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Monica; Perez, David; Moreno, Felix

    2015-11-17

    The emergence of new horizons in the field of travel assistant management leads to the development of cutting-edge systems focused on improving the existing ones. Moreover, new opportunities are being also presented since systems trend to be more reliable and autonomous. In this paper, a self-learning embedded system for object identification based on adaptive-cooperative dynamic approaches is presented for intelligent sensor's infrastructures. The proposed system is able to detect and identify moving objects using a dynamic decision tree. Consequently, it combines machine learning algorithms and cooperative strategies in order to make the system more adaptive to changing environments. Therefore, the proposed system may be very useful for many applications like shadow tolls since several types of vehicles may be distinguished, parking optimization systems, improved traffic conditions systems, etc.

  13. A self-testing method of large analog circuits in electronic embedded systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaja, Z, E-mail: zbczaja@pg.gda.p [Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Department of Optoelectronics and Electronic Systems, ul. G. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    A new self-testing method of high-order filters consisting of a chain of first- or second-order filter units of mixed-signal electronic embedded systems controlled by microcontrollers or DSPs is presented in the paper. The main idea of the method bases on the fact that the signal response of the given filter unit is treated as the signal stimulation of the next filter unit. Thanks to this, a simple reconfigurable BIST consisting of only internal devices of the microcontroller controlling the system was obtained.

  14. A self-testing method of large analog circuits in electronic embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaja, Z

    2010-01-01

    A new self-testing method of high-order filters consisting of a chain of first- or second-order filter units of mixed-signal electronic embedded systems controlled by microcontrollers or DSPs is presented in the paper. The main idea of the method bases on the fact that the signal response of the given filter unit is treated as the signal stimulation of the next filter unit. Thanks to this, a simple reconfigurable BIST consisting of only internal devices of the microcontroller controlling the system was obtained.

  15. Correlation coefficient based supervised locally linear embedding for pulmonary nodule recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Panpan; Xia, Kewen; Yu, Hengyong

    2016-11-01

    Dimensionality reduction techniques are developed to suppress the negative effects of high dimensional feature space of lung CT images on classification performance in computer aided detection (CAD) systems for pulmonary nodule detection. An improved supervised locally linear embedding (SLLE) algorithm is proposed based on the concept of correlation coefficient. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient is introduced to adjust the distance metric in the SLLE algorithm to ensure that more suitable neighborhood points could be identified, and thus to enhance the discriminating power of embedded data. The proposed Spearman's rank correlation coefficient based SLLE (SC(2)SLLE) is implemented and validated in our pilot CAD system using a clinical dataset collected from the publicly available lung image database consortium and image database resource initiative (LICD-IDRI). Particularly, a representative CAD system for solitary pulmonary nodule detection is designed and implemented. After a sequential medical image processing steps, 64 nodules and 140 non-nodules are extracted, and 34 representative features are calculated. The SC(2)SLLE, as well as SLLE and LLE algorithm, are applied to reduce the dimensionality. Several quantitative measurements are also used to evaluate and compare the performances. Using a 5-fold cross-validation methodology, the proposed algorithm achieves 87.65% accuracy, 79.23% sensitivity, 91.43% specificity, and 8.57% false positive rate, on average. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the original locally linear embedding and SLLE coupled with the support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Based on the preliminary results from a limited number of nodules in our dataset, this study demonstrates the great potential to improve the performance of a CAD system for nodule detection using the proposed SC(2)SLLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Scheduling and Mapping in an Incremental Design Methodology for Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to mapping and scheduling of distributed embedded systems for hard real-time applications, aiming at a minimization of the system modification cost. We consider an incremental design process that starts from an already existing system running a set of applicat......In this paper we present an approach to mapping and scheduling of distributed embedded systems for hard real-time applications, aiming at a minimization of the system modification cost. We consider an incremental design process that starts from an already existing system running a set...... be added to the resulted system. Thus, we propose a heuristic which finds the set of already running applications which have to be remapped and rescheduled at the same time with mapping and scheduling the new application, such that the disturbance on the running system (expressed as the total cost implied...... by the modifications) is minimized. Once this set of applications has been determined, we outline a mapping and scheduling algorithm aimed at fulfilling the requirements stated above. The approaches have been evaluated based on extensive experiments using a large number of generated benchmarks as well as a real...

  17. Testbeam results of the first real-time embedded tracking system with artificial retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, N., E-mail: nicola.neri@mi.infn.it; Abba, A.; Caponio, F.; Citterio, M.; Coelli, S.; Fu, J.; Merli, A.; Monti, M.; Petruzzo, M.

    2017-02-11

    We present the testbeam results of the first real-time embedded tracking system based on artificial retina algorithm. The tracking system prototype is capable of fast track reconstruction with a latency of the response below 1 μs and track parameter resolutions that are comparable with the offline results. The artificial retina algorithm was implemented in hardware in a custom data acquisition board based on commercial FPGA. The system was tested successfully using a 180 GeV/c proton beam at the CERN SPS with a maximum track rate of about 280 kHz. Online track parameters were found in good agreement with offline results and with the simulated response. - Highlights: • First real-time tracking system based on artificial retina algorithm tested on beam. • Fast track reconstruction within one microsecond latency and offline like quality. • Fast tracking algorithm implemented in commercial FPGAs.

  18. A Linked List-Based Algorithm for Blob Detection on Embedded Vision-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Acevedo-Avila

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Blob detection is a common task in vision-based applications. Most existing algorithms are aimed at execution on general purpose computers; while very few can be adapted to the computing restrictions present in embedded platforms. This paper focuses on the design of an algorithm capable of real-time blob detection that minimizes system memory consumption. The proposed algorithm detects objects in one image scan; it is based on a linked-list data structure tree used to label blobs depending on their shape and node information. An example application showing the results of a blob detection co-processor has been built on a low-powered field programmable gate array hardware as a step towards developing a smart video surveillance system. The detection method is intended for general purpose application. As such, several test cases focused on character recognition are also examined. The results obtained present a fair trade-off between accuracy and memory requirements; and prove the validity of the proposed approach for real-time implementation on resource-constrained computing platforms.

  19. A Linked List-Based Algorithm for Blob Detection on Embedded Vision-Based Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Avila, Ricardo; Gonzalez-Mendoza, Miguel; Garcia-Garcia, Andres

    2016-05-28

    Blob detection is a common task in vision-based applications. Most existing algorithms are aimed at execution on general purpose computers; while very few can be adapted to the computing restrictions present in embedded platforms. This paper focuses on the design of an algorithm capable of real-time blob detection that minimizes system memory consumption. The proposed algorithm detects objects in one image scan; it is based on a linked-list data structure tree used to label blobs depending on their shape and node information. An example application showing the results of a blob detection co-processor has been built on a low-powered field programmable gate array hardware as a step towards developing a smart video surveillance system. The detection method is intended for general purpose application. As such, several test cases focused on character recognition are also examined. The results obtained present a fair trade-off between accuracy and memory requirements; and prove the validity of the proposed approach for real-time implementation on resource-constrained computing platforms.

  20. Embedded, everywhere: a research agenda for networked systems of embedded computers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Networked Systems of Embedded Computers; National Research Council Staff; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Computer Science and Telecommunications Board; National Academy of Sciences

    2001-01-01

    ...€"from precision agriculture to automotive telematics to defense systems. It describes how these emerging networks operate under unique constraints not present in more traditional distributed systems, such as the...

  1. Fuzzy Logic Based Anomaly Detection for Embedded Network Security Cyber Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Jason Wright; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Resiliency and security in critical infrastructure control systems in the modern world of cyber terrorism constitute a relevant concern. Developing a network security system specifically tailored to the requirements of such critical assets is of a primary importance. This paper proposes a novel learning algorithm for anomaly based network security cyber sensor together with its hardware implementation. The presented learning algorithm constructs a fuzzy logic rule based model of normal network behavior. Individual fuzzy rules are extracted directly from the stream of incoming packets using an online clustering algorithm. This learning algorithm was specifically developed to comply with the constrained computational requirements of low-cost embedded network security cyber sensors. The performance of the system was evaluated on a set of network data recorded from an experimental test-bed mimicking the environment of a critical infrastructure control system.

  2. The Teacher Leadership Process: Attempting Change within Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kristy S.; Stanulis, Randi N.; Brondyk, Susan K.; Hamilton, Erica R.; Macaluso, Michael; Meier, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    This embedded case study examines the leadership practices of eleven teacher leaders in three urban schools to identify how these teacher leaders attempt to change the teaching practice of their colleagues while working as professional learning community leaders and as mentors for new teachers. Using a theoretical framework integrating complex…

  3. A Model-Driven Approach to Embedded Control System Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, Johannes F.; Groothuis, M.A.; Visser, P.M.; Orlic, B.; Anderson, J.; Huntsinger, R.

    The work presented here is on setting up methodological support, including (prototype) tools, for the design of distributed hard real-time embedded control software for mechatronic products. The use of parallel hardware (CPUs, FPGAs) and parallel software is investigated, to exploit the inherent

  4. Modelling Embedded Systems by Non-Monotonic Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Marincic, J.; Wupper, H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the process of modelling embedded sys- tems for formal verification. We propose a modelling process built on non-monotonic refinement and a number of guidelines. The outcome of the modelling process is a model, together with a correctness argument that justifies our modelling

  5. Performance Estimation for Embedded Systems with Data and Control Dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to performance estimation for hard real-time systems. We consider architectures consisting of multiple processors. The scheduling policy is based on a preemptive strategy with static priorities. Our model of the system captures both data and control dependencies...

  6. A new smart traffic monitoring method using embedded cement-based piezoelectric sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinrui; Lu, Youyuan; Lu, Zeyu; Liu, Chao; Sun, Guoxing; Li, Zongjin

    2015-01-01

    Cement-based piezoelectric composites are employed as the sensing elements of a new smart traffic monitoring system. The piezoelectricity of the cement-based piezoelectric sensors enables powerful and accurate real-time detection of the pressure induced by the traffic flow. To describe the mechanical-electrical conversion mechanism between traffic flow and the electrical output of the embedded piezoelectric sensors, a mathematical model is established based on Duhamel’s integral, the constitutive law and the charge-leakage characteristics of the piezoelectric composite. Laboratory tests show that the voltage magnitude of the sensor is linearly proportional to the applied pressure, which ensures the reliability of the cement-based piezoelectric sensors for traffic monitoring. A series of on-site road tests by a 10 tonne truck and a 6.8 tonne van show that vehicle weight-in-motion can be predicted based on the mechanical-electrical model by taking into account the vehicle speed and the charge-leakage property of the piezoelectric sensor. In the speed range from 20 km h −1 to 70 km h −1 , the error of the repeated weigh-in-motion measurements of the 6.8 tonne van is less than 1 tonne. The results indicate that the embedded cement-based piezoelectric sensors and associated measurement setup have good capability of smart traffic monitoring, such as traffic flow detection, vehicle speed detection and weigh-in-motion measurement. (paper)

  7. μShield : Configurable Code-Reuse Attacks Mitigation For Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Wetzels, Jos; Bokslag, Wouter; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro; Yan, Zheng; Molva, Refik; Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Kantola, Raimo

    2017-01-01

    Embedded devices are playing a major role in our way of life. Similar to other computer systems embedded devices are vulnerable to code-reuse attacks. Compromising these devices in a critical environment constitute a significant security and safety risk. In this paper, we present μShield, a memory

  8. Co-simulation of Distributed Embedded Real-Time Control Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, M.; Visser, P.M.; Hooman, J.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Davies, J.; Gibbons, J.

    2007-01-01

    Development of computerized embedded control systems is difficult because it brings together systems theory, electrical engineering and computer science. The engineering and analysis approaches advocated by these disciplines are fundamentally different which complicates reasoning about e.g.

  9. System-level power optimization for real-time distributed embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiong

    Power optimization is one of the crucial design considerations for modern electronic systems. In this thesis, we present several system-level power optimization techniques for real-time distributed embedded systems, based on dynamic voltage scaling, dynamic power management, and management of peak power and variance of the power profile. Dynamic voltage scaling has been widely acknowledged as an important and powerful technique to trade off dynamic power consumption and delay. Efficient dynamic voltage scaling requires effective variable-voltage scheduling mechanisms that can adjust voltages and clock frequencies adaptively based on workloads and timing constraints. For this purpose, we propose static variable-voltage scheduling algorithms utilizing criticalpath driven timing analysis for the case when tasks are assumed to have uniform switching activities, as well as energy-gradient driven slack allocation for a more general scenario. The proposed techniques can achieve closeto-optimal power savings with very low computational complexity, without violating any real-time constraints. We also present algorithms for power-efficient joint scheduling of multi-rate periodic task graphs along with soft aperiodic tasks. The power issue is addressed through both dynamic voltage scaling and power management. Periodic task graphs are scheduled statically. Flexibility is introduced into the static schedule to allow the on-line scheduler to make local changes to PE schedules through resource reclaiming and slack stealing, without interfering with the validity of the global schedule. We provide a unified framework in which the response times of aperiodic tasks and power consumption are dynamically optimized simultaneously. Interconnection network fabrics point to a new generation of power-efficient and scalable interconnection architectures for distributed embedded systems. As the system bandwidth continues to increase, interconnection networks become power/energy limited as

  10. The year 2000 embedded systems problem to maintain the safety of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardisasmita, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Y2K problem may impact on nuclear installations in a number of ways because embedded systems are used in nuclear routine operation, monitoring and control system. The very simplest embedded systems are capable of performing only a single function or set of functions to meet a single predetermined purpose. In more complex systems the functioning of the embedded system is determined by an application program that enables the embedded system to be used for a particular purpose in a specific application. The simplest devices consist of a single microprocessor which may itself be packaged with other chips in a hybrid system or Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). Its input comes from a detector or sensor and its output goes to a switch or activator which may start or stop the operation of a positioning motors or, by operating a valve, may control the flow of cooling system to reactor core. Embedded systems in our organization are also be found in Batan security systems. These include systems for the security of buildings and premises, and in the communication systems on which these depend. In the enclosed paper we demonstrate the use of analytic model and reliability analysis. The subject of this reliability test is to detect the components of the embedded system with PLC's that could fail on Y2K problem in nuclear installation and safety system. (author)

  11. Embedded systems design for high-speed data acquisition and control

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    This book serves as a practical guide for practicing engineers who need to design embedded systems for high-speed data acquisition and control systems. A minimum amount of theory is presented, along with a review of analog and digital electronics, followed by detailed explanations of essential topics in hardware design and software development. The discussion of hardware focuses on microcontroller design (ARM microcontrollers and FPGAs), techniques of embedded design, high speed data acquisition (DAQ) and control systems. Coverage of software development includes main programming techniques, culminating in the study of real-time operating systems. All concepts are introduced in a manner to be highly-accessible to practicing engineers and lead to the practical implementation of an embedded board that can be used in various industrial fields as a control system and high speed data acquisition system.   • Describes fundamentals of embedded systems design in an accessible manner; • Takes a problem-solving ...

  12. Development of a methodology for assessing the safety of embedded software systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, C. J.; Guarro, S. B.; Apostolakis, G. E.

    1993-01-01

    A Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) based on an integrated approach to modeling and analyzing the behavior of software-driven embedded systems for assessing and verifying reliability and safety is discussed. DFM is based on an extension of the Logic Flowgraph Methodology to incorporate state transition models. System models which express the logic of the system in terms of causal relationships between physical variables and temporal characteristics of software modules are analyzed to determine how a certain state can be reached. This is done by developing timed fault trees which take the form of logical combinations of static trees relating the system parameters at different point in time. The resulting information concerning the hardware and software states can be used to eliminate unsafe execution paths and identify testing criteria for safety critical software functions.

  13. Local electric dipole moments for periodic systems via density functional theory embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luber, Sandra

    2014-12-21

    We describe a novel approach for the calculation of local electric dipole moments for periodic systems. Since the position operator is ill-defined in periodic systems, maximally localized Wannier functions based on the Berry-phase approach are usually employed for the evaluation of local contributions to the total electric dipole moment of the system. We propose an alternative approach: within a subsystem-density functional theory based embedding scheme, subset electric dipole moments are derived without any additional localization procedure, both for hybrid and non-hybrid exchange-correlation functionals. This opens the way to a computationally efficient evaluation of local electric dipole moments in (molecular) periodic systems as well as their rigorous splitting into atomic electric dipole moments. As examples, Infrared spectra of liquid ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are presented, which are commonly employed as solvents in Lithium ion batteries.

  14. Local electric dipole moments for periodic systems via density functional theory embedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luber, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.luber@chem.uzh.ch [Institut für Chemie, Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-12-21

    We describe a novel approach for the calculation of local electric dipole moments for periodic systems. Since the position operator is ill-defined in periodic systems, maximally localized Wannier functions based on the Berry-phase approach are usually employed for the evaluation of local contributions to the total electric dipole moment of the system. We propose an alternative approach: within a subsystem-density functional theory based embedding scheme, subset electric dipole moments are derived without any additional localization procedure, both for hybrid and non-hybrid exchange–correlation functionals. This opens the way to a computationally efficient evaluation of local electric dipole moments in (molecular) periodic systems as well as their rigorous splitting into atomic electric dipole moments. As examples, Infrared spectra of liquid ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are presented, which are commonly employed as solvents in Lithium ion batteries.

  15. The research and application of multi-biometric acquisition embedded system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shichao; Liu, Tiegen; Guo, Jingjing; Li, Xiuyan

    2009-11-01

    The identification technology based on multi-biometric can greatly improve the applicability, reliability and antifalsification. This paper presents a multi-biometric system bases on embedded system, which includes: three capture daughter boards are applied to obtain different biometric: one each for fingerprint, iris and vein of the back of hand; FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is designed as coprocessor, which uses to configure three daughter boards on request and provides data path between DSP (digital signal processor) and daughter boards; DSP is the master processor and its functions include: control the biometric information acquisition, extracts feature as required and responsible for compare the results with the local database or data server through network communication. The advantages of this system were it can acquire three different biometric in real time, extracts complexity feature flexibly in different biometrics' raw data according to different purposes and arithmetic and network interface on the core-board will be the solution of big data scale. Because this embedded system has high stability, reliability, flexibility and fit for different data scale, it can satisfy the demand of multi-biometric recognition.

  16. Ambient light-based optical biosensing platform with smartphone-embedded illumination sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Min; Han, Yong Duk; Chun, Hyeong Jin; Yoon, Hyun C

    2017-07-15

    We present a hand-held optical biosensing system utilizing a smartphone-embedded illumination sensor that is integrated with immunoblotting assay method. The smartphone-embedded illumination sensor is regarded as an alternative optical receiver that can replaces the conventional optical analysis apparatus because the illumination sensor can respond to the ambient light in a wide range of wavelengths, including visible and infrared. To demonstrate the biosensing applicability of our system employing the enzyme-mediated immunoblotting and accompanying light interference, various types of ambient light conditions including outdoor sunlight and indoor fluorescent were tested. For the immunoblotting assay, the biosensing channel generating insoluble precipitates as an end product of the enzymatic reaction is fabricated and mounted on the illumination sensor of the smartphone. The intensity of penetrating light arrives on the illumination sensor is inversely proportional to the amount of precipitates produced in the channel, and these changes are immediately analyzed and quantified via smartphone software. In this study, urinary C-terminal telopeptide fragment of type II collagen (uCTX-II), a biomarker of osteoarthritis diagnosis, was tested as a model analyte. The developed smartphone-based sensing system efficiently measured uCTX-II in the 0-5ng/mL concentration range with a high sensitivity and accuracy under various light conditions. These assay results show that the illumination sensor-based optical biosensor is suitable for point-of-care testing (POCT). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy-Aware Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Schedules for Real-Time Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Kåre Harbo; Pop, Paul; Izosimov, Viacheslav

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a design optimisation tool for distributed embedded real-time systems that 1) decides mapping, fault-tolerance policy and generates a fault-tolerant schedule, 2) is targeted for hard real-time, 3) has hard reliability goal, 4) generates static schedule for processes and messages......, 5) provides fault-tolerance for k transient/soft faults, 6) optimises for minimal energy consumption, while considering impact of lowering voltages on the probability of faults, 7) uses constraint logic programming (CLP) based implementation....

  18. Pembelajaran Embedded System Berbasis Arduino Mega 2560 dan MIT App Inventor

    OpenAIRE

    Tukadi, Tukadi

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the learning process of the Embedded System course with a practical approach based on Arduino Mega 2560 and Android using MIT App inventor software. Learning materials include digital I / O and analog I / O access via android mobile phone. The method used in its implementation premises to provide tasks in the form of projects. The next step is to find the theories that can support in completing the project task. The project task is to control or read electronic devices co...

  19. Modified embedded-atom method interatomic potential for the Fe-Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eunkoo; Lee, Byeong-Joo

    2010-01-01

    An interatomic potential for the Fe-Al binary system has been developed based on the modified embedded-atom method (MEAM) potential formalism. The potential can describe various fundamental physical properties of Fe-Al binary alloys-structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties, defect formation behavior and interactions between defects-in reasonable agreement with experimental data or higher-level calculations. The applicability of the potential to atomistic investigations of various defect formation behaviors and their effects on the mechanical properties of high aluminum steels as well as Fe-Al binary alloys is demonstrated.

  20. Quality-driven model-based architecture synthesis for real-time embedded SoCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jozwiak, L.; Ong, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    The recent spectacular progress in modern microelectronics created a big stimulus towards development of embedded systems. Unfortunately, it also introduced unusual complexity which results in many serious issues that cannot be resolved without new more adequate development methods and electronic

  1. Self-Sustained Operation of Radiation Detectors Based on Embedded Signal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talnishnikh, Elena; Paganini, Lucia; Stegenga, Jan; Woertche, Heinrich; Limburgy, Han

    2013-06-01

    Radiation detectors featuring long term stability, self-sustained operation and low power consumption are crucial for long-term environmental monitoring (e.g. nuclear waste disposals and mining activities) and provide enhanced applications of nuclear fingerprinting e.g. in farming and geological surveying. INCAS3 is developing a compact modular system consisting of four functional modules, namely analogue conditioning and signal digitalization, dead-time-free real-time signal processing, embedded high level analysis of the processed signal, and wireless communication. The modules are organized such that they can be interchanged and modified independently. For the input module one can choose an ADC sampling frequency to be either 100 MHz with 14 bit precision or 1 GHz with reduced precision (10 bit). The main focus of the signal processing section, based on an FPGA, is on providing dead-time-free signal handling in real time. Other useful features such as base line correction, pulse shape analysis (energy, decay and arrival time) are being developed as (VHDL) library functions. Additional modules, e.g. anomaly detection in the incoming signal, pile-up correction if operated at high rates and advanced signal shape processing, can be included in the processing if required and can be applied to autonomously generate the information necessary to control the sensor parameters and stabilize energy spectra and sensitivity. At present we operate the system in conjunction with inorganic scintillators (NaI, CsI) read out by a photomultiplier in order to provide a system capable of long term quantification of nuclear contaminations in natural environments. The underlying technology is based on detecting natural or anthropogenic gamma radiation and generating corresponding energy spectra in real time. The generated spectra are analyzed either in a standard way by any suitable desktop software in a lab or, as it is described in this work, by the ENSA (Embedded Nuclear Spectra

  2. Embedded System for Prosthetic Control Using Implanted Neuromuscular Interfaces Accessed Via an Osseointegrated Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastinu, Enzo; Doguet, Pascal; Botquin, Yohan; Hakansson, Bo; Ortiz-Catalan, Max

    2017-08-01

    Despite the technological progress in robotics achieved in the last decades, prosthetic limbs still lack functionality, reliability, and comfort. Recently, an implanted neuromusculoskeletal interface built upon osseointegration was developed and tested in humans, namely the Osseointegrated Human-Machine Gateway. Here, we present an embedded system to exploit the advantages of this technology. Our artificial limb controller allows for bioelectric signals acquisition, processing, decoding of motor intent, prosthetic control, and sensory feedback. It includes a neurostimulator to provide direct neural feedback based on sensory information. The system was validated using real-time tasks characterization, power consumption evaluation, and myoelectric pattern recognition performance. Functionality was proven in a first pilot patient from whom results of daily usage were obtained. The system was designed to be reliably used in activities of daily living, as well as a research platform to monitor prosthesis usage and training, machine-learning-based control algorithms, and neural stimulation paradigms.

  3. State analysis requirements database for engineering complex embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Matthew B.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Ingham, Michel D.

    2004-01-01

    It has become clear that spacecraft system complexity is reaching a threshold where customary methods of control are no longer affordable or sufficiently reliable. At the heart of this problem are the conventional approaches to systems and software engineering based on subsystem-level functional decomposition, which fail to scale in the tangled web of interactions typically encountered in complex spacecraft designs. Furthermore, there is a fundamental gap between the requirements on software specified by systems engineers and the implementation of these requirements by software engineers. Software engineers must perform the translation of requirements into software code, hoping to accurately capture the systems engineer's understanding of the system behavior, which is not always explicitly specified. This gap opens up the possibility for misinterpretation of the systems engineer's intent, potentially leading to software errors. This problem is addressed by a systems engineering tool called the State Analysis Database, which provides a tool for capturing system and software requirements in the form of explicit models. This paper describes how requirements for complex aerospace systems can be developed using the State Analysis Database.

  4. Collaborative User Network Embedding for Social Recommender Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chuxu; Yu, Lu; Wang, Yan; Shah, Chirag; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2017-01-01

    To address the issue of data sparsity and cold-start in recommender system, social information (e.g., user-user trust links) has been introduced to complement rating data for improving the performances of traditional model-based recommendation

  5. Low-complexity object detection with deep convolutional neural network for embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Subarna; Kang, Byeongkeun; Dane, Gokce; Nguyen, Truong

    2017-09-01

    We investigate low-complexity convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for object detection for embedded vision applications. It is well-known that consolidation of an embedded system for CNN-based object detection is more challenging due to computation and memory requirement comparing with problems like image classification. To achieve these requirements, we design and develop an end-to-end TensorFlow (TF)-based fully-convolutional deep neural network for generic object detection task inspired by one of the fastest framework, YOLO.1 The proposed network predicts the localization of every object by regressing the coordinates of the corresponding bounding box as in YOLO. Hence, the network is able to detect any objects without any limitations in the size of the objects. However, unlike YOLO, all the layers in the proposed network is fully-convolutional. Thus, it is able to take input images of any size. We pick face detection as an use case. We evaluate the proposed model for face detection on FDDB dataset and Widerface dataset. As another use case of generic object detection, we evaluate its performance on PASCAL VOC dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed network can predict object instances of different sizes and poses in a single frame. Moreover, the results show that the proposed method achieves comparative accuracy comparing with the state-of-the-art CNN-based object detection methods while reducing the model size by 3× and memory-BW by 3 - 4× comparing with one of the best real-time CNN-based object detectors, YOLO. Our 8-bit fixed-point TF-model provides additional 4× memory reduction while keeping the accuracy nearly as good as the floating-point model. Moreover, the fixed- point model is capable of achieving 20× faster inference speed comparing with the floating-point model. Thus, the proposed method is promising for embedded implementations.

  6. A Reasoning Algorithm Embedded in a Knowledge Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Mazilescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of this paper consists of demonstrating the possibility of employing an expert Knowledge Management System (KMS in problems of process control and planning, using imprecise knowledge. It was necessary to continuously adapt known models (e.g. theory of possibilities, discrete event systems to synthesize a control structure based on fuzzy knowledge. We also tried to conceptually develop a multi-agent real control structure, which is a solution to meet a series of demands on the complexity of the process control. Such systems, especially those based on communication between agents by sharing memory, bring up features well suited for real-time applications, such as: integration of heterogeneous agents, interaction between activities of acquisition, reasoning and action on the external environment, fusion of data coming from sensors of different nature and operation, flexibility and efficiency in the integration of new data needed for reasoning, by simply writing them in the common memory.

  7. Verification and testing of the RTOS for safety-critical embedded systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Na Young [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hyun; Choi, Jin Young [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Ah Young; Choi, Byung Ju [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jang Soo [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Development in Instrumentation and Control (I and C) technology provides more convenience and better performance, thus, adopted in many fields. To adopt newly developed technology, nuclear industry requires rigorous V and V procedure and tests to assure reliable operation. Adoption of digital system requires verification and testing of the OS for licensing. Commercial real-time operating system (RTOS) is targeted to apply to various, unpredictable needs, which makes it difficult to verify. For this reason, simple, application-oriented realtime OS is developed for the nuclear application. In this work, we show how to verify the developed RTOS at each development lifecycle. Commercial formal tool is used in specification and verification of the system. Based on the developed model, software in C language is automatically generated. Tests are performed for two purposes; one is to identify consistency between the verified model and the generated code, the other is to find errors in the generated code. The former assumes that the verified model is correct, and the latter incorrect. Test data are generated separately to satisfy each purpose. After we test the RTOS software, we implement the test board embedded with the developed RTOS and the application software, which simulates the safety critical plant protection function. Testing to identify whether the reliability criteria is satisfied or not is also designed in this work. It results in that the developed RTOS software works well when it is embedded in the system.

  8. Verification and testing of the RTOS for safety-critical embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Na Young; Kim, Jin Hyun; Choi, Jin Young; Sung, Ah Young; Choi, Byung Ju; Lee, Jang Soo

    2003-01-01

    Development in Instrumentation and Control (I and C) technology provides more convenience and better performance, thus, adopted in many fields. To adopt newly developed technology, nuclear industry requires rigorous V and V procedure and tests to assure reliable operation. Adoption of digital system requires verification and testing of the OS for licensing. Commercial real-time operating system (RTOS) is targeted to apply to various, unpredictable needs, which makes it difficult to verify. For this reason, simple, application-oriented realtime OS is developed for the nuclear application. In this work, we show how to verify the developed RTOS at each development lifecycle. Commercial formal tool is used in specification and verification of the system. Based on the developed model, software in C language is automatically generated. Tests are performed for two purposes; one is to identify consistency between the verified model and the generated code, the other is to find errors in the generated code. The former assumes that the verified model is correct, and the latter incorrect. Test data are generated separately to satisfy each purpose. After we test the RTOS software, we implement the test board embedded with the developed RTOS and the application software, which simulates the safety critical plant protection function. Testing to identify whether the reliability criteria is satisfied or not is also designed in this work. It results in that the developed RTOS software works well when it is embedded in the system

  9. A High-Efficiency Wind Energy Harvester for Autonomous Embedded Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Davide

    2016-03-04

    Energy harvesting is currently a hot research topic, mainly as a consequence of the increasing attractiveness of computing and sensing solutions based on small, low-power distributed embedded systems. Harvesting may enable systems to operate in a deploy-and-forget mode, particularly when power grid is absent and the use of rechargeable batteries is unattractive due to their limited lifetime and maintenance requirements. This paper focuses on wind flow as an energy source feasible to meet the energy needs of a small autonomous embedded system. In particular the contribution is on the electrical converter and system integration. We characterize the micro-wind turbine, we define a detailed model of its behaviour, and then we focused on a highly efficient circuit to convert wind energy into electrical energy. The optimized design features an overall volume smaller than 64 cm³. The core of the harvester is a high efficiency buck-boost converter which performs an optimal power point tracking. Experimental results show that the wind generator boosts efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions.

  10. A telemetry system embedded in clothes for indoor localization and elderly health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlon, Yoann; Fourty, Nicolas; Campo, Eric

    2013-09-04

    This paper presents a telemetry system used in a combined trilateration method for the precise indoor localization of the elderly who need health monitoring. The system is based on the association of two wireless technologies: ultrasonic and 802.15.4. The use of the 802.15.4 RF signal gives the reference starting time of the ultrasonic emission (time difference of arrival method). A time of flight measurement of the ultrasonic pulses provides the distances between the mobile node and three anchor points. These distance measurements are then used to locate the mobile node using the trilateration method with an accuracy of a few centimetres. The originality of our work lies in embedding the mobile node in clothes. The system is embedded in clothes in two ways: on a shoe in order to form a "smart" shoe and in a hat in order to form a "smart" hat. Both accessories allow movements, gait speed and distance covered to be monitored for health applications. Experiments in a test room are presented to show the effectiveness of our system.

  11. A High-Efficiency Wind Energy Harvester for Autonomous Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesting is currently a hot research topic, mainly as a consequence of the increasing attractiveness of computing and sensing solutions based on small, low-power distributed embedded systems. Harvesting may enable systems to operate in a deploy-and-forget mode, particularly when power grid is absent and the use of rechargeable batteries is unattractive due to their limited lifetime and maintenance requirements. This paper focuses on wind flow as an energy source feasible to meet the energy needs of a small autonomous embedded system. In particular the contribution is on the electrical converter and system integration. We characterize the micro-wind turbine, we define a detailed model of its behaviour, and then we focused on a highly efficient circuit to convert wind energy into electrical energy. The optimized design features an overall volume smaller than 64 cm3. The core of the harvester is a high efficiency buck-boost converter which performs an optimal power point tracking. Experimental results show that the wind generator boosts efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions. PMID:26959018

  12. A Telemetry System Embedded in Clothes for Indoor Localization and Elderly Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Campo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a telemetry system used in a combined trilateration method for the precise indoor localization of the elderly who need health monitoring. The system is based on the association of two wireless technologies: ultrasonic and 802.15.4. The use of the 802.15.4 RF signal gives the reference starting time of the ultrasonic emission (time difference of arrival method. A time of flight measurement of the ultrasonic pulses provides the distances between the mobile node and three anchor points. These distance measurements are then used to locate the mobile node using the trilateration method with an accuracy of a few centimetres. The originality of our work lies in embedding the mobile node in clothes. The system is embedded in clothes in two ways: on a shoe in order to form a “smart” shoe and in a hat in order to form a “smart” hat. Both accessories allow movements, gait speed and distance covered to be monitored for health applications. Experiments in a test room are presented to show the effectiveness of our system.

  13. Embedded system in Arduino platform with Fuzzy control to support the grain aeration decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Szesz Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aeration is currently the most commonly used technique to improve the drying and storage of grain, depending on temperature and water content of the grain, as of the temperature and relative humidity of the outside air. In order to monitor temperature and humidity of the grain mass, it is possible to have a network of sensors in the cells of both internal and external storage. Use of artificial intelligence through Fuzzy theory, has been used since the 60s and enables their application on various forms. Thus, it is observed that the aeration of grain in function of representing a system of controlled environment can be studied in relation to the application of this theory. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present an embedded Fuzzy control system based on the mathematical model of CRUZ et al. (2002 and applied to the Arduino platform, for decision support in aeration of grain. For this, an embedded Arduino system was developed, which received the environmental values of temperature and humidity to then be processed in a Fuzzy controller and return the output as a recommendation to control the aeration process rationally. Comparing the results obtained from the graph presented by LASSERAN (1981 it was observed that the system is effective.

  14. A High-Efficiency Wind Energy Harvester for Autonomous Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Brunelli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting is currently a hot research topic, mainly as a consequence of the increasing attractiveness of computing and sensing solutions based on small, low-power distributed embedded systems. Harvesting may enable systems to operate in a deploy-and-forget mode, particularly when power grid is absent and the use of rechargeable batteries is unattractive due to their limited lifetime and maintenance requirements. This paper focuses on wind flow as an energy source feasible to meet the energy needs of a small autonomous embedded system. In particular the contribution is on the electrical converter and system integration. We characterize the micro-wind turbine, we define a detailed model of its behaviour, and then we focused on a highly efficient circuit to convert wind energy into electrical energy. The optimized design features an overall volume smaller than 64 cm3. The core of the harvester is a high efficiency buck-boost converter which performs an optimal power point tracking. Experimental results show that the wind generator boosts efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions.

  15. PERANCANGAN KANAL KOMUNIKASI PADA TRANSACTION LEVEL MODELING DALAM PERANCANGAN EMBEDDED SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Abdurohman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pada embedded system terdapat dua bagian penting yaitu komponen komputasi (register dan komponen komunikasi. Komponen komunikasi menjadi perhatian penting pada mekanisme pemodelan level transaksi (Transaction Level Modeling, TLM. Kanal komunikasi adalah komponen untuk transaksi antar register. Fokus pembahasan TLM adalah perancangan kanal yang dapat mengakomodasi untuk peningkatan level transaksi. Kanal (channel adalah implementasi bus untuk komunikasi antar komponen pada embedded system. Hal ini adalah kunci penting untuk mencapai impelementasi TLM untuk meningkatkan efisiensi pemodelan. Pada paper ini diusulkan beberapa definisi rancangan kanal sebagai implementasi TLM untuk perancangan embedded system. Hasilnya menunjukan bahwa rancangan kanal dapat berjalan sebagai bus untuk transaksi pada TLM. Paper ini menggunakan SystemC sebagai bahasa pemodelan. On embedded systems, there are two important parts: computational components (registers and communication components. Communication component becomes an important attention on the mechanism of transaction level modeling (TLM. Communication channel is a component for transactions between registers. The focus of TLM is the design of the channel that could accommodate for the increased level of transactions. Channel is the implementation of the bus for communication between components in embedded systems. This is an important key to achieve the implementation of TLM to improve the efficiency of modeling. This paper proposed a definition of the channel design as the implementation of TLM for embedded systems design. The result shows that the design of the channel can run as a bus for transactions on the TLM. This paper uses SystemC as modeling language.

  16. Embedded Real-Time Architecture for Level-Set-Based Active Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejnožková Eva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods described by partial differential equations have gained a considerable interest because of undoubtful advantages such as an easy mathematical description of the underlying physics phenomena, subpixel precision, isotropy, or direct extension to higher dimensions. Though their implementation within the level set framework offers other interesting advantages, their vast industrial deployment on embedded systems is slowed down by their considerable computational effort. This paper exploits the high parallelization potential of the operators from the level set framework and proposes a scalable, asynchronous, multiprocessor platform suitable for system-on-chip solutions. We concentrate on obtaining real-time execution capabilities. The performance is evaluated on a continuous watershed and an object-tracking application based on a simple gradient-based attraction force driving the active countour. The proposed architecture can be realized on commercially available FPGAs. It is built around general-purpose processor cores, and can run code developed with usual tools.

  17. Online Voltage Stability Assessment for Load Areas Based on the Holomorphic Embedding Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chengxi; Wang, Bin; Hu, Fengkai

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes an online steady-state voltage stability assessment scheme to evaluate the proximity to voltage collapse at each bus of a load area. Using a non-iterative holomorphic embedding method (HEM) with a proposed physical germ solution, an accurate loading limit at each load bus can...... be calculated based on online state estimation on the entire load area and a measurement-based equivalent for the external system. The HEM employs a power series to calculate an accurate Power-Voltage (P-V) curve at each load bus and accordingly evaluates the voltage stability margin considering load variations...... and then demonstrated on a load area of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC) 48-generator, 140-bus power system....

  18. First row transition metal atoms embedded in multivacancies in a rippled graphene system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombrú, Dominique; Faccio, Ricardo; Mombrú, Alvaro W.

    2018-03-01

    Ab-initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) have been performed to study systems where a first row transition metal atom is embedded in a rippled graphene due to the existence of an 8-order multivacancy. In addition to these cases, also the inclusion of a zinc atom, with a 3d10 electron configuration, was also studied. Structural distortions and magnetic response for each system were studied. A correlation was found for the magnitude of the rippling and the distortion in the vacancy. Variation in the trends was found for Cu and Zn cases, which were explained on the basis of the filling of the 3dx2-y2 orbital. All the systems exhibit lower magnetic moment in comparison to the metal-less system. The quenching of the magnetic moment due to the carbon atoms in the vacancy is observed for Sc and Cu.

  19. Real-time fetal ECG system design using embedded microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Baese, Uwe; Muddu, Harikrishna; Schinhaerl, Sebastian; Kumm, Martin; Zipf, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The emphasis of this project lies in the development and evaluation of new robust and high fidelity fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) systems to determine the fetal heart rate (FHR). Recently several powerful algorithms have been suggested to improve the FECG fidelity. Until now it is unknown if these algorithms allow a real-time processing, can be used in mobile systems (low power), and which algorithm produces the best error rate for a given system configuration. In this work we have developed high performance, low power microprocessor-based biomedical systems that allow a fair comparison of proposed, state-of-the-art FECG algorithms. We will evaluate different soft-core microprocessors and compare these solutions to other commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardcore solutions in terms of price, size, power, and speed.

  20. Enabling Dynamic Security Management of Networked Systems via Device-Embedded Security (Self-Securing Devices)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ganger, Gregory R

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the work on the AFOSR's Critical Infrastructure Protection Program project, entitled Enabling Dynamic Security Management of Networked Systems via Device-Embedded Security...